WorldWideScience

Sample records for surviving divorced spouses

  1. 20 CFR 725.217 - Determination of dependency; surviving divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; surviving divorced spouse. 725.217 Section 725.217 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.217 Determination of dependency; surviving divorced spouse. An individual who is the miner...

  2. 20 CFR 222.23 - Relationship as surviving divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... terminated by a final divorce; and (2) He or she is not married (if the claimant remarried after the divorce from the employee, the later marriage has been terminated by death, final divorce, or annulment); and...

  3. 20 CFR 404.336 - How do I become entitled to widow's or widower's benefits as a surviving divorced spouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I become entitled to widow's or widower's benefits as a surviving divorced spouse? 404.336 Section 404.336 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... § 404.336 How do I become entitled to widow's or widower's benefits as a surviving divorced spouse? We...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1577 - Disability defined for widows, widowers, and surviving divorced spouses for monthly benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... physical or mental impairment(s). We do not consider your age, education, and work experience. We also do... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability defined for widows, widowers, and surviving divorced spouses for monthly benefits payable for months prior to January 1991. 404.1577 Section...

  5. 20 CFR 226.30 - Spouse or divorced spouse tier I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. 226.30... § 226.30 Spouse or divorced spouse tier I. (a) General. The tier I of a spouse or divorced spouse... retires before age 62 with 30 years of service, the spouse tier I is simply 50% of the employee tier I...

  6. 20 CFR 725.207 - Determination of dependency; divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; divorced spouse. 725.207 Section 725.207 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 725.207 Determination of dependency; divorced spouse. For the purpose of augmenting benefits, an...

  7. 22 CFR 19.10-4 - Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage after retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage...-4 Death or divorce of a spouse and remarriage after retirement. (a) If the marriage of an annuitant... spouse is dissolved by divorce or by death of the spouse, the retiree's annuity shall be recomputed, if...

  8. Marriage, Divorce and the Work and Earning Careers of Spouses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Lillard; Linda Waite

    2000-01-01

    Social Security benefits depend on the employment and earnings history of the covered worker, but, especially for women, they depend on one’s marital history and the employment and earnings history of one’s spouse. This paper examines the interrelationship between marriage, divorce, employment and earnings of men and women. Since getting married (or getting divorced) tends to affect women’s employment choices differently than men’s, we consider the sexes separately. We estimate: (1) the impac...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1041-1T - Treatment of transfer of property between spouses or incident to divorce (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spouses or incident to divorce (temporary). 1.1041-1T Section 1.1041-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Exchanges § 1.1041-1T Treatment of transfer of property between spouses or incident to divorce (temporary... of) a spouse or, if the transfer is incident to a divorce, a former spouse. The following questions...

  10. More Careful or Less Marriageable? Parental Divorce, Spouse Selection and Entry into Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erola, Jani; Harkonen, Juho; Dronkers, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. However, the characteristics of one's spouse can have important effects on economic well-being and on marital success. We use discrete-time, event-history data from Finnish population…

  11. 20 CFR 222.22 - Relationship as divorced spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee if— (a) His or her marriage to the employee has been terminated by a final divorce; and (b) He or she is not married (if the claimant remarried after the divorce from the employee, the later marriage has been terminated by death, final divorce, or annulment); and (c) He or she had been validly married...

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DIVORCE BY AGREEMENT OF THE SPOUSES, ACCORDING TO THE NOTARY PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-ANDREEA NISTOREANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By amending the Family Code according to the provisions of the Law no. 202/2010 regarding some measures in order to speed the solving of processes (“Law of small reform”, representing the introduction to the New Civil Code adopted by the Law no. 287/2009, published in the Official Gazette no. 511 of July 24, 2009, being to become effective, is inserted for the first time the possibility to end the marital relations also before the registrar of births, marriages and deaths or notary public, in strict terms of law. For instance, if there was an agreement between the spouses, without minor children, born during the marriage or adopted, the legislator sets up the possibility to evade the contentious proceeding before the common law courts and allows the spouses to choose between the administrative procedure and the notary procedure in order to dissolve the marriage.In other words, is legislated the possibility of spouses to cease the marital relations also by mutual agreement, like at the time of their marriage, ascertained by the registrar of births, marriages and deaths or notary public. Therefore, on the one hand, is expressed the principle of legal symmetry in this matter, in terms of recognition regarding the ascertaining of the existence of mutual agreement, without the intervention of the magistrate, according to the maxim “mutuus consensus, mutuus dissensus”. On the other hand, legitimately, the legislator has in view to eliminate the settlement of the applications for divorce by the courts, given that there is the convergence of spouses’ will and no minor child, for the purpose of relieving the courts, a solution that seems quite logical considering that the settlement of such case does not require the jurisdictional work.As a conclusion, an analysis of the new vision of the legislator as regards the settlement of divorce by notary non-contentious procedure is absolutely necessary given that the New Civil Code reintegrates the

  13. The impact of parent's and spouses' education on divorce rates in Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    According to both economic and sociological theory, a couple's divorce rate may be influenced by their own educational attainment, that of their parents, and whether they have taken further education...

  14. 20 CFR 229.43 - When a divorced spouse can no longer be included in computing an annuity under the overall minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... included in computing an annuity under the overall minimum. 229.43 Section 229.43 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM... included in computing an annuity under the overall minimum. A divorced spouse's inclusion in the...

  15. The impact of parent's and spouses' education on divorce rates in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available According to both economic and sociological theory, a couple's divorce rate may be influenced by their own educational attainment, that of their parents, and whether they have taken further education after marriage, although predictions are ambiguous. However, these three variables have never been included simultaneously and few studies have included both partners' characteristics. A discrete-time hazard model based on register and census data on 54178 Norwegian first marriages started 1980-1999 reveals a very strong negative educational gradient in divorce risk and no particularly harmful influence of heterogamy. Parent's education exerts a small positive effect, however. Among couples with the same current level of education, those who have taken education after entry into marriage display the highest divorce rate.

  16. The Impact of Married Individuals Learning HIV Status in Malawi: Divorce, Number of Sexual Partners, and Condom Use With Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-02-01

    This article assesses how married individuals' knowledge of HIV status gained through HIV testing and counseling (HTC) affects divorce, the number of sexual partners, and the use of condoms within marriage. This study improves upon previous studies on this topic because the randomized incentives affecting the propensity to be tested for HIV permit control for selective testing. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents; and (3) increases reported condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents. These results imply that individuals actively respond to information about their HIV status that they learn during HTC, invoking protective behavior against future risk of HIV/AIDS for themselves and their actual and potential sexual partners. Some limitations of this study are a small sample size for those who are HIV-positive and dependence on self-reported sexual behaviors.

  17. The impact of parent's and spouses' education on divorce rates in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Torkild Lyngstad

    2004-01-01

    According to both economic and sociological theory, a couple's divorce rate may be influenced by their own educational attainment, that of their parents, and whether they have taken further education after marriage, although predictions are ambiguous. However, these three variables have never been included simultaneously and few studies have included both partners' characteristics. A discrete-time hazard model based on register and census data on 54178 Norwegian first marriages started 1980-1...

  18. Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a marriage. Like every major life change, divorce is stressful. It affects finances, living arrangements, household jobs, schedules, and more. If the family includes children, they may be deeply affected.

  19. 77 FR 40524 - Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Payable to a Surviving Spouse With One or More Children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AO38 Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Payable to a Surviving Spouse... regulation regarding the additional statutory amount of Dependency and Indemnity Compensation (DIC) payable... 2004 amended 38 U.S.C. 1311, Dependency and indemnity compensation to a surviving spouse, by adding a...

  20. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and...

  1. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3...

  2. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...

  3. 20 CFR 410.361 - Determination of dependency; surviving divorced wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; surviving... HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.361 Determination of dependency; surviving divorced wife. An individual who is the miner's surviving...

  4. Former Spouse-Current Spouse Relationships: Behavioral Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetting, Ann

    1980-01-01

    Data from 180 divorced and remarried men and women suggest lack of normative integration of two relationships established by remarriage after divorce. Women were less acceptant; they preferred greater social distance in former spouse-current spouse interaction. Comparisons of expectations for men and women showed no differential standards by…

  5. Does Divorce Risk in Sweden depend on Spouses' Relative Income? A Study of Marriages from 1981 to 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Liu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between increasing women’s earnings and rising divorce rates frequently has been explained by the so-called independence effect: If a wife enjoys a higher earning than her husband does, she gains less from marriage. It has also been argued that in a society with egalitarian gender attitudes this effect is less important. In this paper, we test if the independence effect applies to Sweden, a country in which egalitarian gender views dominate and female labour-force participation and divorce rates are high. Our analysis is based on a large register data set and intensity regression models. We found support for the ‘independence effect’: The relationship between the share of a wife’s income and the divorce risk is positive regardless of the couple’s total income and the wife’s education level.

  6. Factors associated with psychological distress and grief resolution in surviving spouses of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Arving, Cecilia; Johansson, Birgitta; Glimelius, Bengt; Nordin, Karin

    2010-11-01

    Patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer often have a short survival time. This means that spouses only have a short time to adjust to the approaching death. The aim was to explore whether psychological distress at diagnosis, the course of the illness (anti-tumour treatment, respite period and survival time), the spouses' experience of the care and of losing a loved one were related to distress and grief resolution after the patient had deceased. Twenty-one spouses were followed prospectively from the patient's diagnosis of advanced gastrointestinal cancer to 6 months after the patient death. Spouses' experiences were measured with an interview, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and grief resolution with the Grief Resolution Index. The spouses' anxiety at the time of diagnosis was related to their anxiety and grief resolution at follow-up. Two additional factors were associated with higher levels of anxiety at follow-up; the patient having received anti-tumour treatment and the spouse having experienced stress as a caregiver. The study indicates that anti-tumour treatment, though it has the potential to prolong life, does not positively influence spouses' psychological distress and bereavement after the death of the patient.

  7. Does Divorce Risk in Sweden depend on Spouses' Relative Income? A Study of Marriages from 1981 to 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, Guiping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe relationship between increasing women's earnings and rising divorce rates frequently has been explained by the so-called independence effect: If a wife enjoys a higher earning than her husband does, she gains less from marriage. It has also been argued that in a society with egalitarian gender attitudes this effect is less important. In this paper, we test if the independence effect applies to Sweden, a country in which egalitarian gender views dominate and female labour-force participation and divorce rates are high. Our analysis is based on a large register data set and intensity regression models. We found support for the "independence effect": The relationship between the share of a wife's income and the divorce risk is positive regardless of the couple's total income and the wife's education level.FrenchLa relation entre l’augmentation des salaires des femmes et le taux de divorce asouvent été expliqué par le soi disant « effet de revenu : Si une femme gagne un salaire plus élevé que celui de son mari, le marriage a du mérite. La relation entre la part de salaire dela femme et le risque de divorce est positive et cela, indépendément du salairetotal du couple ou du niveau d’éducation de la femme. lui apporte moinsd’avantages . Il a aussi été argumenté que cet effet est moins prononcé dans unesociété qui prône des attitudes égalitaires entre les sexes. Dans cet article, nousavons testé si l’effet de revenu s’applique à la Suède, un pays où l’égalité dessexes prédomine, où le nombre des femmes qui participent à la main d’oeuvre etle taux de divorce sont élevés. Notre analyse se base sur un grand registre dedonnées et sur des modèles de regression d’intensité. Nous avons trouvé que lathéorie de « l’effet de revenu a du mérite. La relation entre la part de salaire dela femme et le risque de divorce est positive et cela, indépendément du salairetotal du couple ou du niveau d

  8. The effect of divorce on child survival in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, A; Chowdhury, M

    1997-03-01

    The data for this study come from Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, where a continuous registration of demographic events has been maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh since 1966. A total of 11,951 first marriages of Muslims that took place in the area between 1975 and 1987 were followed until the end of 1989, to examine the relationship between parental marriage breakdown and survival of first live-born children. The impact of divorce on survival of children during infancy and childhood was examined, using hazard analysis. Other independent variables included age of mother at birth, and mother's education, year of birth, sex of children, and residence at the time of childbirth. It is shown that the net odds of death among children of divorced mothers in infancy and childhood were respectively 3.2 and 1.4 times higher than those of mothers whose marriages continued. The paper also discussed the possible mechanisms which link divorce and child survival.

  9. Should divorce be easier or harder?

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Many countries have enacted legislation over the past few decades making divorce easier. Some countries have legalized divorce where it had previously been banned, and many have eased the conditions required for a divorce, such as allowing unilateral divorce (both spouses do not have to agree on the divorce). Divorce laws can regulate the grounds for divorce, division of property, child custody, and child support or maintenance payments. Reforms can have a range of social effects beyond incre...

  10. 26 CFR 20.2056(c)-2 - Marital deduction; definition of “passed from the decedent to his surviving spouse.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the decedent to his surviving spouse.â 20.2056(c)-2 Section 20.2056(c)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... from the decedent to his surviving spouse.” (a) In general. In general, the definition stated in § 20.2056(c)-1 is applicable in determining the property interests which “passed from the decedent to his...

  11. On the selection effects under consent and unilateral divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Baç, Mehmet; Bac, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    I develop a model of marriage and divorce with privately known spouse characteristics, producing new insights: The switch from consent to unilateral divorce raises second-marriage spouse quality, hence, short-run divorce, when "good" types are in minority. Spouse quality declines from first to second marriage under both rules, but selection into first marriage is unambiguously better under unilateral divorce, which should reduce long-run divorce. An improvement in outside options amplifies th...

  12. Children's Impact on the Parental Decision to Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoy, Korrel; Miller, Brent C.

    1980-01-01

    Although some couples avoid divorce for children's benefit, divorce may actually be a better solution than an unhappy home. Children's potential for creating stress between spouses may sometimes make divorce more likely. Counseling may provide alternatives. (JAC)

  13. Does Divorce Law Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Marco; Manzini, Paola; Fella, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive an explicit model of negotiations between spouses when utility is (partially) transferable only in case of separation. We show that inefficient separation may occur in equilibrium even under consensual divorce law. This provides theoretical support for the view that changes in social norms rather than in legislation may be responsible for increasing divorce rates.

  14. Kinship and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspach, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    In order to specify the impact of divorce and remarriage on the relational system of kinship, this paper examines contacts of married, divorced, and remarried women (N-128) with geographically-available close and (former) spouse's kindred; the help pattern between the women and kin; and the consequences on the kin networks of minor children.…

  15. 26 CFR 20.2056(b)-4 - Marital deduction; valuation of interest passing to surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statutory estate created in lieu of dower or curtesy, or of other marital rights in the decedent's property... estate tax, or any estate, succession, legacy, or inheritance tax, has upon the net value to the... spouse is $100,000 and the spouse is required to pay a State inheritance tax in the amount of $1,500. If...

  16. Correlates of Divorce Liberality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Johnson, Alberta C.

    1980-01-01

    Childless spouses were significantly more liberal toward divorce than were spouses with children, with childless wives being the most liberal of all. Husbands were more influenced by the perceived quality of the marital relationship, in support of cognitive dissonance theory. (Author)

  17. 20 CFR 410.321 - Determination of relationship; surviving divorced wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... divorce on or after the 20th anniversary of the marriage: Provided, That, if she was married to and... years immediately before the date on which any divorce became final and ending with the year in which that divorce became final. ...

  18. Classes of heirs and the intestate succession rights of the surviving spouse in the European civil law tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şchiopu, S.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman law heritage is present even today in all legislations which are part of the European civil law system. Since one of the most stable parts of all civil codes is the one concerning the intestate inheritances, in the light of the inheritance rights of the surviving spouse and the classes of heirs, this article attempts to highlight the perpetuation of some characteristics of the intestate succession since the late Roman law till the modern era in France and Germany, without overlooking some aspects of our old legal systems. Our analysis will confirm that some of the principles laid down in Justinian’s legislation survived till nowadays.

  19. Holding parents so they can hold their children: grief work with surviving spouses to support parentally bereaved children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M

    A child's adjustment to the death of a parent is greatly influenced by the surviving parent's ability to attend to his or her own grief-related needs, to create and sustain a consistent and nurturing environment, and to encourage the child to express distressing or conflicting thoughts, feelings, and fantasies about the loss. Yet, the surviving parent's grief often compromises their ability to parent consistently and empathically. This article will illustrate how, by providing a holding environment for whole families, clinicians can help parents to facilitate children's grief reactions and, thus, mitigate long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Family Matters programs, designed and implemented in a community agency, use a holistic approach to family support and treatment in a milieu setting. Combining therapeutic work with surviving spouses and bereaved children supports children's grief while facilitating newly single parents as they adapt the structure of family life. When clinical work with families begins before the ill parent dies, the clinicians may build a relationship with the dying parent, prepare the child and surviving spouse for life after loss, and support continuity in family culture. We introduce a curriculum for simultaneously supporting bereaved children and parents, present a series of common challenges faced by surviving parents, and suggest avenues for intervention research.

  20. The effect of divorce on infant mortality in a remote area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, N; Saha, S K; Razzaque, A; van Ginneken, J K

    2001-04-01

    The process of divorce is usually lengthy and hazardous, and can start quarrels that can lead to the abuse of women and their children. This study examines the effects of divorce on neonatal and postneonatal mortality of babies born before and after divorce in Teknaf, a remote area of Bangladesh. The longitudinal demographic surveillance system (DSS) followed 1,762 Muslim marriages in 1982-83 for 5 years to record divorce, deaths of spouse, emigration and births. It recorded 2,696 live births during the follow-up period, and their survival status during infancy. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of divorce on neonatal and postneonatal mortality, controlling for maternal age at birth, parity, sex of the child and household economic status. The odds of neonatal and postneonatal deaths among babies born after divorce or less than 12 months before mothers were divorced were more than double the odds of those born to mothers of intact marriages. The odds of postneonatal deaths were two times higher among babies born more than 12 months before divorce happens than their peers. The high mortality of infants born before and after mothers were divorced may reflect how abusive marriage and divorce increase the vulnerability of women and children in rural Bangladesh. Divorce and abuse of women are difficult and intractable social and health problems that must be addressed.

  1. Transfers among Divorced Couples: Evidence and Interpretation.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Yoram; Willis, Robert J

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyze divorce settlements made by a cohort of whites who graduated from high school in 1972. The effects of spouses' incomes on the divorce transfer are estimated and used to simulate the welfare effects of divorce on husbands, wives, and children under alternative assumptions about marriage contracts and the ability of a couple to continue coordinating resources in the aftermath of divorce. The authors find a positive (negative) relationship between divorce transfers and the gr...

  2. Music as Medicine: An Evocative Bi-Autoethnography of Surviving Divorce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Annabella Fung

    2016-01-01

    .... This evocative autoethnography explores the phenomenon of divorce, in reference to my personal experience and another musician's lived experience interpreted through my understanding as a participant-researcher...

  3. Survival advantage of siblings and spouses of centenarians in 20th-century Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Jarry

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.

  4. Research on Divorce: Continuing Trends and New Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative…

  5. Social foundations of divorce in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Isaeva Svetlana Andreevna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - to find out the main reasons for divorce in old age, to assess social perception of certain situations that lead to divorce, to trace the development later in life after the divorce of former spouse. Methodology: qualitative research on how to "double reflection" in formal means of semi-structured interviews; discourse analysis of online documents on the Internet forums for the elderly. Results - allocated substantial characteristics of divorce in the third age. 1. The causes of div...

  6. Parental divorce and offspring marriage in Finland: later, but with whom?

    OpenAIRE

    Erola, Jani; HARKONEN, Juho; Dronkers, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large literature on the long-term effects of parental divorce, few studies have analyzed the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection behavior. We use register-based event-history data from Finland to study the effects of parental divorce on spouse selection according to education with conditional multinomial logistic regression (CMLR) models. The results show that Finnish children of divorce postpone their marriages. They have a lower likelihood of marrying spouses with hi...

  7. 22 CFR 19.6 - Court orders and divorce decrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Court orders and divorce decrees. 19.6 Section 19.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.6 Court orders and divorce decrees. ...

  8. The Effect of Divorce on Domestic Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J.

    2007-01-01

    Social scientists remain unsure as to whether divorce acts to alleviate domestic violence or whether ex-spouses become the targets of the displaced violence. Using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System and the Census, this study investigates the relationship between the divorce rate and the domestic crime rate. The study…

  9. Cohabitation and Divorce in Canada: Testing the Selectivity Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Zhao, John Z.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated hypothesis that cohabitors are a select group in ways that predispose them to divorce. Found that premarital cohabitation was associated with a greater risk of divorce even after accounting for the effects of parental divorce, marital status of first spouse, age heterogamy, and the presence of stepchildren. (RJM)

  10. 22 CFR 19.10-5 - Reduced annuity with additional survivor annuity to spouse or former spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... divorce from the principal and failure to meet the definition of “former spouse,” or in the event of an... as will not cause a loss to the Fund. The following table illustrates the minimum monthly payments...

  11. Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...

  12. A Non-Member Spouse's Entitlement To The Member's Pension Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motseotsile Clement Marumoagae

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important that married couples seek legal advice with regard to the assets falling within their joint estate, more particularly their retirement benefits. This article reflects on the entitlement (if any of non-member spouses to their spouses' retirement fund benefits. Pension benefits can be due before, during or after divorce, and parties to the marriage should be aware of their rights with regard to the accruing pension benefits of their spouses. While it is settled law that non-member spouses are entitled to receive a portion of their member spouses' pension benefits (known as "pension interest" immediately on divorce, it is not particularly clear whether non-member spouses are also entitled to receive the same before or sometime after divorce. In this article I provide a contextual understanding of the entitlements (if any which spouses or former spouses of members of pension funds have on such member spouses' retirement benefits. Furthermore, it shown in this article that various divisions of South African High Courts have been inconsistent in how they have approached the issue of the pension interest between divorcing spouses or divorced ex-spouses.

  13. Uniformed Services Former Spouses’ Protection Act Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    spouse); Gowins v . Gowins , 466 So. 2d 32 (La. Sup. Ct. 1985) (soldier’s participation in divorce proceedings constituted implied consent for the court...DIVISIBILITY OF RETIRED PAY .4 V . DIRECT PAYMENT TO THE FORMER SPOUSE 6 VI. PAYMENT OF RETIRED PAY TO FORMER SPOUSE 8 VII. USFSPA AND DOMESTIC...prerequisite to division of military retired pay as property. II. HISTORY. A. McCartv v . McCartv, 453 U.S. 210 (1981) (states are preempted from

  14. Emotional Violence Caused to Children by their Parents' Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Kraljić, Suzana

    2012-01-01

    #The #author, with special attentrion to Slovenian law, proposes the thesis that word wars and other hostile or neglectful conduct between spouses who are divorcing or separating may cause long-term emotional and also physical harm to the child.

  15. Transfers among divorced couples: evidence and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Y; Willis, R J

    1993-10-01

    An analysis of the economic impact of divorce settlements in the United States is presented using data for a white cohort taken from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. "The effects of spouses' incomes on the divorce transfer are estimated and used to simulate the welfare effects of divorce on husbands, wives, and children under alternative assumptions about marriage contracts and the ability of a couple to continue coordinating resources in the aftermath of divorce. We find a positive (negative) relationship between divorce transfers and the growth of husband's (wife's) earnings during marriage. The estimated expenditure on children in the divorce state is only half the accustomed level during marriage." excerpt

  16. 26 CFR 1.682(a)-1 - Income of trust in case of divorce, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income of trust in case of divorce, etc. 1.682(a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.682(a)-1 Income of trust in case of divorce... of the obligor spouse's minor children in the divorce or separate maintenance decree, the separation...

  17. More mental health problems after divorce in couples with high pre-divorce alcohol consumption than in other divorced couples: results from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognmo, Kamilla; Torvik, Fartein A; Idstad, Mariann; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-09-17

    Divorce is associated with mental health problems, and heavy drinking is related to higher risk of divorce. Less is known about the effects of divorce in couples where one or both drinks heavily. There are, however, reasons to expect different consequences of divorce in heavy risk using couples compared to other couples. Spouses of abusers may experience the divorce as a relief, whereas abusers may find it extra difficult to be left single. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of divorce on mental health in heavy drinking couples to the effect in couples who drink less. Registry data were matched with data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1 (T1) and 2 (T2)), enabling longitudinal analyses of approximately 11,000 couples. Interaction terms between 1) alcohol use on T1 and divorce between T1 and T2 (11 year time lag), and 2) alcohol use on T1 and time since divorce at T2 for all divorced couples were tested to examine changes in mental health between T1 and T2 for a) spouses of high-risk compared to low-risk users, and b) high-risk compared to low-risk users themselves. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. There was a general effect of divorce on change in mental health between T1 and T2. We observed a significantly stronger worsening in mental health in female high-risk users and their spouses than in divorced low-risk users and their spouses. The results also suggest that the strain after divorce lasts longer in women with a high alcohol consumption and their spouses. Divorce seems to affect couples where one or both drink heavily more than couples with a low consumption. Also there was some evidence of a slower healing of mental health problems after divorce in alcohol exposed couples than in other couples. The results only reached significance for female high consumers and their spouses, but due to limited statistical power, safe conclusions about gender specific effects cannot be drawn.

  18. More mental health problems after divorce in couples with high pre-divorce alcohol consumption than in other divorced couples: results from the HUNT-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Divorce is associated with mental health problems, and heavy drinking is related to higher risk of divorce. Less is known about the effects of divorce in couples where one or both drinks heavily. There are, however, reasons to expect different consequences of divorce in heavy risk using couples compared to other couples. Spouses of abusers may experience the divorce as a relief, whereas abusers may find it extra difficult to be left single. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of divorce on mental health in heavy drinking couples to the effect in couples who drink less. Methods Registry data were matched with data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1 (T1) and 2 (T2)), enabling longitudinal analyses of approximately 11,000 couples. Interaction terms between 1) alcohol use on T1 and divorce between T1 and T2 (11 year time lag), and 2) alcohol use on T1 and time since divorce at T2 for all divorced couples were tested to examine changes in mental health between T1 and T2 for a) spouses of high-risk compared to low-risk users, and b) high-risk compared to low-risk users themselves. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results There was a general effect of divorce on change in mental health between T1 and T2. We observed a significantly stronger worsening in mental health in female high-risk users and their spouses than in divorced low-risk users and their spouses. The results also suggest that the strain after divorce lasts longer in women with a high alcohol consumption and their spouses. Conclusions Divorce seems to affect couples where one or both drink heavily more than couples with a low consumption. Also there was some evidence of a slower healing of mental health problems after divorce in alcohol exposed couples than in other couples. The results only reached significance for female high consumers and their spouses, but due to limited statistical power, safe conclusions about gender specific effects cannot be

  19. The origins of modern divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coontz, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    High rates of marital dissolution and easy access to divorce are not unprecedented, historically or cross-culturally. But contemporary divorce in North America and Western Europe has different origins and features than divorce in previous cultures. The origins of modern divorce patterns date back more than 200 years, to the invention of the historically unprecedented idea that marriage should be based on love and mutual affection. Ironically, then, the fragility of modern marriage stems from the same values that have elevated the marital relationship above all other personal and familial commitments: the concentration of emotion, passion, personal identity, and self-validation in the couple relationship and the attenuation of emotional attachments and obligations beyond the conjugal unit. The immediate causes of divorce may range from factors as diverse as the personal psychological characteristics of one or both spouses to the stresses of economic hardship and community disintegration. But in a larger perspective, the role of divorce in modern societies and its relatively high occurrence both flow from the same complex of factors that have made good marriages so much more central to people's happiness than through most of the past, and deterioration of a marital relationship so much more traumatic.

  20. 26 CFR 25.2523(f)-1 - Election with respect to life estate transferred to donee spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... years, or a life estate subject to termination upon the occurrence of a specified event (e.g., divorce... donor spouse's death does not cause the property subject to the retained interest to be includable in... on divorce. The facts are the same as in Example 3 except that if S and D divorce, S's interest in...

  1. The role of attachment in the post-divorce experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, W H

    1988-03-01

    The loss of the spouse resulting from marital breakdown appears to be a central component of post-divorce distress. However, comparatively little empirical research has examined the nature of this broken bond or its impact on the divorced adult. This study tests the hypothesis that the continuing positive feelings for the ex-spouse following divorce are very salient for the individual and are related to increased distress. Sixty recently divorced women selected from court records were randomly assigned to one of three conditions in which they recalled the ex-spouse in a positive, loving interaction (PS); the ex-spouse in a conflictual interaction (C); or a friend in a positive, loving interaction (PS). A post-recall thought sampling procedure was employed to measure the frequency of thoughts about the ex-spouse. The subjects in the PS condition had significantly more post-recall thoughts of the ex-spouse and significantly more thoughts about coping than those in either the C or the PF conditions. The implications of these data for theories of post-divorce adaptation and adult attachment are discussed.

  2. Determinants of divorce in a traditional Muslim community in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of spouses' prior marital status and socio-demographic characteristics on the risk of divorce of 1762 Muslim marriages recorded in 1982-83 in Teknaf, Bangladesh. Grooms' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced, widowed or polygynous (already cohabiting with one or more wives and brides' prior marital status was categorized into never married, divorced or widowed. Divorce was recorded by following the marriages prospectively for five years. Due to the fact that a longitudinal study design was used, the quality of the information presented here is considered to be high. A discrete-time hazard logistic model was used to estimate the effects of spouses' prior marital status and a number of socio-demographic variables on risk of divorce. Polygynous marriage, remarriage and divorce were found to be common in this traditional Muslim community. The odds of divorce were 2.5 times higher for grooms' polygynous marriages and 1.6 times higher for brides' remarriages compared to their peers' first marriages. The odds of divorce decreased with marriage duration. The groom's and bride's low socio-economic status, illiteracy, and early age at marriage increased the odds of divorce. The odds of divorce were much higher if there was no birth in the preceding six months.

  3. 5 CFR Appendix B to Subpart J of... - Guidelines for Interpreting State Court Orders Awarding Survivor Annuity Benefits to Former Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entitled at the time of the divorce will be interpreted to award a former spouse annuity in the same amount as they had at the time of divorce. E. Orders that fail to state the amount of the former spouse... provide an initial rate of $1 per month plus all cost-of-living increases occurring after the date of the...

  4. Stratified patterns of divorce: Earnings, education, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaplan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite evidence that divorce has become more prevalent among weaker socioeconomic groups, knowledge about the stratification aspects of divorce in Israel is lacking. Moreover, although scholarly debate recognizes the importance of stratificational positions with respect to divorce, less attention has been given to the interactions between them. Objective: Our aim is to examine the relationship between social inequality and divorce, focusing on how household income, education, employment stability, relative earnings, and the intersection between them affect the risk of divorce in Israel. Methods: The data is derived from combined census files for 1995-2008, annual administrative employment records from the National Insurance Institute and the Tax Authority, and data from the Civil Registry of Divorce. We used a series of discrete-time event-history analysis models for marital dissolution. Results: Couples in lower socioeconomic positions had a higher risk of divorce in Israel. Higher education in general, and homogamy in terms of higher education (both spouses have degrees in particular, decreased the risk of divorce. The wife's relative earnings had a differential effect on the likelihood of divorce, depending on household income: a wife who outearned her husband increased the log odds of divorce more in the upper tertiles than in the lower tertile. Conclusions: Our study shows that divorce indeed has a stratified pattern and that weaker socioeconomic groups experience the highest levels of divorce. Gender inequality within couples intersects with the household's economic and educational resources.

  5. 22 CFR 19.11-2 - Regular survivor annuity for a former spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., lower rate and then adjusted by cost-of-living increases that have occured since the date of the first... survivor annuity for a former spouse. (a) Divorce prior to retirement. If a participant or former... first date the principal becomes eligible for an annuity following the divorce) unless a different...

  6. 5 CFR 838.921 - Determining the amount of a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rate of $1 per month plus all cost-of-living increases occurring after the later of— (i) The date of... maintain” the survivor annuity to which he or she was entitled at the time of the divorce satisfies the... divorce. For example, a former spouse of an employee would be entitled to a maximum survivor benefit; a...

  7. Discordant and concordant alcohol use in spouses as predictors of marital dissolution in the general population: results from the Hunt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Fartein A; Røysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Idstad, Mariann; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high alcohol consumption is a predictor of divorce. However, there is a lack of studies with prospective data from both spouses. The effects of drinking among husbands versus wives and of concordant versus discordant drinking in couples are therefore unknown. Concordant drinking may lead to increased divorce rates because the malignant effects of heavy drinking are experienced in double doses; alternatively it may lead to marital stability due to partner compatibility. All inhabitants in a Norwegian county were invited to participate in a health study. We identified 19,977 married couples where both spouses participated. Respondents provided information on alcohol use and mental distress. Survival analysis was applied to study the risk of divorce over the next 15 years. Demographics and mental distress were used as covariates. Heavy drinking among men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39) and women (HR = 1.41) increased the risk of future marital dissolution, even after adjusting for demography (reference group "light drinkers"). The HR for divorce was 1.51 when only the husband was a heavy drinker, while it was 3.07 when only the wife was a heavy drinker. Moreover, there were strong interaction effects: concordant abstainers (HR = 0.40) and concordant heavy drinkers (HR = 0.35) had lower risks of divorce compared to the risk expected from combining the main effects. Nevertheless, couples with 2 heavy drinkers (HR = 1.63) had higher risk of divorce than couples with 2 light drinkers. This study demonstrated that both the level of alcohol use and compatibility in alcohol use are important predictors of marital dissolution. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Continuity of Marital Behavior in Remarriage: The Case of Spouse Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmuss, Debra; Seltzer, Judith A.

    1986-01-01

    Explores variation between first marriages and remarriages in the incidence of spouse abuse. Experiences of individuals prior to remarriage account for higher rates of spouse abuse in remarried families, regardless of complexity, than in intact, never-divorced families. (Author/ABL)

  9. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  10. The joint effects of marriage partners' socioeconomic positions on the risk of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalovaara, Marika

    2003-02-01

    This study investigated the joint effects of spouses' socioeconomic positions on the risk of divorce in Finland. For couples in which both partners were at the lowest educational level, the risk of divorce was lower than could be expected on the basis of the previously documented overall inverse association between each spouse's education and the risk of divorce. Women who were employed or were homemakers, and who had employed husbands, had comparatively stable marriages; couples in which the husband, the wife, or both partners were unemployed had an elevated risk of divorce. A husband's high income decreased the risk of divorce, and a wife's high income increased the risk at all levels of the other spouse's income, but especially when the wife's income exceeded the husband's.

  11. Parental divorce and adult longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal

    2013-02-01

    Life course research has established associations between adverse childhood events and later life health. We examine the relationship of experiencing parental divorce before the age of 16 and survival across 34 years of adulthood. Analysis of panel data from a USA-based survey of 6,928 adults residing in Alameda County, California in 1965. Cox regression was used to examine associations between parental divorce and longevity. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and childhood socioeconomic position, respondents who recalled a parental divorce during childhood had increased risk of mortality compared to those with no separation. The association was stronger for premature mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Divorce in childhood was also associated with lowered adult education, fewer social network ties, more depression, and worse health practices. These factors appeared to explain the association with longevity. Parental divorce in childhood is associated with lowered well-being in adulthood and long-term survival. Early prevention and health promotion efforts may be warranted for children who experience parental divorce or discord as a means of supporting enhanced trajectories of health and well-being.

  12. 5 CFR 890.806 - When can former spouses change enrollment or reenroll and what are the effective dates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfactory proof of eligibility within 60 days after the date of divorce, the enrollment may be made... an employing office determines that a former spouse was unable, for cause beyond his or her control...

  13. Adolescent School Performance Following Parental Divorce: Are There Family Factors that Can Enhance Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Amanda; Forehand, Rex

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent school achievement and family factors which may mediate negative influence of divorce. Findings from 71 early adolescents and their recently divorced mothers revealed that adolescents with high grade point averages had mothers with lower depression, higher education, less conflict with ex-spouse, and less…

  14. Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Divorce and Children No. 1; Updated December 2013 One out of every two marriages today ends in divorce and many divorcing families include children. Parents who ...

  15. Changes in Social Networks of Women and Men Following Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milardo, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the character and consequences of changes in the social networks of spouses following separation and divorce. For men, traditions encourage the development of personal friendships while simultaneously encouraging independence. Women, who accept responsibility for "kinkeeping" during and after marriage, simultaneously discouraging bonds…

  16. Tips for Divorcing Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Kids Talk About Marriage & Divorce Preparing Your Child for a Move Helping Your Child Through a ... Cope With Divorce? How Can I Help My Child Deal With My Dating After Divorce? Kids Talk About: Marriage and Divorce (Video) Living With a Single Parent ...

  17. Reunited twins: spouse relations / twin research reports / timely topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2011-06-01

    The present article explores the social attraction that may evolve on the part of reared apart twins' spouses toward their brothers- and sisters-in-law, that is, their spouses' newly found co-twin. This topic was inspired by the fascinating story of monozygotic reared apart (MZA) twins who were reunited in Perth, Australia in 2008, at age 50. It is followed by brief reviews of twin research articles concerning divorce rates among mothers of multiples and X-chromosome inactivation in MZ female twin pairs. The final section presents informative human interest stories involving twins.

  18. Transition to Parenthood and Susceptibility to Divorce: qualitative research of divorced young parents in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Rijavec Klobučar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood is a vulnerable period for spouses and can consequently lead to the disintegration of their relationship. The purpose of this research was to examine the experience of this transition, circumstances and risk factors for divorce from the perspective of divorcees in Slovenia who divorced in the first year of their child’s life. On the basis of semi -structured interviews with 15 divorcees, the findings of studies examining changes after the birth of a child were confirmed. The results pointed to risk factors for marriage, such as uncertain relationship between spouses prior to the childbirth, permeable boundaries in relations with families of origin, lack of practical and emotional support, and unreal expectations. The child’s arrival accentuates unsolved issues from the past and brings additional vulnerability to the relationship. The findings of this research are a contribution to the development of preventive, educative and therapeutic programmes for couples in transition to parenthood.

  19. Spouses Needs for Professional Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielson, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Spouses' experiences with their partners' hospitalization and the spouses' relationship with nurses and physicians were examined. Health professionals, should reflect more on the importance. of an ongoing dialogue with the spouses of patients, ensuring they receive correct information to become...

  20. The Effects of the Uniformed Services Former Spouses’ Protection Act on Military Retirement Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    81 pages. The Uniformed Services Former Spouses’ Protection Act ( USFSPA ) allows state courts to treat military retirement pay as property for... USFSPA , to ensure just compensation for both military members and military spouses in court-ordered divorce settlements? This thesis examines the divorce...the USFSPA by state courts in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and perceived inequities of the act. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page APPROVAL

  1. Effects of Parental Divorce on Marital Commitment and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that, compared to offspring of non-divorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes towards marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that, when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively-reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women’s but not men’s parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce. PMID:18855515

  2. The influence of offspring's sex and age at parents' divorce on the intergenerational transmission of divorce, Norwegian first marriages 1980-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde; Engelhardt, Henriette

    2009-07-01

    Whether a couple remain married or divorce has repeatedly been shown to be of importance for the marital stability of their children. This paper addresses the related question of whether the intergenerational transmission of divorce is contingent on the age at which parents divorced and the sex of the spouse who experienced the parents' divorce. Using a population-wide data-set on Norwegian first marriages followed from 1980 to 2003, we find that the intergenerational transmission hypothesis holds also for Norway, that this relationship is stronger for women than for men, and that there is a negative age gradient in the transmission effect for women. The experience of multiple family transitions, such as a parent's remarriage or a second divorce, does not affect couples' divorce risk.

  3. The Ant or the Grasshopper? The Long-term Consequences of Unilateral Divorce Laws on Savings of European Households

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Viola; Bertoni, Marco; Stella, Luca; Weiss, Christoph T.

    2016-01-01

    By allowing people to obtain divorce without the consent of their spouse, Unilateral Divorce Laws (UDLs) increase the risk of divorce. Using the staggered introduction of UDLs across European countries, we show that households exposed to UDLs for longer time accumulate more savings. This effect holds for both financial and total wealth and is stronger at higher quantiles of the wealth distribution. Longer exposure to UDLs also increases female labour market participation and financial literac...

  4. Divorce decisions, divorce laws and social norms

    OpenAIRE

    Hiller, Victor; Recoules, Magali

    2010-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/CESFramDP2010.htm; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2010.46 - ISSN : 1955-611X; This article focuses on the three way relationship between change in divorce law, evolution of divorce rate and evolution of the cultural acceptance of divorce. We consider a heterogeneous population in which individuals differ in terms of the subjective loss they suffer when divorced, this loss being associated with stigmatizin...

  5. Attention Deficits and Divorce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    ...). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Results...

  6. Children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices.

  7. The Price of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynish, Annie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of divorce on student's academic achievement. Whitehead (1997) states, at the beginning of the twentieth century, there were only three divorces for every 1,000 marriages. Through the years, the divorce rate in America has rapidly increased which has affected adults and children. The…

  8. Children and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Suzanne E.

    Some basic principles are discussed that can help divorcing parents understand the feelings and behaviors of their children, and guidelines are suggested for parents wanting to help their children adjust to the divorce-induced changes in their lives. The process of divorce is discussed in terms of children's experience, cause and effect, and time.…

  9. Living with bipolar disorder: the impact on patients, spouses, and their marital relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Danan, Dor; Bersudsky, Yuly; Osher, Yamima

    2016-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder are characterized by an unusually high divorce rate. As such, the purpose of the present study was to uncover information relating specifically to the impact of bipolar disorder on patients and spouses individually, and on the marital relationship from the perspectives of both patients and spouses. Eleven patients with bipolar disorder and ten spouses were interviewed separately about the impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their marital relationship. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The impact of bipolar disorder for spouses included self-sacrifice, caregiving burden, emotional impact, and a sense of personal evolution. The impact of bipolar disorder on patients included an emotional impact, responsibility for self-care, and struggling socially and developmentally. When comparing patient and spouse perspectives on the impact of the disorder, neither the patient nor the spouse was able to accurately assess the impact of the disorder on their partner's lives. The impact of bipolar disorder on the relationship included volatility in the relationship, strengthening the relationship, weakening the relationship, and family planning. The research indicated that patients and partners alike struggle with the tremendous impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their relationships. Given the high rates of divorce and volatility in these relationships, healthcare professionals can provide (or refer to) emotional and practical support both to patients and spouses on their own, and as a couple in their clinics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce.

  11. Effects of parental divorce on marital commitment and confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J

    2008-10-01

    Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce has demonstrated that compared with offspring of nondivorced parents, those of divorced parents generally have more negative attitudes toward marriage as an institution and are less optimistic about the feasibility of a long-lasting, healthy marriage. It is also possible that when entering marriage themselves, adults whose parents divorced have less personal relationship commitment to their own marriages and less confidence in their own ability to maintain a happy marriage with their spouse. However, this prediction has not been tested. In the current study, we assessed relationship commitment and relationship confidence, as well as parental divorce and retrospectively reported interparental conflict, in a sample of 265 engaged couples prior to their first marriage. Results demonstrated that women's, but not men's, parental divorce was associated with lower relationship commitment and lower relationship confidence. These effects persisted when controlling for the influence of recalled interparental conflict and premarital relationship adjustment. The current findings suggest that women whose parents divorced are more likely to enter marriage with relatively lower commitment to, and confidence in, the future of those marriages, potentially raising their risk for divorce. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Complex marital histories and economic well-being: the continuing legacy of divorce and widowhood as the HRS cohort approaches retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K C; Kuo, H H

    1996-06-01

    We use data from the first wave of the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) to examine the marital histories of this cohort of women and men on the verge of retirement. The legacy of past increases in divorce rates is evident in the complex marital histories of HRS households and the relationship between those histories and current economic status. Couples in a first marriage now make up only one-quarter of black households and fewer than half of all white and Hispanic households. In over one-third of all married-couple households, at least one spouse had a previous marriage that ended in divorce or widowhood. These couples have significantly lower incomes and assets than couples in first marriages. Contrary to the popular notion that private and public insurance better provide for the security of widows than divorced persons, currently widowed households and couples in which the prior marriage of one spouse had ended in widowhood are no better off than are their divorced peers. This holds true for both black and white households. From a single cross-section, one cannot tell what caused these differences in income and wealth across marital status groups although it is clear that women and blacks spend a higher percentage of their lifetime outside of marriage than do men and whites. We also speculate from estimates of widowhood expectations for a subset of married respondents that underestimating the chances of widowhood--because both men and women overestimate their chances of joint survival--may be a factor in the relatively low economic status of widows. Because couples in life-long marriages have been the traditional standard upon which marital property reform and the survivorship rules of private and public programs are based, their diminishing importance among all households raises concern about the protection provided by these institutions against the long-term economic consequences of past and future marital dissolution.

  13. Ready, willing, and able to divorce: an economic and cultural history of divorce in twentieth-century Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Per; Sandström, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study outlines a long history of divorce in Sweden, recognizing the importance of considering both economic and cultural factors in the analysis of marital dissolution. Following Ansley Coale, the authors examine how a framework of multiple theoretical constructs, in interaction, can be applied to the development toward mass divorce. Applying a long historical perspective, the authors argue that an analysis of gendered aspects of the interaction between culture and economics is crucial for the understanding of the rise of mass divorce. The empirical analysis finds support for a marked decrease in legal and cultural obstacles to divorce already during the first decades of the twentieth century. However, economic structures remained a severe obstacle that prohibited significant increases in divorce rate prior to World War II. It was only during the 1940s and 1960s, when cultural change was complemented by marked decreases in economic interdependence between spouses, that the divorce rate exhibited significant increases. The authors find that there are advantages to looking at the development of divorce as a history in which multiple empirical factors are examined in conjunction, recognizing that these factors played different roles during different time periods.

  14. The supportive expatriate spouse:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of accompanying expatriate spouses has emphasized the negative impact on the business expatriates that could contribute to unsuccessful outcomes of the foreign assignments. But spouses' influences could also be positive. Applying ethnographic field-work methodol....... These findings are consistent with recent theoretical developments focusing on positive outcomes of the work-family interface and social capital theory and are in line with empirical research on repatriation and post-assignment careers.......-work methodology, this study investigated female spouses' involvement in the career of a sample of Danish business expatriates living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. Results showed that the accompanying partners were active in trying to support and further their expatriate husbands' immediate careers...

  15. Time-space trends in Swedish divorce behaviour, 1911-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the divorce rates in Sweden have varied over time and across different geographical areas during the period 1911-1974, and how these variations can be connected to the political, socio-economic and cultural development in Sweden. The analysis provides empirical support for the hypothesis that increased divorce rates have been the result of changes in the structural conditions that determine the degree of economic interdependence between spouses. There is a strong connection between the degree of urbanization and the divorce rate on a regional level for the entire research period. The statistical analysis of the regional data indicates that these patterns are connected to the more diversified economy that has developed in urban settings, in the form of a more qualified labour market and higher wages for females. These characteristics resulted in a faster and more pronounced reduction of economic interdependence between spouses, which made divorce more attainable in these areas as compared with rural settings.

  16. [Spouses and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, F; Ayedi, S; Cherif, W; Ben Abla, T; M'rad, M F

    2011-02-01

    To assess the quality of life of a population of spouses of bipolar patients compared with a control population. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included two groups: a group of 30 spouses of patients followed for bipolar I disorder according to DSM IV criteria and a second group of 30 subjects from the general population. Both groups were matched by age, sex, marital status and socioeconomic level. This device was designed to limit the differences between the two groups solely those of the bipolar illness. Evaluating the quality of life was achieved using the quality of life scale: SF-36. This is a scale that has already been translated and validated in dialect Arabic. Regarding sociodemographic variables, the two study groups differed only for: recreation, friendly relations and the couple relationship that included more and better skills among the control group. In the categorical approach, the quality of life was impaired in 60% of spouses and 40% of controls with a statistically significant difference. The following standardized dimensions: mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6) and perceived health (D8) and mental component (CM) were significantly altered in patients' spouses compared to controls. We found significant differences between the two groups for: overall average score (51.1 vs. 68.2), mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6), perceived health (D8) and perceived health (D8) standards. The impairment of quality of life of bipolar patients' spouses is related to the extra responsibility, stress, financial problems and health problems, stigma, and loss of security of the person loved. Considering the consequences that the appearance of bipolar disorder on the patient's spouse may have, certain measures must be proposed to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  17. Divorces as a Manifestation of Change in Social Life in the province of Eyüp during Tulip Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin KESKİN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As in all societies, the family union in Ottoman Empire might end up with the divorce willingly or not for some reasons. In Ottoman Empire, there are three sorts of divorces pursuing the Islamic law. Man’s divorcing his spouse of his own accord (talak, divorcing of a court upon the appeal of a woman with some justifications (tefrik and consensual divorce occurring with the proposal of woman and the approval of man (hul or muhalaa. It is possible to behold these types of divorcement samples in Eyüp. In this article, the types of divorcements in Eyüp District will be attempted to be explained whether the increase in the Tulip Period is an indication of deterioration or moral courage of women by discussing the samples in the Sharia Court Records.

  18. Fitness consequences of divorce in the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, Dik; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Ens, Bruno J.

    We investigated the fitness consequences of divorce in oystercatchers. We made a distinction between two types of divorce: in desertions the disruption of the pair bond is initiated by one of the pair members, and in usurpations by a conspecific individual. Survival and reproduction prospects for

  19. Loss of a spouse - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - loss of a spouse ... The following organizations provide information on the loss of a spouse or significant other: GoodTherapy.org -- www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/grief National Institute on Aging -- www.nia.nih. ...

  20. Divorce as risky behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Audrey; Ahn, Taehyun

    2010-11-01

    Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men.

  1. Divorce as Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIGHT, AUDREY; AHN, TAEHYUN

    2010-01-01

    Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men. PMID:21308563

  2. Environmental impacts of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eunice; Liu, Jianguo

    2007-12-18

    Divorce is increasingly common around the world. Its causes, dynamics, and socioeconomic impacts have been widely studied, but little research has addressed its environmental impacts. We found that average household size (number of people in a household) in divorced households (households with divorced heads) was 27-41% smaller than married households (households with married heads) in 12 countries across the world around the year 2000 (between 1998 and 2002). If divorced households had combined to have the same average household size as married households, there could have been 7.4 million fewer households in these countries. Meanwhile, the number of rooms per person in divorced households was 33-95% greater than in married households. In the United States (U.S.) in 2005, divorced households spent 46% and 56% more on electricity and water per person than married households. Divorced households in the U.S. could have saved more than 38 million rooms, 73 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, and 627 billion gallons of water in 2005 alone if their resource-use efficiency had been comparable to married households. Furthermore, U.S. households that experienced divorce used 42-61% more resources per person than before their dissolution. Remarriage of divorced household heads increased household size and reduced resource use to levels similar to those of married households. The results suggest that mitigating the impacts of resource-inefficient lifestyles such as divorce helps to achieve global environmental sustainability and saves money for households.

  3. Mental distress predicts divorce over 16 years: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idstad, Mariann; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Borren, Ingrid; Rognmo, Kamilla; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    The association between mental distress and divorce is well established in the literature. Explanations are commonly classified within two different frameworks; social selection (mentally distressed people are selected out of marriage) and social causation (divorce causes mental distress). Despite a relatively large body of literature on this subject, selection effects are somewhat less studied, and research based on data from both spouses is scarce. The purpose of the present study is to investigate selection effects both at the individual level and the couple level. The current study is based on couple-level data from a Norwegian representative sample including 20,233 couples. Long-term selection effects were tested for by means of Cox proportional hazard models, using mental distress in both partners at baseline as predictors of divorce the next 16 years. Three identical sets of analyses were run. The first included the total sample, whereas the second and third excluded couples who divorced within the first 4 or 8 years after baseline, respectively. An interaction term between mental distress in husband and in wife was specified and tested. Hazard of divorce was significantly higher in couples with one mentally distressed partner than in couples with no mental distress in all analyses. There was also a significant interaction effect showing that the hazard of divorce for couples with two mentally distressed partners was higher than for couples with one mentally distressed partner, but lower than what could be expected from the combined main effects of two mentally distressed partners. Our results suggest that mentally distressed individuals are selected out of marriage. We also found support for a couple-level effect in which spouse similarity in mental distress to a certain degree seems to protect against divorce.

  4. Sex differences in attachment to spouses among older Japanese couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Katsunori; Shirakawa, Kazutoyo; Hirao, Tomohiro; Nakatsu, Morihito; Yoda, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okabe, Yugo; Shirakami, Gotaro

    2017-05-01

    Attachment among older adults can partially explain sex differences in bereavement outcomes, but there is currently little evidence regarding this. The aim was to quantify sex differences in the proportion of spouses as attachment figures among older couples. We carried out a secondary analysis of cross-sectional questionnaire survey data. The dataset included information about 5137 respondents aged 65 years or older in Kanonji and Mitoyo, two rural cities in Kagawa prefecture, Japan; those who were never married or were widowed or divorced were excluded. The questionnaire asked participants whom they most want to be close by when they die (this person was defined as an "attachment figure"), and compared the proportion of older people of each sex who named their spouse. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the independent association of sex with the proportion of spouses as attachment figures. Of the 2513 male respondents, 1494 (59.5%) answered "spouse." Of the 2624 female respondents, 904 (34.5%) answered "spouse." Multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, live-in children, annual income, participation in community activities, presence of a long-term primary care doctor, anxiety about death and preferences for place of death showed that men had a higher probability of attachment to spouses than women (odds ratio 2.83, 95% confidence interval 2.43-3.31). Spouses are more likely to be attachment figures for men than for women. The present study supports the theory that sex differences in attachment might partially explain the differences in the bereavement effect between sexes among older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 834-838. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Spouses Needs for Professional Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielson, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Spouses' experiences with their partners' hospitalization and the spouses' relationship with nurses and physicians were examined. Health professionals, should reflect more on the importance. of an ongoing dialogue with the spouses of patients, ensuring they receive correct information to become m...

  6. Spouses Needs for Professional Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielson, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Spouses' experiences with their partners' hospitalization and the spouses' relationship with nurses and physicians were examined. Health professionals, should reflect more on the importance. of an ongoing dialogue with the spouses of patients, ensuring they receive correct information to become m...... more involved in supporting patients....

  7. Experiencing Positive Religious Coping in the Process of Divorce: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonič, Barbara; Klobučar, Nataša Rijavec

    2017-10-01

    Divorce is one of the more stressful and psychologically challenging experiences for spouses and whole families. After divorce, a new era begins, when it is necessary to re-adapt to life and during which hard feelings also emerge. During the process of divorce, successful emotional adaptation to the new situation is of great significance. Religion or spirituality can be a powerful source of help for an individual coping with stressful situations brought up by divorce. This study aimed to explore if and how divorcees experience the burden of divorce and along with it the relationship with God (within Catholic tradition) as a source of positive support in coping with divorce. We conducted open semi-structured interviews with 11 participants. With empirical phenomenological analysis, we built a general description of the investigated experience which entails three areas of experience: experiencing the burden of divorce, which is related to experiencing the relationship with God and the ways of spiritual coping with divorce, and experiencing the effects of religious coping with divorce. The result of this research can be used in evidence-based psychosocial (e.g. psychotherapy, counselling) and spiritual help for individuals in comprehensive care after divorce.

  8. Booms, Busts, and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, Judith K; Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2011-08-01

    For almost a century, anecdotes have suggested that divorce rates decline during recessions. However, until very recently there has been surprisingly little formal empirical evidence on whether such a link exists, let alone its magnitude if it does. Moreover, the anticipated direction of the effect is ambiguous theoretically. Although previous studies have concluded that individual job loss destabilizes marriages, macroeconomic conditions may affect divorce probabilities even for those not directly experiencing a job shock. We add to the few existing contemporaneous studies of the effects of macroeconomic shocks on divorce by conducting an empirical analysis of the relationship between state-level unemployment rates and state-level divorce rates using vital statistics data on divorces in the United States from 1976-2009. We find a significant and robust negative relationship between the unemployment and divorce rates, whereby a one percentage point rise in the unemployment rate is associated with a decrease of 0.043 divorces per one thousand people, or about a one percent fall in the divorce rate. The result that divorce is pro-cyclical is robust to a host of alternative empirical specifications, to disaggregating by state characteristics and time period, to expanding the unemployment series back to 1970, and to using alternative measures of local economic conditions.

  9. Booms, Busts, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2013-01-01

    For almost a century, anecdotes have suggested that divorce rates decline during recessions. However, until very recently there has been surprisingly little formal empirical evidence on whether such a link exists, let alone its magnitude if it does. Moreover, the anticipated direction of the effect is ambiguous theoretically. Although previous studies have concluded that individual job loss destabilizes marriages, macroeconomic conditions may affect divorce probabilities even for those not directly experiencing a job shock. We add to the few existing contemporaneous studies of the effects of macroeconomic shocks on divorce by conducting an empirical analysis of the relationship between state-level unemployment rates and state-level divorce rates using vital statistics data on divorces in the United States from 1976–2009. We find a significant and robust negative relationship between the unemployment and divorce rates, whereby a one percentage point rise in the unemployment rate is associated with a decrease of 0.043 divorces per one thousand people, or about a one percent fall in the divorce rate. The result that divorce is pro-cyclical is robust to a host of alternative empirical specifications, to disaggregating by state characteristics and time period, to expanding the unemployment series back to 1970, and to using alternative measures of local economic conditions. PMID:25221634

  10. Divorce in Russian Sociological and Social Psychological Research on Family Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kletsina I.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents social psychоlogical analysis of publications that focus on divorce situations in official marriages and explore its causes and consequences both for spouses and children. It is argued that the key factor in separation is a socio-psychological phenomenon called 'unconstructive marital relationships'. The partnership model described in the article, on the contrary, may serve as a normative basis contributing to the stabilization of marital relationships. While most publications conceptualize divorce as a collapse and split of family relationship, the article suggests interpreting divorces rather as a transformation stage in spousal and parentchild relationships.

  11. You cant be happier than your wife : happiness gaps and divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Cahit; Senik-Leygonie, Claudia; Stichnoth, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks whether the gap in subjective happiness between spouses matters per se, i.e. whether it predicts divorce. We use three panel databases to explore this question. Controlling for the level of life satisfaction of spouses, we find that a higher satisfaction gap, even in the first year of marriage, increases the likelihood of a future separation. We interpret this as the effect of comparisons of well-being between spouses, i.e. aversion to unequal sharing of well-being inside coup...

  12. Conflits et divorce dans les couples mixtes italo-marocains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Parisi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available  Nowday, mixed couples, in Italy, as well as elsewhere in Europe, are a growing phenomenon, directly related to the migration and to the globalization of human mobility. Despite the tendency to choose a foreign spouse, the Italian society continues to look at this marriage ambivalently. Based on ethnographic research on the Italian-Moroccan families, the article specifically address the issues related to the divorce. Thanks to research data it will be possible to highlight how the different positions of the subjects in the conflict produces a different narrative and reconstruction of family and couples crisis and of divorce also we will see how the gender difference produces a different conceptualization of conflict and of divorce.

  13. Divorce by family composition and socioeconomic status in Finnish first marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of a research project that focuses on the impact of socioeconomic factors on divorce risk in the context of other determinants. In this paper; divorce risk differentials are examined by two measures of family composition and various indicators of spouses' socioeconomic status. Divorce risk differentials are described also by two temporal variables; which are used as control variables in the other analyses. This is a register-based follow-up study, covering Finnish first marriages which were intact at the end of 1990 and judicial divorces between l 991 and l 993. A piecewise exponential hazards model is used. When the temporal factors were recontrolled for; divorce risk increased with increasing age of the youngest child, and divorce risk decreased with increasing numbers of children in the family in every age group of the youngest child. Also, when the temporal factors were held constant, socioeconomic status was inversely related to divorce risk, when socioeconomic status was measured by either of the spouses' education, occupational class or economic activity, husbands income or housing tenure.

  14. NOTARY PROCEDURE AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE FOR THE DIVORCE WITH SPOUSES’ AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA DIANA PAPA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the old divorce procedures, the dissolution of marriage analysed according to the provisions of the New Civil Code (art.373-404 and the New Code of Civil Procedure (914-934 represents a real legislative innovation. Taking into consideration the judicial procedure, the legislator settles the amicable divorce, referring to spouses’ consent on the divorce, as well as to the divorce caused by one of the spouses’ poor health, and the divorce through no fault of their own. According to the new legal matters, the dissolution of marriage does not come exclusively under court jurisdiction. Thus, as far as the amicable divorce is concerned, even if the spouses have minor children, either of their own or adopted, they have at their disposal not only the judicial procedure, but also the notarial one. If the spouses do not have minor children, they can go to court, but they can also go to the notary public or to the registrar in order to certify the dissolution of marriage of their own accord. The legislator’s preference of the amicable divorce is obvious, especially as the dissolution of marriage of spouses’ own accord does no longer depend on either the length of marriage, or on their not having minor children.

  15. Kid's Guide to Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each other because they're mad at each other, and sometimes they meet someone else that they fall in love with and want to live with. Adults have their own reasons for divorce. Whatever the reasons are, one thing is for ... better, gotten better grades, or helped more around the house, the divorce ...

  16. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the underlying emotional issues that may be fueling conflict and keeping them from negotiating an agreement. The “strategic mediation” model is a ... approach that focuses on addressing hidden dimensions of conflict in order to move ... agreement. Collaborative Divorce Collaborative divorce is an ...

  17. Divorce and Remarriage Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Rising divorce rates have made it necessary to devise ways of helping the millions of persons involved in marital and family disruption. This paper describes the Adjustment to Divorce and Problems of a Second Marriage informational-educational series for adults. (Author)

  18. Gifted Children and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.

    2011-01-01

    Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

  19. Kids, Divorce, and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper investigates the influence of divorce on middle level students (grades 5 through 8) and how it relates to the students' performance (both academically and emotionally) in school. Also important to the discussion is what teachers should know about working with the children of divorce. The paper includes a review of the literature on…

  20. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  1. Children, Divorce and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1981-01-01

    An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)

  2. Divorce Counseling Guidelines for the Late Divorced Female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, Regis; Deckert, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    Offers divorce counseling guidelines for the female who divorces after 20 years or more of marriage, based on a 1977 study of late divorced female Canadians. Research emphasizes six major life adjustment areas: emotions; divorce grounds; finances and budgeting; children; life-style change; and independence. (Author)

  3. Divorce mediation and children's adjustment to parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, S E

    1995-01-01

    Divorce can have marked negative effects on children, particularly when parental conflict is sustained and intense. A review of literature demonstrated that parents' participation in divorce mediation counseling resulted in positive outcomes including decreased parental conflict and children's healthier emotional and psychosocial adaptation to divorce. As family advocates, nurses are well positioned to educate families about divorce mediation counseling.

  4. Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates in Western Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The increase in European divorce rates over the past decades was accompanied by several changes in divorce laws. Yet for European countries, research on the effects of divorce law on the divorce rate is scarce. Most of the existing studies are based on data from North America and provide numerous, but inconsistent, results. We use fixed-effects…

  5. Long-term impact of parental divorce on optimism and trust: changes in general assumptions or narrow beliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, K M; Janoff-Bulman, R; Roberts, J E

    1990-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the long-term impact of parental divorce on beliefs about the self and others. In Study 1, college-aged children of divorce and students from intact families did not differ on 8 basic assumptions or on measures of depression. Those whose parents are divorced, however, were less optimistic about the success of their own future marriages. Assumptions about the benevolence of people best predicted the marital optimism of the parental divorce group, but not of the intact family group. In Study 2, assumptions about the benevolence of people were explored in terms of trust beliefs. College-aged children of divorce and a matched sample from intact homes differed only on marriage-related beliefs, not on generalized trust. Children of divorced reported less trust of a future spouse and were less optimistic about marriage. Exploratory analyses found that continuous conflict in family of origin adversely affected all levels of trust.

  6. A post-divorce cohabitation never equals a remarriage in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the legal significance of the celebration of a (re)marriage as a decisive element in the conclusion and proof of the (re)marriage, the Cassation Division of the Federal Supreme Court decided a case in which the post-divorce non-marital cohabitation between ex-spouses was considered to constitute a remarriage.

  7. Did Unilateral Divorce Raise Divorce Rates? Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Friedberg

    1998-01-01

    This paper revisits the evidence on the impact of unilateral divorce laws on divorce rates in the United States. Most states switched from requiring mutual consent to allowing unilateral or no-fault divorce between 1970 and 1985, while the national divorce rate more than doubled after 1965. According to the Coase theorem, however, the legal shift should have had no effect on divorce rates. Recent papers using cross-sectional micro data have disputed the empirical importance of unilateral divo...

  8. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  9. Divorce laws and fertility decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bellido, Héctor; Marcén, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of divorce law reforms on fertility. By modifying the value of marriage, the introduction of divorce law reforms may impact fertility decisions. To identify the effects of those reforms on fertility, we use a quasi-experiment exploiting the legislative history of divorce liberalization across Europe. Results suggest that divorce law reforms have a negative and permanent effect on fertility. Divorce reforms decreased the Total Fertility Rate by about 0.2. The mag...

  10. 8 CFR 1216.4 - Joint petition to remove conditional basis of lawful permanent resident status for alien spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the termination of the marriage through annulment, divorce, or the death of the petitioning spouse, or... establishes to the satisfaction of the director, in writing, that there was good cause for the failure to file... there is good cause for granting the request, the interview may be rescheduled or waived, as appropriate...

  11. 8 CFR 216.4 - Joint petition to remove conditional basis of lawful permanent resident status for alien spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the marriage through annulment, divorce, or the death of the petitioning spouse, or if the... satisfaction of the director, in writing, that there was good cause for the failure to file Form I-751 within... rescheduled or that the interview be waived, and the director determines that there is good cause for granting...

  12. Dealing with Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she may also feel nervous or pressured about finances. There are also expenses associated with divorce, from ... and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours ...

  13. 38 CFR 3.502 - Surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation for children (38 U.S.C. 5112(b) § 3.5(e)(3). (1) If marriage occurred prior to October 1, 1982, the day preceding child's 18th birthday or last day of calendar year in which child's marriage..., 1982, the day preceding child's 18th birthday or last day of the month in which marriage occurred (see...

  14. Epidemiology of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, P H; Quinn, L S

    1994-01-01

    The living arrangements of American children have been strongly affected by revolutionary social changes in the past 30 years. Large decreases in first-marriage rates and an increase in the likelihood of married couples to divorce have resulted in a wide diversity of living arrangements for children. In spite of increasing divorce rates, in 1990, the vast majority (71%) of the 64 million American children lived in two-parent households, and most (58%) lived with their biological parents. Since the 1970s, however, there has been a large increase in the proportion of children living with single or divorced mothers. Today, 7.3% (4.7 million) of children live with an unmarried parent, 9.1% (5.9 million) live with a divorced parent, and 7.4% (4.8 million) live with a separated or widowed parent. In each year since the 1970s, more than one million children were affected by divorce. The composition of single-parent households has also changed dramatically. The decreasing mortality rates in the past three decades among married individuals have resulted in fewer households headed by widowed parents. However, the decrease in widowed-parent households has been more than replaced by a corresponding increase in households headed by never-married women. Increasing divorce rates have resulted in more children living in stepfamilies and with divorced single mothers. Legal changes in the 1970s have resulted in an increase in the number of children living with divorced fathers. There are large differences in the living arrangements of children by ethnic group. In the past 25 years, there has been an exponential increase in the proportion of African-American children living with never-married mothers. The most common form of living arrangement for African-American children today is one-parent families.

  15. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  16. Parenting after Divorce: Evaluation of Preventive Programs for Divorcing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nancy J.; And Others

    Preventive educational programs are potentially useful in reducing the effects of divorce on children and families. Parenting After Divorce is an ongoing study designed to evaluate preventive programs. Divorcing families with children aged 7-12 are identified from court records and contacted to participate. Families are randomly assigned to one of…

  17. Health Insurance and Risk of Divorce: Does Having Your Own Insurance Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Heeju

    2015-08-01

    Most American adults under 65 obtain health insurance through their employers or their spouses' employers. The absence of a universal healthcare system in the United States puts Americans at considerable risk for losing their coverage when transitioning out of jobs or marriages. Scholars have found evidence of reduced job mobility among individuals who are dependent on their employers for healthcare coverage. This paper finds similar relationships between insurance and divorce. I apply the hazard model to married individuals in the longitudinal Survey of Income Program Participation (N=17,388) and find lower divorce rates among people who are insured through their partners' plans without alternative sources of their own. Furthermore, I find gender differences in the relationship between healthcare coverage and divorce rates: insurance dependent women have lower rates of divorce than men in similar situations. These findings draw attention to the importance of considering family processes when debating and evaluating health policies.

  18. Infidelity, initiation, and the emotional climate of divorce: are there implications for mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, M M; Horwitz, A V

    2001-09-01

    A large literature has examined the role of "secondary" stressors, such as problems with finances, social support, residential mobility, and children, in producing the well-documented association between divorce and a variety of psychopathological conditions. Much less attention, however, has been paid to variation in the "primary" disruption experience. We address this omission using data from the National Survey of Families and Households to investigate the interrelationships among depression, initiator status, and spousal infidelity. While we find little evidence of direct effects of initiator status or spousal infidelity on post-divorce depression, the importance of these characteristics emerges when they are considered in an interactive context. Specifically, while divorce initiation is associated with reduced depression among individuals with unfaithful spouses, initiation is associated with increased depression in the absence of spousal infidelity. Taken together, our findings suggest that characteristics of the divorce experience may interact in complex ways to produce variation in mental health outcomes.

  19. Responses of elderly spouse caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, B; Stommel, M; Collins, C; King, S; Given, C W

    1990-04-01

    In this paper three categories of variables were identified to predict spouses' reactions to caregiving roles: patient characteristics, the caregiving environment, and characteristics of the caregiver. Measures of these variables were administered to 159 spouse caregivers. Four domains of caregivers' responses were identified: negative emotional reactions, feelings of responsibility for the patient, feelings of abandonment by family, and impact of caregiving on daily schedules. These domains were influenced most by patient negative behaviors, physical health, and age, and by caregiver age, employment, and emotional status. Amount of assistance, affective support, and hours of care also were predictive of spouse responses.

  20. Divorce Process: Integration of Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salts, Connie J.

    1979-01-01

    Compares several models of the divorce process and the implications of each for counseling. A unification of the concomitant implications is provided to assist the helping professions to understand the processes and problems associated with divorce. (Author)

  1. Reintegration: The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    treating a service member or veteran . Spouses can have a dramatic effect on the reintegration of the family after deployment and can be a major support...Physical Health in a Sample of Spouses of OEF/OIF Service Members .......... 37 Easing Reintegration : Telephone Support Groups for Spouses of...68 Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone BATTLEMIND Pilot Project

  2. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  3. Children of Divorce: Relearning Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes St. Mary's Middle School's Divorce Group Counseling Program for fifth through eighth grade students whose parents are involved in a separation or divorce. The program uses a multimodality approach to teach divorce concepts, coping skills, relaxation techniques, and appreciation for the needs of others. (DMM)

  4. Divorce in an Island Bird Population: Causes, Consequences, and Lack of Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Teplitsky, Céline

    2017-10-01

    Divorce (mate switching) is widely considered an adaptive strategy that female birds use to improve their reproductive success. However, in few species are the causes and consequences of divorce well understood, and the genetic basis and inheritance of divorce have never been explored. In Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) breeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, 47.0% of pairs in which both partners survived to the following breeding season ended in divorce. Secondary females, which received less parental assistance than primary females, tended to divorce when breeding success was low or when paired with small males. Unlike young females or widows, older females improved their fledging success after divorce. Young males (but not older males) suffered lower reproductive success following a divorce. However, neither the lifetime number of divorces nor whether an individual had ever divorced affected the fitness of females or males, which suggests little or no selection for the trait. We found moderate repeatability for divorce in females (although not in males) but no additive genetic variance or evidence of maternal or paternal effects. Divorce in Savannah sparrows appears to be a nonheritable flexible behavior whose expression and consequences depend on an individual's sex, mating status, size, and age.

  5. Divorce laws and divorce rate in the U.S

    OpenAIRE

    Marcassa, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    At the end of the 1960s, the U.S. divorce laws underwent major changes and the divorce rate more than doubled in all of the states. The new laws introduced unilateral divorce in most of the states and changes in divorce settlements in every state, such as property division, alimony transfers, and child custody assignments. The empirical literature so far has focused on the switch from consensual to unilateral divorce and found that this change cannot fully account for the increase in the divo...

  6. Spouse Control and Type 2 Diabetes Management: Moderating Effects of Dyadic Expectations for Spouse Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Amber J.; Franks, Melissa M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    For married patients, chronic illness management often includes involvement of their spouses. We examined expectations regarding spouse involvement in the health of a partner with type 2 diabetes (N = 139 couples) from the perspectives of the patient and spouse. Partners' dyadic expectations and spouses' gender were posited to moderate spouses'…

  7. Challenges and Negative Effects of Divorce among Muslim Women in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafatu Abdul Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The alarming explosion of divorce in our present times is a cause of great concern. In fact the divorce rate in Northern Nigeria is high and this is scandalous. The mention of the word (Talaq divorce has now become so cheap that in some marriages, every argument futures this word, either the husband threatens with it or the wife demands it. Hence women are married and divorce at will for minor reasons. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight some of the causes of rampant divorce and its negative impact on Muslim women in the northern part of Nigeria. Some Shari’ah court cases were also examined in other to find out whether the Judiciary is invulnerable to the problem of divorce among Muslim women in Northern Nigeria. The study reveals that the challenges and negative effects of divorce are usually much stronger on the woman and her off springs than the man. These ranges from psychological trauma, immoral behaviour, Economic hardship, denial of custody, etc.  Using descriptive and analytical methods, this paper interprets Islamic teachings as enshrined in the Qur’an and Sunnah with a view to proffering Islamic solutions on them. The paper recommends among other things, that parents and intending spouses should endeavour to find out the level of Islamic knowledge, habit, character of suitors/wives to be, prior to the marriage in order to prepare adequately for a successful association.

  8. Divorce: A Child's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1979-01-01

    Much research has been done on the negative effects of divorce on children. Future research should focus on how positive family functioning and support systems can facilitate the development of social, emotional, and intellectual competence in children in single parent families. (Author/GC)

  9. Divorce in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, B E

    1981-03-01

    The family physician today has many families in his/her practice who have decided on divorce and who turn to the family physician for guidance. The effect of divorce for children from infancy to age three years is primarily related to the mother's emotional adjustment to the divorce. Preschool and school aged children are most at risk for personality disturbances because of their emerging sense of identity and need for both parents as figures of identification. The adolescent is initially the most painfully distressed by the divorce but, in fact, is in time the least affected of all the age groups. An intervention aimed at helping reduce the pathological effect on the child's development is outlined, which includes an emphasis on the parents working together for the benefit of the children, the suggestion that the children be allowed as much continuity in their lifestyle as possible, and the need for each parent not to deprecate or blame the other so that the child may have a positive image of both parents.

  10. Reconsidering the "Good Divorce"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.; James, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the notion that a "good divorce" protects children from the potential negative consequences of marital dissolution. A cluster analysis of data on postdivorce parenting from 944 families resulted in three groups: cooperative coparenting, parallel parenting, and single parenting. Children in the cooperative coparenting…

  11. Divorce: Implications for Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cathy W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used Children's Depression Inventory to compare depressive symptomatology of 37 third and sixth grade students whose parents were divorcing with symptomatology of 37 children from intact homes. Found no significant differences in level of depressive symptomatology between groups. Two additional studies examined parent and teacher knowledge…

  12. Divorce and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Mark J.

    The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)

  13. The Effects of Personal Divorce Experience on Teacher Perceptions of Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Virginia P.; Schaefer, Lyn

    1984-01-01

    Determined whether teachers with personal divorce experience differed from other teachers in their opinions on divorce, knowledge about divorce, and feelings about schools' role and responsibility to children of divorce. Those with personal divorce experience were more likely to encourage teacher and school involvement with children of divorce.…

  14. Divorce and the Onset of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Swedish Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-Relative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (N=942,366), the authors examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (hazard ratio=5.98, 95% CI=5.65-6.33) and women (hazard ratio=7.29, 95% CI=6.72-7.91). The hazard ratio was estimated for AUD onset given divorce among discordant monozygotic twins to equal 3.45 and 3.62 in men and women, respectively. Divorce was also associated with an AUD recurrence in those with AUD registrations before marriage. Furthermore, widowhood increased risk for AUD in men (hazard ratio=3.85, 95% CI=2.81-5.28) and women (hazard ratio=4.10, 95% CI=2.98-5.64). Among divorced individuals, remarriage was associated with a large decline in AUD in both sexes (men: hazard ratio=0.56, 95% CI=0.52-0.64; women: hazard ratio=0.61, 95% CI=0.55-0.69). Divorce produced a greater increase in first AUD onset in those with a family history of AUD or with prior externalizing behaviors. Spousal loss through divorce or bereavement is associated with a large enduring increased AUD risk. This association likely reflects both causal and noncausal processes. That the AUD status of the spouse alters this association highlights the importance of spouse characteristics for the behavioral health consequences of spousal loss. The pronounced elevation in AUD risk following divorce or widowhood, and the protective effect of remarriage against subsequent AUD, speaks to the profound impact of marriage on problematic alcohol use.

  15. Divorce and the Onset of Alcohol Use Disorders: A Swedish Population-Based Longitudinal Cohort and Co-Relative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Salvatore, Jessica; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Objective To clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Method In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (n=942,366), we examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Results Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (HR=5.98, 95% CI, 5.65–6.33) and women (HR=7.29, 6.72–7.91). We estimated the HR for AUD onset given divorce in discordant monozygotic twins to equal 3.45 and 3.62 in men and women, respectively. Divorce was also associated with an AUD recurrence in those with AUD registrations before marriage. Furthermore, widowhood increased risk for AUD in men (HR=3.85, 2.81–5.28) and women (HR=4.10, 2.98–5.64). Among divorced individuals, remarriage was associated with a large decline in AUD in both sexes: males 0.56, 0.62–0.64 and females 0.61, 0.55–0.69. Divorce produced a greater increase in first AUD onset in those with a family history of AUD or with prior externalizing behaviors. Conclusions Spousal loss through divorce or bereavement is associated with a large enduring increased AUD risk. This association likely reflects both causal and non-causal processes. That the AUD status of the spouse alters this association highlights the importance of spouse characteristics for the behavioral health consequences of spousal loss. The pronounced elevation in AUD risk following divorce or widowhood, and the protective effect of remarriage against subsequent AUD, speaks to the profound impact of marriage on problematic alcohol use. PMID:28103713

  16. Do Daughters Really Cause Divorce? Stress, Pregnancy, and Family Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Nobles, Jenna

    2014-01-01

    Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers' son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth—a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape. PMID:25024115

  17. Do daughters really cause divorce? Stress, pregnancy, and family composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Nobles, Jenna

    2014-08-01

    Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers' son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth-a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.

  18. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  19. Children of Divorce--A Forgotten Constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Eugene T.

    1981-01-01

    Explores the negative effects of divorce on children and suggests that a restructuring of marriage and divorce laws (which would prohibit divorce in marriages with dependent children) might be justified in addressing this injustice against children. (DB)

  20. Costly Divorce and Marriage Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Yurko, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model of choice between marriage and cohabitation to study the effect of divorce costs on marriage decision. The paired agents are heterogeneous, the utility is non-transferable, and break up and divorce decisions are modeled explicitly as unilateral, that is, it takes the decision of only one partner to terminate a relationship. This framework is empirically relevant, since unilateral divorce is legal in many countries, and multiple empirical studies of the effect of ch...

  1. [Impact of psychological factors on marital satisfaction and divorce proneness in clinical couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the psychological factors that affect marital satisfaction or divorce likelihood in clinical couples. Clinical couples (n=57) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data was collected from September 2005 to June 2006 using a Marital Satisfaction Scale, a Marital Status Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The couples showed high scores on depression, obsessive-compulsion, personality factors and divorce probability and a low score on marital satisfaction. The wife's obsessive-compulsion was a predictor of her marital satisfaction, and the wife's social introversion and depression, and husband's obsessive-compulsion were predictors of the wife's prospect of divorce. The husband's hypomania and depression were predictors of his marital satisfaction, and there were no predictors of the husband's prospect of divorce. Obsessive-compulsion is a significant factor in a couple's relationship, although previous studies have not been interested in obsessive-compulsion. Divorce likelihood should be evaluated for clinical couples as well as marital satisfaction, because it is more important for divorce prevention. Each spouse who has a psychological problem such as depression, obsessive-compulsion, and deviated personality needs individual therapy as well as couple therapy.

  2. The Survey of Divorce Incidence in Divorce Applicants in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Bolhari

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: In addition to recommendation for more study in these fields, the results of this survey suggest to apply the necessary programming in teaching and counseling before the marriage as well as the necessity of informing the couple in receiving professional consults in time of problem incidence and proceeding for divorce in order to prevent from divorce incidence.

  3. The effects of marriage partners' socio-economic positions on the risk of divorce in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Jalovaara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The high and increasing incidence of divorce, with the various consequences for adults and children, has aroused interest among social scientists in understanding the contributory factors. Prominent economic and psychosocial theories suggest that the husband’s social and economic resources tend to stabilize a marriage, whereas the wife’s economic success tends to destabilize it (the gendered hypothesis. Register-based follow-up data from Statistics Finland on first marriages in Finland that were intact at the end of 1990 and divorces in 199193 (n=21,309, and Poisson regression were used to analyze the impact of the socio-economic positions of the spouses on the risk of divorce. This thesis consists of three articles published in international refereed journals, and a summary article. The aim of sub-study I was to disentangle the influences of various aspects of the spouses’ socio-economic positions on divorce risk and to reveal the causal pathways through which each socio-economic factor was related to it. Sub-study II investigated the joint effects of both spouses’ socio-economic positions. Finally, sub-study III explored the possibility that the effect of spouses’ socio-economic positions on divorce risk might vary according to the duration of the marriage.  When examined individually, divorce risk was inversely associated with socio-economic status for all its various indicators (i.e. each spouse’s education, occupational class, economic activity, and income, as well as housing tenure and housing density except the wife’s income. All of these factors had an independent effect. The independent effect was weak for both spouses’ occupational rankings and housing density, however, and it was positive for the wife’s income. The divorce risk for couples with both partners at the lowest educational level was lower than expected on the basis of its overall inverse association with each spouse’s education. Employed and

  4. Self- and Partner-Reported Psychopathic Traits' Relations With Couples' Communication, Marital Satisfaction Trajectories, and Divorce in a Longitudinal Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Brandon; Lavner, Justin A; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-12-19

    Given that psychopathy is composed in large part by an antagonistic relational approach and is associated with many troubling interpersonally relevant outcomes, its role in romantic functioning warrants greater attention. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' psychopathic traits in relation to their partners' psychopathic traits, observed communication, 4-year marital satisfaction trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. Spouses reporting greater levels of psychopathic traits were married to partners reporting greater levels of psychopathic traits. Psychopathic traits were correlated cross-sectionally with more negative affect and less positive affect during conversations regarding sources of tension in the relationship. Longitudinally, hierarchical linear modeling of spouses' 4-year marital trajectories indicated that psychopathic traits generally predicted lower initial and sustained marital satisfaction for spouses and their partners over time. In addition, wives' ratings of husbands' psychopathic traits predicted declines in husbands' satisfaction over time and elevated 10-year divorce rates. These findings highlight the relationship impairment associated with psychopathic traits, indicate that this impairment is present from the beginning of couples' marital trajectories, and show that psychopathic traits predict divorce. Findings also suggest that partner-ratings of psychopathic traits provide substantial incremental validity in the prediction of marital functioning outcomes relative to self-ratings. Future research on the pathways by which psychopathic traits undermine relationship functioning over time would be valuable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Sibling Differences in Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Susanne C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Sibling differences in family processes, such as parental monitoring, and in individual adjustment were examined for 133 pairs of 10- to 18-year-old siblings in divorced families. Found that siblings who lived apart after their parents' divorce differed more than siblings who lived together. (MDM)

  6. Gifted Children's Perception of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    The perceptions of divorce in 41 gifted and regular students (grades 5-8) were compared through interviews, writing samples, and the Defining Issues test. Gifted students gave longer stories, more readily took the perspective of adults, showed a stronger desire to understand reasons for divorce, and displayed more advanced moral reasoning.…

  7. Spousal similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Jessica; Lucas, Richard E

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has explored possible origins of individual differences in subjective well-being, focusing largely on stable, internal characteristics of traits as predictors of life satisfaction (Diener & Lucas, 1999). Although past work has demonstrated that life satisfaction is largely stable over the life span, other evidence has also demonstrated the lasting impact of life events. In this study, we use married couples as a test of the impact of life circumstances on life satisfaction, focusing on similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce. If life satisfaction is impacted by shared life circumstances, married couples (who share life circumstances) should show greater similarity in life satisfaction before divorce than after. We tested this possibility using a dyadic latent-state-trait model that examined cross-spouse similarity in the stable and changing components of life satisfaction. Using a nationally representative panel study from Germany (Wagner, Frick & Schupp, 2007), we showed that similarity declined substantially following divorce. This suggests that life satisfaction is related to shared life circumstances. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Mental health problems and marital disruption: is it the combination of husbands and wives' mental health problems that predicts later divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan

    2008-09-01

    Divorce has been established as an adverse social consequence of mental illness. There is, however, little research that has considered how the mental health of both spouses may interact to predict relationship disruption. The aim of the current study was to use data from a large population-based survey to examine whether the combination of spouses' mental health problems predicts subsequent marital dissolution. Prospective analysis of data from a longitudinal national household survey. 3,230 couples were tracked over 36 months, with logistic regression models used to determine whether the mental health problems of both spouses at wave 1 (determined by the SF36 mental health subscale) predicted subsequent relationship dissolution. Couples in which either men or women reported mental health problems had higher rates of marital disruption than couples in which neither spouse experienced mental health problems. For couples in which both spouses reported mental health problems, rates of marital disruption reflected the additive combination of each spouse's separate risk. Importantly, these couples showed no evidence of a multiplicative effect of mental illness on rates of subsequent divorce or separation. The results do not support the notion that a combination of mental health problems in both spouses uniquely predicts marital dissolution. Rather, there is an additive effect of individual mental health problems on the risk of dissolution.

  9. The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children's Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Verna M.; Finlay, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Examined combined sample of national data to determine impact of parental divorce on children. Found parental divorce associated with lower educational attainment and earlier age at marriage for sons and daughters. Daughters of divorced parents had higher probability of being divorced. For sons of divorced parents, probability of ever marrying and…

  10. Pragmatic tradition or romantic aspiration? The causes of impulsive marriage and early divorce among women in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais Bertrand-Dansereau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increased attention to shifting union-formation processes, there is little consensus as to which is more stable, modern unions or traditional marriages. This is especially relevant in Malawi, where divorce is common. Objective: We investigate what individual, family, and relationship characteristics are associated with early divorce, and how unions with these characteristics make sense in the lives of young women. Methods: We draw on the 2006 wave of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH and on qualitative peer interviews by young people. We first investigate the prevalence of divorce by time since first union and then estimate a logistic discrete-time hazard model to test the association between individual, family, and relationship characteristics and early divorce. Finally, we use a thematic analysis of qualitative data to understand the social context of fragile relationships. Results: The first three years of marriage exhibit the highest rates of divorce. Women who marry someone they have known for a short time and whose relationship is not embedded in family ties are more likely to divorce early. These impulsive marriages reflect characteristics that are borrowed from both modern and traditional cultural repertoires. Their fragility stems from the absence of both family involvement and a strong emotional bond between spouses. Contribution: This research bridges the demographic literature on divorce in sub-Saharan Africa with anthropological inquiry into the globalization of romantic courtship and companionate marriage. We show that hybrid impulsive unions are more fragile than either modern or traditional unions.

  11. The Marital Happiness of Remarried Divorced Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the reported marital happiness of ever-divorced and never-divorced white respondents to three recent U. S. national surveys reveals significantly greater marital happiness for never-divorced females but not for never-divorced males. Even among females, the difference in the percentage of "very happy" responses was less…

  12. The Impact of Divorce on Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan W.; Brincko, Jean; Krichiver, Tami; Swan, Daisy

    With over 50 percent of marriages ending in divorce, career counselors need to be aware of the special issues that confront partners who are contemplating, in the throes of, or in the aftermath of a divorce. This chapter explores the unique career issues individuals confront when involved in a divorce including issues related to: 1) divorce laws…

  13. Helping Your Child through a Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With My Dating After Divorce? Kids Talk About Marriage & Divorce How Can I Help My Child Cope With Divorce? Becoming a Stepparent Childhood Stress Living With a Single Parent Living With Stepparents What Kids Who Are Moving Should Do What Is a ... Talk About: Marriage and Divorce (Video) Why Am I So Sad? ...

  14. Children's Perceptions of Marriage, Divorce, and Stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth

    The typical approach to studying children's ideas about marriage and divorce is to ask children what they think about their parents' divorce and from their answers to calculate "divorce adjustment." This study used a different approach and asked about children's perceptions of marriage, divorce, and stepfamilies. It also studied if there are…

  15. Children's Reactions to Separation and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. Lakin

    This paper presents three aspects of children's reaction to divorce: a brief theory as to why parents become separated and/or divorced; factual research summaries on the influence of divorce on children; and some proposed remedies. Research is cited that shows the effects of divorce on children's sex role development, self concept, emotional…

  16. The Effect of Divorce Laws on Divorce Rates in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    González, L.; Viitanen, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes a panel of 18 European countries spanning from 1950 to 2003 to examine the extent to which the legal reforms leading to "easier divorce" that took place during the second half of the 20th century have contributed to the increase in divorce rates across Europe. We use a quasi-experimental set-up and exploit the different timing of the reforms in divorce laws across countries. We account for unobserved country-specific factors by introducing country fixed effects, and we inc...

  17. Effects of Divorce on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is now strong consensus in the research literature that children whose parents have divorced are at increased risk of displaying a variety of problem behaviors compared to children living in continuously intact families. Divorce can be a profound catalyst for psychological, social, and economic change. Also, many studies have documented short-term and long-term negative effects of parental marital conflict and divorce for offspring, including poorer academic, social, and psychological outcomes. Researches indicate that adult offspring of divorce were experiencing more problems lifelong and evaluate divorce their own marriages than do young adults from intact families. It has been suggested that the long-term consequences of parental divorce for adult attachment and quality of life may prove to be more serious than the short-term emotional and social problems noted in childhood. As a result, divorce may lead to further stressful experiences such as disruption in parent-child relationships, loss of emotional support, economic hardship, and as well as numerous other stressful life events.

  18. Divorce research: Lessons for family therapists

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2001-01-01

    In this synthesis of the international literature on psychological aspects of divorce, the causes and consequences of divorce for parents and children are summarized. The majority of parents and children show no major long-term adverse psychological consequences to divorce. Personal and contextual factors that mediate the impact of divorce on parents and children and that may account of the negative impact of divorce on a minority of parents and children are also examined. The impact of media...

  19. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936

  20. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C

    2011-12-01

    Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Did Unilateral Divorce Laws Raise Divorce Rates? A Reconciliation and New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Wolfers

    2003-01-01

    Application of the Coase Theorem to marital bargaining suggests that shifting from a consent divorce regime to no-fault unilateral divorce laws should not affect divorce rates. Each iteration of the empirical literature examining the evolution of divorce rates across US states has yielded different conclusions about the effects of divorce law liberalization. I show that these results reflect a failure to jointly consider both the political endogeneity of these divorce laws and the dynamic res...

  2. Effects of Divorce on Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ongider, Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    .... Also, many studies have documented short-term and long-term negative effects of parental marital conflict and divorce for offspring, including poorer academic, social, and psychological outcomes...

  3. Marriage and Divorce in Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Bello, Dogarawa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the concepts of and Islamic rulings concerning various issues relating to marriage and divorce. The aim is to outline the purposes, goals and benefits of marriage; pillars and conditions of marriage; some dos and don’ts of marriage; causes of marriage breakdown and success factors in marriage; marriage discord and ways of handling it; the what, why and how of divorce; and finally suggest ways by which the institution of marriage would be safeguarded and marriage breakdown...

  4. Divorce and remarriage in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, J

    1999-01-01

    This short article provides a summary of the demographic consequences of divorce over the past two decades: the growth in the proportion of the population who are divorced; the increase in the age at divorce and the ageing of the divorced population; and the decline in the rates of remarriage after divorce. In addition, the extent and timing of remarriage after divorce are investigated, as well as the corresponding features of remarriage after being widowed. The differentials between men and women are presented and discussed throughout the article.

  5. Personality trait levels within older couples and between-spouse trait differences as predictors of marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Claxton, Amy; Chou, Pak Hei Benedito; Smith, JuliAnna Z; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    In this study of 125 older couples married for an average of 34 years, multilevel models were computed to simultaneously examine intra-couple personality trait averages and between-spouse trait similarity as predictors of marital satisfaction. Our findings suggest that higher intra-couple levels of extraversion predict marital satisfaction, both husbands and wives. In addition, between-spouse similarity in openness to experience appears associated with higher levels of marital satisfaction as reported by husbands; concomitantly, between-spouse similarity in agreeableness predicts wives' marital satisfaction. With respect to openness (husbands) and agreeableness (wives), it did not matter which spouse within couples reported higher or lower trait levels. The most notable finding to emerge from this study is that neuroticism is not associated with marital satisfaction, neither husbands nor wives. This result stands in contrast to previously reported findings--the vast majority of prior research conducted with dating and newlywed couples. Conflicting results may reflect the degree to which neuroticism determines divorce within the first years of married life, adaptation to the foibles of one's spouse over time, overreliance on younger samples in marriage and family research, or some combination of these alternate explanations.

  6. The Study of Sexual Satisfaction in Iranian Women Applying for Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Gheshlaghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital instability is affected by many factors. In Iran, socio-cultural and political limitations are obstacles for sexuality-related studies; therefore, insufficient information is available in this area. In the present research, we investigated the relationship between marital instability and sexual satisfaction among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out to investigate women applying for divorce in comparison with our controls during 2011 to 2012 in Isfahan, Iran. Data gathering was done using a questionnaire including two parts: socio-demographic information and factors influencing sexual satisfaction. Larson Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction for determining sexual satisfaction was used to determine sexual satisfaction. Results: Divorce rate is significantly related to sexual satisfaction (p=0.009. There were also significant relationships between sexual satisfaction and the following variables: age, economic status, amount of income, duration of marriage, number of children, housing, alcohol/drug abuse by spouse, being beaten by spouse, compulsory marriage, second marriage of spouse, and being happy with current partner. Conclusion: Sexual satisfaction plays an important role in marital stability of Iranian women. Thus, development of practical strategies in order to provide cultural intervention is needed to improve Iranian couples’ awareness of their sexual relationship. Indeed, trainings in communication skills through sexual encounters are essential.

  7. The study of sexual satisfaction in Iranian women applying for divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Dorvashi, Gholamali; Aran, Farzaneh; Shafiei, Faranak; Najafabadi, Gita Montazeri

    2014-10-01

    Marital instability is affected by many factors. In Iran, socio-cultural and political limitations are obstacles for sexuality-related studies; therefore, insufficient in- formation is available in this area. In the present research, we investigated the relation- ship between marital instability and sexual satisfaction among Iranian women. A case-control study was carried out to investigate women ap- plying for divorce in comparison with our controls during 2011 to 2012 in Isfahan, Iran. Data gathering was done using a questionnaire including two parts: socio-demographic information and factors influencing sexual satisfaction. Larson Inventory of Sexual Sat- isfaction for determining sexual satisfaction was used to determine sexual satisfaction. Divorce rate is significantly related to sexual satisfaction (p=0.009). There were also significant relationships between sexual satisfaction and the following variables: age, economic status, amount of income, duration of marriage, number of children, hous- ing, alcohol/drug abuse by spouse, being beaten by spouse, compulsory marriage, second marriage of spouse, and being happy with current partner. Sexual satisfaction plays an important role in marital stability of Iranian women. Thus, development of practical strategies in order to provide cultural intervention is needed to improve Iranian couples' awareness of their sexual relationship. Indeed, train- ings in communication skills through sexual encounters are essential.

  8. Collaborative Divorce: An Effort to Reduce the Damage of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fisch, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Divorce has been trapped in the adversarial system of the courts, a system ill suited to the needs of a family attempting to reorganize itself and still safeguard the well-being of its members. Collaborative divorce (CD) is a relatively new approach comprising an interdisciplinary professional team trained to help the divorcing family arrive at a financial, legal, and emotional settlement. The CD approach is designed to assist both members of the couple and their children transition into a more constructive future wherein they can still be a family. The structure and adversarial approach of the courts have been replaced by collaborative structures and principles developed to encourage honesty and cooperation. The case presented illustrates how this actually works. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Consequences of Divorce for Attitudes toward Divorce and Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Examined consequences of divorce for attitudes toward divorce and gender roles among national sample of adults (n=2,033). Individuals from divorced families of origin revealed more positive attitudes toward divorce than did those who grew up in happy intact families. Those who recalled their parents' marriage as being unhappy had relatively…

  10. His or Her Divorce? The Gendered Nature of Divorce and its Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple’s decision, we make a distinction between ‘his’, ‘her’, and ‘their’ divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife’s employment,

  11. Permissiveness toward divorce: The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual's permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that--net of personal divorce experience--parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context);

  12. His of her divorce? The gendered nature of divorce and its determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Poortman, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple's decision, we make a distinction between 'his', 'her', and 'their' divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife's employment,

  13. Permissiveness toward divorce : The influence of divorce experiences in three social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess whether divorce experiences in three social contexts shape individual’s permissiveness toward divorce. Using European Values Study data from 44 countries, we find that—net of personal divorce experience—parental divorce before the age of 18 (socialization context); parental

  14. Divorce and Corruption: New Study, New Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Azia-Dimbu, Florentin; Kalemasi-Mosengo, Cedrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the effects of divorce alongside on corruption controlling. We find no significant effect of divorce on corruption. The same conclusion is found in cross-section and panel data.

  15. [Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1994].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K

    1996-07-01

    Data on first marriages, remarriages, and marriage rates by age are presented for 1994. Trends over the period from 1980 to 1994 are also analyzed. Data are also presented on divorces and divorce rates by age for 1992 to 1994.

  16. Association between consanguinity and survival of marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Saadat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The present findings indicate that consanguinity has some protective role(s against divorce and also survival of marriages increased among consanguineous marriages. Considering that divorce rate is affected by several factors, replication of present findings in other populations is recommended.

  17. [Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K

    1997-01-01

    Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1995 are analyzed using official data. Data are included on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965-1995; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1995; marriages and marriage rates by age; first marriages and remarriages; total, first, and remarriage rates, 1980-1995; divorces by nationality of husband and wife, 1965-1995; and divorces and divorce rates by age.

  18. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  19. More education, fewer divorces? Shifting education differentials of divorce in Taiwan from 1975 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-hsin Alice Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: While social gradient in divorce has been explored in many Western societies, this issue has received less attention in Asia. Objective: Few existing studies offer evidence for how educational gradient in divorce shift from positive to negative in Asia. This study explores the changing divorce patterns by education for both sexes over the past four decades in Taiwan. Methods: Vital statistics of divorce since 1975 were used. Divorce rates were calculated and a synthetic coho...

  20. Initiator Status and the Divorce Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl

    1987-01-01

    Examined effect of initiator status on well-being and stress in 80 divorced parents at 6 to 12 (T1) and 18 to 24 (T2) months after the divorce. Found that initiators and noninitiators shared similar emotional responses to divorce but that initiators reported more change, stress, and personal growth at (T1), while noninitiators reported higher…

  1. Teenagers Self Concept From Divorce Family

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Pujasari Supratman

    2015-01-01

    Being an adolescent as a family member from parental divorce is still lackingtobe appointedon aresearch topic, and mostly focused on the influence or impact of divorce. The researcher wants to explore adolescents’ experiences from divorce families. The study was conducted using qualitativeresearchmethods through observation and in-depth interviewwith descriptive case study on tenadolescentsfromdivorcefamilies. While the respondents weretaken bysnowball samplingandpurposivesampling. The result...

  2. Impact of Divorce on the Extended Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Esther Oshiver, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 11 articles focusing on psychological, sociological, legal, economic, and clinical aspects of divorce and the extended family. Examines issues including: (1) dynamics of the family kinship system; (2) family life cycle and divorce; (3) kin role in divorce adjustment; and (4) changes in family relationships. (RC)

  3. The Impact of Divorce: A Multivariate Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolevzon, Michael S.; Gottlieb, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 157 divorced parents to assess phases of emotional adjustment following divorce. Findings provided no evidence to suggest that particular dimensions of emotional adjustment represent challenges unique to particular stages of divorce. The intensity and the duration of emotional challenges were affected by a number of intervening variables.…

  4. Consequences of Parental Divorce for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I propose a three-stage estimation model to examine the effect of parental divorce on the development of children's cognitive skills and noncognitive traits. Using a framework that includes pre-, in-, and post-divorce time periods, I disentangle the complex factors affecting children of divorce. I use the Early Childhood…

  5. 38 CFR 3.206 - Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Divorce. 3.206 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.206 Divorce. The validity of a divorce decree regular on its face, will be questioned by the Department of Veterans Affairs only...

  6. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  7. Academic Achievement in Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsby, Marie; Svedin, Carl Goran

    1996-01-01

    Studied the influence of divorce on children's grades. The grades earned by children of divorce (N=74) and by control group children were similar, but children of manual workers had lower grade point averages than did children of higher level nonmanual employees. Study indicates that divorce alone does not significantly lower grades. (RJM)

  8. The Effects of Divorce on College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lisa Gabardi; And Others

    Statistics demonstrate that parental divorce is a compelling social issue affecting a large number of children. While investigations of the effects of divorce on children have grown rapidly in the last decade, there is a paucity of research on the effects of divorce on older adolescents and young adults. Given the developmental importance of…

  9. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  10. Double-Edged Sword: Women with Breast Cancer Caring for a Spouse with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Yakir; Baider, Lea; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Peretz, Tamar; Goldzweig, Gil

    2016-12-01

    Experiences in caregiving may affect further coping with illness. The aim of this study was to assess mortality risk among women diagnosed with breast cancer while caring for a male spouse who had been diagnosed with cancer before or at the time of their own diagnosis. We used a historical prospective study of a nationally representative cohort that was assessed by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics 1995 census and followed until 2011. The study population was divided into 2 × 2 groups (according to a positive/negative cancer history of the male spouse before the time of breast cancer diagnosis of the women X spouse alive/dead). The analyses were adjusted for age, ethnicity, breast cancer staging, and time of diagnosis. A total of 14,429 cases of breast cancer and 3,400 deaths were reported during the study period. Mortality was not mediated by the spouse's survival at the time of breast cancer diagnosis of the women. However, decreased risk of death was seen in women with a positive spouse history of cancer when the spouse was alive at the time of diagnosis in women who were diagnosed with breast cancer stages II and III (hazard ratio = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.98). Among a subset of women diagnosed with breast cancer, there is evidence of a significant protective association between a history of caregiving for cancer of a spouse who is alive at the time of self-diagnosis and subsequent survival. Our findings support hypotheses concerning a positive experience of caregiving and emphasize the need to define the patient and the caregiver as an integrative "unit of care."

  11. Does cancer affect the divorce rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete-time hazard regression models were employed to register and census data on 1.4 million Norwegian married couples from 1974-2001 to explore the probability of divorce following cancer illness. Divorce rates for around 215 000 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to divorce rates for persons for whom all the other observed variables were the same. No overall harmful influence of a cancer diagnosis was observed. Most cancer forms resulted in small, immediate declines in divorce rates the first years following diagnosis. Exceptions were significant increases in the divorce rates for persons diagnosed with cervical and testicular cancer.

  12. Children who experience divorce in their family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskey, J

    1997-01-01

    In England and Wales, just over 160 thousand children aged under 16 experienced divorce in their family in 1995, about one in every 65 children that year. This article describes recent trends in the numbers of couples who have divorced, by the number and ages of their children. Results are given from a birth cohort analysis of the proportions of children who have experienced divorce in their families by different ages. The article also assesses the implications for the proportions of children who would be affected by divorce by certain ages, were divorce rates to continue at their 1994/95 levels.

  13. 22 CFR 19.9 - Pension benefits for former spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pension benefits for former spouses. 19.9 Section 19.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.9 Pension benefits for former spouses. ...

  14. 5 CFR 838.237 - Death of the former spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annuity terminates on the last day of the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former... processing that directs OPM to pay, after the death of the former spouse, the former spouse's share of the... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.237...

  15. 5 CFR 838.1012 - Death of the former spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provides otherwise, the former spouse's share of employee retirement benefits terminates on the last day of the month before the death of the former spouse, and the former spouse's share of employee retirement... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death of the former spouse. 838.1012...

  16. 20 CFR 226.32 - Spouse tier II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spouse tier II. 226.32 Section 226.32... Spouse tier II. The spouse tier II benefit is computed as follows: (a) The employee's tier II amount as... before reduction for the railroad retirement family maximum, is multiplied by 45 percent. The spouse tier...

  17. Prognostic Significance of Spouse We Talk in Couples Coping with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Mehl, Matthias R.; Shoham, Varda; Reilly, Elizabeth S.; Ewy, Gordon A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that marital quality predicts the survival of patients with heart failure (HF), and it is hypothesized that a communal orientation to coping marked by first-person plural pronoun use (we talk) may be a factor in this. During a home interview, 57 HF patients (46 men and 16 women) and their spouses discussed how they coped…

  18. Marital and sexual satisfaction in testicular cancer survivors and their spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, MA; Fleer, J; Sleijfer, DT; Hoekstra, HJ; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM

    Goal: To compare marital and sexual satisfaction of men who survived testicular cancer (TC) and their spouses to a reference group, and to compare marital and sexual satisfaction of couples who had a relationship at time of diagnosis (couples during TC) to couples who developed a relationship after

  19. From spouse to caregiver and back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else

    2015-01-01

    and rehabilitation in general hospital wards, rehabilitation facilities and at home. Consequently, millions of spouses become informal caregivers. Little is known, however, about the concrete challenges spouses face in post-intensive care unit everyday life. DESIGN: Explorative, qualitative grounded theory study...... role. Post-ICU caregiving comprised five patient dimensions: observing, assisting, coaching, advocating and managing activities. CONCLUSIONS: Spouses play a vital and multifaceted role in post-intensive care unit recovery. The findings can inform healthcare professionals in their efforts to prepare...... intensive care unit patients' families for the time following intensive care unit and hospital discharge. Hospital staff, rehabilitation experts and primary care professionals must acknowledge spouses' important contribution from intensive care unit admission throughout recovery....

  20. Bibliotherapy with Preadolescents Experiencing Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth; Allen, Virginia B.; Folger, Wendy A.; McMillen, Paula S.; Lowe, Imelda

    2007-01-01

    Preadolescence is a challenging developmental stage, but when complicated or threatened by the effects of family dissolution or divorce, the challenges can be overwhelming. Such youngsters often need and can benefit from counseling intervention. One particularly appropriate intervention is bibliotherapy. Reasons for using bibliotherapy for such…

  1. The relative risk and timing of divorce in families of children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank; Greenberg, Jan; Orsmond, Gael; Bolt, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    We compared the occurrence and timing of divorce in 391 parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a matched representative sample of parents of children without disabilities using a survival analysis. Parents of children with an ASD had a higher rate of divorce than the comparison group (23.5% vs. 13.8%). The rate of divorce remained high throughout the son's or daughter's childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood for parents of children with an ASD, whereas it decreased following the son's or daughter's childhood (after about age 8 years) in the comparison group. Younger maternal age when the child with ASD was born and having the child born later in the birth order were positively predictive of divorce for parents of children with an ASD. Findings have implications for interventions focused on ameliorating ongoing and long-term marital strains for parents of children with an ASD.

  2. The Relative Risk and Timing of Divorce in Families of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank; Greenberg, Jan; Orsmond, Gael; Bolt, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We compared the occurrence and timing of divorce in 391 parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a matched representative sample of parents of children without disabilities using a survival analysis. Parents of children with an ASD had a higher rate of divorce than the comparison group (23.5% vs. 13.8%). The rate of divorce remained high throughout the son/daughter’s childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood for parents of children with an ASD, whereas it decreased following the son/daughter’s childhood (after about age 8 years) in the comparison group. Younger maternal age when the son/daughter with ASD was born and having the son/daughter born later in the birth order were positively predictive of divorce for parents of children with an ASD. Findings have implications for interventions focused on ameliorating ongoing and long term marital strains for parents of children with an ASD. PMID:20731491

  3. Long-term population-based divorce rates among adult survivors of childhood cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Winter, David L; Taylor, Aliki J; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    Previously from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) it was seen that adult survivors of childhood cancer were less likely to marry than the general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the number of childhood cancer survivors from the BCCSS who were currently divorced or separated, examine factors associated with marriage dissolution and compare survivor divorce rates to population rates. The BCCSS is a population-based cohort of 18,119 individuals diagnosed with cancer aged 0-14 years between 1940 and 1991, and survived at least 5 years. 14,539 were alive, aged 16 years or over and eligible to receive a questionnaire, which ascertained marital status. From 8,155 survivors, who were aged at least 20 years at questionnaire completion, the proportions currently divorced and divorced or separated were 13.5% and 18.1%, respectively. Only current age, educational attainment and age at marriage were associated with divorce, and for divorce and separation status only age at marriage (P divorced (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals (95% CI)): 0.94 (0.81-1.10)). However, the survivors overall (OR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72-0.94)), and separately for those diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.34-0.89)) and leukaemia (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.52-0.95)), were less likely to be currently divorced or separated than the general population. It is reassuring that survivors do not experience more divorce than the general population, and that no cancer or treatment factors were shown to be associated with marriage dissolution. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Risk Factors in Divorce: Perceptions by the Children Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Draws on children's divorce stories to examine how children cope with their parents' divorce. Focuses on how children experienced risk for divorce and the changes and continuities enduring during the divorce process. Argues that even if divorce is stressful and causes loss of capital for most children, what is crucial for children's well-being is…

  5. Changing Parent and Spouse Relations in the First Years of Remarriage of Divorced Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisinger, Shan; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined determinants of marital quality over 3 years for 62 remarried fathers and their new wives, including their sense of self, division of family work, relationships with children, and relationships with former wives. Findings support hypothesis that ambiguity in remarriage role expectations and quality of relations with husband's children and…

  6. The long reach of one's spouse: spouses' personality influences occupational success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

    2014-12-01

    You marry your spouse "for better, for worse" and "for richer, for poorer," but does your choice of partner make you richer or poorer? It is unknown whether people's dispositional characteristics can seep into their spouses' workplace. Using a representative, longitudinal sample of married individuals (N=4,544), we examined whether Big Five personality traits of participants' spouses related to three measures of participants' occupational success: job satisfaction, income, and likelihood of being promoted. For both male and female participants, partner conscientiousness predicted future job satisfaction, income, and likelihood of promotion, even after accounting for participants' conscientiousness. These associations occurred because more conscientious partners perform more household tasks, exhibit more pragmatic behaviors that their spouses are likely to emulate, and promote a more satisfying home life, enabling their spouses to focus more on work. These results demonstrate that the dispositional characteristics of the person one marries influence important aspects of one's professional life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Longevity following the experience of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Leslie R; Friedman, Howard S; Clark, Kathleen M; Tucker, Joan S

    2005-11-01

    An archival prospective design was used to study mediating and moderating variables for the association between parental divorce and increased mortality risk, using a sub-group (n = 1183) of individuals from the US Terman Life Cycle Study covering the period 1921-2000. In childhood, both socioeconomic status (SES) and family psychosocial environment were related to parental divorce but did little to explain its effects. The higher mortality risk associated with experiencing parental divorce was ameliorated among individuals (especially men) who achieved a sense of personal satisfaction by mid-life. Behaviorally, smoking was the strongest mediator of the divorce-mortality link. This study extends previous work on the long-term effects of parental divorce and reveals some reasons why the stress of parental divorce in childhood need not necessarily lead to negative later-life outcomes.

  8. Personality and divorce: a genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocklin, V; McGue, M; Lykken, D T

    1996-08-01

    M. McGue and D.T. Lykken (1992) found that divorce risk was, to a substantial degree, genetically mediated; prior research has identified numerous social and psychological factors that affect divorce risk (G.C. Kitson, K.B. Barbi, & M.J. Roach, 1985). The present study attempted to link these domains by examining the extent to which genetic influences on one such psychological factor, personality, explain divorce risk heritability. A sample of adult twins from the Minnesota Twin Registry completed a marital history questionnaire and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (A. Tellegen, 1982). Positive Emotionality and Negative Emotionality factors were positively related to divorce risk, whereas Constraint was negatively related. In women and men, respectively, 30% and 42% of the heritability of divorce risk consisted of genetic factors affecting personality and divorce risk correlated largely as a result of these common genetic influences.

  9. Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    Most states in the U.S. allow for unilateral divorce, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Such regulations have come under fire for their perceived negative consequences for marital stability and resulting child outcomes, but there is no evidence to date to support the contention that easier divorce regulations are actually bad for children. I assess the long run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment...

  10. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Lutz

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  11. Spouses' coping alongside myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Rekiaro, Matti; Paavilainen, Eija

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the research was to develop a substantive theory to describe the coping of myocardial infarction (MI) patients' spouses. The theory describes spousal coping experiences at 4 and 12 months after the patient's MI. The data were collected by means of theme interviews from 28 spouses in the years 2006 and 2007 and analysed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. The substantive theory describes four main categories of spousal coping. The categories are: serene and balanced coping; action-centred coping; illness-centred coping; and coping based on denial of illness. The theory can be useful when developing support and counselling interventions for the spouses of MI patients. The study provides new knowledge about the spouses' coping experiences and about the factors that influence their coping over a longer period of time. The theory also discusses causal, contextual, and concurrent factors, which affect the coping experience and whose identification is important when seeking to support the spouses. Another application of the theory can be found in nursing education.

  12. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  13. 20 CFR 410.311 - Determination of relationship; divorced wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... miner if her marriage to such miner has been terminated by a final divorce on or after the 20th... on which any divorce became final and ending with the year in which that divorce became final. ...

  14. Changes and challenges of parenthood after divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkonen, Tiina

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out how parenthood changed after a divorce. Moreover, the kind of challenges the divorce brought to the parenthood. Special attention was given to two aspects: how shared parenthood had worked and what kind of support interviewees had received for parenthood after the divorce. The study was carried out as qualitative research and the data was collected by semi- structured, theme interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analysed based o...

  15. An assignment model with divorce and remarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappori, Pierre-André; Iyigun, Murat; Weiss, Yoram

    2008-01-01

    We develop a two-sided matching model with positive sorting, divorce and remarriage. Match quality for each couple is revealed ex post and those with poor draws divorce. Competition determines lifetime expected utilities but per-period utilities depend on the laws that govern the distribution of assets upon divorce. We discuss separately cases in which remarriage is or is not feasible and cases in which commitments are or are not made. In all cases, lifetime utilities are exactly pinned down ...

  16. Post-Divorce Family Relationships as Mediating Factors in the Consequences of Divorce for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert D.; Camara, Kathleen A.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of divorce upon child behavior and affective relationships between parents and between each parent and child were examined. It was found that the negative effects of divorce were greatly mitigated when positive relationships with both parents were maintained after the divorce. (Author/GC)

  17. The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today’s middle-aged and older adults. Design and Method. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. Results. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. Implications. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life. PMID:23052366

  18. The gray divorce revolution: rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lin, I-Fen

    2012-11-01

    Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today's middle-aged and older adults. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life.

  19. Divorce and the Divine: The Role of Spirituality in Adjustment to Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of three spiritual responses to divorce for psychological adjustment: appraising the event as a sacred loss/desecration, engaging in adaptive spiritual coping, and experiencing spiritual struggles. A sample of 100 adults (55% female) was recruited through public divorce records. Most appraised their divorce as a sacred…

  20. Children's Attachment Classification and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Their Understanding of Marriage and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth

    The possibility was explored that children's attachments to their mothers may provide an internal working model for their cognitions of marriage and divorce. Subjects were 112 children in kindergarten, second, and fourth grade who were living with nondivorced or divorced parents. The mean length of time since parents' separation and divorce was 56…

  1. Children of Divorce: A Correlational Study of Understanding of Divorce, Attribution Style, and Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Betty Scott

    This study examined the relationship between children's understanding of their parents' divorce, attribution style, and classroom behavior. Fifty fourth and fifth grade children of divorce completed questionnaires concerning their understanding of divorce and attribution style, while teachers completed a rating of classroom behavior. Measures of…

  2. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  3. Welcoming spouses and partners to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The questions related to Diversity were examined in the framework of the Five-yearly Review, which was approved in December 2015. The first themes implemented this year concern helping spouses or partners integrate into the working world, and improving the balance between professional and private life.   To this end, the Social Affairs Service and the CERN Diversity Office organised together on Tuesday, 15 November, a “Welcome Drink” for the spouses and partners of employed members of the personnel of CERN who have recently arrived in the region. This event was an occasion for the spouses and partners to meet and greet with various internal services at CERN, including the Staff Association, as well as local networks that can provide assistance in integrating into the region, in terms of job search for instance. Therefore, several service providers were present, including: the Geneva Welcome Center (CAGI), a welcoming network for newly arrived employees of international organi...

  4. Coemployed spouses: differences, strategies, and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, E S; Vander Mey, B J; Burgess, N J

    1988-12-01

    The authors explore linkages between family and work roles. They examine patterns of apparent economic strategies of spouses working at a southern university located in a rural area. Their research focuses on spousal economic behavior and specifically addresses the effects of spouses' dual employment on the job status of women, differences between spouses in the timing of education and 1st hire at the university, status consistencies in husband and wife employment levels, and sexual discrimination in job levels and income of coemployed spouses. The study uses data extracted from a personnel data set. Cases from a computerized file were identified in 1980-1981, analyzed with 1981-1982 data, and compared with total work force data for 1982-1983. Slightly more than 1/2, or 123 identified cases, were analyzed. Some study findings follow. 1) Marriage to a coemployed spouse is associated with high occupational levels for female employees. 2) It is the husband's career that generally dictates the entry of a couple into the university's internal labor market. 3) There seems to be a strain toward consistency in the status levels of married pairs. 4) Collaborative strategies are being used to secure economic advances for the family unit. Major efforts regarding education and job selection are directed toward advancing the husband's career preference. However, some exceptions suggest that the pattern is flexible and that economic factors will take precedence over stereotyped sex roles when family needs come into consideration. 5) There is employment discrimination by sex at all levels of the internal labor market being studied. Status and income differentials still exist between males and females. Males in the same occupational statuses are paid more than their female counterparts. Females are concentrated at the lower levels of occupational ranks, males toward the top. Although this study is preliminary, it provides partial support for previous research on coemployed spouses

  5. Spouses' involvement in their partners' diabetes management: associations with spouse stress and perceived marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Parris Stephens, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Spouses frequently attempt to influence (control) or support their chronically ill partners' adherence behaviors. Studies have documented effects of spousal control and support on chronically ill individuals, but little is known about how these two forms of involvement in a partner's disease management may be associated with spouses' stress or the quality of their interactions with their ill partners. The current study sought to address this gap by examining spouses' day-to-day involvement in their marital partner's management of type 2 diabetes (n = 129). Multilevel analyses of daily diary data revealed that on days when spouses exerted control, they reported more stress and more tense marital interactions, although these associations were more pronounced when patients exhibited poor adherence, had been ill for a longer period of time, and had more comorbid health conditions. On days when spouses provided support, in contrast, they reported less stress and more enjoyable marital interactions. The findings from the current study suggest that spouses' day-to-day stress and quality of interactions with their partners are associated with spouses' involvement in their partners' disease management, with health-related social control and support exhibiting distinctive associations.

  6. 20 CFR 725.215 - Determination of dependency; surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... miner's desertion or other reasonable cause; or (d) The individual is the natural parent of the miner's son or daughter; or (e) The individual had legally adopted the miner's son or daughter while the individual was married to the miner and while such son or daughter was under the age of 18; or (f) The...

  7. Adjustment to divorce and co-parental relations: contributions from the theory of attachment / Adaptação ao divórcio e relações coparentais: contributos da teoria da vinculação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is proposed the contribution of the attachment theory for understanding adults' adjustment processes to their divorce and how detachment to ex-spouse can infer in co-parenting relationships after marital dissolution. This article makes two theoretical assumptions that focus on two dimensions. The first hypothesis states that the divorce, while a relational process, should be read as a moment of loss that germinates similar psychological reactions to those experienced by widows. Bowlby describes it in his model of loss of the attachment figure as dependent on attachment styles of divorced adults. The second hypothesis argues that the post-divorce co-parenting relationships are predicted by the attachment styles and by the quality of parents' attachment reorganization. At the end, a theoretical integration is built, based on a proposal for future research in this area.

  8. Parental family variables and likelihood of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalkidou, A

    2000-01-01

    It has long been established that divorced men and women have substantially higher standardized general mortality than same gender persons. Because the incidence of divorce is increasing in many countries, determinants of divorce rates assume great importance as indirect risk factors for several diseases and conditions that adversely affect health. We have undertaken a study in Athens, Greece, to evaluate whether sibship size, birth order, and the gender composition of spousal sibships are related to the probability of divorce. 358 high school students, aged between 15 and 17 years, satisfactorily completed anonymous questionnaires, indicating whether their natural parents have been separated or divorced, their parents' educational achievement, birth order and sibship size by gender. The study was analyzed as a twin case-control investigation, treating those divorced or separated as cases and those who were not divorced or separated as controls. A man who grew up as an only child was almost three times as likely to divorce compared to a man with siblings, and this association was highly significant (p approximately 0.004). There was no such evidence with respect to women. After controlling for sibship size, earlier born men--but not women--appeared to be at higher risk for divorce compared to those later born. There was no evidence that the gender structure of the sibship substantially affects the risk for divorce. Even though divorce is not an organic disease, it indirectly affects health as well as the social well-being. The findings of this study need to be replicated, but, if confirmed, they could contribute to our understanding of the roots of some instances of marital dysfunction.

  9. Evaluation of Reasons to Divorce in Divorce Suits Took Place in Istanbul in 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Dişsever

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available 3060 divorce suits are within the scope of this research, which aims to evaluate the reasons of divorce in Istanbul. Among 3060 divorce suits, 67.1% of them (2053 were brought to an action by women and 32.9% of them (1007 by men. The reasons to divorce according to how frequently they were seen are: severe incompatibility, heavy alcohol consumption, attempt against life, and willful desertion in due respect. a 1.6% of divorced couples (1272 had no child. 40.4% of these couples (12.36 had 5 years of marriage. In case of having a child, the child's guardianship was mostly given to mother due to his/her young age. In 7.6% (2.3.3 > of divorce suits either mother or father was registered to Istanbul as their birthplace, in 28.2% (864 of the suits couples were both registered to Istanbul, and in 64.2% (196.3 of the suits divorced couples were out of Istanbul. Divorced couples and their children have emotional and economic problems after divorce. They also have problems of social security, unemployment, education and subsistence allowance. Therefore, data evaluation proposed that social support mechanisms of the society must be improved. Key Words: Divorce, divorce reasons.

  10. Attitudes Toward Divorce, Commitment, and Divorce Proneness in First Marriages and Remarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    A random multistate sample of married individuals (N = 1,931) was used to explore whether more positive attitudes toward divorce and weaker commitment to marriage may contribute to the greater instability of remarriages than first marriages. Remarried adults, whether or not they brought children from a previous union into the remarriage, reported marital quality (happiness and conflict) equal to those in first marriages. They also reported more positive attitudes toward divorce, which were associated with higher divorce proneness (i.e., thinking about and taking actions toward divorce). Marriage type interacted with marital quality to predict divorce proneness, such that the association between low marital quality and divorce proneness was stronger for remarried individuals than for those in first marriages. This suggests that remarried adults may be more likely than adults in first marriages to take steps toward divorce when experiencing marital distress, possibly reflecting a weaker commitment to marriage. PMID:23630405

  11. Attitudes Toward Divorce, Commitment, and Divorce Proneness in First Marriages and Remarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Johnson, Christine A

    2013-04-01

    A random multistate sample of married individuals (N = 1,931) was used to explore whether more positive attitudes toward divorce and weaker commitment to marriage may contribute to the greater instability of remarriages than first marriages. Remarried adults, whether or not they brought children from a previous union into the remarriage, reported marital quality (happiness and conflict) equal to those in first marriages. They also reported more positive attitudes toward divorce, which were associated with higher divorce proneness (i.e., thinking about and taking actions toward divorce). Marriage type interacted with marital quality to predict divorce proneness, such that the association between low marital quality and divorce proneness was stronger for remarried individuals than for those in first marriages. This suggests that remarried adults may be more likely than adults in first marriages to take steps toward divorce when experiencing marital distress, possibly reflecting a weaker commitment to marriage.

  12. Framing divorce reform: media, morality, and the politics of family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michele; Coltrane, Scott

    2007-03-01

    No-fault statutes changed divorce from an adversarial system pitting victims against victimizers, with the state acting as enforcer of marital norms, to a private decision between unhappily married but legally blameless partners. Divorce reform following no-fault primarily focused on making divorce more fair for the parties involved. Over the last several decades, divorce reform has transitioned from making divorce better to making marriage healthier. The good divorce has slipped from policy attention, elevating the potential for restigmatization of divorced couples and their children. We trace the trajectory of media framing of divorce reform discourse in three general circulation newspapers from the start of the no-fault revolution, noting how media framing parallels and naturalizes the transition in divorce reform policy. We conclude by observing the prevalence of divorce and the related need for therapists to be cognizant of this naturalization process, thereby keeping the good divorce as a goal for those who desire to end their marriages.

  13. Rate and Predictors of Divorce among Parents of Youths with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M Wilson, Tracey K.; Greenhouse, Joel B.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have asserted the prevalence of marital conflict among families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but evidence is surprisingly less convincing regarding whether parents of youths with ADHD are more at risk for divorce than are parents of children without ADHD. Using survival analyses, the authors…

  14. Relationships with Former In-laws after Divorce: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambert, Anne-Marie

    1988-01-01

    Examined how divorce and remarriage affect persons' relationships with their former relatives by marriage. Results revealed that nearly all surviving ex-affinal relationships involved adults with children, especially custodial parents. Women were more likely than men to maintain ties with ex-affines. Custodial status, however, appeared to be a…

  15. Daycare Children of Divorce and Their Helpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Klara; Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad

    2013-01-01

    Caring for children of divorce may prevent emotional and behavioural problems. This study investigates daycare staff's beliefs about caring for young children who have experienced parental divorce. Q methodology was applied for this purpose, and 33 participants sorted 40 subjective statements. The Q factor analyses resulted in four factors or…

  16. Teenage Daughters as a Cause of Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan; Ribar, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from the U.S. that couples with daughters are more likely to divorce than couples with sons has not been found for other Western countries. Using 1995-2015 Dutch marriage registry data, we show that daughters are associated with higher divorce risks, but only when they are 13 to 18 years

  17. Children of Divorce on the College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhan, Gary W.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the effects of current divorce trends on the college-age population. Being informed of impending divorce is traumatic for college students and is often followed by shock, depression, anger and low self-esteem. Parental dating behavior, the loyalty dilemma, role reversal and remarriage represent problem areas in adjustment. (RC)

  18. The impact of divorce on teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J C

    1983-10-01

    Divorce is common in the contemporary way of life and deserves objective study. It may have redeeming features, but from the point of view of children, divorce is a stressful experience because of the disruption of the home and its financial, emotional, and social costs. The adverse impact, however, can be minimized by realistic and sensitive attention to its effects on children. Although divorce alters the living arrangements of affected families, it does not end family relationships. For this reason, marriage and divorce counseling should deal with the perspectives of both adults and children. Most teenagers and their parents adjust to divorce and later regard it as having been a constructive action; but one-third do not. In those instances the turbulence of the post-divorce phase plays a crucial role in influencing pathological reactions in affected teenagers. The physician is in a strategic position to act as diagnostician, a clarifier of values, an educator in the facts of family life and divorce, a counselor in working through feelings about and attitudes toward divorce, and a source of support for teenagers.

  19. Children of Divorce: Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Janice M.

    1979-01-01

    School counselors may be the most appropriate people to provide assistance for children whose parents are divorced and to the school staff. Study suggests that school counselors become aware of recent research of the impact of divorce on children. (Author/CMG)

  20. Children of Divorce: Facilitating Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Roger L.; Spangler, Sharon L.

    Both the increased frequency of divorce and the resultant increase in single-parent households have experienced dramatic increases since World War II. In many instances, divorce is a major disruptive experience that imposes primary impact upon all family members. Characteristically, various levels of adjustment are required of family members amid…

  1. Children and Divorce: Overview and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Richard E.; Quinn, Linda Sandham

    1994-01-01

    About 26% of all children under age 18 live with a divorced or separated parent or with a stepparent. Since divorce is a crucial factor in the lives of millions of children in this country, this issue is devoted to its social, economic, and psychological impacts. (SLD)

  2. Building a Network for Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, John; Strauss, Jane

    Divorce is a complicated situation, requiring multifaceted interventions and supports. This paper describes a program designed to enhance the ability of social structures to support children experiencing the impact of parental separation and divorce. The program is a four-part, school-based intervention aimed at educating significant adults…

  3. State Variations in United States Divorce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Bill

    1971-01-01

    The "frontier atmosphere" explanation of high divorce rates in western areas of the United States was partially vindicated when comparisons were made between divorce rates in states having high migration rates and lower social costs with those states having low migration rates and higher social costs. (Author/CG)

  4. Business Cycles and Divorce: Evidence from Microdata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, Judith K; Morrill, Melinda Sandler; Zou, Ben

    2013-01-01

    We use individual-level data to show that divorce is pro-cyclical on average, a finding robust to the inclusion of a wide range of controls. Pro-cyclical divorce is concentrated among women who married young and/or do not have a college degree.

  5. The Noninstitutions: Divorce, Desertion, and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Bonham, Sharon; Balswick, Jack O.

    1980-01-01

    Divorce and remarriage are beginning to develop identifiable patterns of regularity, i.e., a first step toward institutionalization. Intense and dramatic social and cultural change contributes to divorce. Remarriage will become institutionalized only when more clearly defined patterns of stepparenting, financial obligations, and status recognition…

  6. Income Changes Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Randal D.; Bahr, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Determined how gender and divorce affect per-capita family income. Female per-capita income decreased substantially after divorce, while male per-capita income increased substantially. Differences between male and female income levels could not be attributed solely to number of dependents. Even among those with no dependents, females had much…

  7. The Impact of Parental Divorce on Courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the impact of parental conflict during and after divorce, change in parent-child relations, and parent's remarriage on courtship relations in college students (N=365). Results showed that divorce increases courtship activity, and satisfaction is eroded only if there is postdivorce conflict and a decline in parent-child relations. (LLL)

  8. Recent Changes in Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Paul C.; Lin, Sung-Ling

    1986-01-01

    Analyzed long-term trends in divorce and remarriage, including the sharply upward trend in divorce rates by age from 1960 to 1980 and their subsequent slight decline. Remarriage rates by age are shown to have risen during the early 1960s and then to have fallen substantially through the 1970s and more slowly during the early 1980s. (Author/NB)

  9. Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

  10. The rise and fall of divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    Despite its popularity, Gary Becker’s model of the marriage market does not fully predict empirical correlations between married women’s labor market participation and aggregate divorce rates. In this article, we show how a simple extension of Becker’s model inspired by sociological theory improves...... of explaining empirical trends in divorce rates....

  11. Dimensions and Correlates of Mothers' Divorce Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Blisk, Darlene

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 25 divorced mothers and their children to study divorce experiences and predictors of adjustment. Results showed mothers' positive adjustment was related to nontraditional sex role attitudes as well as personality traits including social maturity. Parental conflict and mothers' stress influenced children's social and psychological…

  12. Premarital Sex and the Risk of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Joan R.; London, Kathryn A.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between premarital sexual activity and risk of divorce among women married between 1965 and 1985. Found that nonvirgin brides faced considerably higher risk of marital disruption than did virgin brides. Results suggest that positive relationship between premarital sex and risk of divorce can be attributed to prior unobserved…

  13. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  14. Adult Children's Divorce and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, Glenna; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effects of adult children's divorce on their relationships with parents, using local probability sample of 905 parents. In general, divorced daughters with child custody had more contact than married daughters and received more help from parents. Sons received more babysitting help when they were married than in other situations. Divorce…

  15. Trends in Divorce and Effects on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Oliver C.

    In this paper an attempt is made to present a comprehensive picture of the effects of separation and divorce on children. After information on trends in divorce is presented to indicate how many families and children are involved, three comprehensive reviews of one-parent families are discussed. Because some detrimental effects are associated with…

  16. Woman's experiences of applying for a divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2014-03-01

    Divorce is one of the most controversial and damaging social issues. Since the divorce rates are increasing rapidly, the current study evaluated the effects of factors leading to divorce application. This qualitative content analysis used purposive sampling to select 10 female divorce applicants at Isfahan Department of Justice (Isfahan, Iran). In-depth interviews were used for data collection. The contents of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a phenomenological method. The reliability and validity, i.e. real values, applicability, stability, and fact-based results, were ensured through relevant measures. Overall, 110 codes were extracted from the interviews. The codes were organized in 18 subthemes and seven main themes. The main themes included experiences of violence, cultural factors, family factors, financial factors, safety factors, experiences of promiscuity, and social factors. Different individual, social, and cultural factors may lead to divorce. The first step in reducing divorce rates is to identify the most important and influential risk factors for divorce. Community health nurses will then be able to help the families solve their problems. In general, eliminating the causes of divorce can prevent its severe consequences at individual, family, and social levels.

  17. Spouse Communication and Attitudes towards Contraceptive use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spouse Communication and Attitudes towards Contraceptive use among Married Women in Morogoro Municipality. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2012) > ... recommends that, it is important that policy makers should emphasize on the strategies that encourage discussion between husband and wife about family planning.

  18. Comparison of Younger and Older Spouses in Bereavement Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Catherine M.

    1980-01-01

    Younger spouses initially manifested greater grief; older spouses showed exacerbated grief reactions. While denial seemed to be a defense against anxiety, elevations on the Social Isolation, Depersonalization, and Death Anxiety scales for older spouses showed the debilitating effects of loneliness and fear. (Author)

  19. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...

  20. Marital Adjustment to Adult Diabetes: Interpersonal Congruence and Spouse Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated adjustment to insulin-treated diabetes among 20 adult patients and spouses. Found illness-related perceptions of patients and spouses were positively correlated and discrepancies decreased with increasing duration of marriage after diagnosis. Marital satisfaction of spouses was negatively related to knowledge about diabetes,…

  1. [Divorce and joint physical custody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, B

    2014-04-01

    This work first recalls the definition of joint physical custody, as well as the current legal procedure for obtaining it, its practical implementation, the financial implications for parents, and finally some statistics. Some psychological and psychopathological reflections on the impact of divorce on children are then presented before considering the question of joint physically custody with regard to attachment theory and depending on the age of the child (a great caution seems to be required before three years). The article concludes with a brief discussion of parental alienation syndrome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  3. Muslim divorce trends and patterns in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S

    1992-01-01

    "This paper attempts to discuss the general trends in the incidence of divorce among the Muslim population in Singapore since 1921 and the patterns of divorce in the 1980s when detailed statistics were made available.... The Singapore Muslims experienced an extremely high and steady incidence of divorce during the period up to 1958 when the procedures for processing divorce petitions were not well organised. Following the introduction of new legislation and the creation of the Syariah Court to handle marital disputes in 1958, there occurred an immediate and dramatic downturn in the rate of Muslim divorce. By 1970 the decline appeared to have stalled and a slight upturn has even taken place in the 1980s." The impact of rapid social and economic development is assessed. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  4. Coping is Important for Spouses Too: Impulsive Coping Moderates the Relationship Between Spouses' Perception of the Patients' Pain Intensity and Spouses' Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Yakobov, Esther; Ribera-Canudas, M Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Living with a patient with chronic pain is now known to have a negative impact on physical and mental health of the caregivers. Research indicates that adaptive coping strategies can reduce the burden that pain has on patients. Yet, it is unknown whether coping strategies can also affect the physical and mental health of the spouses of patients with chronic pain. In the present research, we investigated the role of coping strategies used by spouses of patients with pain in the relationship between the pain intensity of the patients and the physical and mental health of their spouses. The study comprised 195 heterosexual couples. About 41% of spouses were females. Our results showed that being older, having a lower educational level, having a negative orientation toward problems, and using impulsive strategies to cope when in difficult situations contributed to poorer physical health of spouses. A poorer mental health status of spouses was associated with being negatively oriented toward problems, being a female, and being a caregiver of mentally distressed patient. In addition, it was found that the impulsive-careless coping strategy used by the spouses moderated the relationship between patients' pain severity and physical health of their spouses. At low levels of patients' pain intensity as rated by spouses, spouses reported similar levels of physical health irrespective of coping ratings. Conversely, at high levels of patients' pain intensity as rated by spouses, poorer physical health was reported by spouses scoring high on impulsive-careless coping. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Our findings suggest that screening for coping strategies used by spouses of patients with pain might complement clinical interventions aimed at promoting the physical and mental health of patients and their partners.

  5. Social Security and divorce or death benefits storyboard (S(2)D(2)BS): an interactive participant learning exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pamela Pitman

    2014-01-01

    Using the concept of an interactive or living storyboard, the author discusses the use of seven case narratives constructed for the sole purpose of teaching introductory gerontology or geriatric students about the distribution of Social Security benefits after spousal death. Additional information is included pertaining to Social Security benefits payable to divorced persons after the death of the former spouse, including the status of married same-sex couples. Narratives include representations of a male breadwinner model couple, a two-earner couple who have similar/dissimilar earnings prior to retirement, a divorced couple with a remarriage after a death, a gay couple with and without children, and a female primary breadwinner couple. Updated information from the Social Security Administration, as well as information on game preparation, scripts, and debriefing questions are included.

  6. 5 CFR 838.932 - Court orders that permit the former spouse to elect to receive a former spouse survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... spouse to elect to receive a former spouse survivor annuity. 838.932 Section 838.932 Administrative... Miscellaneous Provisions § 838.932 Court orders that permit the former spouse to elect to receive a former... gives the former spouse the right to elect a former spouse survivor annuity satisfies the requirements...

  7. Provincial Variations in Divorce Rates: A Canadian Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Tomoko

    1980-01-01

    Examines differentials in divorce rates in Canada. Provinces with higher population turnover are characterized by lower degrees of social integration and lower social costs attached to divorce, reflected in higher divorce rates. The hypothesis that divorce rates are higher where more economic opportunities are available for women is explored.…

  8. Perceived Control of the Divorce Settlement Process and Interparental Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, R. Curtis; Braver, Sanford L.

    1990-01-01

    Examined whether perceived control over settlement process during divorce is related to degree of conflict reported by divorcing parents. Interviewed divorcing couples with children (n=190 families) soon after filing for divorce. Analyses indicated that parents' (especially fathers') perceived control was related to reports of interparental…

  9. A Multimodal Intervention for Group Counseling with Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; Newcomer, Laurel L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a two-tiered developmental guidance classroom unit on parental divorce which acquaints children with the idea of divorce as a family change. Focuses on the needs of the children coping with parental divorce. Discusses results which appear to have a positive effect on child's depression, attitudes and belief about parental divorce and…

  10. The Effects of Laws on Divorce in American States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Dorothy M.; Wright, Gerald C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Explores the extent to which state divorce laws have an independent effect on divorce rates. Two findings, using regression analysis, are (1) a strong relationship exists between permissiveness of divorce laws and divorce rates; (2) the relationship remains when effects of variations in economic development and social costs are controlled. (Author)

  11. Season of Birth and Exceptional Longevity: Comparative Study of American Centenarians, Their Siblings, and Spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Gavrilov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of month of birth (a proxy for early-life environmental influences on the chances of survival to age 100. Months of birth for 1,574 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1880–1895 were compared to the same information obtained for centenarians' 10,885 shorter-lived siblings and 1,083 spouses. Comparison was conducted using a within-family analysis by the method of conditional logistic regression, which allows researchers to control for unobserved shared childhood or adulthood environment and common genetic background. It was found that months of birth have significant long-lasting effect on survival to age 100: siblings born in September–November have higher odds to become centenarians compared to siblings born in March. A similar month-of-birth pattern was found for centenarian spouses. These results support the idea of early-life programming of human aging and longevity.

  12. The temporal effects of parental divorce on youth substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    This article examines how the parental divorce process affects youth substance use at various stages relative to the divorce. With child-fixed-effect models and a baseline period that is long before the divorce, the estimates rely on within-child changes over time. Youth are more likely to use alcohol 2-4 years before a parental divorce. After the divorce, youth have an increased risk of using alcohol and marijuana, with the effect for marijuana being 12.1 percentage points in the two years right after the divorce (p = .010). The magnitudes of the effects persist as time passes from the divorce.

  13. The Effect of Parents' Attitudes toward Divorce on Offspring's Attitudes: Gender and Parental Divorce as Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinus, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions: (a) What influence do parents' attitudes toward divorce have on offspring's attitudes? (b) How are offspring's attitudes toward divorce influenced by parental divorce, and do the effects vary depending on the gender of the child? and (c) How do conditions surrounding parental divorce influence young adults'…

  14. [Factors associated with marital status among spouse after diagnosed in newly reported HIV cases in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Xu, J; Tang, H L; Han, J; Mao, Y R

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the factors associated with divorce or separation when one of the spouse diagnosed and newly reported as HIV positive, in China. Methods: Data from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System, by December 31, 2015 were used for collection on newly reported HIV cases regarding their baseline information in 2014 and follow-up within one year, among couples and above 18 year olds. HIV cases were divided into divorce/separation group and married group according to their marriage dynamics in one year after being diagnosed as HIV positive. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with divorce or separation after the diagnoses made. Results: A total of 31 708 HIV cases were included in this study. 22.5% (7 134/31 708) of them got divorced or separated in one year after diagnose being made. 81.6% (25 864/31 708) of them had couples tested in one year after diagnose made and 10.0% (2 599/25 864) of them got divorced or separated. Among 18.4% (5 844/31 708) of the HIV cases who did not have their couples tested in one year after the diagnoses, 77.6% (4 535/5 844) got divorced or separated. For those who did not have their couples tested in one year after the diagnose. Data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors as those who were older than 45 (46-60 yr.: OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.03-1.58; ≥61 yr.: OR=1.83, 95%CI: 1.41-2.37), with Han ethnicity (OR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.34-1.83), with high school education or above (OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.27-1.90), non-farmers or non-rural laborers (OR=1.34, 95%CI: 1.17-1.54), infected through injecting drug use (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.71), men who had sex with men (OR=1.49, 95% CI: 1.20-1.86), or with childless (OR=2.35, 95%CI: 1.78-3.09) etc. were more likely to be divorced or separated after the diagnoses being made, among those who had their couples tested in one year after the diagnoses. Results from the multivariate logistic

  15. Lifestyle and cancer: effect of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-12-01

    According to previous studies, divorced individuals have increased risks of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and sexual habits, but the increases are balanced with decreased risks of many common cancers. In the present study, cancer risks were analyzed for 0-70-year-old offspring of divorced parents, on the basis the Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancer data from the years 1958 to 2002. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for cancer among offspring of divorced parents (19,000 cancer patients) and compared them with offspring of stably married parents (121,000 cancer patients). Standardized incidence ratios were adjusted for many factors, including socio-economic status. Offspring of divorced parents were divided into groups depending on whether their mothers, fathers or both had had children with different partners. Offspring of divorced parents had an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, anal, pancreatic, lung and cervical cancers. Decreased risks were noted for Hodgkin's disease and bone cancer. For Hodgkin's disease, the data suggest protective effects through early exposure to childhood pathogens but for bone cancer mechanisms remain to be established. The overall cancer risk for offspring of divorced parents was at or above unity. The results show that offspring of divorced parents have increased cancer risks at tobacco-related, alcohol-related and sex-related sites, in analogy to their parent, but they lack decreased risks at common sites, experienced by their parents. Divorce is becoming increasingly common in many countries and any deviant cancer patterns among offspring of divorced parents will have an impact on the population risk.

  16. The Effect of No-Fault Divorce Law on the Divorce Rate across the 50 States and Its Relation to Income, Education, and Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied no-fault divorce law effects on the divorce rate. Results revealed that no-fault divorce laws led to measurable increases in divorce rates. Median family income was the only significant predictor of change in divorce rate; the adjusted post-no-fault divorce rate increased as median family income increased. (RJM)

  17. The psychology of divorce: A synthesis of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    In this synthesis of the international literature on psychological aspects of divorce, the causes and consequences of divorce for parents and children are summarized. The majority of parents and children show no major long-term adverse psychological consequences to divorce. Personal and contextual factors that mediate the impact of divorce on parents and children and that may account of the negative impact of divorce on a minority of parents and children are also examined. The impact of media...

  18. [High-conflict-divorce and personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    We tried to identify clues related to personality disorders - especially related to borderline personality--in parents of high-conflict divorce. We compared n = 34 high-conflict clients of psychological counselling to n = 45 clients not related to high-conflict divorce. Parents of high-conflict divorce did not show significantly more hints related to personality disorder. Parents who live separated scored higher than parents living together. Extreme-group-analyses over all clients revealed in 20% definitely evidence of personality disorders or very low resiliency. Psychological counselling in the realm of Child care units also addresses clients who rate themselves as seriously impaired or non-resilient.

  19. The Dynamics of Marriage and Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using panel data on two cohorts of Danish men and women. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter marriage. We find...... that the educations of husbands and wives are complements. Education raises the share of the marital surplus for men but not for women. As men and women get older, husbands receive a larger share of the marital surplus. The estimated costs of divorce are high both early and late in marriage....

  20. Spouse Influence in Army Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    effective in its combat roles. When planning and conducting an organizational change , these commanders must create readiness for the change (RFC). The...Armenakis and Harris revisions to the Lewin organizational change model describe the need for a leader to create RFC through a five-domain change...must demonstrate their support for the change through their words and actions. Specifically, the study examines the principal support role that Army spouses play in organizational change efforts.

  1. The Employment Status of Army Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    used to model labor force participation is to estimate a reduced-form labor supply model , including variables related to the wife’s potential market wage...or not in the labor force) may be that reservation wages are higher than wage offers. Unlike the model of whether a woman is employed, in this case it...each outcome. Unlike regression models , all other variables are not held constant. 48 Table 10 labor Force Outccmes for Army Spouses: Probit

  2. His or Her Divorce? The Gendered Nature of Divorce and its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to previous studies treating divorce as a couple’s decision, we make a distinction between ‘his’, ‘her’, and ‘their’ divorce by using information about who initiated divorce. Using competing risk analysis, we re-examine four well-known determinants of divorce: (i) the wife’s employment, (ii) the financial situation of the household, (iii) the presence of children, and (iv) the quality of the match. Because existing arguments on the underlying mechanisms focus on the relative costs an...

  3. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge...... and practice for nurses and other health professionals, so they can intervene with these children and adolescents more efficaciously. An integrative systematic review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The results show four major themes: Complexity in their experiences of double bereavement......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  4. Fathers, divorce, and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, M K; Pruett, K D

    1998-04-01

    To minimize many of the negative consequences of divorce, it is beneficial to support a father's ongoing involvement in his child's life. Although the research literature isn't unequivocal on this point, it does strongly suggest that men who are "visitors" do not have as much impact on their children and that visits are a poor substitute for having a parental figure. The answer lies in creating meaningful roles for noncustodial fathers that elevate men's opportunities to contribute to their children's overall development. One of the most important messages parents can impart to children is that some commitments outlive change and that working together in the child's best interests is one of them.

  5. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  6. The topography of the divorce plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The probability of divorce in the U.S. has remained constant for the last two decades at about 'half of all marriages.' While this estimate is well established, and marked differentials in divorced rates are well known, there are no reliable estimates of differences in the cumulative probability of lifetime divorce. Using data from the 1990 June CPS, we document very large differentials by race, age at marriage, and education in the probability that recent cohorts of marriage will end in separation or divorce. Then, using data from the 1995 NSFG, we find important increases in differentials in marital dissolution, and especially in all unions, during this period of stable aggregate rates. These results indicate that examining only at marital transitions obscures the growth in family instability that has resulted among some groups because of an increasing proportion of unions begun as cohabitation.

  7. The impact of children on divorce risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Qi; Yu, Jianning; Qiu, Zeqi

    2015-01-01

    ...) couples who have premarital children are more likely to divorce; (2) the higher the number of children, the more stable the marriage, but the marginal effect declines with the increase of the number of children; (3...

  8. Divorce and Remarriage in Rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The demographic study of nuptiality in African countries is not very developed and often of secondary interest in a discussion of the proximate determinants of fertility. This paper uses unusual marriage history data to examine divorce and remarriage in rural Malawi. Life table probabilities of divorce range from 40 to 65 percent and are among the highest on the continent. An investigation into the determinants of marital instability using proportional hazards models confirms the importance of kinship systems and female empowerment, but the mechanism underlying the high divorce rates in Malawi seems to be more complicated than that. This is, for example, illustrated in the effect of the polygyny variables. Marriage, divorce, and remarriage are further considered as empowering strategies that women deploy throughout their lives.

  9. What causes the unrestricted right to divorce?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. B. Sinelnikov; O. V. Dorokhina

    2015-01-01

    .... Laws of the Russian Empire provided very few reasons for divorce. At the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries the part of the intellectuals demanded liberalization of the legislation...

  10. 20 CFR 216.70 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... living employee can establish another individual's eligibility for a spouse annuity or cause an increase... child in care; (b) To establish annuity eligibility for a widow(er), or surviving divorce spouse or...

  11. Divorce and the cognitive achievement of children

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Tartari

    2006-01-01

    Approximately four out of ten American children experience the divorce of their parents. This raises concern because studies in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics show that offspring of divorced parents fare worse than offspring of married parents. The belief that a two-parent family is the ideal environment for raising children is reflected in recent pro-marriage public policies. One difficulty with these policies is that there is substantial evidence that interparental confl...

  12. Remarriage after divorce and depression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, A; Fall, K; Netuveli, G; Montgomery, S

    2015-09-01

    As marriage is associated with lower depression rates compared with being single in men, we aimed to examine if remarriage compared with remaining divorced is also associated with a reduced depression risk. Swedish register data were used to define a cohort of men who were born between 1952 and 1956 and underwent a compulsory military conscription assessment in adolescence. This study population comprised men who were divorced in 1985 (n = 72,246). The risk of pharmaceutically treated depression from 2005 to 2009 was compared for those who remarried or remained divorced between 1986 and 2004. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios for the risk of depression identified by pharmaceutical treatment, with adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors including childhood and adulthood socioeconomic circumstances, cognitive, physical, psychological and medical characteristics at the conscription assessment. The results showed that, even though divorced men who remarried had markers of lower depression risk in earlier life such as higher cognitive and physical function, higher stress resilience and socioeconomic advantages than men who remained divorced, remarriage was associated with a statistically significant elevated risk of depression with an adjusted hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 1.27(1.03 1.55), compared with men who remained divorced. Remarriage following divorce is not associated with a reduced risk of depression identified by pharmaceutical treatment, compared with remaining divorced. Interpersonal or financial difficulties resulting from remarriage may outweigh the benefits of marriage in terms of depression risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Dynamics of Marriage and Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using 27 years of panel data for the entire Danish cohort born in 1960. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce, and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter marriage. Education and marriage order are complements in generating gains from marriage. Educated men and women receive a larger share of the marital gains but this effect is mitigated when their propo...

  14. Smokers’ Preference for Divorce and Extramarital Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Smokers are more impatient and, unlike nonsmokers, they tend to prefer current benefits. In this paper, individual-level data from Japan are used to examine how preferences for divorce and extramarital sex are different between smokers and nonsmokers. After controlling for various individual characteristics, the major findings are as follows: (1) smokers are more likely to have a positive view about divorce than nonsmokers; (2) smokers are more likely to have a positive view about extramarita...

  15. More education, fewer divorces? Shifting education differentials of divorce in Taiwan from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-hsin Alice Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While social gradient in divorce has been explored in many Western societies, this issue has received less attention in Asia. Objective: Few existing studies offer evidence for how educational gradient in divorce shift from positive to negative in Asia. This study explores the changing divorce patterns by education for both sexes over the past four decades in Taiwan. Methods: Vital statistics of divorce since 1975 were used. Divorce rates were calculated and a synthetic cohort life table was also constructed to estimate the proportions of unions that remain intact with the duration-specific divorce rates observed in 2010. A separate life table estimating the actual marriage survivorship for the 1998 marriage cohort was also presented. Results: As Taiwan went through industrialization, the period findings show that a reversal in educational differential in divorce from positive to negative is observed for both sexes. Now the least educated men and women have become more vulnerable to union instability. Finally, synthetic cohort life table estimates indicate substantial educational differences in the proportions of recent marriages ending in divorce. Conclusions: The drastic increase in period divorce rates is accompanied by a reversal of educational gradient and expanding social inequality. Social gap in divorce rates expanded much faster among men than women across years. Given that remarriage rates for the disadvantaged are lower than the better educated, these patterns indicate that the disadvantaged is likely to spend an increasingly large proportion of their lives outside a marital union. Contribution: The divorce patterns revealed have critical implications for single-parent families, as well as family policies and social assistance.

  16. Marital status and its effect on lung cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Zhao, Wei; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Miao, Feng; Lee, David; Byrne, Margaret M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if marital status, including specific types of single status categories, is associated with length of survival in lung cancer patients. Data from the 1996-2007 Florida Cancer Data System were linked with Agency for Health Care Administration data and U.S. Census data. Patients with both small cell and non-small cell lung cancer were identified (n = 161,228). Marital status was characterized by married, widowed, separated/divorced, and never married. We compared median survival time and 1, 3, and 5-year post diagnosis survival rates. Overall, 54.6% were married, 19.1% were widowed, 13.5% were separated/divorced, and 12.7% had never married. Median survival in months was longest for married (9.9) and widowed (7.7) patients, and shortest for never married (4.9) and separated/divorced (4.1) patients. Five-year survival rates were 14.2% for married, 10.7% for widowed, 8.9% for separated/divorced, and 8.4% for never married. In univariate Cox regression, marital status was a significant predictor of better survival for married (HR = 0.70; p divorced patients (HR = 1.03; p = 0.003). Multivariate models demonstrated sustained survival benefits for married (HR = 0.86; p divorced patients (HR = 1.05; p grade, and morphology; comorbidities; treatment; and smoking status. Our study demonstrated that married or widowed lung cancer patients have better survival compared to patients who were never married or separated/divorced. Research to understand the mechanism of this effect, and how the beneficial effect can be extended to those who have never married or have had the marital relationship severed through divorce or separation is needed.

  17. Reintegration the Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Afghanistan service members. The goal is to build spouses’ resilience to cope with reintegration challenges, help them serve as a support system for... reintegration difficulties; strategies to support the returning service member; and cues to alert spouses when to seek mental health services for the...available on request) Spouse Telephone Support (STS). In May 2010, Public Law 111-163 Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010

  18. Buffering Negative Impacts of Divorce on Children: Evaluating Impact of Divorce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer K.; Riffe, Jane; Trevisan, Dominic A.; Adesope, Olusola O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the call for more stringent evaluation methodology and recently documented national Extension presence in the field of divorce education for parents and children, the study reported here describes a local multi-level evaluation to capture program impact of a stakeholder-accepted divorce education program. Using a post-then-pre…

  19. Divorce Filing as Role Behavior: Effect of No-Fault Law on Divorce Filing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, B. G.; Johnson, Doyle P.

    1978-01-01

    Study contrasts male-female behavior in official initiation and completion of divorce proceedings before and after implementation of "no-fault" divorce law. Passage of no-fault law was followed by reversal in male and female filing and completion patterns, with males filing and completing more frequently under "no-fault"…

  20. Parents' Expectations about Childrearing after Divorce: Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children's economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher economic costs than fathers, whereas fathers expect…

  1. The Relationship between Divorced Mothers' Perceived Control over Child Rearing and Children's Post-Divorce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Sandra; Holloway, Susan D.

    1991-01-01

    Examined contribution of divorced, single mothers' (n=58) beliefs of control over child rearing to their children's development during the postdivorce period. Results suggest that beliefs may play a mediational role in children's adjustment after their parents' divorce, especially in the socioemotional areas. (ABL)

  2. Parents’ Expectations About Childrearing After Divorce : Does Anticipating Difficulty Deter Divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Seltzer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Divorce is costly for parents because of the challenges of meeting children’s economic and socioemotional needs after separation. Using the National Survey of Families and Households (N ¼ 1,935), we investigate whether expected economic and parenting costs deter divorce. Mothers expect higher

  3. When Parents Divorce: A Protocol Suggestion in Cases of Adversial Divorces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Bernardelli

    2011-01-01

    The experience of divorce influences life of children involved and there could be short- and long- term consequences (Dykeman, 2003). Researches showed that divorce can negatively change quality of attachment between children and parents, especially if maternal depression and high percentage of chronic conflict between parents attend (Fabbro,…

  4. Divorce Motives in a Period of Rising Divorce Evidence From a Dutch Life-History Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Paul M. de; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    Using survey data on 1,718 ever-divorced men and women in the Netherlands, the authors describe the motives people give for their divorce. The authors distinguish motives regarding three types of issues: relational issues, behavioral problems, and problems about work and the division of labor. They

  5. Divorce and social class during the early stages of the divorce revolution: evidence from Flanders and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Vanassche, Sofie; Matthijs, Koenraad

    2011-01-01

    In times of low divorce rates (such as the nineteenth century and early twentieth century), the authors expect higher social strata to have the highest divorce chances as they are better equipped to break existing barriers to divorce. In this article, the authors analyze data from marriage certificates to assess whether there was a positive effect of occupational class on divorce in Belgium (Flanders) and the Netherlands. Their results for the Netherlands show a positive association between social class and divorce, particularly among the higher cultural groups. In Flanders, the authors do not find this, but they observe a negative association between illiteracy and divorce, an observation pointing in the same direction.

  6. DIVORCE IMPACTS LATINO STUDENTS PREPARING FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miquela Rivera

    2012-01-01

    Any child of divorce can tell you that the middle is no place to be, and children stuck in contentious divorce situations often occupy that position - defender of both or either parent, comfort to one...

  7. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  8. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad González Luna; Tarja Viitanen

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have “control” countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  9. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    González Luna, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have control countries where all cohorts were e...

  10. Attitudes of Kuwaiti Young Adults toward Marriage and Divorce:

    OpenAIRE

    Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...

  11. Loneliness after divorce: A cohort comparison among Dutch older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburg, van, A.; Aartsen, M J; Pas, van de, F Frank

    2015-01-01

    Divorce increases the risk of loneliness. With divorce increasingly becoming a normal life event, societal changes are now challenging this idea as regards to current cohorts. We hypothesize that the relative strong feelings of loneliness among divorcees, compared with married people, has diminished over time. Using 1992, 2002, and 2012 data sets of 54–65-year-old people, we examine the impact of divorce on loneliness over 20 years. We compare those who are divorced or remarried to people mar...

  12. The impact of legislation on divorce: a hazard function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, M P

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the impact of the introduction of no-fault divorce legislation in Australia. The approach used is rather novel, a hazard model of the divorce rate is estimated with the role of legislation captured via a time-varying covariate. The paper concludes that contrary to U.S. empirical evidence, no-fault divorce legislation appears to have had a positive impact upon the divorce rate in Australia." excerpt

  13. 76 FR 27217 - Military Spouse Appreciation Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Administration released the report on military families, Strengthening our Military Families: Meeting America's... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8669 of May 5, 2011 Military Spouse Appreciation Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Military spouses serve...

  14. 75 FR 26055 - Military Spouse Appreciation Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... greatest military asset, and my Administration is committed to fulfilling our obligations to them. Today...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8515 of May 6, 2010 Military Spouse... responsibility. As we mark Military Spouse Appreciation Day, we reaffirm our steadfast commitment to supporting...

  15. 20 CFR 725.204 - Determination of relationship; spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; spouse. 725.204 Section 725.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...) § 725.204 Determination of relationship; spouse. (a) For the purpose of augmenting benefits, an...

  16. Reconstructing Marital Closeness while Caring for a Spouse with Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylstein, Craig; Hayes, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how people caring for a spouse with Alzheimer's disease reconstruct the meaning of closeness within their marriage. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 men and 15 women. The authors discovered that significant changes in the social identity of the impaired spouse may have important implications for how caregivers view…

  17. Cancer and the family: strategies to assist spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Peters-Golden, H

    1993-05-01

    Research that has been conducted with spouses of cancer patients documents the nature of their stress, the duration of their stress, and the concerns that they confront over the course of the illness. A variety of intervention strategies have been used to assist spouses in dealing with the stressful effects of cancer. Two major categories of intervention strategies are providing information and offering support.

  18. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  19. 20 CFR 725.205 - Determination of dependency; spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; spouse. 725.205 Section 725.205 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... Determination of dependency; spouse. For the purposes of augmenting benefits, an individual who is the miner's...

  20. Delayed Parental Divorce: How Much Do Children Benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2001-01-01

    Compares children who experience divorce in childhood with those who were young adults when their parents divorced using data on British children (N=11,409) who participated in the National Child Development Study. Children's long-term welfare appears to be linked both to conditions preceding and following the divorce event. Results suggest…

  1. The Divorce Culture and Picture Books for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weimin

    2007-01-01

    In the past thirty years or so, divorce has been widespread in many countries. Globally the percentage of marriages that end up in divorce has increased dramatically even in countries where religious and legal impediments are strong. Divorce occurs most often within the first ten years of marriage. That means children of most couples who are…

  2. Parental Reports of Children's Post-Divorce Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Julie A.

    1979-01-01

    Two years after the final decree, 560 divorced parents were asked to assess the impact of the divorce on their children. Factors associated with fathers' responses differed from those associated with mothers', but the majority of each group felt that their children had been negatively affected by the divorce. (Author/GC)

  3. Divorce Aftermath: Empowering Parents...Easing the Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Wanda L.

    The increase in divorce rates following the American adoption of no-fault divorce is correlated with radical changes in the lives of many parents and children. However, the dissolution of a marriage does not mean the end of a family. Family ties are forever, and family therapists can assist by easing the pain of divorce and empowering parents to…

  4. The Application of Age-Specific Rates to Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. Lynn; Kunz, Phillip R.

    1975-01-01

    Age-Specific divorce rates and weighted divorce rates are evaluated in comparison with several traditional rates. The analysis reversals of the ranking of some states in comparison with rankings based on other divorce rates, and the age-specific rates for young married couples is lower than expected. (Author)

  5. Experience of young adults from divorced families | Spalding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the way in which the effects of parental divorce surface during the developmental period of young adulthood. The aim of the study was to offer some insight into the long-term effects of parental divorce. Of particular interest was how the parent-child relationships in divorced homes ...

  6. Divorce: Its Impact on the Family and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Avraham

    The national divorce rate has risen since the Civil War from less than two per 1,000 to one of every two married in 1976, with a continuing increase likely. Implications for divorced people suggest an increase in mental and physical illness concurrent with increase in stress. The impact appears to diminish with time. Divorce is a legal, emotional…

  7. Financial Impact of Divorce on Children and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Jay D.; Paasch, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the financial impact of divorce on children and their families. The preponderance of evidence suggests that women and children experience substantial declines after divorce whereas the relative income of divorced men remains stable or increases. The impact of public assistance is also considered. (SLD)

  8. Parenting After Divorce. Papers from a 1980 Conference for Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford, Ed.

    Seven brief presentations discuss social attitudes toward divorce and the experiences and problems families face after divorce. Introductory remarks indicate (1) the extent to which divorced parents are denied consistent and positive support from legal and counseling institutions, schools and the work-place, and (2) the archaic institutionalized…

  9. Parenting and family structure after divorce : are they related?

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaits, Kim; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Children are raised in various family structures after a parental divorce. Currently, research including both repartnering and the custodial arrangement when investigating parenting is scarce and mainly proceeds from a maternal perspective, ignoring potential partner effects. Consequently, we investigate differences in parenting after divorce according to family structure (repartnering and custodial arrangement), analyzing a dyadic subsample of the multiactor Divorce in Flanders dat...

  10. Trends in divorce and marriage around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1996-01-01

    "A study of 27 [developed] nations indicated that divorce rates rose in 25 of the nations from 1950 to 1985 while marriage rates declined in 22 of the nations. Nations with higher divorce rates in 1950 had steeper increases in the divorce rate subsequently, supporting a critical-mass hypothesis." excerpt

  11. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  12. Current Trends in Marriage and Divorce among American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Arthur J.; Moorman, Jeanne E.

    1987-01-01

    Examined recent trends and future prospects regarding marriage and divorce patterns among women in the United States. Results suggest that first marriage takes place later, more adult women will never marry, divorce has likely peaked, remarriage after divorce is declining, and women representing first 10 years of the baby boom are expected to have…

  13. Narrative Theory: A Career Counseling Approach for Adolescents of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Denis A.; Gibbons, Melinda M.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents whose parents divorce face academic and vocational impediments that challenge their career options. Although divorce does not affect all children uniformly, research confirms that, overall, divorce negatively influences academic performance and behavioral adjustment (Peris & Emery, 2004; Ruschena, Prior, Sanson, & Smart, 2005), access…

  14. Appraisals of Negative Divorce Events and Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth; And Others

    Adding to prior literature on adults' and children's appraisals of stressors, this study examined relationships among children's negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, the actual divorce events, and children's post-divorce psychological adjustment. Subjects were 38…

  15. Femininity, Masculinity, and Adjustment to Divorce among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Robert O.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of sex-role identification on the expectations of female college students (N=66) regarding marriage and divorce, and among divorced women (N=32) on their reasons for divorce. Among college students, masculinity was related to more positive expectations. For divorcees, the more masculine women adjusted more…

  16. Divorce after couple therapy: an overlooked perspective of outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenwegen, A

    1998-01-01

    This exploratory study provides data about couples that divorced following couple therapy and compares them with couples that remained together. The divorced couples differed from the nondivorced couples in age difference, complaint at intake, positive regard, and empathy at the start of therapy. Most of the couples found couple therapy useful and viewed their divorce as a positive result of therapy.

  17. Divorce, Remarriage, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needle, Richard H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined substance use in adolescents who experienced parental divorce during childhood, during adolescence, or who were from intact families. Adolescence divorce group had greater overall drug involvement. Divorce had negative effect on boys but not on girls. Custodial parents' remarriage led to increased substance use among girls, decreased…

  18. 20 CFR 410.351 - Determination of dependency; divorced wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; divorced wife... AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.351 Determination of dependency; divorced wife. An individual who is the miner's divorced wife (see § 410.311) will...

  19. The Teacher's Role in Facilitating a Child's Adjustment to Divorce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Patsy; McKenry, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information enabling teachers to support children and families during divorce. Research and theory concerning the effects of divorce on children, parenting through divorce, and the role of the school are summarized. Practical suggestions for the teacher are presented, and relevant books for children, teachers, and parents are identified.…

  20. Teenagers Self Concept From Divorce Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Pujasari Supratman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being an adolescent as a family member from parental divorce is still lackingtobe appointedon aresearch topic, and mostly focused on the influence or impact of divorce. The researcher wants to explore adolescents’ experiences from divorce families. The study was conducted using qualitativeresearchmethods through observation and in-depth interviewwith descriptive case study on tenadolescentsfromdivorcefamilies. While the respondents weretaken bysnowball samplingandpurposivesampling. The results showed thatadolescents have difficult experiencesto be in divorcefamily.  The adolescent experience of being displaced communicated verbally and nonverbally. The verbal communication is the language of motivation adolescents enlightened and openness. While the non verbal, they follow parents advices, full of comfort, and positive appearance. Theybecome adolescents whohavevirtueinreligiousity, independence, futuristic and maturity self-concept.

  1. Effectiveness of Children of Divorce Intervention Program on Children's Adjustment with their Parental Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    محمدرضا عبدی; تقي پورابراهيم; علی محمد نظری

    2016-01-01

    Divorce is one of the most important phenomenons of human life that not only undermines the psychological balance of the couple but also to change the psychological balance of the children, relatives, and friends. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP). A sample of 26 children of divorce (11 boys and 15 girls) between 7 to 9 years old was selected through an available sampling of community. CODIP was conducted on the e...

  2. Overview of the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wetzel, Eric

    2002-01-01

    The 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel gather information on current location, member's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse's employment, family information...

  3. Mental health insurance claims among spouses of frequent business travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, L A; Striker, J; Nordanlycke-Yoo, C; Nagy, L; Mundt, K A; Sulsky, S I

    2002-03-01

    Following up on two earlier publications showing increased psychological stress and psychosocial effects of travel on the business travellers this study investigated the health of spouses of business travellers. Medical claims of spouses of Washington DC World Bank staff participating in the medical insurance programme in 1997-8 were reviewed. Only the first of each diagnosis with the ninth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-9) recorded for each person was included in this analysis. The claims were grouped into 28 diagnostic categories and subcategories. There were almost twice as many women as men among the 4630 identified spouses. Overall, male and female spouses of travellers filed claims for medical treatment at about a 16% higher rate than spouses of non-travellers. As hypothesised, a higher rate for psychological treatment was found in the spouses of international business travellers compared with non-travellers (men standardised rate ratios (RR)=1.55; women RR=1.37). For stress related psychological disorders the rates tripled for both female and male spouses of frequent travellers (>or= four missions/year) compared with those of non-travelling employees. An increased rate of claims among spouses of travellers versus non-travellers was also found for treatment for certain other diagnostic groups. Of these, diseases of the skin (men RR=2.93; women RR=1.41) and intestinal diseases (men RR=1.31; women RR=1.47) may have some association with the spouses' travel, whereas others, such as malignant neoplasms (men RR=1.97; women RR=0.79) are less likely to have such a relation. The previously identified pattern of increased psychological disorders among business travellers is mirrored among their spouses. This finding underscores the permeable boundary between family relations and working life which earlier studies suggested, and it emphasises the need for concern within institutions and strategies for prevention.

  4. Impact of divorce on children: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Christy; Covitz, Lynne M

    2012-04-01

    Although divorce can have significant negative impact on children, a variety of protective factors can increase the likelihood of long-term positive psychological adjustment. • Exposure to high levels of parental conflict is predictive of poor emotional adjustment by the child regardless of the parents' marital status. • Epidemiologic data reveal that custody and parenting arrangements are evolving, with more emphasis on joint custody and access to both parents by the child. • Pediatricians' knowledge of childhood development is essential in providing anticipatory guidance to parents throughout the divorce process and beyond.

  5. The Dynamics of Marriage and Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram

    marriage. Education and marriage order are complements in generating gains from marriage. Educated men and women receive a larger share of the marital gains but this effect is mitigated when their proportion rises. Education stabilizes marriage and second marriages are less stable. As the cohort ages......We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using 27 years of panel data for the entire Danish cohort born in 1960. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce, and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter...

  6. Rebound from marital conflict and divorce prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottman, J M; Levenson, R W

    1999-01-01

    Marital interaction has primarily been examined in the context of conflict resolution. This study investigated the predictive ability of couples to rebound from marital conflict in a subsequent positive conversation. Results showed that there was a great deal of consistency in affect across both conversations. Also examined was the ability of affective interaction to predict divorce over a 4-year period, separately in each of the two conversations. It was possible to predict divorce using affective variables from each conversation, with 82.6% accuracy from the conflict conversation and with 92.7% accuracy from the positive rebound conversation.

  7. The impact of unilateral divorce on crime

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio; Giolito, Eugenio P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact of unilateral divorce on crime. First, using crime rates from the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report program for the period 1965-1998 and differences in the timing in the introduction of the reform, we find that unilateral divorce has a positive impact on violent crime rates, with an 8% to 12% average increase for the period under consideration. Second, arrest data not only confirms the findings of a positive impact on violent crime but also shows that this impac...

  8. Locus of control in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, N; Alpern, D; Spence, R; Plunkett, J W

    1984-08-01

    Scores on the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children (N-SLOCSC) were compared for third and fifth grade boys and girls from intact versus maritally disrupted family backgrounds. Significant main effects for each independent variable revealed that fifth graders more than third, boys more than girls, and the marital disruption more than the intact group, exhibited higher internality in their locus of control scores. These findings strongly suggest that experiencing a parental divorce in childhood has a significant influence on generalized perceptions of personal control and effectance, perceptions which may ultimately mediate both short- and long-term outcomes in children's post-divorce adjustment.

  9. Rate and predictors of divorce among parents of youth with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Wilson, Tracey K.; Greenhouse, Joel B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite numerous studies asserting the prevalence of marital conflict among families of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), evidence is surprisingly less convincing regarding whether parents of youth with ADHD are more at-risk for divorce than parents of children without ADHD. Using survival analyses, this study compared the rate of marital dissolution between parents of adolescents and young adults with and without ADHD. Results indicated that parents of youth diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (n=282) were more likely to divorce and had a shorter latency to divorce than parents of children without ADHD (n=206). Among a subset of those families of youth with ADHD, prospective analyses indicated that maternal and paternal education level, paternal antisocial behavior, and child age, race/ethnicity, and oppositional-defiant/conduct problems each uniquely predicted the timing of divorce between parents of youth with ADHD. These data underscore how parent and child variables likely interact to exacerbate marital discord and, ultimately, dissolution among families of children diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. PMID:18837591

  10. Divorce and risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Davidsen, Rie B; Hviid, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Although, divorce is considered to have a negative impact on morbidity, very little is known concerning exposure to divorce and risk of infectious diseases. We aimed to investigate the association between divorce and subsequent hospital contacts with infectious diseases. We performed a nation-wide cohort study, including all Danish men and women (n≈5.6 million) alive on the 1 January 1982 or later, and followed them for infectious disease diagnosed in hospital settings from 1982 to 2010. The association between divorce and risk of infectious diseases was evaluated through rate ratios (RRs) comparing incidence rates of infectious diseases between divorced and married pesons. Compared with married persons, divorced persons were overall at a 1.48 fold (RR=1.48 (95% CI: 1.47-1.50)) increased risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases (RR adjusted for sex, age, period, income and education). The risk of infectious diseases was slightly more pronounced for divorced women (RR=1.54 (1.52-1.56)) than divorced men ((RR=1.42 (1.41-1.44)). The increased risk remained almost unchanged even more than 15 years after the divorce. Young age at divorce, short duration of marriage and number of divorces further increased the risk of infectious diseases, whereas number of children at time of divorce had no impact on risk of hospital-diagnosed infectious diseases following the divorce. Divorce appears to have a moderate but long lasting impact on the risk of infectious diseases the underlying mechanism is unknown but shared risk factors predicting divorce and infectious diseases could contribute to our findings. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Spouse selection and environmental effects on spouse correlation in lung function measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuiman, Matthew W; Divitini, Mark L; Bartholomew, Helen C

    2005-01-01

    Concordance between spouses may be due to partner selection factors and/or the effects of marriage/environment. The extent to which partner selection factors contribute to spouse concordance has important implications for heritability studies. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude of spouse correlation in lung function measures and its relationship to duration of marriage. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data collected over the period 1969 to 1995 for 2615 couples from the Busselton Health Study have been analyzed using the program FISHER. Unadjusted correlations were around 0.45 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 0.25 for FEV1/FVC (forced vital capacity) and were reduced to 0.05 and 0.10, respectively, after adjustment for age, height, and smoking. No trend with marriage duration was apparent in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses but there was a significant downward trend in the correlations with age at marriage. The findings indicate that observed correlations in lung function measures are mostly due to partner selection factors and that partner selection factors have greater influence for couples that marry at younger ages. Family studies that aim to identify and separate genetic from other influences on lung function measures should not regard the mother-father correlation as due to common environment effects.

  12. The effect of divorce on intergenerational transfers: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, F F; Hoffman, S D; Shrestha, L

    1995-08-01

    This paper draws on new data on intergenerational transfers of time and money that were collected in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We use these data to examine the effects of divorce on these transfers. We find that the timing of divorce is critical. Fathers and mothers involved in late divorces have similar levels of transfers with their adult children, while divorce during a child's childhood years increases transfers with mothers and sharply lowers them with fathers. Somewhat surprisingly, we find no evidence that divorced fathers who paid child support are more likely to be involved in intergenerational transfers than those who did not pay child support.

  13. The Temporal Effects of Parental Divorce on Youth Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the parental divorce process affects youth substance abuse at various stages relative to the divorce. With child-fixed-effect models and a baseline period that is long before the divorce, the estimates rely on within-child changes over time. Youth are more likely to use alcohol 2-4 years before a parental divorce. After the divorce, youth have an increased risk of using alcohol and marijuana, with the effect for marijuana being 12.1 percentage points in ...

  14. Marital satisfaction and divorce in couples in stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLongis, Anita; Zwicker, Amy

    2017-02-01

    We review research and theory examining stress and coping in stepfamilies as predictors of marital quality and divorce. Although the divorce rate in first-marriages has stabilized after years of increase in North America, the divorce rate of remarriages continues to increase. We argue that depression and marital distress are both mechanisms through which stepfamily stress impacts marital stability, with parenting stressors particularly potent determinants of divorce. We draw upon our own research predicting divorce across 20 years in 112 married couples in stepfamilies, as well as from the larger literature on stepfamilies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional analysis of divorce in China since 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y; Wu, D

    2000-05-01

    This paper estimates and discusses divorce measures in China and its 30 provinces since 1980. The propensity for divorce in China increased 42% between 1982 and 1990. Substantial increases in divorce were observed in all provinces except Xinjiang and Shanxi. We found a fairly strong regional pattern of divorce in China: Divorce rates were lowest on the east coast and in eastern areas, highest in the northwest and the northeast, and moderate in the middle and southern parts of the country. Descriptive explanations of trends and regional variations are presented.

  16. The leveling of divorce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J R

    1999-08-01

    Is the recent plateau in crude divorce rates due to compositional changes in the married population or to a fundamental change in the long-term trend of rising marital instability? I use refined measures of period divorce rates to show that the leveling of divorce rates appears to be real. Compositional factors do little to explain the end to the more than century-long pattern of rising divorce. Increases in cohabitation also fail to explain the plateau. New theories are needed to explain the determinants of divorce rates at the population level.

  17. Divorce, Abortion and Children's Sex Ratio: The Impact of Divorce Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ang; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how the relative circumstances of men and women following marital dissolution affect sex-selection behavior within marriages. China's 2001 divorce reform liberalized divorce in favor of women and secured women's property rights after separation. We use this improvement in women's bargaining power in marriage for a regression discontinuity analysis of the demand for sex-selective abortions. We show that the increase in women's bargaining power reduces the propensity to have...

  18. Attitudes Toward Divorce, Commitment, and Divorce Proneness in First Marriages and Remarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Whitton, Sarah W.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    A random multistate sample of married individuals (N = 1,931) was used to explore whether more positive attitudes toward divorce and weaker commitment to marriage may contribute to the greater instability of remarriages than first marriages. Remarried adults, whether or not they brought children from a previous union into the remarriage, reported marital quality (happiness and conflict) equal to those in first marriages. They also reported more positive attitudes toward divorce, which were as...

  19. Predicting long-term risk for relationship dissolution using nonparametric conditional survival trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Sören; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Baucom, Katherine J W; Baucom, Brian R

    2015-12-01

    Identifying risk factors for divorce or separation is an important step in the prevention of negative individual outcomes and societal costs associated with relationship dissolution. Programs that aim to prevent relationship distress and dissolution typically focus on changing processes that occur during couple conflict, although the predictive ability of conflict-specific variables has not been examined in the context of other factors related to relationship dissolution. The authors examine whether emotional responding and communication during couple conflict predict relationship dissolution after controlling for overall relationship quality and individual well-being. Using nonparametric conditional survival trees, the study at hand simultaneously examined the predictive abilities of physiological (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol) and behavioral (fundamental frequency; f0) indices of emotional responding, as well as observationally coded positive and negative communication behavior, on long-term relationship stability after controlling for relationship satisfaction and symptoms of depression. One hundred thirty-six spouses were assessed after participating in a randomized clinical trial of a relationship distress prevention program as well as 11 years thereafter; 32.5% of the couples' relationships had dissolved by follow up. For men, the only significant predictor of relationship dissolution was cortisol change score (p = .012). For women, only f0 range was a significant predictor of relationship dissolution (p = .034). These findings highlight the importance of emotional responding during couple conflict for long-term relationship stability. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. How I remember my parents' divorce: a phenomenological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Suzanne E; Hector, Mark A; Carr, Austin R

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the experience of parental divorce for adult women, a phenomenological method was used. Ten women were interviewed and the interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematized. The themes that came from the texts of the interviews transcripts and the researchers' reflections on the phenomenological research group analysis were: Before the Divorce, During the Divorce, and After the Divorce. These themes were centered on a contextual ground of Time Frame of the Divorce. The results of this study can provide individuals with a context for understanding their own experiences of parental divorce. These results could also be helpful for mental health clinicians in anticipating the themes that clients will discuss relative to the stages of their parents' divorce.

  1. Parental divorce: effects on individual behavior and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J S; Friedman, H S; Schwartz, J E; Criqui, M H; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Wingard, D L; Martin, L R

    1997-08-01

    Using an archival prospective design, the authors studied associations among parental divorce occurring during participants' childhood, adult psychosocial mediators, and mortality over the life span of a subgroup of participants (N = 1,261) in the Terman Life Cycle Study (1921-1991). Children from divorced families grew up to show a higher risk of premature mortality across the life span. The higher mortality risk for men was explained, in part, when 3 mediating factors were controlled: Men who had experienced parental divorce were more likely to have their own marriages end in divorce, obtained less education, and engaged in fewer service activities. Women who had experienced parental divorce smoked more and were more likely themselves to divorce, both of which predicted higher mortality risk. The findings extend previous work on the negative sequelae of parental divorce to long-term effects on personality and longevity.

  2. Effectiveness of Children of Divorce Intervention Program on Children's Adjustment with their Parental Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمدرضا عبدی

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Divorce is one of the most important phenomenons of human life that not only undermines the psychological balance of the couple but also to change the psychological balance of the children, relatives, and friends. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of Children of Divorce Intervention Program (CODIP. A sample of 26 children of divorce (11 boys and 15 girls between 7 to 9 years old was selected through an available sampling of community. CODIP was conducted on the experimental group over 15 sessions (two sessions per week once the subjects were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups and completed three questionnaires including Children’s Ideas about Divorce scale (CIAD, Parent Evaluation Form (PEF and Group Leader Evaluation Form (GLEF. Study results based on ANOVA show a significant difference between experimental and control groups (P<0/001. These results indicate that CODIP was effective to increase children's positive feelings and attitudes towards their parental divorce, reduced children's negative feelings toward their parental divorce, improved children's relationships with their parents and peers, and increased problem solving skills of children.

  3. The Impact of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Irmgard

    1993-01-01

    The degree of emotional trauma that children may face during or after their parents' divorce is related to the personality profiles of both parents; quality of parent-child bonding; quality of parent-child attachment; parenting styles; and resilience of the child. Courts and child care workers should look more closely at parent personality…

  4. Family Process and Children's Functioning during Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Used a model of family process to predict 178 children's emotional adjustment and behavior problems during parents' divorce. Findings showed that the parents who had less marital conflict had better relationships with their children after separation, which in turn was associated with more adaptive child functioning. (TE)

  5. Support Systems after Divorce: Incidence and Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletta, Nancy Donahue

    1979-01-01

    Examined the impact of support systems on post-divorce family functioning. Results suggest that families under extreme stress need to be provided with relatively high levels of support or their dissatisfaction with support systems will appear in harsher and more restrictive relationships with children. (Author)

  6. Impact of divorce on absenteeism levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, H.; Besseling, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in marital status may be linked with consecutive data on absenteeism from the occupational health services in the Netherlands. According to a recent study by TNO Work and Employment, it appears that divorce has an impact on absenteeism levels among employees. After a certain period following

  7. Children's Perceptions of Their Parents' Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Siesky, Albert E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The tone of children's responses was positive yet realistic. Children did not view their parent's divorce as an overly distressing experience. The nature of responses was consistently related to age and level of locus of control and interpersonal knowledge in the open-ended interview and in the structured questionnaire. (Author/BEF)

  8. Divorce in Australia. Working Paper No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald E.; Harrison, Margaret

    This working paper discusses the effects of recent legislative changes regarding divorce in Australia. The introduction describes the 1975 Family Law Act and gives a summary of its principles. The second section presents background information to the Act and lists the philosophical principles behind its formation. The third section describes…

  9. [Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1993].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K

    1995-07-01

    This is a review of marriage and divorce patterns in Japan in 1993. It includes data on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965 to 1993; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1993; and marriage and marriage rates by age, 1993.

  10. Pre-Adolescent Children's Reaction to Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Doren H.

    This paper focuses on pre-adolescent children and how they cope with parental divorce. It considers the case of split custody, more common among older children than younger ones, in which one parent has custody of one or more of the children and the other parent has custody of one or more of the siblings. It focuses on the sibling relationship and…

  11. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  12. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  13. Variables Associated with Resilience in Divorced Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Abraham P.; Van der Merwe, Stephanus

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the salutogenic properties of post-divorce families and attempts to identify factors that promote resilience and family well-being. Within the salutogenic paradigm the focus is on positive characteristics and strengths that contribute towards the growth and development of a system. Family coherence is used as an…

  14. Separated and Divorced Women in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1.1. The States/Territories Covered by the Survey. 18. 3.1. Distribution of Surveyees by Their Current Occupation in Different Regions. 45. 3.2. Percentage Distribution of the Surveyees by Their Current Monthly Income (in Rupees) Categories in Different Regions. 48. 3.3. Percentage Distribution of Male Spouses in Different ...

  15. Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    pay operations have been consolidated under the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS). DFAS Cleveland handles matters related to retired pay...retirement. Funds in a TSP retirement account may be divided in a divorce settlement and federal statute does not limit the percentage that can be...retiree’s retired pay as a part of a divorce property settlement in a community property state. In response, Congress enacted the Uniformed Services

  16. Impact of Military Lifestyle on Military Spouses' Educational and Career Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Kellley Morgan, Jessica; Akroyd, H. Duane

    2018-01-01

    The military lifestyle imposes unique challenges for military spouses in regards to their education and careers. To help alleviate these challenges, military spouses are encouraged to pursue portable career paths. This causes one to question whether spouses desire these portable careers and what influences spouses place on pursuing specific…

  17. Comparative Analysis of Divorce Rates in Canada and the United States, 1921-1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, G.; Krishnan, P.

    1980-01-01

    Examined Canadian and American divorce rates between 1921-1967 comparing the effects of prosperity, war, and depression conditions on divorce. Income and war-income interaction facilitated higher incidence of divorce while depression superficially decreased the divorce rate in both nations. American divorce rates were always higher than those in…

  18. 31 CFR 360.22 - Payment or reissue pursuant to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... divorce. 360.22 Section 360.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... divorce. (a) Divorce. (1) The Department of the Treasury will recognize a divorce decree that ratifies or.... (2) The evidence required under § 360.23 must be submitted in every case. When the divorce decree...

  19. The Case for Treating Depression in Military Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdeli, Helen; Baily, Charles; Vousoura, Eleni; Belser, Alexander; Singla, Daisy; Manos, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The increased operational tempo associated with current deployments to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is placing considerable strain on military families. Among other sequelae of OIF and OEF deployment, findings from recent studies suggest high rates of depression in spouses of service members. This review presents a rationale for targeting depression among military spouses. It examines how stressors relating to the deployment cycle may contribute to depression in spouses, and outlines the effects of spousal depression on the mental health of service members and their children. Mental health services currently available to military spouses as well as barriers to their care are also described. Considerations for the adaptation of treatment to their unique circumstances and needs are discussed. PMID:21842994

  20. Cause-Specific Mortality Among Spouses of Parkinson Disease Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Hansen, Jonni; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caring for a chronically ill spouse is stressful, but the health effects of caregiving are not fully understood. We studied the effect on mortality of being married to a person with Parkinson disease. METHODS: All patients in Denmark with a first-time hospitalization for Parkinson...... disease between 1986 and 2009 were identified, and each case was matched to five population controls. We further identified all spouses of those with Parkinson disease (n = 8,515) and also the spouses of controls (n = 43,432). All spouses were followed in nationwide registries until 2011. RESULTS: Among...... men, being married to a Parkinson disease patient was associated with a slightly higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.06 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.11]). Mortality was particularly high for death due to external causes (1.42 [1.09-1.84]) including suicide (1.89 [1...

  1. Attitudes of Kuwaiti Young Adults toward Marriage and Divorce:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humoud Alqashan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.

  2. Recession and Divorce in the United States, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip N

    2014-10-01

    Recession may increase divorce through a stress mechanism, or reduce divorce by exacerbating cost barriers or strengthening family bonds. After establishing an individual-level model predicting U.S. women's divorce, the paper tests period effects, and whether unemployment and foreclosures are associated with the odds of divorce using the 2008-2011 American Community Survey. Results show a downward spike in the divorce rate after 2008, almost recovering to the expected level by 2011, which suggests a negative recession effect. On the other hand, state foreclosure rates are positively associated with the odds of divorce with individual controls, although this effect is not significant when state fixed effects are introduced. State unemployment rates show no effect on odds of divorce. Future research will have to determine why national divorce odds fell during the recession while state-level economic indicators were not strongly associated with divorce. Exploratory analysis which shows unemployment decreasing divorce odds for those with college degrees, while foreclosures have the opposite effect, provides one possible avenue for such research.

  3. Antecedents of Gray Divorce: A Life Course Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Wright, Matthew R; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2016-12-16

    Increasingly, older adults are experiencing divorce, yet little is known about the risk factors associated with divorce after age 50 (termed "gray divorce"). Guided by a life course perspective, our study examined whether key later life turning points are related to gray divorce. We used data from the 1998-2012 Health and Retirement Study to conduct a prospective, couple-level discrete-time event history analysis of the antecedents of gray divorce. Our models incorporated key turning points (empty nest, retirement, and poor health) as well as demographic characteristics and economic resources. Contrary to our expectations, the onset of an empty nest, the wife's or husband's retirement, and the wife's or husband's chronic conditions were unrelated to the likelihood of gray divorce. Rather, factors traditionally associated with divorce among younger adults were also salient for older adults. Marital duration, marital quality, home ownership, and wealth were negatively related to the risk of gray divorce. Gray divorce is especially likely to occur among couples who are socially and economically disadvantaged, raising new questions about the consequences of gray divorce for individual health and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Recession and Divorce in the United States, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Recession may increase divorce through a stress mechanism, or reduce divorce by exacerbating cost barriers or strengthening family bonds. After establishing an individual-level model predicting U.S. women's divorce, the paper tests period effects, and whether unemployment and foreclosures are associated with the odds of divorce using the 2008-2011 American Community Survey. Results show a downward spike in the divorce rate after 2008, almost recovering to the expected level by 2011, which suggests a negative recession effect. On the other hand, state foreclosure rates are positively associated with the odds of divorce with individual controls, although this effect is not significant when state fixed effects are introduced. State unemployment rates show no effect on odds of divorce. Future research will have to determine why national divorce odds fell during the recession while state-level economic indicators were not strongly associated with divorce. Exploratory analysis which shows unemployment decreasing divorce odds for those with college degrees, while foreclosures have the opposite effect, provides one possible avenue for such research. PMID:26023246

  5. No Trend in the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, JUI-CHUNG ALLEN; WU, LAWRENCE L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies on trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce have produced mixed findings, with two studies (McLanahan and Bumpass 1988; Teachman 2002) reporting no trend in divorce transmission and one study (Wolfinger 1999) finding that divorce transmission has weakened substantially. Using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model, we analyze data from the National Survey of Families and Households and find no evidence for any trend in divorce transmission. To reconcile apparent differences in results, we note that the General Social Survey data used by Wolfinger lack information on marital duration, permitting analysis only for whether respondents have divorced by interview. As a result, an apparent decline in divorce transmission could be due to inadequate adjustments for the longer exposures to risk by earlier marriage cohorts, yielding a higher probability of divorce by interview for earlier cohorts relative to more recent cohorts even if divorce risks are identical across all marriage cohorts. We confirm this possibility by using a series of discrete-time hazard logistic regressions to investigate the sensitivity of estimates of trends in divorce transmission to different adjustments for exposure to risk. We conclude that there has been no trend in the intergenerational transmission of divorce. PMID:19110902

  6. Divorce and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease: A Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Daoulah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between marital status and coronary artery disease (CAD is supported by numerous epidemiological studies. While divorce may have an adverse effect on cardiac outcomes, the relationship between divorce and severe CAD is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, observational study of consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography during the period between April 1, 2013, and March 30, 2014. Of 1,068 patients, 124 (12% were divorced. Divorce was more frequent among women (27% compared to men (6%. Most divorced patients had been divorced only once (49%, but a subset had been divorced 2 (38% or ≥3 (12% times. After adjusting for baseline differences, there was no significant association between divorce and severe CAD in men. In women, there was a significant adjusted association between divorce and severe MVD (OR 2.31 [1.16, 4.59] or LMD (OR 5.91 [2.19, 15.99]. The modification of the association between divorce and severe CAD by gender was statistically significant for severe LMD (Pinteraction 0.0008 and marginally significant for CAD (Pinteraction 0.05. Among women, there was a significant adjusted association between number of divorces and severe CAD (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.2, 4.5], MVD (OR 2.0 [95% CI 1.4, 3.0], and LMD (OR 3.4 [95% CI 1.9, 5.9]. In conclusion, divorce, particularly multiple divorces, is associated with severe CAD, MVD, and LMD in women but not in men.

  7. The Case for Treating Depression in Military Spouses

    OpenAIRE

    Verdeli, Helen; Baily, Charles; Vousoura, Eleni; Belser, Alexander; Singla, Daisy; Manos, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The increased operational tempo associated with current deployments to Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is placing considerable strain on military families. Among other sequelae of OIF and OEF deployment, findings from recent studies suggest high rates of depression in spouses of service members. This review presents a rationale for targeting depression among military spouses. It examines how stressors relating to the deployment cycle may contribute to depres...

  8. Changes in Depressive Symptoms in Spouses of Post Myocardial Infarction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heesook Son, PhD, MPH, RN

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Spouse and patient baseline depression significantly predicted changes in depression for all spouses and psychologically distressed spouses. Among psychologically distressed spouses, higher baseline social support predicted higher depression scores over time. This study is an important step in understanding longitudinal changes in the psychological status of spouses of MI patients for evaluating the need for interventions. It is crucial that patient couples' psychosocial factors are continuously assessed.

  9. Barriers and Supports to Divorce for Victimised British-Indian Mothers and Consequences of Divorce: Narratives of British-Indian Adult Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chaitali

    2012-01-01

    Divorce or separation is one route towards addressing high conflict in marriages and may be a key route out of situations of significant domestic violence for women and children. However, divorce has been associated with feminisation of poverty and other negative outcomes which can be further exacerbated for victimised women. While there has been…

  10. The father's parenting experience in divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H J

    1980-10-01

    The author discusses the father-child relationship as it is influenced by divorce. Psychiatrists are often consulted by individuals considering dovorce who are concerned about its probable impact on their children. Data gathered from the treatment of fathers during divorce indicate that there can be positive changes in their parental bonds as a result of increased opportunities to relate to children in a conflict-free atmosphere. In such a setting, the father's nurturing experience provides him with a new perspective on parenting. Psychotherapeutic help can lead to a strengthening of parental bonds, with subsequent benefits to both father and child. The author encourages professionals to support men in improving their fathering during the postdivorce period.

  11. DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

  12. Divorce by consent in Roman law and contemporary law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is divorce by mutual consent in Roman law and contemporary law. In the first part of this article, the authors analyzes the key tenets of consensual divorce in Roman law, with specific reference to the impact of Christian religious teaching on the concepts of marriage and divorce as well as on the Roman rulers' constitutions, which marked the beginning of the process of restricting the right to divorce. In the central part of the paper, the authors examines the regulation on the consensual divorce in some contemporary legal systems. In addition, the authors provides a substantial analysis of the normative framework on the termination of marriage in the positive Serbian legislation. In the final part of the paper, the authors provides a comparative analysis and underscores the observed similarities and differenced in the regulation of the institute of consensual divorce in Roman law and in the contemporary legislation.

  13. Separation/divorce and child and adolescent completed suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, M S; Shaffer, D; Fisher, P; Garfinkel, R

    1998-02-01

    To investigate factors that may modify the effect of separation/divorce on youth suicide. A case-control, psychological autopsy study of 120 of 170 consecutive suicides younger than age 20 and 147 community age-, sex-, and ethnic group-matched controls living in the greater New York area was conducted. Fifty-eight suicide victims and 49 community controls came from nonintact families of origin, indicating the permanent separation/divorce of the biological parents. Potential modifiers of separation/divorce include youth's age at separation, custodial parent's remarriage, nonresidential parent's frequency of contact, parent-child relationships, and parental psychopathology. The relatively small impact of separation/divorce was further diminished after accounting for parental psychopathology. An interaction of separation/divorce and the father-child relationship emerged. The dramatic increase in youth suicide during the past three decades seems unlikely to be attributable to the increase in divorce rates.

  14. Stress and coping of midlife women in divorce transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakraida, Teresa J

    2008-11-01

    This article describes stress and coping by decider status. Participants were 154 women aged 34 to 54 years who were recently divorced from their first marriage and were married 3 years prior to divorce. Participants self-selected into decider statuses as initiators, noninitiators, or mutual deciders. Noninitiators indicated not knowing the divorce experience was going to occur, not having enough time to get ready for it, saw it as something someone else did, and perceived it as a threat. Initiators and mutual deciders viewed the divorce as a challenge. Noninitiators were less positive about the divorce experience than were initiators and mutual deciders. Acceptance or resignation differed significantly for noninitiators and mutual deciders but not between noninitiators and initiators. Characterizing midlife divorce transition experiences provides a foundation for developing primary intervention to support personal growth, healing, and a healthy lifestyle.

  15. What causes the unrestricted right to divorce?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sinelnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to changes of the Russian family legislation in the XX century. Laws of the Russian Empire provided very few reasons for divorce. At the end of XIX - the beginning of the XX centuries the part of the intellectuals demanded liberalization of the legislation. The reforms which happened after October revolution of 1917 considerably changed all system of family values that led to strengthening of crisis of a family.

  16. Experience of young adults from divorced families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Spalding

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the way in which the effects of parental divorce surface during the developmental period of young adulthood.

    Opsomming
    Hierdie studie is ontwerp om die effek wat ouers se egskeiding op die ontwikkelingsfase van jong volwassenheid het, te bestudeer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  17. Bargaining at divorce: The allocation of custody

    OpenAIRE

    Atteneder, Christine; Halla, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We model the bargaining process of parents over custody at the time of divorce. First we assume an institutional setting where only sole custody is available. In a second step we reform this institutional setting and introduce the possibility of joint custody. We show that some parents, who would not be able to find an agreement in a sole custody regime, can find an agreement after the joint custody reform. Accordingly, our empirical analysis shows that the introduction of joint custody enabl...

  18. Concepts of Fairness in Marriage and Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Paechter, Carrie F.

    2013-01-01

    Discourses of fairness are bound up with Western ideals of companionate marriage. They are also central to the ways people talk about their approaches to divorce, especially in relation to the division of property and finances. How fairness is understood within marriage, however, is gendered, with husbands more likely to take equity-based and wives equality-based approaches. In this paper I discuss previous research on how fairness is understood within marriage, and compare this with data fro...

  19. 22 CFR 52.2 - Authentication of marriage and divorce documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication of marriage and divorce....2 Authentication of marriage and divorce documents. (a) Whenver a consular officer is requested to... divorce. ...

  20. How does parental divorce affect children's long-term outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Numerous papers report a negative association between parental divorce and child outcomes. To provide evidence whether this correlation is driven by a causal effect, we exploit idiosyncratic variation in the extent of sexual integration in fathers' workplaces: Fathers who encounter more women in their relevant age-occupation-group on-the-job are more likely to divorce. This results holds also conditioning on the overall share of female co-workers in a firm. We find that parental divorce has p...

  1. Effects of Divorce on children / Matlhodi Elizabeth Matsafu

    OpenAIRE

    Matsafu, Matlhodi Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    South African society may have erased the stigma that once accompanied divorce, but its massive effects cannot be ignored. Hence. the purpose of this research was to determine the causes, nature and impact of divorce on children. From the literature, it became evident that social scientists tracked successive generations of South African children whose parents have ended their marriages. Literature further indicates that divorce is a traumatic experience, characterized by...

  2. The effect of war on marriage, divorce and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1993-01-01

    The impact of war on marriage, divorce, and birth rates in the United States from 1933 to 1986 is explored. The author concludes that "the involvement of the nation in military activities was accompanied by a decrease in marriage and birth rates but not by any change in divorce rates. Mobilization of the armed forces and demobilization had no discernible impact on divorce, marriage or birth rates."

  3. The Effect of Joint Custody on Marriage and Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Halla, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s almost all states have introduced a form of joint custody after divorce. We analyze the causal effect of these custody law reforms on the incidence of marriage and divorce. Our identification strategy exploits the different timing of reforms across states and the control group of divorcing couples without minors. Estimations based on state panel data suggest that the introduction of joint custody led to a long-run increase in marriage rates. There is no convincing evidence for...

  4. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes-Costa,Rui; Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children’s physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Sources: Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articl...

  5. Psychological aspects of widowhood and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, J K; Sareen, Himanshu; Dhyani, Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Despite advances in standard of living of the population, the condition of widows and divorced women remains deplorable in society. The situation is worse in developing nations with their unique social, cultural and economic milieu, which at times ignores the basic human rights of this vulnerable section of society. A gap exists in life expectancies of men and women in both developing and developed nations. This, coupled with greater remarriage rates in men, ensures that the number of widows continues to exceed that of widowers. Moreover, with women becoming more educated, economically independent and aware of their rights, divorce rates are increasing along with associated psychological ramifications. The fact that widowed/divorced women suffer from varying psychological stressors is often ignored. It has been concluded in various studies that such stressors could be harbingers of psychiatric illnesses (e.g., depression, anxiety, substance dependence), and hence should be taken into account by treating physicians, social workers and others who come to the aid of such women. A change in mindset of the society is required before these women get their rightful place, for which a strong will is needed in the minds of the people, and in law-governing bodies.

  6. Psychological Aspects of Widowhood and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, J. K.; Sareen, Himanshu; Dhyani, Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Despite advances in standard of living of the population, the condition of widows and divorced women remains deplorable in society. The situation is worse in developing nations with their unique social, cultural and economic milieu, which at times ignores the basic human rights of this vulnerable section of society. A gap exists in life expectancies of men and women in both developing and developed nations. This, coupled with greater remarriage rates in men, ensures that the number of widows continues to exceed that of widowers. Moreover, with women becoming more educated, economically independent and aware of their rights, divorce rates are increasing along with associated psychological ramifications. The fact that widowed/divorced women suffer from varying psychological stressors is often ignored. It has been concluded in various studies that such stressors could be harbingers of psychiatric illnesses (e.g., depression, anxiety, substance dependence), and hence should be taken into account by treating physicians, social workers and others who come to the aid of such women. A change in mindset of the society is required before these women get their rightful place, for which a strong will is needed in the minds of the people, and in law-governing bodies. PMID:21836778

  7. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INCARCERATION AND DIVORCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Stewart, Eric A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that incarceration dramatically increases the odds of divorce, but we know little about the mechanisms that explain the association. This study uses prospective longitudinal data from a subset of married young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,919) to examine whether incarceration is associated with divorce indirectly via low marital love, economic strain, relationship violence, and extramarital sex. The findings confirmed that incarcerations occurring during, but not before, a marriage were associated with an increased hazard of divorce. Incarcerations occurring during marriage also were associated with less marital love, more relationship violence, more economic strain, and greater odds of extramarital sex. Above-average levels of economic strain were visible among respondents observed preincarceration, but only respondents observed postincarceration showed less marital love, more relationship violence, and higher odds of extramarital sex than did respondents who were not incarcerated during marriage. These relationship problems explained approximately 40 percent of the association between incarceration and marital dissolution. These findings are consistent with theoretical predictions that a spouse’s incarceration alters the rewards and costs of the marriage and the relative attractiveness of alternative partners. PMID:25598544

  8. Relationship between a father and a child after divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Traven, Jerneja

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of divorces and consequently children, who live with one of the parents and have occasional contacts with the other one. In my diploma I want to find out what kind of relationship father and a child have after divorce, father's feelings about that relationship and the conseqences of this relationship for a father and a child. Parents decide to divorce because of different reasons. After divorce a child lives with only one parent, meanwhile he rarely sees the other on...

  9. Marriage and divorce trends in Hong Kong 1981-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Marriage and divorce trends in Hong Kong are analyzed for the period 1981-1993. "During the period 1981 to 1993, men and women in Hong Kong showed a tendency towards delayed marriage. The number of re-marriages was on the rise, echoing an increasing number of divorces in the same period. This article examines the marital condition of the population, tendency to marry and certain socio-economic characteristics of brides and bridegrooms in the past 13 years. The number of divorces and the divorce rates are also discussed." excerpt

  10. The social and demographic correlates of divorce in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, K

    1998-09-01

    "This article examines the rate of divorce by age, sex and duration of marital life at the time of divorce in rural Bangladesh for a period of 18 years from 1975 to 1992. An attempt has also been made to investigate the extent to which the incidence of divorce changes with the various socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The overall divorce rates per thousand married males and females declined from 16.1 to 11.5 and 11.8 to 8.4, respectively, during the study periods 1975-1979 and 1989-1992." excerpt

  11. Divorce by consent in Roman law and contemporary law

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Marija; Kitanović Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The subject matter of this paper is divorce by mutual consent in Roman law and contemporary law. In the first part of this article, the authors analyzes the key tenets of consensual divorce in Roman law, with specific reference to the impact of Christian religious teaching on the concepts of marriage and divorce as well as on the Roman rulers' constitutions, which marked the beginning of the process of restricting the right to divorce. In the central part of the paper, the authors examines th...

  12. Academic performance in children of divorce: psychological resilience and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, D J; Watt, N F; Philpott, A; Sarlin, N

    1991-08-01

    Parental divorce can be conceptualized as a stressful event for all children, but one must recognize that reactions to divorce can vary widely among children. This investigation was based on two basic ideas: 1) children of divorce as a group would show deficits in academic performance compared to children from intact families, even several years after their parents' separation, and 2) because factors that promote psychological resilience and vulnerability, we expected to find normal heterogeneity within the divorce sample. Among 96 middle-school adolescents from a suburban school district near Denver, children of divorce showed significant performance deficits in academic achievement, as reflected in grade-point average and scholastic motivation in middle school, but not in nationally normed tests of scholastic aptitude and other less direct measures of behavioral conformity. An analysis of GPA over time revealed strikingly disparate patterns of achievement between divorce and control groups. Corresponding patterns of scholastic aptitude scores, absence from school and comportment revealed no systematic differences over time. These results suggest strongly that parental divorce can be a critical event in the academic development of children. Large differences in academic achievement between our divorce group as a whole and the controls cannot be attributed, at least at the time of sampling, to differences in social class or intellectual ability. Despite a similar family background, i.e., marital dissolution, a minority of the children of divorce showed vulnerability in the pattern of academic achievement over time while the majority demonstrated academic careers not unlike that of the controls.

  13. Parental divorce and subsequent disadvantage: a cross-cohort comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigle-Rushton, Wendy; Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    2005-08-01

    Although many studies have examined the link between parental divorce and subsequent well-being, some theories of the effects of divorce suggest that the negative associations should have declined over time. However, few studies have examined the extent to which the associations have remained stable over time. Using data from two British cohorts, we analyzed both shorter- and longer-term outcomes of children who experienced parental divorce and the extent to which the associations have changed over time. Estimating similar models for both cohorts, we found little evidence of any change in the size of the relationship as divorce became more commonplace.

  14. Family Functioning and Communication in Spouses of Patients with Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seo Young; Yang, Myung Hwa; Lee, Jung Ah; Jang, Wooyoung; Lee, Chong Sik; Kim, Young Sik

    2017-01-01

    Patients with parkinsonism exhibit motor symptoms, cognitive impairment, and neuropsychiatric changes, and these symptoms increase caregiver burden. Family dynamics can be influenced by the presence of comorbidities, which is especially important in diseases causing caregiver burden. We investigated the effects of spousal parkinsonism on family functioning and communication. Couples without parkinsonism, who visited hospital-based family practices, were recruited by 28 family physicians from 22 hospitals between April 2009 and June 2011; patients with parkinsonism and their spouses were recruited from a single institution. The participants completed questionnaires on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, family functioning (the Korean version of the Family Adaptation and Cohesion Evaluation Scale [FACES] III), and family communication (the Family Communication Scale of the FACES-IV). We compared family functioning and communication between spouses of the patients with and without parkinsonism. The mean family adaptability and cohesion scores of the spouses of the patients with parkinsonism were 23.09±6.48 and 32.40±8.43, respectively, whereas those of the control group were 23.84±5.88 and 34.89±7.59, respectively. Family functioning and family communication were significantly different between the spouses of individuals with and without parkinsonism. After adjusting for age, sex, income, and cardiovascular disease in the logistic regression analysis, family functioning was found to significantly deteriorate in the spouses of patients with parkinsonism but not the control group. Family communication decreased significantly in spouses of patients with parkinsonism. Family functioning and family communication significantly deteriorated in spouses of patients with parkinsonism.

  15. What do cancer patients' spouses know about the patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitchik, S; Kreitler, S; Rapoport, Y; Algor, R

    1992-10-01

    A large body of research shows that social support in general and of family members in particular plays an important role in determining cancer patients' quality of life. We assumed that the spouse's information about how the patient experiences the situation determines the spouse's ability to help. The present study was designed to examine how much the spouse knows about the attitudes and experiences of their husband or wife who is a cancer patient, and whether this knowledge depends on the questions' structure, disease duration, its severity, or level of patient's information about the disease and prognosis. A questionnaire with multiple-choice and open-ended questions assessing 13 domains (e.g., fears and worries concerning health, functioning in the family, and anxiety) was administered to patients and their partners. Subjects were 55 head-and-neck cancer patients, 40 men and 15 women, with disease stages I to IV, grade of tumors G1 to G3-4, and disease duration of 0.5 to 21 years. The results showed that correspondence between the patients' and their spouses' responses was very low, and was not affected by the structure of the questions or the disease's duration and severity. Correspondence was high only in patients informed about their disease. In the discussion, it was pointed out that when the patient is informed, communication channels in the family are opened and this brings about an increase in the spouses's information about the patient and hence in the spouse's ability to provide the patient the needed social support as a psychotherapeutic agent and a friend. The cancer nurse may play a crucial role in instituting the patient-spouse dialogue.

  16. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children’s health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Smith-Greenaway; Shelley Clark

    2017-01-01

    Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are mor...

  17. Socioeconomic, sociodemographic and attitudinal correlates of the tempo of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, C J; Woods, A Y

    1991-01-01

    The association between sociodemographic, demographic, and attitudinal measures and the timing or tempo of marital dissolution over a 14-year time span is examined. Separation is considered equivalent to divorce. Early and late divorce are differentiated by whether the event occurred before or after the average number of years married prior to divorce. Data were obtained on husbands and wives within childbearing years (up to 39 years) in the 1st years of the 1st marriage. A random stratified sample of 610 couples was drawn from records of marriages in a midwestern county between 1972-77. Reinterviews were conducted on 544 couples in April 1985. socioeconomic variables included educational attainment, occupational prestige, wife's employment status, wife's future work plans, husband's attitude to wife's future work plans, total family income, and level of satisfaction with current financial status. Demographic variables are age at marriage, number of children in 1985, marital duration, and desired family size. Attitudinal items were religiosity and gender role orientations (traditionalism, modernism, egalitarianism). Exposure to divorce was not equitably distributed for the 108 who divorced, but this was not statistically significant. The results indicate that those divorced earlier were wives who worked outside the home, worked at more prestigious jobs, planned to be employed throughout married life, and whose father had a higher level of educational attainment. This finding is not consistent with prior research which has shown that favorable socioeconomic conditions lower the probability of divorce. The timing of divorce was affected by the presence of children. Those married at younger ages divorced earlier and couples with children delayed divorcing longer than couples without children. These findings were consistent with earlier research. Catholic wives delayed divorce longer than non-Catholic wives. Males lower in sexual satisfaction divorced earlier. Divorce

  18. The Parental Divorce Transition: Divorce-Related Stressors and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Used Double ABC-X Model of family stress to develop a theoretical model of the parental divorce transition. Custodial mothers' economic well-being correlated negatively with legal stressors. Other significant independent variables were income during marriage, employment, education, number of children, and her remarriage. For noncustodial fathers,…

  19. Sexual Transmission of HCV in Heterologous Monogamous Spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We screened for evidence of HCV infection in healthy heterologous monogamous spouses of chronic HCV patients and studied the relation with various risk factors. A cross-sectional study of fifty healthy monogamous heterosexual spouses of HCV-positive index cases was carried out. All participants were HBV and HIV negative. The association with various risk factors was studied. Five spouses (10% showed evidence of HCV infection. Two partners were positive for HCV antibody alone (4% and 3 for antibody and HCV PCR (6%. No association was found between HCV infection and various sociodemographic parameters with the exception of older age categories. Intraspousal transmission of HCV may be an important source of spread of HCV infection. The reservoir of HCV-infected individuals in Egypt is sizable, and sexual transmission of HCV may contribute to the total burden of infection in Egypt.

  20. Parental Divorce in Childhood and Loneliness in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    Studied effects of childhood parental separation and divorce on adult loneliness among 87 college students who, when they were between the ages of 3 and 16, had experienced the divorce of their parents. Data analysis revealed that there were significant relationships between reported mourning behaviors, as well as respondents, ages at time of…

  1. A changing paradigm of interpersonal communication in divorce family

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Supratman, Lucy Pujasari

    2017-01-01

    ... from the Religious Affairs Ministry, the divorce rate in Indonesia is increasing. The results of this study are the changing paradigm of agreeing the parents divorced decision to teenagers and the changing social interaction in the family. It has changed the interpersonal communication between the single parents and their young teenagers. The t...

  2. Participation of divorced single parents and their children in outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation of divorced single parents and their children in outdoor activities to improve attitudes and relationships. ... Two divorced single-parent families headed by the mother with adolescent children participated in this small scale four-day adventure intervention programme including a high-ropes course, ...

  3. Parentification of Adult Children of Divorce: A Multidimensional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, Gregory J.; Thirkield, Alison; Morrell, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Compared the responses of 381 late adolescent and young adult children of divorce and nondivorce on a new multidimensional measure of parentification assessing the extent and fairness of past and present family caregiving. Evidence that problematic forms of parentification in children of divorce continue into late adolescence and young adulthood…

  4. Children's Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Joan B.; Emery, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the empirical literature on the longer-term adjustment of children of divorce from the perspective of (a) the stressors and elevated risks that divorce presents for children and (b) protective factors associated with better adjustment. The resiliency demonstrated by the majority of children is discussed, as are controversies regarding the…

  5. What Schools Are Doing To Help the Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, William A. H.; Lewis, Jennifer M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how teachers' observations of children can help behavioral pediatricians identify family situations contributing to marked changes in children's behavior related to divorce. Discusses ways teachers can support children of divorce, including maintaining consistency and discipline, making children feel competent, listening to the child's…

  6. Euripides' Medea: a psychodynamic model of severe divorce pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J W

    1988-04-01

    Analysis of Euripides' play, Medea, and a divorcing family suggests that divorce between a narcissistically scarred, embittered, dependent woman and a pathologically narcissistic, devaluing man may lead to the mother's attempt to sever father-child contact as a means of revenging the injury inflicted on her by the loss of a selfobject, her hero-husband.

  7. Adolescent-Parent Conflict in Married and Divorced Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Families were interviewed and participated in a social interaction task. Results indicated that married mothers of adolescents generated more conflicts than did divorced mothers, and adolescents from married families exhibited more positive communication than did adolescents from divorced families. There was a greater trend toward harmonious…

  8. Moderators of Women's and Children's Adjustment Following Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between parental divorce and the psychosocial adjustment of divorced women and their dependent children. The current relationship with the ex-husband was the best predictor of divorcees' adjustment, while divorcees' happiness in their former marriages was most strongly related to their children's adjustment. (Author)

  9. Divorce over the Life Course: The Role of Marital Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lynn K.; Booth, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Explored apparent anomaly that marital happiness and divorce are both lower in longer marriages using a national panel of over 2,000 married individuals interviewed in 1980 and 1988. Results indicated marital happiness had a stronger effect on divorce at longer durations than at shorter durations. (Author/ABL)

  10. Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, E.; Surra Catherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is thought to affect romantic relationships of young adults, especially with respect to certainty about relationships and perceptions of problems in relationships. This study examined these connections with a random sample of 464 coupled partners. Young adults who were casually dating showed the strongest effects of divorce,…

  11. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  12. Parental Divorce and Children’s Schooling in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children’s schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children’s schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children’s schooling. PMID:27822897

  13. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.

  14. Socialization of Young Children in the Divorced Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Martha J.; Cox, Roger D.

    1979-01-01

    Reported is a longitudinal study in which families with preschool children were observed, interviewed, and tested over two years following the parents' divorce and compared with a sample of intact families. Findings on the impact of divorce on individuals, on family interactions, and on children's social and intellectual development are presented.…

  15. Late-Life Divorce: Its Impact on Family Rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined perceived changes in specific family celebrations, traditions, important life cycle events, and day-to-day family contact that occurred for 115 adult children whose parents had divorced after long-term marriage. Found strong positive correlation between perceived disruptiveness of parental divorce and changes in family rituals,…

  16. Family Stress Theory and the Impact of Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents a middle-range theory that describes the potential impact of divorce on children, based on concepts from family stress theory. The proposed theoretical model is concerned especially with variations in the definition of the situation assigned to the crisis of divorce by children and custodial parents. (JAC)

  17. Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Examined data from 419 parents and their adult children to assess impact of parental marital quality and divorce while child is residing with parents on parent-child relations 12 years later. Low marital quality and divorce appeared to have independent effects on adult child-parent relations. Fathers' relationships suffered more than mothers';…

  18. Statewide Divorce Rates and Wives' Participation in the Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Bijou Y.; Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Analyzed the relationship between the participation of married women in the labor market and divorce rates in the continental states of the United States in 1980. Results showed the higher the proportion of married women working full time and the lower the proportion of married women working part time, the higher the divorce rate of the state.…

  19. Differences in Family Policies and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The intergenerational transmission of the risk of divorce is a well-known long-term effect of divorce that has been found in many Western societies. Less known is what effect different family policies and divorce laws have on the intergenerational transmission of divorce. In this paper, the division of Germany into two separate states from 1949 until 1990, with the consequent development of two very different family policies, is regarded as a natural experiment that enables us to investigate the effect of family policy on the mechanisms underlying the social inheritance of divorce. Data from respondents from the former East and West Germany participating in the German Life History Study are analyzed using multivariate event-history methods. The results indicate that the strength of the intergenerational divorce transmission, when adjusted for differences in divorce level, was lower in the East than in the West. Differences in religion, marriage age and timing of first birth, which are partial indicators of family policy, could explain this effect. Furthermore, we did find a tendency towards a reduction in the dynamics of divorce transmission over time, both in East Germany and in West Germany.

  20. The Risk of Divorce and Household Saving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Ozcan, Berkay

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the causal impact of an increase in the risk of marital dissolution on the saving behavior of married couples. We use the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous shock to the risk of divorce. We propose several comparison groups (unaffected by the law change) that allow us to use a difference-in-differences approach.…

  1. Changing Families, Changing Responsibilities: Family Obligations Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    The high incidence of divorce and remarriage means that the structure of American families is changing. Drawing on 13 studies that explore intergenerational obligations, this book discusses the responsibilities of family members to one another after divorce and remarriage. Chapter 1, "Who Is Responsible for Dependent Family Members?," presents an…

  2. Parent-Adolescent Separation: The Role of Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, DeWayne; Hotch, Deborah F.

    1982-01-01

    Among late adolescent males, parental divorce was highly related to Emotional separation as a home-leaving indicator; for females, being a firstborn was associated with Personal Control as a home-leaving indicator. These findings supported previous research indicating that males experience more adjustment problems after parental divorce than…

  3. A Prospective Study of Divorce and Parent-Child Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Used national longitudinal data to examine parent-child relationships before and after divorce. Parental reports of relationship problems with children were significantly elevated as early as 12 years prior to divorce. Findings suggest that the quality of the parents' marriage has both direct and indirect long-term consequences for parent-child…

  4. Emotional and behavioural problems in young children with divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Meinou H C; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Cloostermans, Anne P G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the link between divorce or separation and emotional and behavioural problems (EBP) in children aged 2-4 years. We obtained cross-sectional data for a nationally representative Dutch sample of children aged 2-4 years within the setting of the national system of routine visits to well-child clinics. A total of 2600 children participated (response rate: 70%). Before the visit, parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist and a questionnaire with questions about divorce or separation. We assessed the associations of children's EBP with a divorce either in the previous year or at any time in the past after adjustment for other child and family factors. Four percent of the children had parents who had divorced before the child reached the age of 2-4 years, and 3.4% of these parents had divorced in the previous year. EBP (and particularly behavioural problems) were more likely in children aged 2-4 years old in cases of lifetime divorce or separation. This association was weaker after adjustment for relevant child and family characteristics: it may be partly due to confounding factors such as paternal education level, ethnicity and family size. A divorce in the previous year was not linked to child EBP. These findings show the importance of identifying care needs and providing care for pre-school children whose parents have divorced since they suggest that there may be negative effects in the longer term.

  5. The experiences of divorced professional nurses in the workplace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considerable research has been done on the impact of divorce on married persons, their children and families but little has been done on its impact on professional nurses work performance. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of divorced female professional nurses at East London ...

  6. Loneliness after divorce: A cohort comparison among Dutch older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, van T.G.; Aartsen, M.J.; Pas, van der S.

    2015-01-01

    Divorce increases the risk of loneliness. With divorce increasingly becoming a normal life event, societal changes are now challenging this idea as regards to current cohorts. We hypothesize that the relative strong feelings of loneliness among divorcees, compared with married people, has diminished

  7. Children of Divorce: The Impact on Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Kevin Seiji

    This paper presents research on the influence of divorce on the classroom behavior of school-aged children. It attempts to uncover some contributing factors that may play a role in how a child deals with divorce. It explores the role of the teacher and school in the intervention and discusses what teachers have observed in working with children of…

  8. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce.

  9. [Medical speciality, belief in Santa and the risk of divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Arreskov, Anne Beiter

    2016-12-12

    Christmas is a unique time for family occasions - unfortunately the number of divorces increase in the months after Christmas. In this study, we examined the relationship between medical speciality, length of relationship, risk of divorce and if belief in Santa impacted on these outcomes. A questionnaire was developed from the lived experiences of the authors and distributed to doctors of any speciality through links (SurveyXact) in emails, text messages and Facebook from June 28 2016 to August 1 2016. Multivariate regression models were used to analyze the results. A total of 1,100 completed questionnaires were included in the analyses. The divorce rate among respondents was 12%. Compared to the speciality "general practice" all other specialities had higher divorce rates. The highest risk of divorce was reported by physicians specialized in psychiatry (odds ratio 2.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.43)). Belief in Santa was associated with a slightly increased risk of divorce in all medical specialities, with the exception of psychiatry. General practitioners also exhibited the longest duration of relationships compared to peers in other medical specialities. Being a general practitioner was associated with a low risk of divorce and significantly longer relationships than in other medical specialities. Belief in Santa in regard to divorce only seemed to be beneficial for psychiatrists. So please participate in the joy of Christmas but do not rely on Santa - go shop your own presents for the family. none. not relevant.

  10. Remarriage after Divorce: A Longitudinal Analysis of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Graham B.; Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Examined data from a longitudinal study of divorce and remarriage to ascertain whether remarriage is helpful in enhancing one's well-being following marital separation. Concluded that remarriage after divorce is not associated with enhanced well-being. Moreover, no other variables were identified which appear to predict well-being following…

  11. Frequency, Duration, and Probability of Marriage and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Paul C.; Norton, Arthur J.

    1971-01-01

    This study discusses how many persons have had multiple marriages and have been divorced; length of time between marriages and the probability of marriage; and divorce, widowhood and remarriage by various social and economic characteristics based on marital history information from the Survey of Economic Opporutnity. (Author/CG)

  12. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  14. Student Counsellors' Perceived Causes of Divorce among Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in the rate of divorce in Nigeria and it‟s attendant negative consequences should be of concern to all especially counsellors and student counsellors It is imperative to find out student counsellors‟ perceived causes of divorce among couples in Lagos metropolis. Their perception will affect their judgment in ...

  15. Demonization of Divorce: Prevalence Rates and Links to Postdivorce Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    The meaning-making process can be crucial to individuals as they adjust to their divorce. Demonization is a negative coping response (also known as spiritual struggle) that involves appraising someone or something as related to demonic forces. Individuals may cognitively frame a divorce as the work of Satan in order to understand suffering while…

  16. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  17. Separated and Divorced Women in India : Economic Rights and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Separated and Divorced Women in India : Economic Rights and Entitlements. Couverture du livre Separated and Divorced Women in India. Auteur(s) : Kirti Singh. Maison(s) d'édition : SAGE, CRDI. 14 mars 2013. ISBN : 9788132109525. 278 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505519. Téléchargez le PDF · Téléchargez le cyberlivre.

  18. Effectiveness of a Support Group for Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sandra L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted a group experience for fourth and fifth grade children (N=17) whose parents had been divorced 2 months to 2 years previously and who were recommended by teachers or parents for divorce adjustment concerns. Results showed parents rated children less distractible and as having fewer problem behaviors; teachers ratings did not change with…

  19. The Effects of Divorce on Children's Personality Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael E.

    1977-01-01

    Major effects of divorce identified are age and sex of the child, relative willingness and ability of parents to care for the child, and nature of the parent-child relationships. There is little support for assumptions that divorce is necessarily harmful and custody should always be awarded to mothers. (Author)

  20. Children and Divorce: An Overview of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford, Ed.

    The effects of divorce on children are the subject of this collection of eight papers by authors from several disciplines. The central theme of Albert Solnit's paper is that divorce means dissolution of the family as well as the marriage. The role of the courts in custody and visitation issues and the effects of conflicts on the children are…

  1. Divorce and Special Education. PHP-c103

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Every year the parents of a million American children are newly divorced. While divorce is difficult for all parties involved, children are often the most affected. If the children have disabilities and are involved with the special education system, the situation can be even more complex. The information in this document may help parents think…

  2. Divorce and Special Education in Minnesota. PHP-c104

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When parents divorce, they sometimes have questions about which parent has rights in special education. The federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Minnesota state special education laws and regulations clearly describe parental rights and the school district's duty to meet them. Most rights are unchanged by divorce. The…

  3. Perceived Causes of Divorce: An Analysis of Interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleek, Margaret Guminski; Pearson, T. Allan

    1985-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between perceived causes of divorce in a sample of 275 males and 336 females. Seven dimensions of divorce, underlying 18 possible contributing causes, were revealed. Significant differences were found between the sexes both in frequencies with which causes were identified and in composition of the seven factors.…

  4. Divorce and Death: A Case Study for Health Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Nojopranoto, Widyasita

    2012-01-01

    Marital separation and divorce are associated with increased risk for early death, and the magnitude of this association rivals that of many well-established public health factors. In the case of divorce, however, the mechanisms explaining precisely why and how some people are at risk for early death remain unclear. This paper reviews what is known about the association between divorce and risk for all-cause mortality, then discusses four emerging themes in this area of research: the biological intermediaries linking divorce to pathophysiology and disease onset, moving beyond the statistical mean, focusing research on the diathesis-stress model, and studying how opportunity foreclosures may place people on a trajectory toward poor distal health outcomes. These ideas are grounded in a set of public lay commentaries about the association between divorce and death; in this way, the paper seeks to integrate current research ideas with how the general public thinks about divorce and its correlates. Although this paper focuses on divorce, many of the emerging themes are applicable to the study of psychosocial stress and health more generally. Therefore, the study of divorce and death provides a good case study for health psychology and considers new questions that can be pursued in a variety of research areas. PMID:23284588

  5. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G

    1997-06-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk.... The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers." (EXCERPT)

  6. Temporary Life Changes and the Timing of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Breen, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Marriage is a risky undertaking that people enter with incomplete information about their partner and their future life circumstances. A large literature has shown how new information gained from unforeseen but long-lasting or permanent changes in life circumstances may trigger a divorce. We extend this literature by considering how information gained from a temporary change in life circumstances-in our case, a couple having a child with infantile colic-may affect divorce behavior. Although persistent life changes are known to induce divorce, we argue that a temporary stressful situation allows couples more quickly to discern the quality of their relationship, in some cases leading them to divorce sooner than they otherwise would have. We formalize this argument in a model of Bayesian updating and test it using data from Denmark. We find that the incidence of infantile colic shortens the time to divorce or disruption among couples who would have split up anyway.

  7. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

  9. Relationships between support and adjustment among children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, E L; Pedro-Carroll, J L; Alpert-Gillis, L J

    1990-07-01

    In a sample of 102 4th-6th grade urban children of divorce, low to moderate relationships were found between perceived support and child adjustment. This relationship held for several sources of support and across several types of adjustment measures. It was strongest when adjustment was assessed through child self-ratings. Thus, children of divorce who perceived themselves as having more overall support had lower scores on measures of post-divorce difficulties, anxiety, and worry, and higher scores on measures of openness about the divorce and positive resources. The relationships found between support and adjustment among children of divorce suggest a potentially useful role for support in developing preventive interventions for such youngsters.

  10. Women's Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R

    2013-06-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones.

  11. The Association Between Divorce and Risks for Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E.; George, Linda K.; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in U.S. adults. Methods and Results We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one-third of the cohort had at least one divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1,211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced relative to those who were continuously married (Pdivorce (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55), 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of 2 or more divorces (HR, 1.30; 95%CI, 1.02-1.66) relative to continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Conclusions Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. PMID:25872508

  12. Association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Matthew E; George, Linda K; Liu, Guangya; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-05-01

    Divorce is a major life stressor that can have economic, emotional, and physical health consequences. However, the cumulative association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This study investigated the association between lifetime exposure to divorce and the incidence of AMI in US adults. We used nationally representative data from a prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80 years (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to 2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were divorced at baseline and more than one third of the cohort had ≥1 divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years of follow-up, 8% (n=1211) of the cohort had an AMI and age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those who were divorced compared with those who were continuously married (Pdivorce (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.55), ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70) compared with continuously married women after adjusting for multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were elevated only in men with a history of ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.66) compared with continuously married men. Men who remarried had no significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not statistically significant. Divorce is a significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not reduced with remarriage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children's health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley

    2017-12-01

    Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent's diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level.

  14. The Impact of Divorce on the Lives of Children: Alleviating the Trauma of the Divorce Experience Through Adult Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denise

    This paper reviews current literature pertaining to the effects of divorce on children and makes suggestions regarding general ways in which parents and other adults may assist children in coping with divorce. The population of children towards which this study is directed includes preschool through latency age children. All inferences made in…

  15. Boundary Ambiguity and Coparental Conflict after Divorce: An Empirical Test of a Family Systems Model of the Divorce Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.; Christopher, F. Scott

    1999-01-01

    A family systems model of the divorce process was proposed and tested for divorced mothers and fathers using a series of multiple regression analysis. Findings support the hypothesized positive relationship between boundary ambiguity and coparental conflict. Reports factors that influence boundary ambiguity were found to be distinct for mothers…

  16. Variation in the link between parental divorce and children’s health disadvantage in low and high divorce settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Clark, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    Like in other world regions, children with divorced parents in sub-Saharan Africa experience significant heath disadvantages relative to their peers with married parents. Preliminary evidence suggests this disadvantage may not be uniform across the subcontinent’s diverse settings. Research from other world regions shows that the childhood health consequences of divorce vary across different contexts. Specifically, we hypothesize that the childhood disadvantages associated with divorce are more severe in regions of sub-Saharan Africa where divorce is rare, and less so where divorce is a more common family experience. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 290 subnational regions within 31 sub-Saharan African countries, multilevel models document the previously shown link between having a divorced mother and child morbidity and mortality. The study results further demonstrate that the childhood health disadvantage is accentuated in subnational African regions where fewer women are divorced and muted in areas where more women are divorced. The findings demonstrate that the broader context can powerfully moderate childhood health inequalities traditionally thought of as operating at the family or individual level. PMID:28890915

  17. Trading up: the fitness consequences of divorce in monogamous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culina, Antica; Radersma, Reinder; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Social and genetic mating systems play an important role in natural and sexual selection, as well as in the dynamics of populations. In socially monogamous species different genetic mating patterns appear when individuals mate outside the breeding pair within a breeding season (extra-pair mating) or when they change partners between two breeding seasons (widowing or divorce). Divorce can be defined as having occurred when two previously paired individuals are alive during the next breeding season and at least one of them has re-mated with a new partner. In socially monogamous birds divorce is widespread, but it is not clear whether it is a behavioural adaptation to improve the quality of a mating decision or whether, alternatively, it results as a non-selected consequence of other processes: existing studies suggest a heterogeneous set of results with respect to this central question. This heterogeneity could result from a number of factors, ranging from the methodological approaches used, to population- or species-specific characters. In this review we use phylogenetic meta-analyses to assess the evidence that divorce is adaptive (in terms of breeding success) across 64 species of socially monogamous birds. Second, we explore biological and methodological reasons for the heterogeneity in the results of previous studies. Results of our analyses supported the hypothesis that divorce is, in general, an adaptive behavioural strategy as: (1) divorce is triggered by relatively low breeding success; (2) there is a positive change in breeding success as a result of divorce. More specifically, while controlling for methodological moderators, we show that: (i) earlier stages of breeding are better predictors of divorce than later stages (r = 0.231; 95% CI: 0.061-0.391 for clutch size; similar for laying date); (ii) females benefited from divorce more than males in terms of increasing breeding success between successive breeding attempts, with different stages of the

  18. The Effects of Early Parental Divorce on the Sex Role Development of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vess, James D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the long-term effects of early parental divorce on sex role development in 219 college students. No significant differences were found between subjects from intact and divorced parents. However, children's age at the time of divorce, siblings, and post-divorce parental conflict were mediating factors. (JAC)

  19. 20 CFR 222.21 - When marriage is terminated by final divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When marriage is terminated by final divorce... Widow(er) § 222.21 When marriage is terminated by final divorce. A final divorce, often referred to as an absolute divorce, completely dissolves the marriage relationship and restores the parties to the...

  20. Crisis in Family Law: Children as Victims of Divorce. Report #R101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council for Children's Rights, Washington, DC.

    Emphasizing the shortcomings of family law and their impact on divorced families and children, this report discusses a variety of topics related to divorce. Topics covered in the report include the following: (1) divorce statistics; (2) methods of resolving family disputes; (3) the marital contract; (4) the public's image of divorced fathers; (5)…