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Sample records for survivin protein expression

  1. [Correlation of the expression of survivin and caspase-3 proteins in juvenile laryngeal papilloma].

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    Wang, Wu; Zhou, Yuan-da; He, Hai-xia

    2009-11-01

    To investigate correlation between the expression of survivin and caspase-3 proteins in juvenile laryngeal papilloma. The expression of survivin and caspase-3 proteins were detected with immunohistochemical method in 43 cases of juvenile laryngeal papilloma, 25 vocal nodules and 25 normal laryngeal mucosa. The positive rates of survivin protein in juvenile laryngeal papilloma were 57.14% and higher than that in vocal nodules (Plaryngeal mucosa (Plaryngeal papilloma and lower than that in vocal nodules and the normal laryngeal mucosa (Plaryngeal papilloma. The abnormal expression of survivin and caspase-3 may play important role in the pathogenesis of juvenile laryngeal papilloma.

  2. Reduced expression of survivin, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein correlates with severity of preeclampsia.

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    Li, C F; Gou, W L; Li, X L; Wang, S L; Yang, T; Chen, Q

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy affecting maternal and fetal health. Although the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is unclear, it is believed that trophoblast apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia during pregnancy. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family that uniquely promotes trophoblast proliferation. In this study we investigated the alteration of survivin levels during pregnancy and compared the survivin protein and mRNA between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. The mRNA level of survivin in first, second and third trimester placentae was measured by Real-time PCR. The expression of survivin in preeclamptic placentae (including severe and mild preeclampsia) and in age-matched normal placentae was measured by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of survivin in preeclamptic or normal placentae were measured by Real-time PCR. The mRNA level of survivin was significantly reduced throughout gestation. The mRNA level of survivin in preeclamptic placentae was significantly reduced compared to that in normal placenta. The mRNA level of survivin in severe preeclamptic placentae was further significantly reduced compared to that in mild preeclamptic placentae. In addition, survivin was expressed on syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts and the expression of survivin was significantly decreased in preeclamptic placenta compared to that in normal placenta (p=0.01). Furthermore the expression of survivin in severe preeclamptic placentae was significantly lower than that in mild preeclamptic placentae. Our current data suggests lower placental expression of survivin may be associated with the severity of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. C-reactive protein inhibits survivin expression via Akt/mTOR pathway downregulation by PTEN expression in cardiac myocytes.

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    Beom Seob Lee

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is one of the most important biomarkers for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that CRP affects cell cycle and inflammatory process in cardiac myocytes. Survivin is also involved in cardiac myocytes replication and apoptosis. Reduction of survivin expression is associated with less favorable cardiac remodeling in animal models. However, the effect of CRP on survivin expression and its cellular mechanism has not yet been studied. We demonstrated that treatment of CRP resulted in a significant decrease of survivin protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner in cardiac myocytes. The upstream signaling proteins of survivin, such as Akt, mTOR and p70S6K, were also downregulated by CRP treatment. In addition, CRP increased the protein and mRNA levels of PTEN. The siRNA transfection or specific inhibitor treatment for PTEN restored the CRP-induced downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway and survivin protein expression. Moreover, pretreatment with a specific p53 inhibitor decreased the CRP-induced PTEN expression. ERK-specific inhibitor also blocked the p53 phosphorylation and PTEN expression induced by CRP. Our study provides a novel insight into CRP-induced downregulation of survivin protein expression in cardiac myocytes through mechanisms that involved in downregulation of Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway by expression of PTEN.

  4. Counteraction of the Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin by Diverting Expression to its Proapoptotic Splice Variant Survivin-2B

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    2010-01-01

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views, opinions and/or...NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14...Ambrosini, G., C. Adida , and D.C. Altieri, A novel anti-apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer and lymphoma. Nat Med, 1997. 3(8): p. 917-21. 3

  5. Survivin 2α: a novel Survivin splice variant expressed in human malignancies

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    Honsey Laura E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin and its alternative splice forms are involved in critical cellular processes, including cell division and programmed cell death. Survivin is expressed in the majority of human cancers, but minimally in differentiated normal tissues. Expression levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness and resistance to therapy. Results In the present study, we identify and characterize a novel survivin isoform that we designate survivin 2α. Structurally, the transcript consists of 2 exons: exon 1 and exon 2, as well as a 3' 197 bp region of intron 2. Acquisition of a new in-frame stop codon within intron 2 results in an open reading frame of 225 nucleotides, predicting a truncated 74 amino acid protein. Survivin 2α is expressed at high levels in several malignant cell lines and primary tumors. Functional assays show that survivin 2α attenuates the anti-apoptotic activity of survivin. Subcellular localization and immunoprecipitation of survivin 2α suggests a physical interaction with survivin. Conclusion We characterized a novel survivin splice variant that we designated survivin 2α. We hypothesize that survivin 2α can alter the anti-apoptotic functions of survivin in malignant cells. Thus survivin 2α may be useful as a therapeutic tool in sensitizing chemoresistant tumor cells to chemotherapy.

  6. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. The Survivin −31 Snp in Human Colorectal Cancer Correlates with Survivin Splice Variant Expression and Improved Overall Survival

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    Anna G. Antonacopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survivin is involved in the regulation of cell division and survival, two key processes in cancer. The majority of studies on survivin in colorectal cancer (CRC have focused on protein expression and less is known about the expression of survivin splicing variants or survivin gene polymorphisms in CRC. In the present study, the mRNA levels of the five known isoforms of survivin as well as survivin protein were assessed in matched normal and neoplastic colorectal tissue. Moreover, the 9386C/T and −31G/C polymorphisms were investigated.

  8. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Amita Negi; Abhiney Puri; Rakhi Gupta; Rajat Nangia; Alisha Sachdeva; Megha Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue block...

  9. Silibinin down-regulates survivin protein and mRNA expression and causes caspases activation and apoptosis in human bladder transitional-cell papilloma RT4 cells.

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    Tyagi, Anil K; Agarwal, Chapla; Singh, Rana P; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Glode, L Michael; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2003-12-26

    Bladder cancer is the fourth and eighth most common cancer in men and women in the United States, respectively. Survivin, a member of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) gene family, is deregulated in a wide range of malignancies, including carcinoma of the bladder urothelium. Recent advances have identified survivin as a novel intervention target to induce apoptosis in cancer cells by phytochemicals or synthetic agents. Silibinin is a naturally occurring flavanone, isolated from milk thistle extract, and has been shown to possess cancer prevention/intervention potential against various cancers. In several animal and human studies, it is found to be safe and non-toxic. Human bladder transitional-cell papilloma RT4 cells were treated with silibinin and analyzed for survivin protein and mRNA levels by Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Silibinin treatment of cells for 24 h at 100 microM dose resulted in approximately 50% decrease in survivin protein level; however, treatment at 200 microM dose for 24 and 48 h showed a complete loss in survivin protein without any change in actin used as loading control. Employing RT-PCR analysis we also observed that silibinin causes a strong to complete decrease in survivin mRNA levels. In other studies, down-regulation of survivin by silibinin was associated with a very strong and prominent caspases-9 and -3 activation as well as PARP cleavage. Quantitative apoptotic assay showed that silibinin decreased survivin levels and caspases-PARP cleavages, in accord with a strong apoptotic death and growth inhibition of RT4 cells. Together, these findings suggest that more studies are needed to investigate in vivo effect of silibinin on survivin expression and associated biological effects in bladder cancer that could provide useful information for silibinin efficacy in the prevention/intervention of human bladder cancer.

  10. Survivin isoform expression in arsenic trioxide-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line and patients: The odd expression pattern of survivin-2α.

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    Zaki Dizaji, Majid; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Hosseini, Elham; Alizadeh, Nasrin; Rostami, Shahrbano; Momeny, Majid; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2017-04-01

    Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, is overexpressed in most cancers and is associated with chemotherapy resistance, increased tumor recurrence and shorter patient survival. Several survivin splice variants have been described, and none of their expressions have been defined in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Expression of the survivin gene isoforms (survivin, -2α, -2B, -ΔΕx3 and -3B) were analyzed in 50 peripheral blood and 19 bone marrow samples that were collected at different phases of the disease (diagnostic, remission and relapse) in APL patients treated with arsenic trioxide (ATO) as a front-line therapy. In addition, the human APL-derived cell line (NB4) was analyzed for the expression of survivin isoforms and capsase-3 in response to the ATO. Survivin and its variants were overexpressed significantly in patient's bone marrow samples compared to peripheral blood or normal samples. Their expression was decreased after ATO treatment in both NB4 cells (except survivin-2α) and APL patients along with PML-RARα copy number reduction. Downregulation of survivin isoforms was associated with an increase in both caspase-3 gene expression and its enzymatic activity levels. In a patient who did not respond to ATO treatment, expression of survivin isoforms (except survivin-2α) were highly increased during the induction therapy. Survivin isoforms are upregulated in APL patients, and their expression is diminished during the ATO treatment. In addition, overexpression of survivin and its variants (except survivin-2α) are associated with unfavorable results, suggesting that they may play an important role in mechanisms underlying the resistance of APL cells to ATO. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Correlation between the levels of survivin and survivin promoter-driven gene expression in cancer and non-cancer cells.

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    Konopka, Krystyna; Spain, Christopher; Yen, Allison; Overlid, Nathan; Gebremedhin, Senait; Düzgüneş, Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, is associated with malignant transformation and is over-expressed in most human tumors. Using lipoplex-mediated transfection, we evaluated the activity of the reporter enzyme, luciferase, expressed from plasmids encoding the enzyme under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or survivin promoters, in tumor- and non-tumor-derived human and murine cells. We also examined whether there is a correlation between the survivin promoter-driven expression of luciferase and the level of endogenous survivin. Human cancer cells (HeLa, KB, HSC-3, H357, H376, H413), oral keratinocytes, GMSM-K, and chemically immortalized human mammary cells, 184A-1, were transfected with Metafectene at 2 microl/1 microg DNA. Murine squamous cell carcinoma cells, SCCVII, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, NIH-3T3, and murine immortalized mammary cells, NMuMG, were transfected with Metafectene PRO at 2 microl/1 microg DNA. The expression of luciferase was driven by the CMV promoter (pCMV.Luc), the human survivin promoter (pSRVN.Luc-1430), or the murine survivin promoters (pSRVN.Luc-1342 and pSRVN.Luc-194). Luciferase activity was measured, using the Luciferase Assay System and expressed as relative light units (RLU) per ml of cell lysate or per mg of protein. The level of survivin in the lysates of human cells was determined by ELISA and expressed as ng survivin/mg protein. In all cell lines, significantly higher luciferase activity was driven by the CMV promoter than by survivin promoters. The expression of luciferase driven by the CMV and survivin promoters in murine cells was much higher than that in human cells. The cells displayed very different susceptibilities to transfection; nevertheless, high CMV-driven luciferase activity appeared to correlate with high survivin-promoter driven luciferase expression. The survivin concentration in lysates of cancer cells ranged from 5.8 +/- 2.3 to 24.3 +/- 2.9 ng/mg protein (mean

  12. Assessment of prognostic significance of cytoplasmic survivin expression in advanced oesophageal cancer.

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    G Wallner

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Survivin is a member of the family of proteins, which inhibit apoptosis (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins - IAP. Expression of survivin was found in colorectal cancer, neuroblastoma, bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. There is some recent data indicating the correlation of poor prognosis and worse response to chemotherapy in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC expressing survivin. The aim of the present study was to assess survivin expression in cancerous tissue of patients with advanced OSCC and to test the potential correlation between survivin expression and clinicopathological data. Forty two patients (mean age 58.36+/-8.97 yrs, who were oesophagectomised due to squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic oesophagus between 1998 and 2000, were retrospectively analysed. Cytoplasmic survivin expression, examined immunohistochemically, was found in 35 (83.33% cases. No statistically significant correlation between survivin expression in the tumour and patients' gender, TNM stage, or vascular involvement was noted. The mean survival of patients with cytoplasmic survivin expression (17.81+/-5.51 months was not statistically different to those with negative survivin staining (16+/-6.28 months as assessed by Mantel-Cox test (p=0.49. Univariate regression analysis revealed UICC staging as the only predictor of survival in the analysed group (p<0.05. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic survivin expression does not seem to be the prognostic factor in advanced cases of OSCC.

  13. [Expression and role of survivin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and laryngeal papilloma in adults].

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    Xie, Hong; Zhang, Baoquan; Yin, Jinshu; Song, Faquan

    2007-05-01

    To study the expression of Survivin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and laryngeal papilloma in adults and its significance in carcinogenesis and development of the LSCC. The expressions of Survivin protein were detected by immunohistochemistry technique in 46 cases of LSCC, 24 cases of adjacent nontumorous laryngeal epithelium, 20 cases of laryngeal papilloma and 16 cases of normal laryngeal epithelium. The positive rates of Survivin protein expression in laryngeal carcinoma, adjacent nontumorous laryngeal epithelium and laryngeal papilloma were 71.74% (33/46), 33.33% (8/24)and 40.00% (8/20) respectively. There was no expression in normal laryngeal epithelium. The positive rate of Survivin protein expression in laryngeal carcinoma was significantly higher than that in the adjacent nontumorous laryngeal epithelium, laryngeal papilloma and normal laryngeal epithelium. But there was no statistically significant correlations between Survivin protein expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of tumor site, T-stage, pathological grading, UICC-stage and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05). Expression of Survivin protein in 3 cases in laryngeal papilloma group which turned into laryngeal carcinoma later were all positive. There was overexpression of Survivin in the laryngeal carcinoma. The expression of Survivin might play an important role in the carcinogenesis of LSCC and might be an early event during laryngeal carcinogenesis. It could be a diagnostic marker for evaluating the malignant potential of laryngeal papilloma in adults.

  14. Sanguinarine Suppresses Prostate Tumor Growth and Inhibits Survivin Expression

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    Sun, Meng; Lou, Wei; Chun, Jae Yeon; Cho, Daniel S.; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Evans, Christopher P.; Chen, Jun; Yue, Jiao; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a frequently occurring disease and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of men in the United States. Current treatments have proved inadequate in curing or controlling prostate cancer, and a search for agents for the management of this disease is urgently needed. Survivin plays an important role in both progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and resistance to chemotherapy. Altered expression of survivin in prostate cancer cells is associated with cancer progression, drug/radiation resistance, poor prognosis, and short patient survival. In the present study, the authors performed a cell-based rapid screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library consisting of 1120 Food and Drug Administration–approved compounds with known safety and bioavailability in humans to identify potential inhibitors of survivin and anticancer agents for prostate cancer. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived primarily from the bloodroot plant, was identified as a novel inhibitor of survivin that selectively kills prostate cancer cells over “normal” prostate epithelial cells. The authors found that sanguinarine inhibits survivin protein expression through protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Sanguinarine induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells and in vivo tumor formation. Administration of sanguinarine, beginning 3 days after ectopic implantation of DU145 human prostate cancer cells, reduces both tumor weight and volume. In addition, sanguinarine sensitized paclitaxel-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming taxol resistance. These results suggest that sanguinarine may be developed as an agent either alone or in combination with taxol for treatment of prostate cancer overexpressing survivin. PMID:21318089

  15. Survivin expression and its clinical significance in pancreatic cancer

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    Lee Kyung Shik

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis is expressed in several human cancers. Its expression is known to be associated with poor clinical outcome, but not widely studied in pancreatic cancer. We performed this study to determine the survivin expression in pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance as a prognostic factor. Methods We performed immunohistochemical staining for survivin, p53, and Bax in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block from forty-nine pancreatic tissues. To determine the association with clinical course, we reviewed the patients' clinical record. Results Of the 49 cases of pancreatic cancer, 46 cases (93.9% were positive for survivin expression. There was no significant association between survivin expression and p53 or bax. For clinicopathological parameters, perineural invasion was more common in survivin positive and venous invasion was more common in survivin negative (p = 0.041 and 0.040, respectively. Responsiveness to chemotherapy appeared to be slightly better in patients with low survivin expression. Conclusion Survivin expression may be associated with venous or perineural invasion, indicating metastatic route, and seems to have a potential as a predictive marker for chemotherapy. Further study of large scale is required to determine the clinical significance of survivin expression in pancreatic cancer.

  16. Delivery of a survivin promoter-driven antisense survivin-expressing plasmid DNA as a cancer therapeutic: a proof-of-concept study

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    Lin KY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun-Yuan Lin,1 Siao Muk Cheng,2 Shing-Ling Tsai,2 Ju-Ya Tsai,1 Chun-Hui Lin,1 Chun Hei Antonio Cheung1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC; 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins family. It is overexpressed in many different cancer types but not in the differentiated normal tissue. In addition, overexpression of survivin promotes cancer cell survival and induces chemotherapeutic drug resistance, making it an attractive target for new anticancer interventions. Despite survivin being a promising molecular target for anticancer treatment, it is widely accepted that survivin is only a “semi-druggable” target. Therefore, it is important to develop a new strategy to target survivin for anticancer treatment. In this study, we constructed a novel survivin promoter-driven full-length antisense survivin (pSur/AS-Sur expression plasmid DNA. Promoter activity assay revealed that the activity of the survivin promoter of pSur/AS-Sur correlated with the endogenous expression of survivin at the transcriptional level in the transfected A549, MDA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cancer cells. Western blot analysis showed that liposomal delivery of pSur/AS-Sur successfully downregulated the expression of survivin in A549, MBA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cells in vitro. In addition, delivery of pSur/AS-Sur induced autophagy, caspase-dependent apoptosis, and caspase-independent apoptosis as indicated by the increased LC3B-II conversion, autophagosome formation, caspase-9/-3 and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 cleavage, and apoptosis-inducing factor nuclear translocation in A549, MBA-MB-231, and PANC-1 cells. Importantly, liposomal delivery of pSur/AS-Sur was also capable of decreasing the proliferation of the survivin/MDR1 coexpressing multidrug-resistant KB-TAX50 cancer cells and

  17. Correlation of local and systemic expression of survivin with histopathological parameters of cutaneous melanoma

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    Jović Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Survivin is a multifunctional protein abundantly expressed in tumors of various types, including melanoma. There are still sparse data regarding relationship of melanoma cell survivin expression with accepted histopathological characteristics as well as serum concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of local tumor survivin expression (primary tumor and metastatic lesions and serum concentration with clinical and histopathological parameters in melanoma patients. Methods. The level of survivin expression was determined immunocytochemically in tumor tissue and with ELISA test in the serum of 84 melanoma patients diagnosed from 2009 to 2013 at the Institute for Pathology and Forensic Medicine and Institute for Medical Research at Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia. Results. The intensity of survivin expression was significantly higher in the patients whose tumor had ulceration, higher mitotic index, higher Clark and Breslow stage, that made vascular invasion or spread through lymphatic vessels in primary tumor, and was significantly higher in the patients with metastatic disease. Survivin expression and the number of survivin positive cells in metastatic lesions were significantly associated with the duration of disease free interval (DFI. The patients with high expression score had almost double shorter DFI comparing to those with weak local survivin expression and a small number of survivin+cells (9 ± 7 vs 19 ± 13 months, respectively. The degree of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes presence in tumor tissue was significantly associated with serum survivin concentration, with lowest average level detected in samples of patients with the highest degree of infiltration. Serum survivin concentrations were highest in samples of melanoma patients with IA American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC clinical stage, pT1a histological stage, patients whose tumors were still in horizontal growth phase

  18. EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND WNT PATHWAY PROTEINS BETACATENIN, APC, TCF-4 AND SURVIVIN IN GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA: CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL IMPLICATION.

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    Lins, Rodrigo Rego; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Oliveira, Levindo Alves de; Silva, Marcelo Souza; Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antonio; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide.It has been reported that Wnt/ betacatenin pathway is activated in 30-50% of these tumors. However,the deregulation of this pathway has not been fully elucidated. To determine the expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and correlate with clinical and pathological parameters. Seventy-one patients with gastric adenocarcinoma undergoing gastrectomy were enrolled. The expression of E-cadherin, betacatenin, APC, TCF-4 and survivin proteins was detected by immunohistochemistryand related to the clinical and pathological parameters. The expression rates of E-cadherin in the membrane was 3%; betacatenin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were 23,4% and 3,1% respectively; APC in the cytoplasm was 94,6%; TCF-4 in the nucleus was 19,4%; and survivin in the nucleus 93,9%. The expression rate of E-cadherin was correlated with older patients (p=0,007), while betacatenin with tumors citoplasma e 3,1% no núcleo; APC em 94,6% no citoplasma; TCF-4 em19,4% no núcleo; e survivina em 93,9% no núcleo. Houve relação entre expressão da proteína E-caderina com a idade mais avançada (p=0,007); betacatenina com tumores <5 cm de diâmetro (p=0,041);APC com tumores proximais (p=0,047); e TCF-4 com tipo difuso da classificação de Lauren (p=0,017) e com o grau de penetração tumoral (p=0,002). A via Wnt/betacatenina não está envolvida na carcinogênese gástrica. Porém, a frequência elevada de survivina permite sugerir que outras vias sinalizadoras devam estar envolvidas na transformação do tecido gástrico.

  19. Impacting tumor cell-fate by targeting the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin

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    Janik John E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survivin (BIRC5, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family that inhibits caspases and blocks cell death is highly expressed in cancer and is associated with a poorer clinical outcome. Functioning simultaneously during cell division and apoptosis inhibition, survivin plays a pivotal role in determining cell survival. Survivin has consistently been identified by molecular profiling analysis to be associated with higher tumor grade, more advanced disease, abbreviated survival, accelerated rates of recurrence, and chemotherapy and radiation resistance. Survivin's differential expression in cancer compared to normal tissue and its role as a nodal protein in a number of cellular pathways make it a highly flexible therapeutic target, suitable for small-molecule inhibitiors, molecular antagonists, and vaccination-based therapies. By targeting survivin it is hoped that multiple tumor signaling circuitries may be simultaneously disabled. This effect may be applicable to many tumor histologies irrespective of specific genetic makeup. To date, survivin inhibitors have shown modest activity as single agents, but it is anticipated that when given in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy or monoclonal antibodies they may exhibit enhanced efficacy. This review discusses the complex circuitry of survivin in human cancers and highlights clinical trials involving novel agents that target this important protein.

  20. Carbenoxolone Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Survivin and Survivin-ΔEx3 Genes Expression in Human Leukemia K562 Cells

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    Z. Sanaat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Leukemia is a malignant disorder of the blood progenitor/stem cells which is characterized by abnormal proliferation of white blood cells. Although anti-cancer drugs induce apoptosis in cancerous cells, drug resistance is the significant problem mainly due to over-expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs such as survivin. In this content, it has been reported that an anti-inflammatory drug, Carbenoxolone (CBX, could induce apoptosis and growth inhibition in several types of cancerous cells. In the present study, effects of CBX on apoptosis and level of the expression of survivin gene and its ΔEx3 splicing variant have were evaluated in K562 cells.Methods: K562 cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CBX (50-300 μM at different time intervals (12-48 hrs. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to evaluate cell viability. Fluorescent microscopy (Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide double staining and DNA fragmentation assay were used to study apoptosis. The expression level of survivin and its ΔEx3 splice variant were studied by RT- PCR.Results and Major Conclusion: It was found that both growth inhibition and apoptosis occurred in K562 cells. In addition, down-regulation of survivin and survin-ΔEx3 were observed, after 2-4 hrs treatment with 150 μM of CBX. However, the expression level of survivin and its ΔEx3 splice variant increased in subsequent time (6-12 hrs nearly to the level of control cells. From the results of this study, it may be concluded that CBX can be considered as a candidate for further studies in CML treatment, especially in the case of drug- resistant leukemia cells.

  1. TGF-β1 signaling pathway serves a role in HepG2 cell regulation by affecting the protein expression of PCNA, gankyrin, p115, XIAP and survivin

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    Wang, Xin-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Guo; Xu, Rui-Ling; Lv, Cheng-Qian; Liu, Jing; Du, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway serves a key role in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. To investigate the association between TGF-β1 and the following proteins: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), gankyrin, general vesicular transport factor p115 (p115), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and survivin, HepG2 liver cancer cells were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against TGF-β1, or were treated with exogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 protein expression levels were assessed at 72 and 96 h using western blotting, cell growth was evaluated using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay, and flow cytometry was used to examine cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. In addition, PCNA, gankyrin, p115, XIAP and survivin protein levels were evaluated using western blotting. TGF-β1 protein expression levels were decreased at 72 and 96 h following siRNA transfection, indicating that the siRNA against TGF-β1 was effective. In the TGF-β1-knockdown group, the HepG2 cells exhibited G1 or S-phase cell cycle arrest; therefore, the number of G2-phase cells was decreased, cell growth was inhibited and apoptotic peaks were observed. By contrast, no significant alteration in cell cycle distribution or apoptosis was observed in the cells treated with exogenous TGF-β1. In the exogenous TGF-β1 group, PCNA and XIAP protein expression levels were increased, whereas gankyrin, p115 and survivin protein expression was observed to be dependent on the duration of treatment. By contrast, PCNA, gankyrin, XIAP and survivin protein expression decreased following TGF-β1 knockdown; however, p115 protein expression increased. In conclusion, the TGF-β1 signaling pathway may affect cell growth, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis through the regulation of PCNA, gankyrin, p115, XIAP and survivin protein expression in liver cancer. The results of the present study may improve the current understanding of the role of the TGF-β signaling pathway

  2. The antiapoptotic gene survivin is highly expressed in human chondrosarcoma and promotes drug resistance in chondrosarcoma cells in vitro

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    Grifka Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondrosarcoma is virtually resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is a critical factor for tumor progression and resistance to conventional therapeutic approaches in a wide range of malignancies. However, the role of survivin in chondrosarcoma has not been well studied. We examined the importance of survivin gene expression in chondrosarcoma and analysed its influences on proliferation, apoptosis and resistance to chemotherapy in vitro. Methods Resected chondrosarcoma specimens from which paraffin-embedded tissues could be extracted were available from 12 patients. In vitro experiments were performed in human chondrosarcoma cell lines SW1353 and Hs819.T. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, quantitative PCR, RNA interference, gene-overexpression and analyses of cell proliferation and apoptosis were performed. Results Expression of survivin protein was detected in all chondrosarcoma specimens analyzed, while undetectable in adult human cartilage. RNA interference targeting survivin resulted in a G2/M-arrest of the cell cycle and led to increased rates of apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells in vitro. Overexpression of survivin resulted in pronounced resistance to doxorubicin treatment. Conclusions These findings indicate that survivin plays a role in the pathogenesis and pronounced chemoresistance of high grade chondrosarcoma. Survivin antagonizing therapeutic strategies may lead to new treatment options in unresectable and metastasized chondrosarcoma.

  3. The antiapoptotic gene survivin is highly expressed in human chondrosarcoma and promotes drug resistance in chondrosarcoma cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chondrosarcoma is virtually resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, is a critical factor for tumor progression and resistance to conventional therapeutic approaches in a wide range of malignancies. However, the role of survivin in chondrosarcoma has not been well studied. We examined the importance of survivin gene expression in chondrosarcoma and analysed its influences on proliferation, apoptosis and resistance to chemotherapy in vitro. Methods Resected chondrosarcoma specimens from which paraffin-embedded tissues could be extracted were available from 12 patients. In vitro experiments were performed in human chondrosarcoma cell lines SW1353 and Hs819.T. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, quantitative PCR, RNA interference, gene-overexpression and analyses of cell proliferation and apoptosis were performed. Results Expression of survivin protein was detected in all chondrosarcoma specimens analyzed, while undetectable in adult human cartilage. RNA interference targeting survivin resulted in a G2/M-arrest of the cell cycle and led to increased rates of apoptosis in chondrosarcoma cells in vitro. Overexpression of survivin resulted in pronounced resistance to doxorubicin treatment. Conclusions These findings indicate that survivin plays a role in the pathogenesis and pronounced chemoresistance of high grade chondrosarcoma. Survivin antagonizing therapeutic strategies may lead to new treatment options in unresectable and metastasized chondrosarcoma. PMID:21457573

  4. Transcriptional inhibition of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} gene (CDKN1) expression by survivin is at least partially p53-dependent: Evidence for survivin acting as a transcription factor or co-factor

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    Tang, Lei [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Pre-Doctoral Chinese Fellowship Student, Second West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan (China); Ling, Xiang; Liu, Wensheng; Das, Gokul M. [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Li, Fengzhi, E-mail: fengzhi.li@roswellpark.org [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin inhibits the expression of p21 protein, mRNA and promoter activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin neutralizes p53-induced p21 expression and promoter activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Survivin physically interacts with p53 in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genetic silencing of endogenous survivin upregulates p21 in p53 wild type cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both p53 and survivin interacts on the two p53-binding sites in the p21 promoter. -- Abstract: Growing evidence suggests a role for the antiapoptotic protein survivin in promotion of cancer cell G1/S transition and proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Further, although upregulation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} by p53 plays an important role in p53-mediated cell G1 arrests in response to various distresses, it is unknown whether survivin plays a role in the regulation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression. Here, we report that exogenous expression of survivin in p53-wild type MCF-7 breast cancer cells inhibits the expression of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} protein, mRNA and promoter activity, while the survivin C84A mutant and antisense failed to do so. Cotransfection experiments in the p53 mutant H1650 lung cancer cell line showed that survivin neutralizes p53-induced p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression and promoter activity. Importantly, genetically silencing of endogenous survivin using lentiviral survivin shRNA also enhances endogenous p21 in p53 wild type cancer cells, suggesting the physiological relevance of the fining. We further demonstrated that both p53 and survivin interacts on the two p53-binding sites in the p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter (-2313 to -2212; -1452 to -1310), and survivin physically interacts with p53 in cancer cells. Together, we propose that survivin may act as a transcription factor or cofactor to interact with p53 on the p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} promoter leading to the inhibition of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1

  5. The oncoprotein SF2/ASF promotes non-small cell lung cancer survival by enhancing survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezponda, Teresa; Pajares, María J; Agorreta, Jackeline; Echeveste, José I; López-Picazo, José M; Torre, Wenceslao; Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M

    2010-08-15

    SF2/ASF is a splicing factor recently described as an oncoprotein. In the present work, we examined the role of SF2/ASF in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and analyzed the molecular mechanisms involved in SF2/ASF-related carcinogenesis. SF2/ASF protein levels were analyzed in 81 NSCLC patients by immunohistochemistry. SF2/ASF downregulation cellular models were generated using small interfering RNAs, and the effects on proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated. Survivin and SF2/ASF expression in lung tumors was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Survival curves and log-rank test were used to identify the association between the expression of the proteins and time to progression. Overexpression of SF2/ASF was found in most human primary NSCLC tumors. In vitro downregulation of SF2/ASF induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines. This effect was associated with a reduction in the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein widely upregulated in cancer. In fact, SF2/ASF specifically bound survivin mRNA and enhanced its translation, via a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway-dependent mechanism, through the phosphorylation and inactivation of the translational repressor 4E-BP1. Moreover, SF2/ASF promoted the stability of survivin mRNA. A strong correlation was observed between the expression of SF2/ASF and survivin in tumor biopsies from NSCLC patients, supporting the concept that survivin expression levels are controlled by SF2/ASF. Furthermore, combined expression of these proteins was associated with prognosis. This study provides novel data on the mTORC1- and survivin-dependent mechanisms of SF2/ASF-related carcinogenic potential, and shows that SF2/ASF and survivin expression is involved in NSCLC progression.

  6. Chemoresistance of CD133(+) colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cho, Mee-Yon

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133(+) colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133(-) cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133(+) and siRNA-induced CD133(-) cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133(+) cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133(+) cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133(+) cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133(+) cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133(+) colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and survivin in cutaneous and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and survivin in cutaneous and oral squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis. ... Conclusion: c-myc expressions correspond to the survivin expressions. c-myc expression was stronger in OSCC than in CSCC and BCC, and weaker in AK than in other malignant tumors.

  8. Study of the Expression of Survivin & Its Splice Variants; ΔEx3, 2b and 3b as Diagnostic Molecular Markers in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Babaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Survivin is a new member of the Inhibitor Apotosis Protein family (IAP which plays an important role in the regulation of both cell cycle and apoptosis. Its distinct expression in tumor cells as compared to normal adult cells introduces Survivin as the fourth transcriptom demonstrated in tumors. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and scientist`s efforts to classify it has lead to various molecular subtypes and controversial results. Because of the high prevalence of these tumors and lack of suitable molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis, there are ongoing efforts to find molecular markers which can distinguish nontumoral from tumor tissues. In this study we evaluate the potential usefulness of Survivin and its splice variants ΔEx3, 2b and 3b as molecular markers in breast cancer. Methods: We studied 18 tumor and 17 non tumor adjacent tissues. Transcription levels were measured by Semiquantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR and normalized by ß2m as an internal control. Results: 1Survivin and its splice variants; Δex3, 2b and 3b showed differentially higher expression levels in tumors than adjacent normal tissues. 2 The expression levels of Survivin, Survivin-ΔEx3 and Survivin-3b were significantly correlated with the type of tumors. 3 Survivin-2b was expressed in a few samples. 4 Survivin-3b was detected only in tumor samples. Also, our results showed that ΔEx3 variant can be introduced as a dominant expressed variant in breast cancer. Conclusion: Our data indicated that the expression of Survivin, Survivin ∆Ex3 and especially, Survivin-3b were correlated with cancerous nature of tumors and Survivin-∆Ex3 was the most common expressed variant in breast carcinomas. These results besides confirming the potential usefulness of Survivin and its splice variants as molecular markers in breast cancer, demonstrated the role of the gene and its splice variants, especially 3b

  9. Chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} colon cancer may be related with increased survivin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Ra; Ji, Sun-Young; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mee-Yon, E-mail: meeyon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University, Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    CD133, putative cancer stem cell marker, deemed to aid chemoresistance. However, this claim has been challenged recently and we previously reported that patients with CD133{sup +} colon cancer have benefit from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy incontrast to no benefit in patients with CD133{sup −} cancer. To elucidate the role of CD133 expression in chemoresistance, we silenced the CD133 expression in a colon cancer cell line and determined its effect on the biological characteristics downstream. We comparatively analyzed the sequential changes of MDR1, ABCG2, AKT1 and survivin expression and the result of proliferation assay (WST-1 assay) with 5-FU treatment in CD133{sup +} and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells, derived from Caco-2 colon cancer cell line. 5-FU treatment induced significantly increase of the mRNA expression of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1genes, but not protein level. CD133 had little to no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. However, survivin expression at mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in CD133{sup +} cells compared with siRNA-induced CD133-cells and Mock (not sorted CD133{sup +} cells) at 96 h after siRNA transfection. The cytotoxicity assay demonstrated notable increase of chemoresistance to 5-FU treatment (10 μM) in CD133{sup +} cells at 96 h after siRNA transfection. From this study, we conclude that CD133{sup +} cells may have chemoresistance to 5-FU through the mechanism which is related with survivin expression, instead of MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. Therefore a survivin inhibitor can be a new target for effective treatment of CD133{sup +} colon cancer. - Highlights: • We evaluate the role of CD133 in chemoresistance of colon cancer. • We compared the chemoresistance of CD133{sup +} cells and siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. • CD133 had little to no effect on MDR1, ABCG2 and AKT1 expression. • Survivin expression and chemoresistance were increased in CD133{sup +} colon cancer cells.

  10. High expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B predicts poor overall survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erpolat, O.P.; Akmansu, M. [Medical School of Gazi Univ., Besevler-Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Gocun, P.U.; Karakus, E.; Akyol, G. [Medical School of Gazi Univ., Besevler-Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Pathology

    2012-03-15

    Survivin is one of the apoptosis inhibitor proteins. Together with Aurora B, it also plays a role in regulating several aspects of mitosis. High expression of these markers is correlated with malignant behavior of various cancers and resistance to therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic role of these markers in head and neck cancers. We evaluated the expression of Aurora B and survivin in tissue specimens of 58 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. Patients who showed high expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear survivin and Aurora B had significantly shorter overall survival (p = 0.036, p < 0.000, p = 0.032, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high expression of nuclear survivin was the only independent negative prognostic factor (p = 0.024). Moreover, it was found that high co-expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B had a negative effect on survival in univariate (p < 0.000) and multivariate (p < 0.000) analyses. The negative prognostic values of high expression of Aurora B and high co-expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B on survival were shown. These findings suggest that co-expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B can be useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, further studies with a larger number of patients in a more homogeneous disease group are needed to confirm the conclusion.

  11. Expression and Clinical Significance of Antiapoptotic Gene (Survivin in NB4 and Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study survivin gene expression in APL cells and to explore its correlation with clinical manifestations. PML/RARα and survivin mRNA expression were analysed using RT-PCR. By treatment of ATRA, the survivin mRNA expression in NB4 cells gradually decreased with time and was almost undetectable in the 72th hour. Survivin was expressed in 67% of the 36 APL cases (de novo and relapse patients with PML/RARα fusion gene expression. However, in 22 cases of remission stage patients without PML/RARα fusion gene expression, survivin was expressed in 36%. The survivin mRNA expression positive rate in de novo and relapse groups, and PML/RARα fusion gene L-type positive groups, was obviously higher than those in remission period groups and was significantly lower than those in acute leukemia groups. In 36 cases of de novo and relapse APL patients, all cases could obtain complete remission, irrespective of the survivin expression. APL patients expressed with survivin mRNA had DIC and serious infection (one patient died. The clinical symptom included slight skin or mucosa bleeding, fever, and asthenic for patients without the survivin mRNA expression. Later, two cases of APL patients with the survivin mRNA expression were treated by ATRA, induction differentiation sign in their peripheral blood and bone marrow figure was not obvious. It was concluded that the survive gene expression was lower in APL than those in any other types of leukemia, thus closely associated with clinical manifestation.

  12. Correlation between E-cadherin interactions, survivin expression, and apoptosis in MDCK and ts-Src MDCK cell culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Janne; Eskelinen, Sinikka

    2017-12-01

    Survivin, a member of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein family, is a multifunctional protein expressed in most cancers. In addition to inhibition of apoptosis, it regulates proliferation and promotes migration. Its presence and function in cells is strongly regulated via transcription factors, intracellular localization, and degradation. We analyzed the presence of survivin at protein level in various culture environments and under activation of Src tyrosine kinase in epithelial canine kidney MDCK cells in order to elucidate factors controlling survivin 'lifespan'. We used untransformed and temperature sensitive ts-Src MDCK cells as a model and forced them to grow in suspension (1D), in 2D on hard and soft surfaces and in soft 3D Matrigel environment with or without EGTA. In addition, we tested the effect of stressful conditions by cultivating the cells in the presence of an anti-cancer drug and a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS), piperlongumine (PL) with or without an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). We could confirm that inhibition of apoptosis and simultaneous downregulation of survivin in MDCK cells required both intact cell-cell junctions, trans-interactions of E-cadherin and soft 3D matrix environment. In ts-Src-transformed MDCK cells, survivin was upregulated as soon as the cell-cell junctions were disintegrated. ROS generation with PL-induced cell death of ts-Src MDCK cells concomitantly with survivin downregulation. NAC rescued the ts-Src MDCK cells from ROS-induced apoptosis without upregulation of survivin resulting in a situation resembling untransformed MDCK cells in 3D environment and E-cadherin delineating the lateral cell walls.

  13. Increased spontaneous apoptosis, but not survivin expression, is associated with histomorphologic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDowell, Dermot T

    2009-11-01

    Survivin has been shown to be an important mediator of cellular radioresistance in vitro. This study aims to compare survivin expression and apoptosis to histomorphologic responses to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) in rectal cancer.

  14. Expression of survivin detected by immunohistochemistry in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus is associated with prognosis of leiomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melcher Ingo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis-protein family suppresses apoptosis and regulates cell division. It is strongly overexpressed in the vast majority of cancers. We were interested if survivin detected by immunohistochemistry has prognostic relevance especially for patients of the two soft tissue sarcoma entities leiomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma. Methods Tumors of leiomyosarcoma (n = 24 and synovial sarcoma patients (n = 26 were investigated for their expression of survivin by immunohistochemistry. Survivin expression was assessed in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of tumor cells using an immunoreactive scoring system (IRS. Results We detected a survivin expression (IRS > 2 in the cytoplasm of 20 leiomyosarcomas and 22 synovial sarcomas and in the nucleus of 12 leiomyosarcomas and 9 synovial sarcomas, respectively. There was no significant difference between leiomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma samples in their cytoplasmic or nuclear expression of survivin. Next, all sarcoma patients were separated in four groups according to their survivin expression in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus: group 1: negative (IRS 0 to 2; group 2: weak (IRS 3 to 4; group 3: moderate (IRS 6 to 8; group 4: strong (IRS 9 to 12. In a multivariate Cox's regression hazard analysis survivin expression detected in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus was significantly associated with overall survival of patients in group 3 (RR = 5.7; P = 0.004 and RR = 5.7; P = 0.022, respectively compared to group 2 (reference. Patients whose tumors showed both a moderate/strong expression of survivin in the cytoplasm and a moderate expression of survivin in the nucleus (in both compartments IRS ≥ 6 possessed a 24.8-fold increased risk of tumor-related death (P = 0.003 compared to patients with a weak expression of survivin both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Conclusion Survivin protein expression in the cytoplasma and in the nucleus detected by

  15. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits KIT activity and induces apoptosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor GIST-T1 cell line by affecting on the expression of survivin and Bax protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Takahiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imatinib, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used as a standard first-line therapy for irresectable and metastasized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST patients. Unfortunately, most patients responding to imatinib will eventually exhibit imatinib-resistance, the cause of which is not fully understood. The serious clinical problem of imatinib-resistance demands alternative therapeutic strategy. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA on GIST cell lines. Methods Cell proliferation was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Western blot analysis was performed to test the expression of activated KIT, its downstream proteins, and apoptosis associated proteins. The cytotoxic interactions of imatinib with ATRA were evaluated using the isobologram of Steel and Peckham. Results and conclusion In this work, for the first time we have demonstrated that ATRA affected on cell proliferation of GIST-T1 and GIST-882 cell line through inhibition of cell growth in a dose dependent manner and induced apoptosis. High dose of ATRA induced morphologic change in GIST-T1 cells, rounded-up cells, and activated the caspase-3 protein. In further examination, we found that the ATRA-induced apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells was accompanied by the down-regulated expression of survivin and up-regulated expression of Bax protein. Moreover, ATRA suppressed the activity of KIT protein in GIST-T1 cells and its downstream signal, AKT activity, but not MAPK activity. We also have demonstrated that combination of ATRA with imatinib showed additive effect by isobologram, suggesting that the combination of ATRA and imatinib may be a novel potential therapeutic option for GIST treatment. Furthermore, the scracht assay result suggested that ATRA was a potential reagent to prevent the invasion or metastasis of GIST cells.

  16. Cancer cell sensitivity to bortezomib is associated with survivin expression and p53 status but not cancer cell types

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    Chanan-Khan Asher A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is known playing a role in drug resistance. However, its role in bortezomib-mediated inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis is unclear. There are conflicting reports for the effect of bortezomib on survivin expression, which lacks of a plausible explanation. Methods: In this study, we tested cancer cells with both p53 wild type and mutant/null background for the relationship of bortezomib resistance with survivin expression and p53 status using MTT assay, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, western blots and RNAi technology. Results We found that cancer cells with wild type p53 show a low level expression of survivin and are sensitive to treatment with bortezomib, while cancer cells with a mutant or null p53 show a high level expression of survivin and are resistant to bortezomib-mediated apoptosis induction. However, silencing of survivin expression utilizing survivin mRNA-specific siRNA/shRNA in p53 mutant or null cells sensitized cancer cells to bortezomib mediated apoptosis induction, suggesting a role for survivin in bortezomib resistance. We further noted that modulation of survivin expression by bortezomib is dependent on p53 status but independent of cancer cell types. In cancer cells with mutated p53 or p53 null, bortezomib appears to induce survivin expression, while in cancer cells with wild type p53, bortezomib downregulates or shows no significant effect on survivin expression, which is dependent on the drug concentration, cell line and exposure time. Conclusions Our findings, for the first time, unify the current inconsistent findings for bortezomib treatment and survivin expression, and linked the effect of bortezomib on survivin expression, apoptosis induction and bortezomib resistance in the relationship with p53 status, which is independent of cancer cell types. Further mechanistic studies along with this line may impact the optimal clinical application of bortezomib in

  17. Significance and relationship between DJ-1 gene and survivin gene expression in laryngeal carcinoma

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    Z. Shen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the correlation between DJ-1 gene and survivin gene in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by analyzing their gene expression levels and their relationship with clinicopathologic parameters. The expression of DJ-1 gene and survivin gene in 82 laryngeal carcinoma tissues from patients and 82 negative surgical margin tissue samples were detected by immunohistochemistry, respectively. The correlation of their expression levels and patients’ clinical parameters were then analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. The positive detection rates of DJ-1 and survivin in laryngeal carcinoma tissues were 71.95% and 60.98%, which were higher than those of the normal control that were 29.27% and 0.00%, respectively (P<0.01. The positive detection rates of DJ-1 and survivin were found associated with tumor stages (P<0.05, but not with lymph node metastasis. The DJ-1 gene expression level was related to cell differentiation (P<0.05. Finally, a positive correlation between DJ-1 and survivin gene expression in laryngeal carcinoma was found. The overall survival rate of patients was 51.2%, and disease-free survival (DFS was 39.0%. DFS in DJ-1 negative-expression group was 87.0%, and 20.3% in DJ-1 positive-expression group. The negative expression of DJ-1 was associated with a shorter mean patient DFS time (44.643±1.417 months, whereas positive expression of DJ-1 was associated with a longer mean DSF time (25.943±1.297 months. DJ-1 and survivin play a vital role in the occurrence and development of laryngeal carcinoma. DJ-1 may promote the carcinogenesis of laryngeal cells by up-regulating the survivin gene expression.

  18. A comparative study of the expression of Wnt-1, WISP-1, survivin and cyclin-D1 in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Tin Oo; Gul, Yunus A; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Seow, Heng Fong

    2006-05-01

    It is well accepted that activation of Wnt signalling occurs in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but the correlation amongst the various proteins involved in primary tumours are still unclear. The expression of the inducer of this pathway, Wnt-1, and the downstream effectors, WISP-1, cyclin-D1 and survivin proteins, was compared in a series of CRC tissues with the apparently normal adjacent tissues to determine the relationship of these proteins. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 47 CRCs surgically resected at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital (KLH) between 1999 and 2000 were used. Immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against cyclin-D1 and survivin and polyclonal antibodies against Wnt-1 and WISP-1 was performed. Results of immunohistochemistry were analysed for correlation between biomolecules and histopathological data of the patients. Of the 47 CRCs, 26 (55.3%), 15 (31.9%), 5 (10.6%) and 28 (59.6%) of the tumours exhibited positivity for Wnt-1, WISP-1, cyclin D1 and survivin, respectively. A lower percentage of the 40 apparently normal adjacent tissues were found to be positive for Wnt-1 (7, 17.5%), WISP-1 (+/-5, 12.5%) and survivin (13, 32.5%), but cyclin D1 was not detected in any of them. Interestingly, the total scores of Wnt-1, WISP-1 and survivin were significantly higher in CRC tissues (p=0.001, 0.034 and 0.044, respectively). Using the Spearman rank correlation test, a positive linear relationship was found between total Wnt-1 score with total WISP-1 score (rho=0.319, p=0.003) and total survivin score (rho=0.609, p=orWISP-1 in the CRC tissues was found to be positively correlated with patients older than 60 years old (p=0.011). In addition, nuclear cyclin-D1 expression was found to be associated with poorly differentiated CRC tissues (pWISP-1 score was associated with well-differentiated CRC tissues (p=0.029). Overexpression and interplay between Wnt-1, WISP-1, survivin and cyclin-D1 may play a role in tumorigenesis, possibly by

  19. Tunicamycin promotes apoptosis in leukemia cells through ROS generation and downregulation of survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Jin; Heo, Jeonghoon; Kim, Young-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Tunicamycin (TN), one of the endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth and exhibit anticarcinogenic activity. However, the mechanism by which TN initiates apoptosis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of TN on the apoptotic pathway in U937 cells. We show that TN induces apoptosis in association with caspase-3 activation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and downregulation of survivin expression. P38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and the generation of ROS signaling pathway play crucial roles in TN-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. We hypothesized that TN-induced activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway is responsible for cell death. To test this hypothesis, we selectively inhibited MAPK during treatment with TN. Our data demonstrated that inhibitor of p38 (SB), but not ERK (PD) or JNK (SP), partially maintained apoptosis during treatment with TN. Pre-treatment with NAC and GSH markedly prevented cell death, suggesting a role for ROS in this process. Ectopic expression of survivin in U937 cells attenuated TN-induced apoptosis by suppression of caspase-3 cleavage, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release in U937 cells. Taken together, our results show that TN modulates multiple components of the apoptotic response of human leukemia cells and raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for hematological malignancies.

  20. Phase I clinical study of anti-apoptosis protein, survivin-derived peptide vaccine therapy for patients with advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minamida Hidetoshi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family containing a single baculovirus IAP repeat domain. It is expressed during fetal development but becomes undetectable in terminally differentiated normal adult tissues. We previously reported that survivin and its splicing variant survivin-2B was expressed abundantly in various types of tumor tissues as well as tumor cell lines and was suitable as a target antigen for active-specific anti-cancer immunization. Subsequently, we identified an HLA-A24-restricted antigenic peptide, survivin-2B80-88 (AYACNTSTL recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs. We, therefore, started a phase I clinical study assessing the efficacy of survivin-2B peptide vaccination in patients with advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer expressing survivin. Vaccinations with survivin-2B peptide were given subcutaneously six times at 14-day intervals. Of 15 patients who finished receiving the vaccination schedule, three suffered slight toxicities, including anemia (grade 2, general malaise (grade 1, and fever (grade 1. No severe adverse events were observed in any patient. In 6 patients, tumor marker levels (CEA and CA19-9 decreased transiently during the period of vaccination. Slight reduction of the tumor volume was observed in one patient, which was considered a minor responder. No changes were noted in three patients while the remaining eleven patients experienced tumor progression. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of one patient using HLA-A24/peptide tetramers revealed an increase in peptide-specific CTL frequency from 0.09% to 0.35% of CD8+ T cells after 4 vaccinations. This phase I clinical study indicates that survivin-2B peptide-based vaccination is safe and should be further considered for potential immune and clinical efficacy in HLA-A24-expression patients with colorectal cancer.

  1. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of survivin expression in renal cancer patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengquan; Lu, Bingxin; Sun, Erlin

    2017-04-01

    Survivin has been reported to play a role in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, published data on this subject are conflicting. To conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of survivin as a prognostic marker and its association with clinicopathological variables in patients with RCC. Comprehensive searches of electronic databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge Embase, Google Scholar Web and the Cochrane Library) were updated to June 2016 to retrieve eligible studies. The association strength was measured with relative risks (RRs) and pooled HRs with 95% CIs, which were extracted and pooled to determine the association between survivin expression and patient survival and clinicopathological features. Ten studies with 1063 cases of RCC were included. Positive survivin expression in RCC was associated with the TNM stage (pooled RR 1.49; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.07) or Fuhrman grade (pooled RR 1.63; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.32) in patients. The correlation between survivin expression and gender was not significant (pooled RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.15). In addition, a considerable association was found between survivin expression and overall survival for patients with RCC (pooled HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.24 to 3.05 (multivariate model) and 5.41; 95% CI 4.08 to 7.17 (univariate model)). Our results indicate that survivin is of prognostic significance in patients with RCC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Survivin is a guardian of the intestinal stem cell niche and its expression is regulated by TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Eva; Schneider, Evelyn; Neufert, Clemens; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    As an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family member, Survivin is known for its role during regulation of apoptosis. More recently its function as a cell cycle regulator has become evident. Survivin was shown to play a pivotal role during embryonic development and is highly expressed in regenerative tissue as well as in many cancer types. We examined the function of Survivin during mouse intestinal organogenesis and in gut pathophysiology. We found high expression of Survivin in experimentally induced colon cancer in mice but also in colon tumors of humans. Moreover, Survivin was regulated by TGF-β and was found to be highly expressed during mucosal healing following intestinal inflammation. We identified that expression of Survivin is essential early on in life, as specific deletion of Survivin in Villin expressing cells led to embryonic death around day 12 post coitum. Together with our recent study on the role of Survivin in the gut of adult mice our data demonstrate that Survivin is an essential guardian of embryonic gut development and adult gut homeostasis protecting the epithelium from cell death promoting the proliferation of intestinal stem and progenitor cells.

  3. Survivin Expression in Renal Epithelial Tumors: It's Usage in the Differential Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Renal Epithelial Tumors

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    Ayhan Ozcan

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggested that survivin may helpful in the differential diagnosis of renal tumors despite limited number of our cases. Experimental studies have revealed that inhibition of survivin induces apoptosis and enhance radiosensitivity of RCC cells. Taken together, to be known the proportion of survivin expression in subtypes of renal tumors may contribute to determine new therapeutic strategies for RCCs. This needs to be proven in more wide series. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(2.000: 69-73

  4. Survivin and cycline D1 expressions are associated with malignant potential in mucinous ovarian neoplasms.

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    Kanter, Mehmet; Turan, Gulay; Usta, Ceyda; Usta, Akin; Esen, H Hasan; Tavlı, Lema; Celik, Cetin; Demirkol, Yusuf; Kanter, Betül

    2016-04-01

    The most prevalent malignant ovarian neoplasms are epithelial ovarian cancers which is the most common cause of death among all gynecologic malignancies and a result of complex interaction of multiple oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of survivin and cycline D1 biomarkers in mucinous ovarian neoplasms and their correlations with clinicopathological variables in mucinous ovarian cancers. We analyzed pathological specimens of 98 patients with benign (n = 34), borderline (n = 22) and malignant (n = 42) mucinous ovarian neoplasms. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that survivin and cyclin D1 expressions were located primarily in the nucleus of ovarian tumor cells and relatively weaker cytoplasmic staining. Survivin expression was significantly higher in malignant tumors (88.1 %) than those found in borderline (18.2 %) and benign tumors (8.8 %) (p neoplasms.

  5. [Study of the relationship among expression of Survivin and MRP and the drug resistance in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Zhu, Lepan; Tan, Tan; Hou, Chunyan

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship among expression of Survivin and MRP and drug resistance in NPC. Expression of Survivin were detected by immunohistochemistry method in 45 cases of NPC and 24 cases of normal mucous membrane of nasopharynx (NMMN). The relationship between expression of Survivin and pathological factors in NPC were analysized. Expression of Survivin and MRP were detected in 31 patients of NPC with paclitaxel resistance and 20 patients of NPC without paclitaxel resistance. The relation- ship among the expression of Survivin or MRP and paclitaxel resistance in NPC were analysized. The paclitaxel resistance cell line, 5-8F-PTX(+); was established by a step-increased method. The expression of Survivin and MRP were detected by western blot in 5-8F-PTX(+) and 5-8F. The positive were 71. 1% (32/45) in NPC and 8.33% (2/24) in NMMN. And there were significantly differences between them (P MRP were 87.1% (27/31) in NPC patients with paclitaxel resistance and 40.0% (8/20) in NPC patients without paclitaxel resistance, respectively. There were significantly differences between them (P MRP in NPC patients with Paclitaxel resistance. The expression of Survivin and MRP were higher in 5-8F-PTX(+) than in 5-8F. The IC50 of paclitaxel, cDDP, 5-FU and Vincristine were significantly higher in 5-8F-PTX(+) than in 5-8F. There were relationship among the expression of Survivin and difference, metastasis and TNM stages of NPC. Survivin may serves as a molecular marker for development and progress in NPC. There were relationship among the high expression of Survivin and MRP and increasing of drug resistance in NPC.

  6. Pro-oncogene Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression.

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    Zu, Xuyu; Ma, Jun; Liu, Hongxia; Liu, Feng; Tan, Chunyan; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jue; Xie, Zhenhua; Cao, Deliang; Jiang, Yuyang

    2011-03-10

    Pokemon is an oncogenic transcription factor involved in cell growth, differentiation and oncogenesis, but little is known about its role in human breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to reveal the role of Pokemon in breast cancer progression and patient survival and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Tissue microarray analysis of breast cancer tissues from patients with complete clinicopathological data and more than 20 years of follow-up were used to evaluate Pokemon expression and its correlation with the progression and prognosis of the disease. DNA microarray analysis of MCF-7 cells that overexpress Pokemon was used to identify Pokemon target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to determine how Pokemon regulates survivin expression, a target gene. Pokemon was found to be overexpressed in 158 (86.8%) of 182 breast cancer tissues, and its expression was correlated with tumor size (P = 0.0148) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0014). Pokemon expression led to worse overall (n = 175, P = 0.01) and disease-related (n = 79, P = 0.0134) patient survival. DNA microarray analyses revealed that in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, Pokemon regulates the expression of at least 121 genes involved in several signaling and metabolic pathways, including anti-apoptotic survivin. In clinical specimens, Pokemon and survivin expression were highly correlated (n = 49, r = 0.6799, P Pokemon induces survivin expression by binding to the GT boxes in its promoter. Pokemon promotes breast cancer progression by upregulating survivin expression and thus may be a potential target for the treatment of this malignancy.

  7. Immunohistochemical study of p16 INK4A and survivin expressions in cervical squamous neoplasm

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    Tan Geok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting Malaysian women. Despite the implementation of pap smear screening, many women are still diagnosed only in the advanced stage of cervical cancer. This could partly be due to failure of detection of its precursor lesions; hence the need to search for novel biomarkers to assist in the screening and diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. This study aims to determine the expression of p16INK4A and survivin as possible predictive biomarkers in cervical squamous neoplasm. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study on 201 cases of cervical neoplasm comprising of 129 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and 72 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. All samples were evaluated by two independent observers using p16INK4A and survivin monoclonal antibodies. The p16 INK4A expression was graded as negative, focal and diffuse positivity. The intensity for survivin expression was graded as weak, moderate and intense. Results: It is seen that p16 INK4A expression in CIN 1, CIN 2 and CIN 3 were 25.4%, 42.9% and 95.9% respectively. Majority of SCC (98.6% showed p16 INK4A expression. Survivin expressions in CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC were 56.7%, 33.4%, 87.5% and 98.6%. There was a linear relationship between increasing grade of CIN and p16 INK4A expressions. Conclusion: Our study showed that p16 INK4A expressions correlate well with the increasing grade of CIN. Although survivin does not correlate well to the increasing grade of CIN, it could be useful in differentiating CIN 3 from SCC.

  8. Targeting Survivin Enhances Chemosensitivity in Retinoblastoma Cells and Orthotopic Tumors.

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    Angela Ferrario

    Full Text Available Treatments for retinoblastoma (Rb vary depending on the size and location of the intraocular lesions and include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We examined whether agents used to treat Rb induce a pro-survival phenotype associated with increased expression of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of proteins. We document that exposure to carboplatin, topotecan or radiation resulted in elevated expression of survivin in two human Rb cell lines but not in normal retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells. Cellular levels of survivin were attenuated in Rb cells exposed to an imidazolium-based survivin suppressant, Sepantronium bromide (YM155. Protein expression patterns of survivin in RPE cells were not altered following treatment protocols involving exposure to YM155. Including YM155 with chemotherapy or radiation increased levels of apoptosis in Rb cells but not in RPE cells. Intraocular luciferase expressing Rb tumors were generated from the Rb cell lines and used to evaluate the effects of carboplatin and YM155 on in-vivo survivin expression and tumor growth. Carboplatin induced expression of survivin while carboplatin combined with YM155 reduced survivin expression in tumor bearing eyes. The combination protocol was also most effective in reducing the rate of tumor regrowth. These results indicate that targeted inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin provides a therapeutic advantage for Rb cells and tumors treated with chemotherapy.

  9. Binding of galectin-1 to integrin β1 potentiates drug resistance by promoting survivin expression in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, KeeSoo; Son, Seog-ho; Oh, Sunhwa; Jeon, Donghwan; Kim, Hyungjoo; Noh, Dong-Young; Kim, Sangmin; Shin, Incheol

    2017-01-01

    Galectin-1 is a β-galactoside binding protein secreted by many types of aggressive cancer cells. Although many studies have focused on the role of galectin-1 in cancer progression, relatively little attention has been paid to galectin-1 as an extracellular therapeutic target. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying galectin-1-mediated cancer progression, we established galectin-1 knock-down cells via retroviral delivery of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against galectin-1 in two triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T. Ablation of galectin-1 expression decreased cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and doxorubicin resistance. We found that these effects were caused by decreased galectin-1-integrin β1 interactions and suppression of the downstream focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/c-Src pathway. We also found that silencing of galectin-1 inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, thereby down-regulating survivin expression. This finding implicates STAT3 as a transcription factor for survivin. Finally, rescue of endogenous galectin-1 knock-down and recombinant galectin-1 treatment both recovered signaling through the FAK/c-Src/ERK/STAT3/survivin pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that extracellular galectin-1 contributes to cancer progression and doxorubicin resistance in TNBC cells. These effects appear to be mediated by galectin-1-induced up-regulation of the integrin β1/FAK/c-Src/ERK/STAT3/survivin pathway. Our results imply that extracellular galectin-1 has potential as a therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:28415760

  10. Vitamin D Receptor, Retinoid X Receptor, Ki-67, Survivin, and Ezrin Expression in Canine Osteosarcoma

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    John Davies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OS is an aggressive malignant bone tumor. Prognosis is primarily determined by clinical parameters. Vitamin D has been postulated as a novel therapeutic option for many malignancies. Upon activation, vitamin D receptors (VDRs combine with retinoid receptor (RXR forming a heterodimer initiating a cascade of events. Vitamin D's antineoplastic activity and its mechanism of action in OS remain to be clearly established. Expression of VDR, RXR, Ki-67, survivin, and ezrin was studied in 33 archived, canine OS specimens. VDR, RXR, survivin, and ezrin were expressed in the majority of cases. There was no statistically significant difference in VDR expression in relationship with tumor grade, type, or locations or animal breed, age, and/or sex. No significant association (p=0.316 between tumor grade and Ki-67 expression was found; in particular, no difference in Ki-67 expression between grades 2 and 3 OSs was found, while a negative correlation was noted between Ki-67 and VDR expression (ρ=−0.466, a positive correlation between survivin and RXR expression was found (p=0.374. A significant relationship exists between VDR and RXR expression in OSs and proliferative/apoptosis markers. These results establish a foundation for elucidating mechanisms by which vitamin D induces antineoplastic activity in OS.

  11. REAL-TIME DETECTION OF SURVIVIN mRNA EXPRESSION IN CERVICAL CANCER CELL LINES USING MOLECULAR BEACON IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Ruifang; He Dalin; Xue Yan; Wang Shu; Xie Li; Zhao Jun; Wang Xinyang; Yang Lili

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of survivin mRNA in cervical cancer cell lines using molecular beacon imaging technology. Methods Human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and SiHa) and human fetal lung fibroblast HFL-I were cultured in vitro. After adding 100 nmol/L survivin mRNA molecular beacon, the fluorescent signals were observed under fluorescent microscope. The expressions of survivin in cervical cancer cells and HFL-I cell were examined by immunocytochemical streptravidin-biothin peroxidase (SP) assay at the same time. Results Two kinds of survivin mRNA molecular beacon, with different color fluorescence, had strong fluorescent signal in cervical cancer cell lines, and the signal in SiHa cell line was stronger, but these signals were not found in HFL-I ; Immunocytochemical staining of positive survivin was located in the cytoplasm of cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa, whereas, no expression of survivin was detected in HFL-I cell line. Conclusion The technology of molecular beacon imaging can be used to detect the expression of survivin mRNA in viable cells successfully, and may provide a new approach to the diagnosis of early stage cervical cancer and the following-up in the clinic.

  12. The prognostic value of survivin expression in patients with colorectal carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

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    Huang, Yu-Jing; Qi, Wei-Xiang; He, Ai-Na; Sun, Yuan-Jue; Shen, Zan; Yao, Yang

    2013-10-01

    The prognostic role of survivin in colorectal carcinoma remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between survivin expression and survival outcomes in patients with colorectal carcinoma. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published up to April 2013 was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. Only articles in which survivin was detected by immunohistochemical staining were included. This meta-analysis was done using STATA and Review Manager. A total of 1784 patients from 14 studies were included in the analysis. Our results showed that survivin overexpression in patients with colorectal carcinoma was significantly associated with poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.505; 95% confidence interval, 1.197-1.893; P = 0.000) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 2.323; 95% confidence interval, 1.687-3.199; P = 0.000). The results indicated that a significant relationship between survivin expression and overall survival was also exhibited in studies with an Asian country (hazard ratio, 1.684; 95% confidence interval, 1.477-1.921), patient number >100 (hazard ratio, 1.604; 95% confidence interval, 1.371-1.877), the cut-off level 50% (hazard ratio, 1.528; 95% confidence interval, 1.056-2.211) and the hazard ratio estimated (hazard ratio, 1.643; 95% confidence interval, 1.262-2.139). Moreover, upregulation of survivin was associated with stages (III/IV vs. I/II: odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.46), the depth of invasion (T3/T4 vs. T1/T2: odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval 0.67-4.74), lymph node metastasis (positive vs. negative: odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-2.26), distant metastasis (positive vs. negative: odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-5.72) and grade of differentiation (well/moderate vs. poor: odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-2.41), but without significance. The present meta-analysis indicated that upregulation of survivin was

  13. Expression and clinical implication of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, BRCA1 and ERCC1 in epithelial ovarian tumor tissues.

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    Ju, L-L; Zhao, C Y; Ye, K-F; Yang, H; Zhang, J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the differential expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 protein in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to evaluate the relationship between autophagy and platinum resistance of EOC patients during platinum-based chemotherapy with the protein expression. Expression of Beclin1, HMGB1, p62, survivin, ERCC1 and BRCA1 were detected with immunohistochemistry in 60 patients, including 39 with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), 13 benign epithelial ovarian tumor tissue (BET) and 8 borderline ovarian tumor tissue. Beclin, p62 and ERCC1 expression was significantly higher in the EOC than the BET (p0.05). BRCA1 expression was lower in EOC than BET (pepithelial ovarian cancer.

  14. [Analysis on expression of survivin and PTEN in vocal cords polyps, papilloma of larynx and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiangzhong; Li, Yunying

    2012-08-01

    Through exploring the differentiation on positive expressing rates between oncogene survivin and tumor-suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) on vocal cord polyps (VCP), adult type laryngeal papilloma (ALP), and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), to reveal the mechanism in cancellation of human laryngeal squamous cells, from benign proliferative lesion, benign tumor to malignant tumor in larynx. After picking out 18 cases of VCP, 10 cases of ALP, and 18 cases of LSCC for immunohistochemical process of Survivin and PTEN with two continuous section preparations, the differentiations of positive expression rates of Survivin and PTEN in the same human laryngeal squamous cells areas among three diseases were compared. The positive expressing rates of survivin and PTEN in VCP were obviously more lower than in ALP and LSCC (P 0.05). The positive expressing rates of survivin were always higher than PTEN in VCP, ALP and LSCC evidently (P laryngeal squamous cells take place or not, Survivin is always playing the leading role and making predominant impact on development of benign proliferative lesion, benign and malignant tumor in larynx.

  15. Low Merlin expression and high Survivin labeling index are indicators for poor prognosis in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerang, Mayura; Bérard, Karima; Friess, Martina; Bitanihirwe, Byron K Y; Soltermann, Alex; Vrugt, Bart; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Bueno, Raphael; Richards, William G; Seifert, Burkhardt; Stahel, Rolf; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Alterations of the tumor suppressor Neurofibromatosis type II (NF2) have been reported in about 40% of Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients. NF2 (Merlin) deficiency leads to alterations of the Hippo pathway; resulting in activation of the oncogenic Yes Associated Protein-1 (YAP1). Our aim was to investigate the association between these alterations and clinical outcomes. Tissue microarrays composed of MPM tumors derived from 2 independent MPM cohorts were employed for this study. Immunohistochemical expression of Merlin, YAP1 and its target genes, Survivin and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were assessed in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Cohort 1 was comprised of 145 patients intended to be treated with chemotherapy (CTX) followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), thus both pre- and post-CTX tissues were available. Cohort 2 was comprised of 59 patients treated with EPP followed by intraoperative hyperthermic cisplatin and/or adjuvant CTX and/or radiotherapy. Marker expression was quantified by means of labeling index (%) for nuclear Survivin and by H-score for the other markers. The dichotomized marker expression was tested for the association with overall survival (OS) and freedom from recurrence (FFR). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed a significant association between low cytoplasmic Merlin expression in pre-induction CTX tissues of cohort 1 with shorter FFR (p = 0.02) and OS (p = 0.03). The same tendency was observed in the chemotherapy naïve tissues obtained during EPP of cohort 2. Low nuclear Merlin expression in post-CTX tissues (available from cohort 1 only) was associated with shorter FFR (p = 0.04) and OS (p = 0.05). High nuclear Survivin labeling indices in both pre- and post-CTX tissues of cohort 1 was associated with shorter FFR (p = 0.02). In cohort 2, this was associated with both FFR and OS (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In multivariate analysis, low expression of cytoplasmic Merlin remained an

  16. Clinical and immunological evaluation of anti-apoptosis protein, survivin-derived peptide vaccine in phase I clinical study for patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer

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    Asanuma Hiroko

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that survivin-2B, a splicing variant of survivin, was expressed in various types of tumors and that survivin-2B peptide might serve as a potent immunogenic cancer vaccine. The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of and to clinically and immunologically evaluate survivin-2B peptide in a phase I clinical study for patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer. Methods We set up two protocols. In the first protocol, 10 patients were vaccinated with escalating doses (0.1–1.0 mg of survivin-2B peptide alone 4 times every 2 weeks. In the second protocol, 4 patients were vaccinated with the peptide at a dose of 1.0 mg mixed with IFA 4 times every 2 weeks. Results In the first protocol, no adverse events were observed during or after vaccination. In the second protocol, two patients had induration at the injection site. One patient had general malaise (grade 1, and another had general malaise (grade 1 and fever (grade 1. Peptide vaccination was well tolerated in all patients. In the first protocol, tumor marker levels increased in 8 patients, slightly decreased in 1 patient and were within the normal range during this clinical trial in 1 patient. With regard to tumor size, two patients were considered to have stable disease (SD. Immunologically, in 3 of the 10 patients (30%, an increase of the peptide-specific CTL frequency was detected. In the second protocol, an increase of the peptide-specific CTL frequency was detected in all 4 patients (100%, although there were no significant beneficial clinical responses. ELISPOT assay showed peptide-specific IFN-γ responses in 2 patients in whom the peptide-specific CTL frequency in tetramer staining also was increased in both protocols. Conclusion This phase I clinical study revealed that survivin-2B peptide vaccination was well tolerated. The vaccination with survivin-2B peptide mixed with IFA increased the frequency of peptide-specific CTL more

  17. HPV Status and Its Correlation with BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and Survivin Expression in Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

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    Ya-Wen Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent evidence, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV in breast carcinogenesis is controversial. The correlations of HPV infection with the clinicopathological features of breast cancer and the expression of cell cycle/apoptosis-associated proteins have not been well elucidated. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of high-risk HPVs (HR-HPVs infection and BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin expression in breast cancer patients and to investigate the relationship of HPV with these cancer-related proteins, in an attempt to clarify the potential mechanism of HPV in breast cancer pathogenesis. HPV presence in 81 fresh breast cancer tissues was determined by hybrid capture 2 (HC2 assay, and expression of BCL2, p21, p53, Rb, and survivin was detected by immunohistochemistry. Here we showed that fourteen (17.3% patients were HR-HPV positive. HPV infection demonstrated no significant correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. HPV-positive tumors showed significantly higher BCL2 and lower p53 expression than HPV-negative tumors. Expression of p21, Rb, and survivin was not associated with HPV status. Our results suggest a possible role of HR-HPV in breast cancer carcinogenesis, in which BCL2 and p53 may be involved.

  18. TAB3 upregulates Survivin expression to promote colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis by binding to the TAK1-TRAF6 complex.

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    Luo, Chen; Yuan, Rongfa; Chen, Leifeng; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Wei; Qiu, Yumin; Shao, Jun; Yan, Jinlong; Shao, Jianghua

    2017-12-05

    Transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein 3 (TAB3) is involved in cancer proliferation and metastasis, but its role in colorectal cancer remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that TAB3 is upregulated in colorectal cancer tissues and that high TAB3 levels correlated with tumor metastasis and a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. In addition, TAB3 knockdown decreased Survivin expression and suppressed colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro, and reduced liver metastasis in vivo. Importantly, we found that TAB3 regulated Survivin expression by activating the NF-κB pathway through the formation of the TAK1-TAB3-TRAF6 complex. These findings suggest TAB3 may be a useful prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer and a target for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

  19. Inhibition of never in mitosis A (NIMA)-related kinase-4 reduces survivin expression and sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Jung; Jo, Doo Sin; Jo, Se-Young; Shin, Dong Woon; Shim, Sangmi; Jo, Yoon Kyung; Shin, Ji Hyun; Ha, Ye Jin; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Hwang, Jung Jin; Kim, Young Sam; Suh, Young-Ah; Chang, Jong Wook; Kim, Jin Cheon; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2016-10-04

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many tumors are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and resistance mechanisms are not fully understood. To identify novel regulatory molecules of TRAIL resistance, we screened a siRNA library targeting the human kinome, and NEK4 (NIMA-related kinase-4) was identified. Knockdown of NEK4 sensitized TRAIL-resistant cancer cells and in vivo xenografts to cell death. In contrast, over expression of NEK4 suppressed TRAIL-induced cell death in TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells. In addition, loss of NEK4 resulted in decrease of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin, but an increase in apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, NEK4 was highly upregulated in tumor tissues derived from patients with lung cancer and colon cancer. These results suggest that inhibition of NEK4 sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by regulation of survivin expression.

  20. EGFR signaling promotes β-cell proliferation and survivin expression during pregnancy.

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    Elina Hakonen

    Full Text Available Placental lactogen (PL induced serotonergic signaling is essential for gestational β-cell mass expansion. We have previously shown that intact Epidermal growth factor -receptor (EGFR function is a crucial component of this pathway. We now explored more specifically the link between EGFR and pregnancy-induced β-cell mass compensation. Islets were isolated from wild-type and β-cell-specific EGFR-dominant negative mice (E1-DN, stimulated with PL and analyzed for β-cell proliferation and expression of genes involved in gestational β-cell growth. β-cell mass dynamics were analyzed both with traditional morphometrical methods and three-dimensional optical projection tomography (OPT of whole-mount insulin-stained pancreata. Insulin-positive volume analyzed with OPT increased 1.4-fold at gestational day 18.5 (GD18.5 when compared to non-pregnant mice. Number of islets peaked by GD13.5 (680 vs 1134 islets per pancreas, non-pregnant vs. GD13.5. PL stimulated beta cell proliferation in the wild-type islets, whereas the proliferative response was absent in the E1-DN mouse islets. Serotonin synthesizing enzymes were upregulated similarly in both the wild-type and E1-DN mice. However, while survivin (Birc5 mRNA was upregulated 5.5-fold during pregnancy in the wild-type islets, no change was seen in the E1-DN pregnant islets. PL induced survivin expression also in isolated islets and this was blocked by EGFR inhibitor gefitinib, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and MEK inhibitor PD0325901. Our 3D-volumetric analysis of β-cell mass expansion during murine pregnancy revealed that islet number increases during pregnancy. In addition, our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for lactogen-induced survivin expression via MAPK and mTOR pathways.

  1. Intravenous siRNA Silencing of Survivin Enhances Activity of Mitomycin C in Human Bladder RT4 Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Minjian; Au, Jessie L-S; Wientjes, M Guillaume; O'Donnell, Michael A; Loughlin, Kevin R; Lu, Ze

    2015-07-01

    Survivin inhibits apoptosis and enables tumor cells to escape from therapy induced senescence. High survivin expression is associated with bladder cancer aggressiveness and recurrence. We evaluated whether survivin expression is reduced by siRNA and whether survivin silencing would enhance mitomycin C activity in human RT4 bladder transitional cell tumors in vitro and in vivo. We assessed the effectiveness of siRNA therapy using 2 newly developed pegylated cationic liposome carriers, PCat and PPCat. Each has a fusogenic lipid to destabilize the endosomal membrane. PPCat further contains paclitaxel to enhance in vivo delivery and transfection of survivin siRNA. In vitro antitumor activity was evaluated by short-term MTT and long-term clonogenicity cytotoxicity assays. In vivo intravenous therapy was assessed in mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. Nontarget siRNA showed no antitumor activity in vitro or in vivo. Treatment of cultured cells with mitomycin C at a 50% cytotoxic concentration enhanced survivin mRNA and protein levels. Adding PPCat or PCat containing survivin siRNA reversed survivin induction and enhanced mitomycin C activity (p <0.05). In tumor bearing mice single agent mitomycin C delayed tumor growth and almost tripled the survivin protein level in residual tumors. Adding PPCat-survivin siRNA, which alone resulted in a minor survivin decrease of less than 10%, completely reversed mitomycin C induced survivin and enhanced mitomycin C activity (p <0.05). Results indicate that there is effective in vivo survivin silencing and synergism between mitomycin C and PPCat-survivin siRNA. This combination represents a potentially useful chemo-gene therapy for bladder cancer. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The inhibition of the apoptosis pathway by the Coxiella burnetii effector protein CaeA requires the EK repetition motif, but is independent of survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisle, Stephanie; Klingenbeck, Leonie; Borges, Vítor; Sobotta, Katharina; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Menge, Christian; Heydel, Carsten; Gomes, João Paulo; Lührmann, Anja

    2016-05-18

    ABSRTACT Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes Query (Q) fever, a zoonotic disease. It requires a functional type IV secretion system (T4SS) which translocate bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and thereby facilitates bacterial replication. To date, more than 130 effector proteins have been identified, but their functions remain largely unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that one of these proteins, CaeA (CBU1524) localized to the host cell nucleus and inhibited intrinsic apoptosis of HEK293 or CHO cells. In the present study we addressed the question whether CaeA also affects the extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Ectopic expression of CaeA reduced extrinsic apoptosis and prevented the cleavage of the executioner caspase 7, but did not impair the activation of initiator caspase 9. CaeA expression resulted in an up-regulation of survivin (an inhibitor of activated caspases), which, however, was not causal for the anti-apoptotic effect of CaeA. Comparing the sequence of CaeA from 25 different C. burnetii isolates we identified an EK (glutamic acid/ lysine) repetition motif as a site of high genetic variability. The EK motif of CaeA was essential for the anti-apoptotic activity of CaeA. From these data, we conclude that the C. burnetii effector protein CaeA interferes with the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway. The process requires the EK repetition motif of CaeA, but is independent of the upregulated expression of survivin.

  3. Indomethacin promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through concomitant degradation of Survivin and Aurora B kinase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hoa, Neil; Hodges, Amy; Ge, Lishen; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-09-01

    Regular usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced incidence of a variety of cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these chemopreventive effects remain poorly understood. This current investigation showed that in gastric cancer cells: (1) Indomethacin treatment enhanced the degradation of chromosomal passenger proteins, Survivin and Aurora B kinase; (2) Indomethacin treatment down-regulated Aurora B kinase activity in a cell cycle-independent fashion; (3) siRNA knockdown of Survivin level promoted Aurora B kinase protein degradation, and vice versa; (4) ectopic overexpression of Survivin blocked reduction of Aurora B kinase level and activity by indomethacin treatment, and vice versa; (5) siRNA knockdown of Aurora B kinase level and AZD1152 inhibition of its activity induced apoptosis, and overexpression of Aurora B kinase inhibited indomethacin-induced apoptosis; (6) indomethacin treatment reduced Aurora B kinase level, coinciding with reduction of Survivin level and induction of apoptosis, in KATO III and HT-29 cells, and in mouse gastric mucosa. A role for Aurora B kinase function in NSAID-induced apoptosis was not previously explored. Thus this report provides better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NSAIDs by elucidating a significant role for Aurora B kinase in indomethacin-induced apoptosis.

  4. The role of survivin in the diagnosis and therapy of gynaecological cancers

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    Marta Denel-Bobrowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survivin is a member of the family of apoptosis inhibitors. It regulates several essential cellular processes, i.e. it inhibits apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation, DNA repair and autophagy. Survivin is responsible for development of the cell’s resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Overexpression of survivin generally correlates with poor prognosis. Its presence has been detected in most types of human tumours. Currently much attention is paid to the possibilities of using this protein as a diagnostic marker of cancer or a prognostic factor. Survivin occurs selectively in cancer cells and is essential for their survival. These features make survivin a promising target for cancer therapy. There are some strategies for discovering survivin inhibitors. The most common strategies are antisense nucleotides, RNA interference and small molecule inhibitors of protein. Scientists are also working on using survivin to induce an immune response in cancer patients. This article discusses the potential role of survivin in the diagnosis of various types of cancer, as well as selected strategies for the inhibition of both gene expression and protein function. Detailed knowledge of the mechanisms of survivin action may therefore be crucial for effective antitumor therapy development.

  5. [The oncofetal gene survivin - a possible target gene for regenerative therapy concepts in cartilaginous tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechler, P; Handel, M; Anders, S; Balakrishnan, S; Grifka, J

    2012-04-01

    Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitor of the apoptosis protein gene family (IAP) is a key molecule for mammalian cell cycle regulation and cellular survival. Of note these functions have been thought to be limited to embryonic and malignant tissues. However, a growing body of evidence indicates a limited expression of survivin in some highly specific adult tissues and cells. In the present study it has been demonstrated that the antiapoptotic protein survivin is re-expressed in osteoarthritic human cartilage and primary human chondrocytes. Furthermore, the data indicated that survivin significantly affects cell cycle regulation and cellular survival. The modulation of survivin expression and function in cartilaginous tissues might be important for understanding osteoarthritis and the development of regenerative strategies.

  6. Downregulation of survivin expression and concomitant induction of apoptosis by celecoxib and its non-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitory analog, dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC, in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

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    Hofman Florence M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC is a close structural analog of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex® that lacks COX-2-inhibitory function. However, despite its inability to block COX-2 activity, DMC is able to potently mimic the anti-tumor effects of celecoxib in vitro and in vivo, indicating that both of these drugs are able to involve targets other than COX-2 to exert their recognized cytotoxic effects. However, the molecular components that are involved in mediating these drugs' apoptosis-stimulatory consequences are incompletely understood. Results We present evidence that celecoxib and DMC are able to down-regulate the expression of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in tumor cells and known to confer resistance of such cells to anti-cancer treatments. Suppression of survivin is specific to these two drugs, as other coxibs (valdecoxib, rofecoxib or traditional NSAIDs (flurbiprofen, indomethacin, sulindac do not affect survivin expression at similar concentrations. The extent of survivin down-regulation by celecoxib and DMC in different tumor cell lines is somewhat variable, but closely correlates with the degree of drug-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. When combined with irinotecan, a widely used anticancer drug, celecoxib and DMC greatly enhance the cytotoxic effects of this drug, in keeping with a model that suppression of survivin may be beneficial to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects are not restricted to in vitro conditions, but also take place in tumors from drug-treated animals, where both drugs similarly repress survivin, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion In consideration of survivin's recognized role as a custodian of tumor cell survival, our results suggest that celecoxib and DMC might exert their cytotoxic anti-tumor effects at least in part via the down-regulation of survivin – in a

  7. [Apoptosis of glioma cell line U251 induced by small interfering RNA targeting survivin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ru-xiang; Tu, Yan-yang; Jiang, Xiao-dan; Feng, Jiang-nan; Huang, Jun

    2006-04-01

    To construct recombinant expression vectors of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting survivin and investigate apoptosis of glioma cell line U251 mediated by the survivin-targeting siRNA. According to the sequence of the coding region of survivin gene, two strings of 19 nucleotides of inverted sequence flanking the loop sequence of two complementary 9-base oligonucleotides were designed and synthesized to form hairpin construct as the DNA templates for the target siRNA. The siRNA templates were cloned into siRNA expression vector pGenesil-1, and the resulted vector pGenesil-1/survivin was transfected into U251 cells using Metafectene following the standard protocols. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to evaluate survivin gene silencing induced by siRNA transfection at the RNA and protein levels, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis with Annexin-V/PI double staining was used to determine the cell apoptosis. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed significantly lowered survivin expression at both RNA and protein levels in transfected U251 cells, which exhibited a significantly higher apoptosis rate after transfection as shown by flow cytometry analysis. RNA interference mediated by the siRNA expression vector pGenesi-l/survivin can significantly reduce survivin expression and induce remarkable apoptosis in U251 cells.

  8. Impaired neurogenesis, learning and memory and low seizure threshold associated with loss of neural precursor cell survivin

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    Eisch Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family in that it exhibits antiapoptotic properties and also promotes the cell cycle and mediates mitosis as a chromosome passenger protein. Survivin is highly expressed in neural precursor cells in the brain, yet its function there has not been elucidated. Results To examine the role of neural precursor cell survivin, we first showed that survivin is normally expressed in periventricular neurogenic regions in the embryo, becoming restricted postnatally to proliferating and migrating NPCs in the key neurogenic sites, the subventricular zone (SVZ and the subgranular zone (SGZ. We then used a conditional gene inactivation strategy to delete the survivin gene prenatally in those neurogenic regions. Lack of embryonic NPC survivin results in viable, fertile mice (SurvivinCamcre with reduced numbers of SVZ NPCs, absent rostral migratory stream, and olfactory bulb hypoplasia. The phenotype can be partially rescued, as intracerebroventricular gene delivery of survivin during embryonic development increases olfactory bulb neurogenesis, detected postnatally. SurvivinCamcre brains have fewer cortical inhibitory interneurons, contributing to enhanced sensitivity to seizures, and profound deficits in memory and learning. Conclusions The findings highlight the critical role that survivin plays during neural development, deficiencies of which dramatically impact on postnatal neural function.

  9. Visceral regeneration in a sea cucumber involves extensive expression of survivin and mortalin homologs in the mesothelium

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    Rojas-Catagena Carmencita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proper balance of cell division and cell death is of crucial importance for all kinds of developmental processes and for maintaining tissue homeostasis in mature tissues. Dysregulation of this balance often results in severe pathologies, such as cancer. There is a growing interest in understanding the factors that govern the interplay between cell death and proliferation under various conditions. Survivin and mortalin are genes that are known to be implicated in both mitosis and apoptosis and are often expressed in tumors. Results The present study takes advantage of the ability of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima Selenka, 1867 (Holothuroidea, Aspidochirota to discard its viscera and completely regrow them. This visceral regeneration involves an extensive expression of survivin and mortalin transcripts in the gut mesothelium (the outer tissue layer of the digestive tube, which coincides in time with drastic de-differentiation and a burst in cell division and apoptosis. Double labeling experiments (in situ hybridization combined with TUNEL assay or with BrdU immunohistochemistry suggest that both genes support cell proliferation, while survivin might also be involved in suppression of the programmed cell death. Conclusions Visceral regeneration in the sea cucumber H. glaberrima is accompanied by elevated levels of cell division and cell death, and, moreover, involves expression of pro-cancer genes, such as survivin and mortalin, which are known to support proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Nevertheless, once regeneration is completed and the expression pattern of both genes returns to normal, the regrown digestive tube shows no anomalies. This strongly suggests that sea cucumbers must possess some robust cancer-suppression mechanisms that allow rapid re-growth of the adult tissues without leading to runaway tumor development.

  10. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human nonsmall lung cancer H460 cells through downregulation of survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-qin; Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, enhances cisplatin-mediated cell apoptosis in cancer cells. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin on cisplatin-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V/propidium iodide staining were performed to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of H460 cells. Arctigenin dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and potentiated cell apoptosis, coupled with increased cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, arctigenin sensitized H460 cells to cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Arctigenin alone or in combination with cisplatin had a significantly lower amount of survivin. Ectopic expression of survivin decreased cell apoptosis induced by arctigenin (P arctigenin (P arctigenin has a therapeutic potential in combina-tion with chemotherapeutic agents for NSLC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Survivin Improves Reprogramming Efficiency of Human Neural Progenitors by Single Molecule OCT4

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    Shixin Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have been generated from human somatic cells by ectopic expression of four Yamanaka factors. Here, we report that Survivin, an apoptosis inhibitor, can enhance iPS cells generation from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs together with one factor OCT4 (1F-OCT4-Survivin. Compared with 1F-OCT4, Survivin accelerates the process of reprogramming from human NPCs. The neurocyte-originated induced pluripotent stem (NiPS cells generated from 1F-OCT4-Survivin resemble human embryonic stem (hES cells in morphology, surface markers, global gene expression profiling, and epigenetic status. Survivin keeps high expression in both iPS and ES cells. During the process of NiPS cell to neural cell differentiation, the expression of Survivin is rapidly decreased in protein level. The mechanism of Survivin promotion of reprogramming efficiency from NPCs may be associated with stabilization of β-catenin in WNT signaling pathway. This hypothesis is supported by experiments of RT-PCR, chromatin immune-precipitation, and Western blot in human ES cells. Our results showed overexpression of Survivin could improve the efficiency of reprogramming from NPCs to iPS cells by one factor OCT4 through stabilization of the key molecule, β-catenin.

  12. Expression of antiapoptosis gene survivin in luteinized ovarian granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF or ICSI and embryo transfer: clinical correlations

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    Varras Michail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of survivin gene expression in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in Greek women with normal FSH levels, undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any correlation between levels of gene expression and clinical parameters, efficacy of ovulation or outcomes of assisted reproduction. Methods Twenty nine women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded and the granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for survivin gene expression with internal standard the ABL gene. Results The ABL and survivin mRNA were detected in granulosa cells in 93.1%. The expression levels of survivin were significantly lower in normal women (male infertility factor compared to women with tubal infertility factor (p = 0.007. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between levels of survivin expression and estradiol levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction or number of dominant follicles aspirated or number of retrieved oocytes or embryo grade or clinical pregnancy rates respectively. Conclusions High levels of survivin mRNA expression in luteinized granulosa cells in cases with tubal infertility seem to protect ovaries from follicular apoptosis. A subpopulation of patients with low levels of survivin mRNA in granulosa cells might benefit with ICSI treatment to bypass possible natural barriers of sperm-oocyte interactions.

  13. Suicide gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma cells by survivin promoter-driven expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lili; Wang, Yanyun; Gong, Lailing; Zhu, Jin; Gong, Rujun; Si, Jin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the selective killing effect of the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV) suicide gene system controlled by the survivin promoter on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro. Recombinant plasmid vectors driven by the survivin promoter were constructed. HepG2 HCC and LO2 normal human liver cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmids, green fluorescent protein (GFP)/pSURV, TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV. GFP expression was detected by fluoroscopy and flow cytometry (FCM). TK gene expression was detected using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The selective killing effects after GCV application were evaluated by tetrazolium assay, FCM and western blot analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. After transfection with GFP/pSURV, TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV for 48 h, GFP expression was observed in the HepG2 cells, but not in the L02 cells and TK gene expression was evidently detected by RT-PCR and western blot analysis in the HepG2 cells. Three stably transfected cell lines (HepG2/pSURV, HepG2/TK/pSURV and HepG2/TAT-TK/pSURV) were successfully established. Compared with the HepG2/TK/pSURV group, a significant 'bystander effect' was observed in the HepG2/TAT-TK/pSURV group with the incorporation of unmodifed HepG2 cells at different ratios. Following transfection with TK/pSURV and TAT-TK/pSURV, the growth of HepG2 cells in the presence of GCV was markedly inhibited. This finding was further corroborated by FCM and immunoblot analysis revealed the repressed expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Our results showed that the plasmid vectors carrying the TK and TAT-TK fusion protein gene driven by the survivin promoter were successfully constructed and their specific expression in HepG2 cells provided the basis for the targeted gene therapy of HCC.

  14. Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition

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    Liu Xichun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. Results We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen

  15. Survivin counteracts the therapeutic effect of microtubule de-stabilizers by stabilizing tubulin polymers

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    Hsieh Hsing-Pang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is a dual function protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Over-expression of survivin has been demonstrated to induce drug-resistance to various chemo-therapeutic agents such as cisplatin (DNA damaging agent and paclitaxel (microtubule stabilizer in cancers. However, survivin-induced resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers such as Vinca alkaloids and Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4-related compounds were seldom demonstrated in the past. Furthermore, the question remains as to whether survivin plays a dominant role in processing cytokinesis or inhibiting caspases activity in cells treated with anti-mitotic compounds. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of survivin on the resistance and susceptibility of human cancer cells to microtubule de-stabilizer-induced cell death. Results BPR0L075 is a CA-4 analog that induces microtubule de-polymerization and subsequent caspase-dependent apoptosis. To study the relationship between the expression of survivin and the resistance to microtubule de-stabilizers, a KB-derived BPR0L075-resistant cancer cell line, KB-L30, was generated for this study. Here, we found that survivin was over-expressed in the KB-L30 cells. Down-regulation of survivin by siRNA induced hyper-sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB cells and partially re-stored sensitivity to BPR0L075 in KB-L30 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that down-regulation of survivin induced microtubule de-stabilization in both KB and KB-L30 cells. However, the same treatment did not enhance the down-stream caspase-3/-7 activities in BPR0L075-treated KB cells. Translocation of a caspase-independent apoptosis-related molecule, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, from cytoplasm to the nucleus was observed in survivin-targeted KB cells under BPR0L075 treatment. Conclusion In this study, survivin plays an important role in the

  16. Survivin as a potential mediator to support autoreactive cell survival in myasthenia gravis: a human and animal model study.

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    Linda L Kusner

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that underlie the development and maintenance of autoimmunity in myasthenia gravis are poorly understood. In this investigation, we evaluate the role of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, in humans and in two animal models. We identified survivin expression in cells with B lymphocyte and plasma cells markers, and in the thymuses of patients with myasthenia gravis. A portion of survivin-expressing cells specifically bound a peptide derived from the alpha subunit of acetylcholine receptor indicating that they recognize the peptide. Thymuses of patients with myasthenia gravis had large numbers of survivin-positive cells with fewer cells in the thymuses of corticosteroid-treated patients. Application of a survivin vaccination strategy in mouse and rat models of myasthenia gravis demonstrated improved motor assessment, a reduction in acetylcholine receptor specific autoantibodies, and a retention of acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction, associated with marked reduction of survivin-expressing circulating CD20+ cells. These data strongly suggest that survivin expression in cells with lymphocyte and plasma cell markers occurs in patients with myasthenia gravis and in two animal models of myasthenia gravis. Survivin expression may be part of a mechanism that inhibits the apoptosis of autoreactive B cells in myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune disorders.

  17. Increased NQO1 but Not c-MET and Survivin Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma with KRAS Mutations

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    Ahmet Yilmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is one of the most significant public health issues and the most common environmental cause of preventable cancer deaths worldwide. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-targeted therapy has been used in the treatment of LC (lung cancer, mainly caused by the carcinogens in cigarette smoke, with variable success. Presence of mutations in the KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog driver oncogene may confer worse prognosis and resistance to treatment for reasons not fully understood. NQO1 (NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase, also known as DT-diaphorase, is a major regulator of oxidative stress and activator of mitomycins, compounds that have been targeted in over 600 pre-clinical trials for treatment of LC. We sequenced KRAS and investigated expression of NQO1 and five clinically relevant proteins (DNMT1, DNMT3a, ERK1/2, c-MET, and survivin in 108 patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. NQO1, ERK1/2, DNMT1, and DNMT3a but not c-MET and survivin expression was significantly more frequent in patients with KRAS mutations than those without, suggesting the following: (1 oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis, worse prognosis, and resistance to treatment reported in NSCLC patients with KRAS mutations, (2 selecting patients based on their KRAS mutational status for future clinical trials may increase success rate, and (3 since oxidation of nucleotides also specifically induces transversion mutations, the high rate of KRAS transversions in lung cancer patients may partly be due to the increased oxidative stress in addition to the known carcinogens in cigarette smoke.

  18. the significance of epidermal growth factor receptor and survivin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... traditional staging techniques to assist in the staging of urothelial cancer. The 2 markers are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin (14-22). EGFR protein expression in bladder cancer is associated with increasing pathological grade and stage and higher rates of recurrence and disease.

  19. Significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Survivin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Urine cytology smears obtained prior to cystoscopy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were immunostained for EGFR and survivin. Bladder cancer tissue resected at surgery was also immunostained for EGFR and survivin expression. Tissue expression of EGFR and survivin in TCC of ...

  20. Survivin knockdown increased anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cells

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    Hossain, Md. Motarab [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Banik, Naren L. [Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ray, Swapan K., E-mail: swapan.ray@uscmed.sc.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that mostly occurs in children. Malignant neuroblastomas have poor prognosis because conventional chemotherapeutic agents are hardly effective. Survivin, which is highly expressed in some malignant neuroblastomas, plays a significant role in inhibiting differentiation and apoptosis and promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We examined consequences of survivin knockdown by survivin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid and then treatment with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, in malignant neuroblastoma cells. Our Western blotting and laser scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that survivin was highly expressed in malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines and slightly in SK-N-DZ cell line. Expression of survivin was very faint in malignant neuroblastoma IMR32 cell line. We transfected SK-N-BE2 and SH-SY-5Y cells with survivin shRNA, treated with EGCG, and confirmed knockdown of survivin at mRNA and protein levels. Survivin knockdown induced morphological features of neuronal differentiation, as we observed following in situ methylene blue staining. Combination of survivin shRNA and EGCG promoted neuronal differentiation biochemically by increases in the expression of NFP, NSE, and e-cadherin and also decreases in the expression of Notch-1, ID2, hTERT, and PCNA. Our in situ Wright staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that combination therapy was highly effective in inducing, respectively, morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Apoptosis occurred with activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and increases in the expression and activity of calpain and caspase-3. Combination therapy decreased migration of cells through matrigel and inhibited proliferative (p-Akt and NF-{kappa}B), invasive (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and angiogenic (VEGF and b-FGF) factors. Also, in vitro

  1. Survivin S81A Enhanced TRAIL's Activity in Inducing Apoptosis

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    Ferry Sandra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survivin is rarely expressed in normal healthy adult tissues, however, it is upregulated in the majority of cancers. Survivin, which belongs to IAPs family, has been widely reported to protect cells from apoptosis by inhibiting caspases pathway. Survivin’s mitotic activity is modulated by many kinases, and its phosphor status can also influence its ability to inhibit apoptosis. There are several important survivin’s phosphorylation sites, such as S20 and T34. We have continued our investigation on other potential survivin’s phosphorylation sites that could be important site for regulating survivin’s cyto-protection. METHODS: By assuming that S81 could be a potential target to modify activity of survivin, wild-type survivin (Survivin, antisense survivin (Survivin-AS, mutated-survivin Thr34Ala (Survivin-T34A and mutated-survivin Ser81Ala (Survivin-S81A were constructed and inserted into pMSCV-IRES-GFP vector with cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Each retroviral product was produced in BOSC23 cells. LY294002 pretreatment and TRAIL treatment along with infection of retroviral products were performed in murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells. For analysis, flow cytometric apoptosis assay and western blot were performed. RESULTS: In our present study, survivin for providing cytoprotection was regulated by PI3K. The results showed that LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, effectively suppressed survivin-modulated cytoprotection in a TRAIL-induced apoptotic model. In addition, mutated survivin S81A showed marked suppression on survivin’s cytoprotection. Along with that, TRAIL’s apoptotic activity was enhanced for inducing apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: We suggested that survivin could inhibit apoptosis through PI3K and S81A could be another potential target in order to inhibit Survivin-modulated cytoprotection as well as to sensitize efficacy of TRAIL or other related apoptotic inducers. KEYWORDS: apoptosis, survivin, TRAIL, S81A, L929, LY294002.

  2. Inhibitory Effects of the Survivin siRNA Transfection on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells SPCA1 and SH77

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    Quanxi LIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP protein family, has been demonstrated as a potential new target for apoptosis-based therapy in cancer and lymphoma. The aim of this study is to investigate effects and mechanisms of survivin siRNA transfection on lung adenocarcinoma cell lines SPCA1 and SH77. Methods A siRNA plasmid expression vector and pSi scrambled against survivin were constructed and transfected into SPCA1 and SH77 cells with Lipofectamine 2000. The proliferations of lung adenocarcinoma SPCA1 and SH77 cells were detected by MTT. The apoptotic rate and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometer. The activity of survivin mRNA and protein expression were analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blot. Results Survivin siRNA reduced the proliferation of SPCA1 and SH77 cells. Cell cycle was inhibited in G0/G1. Expressions of survivin siRNA mRNA and protein were reduced in transfected cells compared with the control cells. Conclusion siRNA targeted against survivin can effectively suppress SPCA1 and SH77 cells proliferation and significantly induce SPCA1 and SH77 cells apoptosis.

  3. Nuclear survivin and its relationship to DNA damage repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer investigated using tissue array.

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    Songliu Hu

    Full Text Available To investigate the predictive role and association of nuclear survivin and the DNA double-strand breaks repair genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs, Ku heterodimeric regulatory complex 70-KD subunit (Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM.The protein expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM were investigated using immunohistochemistry in tumors from 256 patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between the expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the prognostic factors that inuenced the overall survival and disease-free survival of NSCLC.The expression of nuclear survivin, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and ATM was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues. By dichotomizing the specimens as expressing low or high levels of nuclear survivin, nuclear survivin correlated significantly with the pathologic stage (P = 0.009 and lymph node status (P = 0.004. The nuclear survivin levels were an independent prognostic factor for both the overall survival and the disease-free survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with low Ku70 and DNA-PKcs expression had a greater benefit from radiotherapy than patients with high expression of Ku70 (P = 0.012 and DNA-PKcs (P = 0.02. Nuclear survivin expression positively correlated with DNA-PKcs (P<0.001 and Ku70 expression (P<0.001.Nuclear survivin may be a prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with resected stage I-IIIA NSCLC. DNA-PKcs and Ku70 could predict the effect of radiotherapy in patients with NSCLC. Nuclear survivin may also stimulates DNA double-strand breaks repair by its interaction with DNA-PKcs and Ku70.

  4. EFFECT OF STRESS ON THE PERCENT BODY WEIGHT CHANGE AND MRNA EXPRESSION OF IGF-1, SURVIVINE AND HSP-70 GENE IN THE HIERARCHIAL FOLLICLES OF JAPANESE QUAIL

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    N Shit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to explore the effect of stress on body weight and the mRNA expression of IGF-1, Survivine and HSP-70 gene in the hierarchial follicles of Japanese quail. A total 24 birds (10 weeks were taken and stress was induced by immobilization daily for 2hrs (between 9.00 - 11.00 AM throughout the study (10 days. Four birds were sacrificed on 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days of the treatment. Hierarchial follicles (F1, F2 & F3 were aseptically collected to quantify the expression of IGF-1, Survivine and HSP-70 gene using real-time PCR technique. The percent body weight reduction increased and reached highest (21.30% on 10th day. The fold expression of IGF-1 gene was significantly ((P=0.05 down regulated in advance to the time of experiment. However, the fold expression of survivine gene was significantly (P=0.05 up regulated and the intensity was highest (17 fold in F-3 follicle on 4th day of experiment. No significant change in the mRNA expression of HSP-70 gene was evident in this study. From this study it may be concluded that stress brings physio-molecular change through HPA activation, which not only causes tissue regression also modifies the cellular mechanism.

  5. Enhancement of expression of survivin promoter-driven CD/TK double suicide genes by the nuclear matrix attachment region in transgenic gastric cancer cells.

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    Niu, Ying; Li, Jian-Sheng; Luo, Xian-Run

    2014-01-25

    This work aimed to study a novel transgenic expression system of the CD/TK double suicide genes enhanced by the nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) for gene therapy. The recombinant vector pMS-CD/TK containing the MAR-survivin promoter-CD/TK cassette was developed and transfected into human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Expression of the CD/TK genes was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blot. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and flow cytometry. When the MAR fragment was inserted into the upstream of the survivin promoter, the qPCR result showed that the expression of the CD/TK genes significantly increased 7.7-fold in the transgenic SGC-7901 cells with plasmid pMS-CD/TK compared with that without MAR. MTT and flow cytometry analyses indicated that treatment with the prodrugs (5-FC+GCV) significantly decreased the cellular survival rate and enhanced the cellular apoptosis in the SGC-7901 cells. The expression of the CD/TK double suicide genes driven by the survivin promoter can be enhanced by the MAR fragment in human gastric cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. KPT-330, a potent and selective exportin-1 (XPO-1) inhibitor, shows antitumor effects modulating the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin [corrected] in prostate cancer models.

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    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Mancini, Andrea; Sanita, Patrizia; Vitale, Flora; Marampon, Francesco; Ventura, Luca; Landesman, Yosef; McCauley, Dilara; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Festuccia, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Increased expression of Chromosome Region Maintenance (CRM-1)/exportin-1 (XPO-1) has been correlated with poor prognosis in several aggressive tumors, making it an interesting therapeutic target. Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds bind to XPO-1 and block its ability to export cargo proteins. Here, we investigated the effects of a new class of SINE compounds in models of prostate cancer. We evaluated the expression of XPO-1 in human prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. Next, six SINE (KPT-127, KPT-185, KPT-205, KPT-225, KPT-251 and KPT-330) compounds having different potency with broad-spectrum, tumor-selective cytotoxicity, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profiles were tested in a panel of prostate cancer cells representing distinct differentiation/progression states of disease and genotypes. Two SINE candidates for clinical trials (KPT-251 and KPT-330) were also tested in vivo in three cell models of aggressive prostate cancer engrafted in male nude mice. XPO-1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer compared to normal or hyperplastic tissues. Increased XPO-1 expression, mainly in the nuclear compartment, was associated with increased Gleason score and bone metastatic potential supporting the use of SINEs in advanced prostate cancer. SINE compounds inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of tumor cells, but did not affect immortalized non-transformed prostate epithelial cells. Nuclei from SINE treated cells showed increased protein localization of XPO-1, survivin and cyclin D1 followed by degradation of these proteins leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Oral administration of KPT-251 and KPT-330 in PC3, DU145 and 22rv1 tumor-bearing nude mice reduced tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and induced apoptosis. Our results provide supportive evidence for the therapeutic use of SINE compounds in advanced/castration resistant prostate cancers and warrants further clinical investigation.

  7. Plasma-derived exosomal survivin, a plausible biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer.

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    Salma Khan

    Full Text Available Survivin is expressed in prostate cancer (PCa, and its downregulation sensitizes PCa cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Small membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes, secreted from the endosomal membrane compartment, contain RNA and protein that they readily transport via exosome internalization into recipient cells. Recent progress has shown that tumor-derived exosomes play multiple roles in tumor growth and metastasis and may produce these functions via immune escape, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Furthermore, exosome analysis may provide novel biomarkers to diagnose or monitor PCa treatment.Exosomes were purified from the plasma and serum from 39 PCa patients, 20 BPH patients, 8 prostate cancer recurrent and 16 healthy controls using ultracentrifugation and their quantities and qualities were quantified and visualized from both the plasma and the purified exosomes using ELISA and Western blotting, respectively.Survivin was significantly increased in the tumor-derived samples, compared to those from BPH and controls with virtually no difference in the quantity of Survivin detected in exosomes collected from newly diagnosed patients exhibiting low (six or high (nine Gleason scores. Exosome Survivin levels were also higher in patients that had relapsed on chemotherapy compared to controls.These studies demonstrate that Survivin exists in plasma exosomes from both normal, BPH and PCa subjects. The relative amounts of exosomal Survivin in PCa plasma was significantly higher than in those with pre-inflammatory BPH and control plasma. This differential expression of exosomal Survivin was seen with both newly diagnosed and advanced PCa subjects with high or low-grade cancers. Analysis of plasma exosomal Survivin levels may offer a convenient tool for diagnosing or monitoring PCa and may, as it is elevated in low as well as high Gleason scored samples, be used for early detection.

  8. NY-ESO-1- and survivin-specific T-cell responses in the peripheral blood from patients with glioma

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    Liu, Zhenjiang; Poiret, Thomas; Persson, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is grim. Ex vivo expanded tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-reactive T-cells from patients with glioma may represent a viable source for anticancer-directed cellular therapies. Immunohistochemistry was used to test the survivin (n = 40 samples) and NY-ESO-1......-γ production was tested by ELISA. Twenty-eight out of 38 cancer specimens exhibited NY-ESO-1 protein expression, 2/38 showed a strong universal (4+) NY-ESO-1 staining, and 9/40 cancer lesions exhibited a strong (4+) staining for survivin. We could detect antigen-specific IFN-γ responses in 25% blood samples...... for NY-ESO-1 and 30% for survivin. NY-ESO-1-expanded T-cells recognized naturally processed and presented epitopes. NY-ESO-1 or survivin expression in glioma represents viable targets for anticancer-directed T-cells for the biological therapy of patients with glioma....

  9. Theranostic Properties of a Survivin-Directed Molecular Beacon in Human Melanoma Cells

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    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Giannetti, Ambra; Adinolfi, Barbara; Tombelli, Sara; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Vanni, Alessia; Martinotti, Enrica; Martini, Claudia; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Pellegrino, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis overexpressed in different types of tumors and undetectable in most terminally differentiated normal tissues. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the in vitro theranostic properties of a molecular beacon-oligodeoxynucleotide (MB) that targets survivin mRNA. We used laser scanning confocal microscopy to study MB delivery in living cells and real-time PCR and western blot to assess selective survivin-targeting in human malignant melanoma cells. We further assess the pro-apoptotic effect of MB by measuring internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and changes in nuclear morphology. Transfection of MB into A375 and 501 Mel cells generated high signal intensity from the cytoplasm, while no signal was detected in the extracellular environment and in survivin-negative cells (i.e., human melanocytes and monocytes). MB time dependently decreased survivin mRNA and protein expression in melanoma cells with the maximum effect reached at 72 h. Treatment of melanoma cells with MB induced apoptosis by significant changes in MMP, accumulation of histone-complexed DNA fragments in the cytoplasm and nuclear condensation. MB also enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of standard chemotherapeutic drugs tested at clinically relevant concentrations. The MB tested in the current study conjugates the ability of imaging with the pharmacological silencing activity against survivin mRNA in human melanoma cells and may represent an innovative approach for cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25501971

  10. Theranostic properties of a survivin-directed molecular beacon in human melanoma cells.

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    Sara Carpi

    Full Text Available Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis overexpressed in different types of tumors and undetectable in most terminally differentiated normal tissues. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the in vitro theranostic properties of a molecular beacon-oligodeoxynucleotide (MB that targets survivin mRNA. We used laser scanning confocal microscopy to study MB delivery in living cells and real-time PCR and western blot to assess selective survivin-targeting in human malignant melanoma cells. We further assess the pro-apoptotic effect of MB by measuring internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and changes in nuclear morphology. Transfection of MB into A375 and 501 Mel cells generated high signal intensity from the cytoplasm, while no signal was detected in the extracellular environment and in survivin-negative cells (i.e., human melanocytes and monocytes. MB time dependently decreased survivin mRNA and protein expression in melanoma cells with the maximum effect reached at 72 h. Treatment of melanoma cells with MB induced apoptosis by significant changes in MMP, accumulation of histone-complexed DNA fragments in the cytoplasm and nuclear condensation. MB also enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of standard chemotherapeutic drugs tested at clinically relevant concentrations. The MB tested in the current study conjugates the ability of imaging with the pharmacological silencing activity against survivin mRNA in human melanoma cells and may represent an innovative approach for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Survivin – biology and potential as a therapeutic target in oncology

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    Cheung CHA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chun Hei Antonio Cheung,1,2 Chien-Chang Huang,3 Fang-Ying Tsai,4 Jane Ying-Chieh Lee,1 Siao Muk Cheng,2 Yung-Chieh Chang,1 Yi-Chun Huang,1 Shang-Hung Chen,5 Jang-Yang Chang3,6 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, 4South East Asian Health Education Center in Taiwan (SEAHECT, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 5Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs family; its overexpression has been widely demonstrated to occur in various types of cancer. Overexpression of survivin also correlates with tumor progression and induces anticancer drug resistance. Interestingly, recent studies reveal that survivin exhibits multiple pro-mitotic and anti-apoptotic functions; the differential functions of survivin seem to be caused by differential subcellular localization, phosphorylation, and acetylation of this molecule. In this review, the complex expression regulations and post-translational modifications of survivin are discussed. This review also discusses how recent discoveries improve our understanding of survivin biology and also create opportunities for developing differential-functioned survivin-targeted therapy. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus® (Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, and SciFinder® (CAS, Columbus, OH, USA were used to search for literature in the preparation of this review. Keywords: survivin, BIRC5, IAP, XIAP, caspase-9, Samc, DIABLO

  12. Targeted gene delivery in tumor xenografts by the combination of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction and polyethylenimine to inhibit survivin gene expression and induce apoptosis

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    Qiu Ri-Xiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noninvasive and tissue-specific technologies of gene transfection would be valuable in clinical gene therapy. This present study was designed to determine whether it could enhance gene transfection in vivo by the combination of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD with polyethylenimine (PEI in tumor xenografts, and illuminate the effects of gene silencing and apoptosis induction with short hairpin RNA (shRNA interference therapy targeting human survivin by this novel technique. Methods Two different expression vectors (pCMV-LUC and pSIREN were incubated with PEI to prepare cationic complexes (PEI/DNA and confirmed by the gel retardation assay. Human cervical carcinoma (Hela tumors were planted subcutaneously in both flanks of nude mice. Tumor-bearing mice were administered by tail vein with PBS, plasmid, plasmid and SonoVue microbubble, PEI/DNA and SonoVue microbubble. One tumor was exposed to ultrasound irradiation, while the other served as control. The feasibility of targeted delivery and tissue specificity facilitated by UTMD and PEI were investigated. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analyses about gene silencing and apoptosis induction were detected. Results Electrophoresis experiment revealed that PEI could condense DNA efficiently. The application of UTMD significantly increases the tissue transfection. Both expression vectors showed that gene expressions were present in all sections of tumors that received ultrasound exposure but not in control tumors. More importantly, the increases in transgene expression were related to UTMD with the presence of PEI significantly. Silencing of the survivin gene could induce apoptosis effectively by downregulating survivin and bcl-2 expression, also cause up-regulation of bax and caspase-3 expression. Conclusions This noninvasive, novel combination of UTMD with PEI could enhance targeted gene delivery and gene expression in tumor xenografts at intravenous administration

  13. Survivin as a Novel Biomarker in the Pathogenesis of Acne Vulgaris and Its Correlation to Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I

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    Hanan A. Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, has an important role in cell cycle regulation. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I is a polypeptide hormone with wide range of biologic effects including stimulation of lipogenesis in sebaceous glands. Their overexpression in some fibrotic disorders suggests a possible implication of both IGF-I and survivin in the pathogenesis of acne and/or acne scars. The current study aimed to assess and correlate serum levels of IGF-I and survivin in patients with active acne vulgaris and postinflammatory acne scars and to evaluate their lesional expressions in comparison to healthy controls. Serum IGF-I and survivin were estimated using commercially available ELISA kits and their tissues expressions were investigated using Western blotting. Our findings suggest that IGF-I and survivin could play potential roles in the pathogenesis of active acne vulgaris and more importantly in postinflammatory acne scars with significant positive correlation coefficient between serum levels of IGF-I and survivin which support IGF-I-/PI3K-/AKT-mediated downregulation of nuclear expression of FoxO transcription factors resulting in enhanced survivin expression.

  14. Survivin as a Novel Biomarker in the Pathogenesis of Acne Vulgaris and Its Correlation to Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Hanan A; Abdel-Maged, Wafaa M; Elsadek, Bakheet E M; Hassan, Mohammed H; Adly, Mohamed A; Ali, Soher A

    2016-01-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, has an important role in cell cycle regulation. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone with wide range of biologic effects including stimulation of lipogenesis in sebaceous glands. Their overexpression in some fibrotic disorders suggests a possible implication of both IGF-I and survivin in the pathogenesis of acne and/or acne scars. The current study aimed to assess and correlate serum levels of IGF-I and survivin in patients with active acne vulgaris and postinflammatory acne scars and to evaluate their lesional expressions in comparison to healthy controls. Serum IGF-I and survivin were estimated using commercially available ELISA kits and their tissues expressions were investigated using Western blotting. Our findings suggest that IGF-I and survivin could play potential roles in the pathogenesis of active acne vulgaris and more importantly in postinflammatory acne scars with significant positive correlation coefficient between serum levels of IGF-I and survivin which support IGF-I-/PI3K-/AKT-mediated downregulation of nuclear expression of FoxO transcription factors resulting in enhanced survivin expression.

  15. Survivin, cyclin D1, and p21hras in keratocystic odontogenic tumors before and after decompression.

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    Brajić, I; Škodrić, S; Milenković, S; Tepavčević, Z; Soldatović, I; Čolić, S; Milašin, J; Andrić, M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate survivin, cyclin D1, and p21hras expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors before and after decompression, as well as in pericoronal follicles. A potential correlation between the expression levels of these proteins was also investigated. We analyzed eighteen keratocystic tumors treated by decompression and subsequent enucleation along with seven pericoronal follicles using immunohistochemistry. Keratocystic tumor samples, both before and after decompression, were positive for each of the investigated proteins. In pericoronal follicles, survivin exhibited cytoplasmic staining in contrast to nuclear staining in keratocystic tumors. Cyclin D1 expression was negative in pericoronal follicles, and p21hras expression was similar in both groups. Survivin showed significantly higher expression after decompression, while cyclin D1 and p21hras remained unchanged (P = 0.039, P = 0.255, P = 0.913, respectively). There was no correlation between these proteins neither before nor after decompression. Within the limits of the study, we can conclude that following decompression, keratocystic odontogenic tumors preserve distinct immunohistochemical profiles of cyclin D1 and p21hras expression, despite substantial reduction in size of the lesions. Significant increase of survivin expression after decompression might be attributed to higher level of epithelial proliferation caused by this procedure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Therapeutic Role for Survivin in Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Ionizing Radiation

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    Katherine H. Carruthers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiation therapy is a form of adjuvant care used in many oncological treatment protocols. However, nonmalignant neighboring tissues are harmed as a result of this treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study was to induce the production of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein, to determine if this protein could provide protection to noncancerous cells during radiation exposure. Methods. Using a murine model, a recombinant adenoassociated virus (rAAV was used to deliver survivin to the treatment group and yellow fluorescence protein (YFP to the control group. Both groups received targeted radiation. Visual inspection, gait analysis, and tissue histology were used to determine the extent of damage caused by the radiation. Results. The YFP group demonstrated ulceration of the irradiated area while the survivin treated mice exhibited only hair loss. Histology showed that the YFP treated mice experienced dermal thickening, as well as an increase in collagen that was not present in the survivin treated mice. Gait analysis demonstrated a difference between the two groups, with the YFP mice averaging a lower speed. Conclusions. The use of gene-modification to induce survivin expression in normal tissues allows for the protection of nontarget areas from the negative side effects normally associated with ionizing radiation.

  17. Decrease of survivin, p53 and Bcl-2 expression in chemorefractory colorectal liver metastases may be predictive of radiosensivity radiosensivity after radioembolization with yttrium-90 resin microspheres.

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    Melucci, Elisa; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Carpanese, Livio; Pizzi, Giuseppe; Izzo, Francesco; Fiore, Francesco; Golfieri, Rita; Giampalma, Emanuela; Sperduti, Isabella; Ercolani, Cristiana; Sciuto, Rosa; Mancini, Raffaello; Garufi, Carlo; Diodoro, Maria Grazia; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-03-06

    In a prospective multicenter phase II trial of radioembolization with yttrium-90 ((90)Y-RE) in chemorefractory liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), we showed that median survival was 12.6 months (95% CI 7.0-18.3) with 48% of 50 patients achieving disease control. In this extension retrospective study, we analyzed whether a panel of biomarkers, known to be associated to an adverse clinical outcome, underwent variations in CRC liver metastases pre and post (90)Y-RE.Of the 50 patients included in the study, 29 pre-(90)Y-RE therapy and 15 post-(90)Y-RE had liver biopsy specimens available. In these series we investigated survivin, p53, Bcl-2 and Ki-67 expression pre- and post-(90)Y-RE by immuhistochemistry (IHC). Our findings evidenced a decrease of survivin (77% vs 33%), p53 (93% vs 73%), Bcl-2 (37% vs 26%) expression as well as of Ki-67 proliferation index (62.5% vs 40%) on liver biopsies collected post-(90)Y-RE as compared to pre-(90)Y-RE. In the subset of 13 matched liver metastases we further confirmed the reduction of survivin (92.3% vs 53.8%; p = 0.06), p53 (100% vs 69.2%; p = 0.05) and Bcl-2 (69.2% vs 53.8%; p = 0.05) expression post-(90)Y-RE. This biomarker modulation was accompanied by morphological changes as steatohepatitis, hepatocyte necrosis, collagen deposition, proliferating and/or bile duct ectasia, focal sinusoidal dilatation and fibrosis.Although our analysis was conducted in a very limited number cases, these changes appear strictly related to the response to (90)Y-RE therapy and may deserve further investigation on a larger series of patients.

  18. XPO1 (CRM1) inhibition represses STAT3 activation to drive a survivin-dependent oncogenic switch in triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Holloway, Michael P; Nguyen, Kevin; McCauley, Dilara; Landesman, Yosef; Kauffman, Michael G; Shacham, Sharon; Altura, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of XPO1 (CRM1)-mediated nuclear export of multiple tumor suppressor proteins has been proposed as a novel cancer therapeutic strategy to turn off oncogenic signals and enhance tumor suppression. Survivin is a multifunctional protein with oncogenic properties when expressed in the cytoplasm that requires the XPO1-RanGTP complex for its nuclear export. We investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of the drug-like selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) XPO1 antagonists, KPT-185, KPT-251 KPT-276, and KPT-330 in estrogen-receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines and xenograft models of human breast tumors. KPT compounds significantly inhibited breast cancer cell growth and induced tumor cell death, both in vitro and in vivo. These drugs initially promoted survivin accumulation within tumor cell nuclei. However, their major in vitro effect was to decrease survivin cytoplasmic protein levels, correlating with the onset of apoptosis. XPO1 inhibition repressed Survivin transcription by inhibiting CBP-mediated STAT3 acetylation, and blocking STAT3 binding to the Survivin promoter. Additionally, caspase-3 was activated to cleave survivin, rendering it unavailable to bind XIAP and block the caspase cascade. Collectively, these data demonstrate that XPO1 inhibition by SINE compounds represses STAT3 transactivation to block the selective oncogenic properties of survivin and supports their clinical use in triple negative breast tumors. PMID:24431073

  19. Clinical impact of serum survivin positivity and tissue expression of EBV-encoded RNA in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jung Yong; Ryu, Kyung Ju; Park, Chaehwa; Hong, Mineui; Ko, Young Hyeh; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Seok Jin

    2017-02-21

    Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis and is upregulated by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent genes. Given the frequent association of EBV with lymphoid malignancies, survivin is expected to have prognostic value in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Thus, we measured the pretreatment serum level of survivin in DLBCL patients and analyzed its association with survival outcome and EBV status, as represented by EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in DLBCL. Pretreatment serum survivin level was measured in patients registered in a prospective cohort study (n = 210), and serum survivin-positivity was defined as any detectable level of survivin. EBV status was determined using EBER in situ hybridization, and EBER-positivity was defined as 20% of examined cells showing nuclear positivity. Mean serum survivin level was higher in patients with relapsed or refractory disease than with responsive disease (59.89 pg/mL versus 17.34 pg/mL, P = 0.041). Serum survivin-positive patients had worse overall and progression-free survival (P = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively). Serum survivin positivity was associated with unfavorable characteristics including stage. In patients with non-germinal center B-cell type DLBCL, serum survivin-positive patients also had significantly worse survival than serum survivin-negative patients (P DLBCL, DLBCL with serum survivin positivity showed adverse clinical features and followed worse clinical course, especially in non-GCB subtype DLBCL. EBER-positivity was still associated with worse outcomes in DLBCL.

  20. Noscapine induced apoptosis via downregulation of survivin in human neuroblastoma cells having wild type or null p53.

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    Shiwang Li

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein expression. The Noscapine treatment increased levels of total and Ser(15-phosphorylated p53 protein in SK-SY5Y cells, but the proapoptotic response to this agent was maintained even after knockdown of the p53 protein level. Exposure of SK-SY5Y and LA1-5S cells to Noscapine resulted in a marked decrease in protein and mRNA level of survivin as early as 12 hours after treatment. Ectopic expression of survivin conferred statistically significant protection against Noscapine-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Also, the Noscapine-induced apoptosis was modestly but statistically significantly augmented by RNA interference of survivin in both cell lines. Furthermore, Noscapine-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of Noscapine-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of survivin expression as a critical mediator of this process.

  1. Expression of IAP family proteins and its clinical importance in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, P; Jeziorski, A; Cebula-Obrzut, A Pluta B; Wierzbowska, A; Piekarski, J; Smolewski, P

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family proteins is involved in mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis in various cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess the expression of selected IAP proteins such as XIAP, cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and survivin in breast cancer patients and evaluates their relationship with the prognostic and predictive factors and their impact to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). The study was conducted with the use of tissue samples prospectively collected from 92 previously untreated female breast cancer patients. The control encompassed 10 fibroadenoma patients. The expression of XIAP, cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and survivin was assessed using flow multicolor cytometry. XIAP expression was present in 99 % of the breast cancer patients (91/92) with the median expression 13.65% (range 1-66.8%). Expression of XIAP in breast cancer was significantly higher compared to the control group (p=0.006). Median expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and survivin in the study group was 25.95% (range 0.8-83.7%), 16.7% (range 1-53.2%) and 4.6% (range 0-43%) respectively. In the rank Spearman test, strong correlations (pfamily proteins and survival. However, low expression of XIAP in breast cancer showed trend to longer PFS (p=0.08). XIAP, cIAP-1 cIAP-2 and survivin participate in antiapoptotic mechanisms in breast cancer and XIAP and survivin seem to have the most significant prognostic importance. Further studies are needed to establish more complete prognostic and predictive values of IAP family proteins in breast cancer patients.

  2. Survivin-T34A: molecular mechanism and therapeutic potential

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    Jonathan R Aspe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan R Aspe, Nathan R WallCenter for Health Disparities Research and Molecular Medicine, Division of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin's threonine 34 to alanine (T34A mutation abolishes a phosphorylation site for p34(cdc2–cyclin B1, resulting in initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cancer cells; however, it has little known direct effects on normal cells. The possibility that targeting survivin in this way may provide a novel approach for selective cancer gene therapy has yet to be fully evaluated. Although a flurry of work was undertaken in the late 1990s and early 2000s, only minor advances on this mutant have recently taken place. We recently described that cells generated to express a stable form of the mutant protein released this survivin-T34A to the conditioned medium. When this conditioned medium was collected and deposited on naive tumor cells, conditioned medium T34A was as effective as some chemotherapeutics in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and when combined with other forms of genotoxic stressors potentiated their killing effects. We hope with this review to revitalize the T34A field, as there is still much that needs to be investigated. In addition to determining the therapeutic dose and the duration of drug therapy required at the disease site, a better understanding of other key factors is also important. These include knowledge of target cell populations, cell-surface receptors, changes that occur in the target tissue at the molecular and cellular level with progression of the disease, and the mechanism and site of therapeutic action.Keywords: survivin, T34A, apoptosis, proliferation, therapy

  3. Survivin-miRNA-loaded nanoparticles as auxiliary tools for radiation therapy: preparation, characterisation, drug release, cytotoxicity and therapeutic effect on colorectal cancer cells.

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    Gaca, Sebastian; Reichert, Sebastian; Rödel, Claus; Rödel, Franz; Kreuter, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges in radiation oncology is to overcome the resistance of cancer cells against treatment by molecular targeted approaches. Among the most promising targets is the inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin, known to be associated with increased tumour aggressiveness and therapy resistance. The objective of this study was the development of a human serum albumin-based nanoparticulate carrier system for plasmid-mediated RNA interference (miRNA) and the investigation of its in vitro efficacy on survivin knockdown and cellular toxicity in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. The results demonstrate a robust nanoparticulate system of a size around 220 nm with a plasmid incorporation efficacy of about 90%. Moreover, treatment of carcinoma cells with survivin-miRNA nanoparticles resulted in reduction of survivin expression by 50% and increased cytotoxicity if combined with ionising irradiation. These nanoparticles comprise a promising option to enhance the response of carcinoma cells to therapy with ionising irradiation.

  4. Endogenous knockdown of survivin improves chemotherapeutic response in ALL models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, DJ; Hogan, LE; Condos, G; Bhatla, T; Germino, N; Moskowitz, NP; Lee, L; Bhojwani, D; Horton, TM; Belitskaya-Levy, I; Greenberger, LM; Horak, ID; Grupp, SA; Teachey, DT; Raetz, EA; Carroll, WL

    2013-01-01

    Although the cure rate of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved over the past four decades, the outcome for patients who relapse remains poor. New therapies are needed for these patients. Our previous global gene expression analysis in a series of paired diagnosis-relapse pediatric patient samples revealed that the antiapoptotic gene survivin was consistently upregulated upon disease relapse. In this study, we demonstrate a link between survivin expression and drug resistance and test the efficacy of a novel antisense agent in promoting apoptosis when combined with chemotherapy. Gene-silencing experiments targeting survivin mRNA using either short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) or a locked antisense oligonucleotide (LNA-ON) specifically reduced gene expression and induced apoptosis in leukemia cell lines. When used in combination with chemotherapy, the survivin shRNA and LNA-ON potentiated the chemotherapeutic antileukemia effect. Moreover, in a mouse primary xenograft model of relapse ALL, the survivin LNA-ON decreased survivin expression in a subset of animals, and produced a statistically significant decrease in tumor progression. Taken together, these findings suggest that targeting endogenous levels of survivin mRNA by LNA-ON methods may augment the response to standard chemotherapy by sensitizing otherwise resistant tumor cells to chemotherapy. PMID:21844871

  5. Validation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio of survivin as an indicator of improved prognosis in breast cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rexhepaj, Elton

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic and predictive impact of survivin (BIRC5) in breast cancer. We previously reported survivin cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) as an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. Here, we validate survivin CNR in a separate and extended cohort. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that a low CNR may predict outcome in tamoxifen-treated patients. Methods Survin expression was assessed using immunhistochemistry on a breast cancer tissue microarray (TMA) containing 512 tumours. Whole slide digital images were captured using an Aperio XT scanner. Automated image analysis was used to identify tumour from stroma and then to quantify tumour-specific nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin. A decision tree model selected using a 10-fold cross-validation approach was used to identify prognostic subgroups based on nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin expression. Results Following optimisation of the staining procedure, it was possible to evaluate survivin protein expression in 70.1% (n = 359) of the 512 tumours represented on the TMA. Decision tree analysis predicted that nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, survivin was the most important determinant of overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). The decision tree model confirmed CNR of 5 as the optimum threshold for survival analysis. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between a high CNR (>5) and a prolonged BCSS (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.81, p = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed a high CNR (>5) was an independent predictor of BCSS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.008). An increased CNR was associated with ER positive (p = 0.045), low grade (p = 0.007), Ki-67 (p = 0.001) and Her2 (p = 0.026) negative tumours. Finally, a high CNR was an independent predictor of OS in tamoxifen-treated ER-positive patients (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.23-0.87, p = 0.018). Conclusion Using the same threshold as our previous study, we have

  6. Protein expression-yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus H

    2014-01-01

    Yeast is an excellent system for the expression of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. Both endogenous and heterologous proteins can be overexpressed in yeast (Phan et al., 2001; Ton and Rao, 2004). Because yeast is easy to manipulate genetically, a strain can be optimized for the expression of a specific protein. Many eukaryotic proteins contain posttranslational modifications that can be performed in yeast but not in bacterial expression systems. In comparison with mammalian cell culture expression systems, growing yeast is both faster and less expensive, and large-scale cultures can be performed using fermentation. While several different yeast expression systems exist, this chapter focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and will briefly describe some options to consider when selecting vectors and tags to be used for protein expression. Throughout this chapter, the expression and purification of yeast eIF3 is shown as an example alongside a general scheme outline. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aplysin Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL by Suppressing P38 MAPK/Survivin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a tumor-selective apoptosis inducer and has been shown to be promising for treating various types of cancers. However, the application of TRAIL is greatly impeded by the resistance of cancer cells to its action. Studies show that overexpression of some critical pro-survival proteins, such as survivin, is responsible for TRAIL resistance. In this study, we found that Aplysin, a brominated compound from marine organisms, was able to restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo. Aplysin was found to enhance the tumor-suppressing capacity of TRAIL on several TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced apoptosis was also potentiated in A549 and MCF7 cells treated with Aplysin. Survivin downregulation was identified as a mechanism by which Aplysin-mediated TRAIL sensitization of cancer cells. Furthermore, the activation of p38 MAPK was revealed in Aplysin-treated cancer cells, and its inhibitor SB203580 was able to abrogate the promoting effect of Aplysin on the response of cancer cells to TRAIL action, as evidenced by restored survivin expression, elevated cell survival and reduced apoptotic rates. In conclusion, we provided evidence that Aplysin acts as a sensitizer for TRAIL and its effect on p38 MAPK/survivin pathway may partially account for this activity. Considering its low cytotoxicity to normal cells, Aplysin may be a promising agent for cancer treatment in combination with TRAIL.

  8. NY-ESO-1- and survivin-specific T-cell responses in the peripheral blood from patients with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Poiret, Thomas; Persson, Oscar; Meng, Qingda; Rane, Lalit; Bartek, Jiri; Karbach, Julia; Altmannsberger, Hans-Michael; Illies, Christopher; Luo, Xiaohua; Harvey-Peredo, Inti; Jäger, Elke; Dodoo, Ernest; Maeurer, Markus

    2018-02-01

    The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is grim. Ex vivo expanded tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-reactive T-cells from patients with glioma may represent a viable source for anticancer-directed cellular therapies. Immunohistochemistry was used to test the survivin (n = 40 samples) and NY-ESO-1 (n = 38 samples) protein expression in tumor specimens. T-cells from peripheral blood were stimulated with TAAs (synthetic peptides) in IL-2 and IL-7, or using a combination of IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. CD4 + and CD8 + T-cells were tested for antigen-specific proliferation by flow cytometry, and IFN-γ production was tested by ELISA. Twenty-eight out of 38 cancer specimens exhibited NY-ESO-1 protein expression, 2/38 showed a strong universal (4+) NY-ESO-1 staining, and 9/40 cancer lesions exhibited a strong (4+) staining for survivin. We could detect antigen-specific IFN-γ responses in 25% blood samples for NY-ESO-1 and 30% for survivin. NY-ESO-1-expanded T-cells recognized naturally processed and presented epitopes. NY-ESO-1 or survivin expression in glioma represents viable targets for anticancer-directed T-cells for the biological therapy of patients with glioma.

  9. Function of survivin in trophoblastic cells of the placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Muschol-Steinmetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide and its pathogenesis is not totally understood. As a member of the chromosomal passenger complex and an inhibitor of apoptosis, survivin is a well-characterized oncoprotein. Its roles in trophoblastic cells remain to be defined. METHODS: The placental samples from 16 preeclampsia patients and 16 well-matched controls were included in this study. Real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were carried out with placental tissues. Primary trophoblastic cells from term placentas were isolated for Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed in trophoblastic cell lines BeWo, JAR and HTR-8/SVneo. RESULTS: The survivin gene is reduced but the protein amount is hardly changed in preeclamptic placentas, compared to control placentas. Upon stress, survivin in trophoblastic cells is phosphorylated on its residue serine 20 by protein kinase A and becomes stabilized, accompanied by increased heat shock protein 90. Depletion of survivin induces chromosome misalignment, abnormal centrosome integrity, and reduced localization and activity of Aurora B at the centromeres/kinetochores in trophoblastic metaphase cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that survivin plays pivotal roles in cell survival and proliferation of trophoblastic cells. Further investigations are required to define the function of survivin in each cell type of the placenta in the context of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, migration and invasion.

  10. Antitumor effect of YM155, a novel small-molecule survivin suppressant, via mitochondrial apoptosis in human MFH/UPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoda, Masaya; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Kamata, Etsuko; Morishita, Masayuki; Harada, Risa; Toda, Mitsunori; Onishi, Yasuo; Hara, Hitomi; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2015-09-01

    Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, which is known to inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis. Survivin is highly expressed in cancers and plays an important role in cancer cell survival, and increased survivin expression is an unfavorable prognostic marker in cancer patients. YM155, a novel small-molecule survivin suppressant, selectively suppresses survivin expression, resulting in the induction of apoptosis in various malignancies. However, the roles of survivin in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (MFH/UPS) have not been studied. In the present study, we examined survivin expression in human musculoskeletal tumor tissues, and the effect of survivin inhibition by siRNA or YM155 on apoptotic activity in human MFH/UPS cell lines. In tumor tissues, mRNA expression of survivin was significantly higher in MFH/UPS samples than in benign schwannomas. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that both survivin siRNA and YM155 suppressed survivin expression and inhibited MFH/UPS cell proliferation in a dose- and a time-dependent manner. Further, the numbers of apoptotic cells significantly increased with YM155 treatment. in vivo, tumor volume in YM155-treated groups was significantly reduced without significant bodyweight loss. Increased apoptotic activity along with decreased survivin expression was also observed in YM155-treated tumors. The findings in this study strongly suggest that survivin suppressants, including YM155, contribute to the suppression of human MFH/UPS cell growth via promoting mitochondrial apoptosis, and that survivin may be a potent therapeutic target for the novel treatment of human MFH/UPS.

  11. Serum Survivin Levels and Outcome of Chemotherapy in Patients with Malignant Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Goričar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein involved in the regulation of cell proliferation that could be used as a marker for cancer diagnosis or prognosis. Our aim was to evaluate whether serum survivin levels influence the outcome of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with malignant mesothelioma (MM. Methods. Serum survivin levels were determined using human survivin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 78 MM patients before chemotherapy, after chemotherapy, and at disease progression. The influence on tumor response and survival was evaluated using nonparametric tests and Cox regression. Results. A median serum survivin level at diagnosis was 4.1 (0–217.5 pg/mL. Patients with a progressive disease had significantly higher survivin levels before chemotherapy (p = 0.041. A median serum survivin level after chemotherapy was 73.1 (0–346.2 pg/mL. If survivin levels increased after chemotherapy, patients had, conversely, better response (p = 0.001, OR = 5.40, 95% CI = 1.98–14.72. Unexpectedly, patients with increased survivin levels after chemotherapy also had longer progression-free (p < 0.001, HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.20–0.57 and overall survival (p = 0.001, HR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.14–0.58. Conclusions. These results suggest that serum survivin levels before and during chemotherapy could serve as a biomarker predicting MM treatment response.

  12. Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) survivin is indispensable for survival of HER2 gene-amplified breast cancer cells with primary resistance to HER1/2-targeted therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cufi, Silvia; Torres-Garcia, Violeta Zenobia [Unit of Translational Research, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Sauri-Nadal, Tamara; Barco, Sonia Del [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Department of Anatomical Pathology, Dr. Josep Trueta University Hospital, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Brunet, Joan [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Medical Oncology, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Martin-Castillo, Begona [Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Unit of Clinical Research, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Menendez, Javier A., E-mail: jmenendez@idibgi.org [Unit of Translational Research, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Girona, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Avenida de Francia S/N, E-17007 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Intrinsic trastuzumab resistance occurs in {approx}70% of metastatic HER2 + breast carcinomas (BC). {yields} Approximately 15% of early HER2 + BC relapse in spite of treatment with trastuzumab-based therapies. {yields} HER2-independent downstream pro-survival pathways might underlie trastuzumab refractoriness. {yields} Survivin is indispensable for proliferation and survival of HER2 + BC unresponsive to HER2-targeted therapies ab initio. {yields} Survivin antagonists may clinically circumvent the occurrence of de novo resistance to HER2-directed drugs. -- Abstract: Primary resistance of HER2 gene-amplified breast carcinomas (BC) to HER-targeted therapies can be explained in terms of overactive HER2-independent downstream pro-survival pathways. We here confirm that constitutive overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) survivin is indispensable for survival of HER2-positive BC cells with intrinsic cross-resistance to multiple HER1/2 inhibitors. The IC{sub 50} values for the HER1/2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib, erlotinib and lapatinib were up to 40-fold higher in trastuzumab-unresponsive JIMT-1 cells than in trastuzumab-naive SKBR3 cells. ELISA-based and immunoblotting assays demonstrated that trastuzumab-refractory JIMT-1 cells constitutively expressed {approx}4 times more survivin protein than trastuzumab-responsive SKBR3 cells. In response to trastuzumab, JIMT-1 cells accumulated {approx}10 times more survivin than SKBR3 cells. HER1/2 TKIs failed to down-regulate survivin expression in JIMT-1 cells whereas equimolar doses of HER1/HER2 TKIs drastically depleted survivin protein in SKBR3 cells. ELISA-based detection of histone-associated DNA fragments confirmed that trastuzumab-refractory JIMT-1 cells were intrinsically protected against the apoptotic effects of HER1/2 TKIs. Of note, when we knocked-down survivin expression using siRNA and then added trastuzumab, cell proliferation and colony formation were completely

  13. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs expression and their prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncalli Massimo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarly to other tumor types, an imbalance between unrestrained cell proliferation and impaired apoptosis appears to be a major unfavorable feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The members of IAP family are key regulators of apoptosis, cytokinesis and signal transduction. IAP survival action is antagonized by specific binding of Smac/DIABLO and XAF1. This study aimed to investigate the gene and protein expression pattern of IAP family members and their antagonists in a series of human HCCs and to assess their clinical significance. Methods Relative quantification of IAPs and their antagonist genes was assessed by quantitative Real Time RT-PCR (qPCR in 80 patients who underwent surgical resection for HCC. The expression ratios of XIAP/XAF1 and of XIAP/Smac were also evaluated. Survivin, XIAP and XAF1 protein expression were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between mRNA levels, protein expression and clinicopathological features were assessed. Follow-up data were available for 69 HCC patients. The overall survival analysis was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Survivin and Livin/ML-IAP mRNAs were significantly over-expressed in cancer tissues compared to non-neoplastic counterparts. Although Survivin immunoreactivity did not correlate with qPCR data, a significant relation was found between higher Survivin mRNA level and tumor stage, tumor grade and vascular invasion. The mRNA ratio XIAP/XAF1 was significantly higher in HCCs than in cirrhotic tissues. Moreover, high XIAP/XAF1 ratio was an indicator of poor prognosis when overall survival was estimated and elevated XIAP immunoreactivity was significantly associated with shorter survival. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that alterations in the expression of IAP family members, including Survivin and Livin/ML-IAP, are frequent in HCCs. Of interest, we could determine that an imbalance in XIAP/XAF1 mRNA expression levels correlated

  14. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  15. Loss of Survivin in Intestinal Epithelial Progenitor Cells Leads to Mitotic Catastrophe and Breakdown of Gut Immune Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Martini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A tightly regulated balance of proliferation and cell death of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs is essential for maintenance of gut homeostasis. Survivin is highly expressed during embryogenesis and in several cancer types, but little is known about its role in adult gut tissue. Here, we show that Survivin is specifically expressed in transit-amplifying cells and Lgr5+ stem cells. Genetic loss of Survivin in IECs resulted in destruction of intestinal integrity, mucosal inflammation, and death of the animals. Survivin deletion was associated with decreased epithelial proliferation due to defective chromosomal segregation. Moreover, Survivin-deficient animals showed induced phosphorylation of p53 and H2AX and increased levels of cell-intrinsic apoptosis in IECs. Consequently, induced deletion of Survivin in Lgr5+ stem cells led to cell death. In summary, Survivin is a key regulator of gut tissue integrity by regulating epithelial homeostasis in the stem cell niche.

  16. Targeting survivin as a potential new treatment for chondrosarcoma of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Y; van Oosterwijk, J G; Kruisselbrink, A B; Briaire-de Bruijn, I H; Agrogiannis, G; Baranski, Z; Cleven, A H G; Cleton-Jansen, A-M; van de Water, B; Danen, E H J; Bovée, J V M G

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-forming bone tumors, which are intrinsically resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy, leaving surgical removal as the only curative treatment option. Therefore, our aim was to identify genes involved in chondrosarcoma cell survival that could serve as a target for therapy. siRNA screening for 51 apoptosis-related genes in JJ012 chondrosarcoma cells identified BIRC5, encoding survivin, as essential for chondrosarcoma survival. Using immunohistochemistry, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic survivin expression was analyzed in 207 chondrosarcomas of different subtypes. Nuclear survivin has been implicated in cell-cycle regulation while cytoplasmic localization is important for its anti-apoptotic function. RT–PCR was performed to determine expression of the most common survivin isoforms. Sensitivity to YM155, a survivin inhibitor currently in phase I/II clinical trial for other tumors, was examined in 10 chondrosarcoma cell lines using viability assay, apoptosis assay and cell-cycle analysis. Survivin expression was found in all chondrosarcoma patient samples. Higher expression of nuclear and cytoplasmic survivin was observed with increasing histological grade in central chondrosarcomas. Inhibition of survivin using YM155 showed that especially TP53 mutant cell lines were sensitive, but no caspase 3/7 or PARP cleavage was observed. Rather, YM155 treatment resulted in a block in S phase in two out of three chondrosarcoma cell lines, indicating that survivin is more involved in cell-cycle regulation than in apoptosis. Thus, survivin is important for chondrosarcoma survival and chondrosarcoma patients might benefit from survivin inhibition using YM155, for which TP53 mutational status can serve as a predictive biomarker. PMID:27159675

  17. Survivin mRNA antagonists using locked nucleic acid, potential for molecular cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Niels; Westergaard, Majken; Hansen, Henrik Frydenlund

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of different locked nucleic acid modified antisense mRNA antagonists against Survivin in a prostate cancer model. These mRNA antagonists were found to be potent inhibitors of Survivin expression at low nanomolar concentrations. Additionally there was a pronounced ...

  18. Notch Cooperates with Survivin to Maintain Stemness and to Stimulate Proliferation in Human Keratinocytes during Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Palazzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway orchestrates cell fate by either inducing cell differentiation or maintaining cells in an undifferentiated state. This study aims to evaluate Notch expression and function in normal human keratinocytes. Notch1 is expressed in all epidermal layers, though to a different degree of intensity, with a dramatic decrease during ageing. Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD levels are decreased during transit from keratinocyte stem cells (KSC to transit amplifying (TA cells, mimicking survivin expression in samples from donors of all ages. Calcium markedly reduces N1ICD levels in keratinocytes. N1ICD overexpression induces the up-regulation of survivin and the down-regulation of keratin 10 and involucrin, while increasing the S phase of the cell cycle. On the other hand, Notch1 inhibition (DAPT dose-dependently decreases survivin, stimulates differentiation, and reduces keratinocyte proliferation in samples from donors of all ages. Silencing Notch downgrades survivin and increases keratin 10. In addition, Notch1 inhibition decreases survivin levels and proliferation both in KSC and TA cells. Finally, while survivin overexpression decreases keratinocyte differentiation and increases N1ICD expression both in KSC and TA cells, silencing survivin results in N1ICD down-regulation and an increase in differentiation markers. These results suggest that the Notch1/survivin crosstalk contributes to the maintenance of stemness in human keratinocytes.

  19. Fish-Oil-Derived DHA-mediated Enhancement of Apoptosis in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells is Associated with Accumulation of p53, Downregulation of Survivin, and Caspase-3 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Mohammad Reza; Esmaeillou, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), resistance to chemotherapy is associated with inactivation of p53 and upregulation of survivin. Thus, targeting the p53 and survivin expression may provide an attractive strategy for ALL treatment. It has been shown that fish-oil-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) activates several antitumorigenic mechanisms in tumor cells, but little is known regarding the role of DHA on modulating p53 and survivin expression in ALL cells. In this study, we investigated the alterations of the p53 and survivin expression and induction of apoptosis in DHA-treated Molt-4 cells that serve as a model for ALL cells. Molt-4 cells were treated with 50, 100, 150, and 200 μM DHA after which cell proliferation, survivin mRNA and protein levels, p53 protein level, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic rates were evaluated by different cellular and molecular techniques. After 48- and 72-h treatments with DHA at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 μM, cell proliferation rates were measured to be 80.5-44.4%, and 73.4-14.4%, respectively, compared to untreated cells. We also found that treatment for 48 h with 200 μM DHA resulted in 10.8- and 3.6-fold increase in p53 protein level and caspase-3 activation followed by 4.7-and 1.6-fold decrease in survivin mRNA and protein levels, respectively, compared to untreated cells. Treatment of cells with different concentrations of DHA dramatically increased the p53/survivin and caspase-3/survivin ratios by 2.8- to 16.9-fold and 3.3 to 5.6-fold increases, respectively, compared to untreated cells. A decrease in the number of cells ranging from 16% to 70% and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells ranging from 9.3% to 93% was also observed with increasing DHA concentrations. In conclusion, p53 and survivin may provide promising targets of DHA in ALL cells and this compound with high proapoptotic capacity represents the possibility of its therapeutic application for ALL treatment.

  20. Emmprin and survivin predict response and survival following cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne B; Dyrskjøt, Lars; von der Maase, Hans

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. The response rate is approximately 50% and tumor-derived molecular prognostic markers are desirable for improved estimation of response...... and survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Affymetrix GeneChip expression profiling was carried out using tumor material from 30 patients. A set of genes with an expression highly correlated to survival time after chemotherapy was identified. Two genes were selected for validation by immunohistochemistry.......0%, 21.1%, and 0%, respectively. Response to chemotherapy could also be predicted with an odds ratio of 4.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.91-10.1) and 2.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.5) for emmprin and survivin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Emmprin and survivin proteins were identified as strong...

  1. Emmprin and Survivin predict response and survival following cisplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne Birgitte; Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Maase, Hans von der

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced and metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. The response rate is approximately 50% and tumor-derived molecular prognostic markers are desirable for improved estimation of response...... and survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Affymetrix GeneChip expression profiling was carried out using tumor material from 30 patients. A set of genes with an expression highly correlated to survival time after chemotherapy was identified. Two genes were selected for validation by immunohistochemistry.......0%, 21.1%, and 0%, respectively. Response to chemotherapy could also be predicted with an odds ratio of 4.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.91-10.1) and 2.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.5) for emmprin and survivin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Emmprin and survivin proteins were identified as strong...

  2. TSA-induced JMJD2B downregulation is associated with cyclin B1-dependent survivin degradation and apoptosis in LNCap cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Li, Yueyang; Zhao, Li; Hou, Pingfu; Shangguan, Chenyan; Yao, Ruosi; Zhang, Weina; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Jiang; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as a novel class of anti-tumor agents and have manifested the ability to induce apoptosis of cancer cells, and a significant number of genes have been identified as potential effectors responsible for HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis. However, the mechanistic actions of these HDAC inhibitors in this process remain largely undefined. We here report that the treatment of LNCap prostate cancer cells with HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) resulted in downregulation of the Jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B). We also found that the TSA-mediated decrease in survivin expression in LNCap cells was partly attributable to downregulation of JMJD2B expression. This effect was attributable to the promoted degradation of survivin protein through inhibition of Cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex-mediated survivin Thr34 phosphorylation. Consequently, knockdown of JMJD2B enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis by regulating the Cyclin B1-dependent survivin degradation to potentiate the apoptosis pathways. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anti-tumor activity of selective inhibitors of XPO1/CRM1-mediated nuclear export in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: the role of survivin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doldi, Valentina; Lopergolo, Alessia; Deraco, Marcello; Gandellini, Paolo; Friedlander, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef; Kauffman, Michael G.; Shacham, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Survivin, which is highly expressed and promotes cell survival in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM), exclusively relies on exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) to be shuttled into the cytoplasm and perform its anti-apoptotic function. Here, we explored the efficacy of Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE), KPT-251, KPT-276 and the orally available, clinical stage KPT-330 (selinexor), in DMPM preclinical models. Exposure to SINE induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest at G1-phase and caspase-dependent apoptosis, which were consequent to a decrease of XPO1/CRM1 protein levels and the concomitant nuclear accumulation of its cargo proteins p53 and CDKN1a. Cell exposure to SINE led to a time-dependent reduction of cytoplasmic survivin levels. In addition, after an initial accumulation, the nuclear protein abundance progressively decreased, as a consequence of an enhanced ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. SINE and the survivin inhibitor YM155 synergistically cooperated in reducing DMPM cell proliferation. Most importantly, orally administered SINE caused a significant anti-tumor effect in subcutaneous and orthotopic DMPM xenografts without appreciable toxicity. Overall, we have demonstrated a marked efficacy of SINE in DMPM preclinical models that may relay on the interference with survivin intracellular distribution and function. Our study suggests SINE-mediated XPO1/CRM1 inhibition as a novel therapeutic option for DMPM. PMID:25948791

  4. Rapamycin enhances docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in a androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft model by survivin downregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yasu-m@med.gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maeabshi, Gunma 3718511 (Japan); Koike, Hidekazu; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro [Department of Urology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maeabshi, Gunma 3718511 (Japan)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapamycin (RPM) enhances the susceptibility of PC3 cells to docetaxel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dosage of docetaxel (DTX) did not reduce survivin expression levels in PC3 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination treatment of RPM with DTX suppressed the expression of surviving. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNA against survivin enhanced the susceptibility of PC3 cells to DTX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RPM and DTX cotreatment inhibited PC3 cell growth and decreased surviving in vivo. -- Abstract: Background: Docetaxel is a first-line treatment choice in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the management of CRPC remains an important challenge in oncology. There have been many reports on the effects of rapamycin, which is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in the treatment of carcinogenesis. We assessed the cytotoxic effects of the combination treatment of docetaxel and rapamycin in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between these treatments and survivin, which is a member of the inhibitory apoptosis family. Methods: Prostate cancer cells were cultured and treated with docetaxel and rapamycin. The effects on proliferation were evaluated with the MTS assay. In addition, we evaluated the effect on proliferation of the combination treatment induced knockdown of survivin expression by small interfering RNA transfection and docetaxel. Protein expression levels were assayed using western blotting. PC3 cells and xenograft growth in nude mice were used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of docetaxel and its combination with rapamycin. Results: In vitro and in vivo, the combination of rapamycin with docetaxel resulted in a greater inhibition of proliferation than treatment with rapamycin or docetaxel alone. In addition, in vitro and in vivo, rapamycin decreased basal surviving levels, and cotreatment with docetaxel further decreased these levels

  5. CRM1 and chromosomal passenger complex component survivin are essential to normal mitosis progress and to preserve keratinocytes from mitotic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarrade, F; Botto, J-M; Domloge, N

    2016-10-01

    Human epidermis provides the body a barrier against environmental assaults. To assume this function, the epidermis needs the renewal of keratinocytes allowed by constant mitosis, which replace the exfoliating corneocytes. Keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) located in the basal epidermis are mitotically active, self-renewing and govern the epithelial stratification by producing renewed source of keratinocytes. Protein complex such as the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) allows the correct development of this process. The CPC is composed of four members: INCENP, survivin, borealin and aurora kinase B, and the disruption of the CPC during cell division induces mitotic spindle defects and improper repartition of chromosomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the implication of CRM1 and survivin in the progress of mitosis in skin keratinocytes. Cultured human keratinocytes and skin biopsies were used in this study. KSCs-enriched population of keratinocytes was isolated from total keratinocytes by differential attachment to a type IV collagen matrix. Survivin and CRM1 expression levels were assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Specific siRNAs for each CPC member and for CRM1 were used to determine the relationship between these proteins. Survivin-specific siRNA was used to induce the apparition of mitotic abnormalities in cultured keratinocytes. We demonstrated the ability of our compound 'IV08.009' to modulate the expression level of survivin and CRM1 in keratinocytes and in skin biopsies. We observed that members of the CPC are interdependent: siRNA-induced inhibition of one component caused a decrease in the expression of all other CPC members. Downregulation of survivin or CRM1 induced mitotic abnormalities in keratinocytes. However, decreased number of mitotic abnormalities was observed in keratinocytes after 'IV08.009' application. Basal keratinocytes may divide frequently during skin lifespan, and signs of deterioration could appear such as loss

  6. the significance of epidermal growth factor receptor and survivin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... Design: Prospective study. Setting: Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching. Hospital and Faculty of .... Immunostaining procedure for urine survivin and EGFR expression and scoring system: The cytospins slides stored in the deep- freezer were again dipped in 95%.

  7. Survivin Down-regulation by α-Santalol Is Not Mediated Through PI3K-AKT Pathway in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommareddy, Ajay; Crisamore, Karryn; Fillman, Sarah; Brozena, Sarah; Steigerwalt, James; Landis, Terra; Vanwert, Adam L; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2015-10-01

    α-Santalol, a terpenoid found in sandalwood oil, has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro by inducing apoptosis. This study was performed to investigate the anticancer properties of α-santalol associated with the induction of apoptosis in cultured MCF-7 [estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, and wild-type p53)] and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative and mutant p53) breast cancer cells. Expression of major proteins examined in the study were determined using a standard western blot protocol and analyzed by LICOR-Odyssey infra-red scanner. Total protein levels of survivin were confirmed by survivin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Cell viability was assessed by the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and caspase-3 activity was determined by caspase-3 (active) ELISA kit. Treatment of breast cancer cells for 6 and 9 h with α-santalol (20, and 40 μM) resulted in statistically significant concentration-dependent down-regulation of survivin. Phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT) levels were found to be slightly up-regulated despite the down-regulation of survivin. Pharmacological inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase - protein kinase B (PI3K-AKT) pathway did not result in a synergistic/additive increase in cell death or caspase-3 activity caused by α-santalol. The study reveals that survivin down-regulation by α-santalol in breast cancer cells is not mediated through the PI3K-AKT pathway. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Survivin promotion of melanoma metastasis requires upregulation of α5 integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jodi A; Liu, Tong; Jung, Jae Y; Jones, Benjamin B; Ekiz, Huseyin A; Welm, Alana L; Grossman, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    Survivin is an apoptotic and mitotic regulator that is overexpressed in melanoma and a poor prognostic marker in patients with metastatic disease. We recently showed that Survivin enhances melanoma cell motility through Akt-dependent upregulation of α5 integrin. However, the functional role of Survivin in melanoma metastasis is not clearly understood. We found that overexpression of Survivin in LOX and YUSAC2 human melanoma cells increased colony formation in soft agar, and this effect was abrogated by knockdown of α5 integrin by RNA interference. We employed melanoma cell xenografts to determine the in vivo effect of Survivin overexpression on melanoma metastasis. Although Survivin overexpression did not affect primary tumor growth of YUSAC2 or LOX subcutaneous tumors, or indices of proliferation or apoptosis, it significantly increased expression of α5 integrin in the primary tumors and formation of metastatic colonies in the lungs. Additionally, Survivin overexpression resulted in enhanced lung colony formation following intravenous (i.v.) injection of tumor cells in vivo and increased adherence to fibronectin-coated plastic in vitro. Importantly, in vivo inhibition of α5 integrin via intraperitoneal injection of an α5β1 integrin-blocking antibody significantly slowed tumor growth and reduced Survivin-enhanced pulmonary metastasis. Knockdown of α5 integrin in cells prior to i.v. injection also blocked Survivin-enhanced lung colony formation. These findings support a direct role for Survivin in melanoma metastasis, which requires α5 integrin and suggest that inhibitors of α5 integrin may be useful in combating this process.

  9. Application of quantum dots as vectors in targeted survivin gene siRNA delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao JJ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianjiang Zhao, Xiaoling Qiu, Zhiping Wang, Jie Pan, Jun Chen, Jiusong Han Department of Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Gene silencing using short interfering RNA (siRNA is becoming an attractive approach for probing gene function in mammalian cells. This study evaluated the specificity and efficiency of quantum dots (QDs as non-viral gene vectors for delivery of survivin siRNA and downregulation of survivin gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells. Water-dispersible cationically-modified QDs were electrostatically attached to anionic siRNA molecules and complexed with siRNA for downregulating expression of the survivin gene. Cellular uptake and allocation of QD–siRNA complexes in Tca8113 cells were monitored using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to quantify survivin messenger RNA (mRNA levels. CdSe QDs were observed with high intensity fluorescence under confocal laser scanning microscopy. Tca8113 cells were successfully transfected by QDs with survivin siRNA, and the red fluorescence from CdSe QDs and green fluorescein amidite fluorescence from siRNA could both be easily observed after 6 hours of incubation. The release of siRNA into the cytoplasm was verified through real-time PCR quantification that showed reduced survivin mRNA levels. In this study, survivin siRNA successfully complexed with water-soluble CdSe QDs and exhibited excellent fluorescent properties and downregulated the expression of the survivin gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells. QDs are a novel non-viral gene delivery vector. Keywords: quantum dots, survivin, siRNA delivery, transfection, Tca8113, tongue cancer cells

  10. Leptospira Protein Expression During Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are characterizing protein expression in vivo during experimental leptospirosis using immunofluorescence microscopy. Coding regions for several proteins were identified through analysis of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo genomes. In addition, codi...

  11. Identification and characterization of survivin-derived H-2Kb-restricted CTL epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Uta B; Voigt, Heike; Andersen, Mads H

    2009-01-01

    for potential binding K(b)-restricted octamer peptide epitopes. Two epitopes, which bind strongly to K(b), were selected to test their immunogenicity in vivo. Spleen cells from mice vaccinated by intradermal injection of mature DC pulsed with these peptides displayed reactivity to the respective epitopes...... in subcutaneous tumors revealed that survivin-specific vaccination significantly reduced the number of intratumoral vessels. In summary, we demonstrated the immunogenicity of two K(b)-restricted peptide epitopes derived from the murine survivin protein; moreover, survivin-specific vaccination not only resulted...

  12. Ex vivo imaging of active caspase 3 by a FRET-based molecular probe demonstrates the cellular dynamics and localization of the protease in cerebellar granule cells and its regulation by the apoptosis-inhibiting protein survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossi, Laura; Cocito, Carolina; Alasia, Silvia; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-04-28

    Apoptosis takes place in naturally occurring neuronal death, but also in aging, neurodegenerative disorders, and traumatic brain injuries. Caspase 3 (Casp3) is the most important effector protease in apoptosis: being inactive inside the cell, it undergoes enzymatic cleavage and - hence - activation once the apoptotic cascade is triggered. Immunological techniques with antibodies against cleaved Casp3 (cCasp3) or assays with colorimetric/fluorogenic substrates are commonly in use, but they do not allow to directly follow the dynamics of activation in alive neurons that may be committed to die. By combined biolistic transfection, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we have implemented a methodology to dynamically monitor Casp3 activation in organotypic cerebellar slices from postnatal mice. After transfection with pSCAT3 FRET probes, we measured the ratio of the emissions of the donor/acceptor pair (ECFPem/Venusem) in fixed or alive cultures. In so doing, we i. discriminated the cellular compartment(s) of enzyme activation (nucleus, perikaryon, neurites); ii. demonstrated that Casp3 was constitutively active in the granule cells; iii. followed the fluctuations of ECFPem/Venusem, and its response to 25 mM KCl depolarization, or to increased intracellular Ca(++) after NMDA (1 mM), kainic acid (1 mM), or A23187 (100-200 μM). The specificity of the active pSCAT3-DEVD probe was confirmed with RNA interference and after inhibition of Casp3 with Ac-DEVD-CMK (100 μM), as both sets of experiments brought ECFPem/Venusem to the values recorded with the control probe pSCAT3-DEVG. After double-transfection with pSCAT3-DEVD + pHcRed1-C1-survivin, we also showed a 44-56% reduction of basal Casp3 activity in cells overexpressing survivin, a protein-member of the family of apoptosis inhibitors, with augmented survival (2.82 folds). Survivin-rescued cells were sensitive to 5 mM H2O2 oxidative stress but died without intervention of Casp3. This

  13. Experimental cancer gene therapy by multiple anti-survivin hammerhead ribozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Qi; Zhang, Hongyu; Fu, Lili; Dai, Xinlan; Gao, Baomei; Ni, Min; Ge, Chao; Li, Jinjun; Ding, Xia; Ke, Yuwen; Yao, Xuebiao; Zhu, Jingde

    2008-06-01

    To improve the efficacy of gene therapy for cancer, we designed four hammerhead ribozyme adenoviruses (R1 to R4) targeting the exposed regions of survivin mRNA. In addition to the in vitro characterization, which included a determination of the sequence specificity of cleavage by primer extension, assays for cell proliferation and for in vivo tumor growth were used to score for ribozyme efficiency. The resulting suppression of survivin expression induced mitotic catastrophe and cell death via the caspase-3-dependent pathway. Importantly, administration of the ribozyme adenoviruses inhibited tumor growth in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft mouse model. Co-expression of R1, R3 and R4 ribozymes synergistically suppressed survivin and, as this combination targets all major forms of the survivin transcripts, produced the most potent anti-cancer effects. The adenoviruses carrying the multiple hammerhead ribozymes described in this report offered a robust gene therapy strategy against cancer.

  14. The small molecule survivin inhibitor YM155 may be an effective treatment modality for colon cancer through increasing apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wan Lu, E-mail: lvvlchina@msn.cn [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Ra, E-mail: mira1125@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mee-Yon, E-mail: meeyon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Genomic Cohort, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    Survivin has a known beneficial role in the survival of both cancer cells and normal cells. Therapies targeting survivin have been proposed as an alternative treatment modality for various tumors; however, finding the proper indication for this toxic therapy is critical for reducing unavoidable side effects. We recently observed that high survivin expression in CD133{sup +} cells is related to chemoresistance in Caco-2 colon cancer cells. However, the effect of survivin-targeted therapy on CD133{sup +} colon cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of CD133 and survivin expression in colon cancer biology in vitro and comparatively analyzed the anticancer effects of survivin inhibitor on CD133{sup +} cells (ctrl-siRNA group) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced CD133{sup −} cells (CD133-siRNA group) obtained from a single colon cancer cell line. CD133 knockdown via siRNA transfection did not change the tumorigenicity of cells, although in vitro survivin expression levels in CD133{sup +} cells were higher than those in siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. The transfection procedure seemed to induce survivin expression. Notably, a significant number of CD133{sup −} cells (33.8%) was found in the cell colonies of the CD133-siRNA group. In the cell proliferation assay after treatment, YM155 and a combination of YM155 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) proved to be far more effective than 5-FU alone. A significantly increased level of apoptosis was observed with increasing doses of YM155 in all groups. However, significant differences in therapeutic effect and apoptosis among the mock, ctrl-siRNA, and CD133-siRNA groups were not detected. Survivin inhibitor is an effective treatment modality for colon cancer; however, the role of CD133 and the use of survivin expression as a biomarker for this targeted therapy must be verified.

  15. Analysis of polymorphism in the survivin gene promoter as a potential risk factor for head and neck cancers development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Association studies have shown that gene polymorphisms in various classes of genes can modulate cancer risk. The -31G/C polymorphism in the promoter of survivin gene, affects the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin which in turn may predispose an individual to some types of cancer. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine whether the survivin promoter -31G/C polymorphism could be a susceptibility factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral cavity and basal cell carcinoma (BCC of the skin. Methods. The DNA obtained from 88 patients with SCC, 60 patients with BCC and 111 healthy individuals was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR- RFLP in order to determine genotype and allele frequencies in patients and control groups. Logistic regression was used for cancer risk assessment. Results. The following distribution of genotypes was obtained: CC genotype 15% in the SCC group, 13% in the BCC group and 12% in controls; CG genotype 41% in SCCs, 35% in BCCs, 48% in controls; GG genotype 44% in SCCs, 52% in BCCs and 40% in controls. Allelic frequencies were as follows: G allele 0.65 in SCCs, 0.69 in BCCs and 0.64 in the control group; C allele 0.35 in SCCs, 0.31 in BCCs and 0.36 in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in allele or genotype frequencies between the patients and controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. In Serbian population, -31G/C polymorphism in the promoter of the survivin gene cannot be considered as a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma and skin basal cell carcinoma. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  16. Loss of Survivin in Intestinal Epithelial Progenitor Cells Leads to Mitotic Catastrophe and Breakdown of Gut Immune Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Eva; Wittkopf, Nadine; Günther, Claudia; Leppkes, Moritz; Okada, Hitoshi; Watson, Alastair J; Podstawa, Eva; Backert, Ingo; Amann, Kerstin; Neurath, Markus F; Becker, Christoph

    2016-02-09

    A tightly regulated balance of proliferation and cell death of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is essential for maintenance of gut homeostasis. Survivin is highly expressed during embryogenesis and in several cancer types, but little is known about its role in adult gut tissue. Here, we show that Survivin is specifically expressed in transit-amplifying cells and Lgr5(+) stem cells. Genetic loss of Survivin in IECs resulted in destruction of intestinal integrity, mucosal inflammation, and death of the animals. Survivin deletion was associated with decreased epithelial proliferation due to defective chromosomal segregation. Moreover, Survivin-deficient animals showed induced phosphorylation of p53 and H2AX and increased levels of cell-intrinsic apoptosis in IECs. Consequently, induced deletion of Survivin in Lgr5(+) stem cells led to cell death. In summary, Survivin is a key regulator of gut tissue integrity by regulating epithelial homeostasis in the stem cell niche. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survivin Modulates Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Derived Stem-Like Cell Proliferation, Viability and Tumor Formation in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous Cell Carcinoma-derived Stem-like Cells (SCC-SC originate from alterations in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC gene expression and sustain tumor development, invasion and recurrence. Since survivin, a KSC marker, is highly expressed in SCC-SC, we evaluate its role in SCC-SC cell growth and SCC models. Survivin silencing by siRNA decreases clonal growth of SCC keratinocytes and viability of total, rapidly adhering (RAD and non-RAD (NRAD cells from primary SCC. Similarly, survivin silencing reduces the expression of stem cell markers (OCT4, NOTCH1, CD133, β1-integrin, while it increases the level of differentiation markers (K10, involucrin. Moreover, survivin silencing improves the malignant phenotype of SCC 3D-reconstruct, as demonstrated by reduced epidermal thickness, lower Ki-67 positive cell number, and decreased expression of MMP9 and psoriasin. Furthermore, survivin depletion by siRNA in RasG12V-IκBα-derived tumors leads to smaller tumor formation characterized by lower mitotic index and reduced expression of the tumor-associated marker HIF1α, VEGF and CD51. Therefore, our results indicate survivin as a key gene in regulating SCC cancer stem cell formation and cSCC development.

  18. Expressed protein ligation for a large dimeric protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagöz, G.E.; Sinnige, T; Hsieh, O.; Rüdiger, S.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is a protein engineering tool for post-translational ligation of protein or peptide fragments. This technique allows modification of specific parts of proteins, opening possibilities for incorporating probes for biophysical applications such as nuclear magnetic

  19. Role of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins in Testicular Function and Male Fertility: Effects of Polydeoxyribonucleotide Administration in Experimental Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letteria Minutoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP and survivin might play an important role in testicular function. We investigated the effect of PDRN, an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, on testicular NAIP and survivin expression in an experimental model of varicocele. After the creation of experimental varicocele (28 days, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of the following treatments lasting 21 days: vehicle, PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily, PDRN + 3,7-dimethyl-propargylxanthine (DMPX, a specific adenosine A2A-receptor antagonist, 0.1 mg/kg i.p., daily, varicocelectomy, and varicocelectomy + PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily. Sham-operated animals were used as controls. Animals were then euthanized and testis expression of NAIP and survivin was evaluated through qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Spermatogenetic activity was also assessed. NAIP and survivin expressions were significantly reduced following varicocele induction when compared to sham animals whereas PDRN-treated rats showed an increase in NAIP and survivin levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed an enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization following PDRN treatment. Moreover, administration of PDRN significantly restored spermatogenic function in varicocele rats. PDRN may represent a rational therapeutic option for accelerating recovery from depressed testicular function through a strategic modulation of apoptosis in experimental varicocele.

  20. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  1. Enhancement of Gemcitabine sensitivity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma by novel exosome-mediated delivery of the Survivin-T34A mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Aspe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current therapeutic options for advanced pancreatic cancer have been largely disappointing with modest results at best, and though adjuvant therapy remains controversial, most remain in agreement that Gemcitabine should stand as part of any combination study. The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP protein Survivin is a key factor in maintaining apoptosis resistance, and its dominant-negative mutant (Survivin-T34A has been shown to block Survivin, inducing caspase activation and apoptosis. Methods: In this study, exosomes, collected from a melanoma cell line built to harbor a tetracycline-regulated Survivin-T34A, were plated on the pancreatic adenocarcinoma (MIA PaCa-2 cell line. Evaluation of the presence of Survivin-T34A in these exosomes followed by their ability to induce Gemcitabine-potentiative cell killing was the objective of this work. Results: Here we show that exosomes collected in the absence of tetracycline (tet-off from the engineered melanoma cell do contain Survivin-T34A and when used alone or in combination with Gemcitabine, induced a significant increase in apoptotic cell death when compared to Gemcitabine alone on a variety of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This exosomes/Survivin-T34A study shows that a new delivery method for anticancer proteins within the cancer microenvironment may prove useful in targeting cancers of the pancreas.

  2. Decreased calpain activity in chronic myeloid leukemia impairs apoptosis by increasing survivin in myeloid progenitors and xiap1 in differentiating granulocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiqi; Bei, Ling; Hjort, Elizabeth E.; Eklund, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by translocations between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in expression of Bcr-abl oncogenes. Although the clinical course of CML was revolutionized by development of Bcr-abl-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), CML is not cured by these agents. Specifically, the majority of subjects relapsed in clinical trials attempting TKI discontinuation, suggesting persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) even in molecular remission. Identifying mechanisms of CML-LSC persistence may suggest rationale therapeutic targets to augment TKI efficacy and lead to cure. Apoptosis resistance is one proposed mechanism. In prior studies, we identified increased expression of Growth Arrest Specific 2 (Gas2; a Calpain inhibitor) in Bcr-abl+ bone marrow progenitor cells. A number of previously described Calpain substrates might influence apoptosis in CML, including βcatenin and the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1 (Xiap1). We previously found Gas2/Calpain dependent stabilization of βcatenin in CML, and increased expression of βcatenin target genes, including Survivin (also an IAP). In the current work, we investigate contributions of Survivin and Xiap1 to Fas-resistance in Bcr-abl+ bone marrow cells. Inhibitors of these proteins are currently in clinical trials for other malignancies, but a role for either IAP in CML-LSC persistence is unknown. PMID:28881589

  3. Novel roles of folic acid as redox regulator: Modulation of reactive oxygen species sinker protein expression and maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis on hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kun-Goung; Chen, Chi-Fen; Ho, Chun-Te; Liu, Jun-Jen; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chern, Chi-Liang

    2017-06-01

    We provide herein several lines of evidence to substantiate that folic acid (or folate) is a micronutrient capable of functioning as a novel redox regulator on hepatocellular carcinoma. First, we uncovered that folate deficiency could profoundly downregulate two prominent anti-apoptotic effectors including survivin and glucose-regulated protein-78. Silencing of either survivin or glucose-regulated protein-78 via small interfering RNA interfering technique established that both effectors could serve as reactive oxygen species sinker proteins. Second, folate deficiency-triggered oxidative-nitrosative stress could strongly induce endoplasmic reticulum stress that in turn could provoke cellular glutathione depletion through the modulation of the following two crucial events: (1) folate deficiency could strongly inhibit Bcl-2 expression leading to severe suppression of the mitochondrial glutathione pool and (2) folate deficiency could also profoundly inhibit two key enzymes that governing cellular glutathione redox regulation including γ-glutamylcysteinyl synthetase heavy chain, a catalytic enzyme for glutathione biosynthesis, and mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, an enzyme responsible for providing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate necessary for regenerating oxidized glutathione disulfide back to glutathione via mitochondrial glutathione reductase. Collectively, we add to the literature new data to strengthen the notion that folate is an essential micronutrient that confers a novel role to combat reactive oxygen species insults and thus serves as a redox regulator via upregulating reactive oxygen species sinker proteins and averting mitochondrial glutathione depletion through proper maintenance of redox homeostasis via positively regulating glutathione biosynthesis, glutathione transporting system, and mitochondrial glutathione recycling process.

  4. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael Schantz

    2016-01-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expressi...

  5. Analysis on the relation of pterygium with VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and Survivin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze and study the relation of pterygium with vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF,stroma cell-derived factor 1(SDF-1,tumor proliferating antigen(Ki-67,proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNAand survivin. METHODS:Seventy-nine patients(106 eyeswith pterygium from January 2013 to May 2015 in our hospital were selected as observation group. Seventy-nine persons with normal conjunctiva during the same period were selected as control group. Then the number of positive cells and staining intensity classification of the two groups for VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and survivin were compared,and the detection results of patients with different gender,stages and types were compared too. Then the relation between pterygium and those indexes were analyzed by the Logistic analysis. RESULTS:The number of positive cells and staining intensity classification of observation group for VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and survivin were all higher than those of control group,and the detection results of patients with different stages and types had certain differences too(all PP>0.05. All those indexes had close relation to pterygium by the Logistic analysis. CONCLUSION:The expression of VEGF,SDF-1,Ki-67,PCNA and survivin in tissue of patients with pterygium all show abnormal state,and those indexes all have close relation to pterygium.

  6. High-Throughput Screening of Myxoid Liposarcoma Cell Lines: Survivin Is Essential for Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke A. de Graaff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS is a soft tissue sarcoma characterized by a recurrent t(12;16 translocation. Although tumors are initially radio- and chemosensitive, the management of inoperable or metastatic MLS can be challenging. Therefore, our aim was to identify novel targets for systemic therapy. We performed an in vitro high-throughput drug screen using three MLS cell lines (402091, 1765092, DL-221, which were treated with 273 different drugs at four different concentrations. Cell lines and tissue microarrays were used for validation. As expected, all cell lines revealed a strong growth inhibition to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines and taxanes. A good response was observed to compounds interfering with Src and the mTOR pathway, which are known to be affected in these tumors. Moreover, BIRC5 was important for MLS survival because a strong inhibitory effect was seen at low concentration using the survivin inhibitor YM155, and siRNA for BIRC5 decreased cell viability. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant expression of survivin restricted to the nucleus in all 32 tested primary tumor specimens. Inhibition of survivin in 402-91 and 1765-92 by YM155 increased the percentage S-phase but did not induce apoptosis, which warrants further investigation before application in the treatment of metastatic MLS. Thus, using a 273-compound drug screen, we confirmed previously identified targets (mTOR, Src in MLS and demonstrate survivin as essential for MLS survival.

  7. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling up-regulates survivin to regulate human sacral chondrosarcoma cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Wang, Gang; Huo, Hongjun; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Yuanhang

    2015-01-01

    Human sacral chondrosarcoma, the most common one of malignant tumors, has a potent capacity to invade locally and metastasize. Notably, CXCR4 and survivin are widely recommended as a candidate of the molecule-targeted therapy. However, the roles and associations of CXCR4 and survivin in sacral chondrosarcoma have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated CXCR4 and survivin expression in human sacral chondrosarcoma. Resected sacral chondrosarcoma specimens were available from 30 patients. In vitro human chondrosarcoma cell lines SW1353 was used. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RNA interference, and cell cycle analyses were conducted. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CXCR4 and survivin expressed in 83.3 and 86.7 % of sacral chondrosarcoma tissues, respectively, and both were closely associated with grade and recurrence (p treatment. However, the interference with MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway affected SDF-1-induced up-regulation of survivin. Besides survivin siRNA affected cell cycle progression and the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers: Snail and N-cadherin, when compared with those of non-transfection. In conclusion, the present study shows that SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling up-regulates survivin via MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway, leading to cell cycle and EMT occurrence in human sacral chondrosarcoma. The antagonizing of CXCR4 and/or survivin might benefit patients with sacral chondrosarcoma.

  8. Survivin selective inhibitor YM155 induce apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yan-Fang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death. YM155, a novel molecular targeted agent, suppresses survivin, which is overexpressed in many tumor types. The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of YM155 in SK-NEP-1 cells. Methods SK-NEP-1 cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT and nude mice experiments. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis was used to detect apoptosis in cell culture. Then gene expression profile of tumor cells treated with YM155 was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We then analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. Results YM155 treatment resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells in a dose-dependent manner. Annexin V assay, cell cycle, and activation of caspase-3 demonstrates that YM155 induced apoptosis in SK-NEP-1 cells. YM155 significantly inhibited growth of SK-NEP-1 xenografts (YM155 5 mg/kg: 1.45 ± 0.77 cm3; YM155 10 mg/kg: 0.95 ± 0.55 cm3 compared to DMSO group (DMSO: 3.70 ± 2.4 cm3 or PBS group cells (PBS: 3.78 ± 2.20 cm3, ANOVA P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that YM155 treatment resulted in apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation of SK-NEP-1cells. YM155 had significant role and little side effect in the treatment of SK-NEP-1 xenograft tumors. Real-time PCR array analysis firstly showed expression profile of genes dyes-regulated after YM155 treatment. IPA analysis also represents new molecule mechanism of YM155 treatment, such as NR3C1 and dexamethasone may be new target of YM155. And our results may provide new clues of molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by YM155.

  9. Arctigenin promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via the iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Li, Li-an; Meng, Yuan-guang; You, Yan-qin; Fu, Xiao-yu; Song, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Arctigenin is a biologically active lignan extracted from the seeds of Arctium lappa and shows anticancer activity against a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of arctigenin on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and survival and associated molecular mechanisms. Human ovarian cancer OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells were treated with arctigenin, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Western blot analysis was used to examine signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and survivin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The involvement of STAT3/survivin/iNOS/NO signalling in arctigenin action was checked. Arctigenin treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Arctigenin-treated cells showed a 4-6 times increase in the percentage of apoptosis, compared with control cells. Pre-treatment with Ac-DEVD-CHO, a specific inhibitor of caspase-3, counteracted the induction of apoptosis by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment significantly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin and iNOS expression. Arctigenin-induced apoptosis was impaired by pre-transfection with survivin-expressing plasmid or addition of chemical nitric oxide (NO) donors. Additionally, exogenous NO prevented the suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation and survivin expression by arctigenin. Arctigenin treatment inhibits the proliferation and induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of iNOS/NO/STAT3/survivin signalling is causally linked to the anticancer activity of arctigenin. Therefore, arctigenin may be applicable to anticancer therapy for ovarian cancer. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  10. PolyI:C and mouse survivin artificially embedding human 2B peptide induce a CD4+ T cell response to autologous survivin in HLA-A*2402 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Jun; Takahashi, Shojiro; Azuma, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Misako; Morii-Sakai, Akiko; Imamura, Masahiro; Teshima, Takanori; Takahashi, Akari; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Sato, Noriyuki; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-01-01

    CD4(+) T cell effectors are crucial for establishing antitumor immunity. Dendritic cell maturation by immune adjuvants appears to facilitate subset-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation, but the adjuvant effect for CD4 T on induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is largely unknown. Self-antigenic determinants with low avidity are usually CD4 epitopes in mutated proteins with tumor-associated class I-antigens (TAAs). In this study, we made a chimeric version of survivin, a target of human CTLs. The chimeric survivin, where human survivin-2B containing a TAA was embedded in the mouse survivin frame (MmSVN2B), was used to immunize HLA-A-2402/K(b)-transgenic (HLA24(b)-Tg) mice. Subcutaneous administration of MmSVN2B or xenogeneic human survivin (control HsSNV2B) to HLA24(b)-Tg mice failed to induce an immune response without co-administration of an RNA adjuvant polyI:C, which was required for effector induction in vivo. Although HLA-A-2402/K(b) presented the survivin-2B peptide in C57BL/6 mice, 2B-specific tetramer assays showed that no CD8(+) T CTLs specific to survivin-2B proliferated above the detection limit in immunized mice, even with polyI:C treatment. However, the CD4(+) T cell response, as monitored by IFN-γ, was significantly increased in mice given polyI:C+MmSVN2B. The Th1 response and antibody production were enhanced in the mice with polyI:C. The CD4 epitope responsible for effector function was not Hs/MmSNV13-27, a nonconserved region between human and mouse survivin, but region 53-67, which was identical between human and mouse survivin. These results suggest that activated, self-reactive CD4(+) helper T cells proliferate in MmSVN2B+polyI:C immunization and contribute to Th1 polarization followed by antibody production, but hardly participate in CTL induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. TRPM4 protein expression in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Soldini, Davide; Jung, Maria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 (TRPM4) messenger RNA (mRNA) has been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and might be a new promising tissue biomarker. We evaluated TRPM4 protein expression and correlated the expression level.......79-2.62; p = 0.01-0.03 for the two observers) when compared to patients with a lower staining intensity. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 protein expression is widely expressed in benign and cancerous prostate tissue, with highest staining intensities found in PCa. Overexpression of TRPM4 in PCa (combination of high...

  12. Rapamycin potentiates cytotoxicity by docetaxel possibly through downregulation of Survivin in lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hui

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate whether rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin, can potentiate the cytotoxic effect of docetaxel in lung cancer cells and to probe the mechanism underlying such enhancement. Methods Lung cancer cells were treated with docetaxel and rapamycin. The effect on the proliferation of lung cancer cells was evaluated using the MTT method, and cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Protein expression and level of phosphorylation were assayed using Western Blot method. Results Co-treatment of rapamycin and docetaxel was found to favorably enhance the cytotoxic effect of docetaxel in four lung cancer cell lines. This tumoricidal boost is associated with a reduction in the expression and phosphorylation levels of Survivin and ERK1/2, respectively. Conclusion The combined application of mTOR inhibitor and docetaxel led to a greater degree of cancer cell killing than that by either compound used alone. Therefore, this combination warrants further investigation in its suitability of serving as a novel therapeutic scheme for treating advanced and recurrent lung cancer patients.

  13. Survivin and NAIP in Human Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Protective Role of the Association of Serenoa repens, Lycopene and Selenium from the Randomized Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Morgia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH treatment includes the apoptosis machinery modulation through the direct inhibition of caspase cascade. We previously demonstrated that Serenoa repens (Ser with lycopene (Ly and selenium (Se reawakened apoptosis by reducing survivin and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP levels in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Ser-Se-Ly association on survivin and NAIP expression in BPH patients. Ninety patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS due to clinical BPH were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo (Group BPH + placebo, n = 45 or Ser-Se-Ly association (Group BPH + Ser-Se-Ly; n = 45 for 3 months. At time 0, all patients underwent prostatic biopsies. After 3 months of treatment, they underwent prostatic re-biopsy and specimens were collected for molecular, morphological, and immunohistochemical analysis. After 3 months, survivin and NAIP were significantly decreased, while caspase-3 was significantly increased in BPH patients treated with Ser-Se-Ly when compared with the other group. In BPH patients treated with Ser-Se-Ly for 3 months, the glandular epithelium was formed by a single layer of cuboidal cells. PSA showed high immunoexpression in all BPH patients and a focal positivity in Ser-Se-Ly treated patients after 3 months. Evident prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA immunoexpression was shown in all BPH patients, while no positivity was present after Ser-Se-Ly administration. Ser-Se-Ly proved to be effective in promoting apoptosis in BPH patients.

  14. Survivin and NAIP in Human Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Protective Role of the Association of Serenoa repens, Lycopene and Selenium from the Randomized Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Micali, Antonio; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Irrera, Natasha; Marini, Herbert; Puzzolo, Domenico; Pisani, Antonina; Privitera, Salvatore; Russo, Giorgio I; Cimino, Sebastiano; Ieni, Antonio; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco; Minutoli, Letteria

    2017-03-22

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment includes the apoptosis machinery modulation through the direct inhibition of caspase cascade. We previously demonstrated that Serenoa repens (Ser) with lycopene (Ly) and selenium (Se) reawakened apoptosis by reducing survivin and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) levels in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Ser-Se-Ly association on survivin and NAIP expression in BPH patients. Ninety patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to clinical BPH were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo (Group BPH + placebo, n = 45) or Ser-Se-Ly association (Group BPH + Ser-Se-Ly; n = 45) for 3 months. At time 0, all patients underwent prostatic biopsies. After 3 months of treatment, they underwent prostatic re-biopsy and specimens were collected for molecular, morphological, and immunohistochemical analysis. After 3 months, survivin and NAIP were significantly decreased, while caspase-3 was significantly increased in BPH patients treated with Ser-Se-Ly when compared with the other group. In BPH patients treated with Ser-Se-Ly for 3 months, the glandular epithelium was formed by a single layer of cuboidal cells. PSA showed high immunoexpression in all BPH patients and a focal positivity in Ser-Se-Ly treated patients after 3 months. Evident prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) immunoexpression was shown in all BPH patients, while no positivity was present after Ser-Se-Ly administration. Ser-Se-Ly proved to be effective in promoting apoptosis in BPH patients.

  15. MOPED: Model Organism Protein Expression Database

    OpenAIRE

    Kolker, Eugene; Higdon, Roger; Haynes, Winston; Welch, Dean; Broomall, William; Lancet, Doron; Stanberry, Larissa; Kolker, Natali

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of mass spectrometry proteomics studies are being conducted to understand all types of biological processes. The size and complexity of proteomics data hinders efforts to easily share, integrate, query and compare the studies. The Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED, htttp://moped.proteinspire.org) is a new and expanding proteomics resource that enables rapid browsing of protein expression information from publicly available studies on humans and model organisms. M...

  16. LCK, survivin and PI-3K in the molecular biomarker profiling of oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Giacomelli, Luca; Christensen, Russell; Kossan, George; Avezova, Raisa; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2009-12-31

    T cell signaling is critical in oral lichen planus (OLP) based on the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory autoimmune mucocutaneous lesion. Lck plays a key role in T cell signaling; ultimately this signaling affects other targets such as PI-3K. Excessive activity in PI-3K inhibits apoptosis and promotes uncontrolled cell growth. Molecular biomarker profiling in OLP, Chronic Interface Mucosities (CIM), Epithelial Dysplasia (EpD) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCCA) with application of the principle of biomarker voting may represent a new frontier in the diagnosis, assessment and the arguable debate of OLP transformation to cancer. The presence of Lck, PI-3K and Survivin, a cancer specific anti-apoptotic protein was assessed, using immunohistochemistry and tissue micro-array on patient samples, in OLP, SCCA, CIM and EpD. Lck expression was very high in 78.6 % of OLP patients compared to 3.7% in SCCA; PI-3K was high in 63% of SCCA, 100% of EpD, and 35.7% OLP cases. Survivin was high in 64.3% of OLP cases, 96.3% of SCCA, and 100% of EpD. CIM cases may be slightly different molecularly to OLP. Taken together, our data suggest that biomarker protein voting can be effectively used to isolate high-risk OLP cases. Specifically, we show data with four remarkable cases demonstrating that molecular factors are predictive of histopathology. We conclude that it is safer to treat OLP as premalignant lesions, to adopt aggressive treatment measure in histopathologic described well and moderately differentiated SCCA, and to monitor progress of these diseases molecularly using individualized auto-proteomic approach. The use of Lck inhibitors in OLP management needs to be investigated in the future.

  17. Survivin Selectively Modulates Genes Deregulated in Human Leukemia Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Fukuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ITD-Flt3 mutations are detected in leukemia stem cells (LSCs in acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients. While antagonizing Survivin normalizes ITD-Flt3-induced acute leukemia, it also impairs hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function, indicating that identification of differences in signaling pathways downstream of Survivin between LSC and HSC are crucial to develop selective Survivin-based therapeutic strategies for AML. Using a Survivin-deletion model, we identified 1,096 genes regulated by Survivin in ITD-Flt3-transformed c-kit+, Sca-1+, and lineageneg (KSL cells, of which 137 are deregulated in human LSC. Of the 137, 124 genes were regulated by Survivin exclusively in ITD-Flt3+ KSL cells but not in normal CD34neg KSL cells. Survivin-regulated genes in LSC connect through a network associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and falls into various functional categories independent of effects on apoptosis. Pathways downstream of Survivin in LSC that are distinct from HSC can be potentially targeted for selective anti-LSC therapy.

  18. MicroRNA-141 enhances anoikis resistance in metastatic progression of ovarian cancer through targeting KLF12/Sp1/survivin axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Celia S L; Yung, Mingo M H; Hui, Lynn M N; Leung, Leanne L; Liang, Rui; Chen, Kangmei; Liu, Stephanie S; Qin, Yiming; Leung, Thomas H Y; Lee, Kai-Fai; Chan, Karen K L; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Chan, David W

    2017-01-17

    Cancer metastasis is determined by the formation of the metastatic niche and the ability of cancer cells to adapt to microenvironmental stresses. Anoikis resistance is a fundamental feature of metastatic cancer cell survival during metastatic cancer progression. However, the mechanisms underlying anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer are still unclear. Expressions of miRNA-141 and its downstream targets were evaluated by qPCR, Western blotting, Immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays. The luciferase assays were used to prove KLF12 as the downstream target of miR-141. The cDNA microarray and apoptotic protein arrays were used to identify the targets of miR-141 and KLF12. The competition of KLF12 and Sp1 on survivin promoter was examined by ChIP assay. IHC analysis on ovarian cancer tissue array was used to evaluate the expressions of KLF12 and miR-141 and to show the clinical relevance. The functional studies were performed by in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic assays. Enforced expression of miR-141 promotes, while knockdown of miR-141 expression inhibits, cell proliferation, anchorage-independent capacity, anoikis resistance, tumor growth and peritoneal metastases of ovarian cancer cells. Bioinformatics and functional analysis identified that Kruppel-related zinc finger protein AP-2rep (KLF12) is directly targeted by miR-141. Consistent with this finding, knockdown of KLF12 phenocopied the effects of miR-141 overexpression in ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, restoration of KLF12 in miR-141-expressing cells significantly attenuated anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer cells via interfering with Sp1-mediated survivin transcription, which inhibits the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and is crucial for ovarian cancer cell survival, anoikis resistance and peritoneal metastases. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays confirmed that miRNA-141 expression is inversely correlated with KLF12 expression and significantly associated

  19. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... 1. Introduction. Exhibition of diverse patterns in the biological world has been ... molecular biology, genomics and proteomics experiments have come up with ..... proteins at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h, (B) temporal protein expression pattern observed in synchronous update up to 21 time points (0 to 10 h), (C) temporal ...

  20. Dual bio-responsive gene delivery via reducible poly(amido amine) and survivin-inducible plasmid DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namgung, Ran; Brumbach, J.H.; Brumbach, Jonathan H.; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Yockman, James W.; Kim, Sung Wan; Lin, C.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Kim, Won Jong

    2010-01-01

    A bioreducible poly(amido amine) (SS-PAA) gene carrier, known as poly (amido-butanol) (pABOL), was used to transfect a variety of cancer and non-cancer cell lines. To obtain cancer-specific transgene expression for therapeutic efficiency in cancer treatment, we constructed survivin-inducible plasmid

  1. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  2. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  3. Transient Protein Expression by Agroinfiltration in Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Stahnke, Jake; McNulty, Alyssa; Leuzinger, Kahlin; Lai, Huafang

    2016-01-01

    Current systems of recombinant protein production include bacterial, insect, and mammalian cell culture. However, these platforms are expensive to build and operate at commercial scales and/or have limited abilities to produce complex proteins. In recent years, plant-based expression systems have become top candidates for the production of recombinant proteins as they are highly scalable, robust, safe, and can produce complex proteins due to having a eukaryotic endomembrane system. Newly developed "deconstructed" viral vectors delivered via Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration) have enabled robust plant-based production of proteins with a wide range of applications. The leafy Lactuca sativa (lettuce) plant with its strong foundation in agriculture is an excellent host for pharmaceutical protein production. Here, we describe a method for agroinfiltration of lettuce that can rapidly produce high levels of recombinant proteins in a matter of days and has the potential to be scaled up to an agricultural level.

  4. Altered decamer and nonamer from an HLA-A0201-restricted epitope of Survivin differentially stimulate T-cell responses in different individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, Chantale; Zhu, Kuichin; Li, Yufeng; Andersson, Helen; Ionnides, Constantin; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Cano, Pedro; Cooper, Laurence; Abbruzzese, James; Hwu, Patrick; Chang, David Z.; Radvanyi, Laszlo G.

    2011-01-01

    Survivin is a universal tumor antigen that is being currently targeted in vaccine app roaches against cancer. Our study here examined the immunogenicity of a novel variant of an HLA-A0201-binding decamer peptide from region 95-104 of Survivin (ELMLGEFLKL) with a T→M modification at position 3 in the peptide. We found that this new modified 10-mer peptide had enhanced HLA-A0201 binding and induced a stronger T-cell response over its wild type counterpart peptide (ELTLGEFLKL) in select HLA-A0201+ normal donors. In addition, when compared to the previously characterized altered 96-104 peptide (LMLGEFLKL) from the same region of Survivin currently used in vaccine trials, we found that both peptides had similar immunogenicity, but donor T cells preferentially reacted strongly to either one or the other, but not strongly to both. These results suggest that these two closely related Survivin peptides yield distinct T-cell responses and that most individuals dominantly respond to one or the other altered peptide. We also found a novel association between positive reactivity to the new altered decamer Survivin peptide in some individuals and their expression of the HLA-C0701 allele along with HLA-A0201. Thus, vaccinating with both the 10-mer and 9-mer peptides would be required to immunize a maximum number of individuals in the HLA-A0201+ population and could lead to more consistent T-cell responses against this region of Survivin. PMID:21320548

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and survivin peptide vaccine combined with temozolomide in metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nitschke, Nikolaj Juul; Bjoern, Jon; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and survivin have been identified as potential targets for cancer vaccination. In this phase II study a vaccine using the peptides Sur1M2 and IDO5 was combined with the chemotherapy temozolomide (TMZ) for treatment of metastatic melanoma patients....... The aim was to simultaneously target several immune inhibiting mechanisms and the highly malignant cells expressing survivin. METHODS: HLA-A2 positive patients with advanced malignant melanoma were treated biweekly with 150 mg/m2 TMZ daily for 7 days followed by subcutaneous vaccination with 250 µg...... was assessed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In total, 17 patients were treated with a clinical benefit rate of 18% including one patient with partial tumor regression. Immune analyses revealed a vaccine specific response in 8 (67%) of 12 patients tested, a significant decrease in the frequency of CD4...

  6. Parts Characterization for Tunable Protein Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Michael Schantz; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Flow-seq combines flexible genome engineering methods with flow cytometry-based cell sorting and deep DNA sequencing to enable comprehensive interrogation of genotype to phenotype relationships. One application is to study the effect of specific regulatory elements on protein expression. Construc......Flow-seq combines flexible genome engineering methods with flow cytometry-based cell sorting and deep DNA sequencing to enable comprehensive interrogation of genotype to phenotype relationships. One application is to study the effect of specific regulatory elements on protein expression....... Constructing targeted genomic variation around genomically integrated fluorescent marker genes enables rapid elucidation of the contribution of specific sequence variants to protein expression. Such an approach can be used to characterize the impact of modifications to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence...

  7. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To study the propagation of such defects with time and their effect on the intracellular protein expression patterns, a comprehensive and largest pathway map of T-cell activation network is reconstructed manually. The entire pathway reactions are then translated using logical equations and simulated using the published ...

  8. Protein profile expression of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein profile expression of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis and their reciprocal hybrids in South-West Nigeria. ... Artificially propagated juveniles (comprising four samples from each mating combinations) reared for sixteen weeks were analyzed electrophoretically using 12% Sodium dodecyl sulphate ...

  9. SURVIVIN as a marker for quiescent-breast cancer stem cells-An intermediate, adherent, pre-requisite phase of breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Sumit; Das, Sarita; Nayak, Anmada; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2016-10-01

    Cancer stem cells drive the metastatic cascade by undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and again mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). Using multiple breast cancer cell lines including cigarette smoke induced breast cancer cells and tumor derived primary cells from patient sample; we developed a breast cancer metastasis model and reported the existence of an adherent, distinct pre-metastatic phase, quiescent-breast cancer stem cells (Q-BCSCs) prior to attaining an EMT. SURVIVIN was found to be expressed in Q-BCSCs. Time dependant biphasic expression of SURVIVIN in Q-BCSCs reveals that Q-BCSCs is a pre-metastatic phase distinct from both epithelial and mesenchymal counterparts. SURVIVIN favours metastasis and up-regulates WNT/β-CATENIN pathway in a PI3 K/AKT-dependant manner for self-renewal. Knockdown of SURVIVIN in Q-BCSCs lost the metastatic property of cells by inhibiting invasion, EMT-MET, PI3 K/AKT/WNT cascade, and induced apoptosis. Thus, our data suggest the existence of a novel pre-metastatic phase (Q-BCSCs) before EMT and SURVIVIN acts as a marker for Quiescent-BCSCs.

  10. Fractionated Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract inhibit prostate cancer (PC3·AR) cells growth by reducing androgen receptor and survivin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunwe, Stephen I; Hall, Sakeli M; Luo, Xuan; Wang, Hengshan; Begonia, Gregorio B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the antiproliferative activity of the organic solvent-soluble and aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum leaf against the prostate cancer cells PC3·AR were evaluated by their inhibitory effects on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. Two organic solvent-soluble extracts P2 and P3-2, and a water- soluble extract, PS/PT1, were found to reduce AR and Survivin levels in a time-dependent manner. In addition, extract PS/PT1, also exhibited the inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first time that the inhibitory eff ects of O. gratissimum extracts have been evaluated on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. The results encouraged the further studies of O. gratissimum as a potential treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. A multiple marker analysis of apoptosis-associated protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Hua Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A failure to undergo apoptosis is widely thought to be an important event in cancer formation and progression. Although there have been many studies in vitro that provide evidence for this suggestion, the roles of apoptosis-associated proteins in cancer tissues in vivo are not as yet fully understood. Moreover, multiple marker analyses of apoptosis-associated protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues are scarce. In the present study, we investigate the expression of a group of apoptosis-associated proteins including bcl-2, caspase-3, fas, fas ligand (fasL and survivin, and its clinical significance in NSCLC tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Bcl-2 staining in cancer tissue cells was found in cytoplasm and the positive rate was 38.2% (29/76. Caspase-3 staining was mainly seen in cytoplasm of cancer tissue cells (53.9% [41/76] with a few cases of nuclear staining (6.6% [5/76]. Fas staining was seen in cytomembrane (15.8% [12/76] and cytoplasm (42.1% [32/76] of cancer tissue cells. Likewise, fasL also showed staining in cytoplasm (55.3% [42/76] and cytomembrane (44.7% [34/76] of cancer tissue cells. Survivin staining was seen in cytoplasm but not nuclear of cancer tissue cells and the positive rate was 48.7% (37/76. Higher cytoplasm expression of bcl-2 was associated with large tumor size (≥ 3cm in NSCLC (p < 0.05. Decreased cytoplasm expression of fas was associated with poor grade in NSCLC (p < 0.05. A negative correlation was found between bcl-2 and cytoplasm caspase-3 expression in NSCLC (p < 0.001. No separate expression of the apoptosis-associated proteins in NSCLC was linked to overall survival of patients (p > 0.05. Multiple marker analyses revealed caspase-3+/cytomembrane fasL– to be linked to better survival of patients with NSCLC (p < 0.05. These results indicate that apoptosis- -associated proteins may impact a variety of clinicopathological features of NSCLC and may co-operatively influence

  12. Reduced Newcastle disease virus-induced oncolysis in a subpopulation of cisplatin-resistant MCF7 cells is associated with survivin stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohd-Hafifi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin resistance is a serious problem in cancer treatment. To overcome it, alternative approaches including virotherapy are being pursued. One of the candidates for anticancer virotherapy is the Newcastle disease virus (NDV. Even though NDV's oncolytic properties in various cancer cells have been widely reported, information regarding its effects on cisplatin resistant cancer cells is still limited. Therefore, we tested the oncolytic efficacy of a strain of NDV, designated as AF2240, in a cisplatin-resistant breast cancer cell line. Methods Cisplatin-resistant cell line (MCF7-CR was developed from the MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by performing a seven-cyclic exposure to cisplatin. Following NDV infection, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis and immunoblotting were used to measure cell viability and viral protein expression, respectively. Production of virus progeny was then assessed by using the plaque assay technique. Results Infection of a mass population of the MCF7-CR with NDV resulted in 50% killing in the first 12 hours post-infection (hpi, comparable to the parental MCF7. From 12 hpi onwards, the remaining MCF7-CR became less susceptible to NDV killing. This reduced susceptibility led to increased viral protein synthesis and virus progeny production. The reduction was also associated with a prolonged cell survival via stabilization of the survivin protein. Conclusions Our findings showed for the first time, the involvement of survivin in the reduction of NDV-induced oncolysis in a subpopulation of cisplatin-resistant cells. This information will be important towards improving the efficacy of NDV as an anticancer agent in drug resistant cancers.

  13. AMPK/mTOR-mediated inhibition of survivin partly contributes to metformin-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Gong, Hangjun; Wang, Yidong; Guo, Shaowen; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that metformin exerts anti-neoplastic effect in a spectrum of malignancies. However, the mechanism whereby metformin affects various cancers, including gastric cancer, is poorly elucidated. Considering apoptosis plays critical role in tumorigenesis, we, in the present study, investigated the in vitro apoptotic effect of metformin on human gastric cancer cell and the underlying mechanism. Three differently-differentiated gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-28, SGC-7901 and BGC-823, along with one noncancerous gastric cell line GES-1 were used. We found that metformin treatment selectively induces apoptosis in the 3 cancer cell lines, but not the noncancerous one, as confirmed by flow cytometry, Caspase-Glo assay and western blotting against PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Moreover, the apoptotic effect of metformin seems to correlate negatively with the differentiation degree of gastric cancer. Metformin-induced apoptosis may be partially mediated through inhibition of anti-apoptotic survivin. Additionally, AMPK and mTOR, 2 important regulatory molecules responsible for metformin action, were investigated for their possible involvements in metformin-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cell. AMPK knockdown by siRNA restores metformin-inhibited survivin expression and partially abolishes metformin-induced apoptosis. Similarly, forced overexpression of mTOR downstream effector p70S6K1 relieves metformin-induced inhibition of survivin and partly attenuates metformin-induced apoptosis. More importantly, survivin overexpression alleviates metformin-induced apoptosis. Xenograft nude mouse experiment also confirmed that AMPK/mTOR-mediated decrease of suvivin is in vivo implicated in metformin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these evidences suggest that AMPK/mTOR-mediated inhibition of survivin may partly contribute to metformin-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cell. PMID:25456211

  14. AMPK/mTOR-mediated inhibition of survivin partly contributes to metformin-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Gong, Hangjun; Wang, Yidong; Guo, Shaowen; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that metformin exerts anti-neoplastic effect in a spectrum of malignancies. However, the mechanism whereby metformin affects various cancers, including gastric cancer, is poorly elucidated. Considering apoptosis plays critical role in tumorigenesis, we, in the present study, investigated the in vitro apoptotic effect of metformin on human gastric cancer cell and the underlying mechanism. Three differently-differentiated gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-28, SGC-7901 and BGC-823, along with one noncancerous gastric cell line GES-1 were used. We found that metformin treatment selectively induces apoptosis in the 3 cancer cell lines, but not the noncancerous one, as confirmed by flow cytometry, Caspase-Glo assay and western blotting against PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Moreover, the apoptotic effect of metformin seems to correlate negatively with the differentiation degree of gastric cancer. Metformin-induced apoptosis may be partially mediated through inhibition of anti-apoptotic survivin. Additionally, AMPK and mTOR, 2 important regulatory molecules responsible for metformin action, were investigated for their possible involvements in metformin-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cell. AMPK knockdown by siRNA restores metformin-inhibited survivin expression and partially abolishes metformin-induced apoptosis. Similarly, forced overexpression of mTOR downstream effector p70S6K1 relieves metformin-induced inhibition of survivin and partly attenuates metformin-induced apoptosis. More importantly, survivin overexpression alleviates metformin-induced apoptosis. Xenograft nude mouse experiment also confirmed that AMPK/mTOR-mediated decrease of suvivin is in vivo implicated in metformin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these evidences suggest that AMPK/mTOR-mediated inhibition of survivin may partly contribute to metformin-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cell.

  15. Computational codon optimization of synthetic gene for protein expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Bevan Kai-Sheng; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2012-01-01

    ...), on the level of protein expression. In this study, we have developed novel computational procedures for evaluating the relative importance of optimizing ICU and CC for enhancing protein expression...

  16. Multiple epitope tagging of expressed proteins for enhanced detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, R; Heuermann, K; Brizzard, B

    2000-04-01

    Three FLAG epitopes have been incorporated into the mammalian expression vector pCMV-5 to create a transient expression vector, p3XFLAG-CMV-7. The vector was designed to express FLAG fusion proteins that can be detected at tenfold lower expression levels than the current FLAG fusion protein expression system. The usefulness of this expression and detection system was demonstrated by expression of bacterial alkaline phosphatase in COS-7 cells. In addition, 3XFLAG bacterial alkaline phosphatase was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified on anti-FLAG M2 affinity gel, and detection of 500 pg of purified protein by Western blot analysis is demonstrated.

  17. Eugenol triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells through E2F1/survivin down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharif, Ibtehaj; Remmal, Adnane; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2013-12-13

    Breast cancer is a major health problem that threatens the lives of millions of women worldwide each year. Most of the chemotherapeutic agents that are currently used to treat this complex disease are highly toxic with long-term side effects. Therefore, novel generation of anti-cancer drugs with higher efficiency and specificity are urgently needed. Breast cancer cell lines were treated with eugenol and cytotoxicity was measured using the WST-1 reagent, while propidium iodide/annexinV associated with flow cytometry was utilized in order to determine the induced cell death pathway. The effect of eugenol on apoptotic and pro-carcinogenic proteins, both in vitro and in tumor xenografts was assessed by immunoblotting. While RT-PCR was used to determine eugenol effect on the E2F1 and survivin mRNA levels. In addition, we tested the effect of eugenol on cell proliferation using the real-time cell electronic sensing system. Eugenol at low dose (2 μM) has specific toxicity against different breast cancer cells. This killing effect was mediated mainly through inducing the internal apoptotic pathway and strong down-regulation of E2F1 and its downstream antiapoptosis target survivin, independently of the status of p53 and ERα. Eugenol inhibited also several other breast cancer related oncogenes, such as NF-κB and cyclin D1. Moreover, eugenol up-regulated the versatile cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 protein, and inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Importantly, these anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were also observed in vivo in xenografted human breast tumors. Eugenol exhibits anti-breast cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that it could be used to consolidate the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer through targeting the E2F1/survivin pathway, especially for the less responsive triple-negative subtype of the disease.

  18. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Modulates Spinal Cord Neuronal Degeneration by Enhancing Growth-Associated Protein 43, B-Cell Lymphoma 2, and Decreasing B-Cell Lymphoma 2-Associated X Protein Expression after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maghrebi, May; Rao, Muddanna S.; Khraishah, Haitham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Our previous studies have established that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has both neuroprotective and -regenerative capacity after sciatic nerve injury. Moreover, this improvement was evident on the behavioral level. The aim of this study was to investigate the central effects of ECGC on spinal cord motor neurons after sciatic nerve injury. Our study showed that administering 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally i.p. of EGCG to sciatic nerve-injured rats improved their performance on different motor functions and mechanical hyperesthesia neurobehavioral tests. Histological analysis of spinal cords of EGCG-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH+ECGC) animals showed an increase in the number of neurons in the anterior horn, when compared to the naïve, sham, and saline-treated sciatic nerve-injured (CRUSH) control groups. Additionally, immunohistochemical study of spinal cord sections revealed that EGCG reduced the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and increased the expression of growth-associated protein 43, a marker of regenerating axons. Finally, EGCG reduced the ratio of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein/Bcl-2 and increased the expression of survivin gene. This study may shed some light on the future clinical use of EGCG and its constituents in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25025489

  19. Expression of bcl-2 protein in nephroblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, D; Harilal, P; Hadley, L; Chetty, R

    1997-09-01

    Bcl-2 expression has been shown to relate to prognosis in several neoplasms. A study of 139 cases of nephroblastomas was undertaken to ascertain the prognostic value of bcl-2 immunoexpression. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained with monoclonal anti-bcl-2 antibody using a peroxidase-labelled streptavidin biotin kit. 75.5% of cases showed bcl-2 immunoreactivity, however, heterogeneous staining was observed within each case. No statistically significant correlation was found when bcl-2 expression was compared to histology (P=0.451), disease status (P=0.375) and disease stage (P=0.875). A statistically significant difference in bcl-2 protein was noted when comparing tumours treated with and those not treated with pre-operative chemotherapy (P=0.002). Further analysis of the cases that were treated with pre-operative chemotherapy showed a striking difference in survival periods between bcl-2 positive (shorter) and negative tumours (longer). Although not statistically significant, we think that this finding requires further investigation in other series. The results of bcl-2 immunoexpression in nephroblastomas may have prognostic implications that impact on patient treatment protocols.

  20. Expression of large hepatitis B envelope protein mutants using a new expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korec, E; Gerlich, W H

    1992-01-01

    Aminoterminal deletion mutants of the gene encoding the large hepatitis B surface protein were expressed in COS cells using a new expression vector. The truncated protein showed the same intracellular retention like the wild type protein. The findings show that the secretion block of the protein is not due to its aminoterminal myristylation.

  1. Protein expression of BIRC5, TK1, and TOP2A in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours--A prognostic test after surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Matthias; Høland, Maren; Lind, Guro E; Ågesen, Trude H; Skotheim, Rolf I; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Mandahl, Nils; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Mertens, Fredrik; Davidson, Ben; Lothe, Ragnhild A

    2015-06-01

    No consensus treatment regime exists beyond surgery for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST), and the purpose of the present study was to find new approaches to stratify patients with good and poor prognosis and to better guide therapeutic intervention for this aggressive soft tissue cancer. From a total of 67 MPNSTs from Scandinavian patients with and without neurofibromatosis type 1, 30 MPNSTs were investigated by genome-wide RNA expression profiling and 63 MPNSTs by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis, and selected genes were submitted to analyses of disease-specific survival. The potential drug target genes survivin (BIRC5), thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), all encoded on chromosome arm 17q, were up-regulated in MPNST as compared to benign neurofibromas. Each of them was found to be independent prognostic markers on the gene expression level, as well as on the protein level. A prognostic profile was identified by combining the nuclear expression scores of the three proteins. For patients with completely resected tumours only 15% in the high risk group were alive after two years, as compared to 78% in the low risk group. In conclusion, we found a novel protein expression profile which identifies MPNST patients with inferior prognosis even after assumed curative surgery. The tested proteins are drug targets; therefore the expression profile may provide predictive information guiding the design of future clinical trials. Importantly, as the effect is seen on the protein level using IHC, the biomarker panel can be readily implemented in routine clinical testing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  3. Strain engineering for improved expression of recombinant proteins in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Protein expression in Escherichia coli represents the most facile approach for the preparation of non-glycosylated proteins for analytical and preparative purposes. So far, the optimization of recombinant expression has largely remained a matter of trial and error and has relied upon varying parameters, such as expression vector, media composition, growth temperature and chaperone co-expression. Recently several new approaches for the genome-scale engineering of E. coli to enhance recombinant protein expression have been developed. These methodologies now enable the generation of optimized E. coli expression strains in a manner analogous to metabolic engineering for the synthesis of low-molecular-weight compounds. In this review, we provide an overview of strain engineering approaches useful for enhancing the expression of hard-to-produce proteins, including heterologous membrane proteins. PMID:21569582

  4. Iodoacetyl-functionalized pullulan: A supplemental enhancer for single-domain antibody-polyclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of survivin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takahiko; Arai, Hidenao; Koyama, Tetsuo; Hatano, Ken; Nemoto, Naoto; Matsuoka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptosis protein family, is a potent tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the methods that has been used for detection of survivin. However, ELISA has several disadvantages caused by the use of conventional antibodies, and we have therefore been trying to develop a novel ELISA system using camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs) as advantageous replacements. Here we report a supplemental approach to improve the VHH-polyclonal antibody sandwich ELISA for survivin detection. Iodoacetyl-functionalized pullulan was synthesized, and its thiol reactivity was characterized by a model reaction with l-cysteine. The thiophilic pullulan was applied to an immunoassay asan additive upon coating of standard assay plates with an anti-survivin VHH fusion protein with C-terminal cysteine. The results showed that the mole ratio of the additive to VHH had a significant effect on the consequent response. Mole ratios of 0.07, 0.7, and 7 led to 90% lower, 15% higher, and 69% lower responses, respectively, than the response of a positive control in which no additive was used. The background levels observed in any additive conditions were as low as that of a negative control lacking both VHH and the additive. These results indicate the applicability of the thiol-reactive pullulan as a response enhancer to VHH-based ELISA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Expression of HLA-G protein in trophoblast cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-qiu; Chen, Shi-ling; Xing, Fu-qi

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the expression of human leucocyte antigen protein G (HLA-G) in different trophoblast cells and different stages of pregnancy. The expression of HLA-G protein in normal placenta and trophoblasts of different trimesters was detected using immunohistochemical method (SP). HLA-G protein expression exhibited spatio-temporal changes, which located in the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) and was higher in the placenta of the first and second trimesters while lower in the third trimester (PHLA-G protein expression in different stages of pregnancy and different trophoblasts may be related to the controlled invasion of the trophoblast.

  6. Decitabine and SAHA-Induced Apoptosis Is Accompanied by Survivin Downregulation and Potentiated by ATRA in p53-Deficient Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Brodská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While p53-dependent apoptosis is triggered by combination of methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine (DAC and histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA in leukemic cell line CML-T1, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation as well as survivin and Bcl-2 deregulation participated in DAC + SAHA-induced apoptosis in p53-deficient HL-60 cell line. Moreover, decrease of survivin expression level is accompanied by its delocalization from centromere-related position in mitotic cells suggesting that both antiapoptotic and cell cycle regulation roles of survivin are affected by DAC + SAHA action. Addition of subtoxic concentration of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA increases the efficiency of DAC + SAHA combination on viability, apoptosis induction, and ROS generation in HL-60 cells but has no effect in CML-T1 cell line. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors showed no damage induced by DAC + SAHA + ATRA combination. Therefore, combination of ATRA with DAC and SAHA represents promising tool for therapy of leukemic disease with nonfunctional p53 signalization.

  7. Efficient protein production method for NMR using soluble protein tags with cold shock expression vector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kokoro [Fujifilm Corporation, Analysis Technology Center (Japan); Kojima, Chojiro, E-mail: kojima@protein.osaka-u.ac.j [Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), Graduate School of Biological Sciences (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The E. coli protein expression system is one of the most useful methods employed for NMR sample preparation. However, the production of some recombinant proteins in E. coli is often hampered by difficulties such as low expression level and low solubility. To address these problems, a modified cold-shock expression system containing a glutathione S-transferase (GST) tag, the pCold-GST system, was investigated. The pCold-GST system successfully expressed 9 out of 10 proteins that otherwise could not be expressed using a conventional E. coli expression system. Here, we applied the pCold-GST system to 84 proteins and 78 proteins were successfully expressed in the soluble fraction. Three other cold-shock expression systems containing a maltose binding protein tag (pCold-MBP), protein G B1 domain tag (pCold-GB1) or thioredoxin tag (pCold-Trx) were also developed to improve the yield. Additionally, we show that a C-terminal proline tag, which is invisible in {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N HSQC spectra, inhibits protein degradation and increases the final yield of unstable proteins. The purified proteins were amenable to NMR analyses. These data suggest that pCold expression systems combined with soluble protein tags can be utilized to improve the expression and purification of various proteins for NMR analysis.

  8. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was transformed in E. coli (Bl21 DE3) and induced by 1 mM. IPTG and analyzed by 12% SDS-PAGE. Expressd protein was purified by affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blot analysis. We successfully cloned and expressed T. gondii P22 protein.

  9. Transient Expression of Viral Proteins in Plants Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzeroth, Inga I; van Zyl, Albertha R

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression of viral proteins in plants is a novel alternative to other expression platforms. The viral proteins can be used as potential vaccines or in diagnostics. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or whole plants are infiltrated with recombinant Agrobacterium that harbor the gene of interest. Protein expression in the plants is rapid and results are obtained within 2-7 days. Here we describe how to make electrocompetent Agrobacterium, how to transform Agrobacterium, how to infiltrate leaves or plants with the recombinant Agrobacterium, and lastly how to extract the protein for analysis by gel electrophoresis.

  10. Identification of bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Sun, Jingxian; Zhang, Qiangbo; Jin, Bin; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Zongli

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) can be helpful in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma (malignant obstructive jaundice) from benign obstructive jaundice. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the feasibility of bile survivin and CA199 in differentiating cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice. The area under the curve for survivin and CA199 in bile and serum were 0.780 (p jaundice.

  11. Engineering cells to improve protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Su; Shiloach, Joseph; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Cellular engineering of bacteria, fungi, insect cells and mammalian cells is a promising methodology to improve recombinant protein production for structural, biochemical, and commercial applications. Increased understanding of the host organism biology has suggested engineering strategies targeting bottlenecks in transcription, translation, protein processing and secretory pathways, as well as cell growth and survival. A combination of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology has been used to improve the properties of cells for protein production, which has resulted in enhanced yields of multiple protein classes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A toolkit for graded expression of green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Ehm, Patrick; Giehler, Susanne; Mayr, Georg W

    2012-09-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-like proteins of different colors are important tools in cell biology. In many studies, the intracellular targeting of proteins has been determined by transiently expressing GFP fusion proteins and analyzing their intracellular localization by fluorescence microscopy. In most vectors, expression of GFP is driven by the enhancer/promoter cassette of the immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus (hCMV). This cassette generates high levels of protein expression in most mammalian cell lines. Unfortunately, these nonphysiologically high protein levels have been repeatedly reported to artificially alter the intracellular targeting of proteins fused to GFP. To cope with this problem, we generated a multitude of attenuated GFP expression vectors by modifying the hCMV enhancer/promoter cassette. These modified vectors were transiently expressed, and the expression levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) alone and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) fused to another protein were determined by fluorescence microscopy and/or Western blotting. As shown in this study, we were able to (i) clearly reduce the expression of EGFP alone and (ii) reduce expression of an EYFP fusion protein down to the level of the endogenous protein, both in a graded manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in response to Pb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    76 proteins, out of the 95 differentially expressed proteins, were subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS Of these,. 46 identities were identified by ... metabolisms such as photosynthesis, photorespiration and protein biosynthesis in C. roseus leaves were without ...... Wu X, Hong FS, Liu C, Su MY, Zheng L (2008). PbCl2 on the nitrogen.

  14. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha curcas is induced by stress ... In addition, the 32 kDa band is nearly the molecular weight of curcin 2. ... curcin 2. The presence of this protein molecular marker under stresses may provide an experimental foundation to study the stress proteins in J. curcas.

  15. Effects of immunosuppressive treatment on protein expression in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kędzierska K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Karolina Kędzierska,1 Katarzyna Sporniak-Tutak,2 Krzysztof Sindrewicz,2 Joanna Bober,3 Leszek Domański,1 Mirosław Parafiniuk,4 Elżbieta Urasińska,5 Andrzej Ciechanowicz,6 Maciej Domański,1 Tomasz Smektała,2 Marek Masiuk,5 Wiesław Skrzypczak,6 Małgorzata Ożgo,6 Joanna Kabat-Koperska,1 Kazimierz Ciechanowski1 1Department of Nephrology, Transplantology, and Internal Medicine, 2Department of Dental Surgery, 3Department of Medical Chemistry, 4Department of Forensic Medicine, 5Department of Pathomorphology, Pomeranian Medical University, 6Department of Physiology, Cytobiology, and Proteomics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Abstract: The structural proteins of renal tubular epithelial cells may become a target for the toxic metabolites of immunosuppressants. These metabolites can modify the properties of the proteins, thereby affecting cell function, which is a possible explanation for the mechanism of immunosuppressive agents' toxicity. In our study, we evaluated the effect of two immunosuppressive strategies on protein expression in the kidneys of Wistar rats. Fragments of the rat kidneys were homogenized after cooling in liquid nitrogen and then dissolved in lysis buffer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined using a protein assay kit, and the proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The obtained gels were then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue, and their images were analyzed to evaluate differences in protein expression. Identification of selected proteins was then performed using mass spectrometry. We found that the immunosuppressive drugs used in popular regimens induce a series of changes in protein expression in target organs. The expression of proteins involved in drug, glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was pronounced. However, to a lesser extent, we also observed changes in nuclear, structural, and transport proteins' synthesis. Very slight differences

  16. Stable expression of Anthozoa fluorescent proteins in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Burt; Zharkikh, Ludmilla; Hsu, Forrest; Dunn, Christine; Kamb, Alexander; Teng, David H-F

    2002-06-01

    Fluorescent proteins have become invaluable reporters in many areas of cellular and developmental biology. An enhanced version of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (AvEGFP) is the most widely used fluorescent protein. For a variety of reasons, it is useful to have alternative fluorescent proteins to AvEGFP. The cDNA sequences for enhanced variants of the Anemonia cyan fluorescent protein (AmCyan1), as well as the Zoanthus green (ZsGreen1) and yellow (ZsYellow1) fluorescent proteins, were cloned downstream of a constitutive cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter within a retroviral expression vector. NIH3T3, HEK293, SW620, and WM35 cells were transduced with recombinant retroviruses at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) to bias for single-copy integration. Both unselected and stably selected cells transduced with the retroviral expression constructs were characterized. Expression of each fluorescent protein in cells was detected using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy with filter sets typically used for AvEGFP/fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) detection and was compared with the expression of AvEGFP. In addition, a fluorescence plate reader with several excitation and emission filter sets was used for detection. Expression of each protein was observable by fluorescence microscopy. Under given conditions of flow cytometry, the ZsGreen1 mean fluorescence was approximately 3-fold, 10-fold, and 50-fold greater than that of AvEGFP, ZsYellow1, and AmCyan1, respectively. AmCyan1, ZsGreen1, and AvEGFP were detected by a fluorescence plate reader. We determined that fluorescent proteins from Anthozoa species are detectable using a standard flow cytometer and fluorescence microscope. All of the mammalian cell lines tested expressed detectable levels of fluorescent proteins from stable integrated provirus. In cell lines where the AvEGFP protein is toxic or poorly expressed, these Anthozoa fluorescent proteins may serve as alternative fluorescent reporters

  17. Fe-bLf nanoformulation targets survivin to kill colon cancer stem cells and maintains absorption of iron, calcium and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Mahidhara, Ganesh; Roy, Kislay; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian; Prasad, Neerati; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2015-01-01

    To validate the anticancer efficacy of alginate-enclosed, chitosan-conjugated, calcium phosphate, iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) nanocarriers/nanocapsules (NCs) with improved sustained release and ability to induce apoptosis by downregulating survivin, as well as cancer stem cells. The stability, nanotoxicity of the modified nanoformulation was evaluated and their anticancer efficacy was re-examined. Their mechanism of internalization was studied and we identified the role of various miRNAs in absorption of these NCs/iron in various body parts of mice. We determined the effect of these NCs on survivin, stem cell markers, red blood cell count, iron, calcium and zinc concentration in mice, determined the antiangiogenic properties of these NCs and studied their effect on cancer stem-like cells. Spherical NCs (396.1 ± 27.2 nm) exceedingly reduced viability of Caco-2 cells (32 ± 2.83%). The NCs also showed effective internalization and reduction of cancer stem cell markers in triple-positive CD133, survivin and CD44 cancer stem-like cells. Mice treated with the NCs showed no nanotoxicity and did not develop any tumors in xenograft colon cancer models. We found that the serum iron, zinc and calcium absorption were increased. DMT1, LRP, transferrin and lactoferrin receptors were responsible for internalization of the NCs. Different miRNAs were responsible for iron regulation in different organs. Interestingly, NCs inhibited survivin and its different isoforms. Our results confirmed that NCs internalized and changed the expression of selected miRNAs that further enhanced their uptake. The NCs activated both extrinsic, as well as intrinsic apoptotic pathways to induce apoptosis by targeting survivin in cancer cells and cancer stem cells, without inducing any nonspecific nanotoxicity. Apart from inhibiting angiogenesis and stem cell markers, NCs also maintained iron and calcium levels.

  18. Protein Expression Analyses at the Single Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masae Ohno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology explains how genetic information is converted into its end product, proteins, which are responsible for the phenotypic state of the cell. Along with the protein type, the phenotypic state depends on the protein copy number. Therefore, quantification of the protein expression in a single cell is critical for quantitative characterization of the phenotypic states. Protein expression is typically a dynamic and stochastic phenomenon that cannot be well described by standard experimental methods. As an alternative, fluorescence imaging is being explored for the study of protein expression, because of its high sensitivity and high throughput. Here we review key recent progresses in fluorescence imaging-based methods and discuss their application to proteome analysis at the single cell level.

  19. Mobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylund Reetta

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier we have shown that the mobile phone radiation (radiofrequency modulated electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF alters protein expression in human endothelial cell line. This does not mean that similar response will take place in human body exposed to this radiation. Therefore, in this pilot human volunteer study, using proteomics approach, we have examined whether a local exposure of human skin to RF-EMF will cause changes in protein expression in living people. Results Small area of forearm's skin in 10 female volunteers was exposed to RF-EMF (specific absorption rate SAR = 1.3 W/kg and punch biopsies were collected from exposed and non-exposed areas of skin. Proteins extracted from biopsies were separated using 2-DE and protein expression changes were analyzed using PDQuest software. Analysis has identified 8 proteins that were statistically significantly affected (Anova and Wilcoxon tests. Two of the proteins were present in all 10 volunteers. This suggests that protein expression in human skin might be affected by the exposure to RF-EMF. The number of affected proteins was similar to the number of affected proteins observed in our earlier in vitro studies. Conclusion This is the first study showing that molecular level changes might take place in human volunteers in response to exposure to RF-EMF. Our study confirms that proteomics screening approach can identify protein targets of RF-EMF in human volunteers.

  20. Photodynamic Therapy with Hypericin Improved by Targeting HSP90 Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ferenc

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have focused on the response of SKBR-3 cells to both single 17-DMAG treatment as well as its combination with photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Low concentrations of 17-DMAG without any effect on survival of SKBR-3 cells significantly reduced metabolic activity, viability and cell number when combined with photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Moreover, IC10 concentation of 17-DMAG resulted in significant increase of SKBR-3 cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle, followed by an increase of cells in G2 phase when combined with photodynamic therapy. Furthermore, 17-DMAG already decreased HER2, Akt, P-Erk1/2 and survivin protein levels in SKBR-3 cells a short time after its application. In this regard, 17-DMAG protected also SKBR-3 cells against both P-Erk1/2 as well as survivin upregulations induced by photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Interestingly, IC10 concentration of 17-DMAG led to total depletion of Akt, P-Erk1/2 proteins and to decrease of survivin level at 48 h. On the other hand, 17-DMAG did not change HER2 relative expression in SKBR-3 cells, but caused a significant decrease of HER2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells characterized by low HER2 expression. These results show that targeting HSP90 client proteins increases the efficiency of antineoplastic effect of photodynamic therapy in vitro.

  1. Significance of survivin immunoreactivity and morphometric analysis of HPV-induced cervical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanović-Đurđević Biserka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic integration of high-risk human papilloma virus in the nucleus of cervical epithelial mucosal cells leads to epithelial dysplasia. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of correlation between epithelial survivin expression and the degree of human papilloma virus (HPV-induced cervical epithelial dysplasia, and to establish the significance of morphometric analysis of the nuclear area in the assessment of the degree of cervical dysplasia. This retrospective study included 99 women with primary, previously untreated lesions, and colposcopic findings indicating dysplasia, in whom a cytological test by Papanicolaou method was interpreted according to the Bethesda criteria as lowgrade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS. We performed human papilloma virus (HPV typing by PCR for evidence of viruse types 16, 18, 31, 33. After biopsy of the cervical mucosa, we performed hematoxylin-eosin (H-E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS staining, and immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis of tissue samples. The control group consisted of 12 women without dysplasia and without a verified infection of cervical high-risk HPV. A high statistical correlation between the degree of dysplasia and expression of survivin was found in patients with different types of cervical dysplasia (p = 0.003. We observed a high statistical difference between the area of nuclei at different degrees of cervical dysplasias (p = 0.000. The high-grade cervical dysplasia had a more than 2-fold higher level of ranking in comparison to low-grade dysplasia, and a more than 10-fold higher ranking than the control group without cervical dysplasia.

  2. Heterologous Protein Expression by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villatoro-Hernández, J.; Kuipers, O.P.; Saucedo-Cárdenas, O.; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Lactococcus lactis as a safe and efficient cell factory to produce heterologous proteins of medical interest. The relevance of the use of this lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is that it is a noncolonizing, nonpathogenic microorganism that can be delivered in vivo at a

  3. Expression analysis and characteristics of hypothetical protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W Zhang, H Lan, T Wu, C Jiang, Z Lv, Z Nie, X Wu, Y Zhang. Abstract. We cloned a cDNA from silkworm pupal cDNA library and found that, it encodes LOC778500 protein (a “hypothetical protein” in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database). Thus, we named it BmLOC778500 (Bombyx mori ...

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of latent membrane protein 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor intimately associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). NPC is a characteristic tumor displaying epidemiological, genetic and regional distribution properties that makes it unique by its natural behavior. Objectives: To assess the expression pattern ...

  5. Genome-wide screens for expressed hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2012-01-01

    A hypothetical protein (HP) is defined as a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. HPs constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other organisms. With the general belief that...... that the majority of HPs are the product of pseudogenes, it is essential to have a tool with the ability of pinpointing the minority of HPs with a high probability of being expressed....

  6. Green algae as a platform to express therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Oyler, George A

    2009-06-01

    Proteins produced by DNA recombinant technology have been playing important roles in modern medicine ever since the first such protein drug was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about three decades ago. However the inherent high cost of producing recombinant proteins, particularly those produced from mammalian cells, has hampered their broad application. Other protein expression systems that can reduce the cost yet still maintain the high-level therapeutic activities of the recombinant proteins are a top R&D priority. Eukaryotic unicellular green algae cells may provide a good solution to this long-standing challenge.

  7. Protein expression profiling of nuclear membrane protein reveals potential biomarker of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rizma; Zahid, Saadia; Wan, Yu-Jui; Forster, Jameson; Karim, A-Bashar; Nawabi, Atta M; Azhar, Abid; Rahman, M; Ahmed, Nikhat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Complex molecular events lead to development and progression of liver cirrhosis to HCC. Differentially expressed nuclear membrane associated proteins are responsible for the functional and structural alteration during the progression from cirrhosis to carcinoma. Although alterations/ post translational modifications in protein expression have been extensively quantified, complementary analysis of nuclear membrane proteome changes h...

  8. Mechanical stimulation increases proliferation, differentiation and protein expression in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Yadav, Kavita; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2007-01-01

    -induced signaling is now beginning to be understood as a factor which affects various signal transduction pathways, gene sequences and protein synthesis. One indication of which cells are competent to undergo the fusion process is their expression of two proteins, Myo-D and myogenin. The mechanism by which...

  9. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant plasmid was transformed in E. coli (Bl21 DE3) and induced by 1 mM IPTG and analyzed by 12% SDS-PAGE. Expressd protein was purified by affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blot analysis. We successfully cloned and expressed T. gondii P22 protein. Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, cloning, ...

  10. Differential protein expression in maize (Zea mays) in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... stem borer) to investigate differential protein expression using the Proteomics technique. Infestation of. S. littoralis (3rd instar larvae) resulted ... molecular mechanisms underpinning these complicated responses have remained elusive ... Analysis of timing, dynamics and regulation of the expression of 150 ...

  11. Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) in Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) was expressed by transformed cells of Escherichia coli DH5-α grown in LB/amp broth at 37oC, for 8 h and 24 h. To evaluate the effectiveness of different parameters to improve the expression of GFPuv by E. coli, four variable culturing conditions were set up for assays by ...

  12. Cloning and expression of antiviral/ribosome-inactivating protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-02-02

    Feb 2, 2008 ... The ORF was cloned into an expression vector and expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein of ∼78 kDa. The cleaved and purified recombinant BBAP1 exhibited ribosome-inhibiting rRNA -glycosidase activity, and imparted a high level of resistance against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).

  13. Cloning, expression and purification of 10 kd culture filtrared protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant CFP-10 was purified from the soluble supernatant by metal affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed to confirm expression of CFP-10 as 28 kDa fusion protein. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified sufficient amounts of CFP-10 that could be usable in sero-diagnostic tests in future ...

  14. The proteome response to amyloid protein expression in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A Gomes

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and transthyretin amyloidosis are characterized by the formation of protein amyloid deposits. Although the nature and location of the aggregated proteins varies between different diseases, they all share similar molecular pathways of protein unfolding, aggregation and amyloid deposition. Most effects of these proteins are likely to occur at the proteome level, a virtually unexplored reality. To investigate the effects of an amyloid protein expression on the cellular proteome, we created a yeast expression system using human transthyretin (TTR as a model amyloidogenic protein. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a living test tube, to express native TTR (non-amyloidogenic and the amyloidogenic TTR variant L55P, the later forming aggregates when expressed in yeast. Differential proteome changes were quantitatively analyzed by 2D-differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE. We show that the expression of the amyloidogenic TTR-L55P causes a metabolic shift towards energy production, increased superoxide dismutase expression as well as of several molecular chaperones involved in protein refolding. Among these chaperones, members of the HSP70 family and the peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase (PPIase were identified. The latter is highly relevant considering that it was previously found to be a TTR interacting partner in the plasma of ATTR patients but not in healthy or asymptomatic subjects. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO expression is also increased. Our findings suggest that refolding and degradation pathways are activated, causing an increased demand of energetic resources, thus the metabolic shift. Additionally, oxidative stress appears to be a consequence of the amyloidogenic process, posing an enhanced threat to cell survival.

  15. The clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency: : a relation to clinical thrombotic risk-factors and to levels of protein C and protein S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, C. M. A.; van der Meer, J.; Hillege, J. L.; Bom, V. J. J.; Halie, M. R.; van der Schaaf, W.

    We investigated 103 first-degree relatives of 13 unrelated protein C or protein S deficient patients to assess the role of additional thrombotic risk factors and of protein C and protein S levels in the clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency. Fifty-seven relatives were

  16. Protein expression analysis of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Yumiko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC development. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in protein expression between CRC and the surrounding nontumorous colonic tissues in the mice that received azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS using a proteomic analysis. Materials and Methods: Male ICR mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of AOM (10 mg/kg body weight, followed by 2% (w/v DSS in their drinking water for seven days, starting one week after the AOM injection. Colonic adenocarcinoma developed after 20 weeks and a proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraflex TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was conducted in the cancerous and nontumorous tissue specimens. Results: The proteomic analysis revealed 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues in comparison to the nontumorous tissues. There were five markedly increased proteins (beta-tropomyosin, tropomyosin 1 alpha isoform b, S100 calcium binding protein A9, and an unknown protein and 16 markedly decreased proteins (Car1 proteins, selenium-binding protein 1, HMG-CoA synthase, thioredoxin 1, 1 Cys peroxiredoxin protein 2, Fcgbp protein, Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Va, ETHE1 protein, and 7 unknown proteins. Conclusions: There were 21 differentially expressed proteins in the cancerous tissues of the mice that received AOM and DSS. Their functions include metabolism, the antioxidant system, oxidative stress, mucin production, and inflammation. These findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis and the establishment of novel therapies and preventative strategies to treat carcinogenesis in the inflamed colon.

  17. Recent developments in therapeutic protein expression technologies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Ahmed, Muhammad Mahmood; Liao, Yu Cai; Waheed, Muhammad Tahir; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Darkhshan; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Jan, Amanullah; Jan, Mohammad Tariq; Wu, Chao; Chun, Ma Xiao; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-02-01

    Infectious diseases and cancers are some of the commonest causes of deaths throughout the world. The previous two decades have witnessed a combined endeavor across various biological sciences to address this issue in novel ways. The advent of recombinant DNA technologies has provided the tools for producing recombinant proteins that can be used as therapeutic agents. A number of expression systems have been developed for the production of pharmaceutical products. Recently, advances have been made using plants as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins directed against infectious diseases and cancers. This review highlights the recent progress in therapeutic protein expression in plants (stable and transient), the factors affecting heterologous protein expression, vector systems and recent developments in existing technologies and steps towards the industrial production of plant-made vaccines, antibodies, and biopharmaceuticals.

  18. Differential Protein Expression in Congenital and Acquired Cholesteatomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Shin

    Full Text Available Congenital cholesteatomas are epithelial lesions that present as an epithelial pearl behind an intact eardrum. Congenital and acquired cholesteatomas progress quite differently from each other and progress patterns can provide clues about the unique origin and pathogenesis of the abnormality. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms by which cholesteatomas develop remain unknown. In this study, key proteins that directly affect cholesteatoma pathogenesis are investigated with proteomics and immunohistochemistry. Congenital cholesteatoma matrices and retroauricular skin were harvested during surgery in 4 patients diagnosed with a congenital cholesteatoma. Tissue was also harvested from the retraction pocket in an additional 2 patients during middle ear surgery. We performed 2-dimensional (2D electrophoresis to detect and analyze spots that are expressed only in congenital cholesteatoma and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS to separate proteins by molecular weight. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The image analysis of 2D electrophoresis showed that 4 congenital cholesteatoma samples had very similar protein expression patterns and that 127 spots were exclusively expressed in congenital cholesteatomas. Of these 127 spots, 10 major spots revealed the presence of titin, forkhead transcription activator homolog (FKH 5-3, plectin 1, keratin 10, and leucine zipper protein 5 by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining showed that FKH 5-3 and titin were expressed in congenital cholesteatoma matrices, but not in acquired cholesteatomas. Our study shows that protein expression patterns are completely different in congenital cholesteatomas, acquired cholesteatomas, and skin. Moreover, non-epithelial proteins, including FKH 5-3 and titin, were unexpectedly expressed in congenital cholesteatoma tissue. Our data indicates that congenital cholesteatoma origins

  19. Identification of Differentially Expressed Serum Proteins in Infectious Purpura Fulminans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpura fulminans (PF is a life-threatening hemorrhagic condition. Because of the rarity and randomness of the disease, no improvement in treatment has been made for a long time. In this study, we assessed the serum proteome response to PF by comparing serum proteins between healthy controls and PF patient. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS approach was used after depleting 6 abundant proteins of serum. In total, 262 proteins were confidently identified with 2 unique peptides, and 38 proteins were identified significantly up- (≥2 or downregulated (≤0.5 based on spectral counting ratios (SpCPF/N. In the 38 proteins with significant abundance changes, 11 proteins were previously known to be associated with burn or sepsis response, but 27 potentially novel proteins may be specifically associated with PF process. Two differentially expressed proteins, alpha-1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1 and alpha-2 antiplasmin (SERPINF2, were validated by Western blot. This is the first study where PF patient and healthy controls are compared in a proteomic study to elucidate proteins involved in the response to PF. This study provides an initial basis for future studies of PF, and the differentially expressed proteins might provide new therapeutic targets to decrease the mortality of PF.

  20. Analysis of protein composition and protein expression in the tear fluid of patients with congenital aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnatko, Robert; Edén, Ulla; Lagali, Neil; Dellby, Anette; Fagerholm, Per

    2013-12-06

    Aniridia is a rare congenital genetic disorder caused by haploinsuffiency of the PAX6 gene, the master gene for development of the eye. The expression of tear proteins in aniridia is unknown. To screen for proteins involved in the aniridia pathophysiology, the tear fluid of patients with diagnosed congenital aniridia was examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two-dimensional map of tear proteins in aniridia has been established and 7 proteins were differentially expressed with Paniridia patients and control subjects. Five of them were more abundant in healthy subjects, particularly α-enolase, peroxiredoxin 6, cystatin S, gelsolin, apolipoprotein A-1 and two other proteins, zinc-α2-glycoprotein and lactoferrin were more expressed in the tears of aniridia patients. Moreover, immunoblot analysis revealed elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in aniridia tears which is in concordance with clinical finding of pathological blood and lymph vessels in the central and peripheral cornea of aniridia patients. The proteins with different expression in patients' tears may be new candidate molecules involved in the pathophysiology of aniridia and thus may be helpful for development of novel treatment strategies for the symptomatic therapy of this vision threatening condition. This study is first to demonstrate protein composition and protein expression in aniridic tears and identifies proteins with different abundance in tear fluid from patients with congenital aniridia vs. healthy tears. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognostic relevance of Centromere protein H expression in esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xian-Zhi; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Jun-Ye; Liu, Wan-Li; Wang, Fang; Dong, Ju-Qin; Xu, Li-Hua; Cao, Jing-Yan; Song, Li-Bing; Zeng, Mu-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Many kinetochore proteins have been shown to be associated with human cancers. The aim of the present study was to clarify the expression of Centromere protein H (CENP-H), one of the fundamental components of the human active kinetochore, in esophageal carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological features. Methods We examined the expression of CENP-H in immortalized esophageal epithelial cells as well as in esophageal carcinoma cells, and in 12 cases of esophageal carcinoma tissues and the paired normal esophageal tissues by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, we analyzed CENP-H protein expression in 177 clinicopathologically characterized esophageal carcinoma cases by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test for prognostic and diagnostic associations. Results The level of CENP-H mRNA and protein were higher in the immortalized cells, cancer cell lines and most cancer tissues than in normal control tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed that CENP-H was expressed in 127 of 171 ESCC cases (74.3%) and in 3 of 6 esophageal adenocarcinoma cases (50%). Statistical analysis of ESCC cases showed that there was a significant difference of CENP-H expression in patients categorized according to gender (P = 0.013), stage (P = 0.023) and T classification (P = 0.019). Patients with lower CENP-H expression had longer overall survival time than those with higher CENP-H expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that CENP-H expression was an independent prognostic marker for esophageal carcinoma patients. A prognostic value of CENP-H was also found in the subgroup of T3~T4 and N0 tumor classification. Conclusion Our results suggest that CENP-H protein is a valuable marker of esophageal carcinoma progression. CENP-H might be used as a valuable prognostic marker for esophageal carcinoma patients. PMID:18700042

  2. Comparison of Expression Vectors for Transient Expression of Recombinant Proteins in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kausar Hussain; Almaghrabi, Bachar; Bohlmann, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins in plants is of increasing importance for practical applications. However, the production of stable transformed transgenic plants is a lengthy procedure. Transient expression, on the other hand, can deliver recombinant proteins within a week, and many viral vectors have been constructed for that purpose. Each of them is reported to be highly efficient, robust and cost-effective. Here, a variety of expression vectors which were designed for transient and stab...

  3. High-efficiency protein expression in plants from agroinfection-compatible Tobacco mosaic virus expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindbo John A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants are increasingly being examined as alternative recombinant protein expression systems. Recombinant protein expression levels in plants from Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-based vectors are much higher than those possible from plant promoters. However the common TMV expression vectors are costly, and at times technically challenging, to work with. Therefore it was a goal to develop TMV expression vectors that express high levels of recombinant protein and are easier, more reliable, and more cost-effective to use. Results We have constructed a Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter-driven TMV expression vector that can be delivered as a T-DNA to plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Co-introduction (by agroinfiltration of this T-DNA along with a 35S promoter driven gene for the RNA silencing suppressor P19, from Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV resulted in essentially complete infection of the infiltrated plant tissue with the TMV vector by 4 days post infiltration (DPI. The TMV vector produced between 600 and 1200 micrograms of recombinant protein per gram of infiltrated tissue by 6 DPI. Similar levels of recombinant protein were detected in systemically infected plant tissue 10–14 DPI. These expression levels were 10 to 25 times higher than the most efficient 35S promoter driven transient expression systems described to date. Conclusion These modifications to the TMV-based expression vector system have made TMV vectors an easier, more reliable and more cost-effective way to produce recombinant proteins in plants. These improvements should facilitate the production of recombinant proteins in plants for both research and product development purposes. The vector should be especially useful in high-throughput experiments.

  4. Targeted killing effects of double CD and TK suicide genes controlled by survivin promoter on gastric cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xian-Run; Li, Jian-Sheng; Niu, Ying; Miao, Li

    2011-02-01

    Suicide genes such as cytosine deaminase (CD) and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) encode products that convert nontoxic substances (prodrugs) into toxic metabolites. Studies in recent years indicated that survivin(sur) expression was associated with the biological behaviors of gastric carcinoma. In the present study, targeted killing effects of double CD and TK suicide genes controlled by survivin promoter on gastric cancer cell were investigated, the recombinant pSCT vector containing CD and TK genes driven by sur promoter was constructed and transfected into SGC-7901 cells. After adding the CCV and 5-FC, the effects of double suicide genes on cell growth, cell cycle and proliferation were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that sur promoter could specifically drive the expression of double CD/TK gene in SGC-7901 cells, whereas not in the normal GES-1 cell. After using CCV and 5-FC, the growth of SGC-7901 cells was inhibited. G1 phase proportion was significantly higher in SGC-7901 cells transfected with double suicide genes than the untransfected cells. These results suggest that CD and TK double suicide genes driven by sur promoter could provide a new approach for enhancing selective suicide gene therapy of CD/5-FC for the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma.

  5. Expression of protein-coding genes embedded in ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Haugen, Peik; Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialised chromosomal location that is dedicated to high-level transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Interestingly, rDNAs are frequently interrupted by parasitic elements, some of which carry protein genes. These are non-LTR retrotransposons and group II introns...... that encode reverse transcriptase-like genes, and group I introns and archaeal introns that encode homing endonuclease genes (HEGs). Although rDNA-embedded protein genes are widespread in nuclei, organelles and bacteria, there is surprisingly little information available on how these genes are expressed....... Exceptions include a handful of HEGs from group I introns. Recent studies have revealed unusual and essential roles of group I and group I-like ribozymes in the endogenous expression of HEGs. Here we discuss general aspects of rDNA-embedded protein genes and focus on HEG expression from group I introns...

  6. Express your LOV: an engineered flavoprotein as a reporter for protein expression and purification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayde A Gawthorne

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the utility of Light, Oxygen, or Voltage-sensing (LOV flavoprotein domains from plant phototropins as a reporter for protein expression and function. Specifically, we used iLOV, an enhanced and more photostable variant of LOV. A pET-based plasmid for protein expression was constructed, encoding a C terminal iLOV-octahistidine (His8-tag and a HRV 3C protease cleavage recognition site. Ten different proteins, with various sub-cellular locations, were cloned into the plasmid, creating iLOV-His8 tag fusions. To test protein expression and how iLOV could be used as a reporter, the proteins were expressed in three different cell lines, in four different culture media, at two different temperatures. To establish whether the presence of the iLOV tag could have an impact on the functionality, one of the proteins, EspG, was over-expressed and purified. EspG is an "effector" protein normally produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains and "injected" into host cells via the T3SS. We tested functionality of EspG-iLOV fusion by performing functional studies of EspG in mammalian host cells. When EspG-iLOV was microinjected into the host cell, the Golgi apparatus was completely disrupted as had previously been observed for EspG.

  7. Using ion exchange chromatography to purify a recombinantly expressed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) separates molecules by their surface charge, a property that can vary vastly between different proteins. There are two types of IEX, cation exhange and anion exchange chromatography. The protocol that follows was designed by the authors for anion exchange chromatography of a recombinantly expressed protein having a pI of 4.9 and containing two cysteine residues and one tryptophan residue, using an FPLC system. Prior to anion exchange, the protein had been salted out using ammonium sulfate precipitation and partially purified via hydrophobic interaction chromatography (see Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation and Use and Application of Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography for Protein Purification). Slight modifications to this protocol may be made to accommodate both the protein of interest and the availability of equipment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The expression and significance of p53 protein and Ki-67 protein in pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubojević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pterygium is considered to be a degenerative disease of the conjunctiva, however, the presence of tumor markers in pterygium reinforces the hypothesis that this lesion is similar to tumor. Inactivation of p53 function removes an obstacle to increased proliferation. Factors affecting the prevalence of p53 expression in pterygium deserve investigation. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of p53 and Ki-67 proteins in pterygium and normal conjunctiva, the effects of gender and age on p53 expression, and the relationship between the expression of p53 and Ki-67 proteins. Methods. A total of 34 samples of pterygium and 34 samples of the normal conjunctiva were analyzed. The samples were studied by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against p53 and Ki-67. Results. Totally 15 (44% samples of pterygia were p53 positive. Correlations between the expression of p53 protein and sex, and age were not established. The number of Ki-67 positive cells in pterygium (9.74% was significantly higher than the number of Ki-67 positive cells in the normal conjunctiva (1.74%, (p = 0.001. Between the expression of p53 protein and Ki-67 protein in pterygium there was a significant positive correlation (p = 0.000. Conclusion. The prevalence of p53 positive samples of pterygium was 44%. The influence of sex and age on p53 protein expression in pterygium was not found. The increased proliferative acivity was present in the epithelium of pterygium. The expression of Ki-67 protein is associated with the expression of p53 protein in pterygium. The findings of our study support the thesis of pterygium as tissue growth disorder.

  9. Green fluorescent protein-based expression screening of membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Louise E; Rada, Heather; Verma, Anil; Gasper, Raphael; Birch, James; Jennions, Matthew; Lӧwe, Jan; Moraes, Isabel; Owens, Raymond J

    2015-01-06

    The production of recombinant membrane proteins for structural and functional studies remains technically challenging due to low levels of expression and the inherent instability of many membrane proteins once solubilized in detergents. A protocol is described that combines ligation independent cloning of membrane proteins as GFP fusions with expression in Escherichia coli detected by GFP fluorescence. This enables the construction and expression screening of multiple membrane protein/variants to identify candidates suitable for further investment of time and effort. The GFP reporter is used in a primary screen of expression by visualizing GFP fluorescence following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Membrane proteins that show both a high expression level with minimum degradation as indicated by the absence of free GFP, are selected for a secondary screen. These constructs are scaled and a total membrane fraction prepared and solubilized in four different detergents. Following ultracentrifugation to remove detergent-insoluble material, lysates are analyzed by fluorescence detection size exclusion chromatography (FSEC). Monitoring the size exclusion profile by GFP fluorescence provides information about the mono-dispersity and integrity of the membrane proteins in different detergents. Protein: detergent combinations that elute with a symmetrical peak with little or no free GFP and minimum aggregation are candidates for subsequent purification. Using the above methodology, the heterologous expression in E. coli of SED (shape, elongation, division, and sporulation) proteins from 47 different species of bacteria was analyzed. These proteins typically have ten transmembrane domains and are essential for cell division. The results show that the production of the SEDs orthologues in E. coli was highly variable with respect to the expression levels and integrity of the GFP fusion proteins. The experiment identified a subset for further investigation.

  10. Expression of high mobility group A proteins in oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Lena; Jäwert, Fredrik; Magnusson, Bengt; Hasséus, Bengt; Kjeller, Göran

    2013-10-01

    Oral leukoplakia (LPL) is considered a potentially malignant disorder in the oral cavity and the gastric tract. High mobility group A (HMGA) proteins are important in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells, but there is a lack of knowledge on their importance in oral cancer development. The aim of the current project was to investigate HMGA expression in LPLs with different levels of dysplasia. Biopsies were histologically processed to visualize the expression of HMGA1 and HMGA2 using immunohistochemistry. An increase of HMGA1-positive cells correlating to the degree of dysplasia was registered in the epithelium and in the connective tissue. HMGA2 expression was seen in the epithelium and in the connective tissue but with no obvious correlation to the level of dysplasia. This is, to our knowledge, the first study showing the expression of HMGA proteins in healthy and non-healthy oral mucosa.

  11. Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaoiconomou, Eleni; Lymperi, Maria; Petraki, Constantina; Philippou, Anastassios; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulou, Fani; Kafiri, Georgia; Vassilakos, George; Zografos, Georgios; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the Kiss-1 gene countervails the metastatic aptitude of several cancer cell lines and solid-tumor neoplasias. However, there still remains ambiguity regarding its role in breast cancer and literature has arisen asserting that Kiss-1 expression may be linked to an aggressive phenotype and malignant progression. Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues. Paraffin-fixed cancer tissues from 43 women with resected breast adenocarcinomas and 11 specimens derived from women suffering from fibrocystic disease, serving as controls, were immunostained with Kiss-1 and GPR54 antibodies. Kiss-1 and GPR54 protein expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer compared to fibrocystic tissues (pbreast cancer and fibrocystic disease specimens. Kiss-1/GPR54 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer compared to non-malignant mammary tissues.

  12. Construction,expression,purification and identification of prokaryotic expression vector of MART-1 fusion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-ting MENG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct a prokaryotic expression plasmid containing a fusion gene of MART-1 expressing the His-MART-1 fusion protein in E.coli,and to purify the protein and identify the immunogenicity of His-MART-1.Methods The MART-1 coding sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR,and then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector(pET-28b containing His tag.The constructed vector,verified by restriction endonuclease digestion,PCR and DNA sequencing,was then transformed into E.coli for expression.The expression of MART-1 recombinant protein was induced by IPTG in E.coli,purified with Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography method,and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.ELISA was used to detect the IFN-γ expression secreted by the His-MART-1 specific CD4+ T cells which recognized the His-MART-1 fusion protein presented by dendritic cells(DCs.Results The successful construction of recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction digestion,PCR and sequencing.The molecular weight of the purified fusion protein was identified as 13kD by SDS-PAGE,which was identical to the expected value.It was confirmed by western blotting that His-MART-1 fusion protein could be recognized by His monoclonal antibody.ELISA analysis showed that His-MART-1 fusion protein presented by DCs could induce IFN-γ secretion of MART-1 specific CD4+ T cells.Conclusion The recombinant plasmid of pET-28b-MART-1 has been successfully constructed.The expressed His-MART-1 fusion protein has been purified and the immunogenicity of inducing responses between DCs and CD4+ T cells has been determined.

  13. Ras signal triggers β-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) expression

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Natalia; Santa Bárbara Ruiz, Paula; Ferreira, Nuno; Serras, Florenci

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that the Drosophila β-amyloid protein precursor like (Appl) gene, the ortholog of the human β-Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) gene, is transcriptionally activated by receptor tyrosine kinase activity that involves Ras/MAPK signaling in vivo. This regulation is specifically controlled in photoreceptor neurons of the Drosophila retina. This suggests that some cases of Alzheimer disease, those which have been associated with high expression of the APP gene, may in...

  14. Recombinant protein expression by targeting pre-selected chromosomal loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krömer Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells is mostly achieved by stable integration of transgenes into the chromosomal DNA of established cell lines. The chromosomal surroundings have strong influences on the expression of transgenes. The exploitation of defined loci by targeting expression constructs with different regulatory elements is an approach to design high level expression systems. Further, this allows to evaluate the impact of chromosomal surroundings on distinct vector constructs. Results We explored antibody expression upon targeting diverse expression constructs into previously tagged loci in CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells that exhibit high reporter gene expression. These loci were selected by random transfer of reporter cassettes and subsequent screening. Both, retroviral infection and plasmid transfection with eGFP or antibody expression cassettes were employed for tagging. The tagged cell clones were screened for expression and single copy integration. Cell clones producing > 20 pg/cell in 24 hours could be identified. Selected integration sites that had been flanked with heterologous recombinase target sites (FRTs were targeted by Flp recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE. The results give proof of principle for consistent protein expression upon RMCE. Upon targeting antibody expression cassettes 90-100% of all resulting cell clones showed correct integration. Antibody production was found to be highly consistent within the individual cell clones as expected from their isogenic nature. However, the nature and orientation of expression control elements revealed to be critical. The impact of different promoters was examined with the tag-and-targeting approach. For each of the chosen promoters high expression sites were identified. However, each site supported the chosen promoters to a different extent, indicating that the strength of a particular promoter is dominantly defined by its chromosomal context

  15. hTERT protein expression is independent of clinicopathological parameters and c-Myc protein expression in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meligonis G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that synthesises telomeres after cell division and maintains chromosomal length and stability thus leading to cellular immortalisation. The hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit seems to be the rate-limiting determinant of telomerase and knowledge of factors controlling hTERT transcription may be useful in therapeutic strategies. The hTERT promoter contains binding sites for c-Myc and there is some experimental and in vitro evidence that c-Myc may increase hTERT expression. We previously reported no correlation between c-Myc mRNA expression and hTERT mRNA or telomerase activity in human breast cancer. This study aims to examine the correlation between hTERT expression as determined by immunohistochemistry and c-Myc expression, lymph node status, and tumour size and grade in human breast cancer. Materials and methods The immunohistochemical expression of hTERT and c-Myc was investigated in 38 malignant breast tumours. The expression of hTERT was then correlated with the lymph node status, c-Myc expression and other clinicopathological parameters of the tumours. Results hTERT expression was positive in 27 (71% of the 38 tumours. 15 (79% of 19 node positive tumours were hTERT positive compared with 11 (63% of 19 node negative tumours. The expression was higher in node positive tumours but this failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.388. There was no significant association with tumour size, tumour grade or c-Myc expression. However, hTERT expression correlated positively with patients' age (correlation coefficient = 0.415, p = 0.0097. Conclusion hTERT protein expression is independent of lymph node status, tumour size and grade and c-Myc protein expression in human breast cancer

  16. Radiation-induced mitotic cell death and glioblastoma radioresistance: a new regulating pathway controlled by integrin-linked kinase, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and survivin in U87 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanvin, Olivia; Monferran, Sylvie; Delmas, Caroline; Couderc, Bettina; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) regulates U87 glioblastoma cell radioresistance by modulating the main radiation-induced cell death mechanism in solid tumours, the mitotic cell death. To decipher the biological pathways involved in these mechanisms, we constructed a U87 glioblastoma cell model expressing an inducible shRNA directed against ILK (U87shILK). We then demonstrated that silencing ILK enhanced radiation-induced centrosome overduplication, leading to radiation-induced mitotic cell death. In this model, ionising radiations induce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) stabilisation which is inhibited by silencing ILK. Moreover, silencing HIF-1α in U87 cells reduced the surviving fraction after 2 Gy irradiation by increasing cell sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic cell death and centrosome amplification. Because it is known that HIF-1α controls survivin expression, we then looked at the ILK silencing effect on survivin expression. We show that survivin expression is decreased in U87shILK cells. Furthermore, treating U87 cells with the specific survivin suppressor YM155 significantly increased the percentage of giant multinucleated cells, centrosomal overduplication and thus U87 cell radiosensitivity. In consequence, we decipher here a new pathway of glioma radioresistance via the regulation of radiation-induced centrosome duplication and therefore mitotic cell death by ILK, HIF-1α and survivin. This work identifies new targets in glioblastoma with the intention of radiosensitising these highly radioresistant tumours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumour expression of bladder cancer-associated urinary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Mårten; Segersten, Ulrika; Runeson, Marcus; Wester, Kenneth; Busch, Christer; Pettersson, Ulf; Lind, Sara Bergström; Malmström, Per-Uno

    2013-08-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The current basis for diagnosis and prognosis in urinary bladder cancer is based on the pathologists' assessment of a biopsy of the tumour. Urinary biomarkers are preferable as they can be non-invasively sampled. Urinary cytology is the only test with widespread use but is hampered by poor reproducibility and low sensitivity. By studying the protein expression in bladder tumour tissue samples of proteins previously found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with bladder cancer, we have been able to show that these proteins originate from the tumour. The immunoreactivity of three of the investigated proteins increased with higher stage. Also a serine peptidase inhibitor was found to be predictive of progression from non-muscle-invasive to muscle-invasive tumours. To analyse the expression of five bladder cancer-associated urinary proteins and investigate if expression is related to the malignant phenotype of the tumour. To explore the possible prognostic value of these proteins. Urine samples, 16 from patients with bladder cancer and 26 from controls, were used in Western Blotting experiments. Tissue microarrays with bladder tissue from 344 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer between 1984 and 2005 was used in immunohistochemistry experiments. The proteins apolipoprotein E (APOE), fibrinogen β chain precursor (FGB), leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG1), polymerase (RNA) I polypeptide E (POLR1E), α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and topoisomerase 2A (TOP2A) were probed with antibodies validated by the Human Protein Atlas. Increased expressions of APOE, FGB and POLR1E were correlated with increased tumour stage (P SERPINA1 in Ta and T1 tumours was found to increase the risk of tumour progression (hazard ratio 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.13-5.87; P = 0.025) CONCLUSIONS: All proteins previously detected in urine from patients with bladder cancer were also expressed in bladder cancer tissue. The

  18. Regenerating human muscle fibres express GLUT3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Schrøder, H D

    2002-01-01

    The presence of the GLUT3 glucose transporter protein in human muscle cells is a matter of debate. The present study was designed to establish whether GLUT3 is expressed in mature human skeletal muscle fibres and, if so, whether its expression changes under different conditions, such as metabolic...... stress (obesity, obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), hypertrophy (training), de- and reinnervation (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) or regeneration (polymyositis). We used an immunohistochemical approach to detect and localise GLUT3. GLUT3 immunoreactivity was not detectable in adult skeletal...... muscle fibres, nor did metabolic stress, training or de- and re-innervation induce GLUT3 expression, while a few GLUT3 expressing fibres were seen in some cases of polymyositis. In contrast, GLUT4 was expressed in all investigated muscle fibres. GLUT3 immunoreactivity was found in perineural...

  19. Different Cells Make Different Proteins: A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating Tissue-Specific Protein Expression in Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Izaskun; Villamarín, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    All the cells of higher organisms have the same DNA but not the same proteins. Each type of specialised cell that forms a tissue has its own pattern of gene expression and, consequently, it contains a particular set of proteins that determine its function. Here, we describe a laboratory exercise addressed to undergraduate students that aims to…

  20. Expression screening, protein purification and NMR analysis of human protein domains for structural genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkers, G.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/162277202; van Buuren, B.N.M.; Kaptein, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074334603

    2004-01-01

    Structural genomics, the determination of protein structures on a genome-wide scale, is still in its infancy for eukaryotes due to the number and size of their genes. Low protein expression and solubility of eukaryotic geneproducts are the major bottlenecks in high-throughput (HTP) recombinant

  1. Using Green and Red Fluorescent Proteins to Teach Protein Expression, Purification, and Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifeng; Zhou, Yangbin; Song, Jiaping; Hu, Xiaojian; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory curriculum using the green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and RFP) to visualize the cloning, expression, chromatography purification, crystallization, and protease-cleavage experiments of protein science. The EGFP and DsRed monomer (mDsRed)-coding sequences were amplified by PCR and cloned into pMAL (MBP-EGFP) or…

  2. Secreted Proteins Defy the Expression Level-Evolutionary Rate Anticorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2017-03-01

    The rates of evolution of the proteins of any organism vary across orders of magnitude. A primary factor influencing rates of protein evolution is expression. A strong negative correlation between expression levels and evolutionary rates (the so-called E-R anticorrelation) has been observed in virtually all studied organisms. This effect is currently attributed to the abundance-dependent fitness costs of misfolding and unspecific protein-protein interactions, among other factors. Secreted proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum, a compartment where chaperones, folding catalysts, and stringent quality control mechanisms promote their correct folding and may reduce the fitness costs of misfolding. In addition, confinement of secreted proteins to the extracellular space may reduce misinteractions and their deleterious effects. We hypothesize that each of these factors (the secretory pathway quality control and extracellular location) may reduce the strength of the E-R anticorrelation. Indeed, here we show that among human proteins that are secreted to the extracellular space, rates of evolution do not correlate with protein abundances. This trend is robust to controlling for several potentially confounding factors and is also observed when analyzing protein abundance data for 6 human tissues. In addition, analysis of mRNA abundance data for 32 human tissues shows that the E-R correlation is always less negative, and sometimes nonsignificant, in secreted proteins. Similar observations were made in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent in Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our observations contribute to understand the causes of the E-R anticorrelation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a ...

  4. Computational codon optimization of synthetic gene for protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Bevan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The construction of customized nucleic acid sequences allows us to have greater flexibility in gene design for recombinant protein expression. Among the various parameters considered for such DNA sequence design, individual codon usage (ICU has been implicated as one of the most crucial factors affecting mRNA translational efficiency. However, previous works have also reported the significant influence of codon pair usage, also known as codon context (CC, on the level of protein expression. Results In this study, we have developed novel computational procedures for evaluating the relative importance of optimizing ICU and CC for enhancing protein expression. By formulating appropriate mathematical expressions to quantify the ICU and CC fitness of a coding sequence, optimization procedures based on genetic algorithm were employed to maximize its ICU and/or CC fitness. Surprisingly, the in silico validation of the resultant optimized DNA sequences for Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that CC is a more relevant design criterion than the commonly considered ICU. Conclusions The proposed CC optimization framework can complement and enhance the capabilities of current gene design tools, with potential applications to heterologous protein production and even vaccine development in synthetic biotechnology.

  5. Computational codon optimization of synthetic gene for protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bevan Kai-Sheng; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2012-10-20

    The construction of customized nucleic acid sequences allows us to have greater flexibility in gene design for recombinant protein expression. Among the various parameters considered for such DNA sequence design, individual codon usage (ICU) has been implicated as one of the most crucial factors affecting mRNA translational efficiency. However, previous works have also reported the significant influence of codon pair usage, also known as codon context (CC), on the level of protein expression. In this study, we have developed novel computational procedures for evaluating the relative importance of optimizing ICU and CC for enhancing protein expression. By formulating appropriate mathematical expressions to quantify the ICU and CC fitness of a coding sequence, optimization procedures based on genetic algorithm were employed to maximize its ICU and/or CC fitness. Surprisingly, the in silico validation of the resultant optimized DNA sequences for Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that CC is a more relevant design criterion than the commonly considered ICU. The proposed CC optimization framework can complement and enhance the capabilities of current gene design tools, with potential applications to heterologous protein production and even vaccine development in synthetic biotechnology.

  6. Expressions of visual pigments and synaptic proteins in neonatal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... decreased expressions of opsins and synaptic proteins, compared to those seen in 12L:12D and 18L:6D conditions. Also, there were ... used in houses and work places where we are continually http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ..... zation and morphological and functional well-being of cells lying in the INL.

  7. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copperbinding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adifferentially expressed fragment EST145 was isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Using EST145 as the probe, a blue copper-binding protein gene designated as DvBCB was screened from Dasypyrum villosum cDNA Library. The DvBCB gene was 845 bp in length with an open reading frame ...

  8. Heterologous expression of membrane proteins: choosing the appropriate host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bernaudat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are the targets of 50% of drugs, although they only represent 1% of total cellular proteins. The first major bottleneck on the route to their functional and structural characterisation is their overexpression; and simply choosing the right system can involve many months of trial and error. This work is intended as a guide to where to start when faced with heterologous expression of a membrane protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of 20 membrane proteins, both peripheral and integral, in three prokaryotic (E. coli, L. lactis, R. sphaeroides and three eukaryotic (A. thaliana, N. benthamiana, Sf9 insect cells hosts was tested. The proteins tested were of various origins (bacteria, plants and mammals, functions (transporters, receptors, enzymes and topologies (between 0 and 13 transmembrane segments. The Gateway system was used to clone all 20 genes into appropriate vectors for the hosts to be tested. Culture conditions were optimised for each host, and specific strategies were tested, such as the use of Mistic fusions in E. coli. 17 of the 20 proteins were produced at adequate yields for functional and, in some cases, structural studies. We have formulated general recommendations to assist with choosing an appropriate system based on our observations of protein behaviour in the different hosts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the methods presented here can be quite easily implemented in other laboratories. The results highlight certain factors that should be considered when selecting an expression host. The decision aide provided should help both newcomers and old-hands to select the best system for their favourite membrane protein.

  9. Bcl-2 protein expression is associated with p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizaki Takashi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental studies have shown that Bcl-2, which has been established as a key player in the control of apoptosis, plays a role in regulating the cell cycle and proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between Bcl-2 and p27 protein expression, p53 protein expression and the proliferation activity as defined by the MIB-1 counts. The prognostic implication of Bcl-2 protein expression in relation to p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts for breast cancer was also evaluated. Methods The immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-2 protein was evaluated in a series of 249 invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast, in which p27 and p53 protein expressions and MIB-1 counts had been determined previously. Results The Bcl-2 protein expression was found to be decreased in 105 (42% cases. A decreased Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly correlated with a nuclear grade of III, a negative estrogen receptor, a decreased p27 protein expression, a positive p53 protein expression, positive MIB-1 counts and a positive HER2 protein expression. The incidence of a nuclear grade of III and positive MIB-1 counts increased as the number of abnormal findings of Bcl-2, p27 and p53 protein expressions increased. A univariate analysis indicated a decreased Bcl-2 protein expression to be significantly (p = 0.0089 associated with a worse disease free survival (DFS, while a multivariate analysis indicated the lymph node status and MIB-1 counts to be independently significant prognostic factors for the DFS. Conclusion The Bcl-2 protein expression has a close correlation with p27 and p53 protein expressions and the proliferation activity determined by MIB-1 counts in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The prognostic value of Bcl-2 as well as p27 and p53 protein expressions was dependent on the proliferation activity in breast cancer.

  10. Analysis of protein composition and protein expression in the tear fluid of patients with congenital aniridia

    OpenAIRE

    Ihnatko, Robert; Edén, Ulla; Lagali, Neil; Dellby, Anette; Fagerholm, Per

    2013-01-01

    Aniridia is a rare congenital genetic disorder caused by haploinsuffiency of the PAX6 gene, the master gene for development of the eye. The expression of tear proteins in aniridia is unknown. To screen for proteins involved in the aniridia pathophysiology, the tear fluid of patients with diagnosed congenital aniridia was examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two-dimensional map of tear proteins in aniridia has been...

  11. Raman microscopy of bladder cancer cells expressing green fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandair, Gurjit S.; Han, Amy L.; Keller, Evan T.; Morris, Michael D.

    2016-11-01

    Gene engineering is a commonly used tool in cellular biology to determine changes in function or expression of downstream targets. However, the impact of genetic modulation on biochemical effects is less frequently evaluated. The aim of this study is to use Raman microscopy to assess the biochemical effects of gene silencing on T24 and UMUC-13 bladder cancer cell lines. Cellular biochemical information related to nucleic acid and lipogenic components was obtained from deconvolved Raman spectra. We show that the green fluorescence protein (GFP), the chromophore that served as a fluorescent reporter for gene silencing, could also be detected by Raman microscopy. Only the gene-silenced UMUC-13 cell lines exhibited low-to-moderate GFP fluorescence as determined by fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic studies. Moreover, we show that gene silencing and cell phenotype had a greater effect on nucleic acid and lipogenic components with minimal interference from GFP expression. Gene silencing was also found to perturb cellular protein secondary structure in which the amount of disorderd protein increased at the expense of more ordered protein. Overall, our study identified the spectral signature for cellular GFP expression and elucidated the effects of gene silencing on cancer cell biochemistry and protein secondary structure.

  12. Optimization of translation profiles enhances protein expression and solubility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Katrin Hess

    Full Text Available mRNA is translated with a non-uniform speed that actively coordinates co-translational folding of protein domains. Using structure-based homology we identified the structural domains in epoxide hydrolases (EHs and introduced slow-translating codons to delineate the translation of single domains. These changes in translation speed dramatically improved the solubility of two EHs of metagenomic origin in Escherichia coli. Conversely, the importance of transient attenuation for the folding, and consequently solubility, of EH was evidenced with a member of the EH family from Agrobacterium radiobacter, which partitions in the soluble fraction when expressed in E. coli. Synonymous substitutions of codons shaping the slow-transiting regions to fast-translating codons render this protein insoluble. Furthermore, we show that low protein yield can be enhanced by decreasing the free folding energy of the initial 5'-coding region, which can disrupt mRNA secondary structure and enhance ribosomal loading. This study provides direct experimental evidence that mRNA is not a mere messenger for translation of codons into amino acids but bears an additional layer of information for folding, solubility and expression level of the encoded protein. Furthermore, it provides a general frame on how to modulate and fine-tune gene expression of a target protein.

  13. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Abraham

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP. AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.

  14. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorbar, John, E-mail: jdoorba@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E4 open reading frame (ORF) is contained within the E2 ORF, with the primary E4 gene-product (E1{sup ∧}E4) being translated from a spliced mRNA that includes the E1 initiation codon and adjacent sequences. E4 is located centrally within the E2 gene, in a region that encodes the E2 protein′s flexible hinge domain. Although a number of minor E4 transcripts have been reported, it is the product of the abundant E1{sup ∧}E4 mRNA that has been most extensively analysed. During the papillomavirus life cycle, the E1{sup ∧}E4 gene products generally become detectable at the onset of vegetative viral genome amplification as the late stages of infection begin. E4 contributes to genome amplification success and virus synthesis, with its high level of expression suggesting additional roles in virus release and/or transmission. In general, E4 is easily visualised in biopsy material by immunostaining, and can be detected in lesions caused by diverse papillomavirus types, including those of dogs, rabbits and cattle as well as humans. The E4 protein can serve as a biomarker of active virus infection, and in the case of high-risk human types also disease severity. In some cutaneous lesions, E4 can be expressed at higher levels than the virion coat proteins, and can account for as much as 30% of total lesional protein content. The E4 proteins of the Beta, Gamma and Mu HPV types assemble into distinctive cytoplasmic, and sometimes nuclear, inclusion granules. In general, the E4 proteins are expressed before L2 and L1, with their structure and function being modified, first by kinases as the infected cell progresses through the S and G2 cell cycle phases, but also by proteases as the cell exits the cell cycle and undergoes true terminal differentiation. The kinases that regulate E4 also affect other viral proteins simultaneously, and include protein kinase A, Cyclin-dependent kinase, members of the MAP Kinase family and protein kinase C. For HPV16 E1{sup

  15. Protein stickiness, rather than number of functional protein-protein interactions, predicts expression noise and plasticity in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brettner Leandra M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A hub protein is one that interacts with many functional partners. The annotation of hub proteins, or more generally the protein-protein interaction “degree” of each gene, requires quality genome-wide data. Data obtained using yeast two-hybrid methods contain many false positive interactions between proteins that rarely encounter each other in living cells, and such data have fallen out of favor. Results We find that protein “stickiness”, measured as network degree in ostensibly low quality yeast two-hybrid data, is a more predictive genomic metric than the number of functional protein-protein interactions, as assessed by supposedly higher quality high throughput affinity capture mass spectrometry data. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a protein’s high stickiness, but not its high number of functional interactions, predicts low stochastic noise in gene expression, low plasticity of gene expression across different environments, and high probability of forming a homo-oligomer. Our results are robust to a multiple regression analysis correcting for other known predictors including protein abundance, presence of a TATA box and whether a gene is essential. Once the higher stickiness of homo-oligomers is controlled for, we find that homo-oligomers have noisier and more plastic gene expression than other proteins, consistent with a role for homo-oligomerization in mediating robustness. Conclusions Our work validates use of the number of yeast two-hybrid interactions as a metric for protein stickiness. Sticky proteins exhibit low stochastic noise in gene expression, and low plasticity in expression across different environments.

  16. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

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    Jeremy A. Kroemer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification.

  17. Targeting Survivin by 3, 3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, K. M

    2008-01-01

    ...) family, is associated with both progression of prostate carcinoma and drug resistance. Therefore, we hypothesized that survivin plays a role in the development of hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC...

  18. G-protein coupled receptor expression patterns delineate medulloblastoma subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Genetic profiling has identified four principle tumor subgroups; each subgroup is characterized by different initiating mutations, genetic and clinical profiles, and prognoses. The two most well-defined subgroups are caused by overactive signaling in the WNT and SHH mitogenic pathways; less is understood about Groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma. Identification of tumor subgroup using molecular classification is set to become an important component of medulloblastoma diagnosis and staging, and will likely guide therapeutic options. However, thus far, few druggable targets have emerged. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) possess characteristics that make them ideal targets for molecular imaging and therapeutics; drugs targeting GPCRs account for 30-40% of all current pharmaceuticals. While expression patterns of many proteins in human medulloblastoma subgroups have been discerned, the expression pattern of GPCRs in medulloblastoma has not been investigated. We hypothesized that analysis of GPCR expression would identify clear subsets of medulloblastoma and suggest distinct GPCRs that might serve as molecular targets for both imaging and therapy. Results Our study found that medulloblastoma tumors fall into distinct clusters based solely on GPCR expression patterns. Normal cerebellum clustered separately from the tumor samples. Further, two of the tumor clusters correspond with high fidelity to the WNT and SHH subgroups of medulloblastoma. Distinct over-expressed GPCRs emerge; for example, LGR5 and GPR64 are significantly and uniquely over-expressed in the WNT subgroup of tumors, while PTGER4 is over-expressed in the SHH subgroup. Uniquely under-expressed GPCRs were also observed. Our key findings were independently validated using a large international dataset. Conclusions Our results identify GPCRs with potential to act as imaging and therapeutic targets. Elucidating tumorigenic pathways

  19. The Bright Fluorescent Protein mNeonGreen Facilitates Protein Expression Analysis In Vivo

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    Lola Hostettler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP has been tremendously useful in investigating cell architecture, protein localization, and protein function. Recent developments in transgenesis and genome editing methods now enable working with fewer transgene copies and, consequently, with physiological expression levels. However, lower signal intensity might become a limiting factor. The recently developed mNeonGreen protein is a brighter alternative to GFP in vitro. The goal of the present study was to determine how mNeonGreen performs in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans—a model used extensively for fluorescence imaging in intact animals. We started with a side-by-side comparison between cytoplasmic forms of mNeonGreen and GFP expressed in the intestine, and in different neurons, of adult animals. While both proteins had similar photostability, mNeonGreen was systematically 3–5 times brighter than GFP. mNeonGreen was also used successfully to trace endogenous proteins, and label specific subcellular compartments such as the nucleus or the plasma membrane. To further demonstrate the utility of mNeonGreen, we tested transcriptional reporters for nine genes with unknown expression patterns. While mNeonGreen and GFP reporters gave overall similar expression patterns, low expression tissues were detected only with mNeonGreen. As a whole, our work establishes mNeonGreen as a brighter alternative to GFP for in vivo imaging in a multicellular organism. Furthermore, the present research illustrates the utility of mNeonGreen to tag proteins, mark subcellular regions, and describe new expression patterns, particularly in tissues with low expression.

  20. Expression of interleukin-17RC protein in normal human tissues

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    Ge Dongxia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17 cytokines and receptors play an important role in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. IL-17 receptors IL-17RA and IL-17RC have been found to form a heterodimer for mediating the signals of IL-17A and IL-17F cytokines. While the function and signaling pathway of IL-17RA has been revealed, IL-17RC has not been well characterized. The function and signaling pathway of IL-17RC remain largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to systematically examine IL-17RC protein expression in 53 human tissues. Results IL-17RC expression in 51 normal human tissues and two benign tumors (i.e., lymphangioma and parathyroid adenoma on the tissue microarrays was determined by immunohistochemical staining, using two polyclonal antibodies against IL-17RC. IL-17RC protein was expressed in many cell types including the myocardial cells, vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells, glandular cells (of the adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, parotid salivary, and subepidermal glands, epithelial cells (of the esophagus, stomach, intestine, anus, renal tubule, breast, cervix, Fallopian tube, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate, gallbladder, bronchus, lung, and skin, oocytes in the ovary, Sertoli cells in the testis, motor neurons in the spinal cord, autonomic ganglia and nerves in the intestine, skeletal muscle cells, adipocytes, articular chondrocytes, and synovial cells. High levels of IL-17RC protein expression were observed in most vascular and lymphatic endothelium and squamous epithelium. The epithelium of the breast, cervix, Fallopian tube, kidney, bladder and bronchus also expressed high levels of IL-17RC, so did the glandular cells in the adrenal cortex, parotid salivary and subepidermal glands. In contrast, IL-17RC protein was not detectable in the smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, antral mucosa of the stomach, mucosa of the colon, endometrium of the uterus, neurons of the brain

  1. The Role of Bromodomain Proteins in Regulating Gene Expression

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    Michael F. Duffy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifications are important in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Of the numerous histone modifications which have been identified, acetylation is one of the best characterised and is generally associated with active genes. Histone acetylation can directly affect chromatin structure by neutralising charges on the histone tail, and can also function as a binding site for proteins which can directly or indirectly regulate transcription. Bromodomains specifically bind to acetylated lysine residues on histone tails, and bromodomain proteins play an important role in anchoring the complexes of which they are a part to acetylated chromatin. Bromodomain proteins are involved in a diverse range of functions, such as acetylating histones, remodeling chromatin, and recruiting other factors necessary for transcription. These proteins thus play a critical role in the regulation of transcription.

  2. Novel leukocyte protein, Trojan, differentially expressed during thymocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar; Motobu, Maki; Salmi, Jussi; Uchida, Tatsuya; Vainio, Olli

    2010-04-01

    "Trojan" is a novel cell surface protein, discovered from chicken embryonic thymocytes on the purpose to identify molecules involved in T cell differentiation. The molecule is predicted as a type I transmembrane protein having a Sushi and two fibronectin type III domains and a pair of intracellular phosphorylation sites. Its transcript expression is specific for lymphoid tissues and the presence of the protein on the surface of recirculating lymphocytes and macrophages was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. In thymus, about half of the double negative (CD4(-) CD8(-)) and CD8 single positive and the majority of CD4 single positive cells express Trojan with a relatively high intensity. However, only a minority of the double positive (CD4(+) CD8(+)) cells are positive for Trojan. This expression pattern, similar to that of some proteins with anti-apoptotic and function, like IL-7Ralpha, makes Trojan an attractive candidate of having an anti-apoptotic role. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein Phosphatase-1 Regulates Expression of Neuregulin-1

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    Tatiana Ammosova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, a cellular serine/threonine phosphatase, is targeted to cellular promoters by its major regulatory subunits, PP1 nuclear targeting subunit, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1 and RepoMan. PP1 is also targeted to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII by NIPP1 where it can dephosphorylate RNAPII and cycle-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9. Here, we show that treatment of cells with a small molecule activator of PP1 increases the abundance of a neuregulin-1 (NRG-1-derived peptide. NRG-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the cells stably or transiently expressing mutant NIPP1 (mNIPP1 that does not bind PP1, but not in the cells expressing NIPP1. Expression of mNIPP1 also activated the NRG-1 promoter in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Analysis of extracts from mNIPP1 expressing cells by glycerol gradient centrifugation showed a redistribution of PP1 and CDK9 between large and small molecular weight complexes, and increased CDK9 Thr-186 phosphorylation. This correlated with the increased CDK9 activity. Further, RNAPII co-precipitated with mNIPP1, and phosphorylation of RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD Ser-2 residues was greater in cells expressing mNIPP1. In mNIPP1 expressing cells, okadaic acid, a cell-permeable inhibitor of PP1, did not increase Ser-2 CTD phosphorylation inhibited by flavopiridol, in contrast to the NIPP1 expressing cells, suggesting that PP1 was no longer involved in RNAPII dephosphorylation. Finally, media conditioned with mNIPP1 cells induced the proliferation of wild type 84-31 cells, consistent with a role of neuregulin-1 as a growth promoting factor. Our study indicates that deregulation of PP1/NIPP1 holoenzyme activates NRG-1 expression through RNAPII and CDK9 phosphorylation in a NF-κB dependent manner.

  4. Elevated TATA-binding protein expression drives vascular endothelial growth factor expression in colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra A.S.; Lin, Justin J.; Walkey, Christopher J.; Leathers, Michael P.; Coarfa, Cristian; Johnson, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) plays a central role in eukaryotic gene transcription. Given its key function in transcription initiation, TBP was initially thought to be an invariant protein. However, studies showed that TBP expression is upregulated by oncogenic signaling pathways. Furthermore, depending on the cell type, small increases in cellular TBP amounts can induce changes in cellular growth properties towards a transformed phenotype. Here we sought to identify the specific TBP-regulated gene targets that drive its ability to induce tumorigenesis. Using microarray analysis, our results reveal that increases in cellular TBP concentrations produce selective alterations in gene expression that include an enrichment for genes involved in angiogenesis. Accordingly, we find that TBP levels modulate VEGFA expression, the master regulator of angiogenesis. Increases in cellular TBP amounts induce VEGFA expression and secretion to enhance cell migration and tumor vascularization. TBP mediates changes in VEGFA transcription requiring its recruitment at a hypoxia-insensitive proximal TSS, revealing a mechanism for VEGF regulation under non-stress conditions. The results are clinically relevant as TBP expression is significantly increased in both colon adenocarcinomas as well as adenomas relative to normal tissue. Furthermore, TBP expression is positively correlated with VEGFA expression. Collectively, these studies support the idea that increases in TBP expression contribute to enhanced VEGFA transcription early in colorectal cancer development to drive tumorigenesis. PMID:28415573

  5. Expression, purification and crystallization of a lyssavirus matrix (M) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenberg, René [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Delmas, Olivier [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Graham, Stephen C.; Verma, Anil; Berrow, Nick; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J. [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Bourhy, Hervé [UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Institut Pasteur, 28 Rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris CEDEX 15 (France); Grimes, Jonathan M., E-mail: jonathan@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Division of Structural Biology and Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of the full-length matrix protein from three lyssaviruses is described. The matrix (M) proteins of lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) are crucial to viral morphogenesis as well as in modulating replication and transcription of the viral genome. To date, no high-resolution structural information has been obtained for full-length rhabdovirus M. Here, the cloning, expression and purification of the matrix proteins from three lyssaviruses, Lagos bat virus (LAG), Mokola virus and Thailand dog virus, are described. Crystals have been obtained for the full-length M protein from Lagos bat virus (LAG M). Successful crystallization depended on a number of factors, in particular the addition of an N-terminal SUMO fusion tag to increase protein solubility. Diffraction data have been recorded from crystals of native and selenomethionine-labelled LAG M to 2.75 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Preliminary analysis indicates that these crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22 or P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9–57.2, c = 187.9–188.6 Å, consistent with the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit, and structure determination is currently in progress.

  6. Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 Expression and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Papadimitriou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hsp90 is an abundant protein in mammalian cells. It forms several discrete complexes, each containing distinct groups of co-chaperones that assist protein folding and refolding during stress, protein transport and degradation. It interacts with a variety of proteins that play key roles in breast neoplasia including estrogen receptors, tumor suppressor p53 protein, angiogenesis transcription factor HIF-1alpha, antiapoptotic kinase Akt, Raf-1 MAP kinase and a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases of the erbB family. Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas contributing to the proliferative activity of breast cancer cells; whilst a significantly decreased Hsp90 expression has been shown in infiltrative lobular carcinomas and lobular neoplasia. Hsp90 overexpression has been proposed as a component of a mechanism through which breast cancer cells become resistant to various stress stimuli. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of HSPs can provide therapeutic opportunities in the field of cancer treatment. 17-allylamino,17-demethoxygeldanamycin is the first Hsp90 inhibitor that has clinically been investigated in phase II trial, yielding promising results in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, whilst other Hsp90 inhibitors (retaspimycin HCL, NVP-AUY922, NVP-BEP800, CNF2024/BIIB021, SNX-5422, STA-9090, etc. are currently under evaluation.

  7. Protein profile changes during porcine oocyte aging and effects of caffeine on protein expression patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Jian Jiang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that oocyte aging critically affects reproduction and development. By using proteomic tools, in the present study, changes in protein profiles during porcine oocyte aging and effects of caffeine on oocyte aging were investigated. By comparing control MII oocytes with aging MII oocytes, we identified 23 proteins that were up-regulated and 3 proteins that were down-regulated during the aging process. In caffeine-treated oocytes, 6 proteins were identified as up-regulated and 12 proteins were identified as down-regulated. A total of 38 differentially expressed proteins grouped into 5 regulation patterns were determined to relate to the aging and anti-aging process. By using the Gene Ontology system, we found that numerous functional gene products involved in metabolism, stress response, reactive oxygen species and cell cycle regulation were differentially expressed during the oocyte aging process, and most of these proteins are for the first time reported in our study, including 2 novel proteins. In addition, several proteins were found to be modified during oocyte aging. These data contribute new information that may be useful for future research on cellular aging and for improvement of oocyte quality.

  8. A new essential protein discovery method based on the integration of protein-protein interaction and gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of essential proteins is always a challenging task since it requires experimental approaches that are time-consuming and laborious. With the advances in high throughput technologies, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which have produced unprecedented opportunities for detecting proteins' essentialities from the network level. There have been a series of computational approaches proposed for predicting essential proteins based on network topologies. However, the network topology-based centrality measures are very sensitive to the robustness of network. Therefore, a new robust essential protein discovery method would be of great value. Results In this paper, we propose a new centrality measure, named PeC, based on the integration of protein-protein interaction and gene expression data. The performance of PeC is validated based on the protein-protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental results show that the predicted precision of PeC clearly exceeds that of the other fifteen previously proposed centrality measures: Degree Centrality (DC, Betweenness Centrality (BC, Closeness Centrality (CC, Subgraph Centrality (SC, Eigenvector Centrality (EC, Information Centrality (IC, Bottle Neck (BN, Density of Maximum Neighborhood Component (DMNC, Local Average Connectivity-based method (LAC, Sum of ECC (SoECC, Range-Limited Centrality (RL, L-index (LI, Leader Rank (LR, Normalized α-Centrality (NC, and Moduland-Centrality (MC. Especially, the improvement of PeC over the classic centrality measures (BC, CC, SC, EC, and BN is more than 50% when predicting no more than 500 proteins. Conclusions We demonstrate that the integration of protein-protein interaction network and gene expression data can help improve the precision of predicting essential proteins. The new centrality measure, PeC, is an effective essential protein discovery method.

  9. A new essential protein discovery method based on the integration of protein-protein interaction and gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Hanhui; Wang, Jian-xin; Pan, Yi

    2012-03-10

    Identification of essential proteins is always a challenging task since it requires experimental approaches that are time-consuming and laborious. With the advances in high throughput technologies, a large number of protein-protein interactions are available, which have produced unprecedented opportunities for detecting proteins' essentialities from the network level. There have been a series of computational approaches proposed for predicting essential proteins based on network topologies. However, the network topology-based centrality measures are very sensitive to the robustness of network. Therefore, a new robust essential protein discovery method would be of great value. In this paper, we propose a new centrality measure, named PeC, based on the integration of protein-protein interaction and gene expression data. The performance of PeC is validated based on the protein-protein interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental results show that the predicted precision of PeC clearly exceeds that of the other fifteen previously proposed centrality measures: Degree Centrality (DC), Betweenness Centrality (BC), Closeness Centrality (CC), Subgraph Centrality (SC), Eigenvector Centrality (EC), Information Centrality (IC), Bottle Neck (BN), Density of Maximum Neighborhood Component (DMNC), Local Average Connectivity-based method (LAC), Sum of ECC (SoECC), Range-Limited Centrality (RL), L-index (LI), Leader Rank (LR), Normalized α-Centrality (NC), and Moduland-Centrality (MC). Especially, the improvement of PeC over the classic centrality measures (BC, CC, SC, EC, and BN) is more than 50% when predicting no more than 500 proteins. We demonstrate that the integration of protein-protein interaction network and gene expression data can help improve the precision of predicting essential proteins. The new centrality measure, PeC, is an effective essential protein discovery method.

  10. Novel interactions between the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 and the NFAR protein family: Implications for the HTLV lifecycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jane; Hall, William W. [Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Ratner, Lee [Department of Medicine, Division of Molecular Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America (United States); Sheehy, Noreen [Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-07-15

    The human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/HTLV-2) antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2 play key roles in the HTLV lifecycles and persistence in the host. Nuclear Factors Associated with double-stranded RNA (NFAR) proteins NF90/110 function in the lifecycles of several viruses and participate in host innate immunity against infection and oncogenesis. Using GST pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate specific novel interactions between HBZ/APH-2 and NF90/110 and characterised the protein domains involved. Moreover we show that NF90/110 significantly enhance Tax mediated LTR activation, an effect that was abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. Additionally we found that HBZ and APH-2 modulate the promoter activity of survivin and are capable of antagonising NF110-mediated survivin activation. Thus interactions between HTLV antisense proteins and the NFAR protein family have an overall positive impact on HTLV infection. Hence NFARs may represent potential therapeutic targets in HTLV infected cells. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates for the first time interactions between NF90/110 and the HTLV antisense proteins HBZ and APH-2. • We show that NF90/110 significantly enhance LTR activation by the HTLV Tax protein, an effect that is abolished by HBZ but enhanced by APH-2. • The study shows that even though the HTLV antisense proteins activate survivin expression they antagonize the ability of NF90/110 to do so. • Overall we found that NF90/110 positively regulate HTLV infection and as such might represent a therapeutic target in infected cells.

  11. Disposable bioreactors for inoculum production and protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Regine; Löffelholz, Christian; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Disposable bioreactors have been increasingly implemented over the past ten years. This relates to both R & D and commercial manufacture, in particular, in animal cell-based processes. Among the numerous disposable bioreactors which are available today, wave-mixed bag bioreactors and stirred bioreactors are predominant. Whereas wave-mixed bag bioreactors represent the system of choice for inoculum production, stirred systems are often preferred for protein expression. For this reason, the authors present protocols instructing the reader how to use the wave-mixed BIOSTAT CultiBag RM 20 L for inoculum production and the stirred UniVessel SU 2 L for recombinant protein production at benchtop scale. All methods described are based on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cell line expressing the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP).

  12. Cooperative working of bacterial chromosome replication proteins generated by a reconstituted protein expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kei; Katayama, Tsutomu; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.

    2013-01-01

    Replication of all living cells relies on the multirounds flow of the central dogma. Especially, expression of DNA replication proteins is a key step to circulate the processes of the central dogma. Here we achieved the entire sequential transcription–translation–replication process by autonomous expression of chromosomal DNA replication machineries from a reconstituted transcription–translation system (PURE system). We found that low temperature is essential to express a complex protein, DNA polymerase III, in a single tube using the PURE system. Addition of the 13 genes, encoding initiator, DNA helicase, helicase loader, RNA primase and DNA polymerase III to the PURE system gave rise to a DNA replication system by a coupling manner. An artificial genetic circuit demonstrated that the DNA produced as a result of the replication is able to provide genetic information for proteins, indicating the in vitro central dogma can sequentially undergo two rounds. PMID:23737447

  13. HIV-1 Tat Protein Enhances Expression and Function of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yancong; Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiaojie; Nie, Qichang; Ma, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters can transfer a variety of antiviral agents from the cytoplasm to body fluid, which results in a reduced intracellular concentration of the drugs. Proteins of HIV-1, e.g., Tat and gp120, altered some types of ABC transporter expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. However, the effect of Tat on ABC transporters in T lymphocytes is unclear. In this study the status of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in Tat expressing cell lines was examined with real-time PCR and flow cytometry. It was found that HIV-1 Tat protein upregulated BCRP expression and enhanced efflux mediated by BCRP significantly, which could inhibit antiviral drugs from entering infected cells and interfere with the therapeutic effect of HAART.

  14. Expression of 16 Nitrogenase Proteins within the Plant Mitochondrial Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert S.; Tilbrook, Kimberley; Warden, Andrew C.; Campbell, Peter C.; Rolland, Vivien; Singh, Surinder P.; Wood, Craig C.

    2017-01-01

    The industrial production and use of nitrogenous fertilizer involves significant environmental and economic costs. Strategies to reduce fertilizer dependency are required to address the world's increasing demand for sustainable food, fibers, and biofuels. Biological nitrogen fixation, a process unique to diazatrophic bacteria, is catalyzed by the nitrogenase complex, and reconstituting this function in plant cells is an ambitious biotechnological strategy to reduce fertilizer use. Here we establish that the full array of biosynthetic and catalytic nitrogenase (Nif) proteins from the diazotroph Klebsiella pneumoniae can be individually expressed as mitochondrial targeting peptide (MTP)-Nif fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana. We show that these are correctly targeted to the plant mitochondrial matrix, a subcellular location with biochemical and genetic characteristics potentially supportive of nitrogenase function. Although Nif proteins B, D, E, F, H, J, K, M, N, Q, S, U, V, X, Y, and Z were all detectable by Western blot analysis, the NifD catalytic component was the least abundant. To address this problem, a translational fusion between NifD and NifK was designed based on the crystal structure of the nitrogenase MoFe protein heterodimer. This fusion protein enabled equimolar NifD:NifK stoichiometry and improved NifD expression levels in plants. Finally, four MTP-Nif fusion proteins (B, S, H, Y) were successfully co-expressed, demonstrating that multiple components of nitrogenase can be targeted to plant mitochondria. These results establish the feasibility of reconstituting the complete componentry for nitrogenase in plant cells, within an intracellular environment that could support the conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia. PMID:28316608

  15. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a protein expression system for pharmaceutical and biotechnological proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbeck, Christoph; Kobl, Iris; Heitzer, Markus

    2006-10-01

    Recombinant proteins have become more and more important for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Although various systems for protein expression have been developed, there is an increasing demand for inexpensive methods of large-scale production. Eukaryotic algae could serve as a novel option for the manufacturing of recombinant proteins, as they can be cultivated in a cheap and easy manner and grown to high cell densities. Being a model organism, the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been studied intensively over the last decades and offers now a complete toolset for genetic manipulation. Recently, the successful expression of several proteins with pharmaceutical relevance has been reported from the nuclear and the chloroplastic genome of this alga, demonstrating its ability for biotechnological applications.

  16. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in vitamin B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Varshney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin generally synthesized by microorganisms. Mammals cannot synthesize this vitamin but have evolved processes for absorption, transport and cellular uptake of this vitamin. Only about 30% of vitamin B 12 , which is bound to the protein transcobalamin (TC (Holo-TC [HoloTC] enters into the cell and hence is referred to as the biologically active form of vitamin B 12 . Vitamin B 12 deficiency leads to several complex disorders, including neurological disorders and anemia. We had earlier shown that vitamin B 12 deficiency is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD in Indian population. In the current study, using a proteomics approach we identified proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of individuals with low HoloTC levels. Materials and Methods: We used isobaric-tagging method of relative and absolute quantitation to identify proteins that are differently expressed in individuals with low HoloTC levels when compared to those with normal HoloTC level. Results: In two replicate isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation experiments several proteins involved in lipid metabolism, blood coagulation, cholesterol metabolic process, and lipoprotein metabolic process were found to be altered in individuals having low HoloTC levels. Conclusions: Our study indicates that low HoloTc levels could be a risk factor in the development of CAD.

  17. Grizzly bear corticosteroid binding globulin: Cloning and serum protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Brian A; Hamilton, Jason; Alsop, Derek; Cattet, Marc R L; Stenhouse, Gordon; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-06-01

    Serum corticosteroid levels are routinely measured as markers of stress in wild animals. However, corticosteroid levels rise rapidly in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint for sampling, limiting its use as an indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that serum corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), the primary transport protein for corticosteroids in circulation, may be a better marker of the stress status prior to capture in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To test this, a full-length CBG cDNA was cloned and sequenced from grizzly bear testis and polyclonal antibodies were generated for detection of this protein in bear sera. The deduced nucleotide and protein sequences were 1218 bp and 405 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments showed that grizzly bear CBG (gbCBG) was 90% and 83% identical to the dog CBG nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The affinity purified rabbit gbCBG antiserum detected grizzly bear but not human CBG. There were no sex differences in serum total cortisol concentration, while CBG expression was significantly higher in adult females compared to males. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in bears captured by leg-hold snare compared to those captured by remote drug delivery from helicopter. However, serum CBG expression between these two groups did not differ significantly. Overall, serum CBG levels may be a better marker of chronic stress, especially because this protein is not modulated by the stress of capture and restraint in grizzly bears. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BET proteins are a key component of immunoglobulin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jung Min; Lee, Jin S; Russell, Kirsty E; Wiegman, Coen H; Barnes, Peter J; Fear, David; Adcock, Ian M; Durham, Andrew L

    2017-04-01

    BET proteins have been shown to regulate gene expression including inflammatory genes. In order to investigate the role of the BET proteins in immunoglobulin production we treated the human B-cell line CLNH11.4 and primary human B cells and ozone-exposed mice with BET inhibitors (JQ1 or IBET151). Both proliferation and IgG production were reduced by JQ1 in a concentration-dependent manner. JQ1 significantly reduced immunoglobulin gene transcription. In vivo treatment of ozone-exposed mice with the BET inhibitor IBET151 similarly inhibited ozone-induced immunoglobulin production. JQ1 did not reduce the protein levels of Brd4 or Oct2 per se but reduced the ability of Brd4 and Oct2 to co-immunoprecipitate and of Oct2 to bind to immunoglobulin gene promoters. Our results indicate that BET proteins including Brd4 play a crucial role regulation B-cell-specific gene expression and immunoglobulin production.

  19. Expression of SFRP Family Proteins in Human Keratoconus Corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing You

    Full Text Available We investigated the expression of the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs in keratoconus (KC and control corneas. KC buttons (∼8 mm diameter (n = 15 and whole control corneas (n = 7 were fixed in 10% formalin or 2% paraformaldehyde and subsequently paraffin embedded and sectioned. Sections for histopathology were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or Periodic Acid Schiff's reagent. A series of sections was also immunolabelled with SFRP 1 to 5 antibodies, visualised using immunofluorescence, and examined with a Zeiss LSM700 scanning laser confocal microscope. Semi-quantitative grading was used to compare SFRP immunostaining in KC and control corneas. Overall, KC corneas showed increased immunostaining for SFRP1 to 5, compared to controls. Corneal epithelium in all KC corneas displayed heterogeneous moderate to strong immunoreactivity for SFRP1 to 4, particularly in the basal epithelium adjacent to cone area. SFRP3 and 5 were localised to epithelial cell membranes in KC and control corneas, with increased SFRP3 cytoplasmic expression observed in KC. Strong stromal expression of SFRP5, including extracellular matrix, was seen in both KC and control corneas. In control corneas we observed differential expression of SFRP family proteins in the limbus compared to more central cornea. Taken together, our results support a role for SFRPs in maintaining a healthy cornea and in the pathogenesis of epithelial and anterior stromal disruption observed in KC.

  20. Expression of SFRP Family Proteins in Human Keratoconus Corneas

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jingjing; Wen, Li; Roufas, Athena; Madigan, Michele C.; Sutton, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the expression of the secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs) in keratoconus (KC) and control corneas. KC buttons (∼8 mm diameter) (n = 15) and whole control corneas (n = 7) were fixed in 10% formalin or 2% paraformaldehyde and subsequently paraffin embedded and sectioned. Sections for histopathology were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or Periodic Acid Schiff’s reagent. A series of sections was also immunolabelled with SFRP 1 to 5 antibodies, visualised using immunofluorescence, and examined with a Zeiss LSM700 scanning laser confocal microscope. Semi-quantitative grading was used to compare SFRP immunostaining in KC and control corneas. Overall, KC corneas showed increased immunostaining for SFRP1 to 5, compared to controls. Corneal epithelium in all KC corneas displayed heterogeneous moderate to strong immunoreactivity for SFRP1 to 4, particularly in the basal epithelium adjacent to cone area. SFRP3 and 5 were localised to epithelial cell membranes in KC and control corneas, with increased SFRP3 cytoplasmic expression observed in KC. Strong stromal expression of SFRP5, including extracellular matrix, was seen in both KC and control corneas. In control corneas we observed differential expression of SFRP family proteins in the limbus compared to more central cornea. Taken together, our results support a role for SFRPs in maintaining a healthy cornea and in the pathogenesis of epithelial and anterior stromal disruption observed in KC. PMID:23825088

  1. A Novel Protein Is Lower Expressed in Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Ruili Guan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engrailed-2 (EN2 has been identified as a candidate oncogene in breast cancer and prostate cancer. It is usually recognized as a mainly nuclear staining in the cells. However, recent studies showed a cytoplasmic staining occurred in prostate cancer, bladder cancer and clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The inconsistency makes us confused. To clarify the localization and expression of EN2 in renal cell carcinoma, anti-EN2 antibody (ab28731 and anti-EN2 antibody (MAB2600 were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC respectively. Interestingly, we found that EN2 detected by ab28731 was mainly presented in cytoplasm while EN2 detected by MAB2600 was mainly presented in nucleus. To further investigate the different patterns observed above, lysates from full-length EN2 over expression in HEK293T cells were used to identify which antibody the EN2 molecule bound by western blot. Results showed ab28731 did not react with the lysates. For this reason, the novel specific protein detected by ab28731 was not the EN2 molecule and was named nonEN2. Then using the renal carcinoma tissue microarray and renal tissues, we found that the protein expression levels of nonEN2 in kidney tumor tissues was significantly lower than that in kidney normal tissues (p < 0.05, so was in renal cell lines. Taken together, nonEN2 is lower expressed and may play an important role in renal cell carcinoma.

  2. Transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394, a Plasmodium falciparum protein expressed in salivary gland sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarman Maggie S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a significant problem around the world today, thus there is still a need for new control methods to be developed. Because the sporozoite displays dual infectivity for both the mosquito salivary glands and vertebrate host tissue, it is a good target for vaccine development. Methods The P. falciparum gene, PF11_0394, was chosen as a candidate for study due to its potential role in the invasion of host tissues. This gene, which was selected using a data mining approach from PlasmoDB, is expressed both at the transcriptional and protein levels in sporozoites and likely encodes a putative surface protein. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and green fluorescent protein (GFP-trafficking studies, a transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394 was determined. Results The PF11_0394 protein has orthologs in other Plasmodium species and Apicomplexans, but none outside of the group Apicomplexa. PF11_0394 transcript was found to be present during both the sporozoite and erythrocytic stages of the parasite life cycle, but no transcript was detected during axenic exoerythrocytic stages. Despite the presence of transcript throughout several life cycle stages, the PF11_0394 protein was only detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Conclusions PF11_0394 appears to be a protein uniquely detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Even though a specific function of PF11_0394 has not been determined in P. falciparum biology, it could be another candidate for a new vaccine.

  3. MiR-218 suppresses nasopharyngeal cancer progression through downregulation of survivin and the SLIT2-ROBO1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajez, Nehad M; Lenarduzzi, Michelle; Ito, Emma; Hui, Angela B Y; Shi, Wei; Bruce, Jeff; Yue, Shijun; Huang, Shao H; Xu, Wei; Waldron, John; O'Sullivan, Brian; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2011-03-15

    Nasopharayngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignancy most common in East Asia and Africa. Here we report frequent downregulation of the microRNA miR-218 in primary NPC tissues and cell lines where it plays a critical role in NPC progression. Suppression of miR-218 was associated with epigenetic silencing of SLIT2 and SLIT3, ligands of ROBO receptors that have been previously implicated in tumor angiogenesis. Exogenous expression of miR-218 caused significant toxicity in NPC cells in vitro and delayed tumor growth in vivo. We used an integrated trimodality approach to identify targets of miR-218 in NPC, cervical, and breast cell lines. Direct interaction between miR-218 and the 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs encoding ROBO1, survivin (BIRC5), and connexin43 (GJA1) was validated in a luciferase-based transcription reporter assay. Mechanistic investigations revealed a negative feedback loop wherein miR-218 regulates NPC cell migration via the SLIT-ROBO pathway. Pleotropic effects of miR-218 on NPC survival and migration were rescued by enforced expression of miR-218-resistant, engineered isoforms of survivin and ROBO1, respectively. In clinical specimens of NPC (n=71), ROBO1 overexpression was significantly associated with worse overall (P=0.04, HR=2.4) and nodal relapse-free survival (P=0.008, HR=6.0). Our findings define an integrative tumor suppressor function for miR-218 in NPC and further suggest that restoring miR-218 expression in NPC might be useful for its clinical management. © 2011 AACR.

  4. Expression Atlas: gene and protein expression across multiple studies and organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Irene; Fonseca, Nuno A; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y Amy; Barrera, Elisabet; Bazant, Wojciech; Burke, Melissa; Füllgrabe, Anja; Fuentes, Alfonso Muñoz-Pomer; George, Nancy; Huerta, Laura; Koskinen, Satu; Mohammed, Suhaib; Geniza, Matthew; Preece, Justin; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Jarnuczak, Andrew F; Huber, Wolfgang; Stegle, Oliver; Vizcaino, Juan Antonio; Brazma, Alvis; Petryszak, Robert

    2018-01-04

    Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) is an added value database that provides information about gene and protein expression in different species and contexts, such as tissue, developmental stage, disease or cell type. The available public and controlled access data sets from different sources are curated and re-analysed using standardized, open source pipelines and made available for queries, download and visualization. As of August 2017, Expression Atlas holds data from 3,126 studies across 33 different species, including 731 from plants. Data from large-scale RNA sequencing studies including Blueprint, PCAWG, ENCODE, GTEx and HipSci can be visualized next to each other. In Expression Atlas, users can query genes or gene-sets of interest and explore their expression across or within species, tissues, developmental stages in a constitutive or differential context, representing the effects of diseases, conditions or experimental interventions. All processed data matrices are available for direct download in tab-delimited format or as R-data. In addition to the web interface, data sets can now be searched and downloaded through the Expression Atlas R package. Novel features and visualizations include the on-the-fly analysis of gene set overlaps and the option to view gene co-expression in experiments investigating constitutive gene expression across tissues or other conditions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein in Bacillus methanolicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilasari, Dewi; Dover, Nir; Rech, Sabine; Komives, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biocatalysts are used in a wide range of industries to produce large scale quantities of proteins, amino acids, and commodity chemicals. While the majority of these processes use glucose or other low-cost sugars as the substrate, Bacillus methanolicus is one example of a biocatalyst that has shown sustained growth on methanol as a carbon source at elevated temperature (50-53°C optimum) resulting in reduced feed and utility costs. Specifically, the complete chemical process enabled by this approach takes methane from natural gas, and following a low-cost conversion to methanol, can be used for the production of high value products. In this study, production of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) by B. methanolicus is explored. A plasmid was constructed that incorporates the methanol dehydrogenase (mdh) promoter of B. methanolicus MGA3 together with the GFPuv gene. The plasmid, pNW33N, was shown to be effective for expression in other Bacillus strains, although not previously in B. methanolicus. A published electroporation protocol for transformation of B. methanolicus was modified to result in expression of GFP using plasmid pNW33N-mdh-GFPuv (pNmG). Transformation was confirmed by both agarose gel electrophoresis and by observation of green fluorescence under UV light exposure. The mass yield of cells and protein were measured in shake flask experiments. The optimum concentration of methanol for protein production was found to be at 200 mM. Higher concentrations than 200 mM resulted in slightly higher biomass production but lower amounts of recombinant protein. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  6. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

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    Alberto Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  7. Glycolipid transfer protein expression is affected by glycosphingolipid synthesis.

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    Matti A Kjellberg

    Full Text Available Members of the glycolipid transfer protein superfamily (GLTP are found from animals and fungi to plants and red micro-alga. Eukaryotes that encode the glucosylceramide synthase responsible for the synthesis of glucosylceramide, the precursor for most glycosphingolipids, also produce GLTPs. Cells that does not synthesize glucosylceramide neither express GLTPs. Based on this genetic relationship there must be a strong correlation between the synthesis of glucosylceramide and GLTPs. To regulate the levels of glycolipids we have used inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, glycosphingolipid synthesis and degradation, and small interfering RNA to down-regulate the activity of glucosylceramide synthase activity. We found that GLTP expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, is elevated in cells that accumulate glucosylceramide. Monensin and brefeldin A block intracellular vesicular transport mechanisms. Brefeldin A treatment leads to accumulation of newly synthesized glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide and lactosylceramide in a fused endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. On the other hand, inhibiting glycosphingolipid degradation with conduritol-B-epoxide, that generates glucosylceramide accumulation in the lysosomes, did not affect the levels of GLTP. However, glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors like PDMP, NB-DNJ and myriocin, all decreased glucosylceramide and GLTP below normal levels. We also found that an 80% loss of glucosylceramide due to glucosylceramide synthase knockdown resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of GLTP. We show here that interfering with membrane trafficking events and simple neutral glycosphingolipid synthesis will affect the expression of GLTP. We postulate that a change in the glucosylceramide balance causes a response in the GLTP expression, and put forward that GLTP might play a role in lipid directing and sensing of glucosylceramide at the ER-Golgi interface.

  8. A Codon Deletion at the Beginning of Green Fluorescent Protein Genes Enhances Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mejía, José-Luis; Roldán-Salgado, Abigail; Osuna, Joel; Merino, Enrique; Gaytán, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant protein expression is one of the key issues in protein engineering and biotechnology. Among the different models for assessing protein production and structure-function studies, green fluorescent protein (GFP) is one of the preferred models because of its importance as a reporter in cellular and molecular studies. In this research we analyze the effect of codon deletions near the amino terminus of different GFP proteins on fluorescence. Our study includes Gly4 deletions in the enhanced GFP (EGFP), the red-shifted GFP and the red-shifted EGFP. The Gly4 deletion mutants and their corresponding wild-type counterparts were transcribed under the control of the T7 or Trc promoters and their expression patterns were analyzed. Different fluorescent outcomes were observed depending on the type of fluorescent gene versions. In silico analysis of the RNA secondary structures near the ribosome binding site revealed a direct relationship between their minimum free energy and GFP production. Integrative analysis of these results, including SDS-PAGE analysis, led us to conclude that the fluorescence improvement of cells expressing different versions of GFPs with Gly4 deleted is due to an enhancement of the accessibility of the ribosome binding site by reducing the stability of the RNA secondary structures at their mRNA leader regions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Expression and characterization of a Rana pipiens amelogenin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekwisch, T G H; Wang, X; Fan, J L; Ito, Y; Luan, X

    2006-05-01

    Amelogenin, the major protein of developing enamel matrix, controls enamel crystal growth via unique supermolecular features. While much has been contributed to our understanding of mammalian amelogenin function, little is known about how amelogenin and its unique physico-chemical features have evolved among vertebrates. Here we report, for the first time, amphibian amelogenin recombinant protein expression and characterization in Rana pipiens. In order to characterize R. pipiens amelogenin, the newly discovered amelogenin coding sequence was amplified, subcloned, and expressed in Eshcerichia coli. Our newly generated R. pipiens amelogenin-specific antisera resolved a major 19-kDa band on western blots of frog tooth extracts and revealed an enamel organ tissue-specific localization pattern using immunohistochemistry. Using mass spectroscopy, a single major compound with a molecular weight of 21.6 kDa was detected, which corresponded to the amino acid sequence-based molecular weight prediction of the His fusion recombinant protein. Dynamic light scattering studies resolved 41-nm radius subunits compared with 14-nm radius subunits from mouse recombinant amelogenin controls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed defined spherical subunits in R. pipiens matrix self-assembly in contrast with a homogeneous 'stippled' matrix in mouse amelogenin matrix self-assembly. Our data suggest that R. pipiens amelogenin is distinguished from mammalian amelogenins by a number of unique physico-chemical properties which may be related to specific modes of crystal formation in frog enamel.

  10. Transformation of Escherichia coli and protein expression using lipoplex mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chul-Ho; Bae, Chun-Sik; Ahn, Taeho

    2016-11-01

    We investigated a "one-step" method for transformation of and protein expression in Escherichia coli (E. coli) using a complex of n-stearylamine, a cationic lipid, and plasmid DNA, which mimics lipoplex-based approaches. When E. coli cells were treated with the cationic lipid-plasmid complex, the transformation efficiencies were in the range of approximately 2-3 × 10(6) colony-forming units. Further increase in the efficiency was obtained by co-treatment with calcium chloride (or rubidium chloride) and the complexes. Moreover, after DNA transfer, E. coli cells successfully expressed plasmid-encoded proteins such as cytochrome P450s and glutathione-S-transferase without overnight incubation of the cells to form colonies, an indispensable step in other bacterial transformation methods. In this study, we provide a simple method for E. coli transformation, which does not require the preparation of competent cells. The present method also shortens the overall procedures for transformation and gene expression in E. coli by omitting the colony-forming step. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MicroRNA-203 Is a Prognostic Indicator in Bladder Cancer and Enhances Chemosensitivity to Cisplatin via Apoptosis by Targeting Bcl-w and Survivin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    Full Text Available Resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a major cause of treatment failure in advanced bladder cancer (BC patients. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs are involved in the development and progression of BC. However, little is known about the function of microRNAs in predicting the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on BC survival and regulating response to cisplatin. To address this issue, we employed RT-qPCR to evaluate the clinical significance of miR-203 expression in 108 tissues of BC patients receiving cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy, and performed in vitro studies to explore chemotherapeutic sensitivity to cisplatin in miR-203 overexpressing BC cells. We found miR-203 levels were significantly lower in BC progression group than non-progression group (P<0.001. ROC curve analysis illustrated miR-203 could significantly distinguish progressed patients from those without progression (P<0.001, yielding an area under the ROC curve of 0.839 (95% CI, 0.756-0.903. Moreover, low miR-203 expression correlated with shortened progression free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS of BC patients, and was an independent prognostic factor. Overexpression of miR-203 in 5637 and T24 BC cells could decrease cell viability, enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity, and promote apoptosis. Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay showed Bcl-w and Survivin were direct downstream targets of miR-203. There was also a significant inverse association between miR-203 and Bcl-w or Survivin expression in BC tissues (r = -0.781, -0.740, both P<0.001. In conclusion, decreased miR-203 predicts progression and poor prognosis for BC patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy while miR-203 overexpression can enhance cisplatin sensitization by promoting apoptosis via directly targeting Bcl-w and Survivin.

  12. Comparison of thymidine phosphorylase expression and prognostic factors in gallbladder and bile duct cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Young

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary tract cancers have limitations in information about different location-related pathogenesis and clinico-pathological characteristics. The goal of this study was to investigate anatomical site-related similarities and differences in biliary tract cancers and to assess the expression and clinical significance of functional proteins such as p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1. Methods One hundred and sixty-one patients with biliary tract adenocarcinomas, who underwent curative or palliative surgery in a single institution between October 1994 and December 2003 were evaluated, retrospectively. The level of protein expression of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results With respect to clinico-pathological characteristics, gallbladder cancer was more frequent in women, and bile duct cancer was more common in men. Perineural invasion was more common in bile duct cancer. Recurrence as a distant metastasis was more common in gallbladder cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that thymidine phosphorylase expression was significantly higher in gallbladder cancer than in bile duct cancer. Positive thymidine phosphorylase and p53 staining were associated with an advanced stage. Differentiation, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage independently predicted poor prognosis in biliary tract cancer. These correlations were seen more clearly in gallbladder cancer. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of p53, cyclin D1, survivin, thymidine phosphorylase, and ERCC1 showed no prognostic significance in biliary tract cancers. Conclusions We concluded that gallbladder and bile duct cancers are considered to be separate diseases with different clinico-pathological characteristics and prognostic factors. In addition, we hypothesize that high expression of thymidine phosphorylase by

  13. Expression Atlas update--an integrated database of gene and protein expression in humans, animals and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petryszak, Robert; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y Amy; Fonseca, Nuno A; Barrera, Elisabet; Burdett, Tony; Füllgrabe, Anja; Fuentes, Alfonso Muñoz-Pomer; Jupp, Simon; Koskinen, Satu; Mannion, Oliver; Huerta, Laura; Megy, Karine; Snow, Catherine; Williams, Eleanor; Barzine, Mitra; Hastings, Emma; Weisser, Hendrik; Wright, James; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Huber, Wolfgang; Choudhary, Jyoti; Parkinson, Helen E; Brazma, Alvis

    2016-01-01

    Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) provides information about gene and protein expression in animal and plant samples of different cell types, organism parts, developmental stages, diseases and other conditions...

  14. Modular broad-host-range expression vectors for single-protein and protein complex purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Barna D; Kovács, Akos T; Csáki, Róbert; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Eva; Klement, Eva; Maróti, Gergely; Mészáros, Lívia S; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2004-02-01

    A set of modular broad-host-range expression vectors with various affinity tags (six-His-tag, FLAG-tag, Strep-tag II, T7-tag) was created. The complete nucleotide sequences of the vectors are known, and these small vectors can be mobilized by conjugation. They are useful in the purification of proteins and protein complexes from gram-negative bacterial species. The plasmids were easily customized for Thiocapsa roseopersicina, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Methylococcus capsulatus by inserting an appropriate promoter. These examples demonstrate the versatility and flexibility of the vectors. The constructs harbor the T7 promoter for easy overproduction of the desired protein in an appropriate Escherichia coli host. The vectors were useful in purifying different proteins from T. roseopersicina. The FLAG-tag-Strep-tag II combination was utilized for isolation of the HynL-HypC2 protein complex involved in hydrogenase maturation. These tools should be useful for protein purification and for studying protein-protein interactions in a range of bacterial species.

  15. Nicotine-induced protein expression profiling reveals mutually altered proteins across four human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A; Gygi, Steven P

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategies can profile the expression level of proteins in response to external stimuli. Nicotine affects diverse cellular pathways, however, the nicotine-induced alterations on the global proteome across human cell lines have not been fully elucidated. We measured perturbations in protein levels resulting from nicotine treatment in four cell lines-HEK, HeLa, PaSC, and SH-SY5Y-in a single experiment using tandem mass tags (TMT10-plex) and high-resolution mass spectrometry. We quantified 8590 proteins across all cell lines. Of these, nicotine increased the abundance of 31 proteins 1.5-fold or greater in all cell lines. Likewise, considering proteins with altered levels in at least three of the four cell lines, 64 were up-regulated, while one was down-regulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that ∼40% of these proteins were membrane bound, and functioned in transmembrane signaling and receptor activity. We highlighted proteins, including APP, APLP2, LAPTM4B, and NCOA4, which were dysregulated by nicotine in all cell lines investigated and may have implications in downstream signaling pathways, particularly autophagy. Using the outlined methodology, studies in additional (including primary) cell lines will provide further evidence that alterations in the levels of these proteins are indeed a general response to nicotine and thereby merit further investigation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application......TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... of serum response factor, drives myofibroblast transition from various precursors. We have shown that TGFβ is necessary but insufficient for epithelial-myofibroblast transition in intact epithelia; the other prerequisite is the uncoupling of intercellular contacts, which induces Rho-dependent nuclear...

  17. Differential regulation of dentin matrix protein 1 expression during odontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongbo; Zhang, Shubin; Xie, Yixia; Pi, Yuli; Feng, Jian Q

    2005-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in mineralized tooth and bone. Both in vitro and in vivo data show that DMP1 is critical for mineralization and tooth morphogenesis (growth and development). In this study, we studied Dmp1 gene regulation. The in vitro transient transfection assay identified two important DNA fragments, the 2.4- and 9.6-kb promoter regions. We next generated and analyzed transgenic mice bearing the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter gene driven by the 2.4- or 9.6-kb promoter with the complete 4-kb intron 1. The 9.6-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice conferred a DMP1 expression pattern in odontoblasts identical to that in the endogenous Dmp1 gene. This is reflected by lacZ expression in Dmp1-lacZ knock-in mice during all stages of odontogenesis. In contrast, the 2.4-kb Dmp1-lacZ mice display activity in odontoblast cells only at the early stage of odontogenesis. Thus, we propose that different transcription factors regulate early or later cis-regulatory domains of the Dmp1 promoter, which gives rise to the unique spatial and temporal expression pattern of Dmp1 gene at different stages of tooth development. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative study on the immunogenicity between an HLA-A24-restricted cytotoxic T-cell epitope derived from survivin and that from its splice variant survivin-2B in oral cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Akira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported an HLA-A24-restricted cytotoxic T-cell epitope, Survivin-2B80-88, derived from a splice variant of survivin, survivin-2B. In this report, we show a novel HLA-A24-restricted T-cell epitope, Survivin-C58, derived from a wild type survivin, and compared their immunogenicity in oral cancer patients. Methods By stimulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of HLA-A24-positive cancer patients with Survivin-C58 peptide in vitro, the peptide-specific CTLs were induced. In order to compare the immunogenic potential between C58 peptide and 2B80-88 peptide, peripheral blood T-cells from thirteen HLA-A24-positive oral cancer patients were stimulated with either or both of these two peptides. Results Survivin-2B80-88 peptide-specific CTLs were induced from four patients, and C58 peptide-specific CTLs were induced from three out of eight patients with over stage II progression. The CTLs exerted cytotoxicity against HLA-A24-positive tumor cells. In contrast, CTL induction failed from a healthy volunteer and all four patients with cancer stage I. Conclusion It was indicated that a splicing variant-derived peptide and wild type survivin-derived peptide might have a comparable potency of CTL induction, and survivin targeting immunotherapy using survivin-2B80-88 and C58 peptide cocktail should be suitable for HLA-A24+ oral cancer patients.

  20. Effects and mechanism of downregulation of COX‑2 expression by RNA interference on proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF‑7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui; Yang, Sheng; Lin, Shun-Guo; Xu, Chun-Sen; Han, Zhong-Hua

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of RNA interference with prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX‑2) gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer MCF‑7 cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. The present study constructed the eukaryotic expression vector of the targeted COX‑2 gene, transfected the MCF‑7 cells and screened the stably expressed clone. Changes in the COX‑2 gene expression in breast cancer MCF‑7 cells prior to and following transfection were examined; the proliferation and apoptosis of MCF‑7 cells were analyzed. Furthermore, changes in the protein levels of survivin, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) genes were detected. RNA interference mediated by a lentiviral expression vector significantly decreased the protein expression levels of the COX‑2 gene, and therefore, the proliferation and growth of breast cancer MCF‑7 cells was significantly suppressed and the apoptotic rate increased. Of note, the mRNA and protein expression levels of survivin and Bcl‑2 decreased, while those of Bax increased following COX-2 silencing. RNA interference markedly deactivated the COX‑2 gene, suppressed the proliferation of breast cancer MCF‑7 cells, and, to a certain extent, enhanced the induced spontaneous apoptosis, which is regulated by the Bax gene. These results provided evidence for the potential applications of RNA interference of the targeted COX‑2 gene in gene therapy for the treatment of breast cancer.

  1. Protein expression of Myt272-3 recombinant clone and in silico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the expression of Myt272-3 recombinant protein and also to predict a possible protein vaccine candidate against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: Myt272-3 protein was expressed in pET30a+-Myt272-3 clone. The purity of the protein was determined using Dynabeads® His-Tag Isolation ...

  2. Growing functional modules from a seed protein via integration of protein interaction and gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrakopoulou Konstantina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays modern biology aims at unravelling the strands of complex biological structures such as the protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. A key concept in the organization of PPI networks is the existence of dense subnetworks (functional modules in them. In recent approaches clustering algorithms were applied at these networks and the resulting subnetworks were evaluated by estimating the coverage of well-established protein complexes they contained. However, most of these algorithms elaborate on an unweighted graph structure which in turn fails to elevate those interactions that would contribute to the construction of biologically more valid and coherent functional modules. Results In the current study, we present a method that corroborates the integration of protein interaction and microarray data via the discovery of biologically valid functional modules. Initially the gene expression information is overlaid as weights onto the PPI network and the enriched PPI graph allows us to exploit its topological aspects, while simultaneously highlights enhanced functional association in specific pairs of proteins. Then we present an algorithm that unveils the functional modules of the weighted graph by expanding a kernel protein set, which originates from a given 'seed' protein used as starting-point. Conclusion The integrated data and the concept of our approach provide reliable functional modules. We give proofs based on yeast data that our method manages to give accurate results in terms both of structural coherency, as well as functional consistency.

  3. Trichohyalin-like 1 protein, a member of fused S100 proteins, is expressed in normal and pathologic human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakoshi, Takako [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Makino, Teruhiko, E-mail: tmakino@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Ur Rehman, Mati; Yoshihisa, Yoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Sugimori, Michiya [Department of Integrative Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Shimizu, Tadamichi, E-mail: shimizut@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Trichohyalin-like 1 protein is a member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. ► Specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein were generated. ► TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. ► TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in tumor nests of BCC and SCC. ► The expression of TCHHL1 proteins increased in epidermis of psoriasis vulgaris. - Abstract: Trichohyalin-like 1 (TCHHL1) protein is a novel member of the fused-type S100 protein gene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of TCHHL1 contains an EF-hand domain in the N-terminus, one trans-membrane domain and a nuclear localization signal. We generated specific antibodies against the C-terminus of the TCHHL1 protein and examined the expression of TCHHL1 proteins in normal and pathological human skin. An immunohistochemical study showed that TCHHL1 proteins were expressed in the basal layer of the normal epidermis. In addition, signals of TCHHL1 proteins were observed around the nuclei of cultured growing keratinocytes. Accordingly, TCHHL1 mRNA has been detected in normal skin and cultured growing keratinocytes. Furthermore, TCHHL1 proteins were strongly expressed in the peripheral areas of tumor nests in basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. A dramatic increase in the number of Ki67 positive cells was observed in TCHHL1-expressing areas. The expression of TCHHL1 proteins also increased in non-cancerous hyperproliferative epidermal tissues such as those of psoriasis vulgaris and lichen planus. These findings highlight the possibility that TCHHL1 proteins are expressed in growing keratinocytes of the epidermis and might be associated with the proliferation of keratinocytes.

  4. Expression of Glucose Transporter Proteins in Human Diabetic Placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanirowski, Paweł Jan; Szukiewicz, Dariusz; Pazura-Turowska, Monika; Sawicki, Włodzimierz; Cendrowski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-02

    Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregestational diabetes mellitus constitute carbohydrate metabolism disorders, which, if not diagnosed and adequately treated, lead to serious and often life-threatening pregnancy complications. According to a recently formulated hypothesis, some diabetes-related complications, such as fetal macrosomia, may be the result of disturbances in the transplacental transport of nutrients-in particular, excessive maternal-fetal glucose transfer. Throughout pregnancy, glucose flux across the placenta is mediated by the group of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), the expression of which in different placental compartments is the precondition for effective glucose uptake from maternal blood and its subsequent transfer to the fetal circulation. In diabetes-complicated pregnancies, the location, expression and activity of glucose transporters are modified to an extent that results in alterations in the maternal-fetal glucose exchange, potentially leading to an excessive supply of energy substrates to the fetus. This paper reviews the literature on the expression and activity of glucose transporter proteins-GLUT-1, GLUT-3, GLUT-4, GLUT-8, GLUT-9 and GLUT-12-in the human placenta, with a special focus on diabetes-complicated pregnancy. The characteristics of transporters in conditions of maternal normoglycemia and modifications occurring in the diabetic placenta are summarized, and the factors responsible for the regulation of the expression of selected isoforms are described. Finally, the impact of alterations in the placental expression of the aforementioned members of the GLUT family on intrauterine fetal development in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple folding pathways for heterologously expressed human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G S; Hill, A F; Joseph, C; Hosszu, L; Power, A; Waltho, J P; Clarke, A R; Collinge, J

    1999-04-12

    Human PrP (residues 91-231) expressed in Escherichia coli can adopt several conformations in solution depending on pH, redox conditions and denaturant concentration. Oxidised PrP at neutral pH, with the disulphide bond intact, is a soluble monomer which contains 47% alpha-helix and corresponds to PrPC. Denaturation studies show that this structure has a relatively small, solvent-excluded core and unfolds to an unstructured state in a single, co-operative transition with a DeltaG for folding of -5.6 kcal mol-1. The unfolding behaviour is sensitive to pH and at 4.0 or below the molecule unfolds via a stable folding intermediate. This equilibrium intermediate has a reduced helical content and aggregates over several hours. When the disulphide bond is reduced the protein adopts different conformations depending upon pH. At neutral pH or above, the reduced protein has an alpha-helical fold, which is identical to that observed for the oxidised protein. At pH 4 or below, the conformation rearranges to a fold that contains a high proportion of beta-sheet structure. In the reduced state the alpha- and beta-forms are slowly inter-convertible whereas when oxidised the protein can only adopt an alpha-conformation in free solution. The data we present here shows that the human prion protein can exist in multiple conformations some of which are known to be capable of forming fibrils. The precise conformation that human PrP adopts and the pathways for unfolding are dependent upon solvent conditions. The conditions we examined are within the range that a protein may encounter in sub-cellular compartments and may have implications for the mechanism of conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in vivo. Since the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc is accompanied by a switch in secondary structure from alpha to beta, this system provides a useful model for studying major structural rearrangements in the prion protein.

  6. Expression of p53 protein in pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivating mutations of TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, are associated with abnormal cell proliferation. Although p53 expression is common in many human malignancies, p53 protein has seldom been evaluated in pituitary tumors. When detected, the percentage of p53-positive cells is low, and, in general, it is exclusive for invasive lesions. The aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemistry to determine the presence of p53 protein in pituitary adenomas from tumor samples of 163 surgeries performed in 148 patients (40% male, 60% female. In 35% of the cases the adenoma was nonfunctional, while in the others it was associated with PRL, GH and/or ACTH endocrine hypersecretion syndrome. Macroadenomas were observed in 83.2% of the cases with available neuroimage evaluation, of which 28% invaded the cavernous, sphenoid and/or ethmoidal sinus, bone, third ventricle or subfrontal lobe. p53 protein was detected in 2/148 patients (1.3%. Immunohistochemistry was positive for PRL and GH in these cases. Due to the high percentage of invasive pituitary adenomas found in our study, the low frequency of p53 detection suggests that it is inadequate as a routine marker for aggressiveness and as a predictive factor of tumor behavior.

  7. Expression of water channel proteins in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, H H; Vera-Estrella, R; Golldack, D; Quigley, F; Michalowski, C B; Barkla, B J; Bohnert, H J

    2000-05-01

    We have characterized transcripts for nine major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), some of which function as water channels (aquaporins), from the ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. To determine the cellular distribution and expression of these MIPs, oligopeptide-based antibodies were generated against MIP-A, MIP-B, MIP-C, or MIP-F, which, according to sequence and functional characteristics, are located in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast, respectively. MIPs were most abundant in cells involved in bulk water flow and solute flux. The tonoplast MIP-F was found in all cells, while signature cell types identified different PM-MIPs: MIP-A predominantly in phloem-associated cells, MIP-B in xylem parenchyma, and MIP-C in the epidermis and endodermis of immature roots. Membrane protein analysis confirmed MIP-F as tonoplast located. MIP-A and MIP-B were found in tonoplast fractions and also in fractions distinct from either the tonoplast or PM. MIP-C was most abundant but not exclusive to PM fractions, where it is expected based on its sequence signature. We suggest that within the cell, MIPs are mobile, which is similar to aquaporins cycling through animal endosomes. MIP cycling and the differential regulation of these proteins observed under conditions of salt stress may be fundamental for the control of tissue water flux.

  8. Expression of Water Channel Proteins in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Golldack, Dortje; Quigley, Francoise; Michalowski, Christine B.; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Bohnert, Hans J.

    2000-01-01

    We have characterized transcripts for nine major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), some of which function as water channels (aquaporins), from the ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. To determine the cellular distribution and expression of these MIPs, oligopeptide-based antibodies were generated against MIP-A, MIP-B, MIP-C, or MIP-F, which, according to sequence and functional characteristics, are located in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast, respectively. MIPs were most abundant in cells involved in bulk water flow and solute flux. The tonoplast MIP-F was found in all cells, while signature cell types identified different PM-MIPs: MIP-A predominantly in phloem-associated cells, MIP-B in xylem parenchyma, and MIP-C in the epidermis and endodermis of immature roots. Membrane protein analysis confirmed MIP-F as tonoplast located. MIP-A and MIP-B were found in tonoplast fractions and also in fractions distinct from either the tonoplast or PM. MIP-C was most abundant but not exclusive to PM fractions, where it is expected based on its sequence signature. We suggest that within the cell, MIPs are mobile, which is similar to aquaporins cycling through animal endosomes. MIP cycling and the differential regulation of these proteins observed under conditions of salt stress may be fundamental for the control of tissue water flux. PMID:10806230

  9. Production of Computationally Designed Small Soluble- and Membrane-Proteins: Cloning, Expression, and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Barsa; Acharya, Rudresh

    2017-01-01

    This book chapter focuses on expression and purification of computationally designed small soluble proteins and membrane proteins that are ordinarily difficult to express in good amounts for experiments. Over-expression of such proteins can be achieved by using the solubility tag such as maltose binding protein (MBP), Thioredoxin (Trx), and Gultathione-S-transferase (GST) fused to the protein of interest. Here, we describe and provide the protocols for cloning, expression and purification of such proteins using the solubility tag.

  10. Cloning, expression and purification of recombinant streptokinase: partial characterization of the protein expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Avilán

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available We cloned the streptokinase (STK gene of Streptococcus equisimilis in an expression vector of Escherichia coli to overexpress the profibrinolytic protein under the control of a tac promoter. Almost all the recombinant STK was exported to the periplasmic space and recovered after gentle lysozyme digestion of induced cells. The periplasmic fraction was chromatographed on DEAE Sepharose followed by chromatography on phenyl-agarose. Active proteins eluted between 4.5 and 0% ammonium sulfate, when a linear gradient was applied. Three major STK derivatives of 47.5 kDa, 45 kDa and 32 kDa were detected by Western blot analysis with a polyclonal antibody. The 32-kDa protein formed a complex with human plasminogen but did not exhibit Glu-plasminogen activator activity, as revealed by a zymographic assay, whereas the 45-kDa protein showed a Km = 0.70 µM and kcat = 0.82 s-1, when assayed with a chromogen-coupled substrate. These results suggest that these proteins are putative fragments of STK, possibly derived from partial degradation during the export pathway or the purification steps. The 47.5-kDa band corresponded to the native STK, as revealed by peptide sequencing

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HspX/EsxS Fusion Protein: Gene Cloning, Protein Expression, and Purification in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Farzad; Yousefi-Avarvand, Arshid; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Meshkat, Zahra; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Aryan, Ehsan; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clone, express, and purify a novel multidomain fusion protein of Micobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in a prokaryotic system. An hspX/esxS gene construct was synthesized and ligated into a pGH plasmid, E. coli TOP10 cells were transformed, and the vector was purified. The vector containing the construct and pET-21b (+) plasmid were digested with the same enzymes and the construct was ligated into pET-21b (+). The accuracy of cloning was confirmed by colony PCR and sequencing. E. coli BL21 cells were transformed with the pET-21b (+)/hspX/esxS expression vector and protein expression was evaluated. Finally, the expressed fusion protein was purified on a Ni-IDA column and verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. The hspX/esxS gene construct was inserted into pET-21b (+) and recombinant protein expression was induced with IPTG in E. coli BL21 cells. Various concentrations of IPTG were tested to determine the optimum concentration for expression induction. The recombinant protein was expressed in insoluble inclusion bodies. Three molar guanidine HCl was used to solubilize the insoluble protein. An HspX/EsxS Mtb fusion protein was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. After immunological analysis, the HspX/EsxS fusion protein might be an anti-tuberculosis vaccine candidate in future clinical trial studies.

  12. Cloning, expression, and antigenicity of 14 proteins from Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojun; Meng, Fanliang; Cao, Fangfang; Qiao, Bo; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Hongying; Zhou, Yizhuang; Dong, Haiyan; Gu, Yixin; Xiao, Di; Zhang, Yongchan; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-08-01

    Fourteen Campylobacter jejuni genes--porA, cadF, omp18, dnaK, flaC, peb1, peb2, peb3, peb4, ahpC, groEL, tuF, hipO, and Cj0069--were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant proteins were purified on histidine (His) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) trap columns using the ÄKTA Explorer 100 System. Recombinant proteins were visualized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The antigenicities of these recombinant proteins were assessed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-C. jejuni immune rabbit sera. Four recombinant proteins, including rGST-PorA, rHis-CadF, rGST-GroEL, and rGST-TuF, demonstrated reactions with both anti-serum and preimmune serum, while rHis-DnaK, rGST-FlaC, rGST-PEB2, rGST-PEB3, rGST-PEB4, and rGST-HipO showed variable antigenicity characteristics to the anti-sera derived from different C. jejuni strains. rHis-Omp18, rHis-PEB1, and rGST-AhpC demonstrated universal and specific antigenities with the entire anti-sera panel tested in this present study, while recombinant rGST-Cj0069 and rHis-DnaK did not react with any of the anti-C. jejuni sera tested. In conclusion, rGST-AhpC may be useful as a potential serodiagnostic antigen for C. jejuni infection.

  13. Expression-Enhanced Fluorescent Proteins Based on Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwé, Sam; De Zitter, Elke; Gielen, Vincent; Moeyaert, Benjamien; Vandenberg, Wim; Grotjohann, Tim; Clays, Koen; Jakobs, Stefan; Van Meervelt, Luc; Dedecker, Peter

    2015-10-27

    "Smart fluorophores", such as reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins, are crucial for advanced fluorescence imaging. However, only a limited number of such labels is available, and many display reduced biological performance compared to more classical variants. We present the development of robustly photoswitchable variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), named rsGreens, that display up to 30-fold higher fluorescence in E. coli colonies grown at 37 °C and more than 4-fold higher fluorescence when expressed in HEK293T cells compared to their ancestor protein rsEGFP. This enhancement is not due to an intrinsic increase in the fluorescence brightness of the probes, but rather due to enhanced expression levels that allow many more probe molecules to be functional at any given time. We developed rsGreens displaying a range of photoswitching kinetics and show how these can be used for multimodal diffraction-unlimited fluorescence imaging such as pcSOFI and RESOLFT, achieving a spatial resolution of ∼70 nm. By determining the first ever crystal structures of a negative reversibly switchable FP derived from Aequorea victoria in both the "on"- and "off"-conformation we were able to confirm the presence of a cis-trans isomerization and provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the photochromism. Our work demonstrates that genetically encoded "smart fluorophores" can be readily optimized for biological performance and provides a practical strategy for developing maturation- and stability-enhanced photochromic fluorescent proteins.

  14. SHuffle, a novel Escherichia coli protein expression strain capable of correctly folding disulfide bonded proteins in its cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobstein Julie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of correctly disulfide bonded proteins to high yields remains a challenge. Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli is the popular choice, especially within the research community. While there is an ever growing demand for new expression strains, few strains are dedicated to post-translational modifications, such as disulfide bond formation. Thus, new protein expression strains must be engineered and the parameters involved in producing disulfide bonded proteins must be understood. Results We have engineered a new E. coli protein expression strain named SHuffle, dedicated to producing correctly disulfide bonded active proteins to high yields within its cytoplasm. This strain is based on the trxB gor suppressor strain SMG96 where its cytoplasmic reductive pathways have been diminished, allowing for the formation of disulfide bonds in the cytoplasm. We have further engineered a major improvement by integrating into its chromosome a signal sequenceless disulfide bond isomerase, DsbC. We probed the redox state of DsbC in the oxidizing cytoplasm and evaluated its role in assisting the formation of correctly folded multi-disulfide bonded proteins. We optimized protein expression conditions, varying temperature, induction conditions, strain background and the co-expression of various helper proteins. We found that temperature has the biggest impact on improving yields and that the E. coli B strain background of this strain was superior to the K12 version. We also discovered that auto-expression of substrate target proteins using this strain resulted in higher yields of active pure protein. Finally, we found that co-expression of mutant thioredoxins and PDI homologs improved yields of various substrate proteins. Conclusions This work is the first extensive characterization of the trxB gor suppressor strain. The results presented should help researchers design the appropriate protein expression conditions using

  15. Cellular prion protein expression is not regulated by the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lewis

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrP(C, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP, through its inhibition of the β-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-β bind to PrP(C which may mediate amyloid-β neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD, which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrP(C. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrP(C. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP(695, APP(751 and APP(770 in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrP(C. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrP(C levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of γ-secretase activity also had no effect on PrP(C levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrP(C in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrP(C levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested.

  16. In vivo deglycosylation of recombinant proteins in plants by co-expression with bacterial PNGase F

    OpenAIRE

    Mamedov, Tarlan; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-01-01

    At present, several eukaryotic expression systems including yeast, insect and mammalian cells and plants are used for the production of recombinant proteins. Proteins with potential N-glycosylation sites are efficiently glycosylated when expressed in these systems. However, the ability of the eukaryotic expression systems to glycosylate may be not desirable for some proteins. If target proteins that do not carry N-linked glycans in the native host contain potential N-linked glycosylation site...

  17. Protein 53 expression in a mixed Labrador subcutaneous lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annahita Rezaie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An 11 year – old mixed female Labrador was presented with two masses in trunk and neck. The tumoral masses were excised and sent for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Histopathological examination of masses revealed diffuse infiltration of small sized lymphoid cells in subcutaneous tissue which were intense around the blood vessels. More than 10% lymphoid cells were CD3 positive in the immunohistochemical staining and most of them were accumulated around vessels. Protein 53 (p53 expression was detected by brown nuclei in immunohistochemical staining. Subcutaneous lymphoma was diagnosed according to histopathological results. After 6 months the case was referred with multicentric lymphoma and based on the owner request euthanasia was performed. These findings emphasize on poor prognosis for tumors with p53 mutation.

  18. Use of a protein engineering strategy to overcome limitations in the production of "Difficult to Express" recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hirra; Fisher, David I; Abbott, W Mark; Roth, Robert G; Dickson, Alan J

    2017-10-01

    Certain recombinant proteins are deemed "difficult to express" in mammalian expression systems requiring significant cell and/or process engineering to abrogate expression bottlenecks. With increasing demand for the production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells, low protein yields can have significant consequences for industrial processes. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that restrict expression of recombinant proteins, naturally secreted model proteins were analyzed from the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP) protein family. In particular, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were subjected to detailed study. TIMP proteins share significant sequence homology (∼50% identity and ∼70% similarity in amino acid sequence). However, they show marked differences in secretion in mammalian expression systems despite this extensive sequence homology. Using these two proteins as models, this study characterized the molecular mechanisms responsible for poor recombinant protein production. Our results reveal that both TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 are detectable at mRNA and protein level within the cell but only TIMP-2 is secreted effectively into the extracellular medium. Analysis of protein localization and the nature of intracellular protein suggest TIMP-3 is severely limited in its post-translational processing. To overcome this challenge, modification of the TIMP-3 sequence to include a furin protease-cleavable pro-sequence resulted in secretion of the modified TIMP-3 protein, however, incomplete processing was observed. Based on the TIMP-3 data, the protein engineering approach was optimized and successfully applied in combination with cell engineering, the overexpression of furin, to another member of the TIMP protein family (the poorly expressed TIMP-4). Use of the described protein engineering strategy resulted in successful secretion of poorly (TIMP-4) and non-secreted (TIMP-3) targets, and presents a novel strategy to enhance the production of "difficult" recombinant

  19. Human odontoblasts express transient receptor protein and acid-sensing ion channel mechanosensor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Magdalena, Antonio; Revuelta, Enrique G; Menénez-Díaz, Ivan; Calavia, Marta G; Cobo, Teresa; García-Suárez, Olivia; Pérez-Piñera, Pablo; De Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Juan; Vega, Jose A

    2011-05-01

    Diverse proteins of the denegerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENa(+) C) superfamily, in particular those belonging to the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family, as well as some members of the transient receptor protein (TRP) channel, function as mechanosensors or may be required for mechanosensation in a diverse range of species and cell types. Therefore, we investigated the putative mechanosensitive function of human odontoblasts using immunohistochemistry to detect ENa(+) C subunits (α, β, and γ) and ASIC (1, 2, 3, and 4) proteins, as well as TRPV4, in these cells. Positive and specific immunoreactivity in the odontoblast soma and/or processes was detected for all proteins studied except α-ENa(+) C. The intensity of immunostaining was high for β-ENa(+) C and ASIC2, whereas it was low for ASIC1, ASIC3, γ-ENa(+) C, and TRPV4, being absent for α-ENa(+) C and ASIC4. These results suggest that human odontoblasts in situ express proteins related to mechanosensitive channels that probably participate in the mechanisms involved in teeth sensory transmission. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Cognitive and emotional information processing: protein synthesis and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Navakkode, Sheeja; Korz, Volker; Frey, Julietta U

    2007-10-15

    Recent findings suggest that functional plasticity phenomena such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) - cellular processes underlying memory - are restricted to functional dendritic compartments. It was also shown, however, that a relatively strong activation of a synaptic input can abolish compartment restrictions. Our data support these findings and we present one cellular pathway responsible for uncompartmentalization of the normally localized plasticity processes by the action of rolipram, an inhibitor of type 4 phosphodiesterases. In contrast with compartment-restricted information processing, uncompartmentalization requires transcription. In the search for system relevance of compartmentalization versus uncompartmentalization we describe firstly data which show that more cognitive information processing in rats' behaviour may follow rules of compartmentalization, whereas stressful, more life-threatening, inputs abolish compartment-restricted information processing involving transcription. Our findings allow us to suggest that consolidation of processes which take place during the cognitive event most probably depend on local protein synthesis, whereas stress immediately induces gene expression in addition, resulting in a compartment-unspecific up-regulation of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), providing the entire neuron with a higher level of 'reactiveness'. These data would provide a specific functional cellular mechanism to respond differentially and effectively to behaviourally weighted inputs.

  1. Leptin responsiveness in mice that ectopically express agouti protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B S; Mitchell, Tiffany D; Mynatt, Randall L

    Agouti protein is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors (MCR), including MCR3 and MCR4, which have been implicated as part of the hypothalamic mechanism that mediates leptin-induced hypophagia. In this experiment we examined the effects of peripheral and central leptin administration in male and female beta-actin promoter (BAPa) mice that express agouti protein ectopically and have a phenotype that includes obesity and diabetes which is exaggerated in males compared with females. Intraperitoneal infusion of 10 microg leptin/day for 13 days caused weight loss and a transient inhibition of food intake in wild-type mice, with a greater effect in males than females. Male BAPa mice were resistant to leptin infusion whereas female mice lost weight. All of the mice lost body weight following a single intracerebroventricular injection of leptin but the effect was greater in female BAPa mice than any other group. There also was a delayed suppression of food intake that was the same for wild-type and BAPa female mice, whereas food intake recovered faster in BAPa than wild-type males. The dissociation between food intake and body weight loss implies a significant effect of leptin on energy expenditure in BAPa mice. These results demonstrate that the effect of leptin on energy balance is not entirely dependent upon the melanocortin system.

  2. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein expression attenuates atherosclerosis in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazita, Patrícia M; Berti, Jairo A; Aoki, Carolina; Gidlund, Magnus; Harada, Lila M; Nunes, Valéria S; Quintão, Eder C R; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2003-01-01

    Reduced estrogen levels result in loss of protection from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Enhanced and diminished atherosclerosis have been associated with plasma levels of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); however, little is known about the role of CETP-ovarian hormone interactions in atherogenesis. We assessed the severity of diet-induced atherosclerosis in ovariectomized (OV) CETP transgenic mice crossbred with LDL receptor knockout mice. Compared with OV CETP expressing ((+)), OV CETP non-expressing ((-)) mice had higher plasma levels of total, VLDL-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol, as well as higher antibodies titers against oxidized LDL. The mean aortic lesion area was 2-fold larger in OV CETP(-) than in OV CETP(+) mice (147 +/- 90 vs. 73 +/- 42 x 10(3) micro m(2), respectively). Estrogen therapy in OV mice blunted the CETP dependent differences in plasma lipoproteins, oxLDL antibodies, and atherosclerosis severity. Macrophages from OV CETP(+) mice took up less labeled cholesteryl ether (CEt) from acetyl-LDL than macrophages from OV CETP(-) mice. Estrogen replacement induced a further reduction in CEt uptake and an elevation in HDL mediated cholesterol efflux from pre-loaded OV CETP(+) as compared with OV CETP(-) macrophages. These findings support the proposed anti-atherogenic role of CETP in specific metabolic settings.

  3. Gene expression profiling of anti-CTLA4-treated metastatic melanoma in patients with treatment-induced autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Min, Le; Rodig, Scott J; Walls, Andrew C; Xu, Shuyun; Geng, Songmei; Hodi, F Stephen; Murphy, George F; Lian, Christine G

    2017-02-01

    Ipilimumab (IPI) is a monoclonal antibody that targets the inhibitory CTLA4 receptor of T cells, enhancing T-cell-driven antitumor responses. IPI therapy in metastatic melanoma results in significant improvement in disease-free and overall survival, although after initial responses disease progression generally ensues. Identification of specific responses in tissue where melanoma tumor cells are subjected to IPI-driven immune attack may reveal mechanisms of treatment efficacy or resistance, permitting refinement of targeted therapeutic approaches. We used NanoString digital barcoding chemistry to identify changes in the transcriptome of metastatic melanoma cells before and after IPI treatment using two comprehensive panels containing a total of 1330 unique genes. Only patients who developed autoimmune disorders following treatment, signifying a robust immune response, were included. Despite evidence of an enhanced immune response, most patients eventually exhibited disease progression. Overall, data from five pre-IPI tumors and four post-IPI tumor samples (from three patients) permitted identification of several candidate genes that showed increased expression based on normalized counts after therapy. These included TTK (~3.1-fold, P=1.18e-4), which encodes a dual-specificity protein tyrosine kinase, a known cell cycle regulator, and BIRC5 (~3.0-fold, P=9.36e-4), which encodes the antiapoptotic protein survivin. Both TTK (MPS1) and survivin are targetable proteins against which a number of pharmacologic agents have been developed. CDK1, which encodes a protein tyrosine kinase known to phosphorylate survivin, was also upregulated (~3.2-fold, P=2.80-3). Tumor cell expression of TTK and survivin proteins was confirmed using immunohistochemistry in an expanded patient cohort. Differences in gene expression for several commonly encountered immune antigens, such as CD3, CD4, CD8, and CTLA4, were not statistically significant, likely reflecting the long length of time

  4. Connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions for stochastic models of gene expression

    CERN Document Server

    Elgart, Vlad; Fenley, Andrew T; Kulkarni, Rahul V

    2011-01-01

    The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can lead to large variability in protein levels for genetically identical cells. Such variability in protein levels can arise from infrequent synthesis of mRNAs which in turn give rise to bursts of protein expression. Protein expression occurring in bursts has indeed been observed experimentally and recent studies have also found evidence for transcriptional bursting, i.e. production of mRNAs in bursts. Given that there are distinct experimental techniques for quantifying the noise at different stages of gene expression, it is of interest to derive analytical results connecting experimental observations at different levels. In this work, we consider stochastic models of gene expression for which mRNA and protein production occurs in independent bursts. For such models, we derive analytical expressions connecting protein and mRNA burst distributions which show how the functional form of the mRNA burst distribution can be inferred from the protein burst distributio...

  5. Fascaplysin Exerts Anti-Cancer Effects through the Downregulation of Survivin and HIF-1α and Inhibition of VEGFR2 and TRKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-In Oh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascaplysin has been reported to exert anti-cancer effects by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4; however, the precise mode of action by which fascaplysin suppresses tumor growth is not clear. Here, we found that fascaplysin has stronger anti-cancer effects than other CDK4 inhibitors, including PD0332991 and LY2835219, on lung cancer cells that are wild-type or null for retinoblastoma (RB, indicating that unknown target molecules might be involved in the inhibition of tumor growth by fascaplysin. Fascaplysin treatment significantly decreased tumor angiogenesis and increased cleaved-caspase-3 in xenografted tumor tissues. In addition, survivin and HIF-1α were downregulated in vitro and in vivo by suppressing 4EBP1-p70S6K1 axis-mediated de novo protein synthesis. Kinase screening assays and drug-protein docking simulation studies demonstrated that fascaplysin strongly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 and tropomyosin-related kinase A (TRKA via DFG-out non-competitive inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that fascaplysin inhibits TRKA and VEGFR2 and downregulates survivin and HIF-1α, resulting in suppression of tumor growth. Fascaplysin, therefore, represents a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of multiple types of solid cancer.

  6. [Expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Dong-Liang; Wang, Feng

    2006-10-15

    To study the changes of expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion. sixty rats were randomly divided into brain concussion groups and control group. The expression of c-myc protein was microscopically observed by immunohistochemical method. No expression of c-myc protein in control group were observed. However, positive expression of c-myc protein in some neurons was seen at 20 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 8h after brain concussion and then decreased gradually. These findings suggest that the detection of c-myc protein could be an index of diagnosis of brain concussion.

  7. Cytokine expression in human dermal fibroblasts stimulated with eosinophil cationic protein measured by protein array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takamaro; Soga, Yoshihiko; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Meguro, Michio; Maeda, Hiroshi; Tada, Joji; Otani, Takayuki; Seno, Masaharu; Takashiba, Shogo

    2013-12-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) was reported previously to be involved in allergic inflammation with cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, recent studies showed that ECP did not induce cell death but inhibited the growth of cancer-derived cells. Our previous study indicated that human ECP enhanced differentiation of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes and stress fiber formation in Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, while the effects of human ECP on human fibroblasts are unknown. The present study was performed to determine the effects of human ECP on cytokine expression in human fibroblasts by protein array. The effects of recombinant human ECP (rhECP) on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were examined by assaying cell growth. Furthermore, cytokine expression of NHDF stimulated by ECP, which could influence cell growth, was evaluated by protein array. ECP was not cytotoxic but enhanced the growth of NHDF. The peak rhECP concentration that enhanced the cell counts by 1.56-fold was 100 ng/mL, which was significantly different from cultures without ECP stimulation (ANOVA/ Scheffe's test, P neurotrophin (NT)-3 were significantly upregulated in NHDF stimulated with 100 ng/mL ECP compared to those without stimulation. ECP is not cytotoxic but enhances the growth of NHDF. CNTF, NAP-2, and NT-3 were suggested to be involved in enhancing the growth of NHDF. These findings will contribute to determination of the role of ECP in allergic inflammation.

  8. Expression of inhibitors of apoptosis family protein in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinogenesis is associated with mutant p53 accumulation and epigenetic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsue, Shui-Sang; Wang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Lin, Li-Min

    2008-10-01

    Fifty outbred Syrian golden hamsters were equally divided into three experimental groups and two control groups. The pouches of the experimental groups were painted bilaterally with a 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) solution thrice a week for 3, 7 and 14 weeks. One of the control groups was applied with mineral oil while another control group remained untreated throughout the experiment. Neither survivin nor cIAP2 could be detected in any of the control tissues, whereas survivin and cIAP2 were found to be significantly increased in 3-, 7- and 14-week DMBA-treated pouches compared with the control pouches. Expression of XIAP, cIAP1 and NAIP were noted for both the control and 3-, 7- and 14-week DMBA-treated pouches, but levels were found to be significantly elevated in the experimental groups compared with the control pouches. p53 was not detected in any control tissues, but was significantly increased in 3-, 7- and 14-week DMBA-treated pouches. Direct sequencing revealed a point mutation (C-->G) of p53 for pouch tissues treated with DMBA for 3 and 7 weeks, and there was a wide variation in the p53 sequence of the 14-week DMBA-treated pouch tissues, as compared with the control tissues. The control tissues had a survivin- and cIAP2-methylated allele, whereas the DMBA-treated tissues showed no evidence of survivin- and cIAP2-methylation. Neither the control nor DMBA-treated pouches showed evidence of XIAP-, cIAP1- or NAIP-methylation. Our results suggest that the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis family in DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinogenesis may be modulated by both genetic (mutant p53) and epigenetic mechanisms.

  9. Comparison of protein and mRNA expression evolution in humans and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fu

    Full Text Available Even though mRNA expression levels are commonly used as a proxy for estimating functional differences that occur at the protein level, the relation between mRNA and protein expression is not well established. Further, no study to date has tested whether the evolutionary differences in mRNA expression observed between species reflect those observed in protein expression. Since a large proportion of mRNA expression differences observed between mammalian species appears to have no functional consequences for the phenotype, it is conceivable that many or most mRNA expression differences are not reflected at the protein level. If this is true, then differences in protein expression may largely reflect functional adaptations observed in species phenotypes. In this paper, we present the first direct comparison of mRNA and protein expression differences seen between humans and chimpanzees. We reproducibly find a significant positive correlation between mRNA expression and protein expression differences. This correlation is comparable in magnitude to that found between mRNA and protein expression changes at different developmental stages or in different physiological conditions within one species. Noticeably, this correlation is mainly due to genes with large expression differences between species. Our study opens the door to a new level of understanding of regulatory evolution and poses many new questions that remain to be answered.

  10. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni2+. Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential Protein Expressions in Virus-Infected and Uninfected Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ding; Pengtao, Gong; Ju, Yang; Jianhua, Li; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Xichen, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Protozoan viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that could contain a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, T. vaginalis virus (TVV). However, there are few reports on the properties of the virus. To further determine variations in protein expression of T. vaginalis, we detected 2 strains of T. vaginalis; the virus-infected (V+) and uninfected (V-) isolates to examine differentially expressed proteins upon TVV infection. Using a stable isotope N-terminal labeling strategy (iTRAQ) on soluble fractions to analyze proteomes, we identified 293 proteins, of which 50 were altered in V+ compared with V- isolates. The results showed that the expression of 29 proteins was increased, and 21 proteins decreased in V+ isolates. These differentially expressed proteins can be classified into 4 categories: ribosomal proteins, metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins, and putative uncharacterized proteins. Quantitative PCR was used to detect 4 metabolic processes proteins: glycogen phosphorylase, malate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which were differentially expressed in V+ and V- isolates. Our findings suggest that mRNA levels of these genes were consistent with protein expression levels. This study was the first which analyzed protein expression variations upon TVV infection. These observations will provide a basis for future studies concerning the possible roles of these proteins in host-parasite interactions.

  12. Differential cellular protein expression in continuous porcine alveolar macrophages regulated by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagong, Mingeun; Lee, Changhee

    2010-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a leading cause of significant economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. PRRSV infects preferentially porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and subsequently utilizes the host cell biosynthetic machinery for its own replication. To date, a number of studies have been conducted to investigate compensatory changes of cellular gene expression of PAMs upon PRRSV infection. However, very little information exists about differential cellular protein expression of the natural target cells regulated by each viral protein. This study was therefore designed to examine the dynamics of host protein expression of continuous PAM cells by the PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein that is the most abundant and multifunctional viral component. We first established sublines of PAM cells to stably express the PRRSV N protein and assessed alterations in cellular protein productions of N-expressing PAM (PAM-pCD163-N) cells at different time courses by the use of proteomic analysis. A total of 23 protein spots were initially found to be differentially expressed in PAM-pCD163-N cells compared with normal PAM cells by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Of these spots, 15 protein spots with statistically significant alteration, including 4 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated protein spots, were picked out for subsequent protein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The altered cellular proteins identified in this study were classified into the functions involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, metabolism, inflammation response, stress response, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, protein folding and synthesis, and transportation. Notably, heat shock 27kDa protein (HSP27) was found to be up-regulated in PAM-pCD163-N cells. The proteomics data will provide insights into the specific

  13. Natural diterpenes from coffee, cafestol and kahweol induce apoptosis through regulation of specificity protein 1 expression in human malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung-Ae

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is a highly aggressive cancer with a very poor prognosis. Several clinical studies such as immunotherapy, gene therapy and molecular targeting agents have been tried for treatment of malignant mesothelioma, however, there is no application for effective clinical treatment. Coffee has various biological functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic activities. The therapeutic activities of the bioactive compounds in coffee was sugested to influence intracellular signaling of MPM. Regarding to the cancer-related functions, In this study, suppression of Sp1 protein level followed by induction of MSTO-211H cell apoptosis by cafestol and kahweol were investigated in oreder to determine Sp1's potential as a significant target for human MPM therapy as well. Methods Cells were treated separately with final concentration of cafestol and kahweol and the results were analyzed by MTS assay, DAPI staining, PI staining, luciferase assay, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting. Results Viability of MSTO-211H and H28 cells were decreased, and apoptotic cell death was increased in MSTO-211H as a result of cafestol and kahweol treatment. Cafestol and kahweol increased Sub-G1 population and nuclear condensation in MSTO-211H cells. Roles of Sp1 in cell proliferation and apoptosis of the MSTO-211H cells by the Sp1 inhibitor of Mithramycin A were previously confirmed. Cafestol and kahweol significantly suppressed Sp1 protein levels. Kahweol slightly attenuated Sp1 mRNA, while Cafestol did not affect in MSTO-211H cells. Cafestol and kahweol modulated the promoter activity and protein expression level of the Sp1 regulatory genes including Cyclin D1, Mcl-1, and Survivin in mesothelioma cells. Apoptosis signaling cascade was activated by cleavages of Bid, Caspase-3, and PARP with cafestol and by upregulation of Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-xl by kahweol. Conclusions Sp1 can be a novel

  14. Matrix gla protein: An extracellular matrix protein regulates myostatin expression in the muscle developmental program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarafraz; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Baig, Mohammad Hassan; Lee, Eun Ju; Choi, Inho

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal muscle development involves interactions between intracellular and extracellular factors that act in concert to regulate the myogenic process. Matrix gla protein (MGP), a well-known inhibitor of calcification in soft tissues, has been reported to be highly up-regulated during myogenesis. Our interest in the regulation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) by extracellular matrix (ECM) led us to investigate the effects of MGP during the progression of myogenesis. Participation of MGP in the myogenic process was investigated in vitro using C2C12 cells, and knockdown of its gene was performed to determine its effects on the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and other ECM genes. In addition, interactions between MGP, Fibromodulin (FMOD), and Myostatin (MSTN) were investigated by conducting co-immunoprecipitation and in silico studies. Matrix gla protein knockdown (MGPkd) shows pronounced effects during myogenesis as evidenced by the down regulation of myogenic marker (MYOG and MYOD), and ECM (COL1α1 and FMOD) genes. Down-regulation of MSTN expression in MGPkd cells suggests its role in coordinating the regulation of MSTN expression. Having strong affinity for ACVRIIB receptor, in silico data confirms MGP interference in the interaction of MSTN with ACVRIIB. These findings show MGP inhibits MSTN functionally by disrupting its binding to receptor. The present study provides insights of an ECM protein that participates in the regulation of the myogenic program by inhibiting the activity of the myogenic negative regulator MSTN, which suggests that MGP might be used for designing novel inhibitors that can promote muscle regeneration or treat muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia: effects of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Marini, Herbert; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Arena, Salvatore; Cimino, Sebastiano; Squadrito, Francesco; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2014-03-10

    The apoptosis machinery is a promising target against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) modulate apoptosis by direct inhibition of caspases. Serenoa Repens (SeR) may be combined with other natural compounds such as Lycopene (Ly) and Selenium (Se) to maximize its therapeutic activity in BPH. We investigated the effects of SeR, Se and Ly, alone or in association, on the expression of four IAPs, cIAP-1, cIAP-2, NAIP and survivin in rats with experimental testosterone-dependent BPH. Moreover, caspase-3, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) have been evaluated.Rats were administered, daily, with testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg/sc) or its vehicle for 14 days. Testosterone injected animals (BPH) were randomized to receive vehicle, SeR (25 mg/kg/sc), Se (3 mg/kg/sc), Ly (1 mg/kg/sc) or the SeR-Se-Ly association for 14 days. Animals were sacrificed and prostate removed for analysis. BPH animals treated with vehicle showed unchanged expression of cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 and increased expression of NAIP, survivin, caspase-3, IL-6 and PSMA levels when compared with sham animals. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed the enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization. SeR-Se-Ly association showed the highest efficacy in reawakening apoptosis; additionally, this therapeutic cocktail significantly reduced IL-6 and PSMA levels. The administration of SeR, Se and Ly significantly blunted prostate overweight and growth; moreover, the SeR-Se-Ly association was most effective in reducing prostate enlargement and growth by 43.3% in treated animals. The results indicate that IAPs may represent interesting targets for drug therapy of BPH.

  16. Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2012-01-01

    The Ski protein is implicated in the proliferation/differentiation of a variety of cells. We previously reported that the Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. However, granulosa cells cannot only undergo apoptosis but can alternatively differentiate into luteal cells. It is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the localization of the Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinization to examine if Ski might play a role in this process. In order to examine the Ski protein expression during the progression of luteinization, follicular growth was induced in immature female rats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadotropin treatment to mimic the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in the preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to the LH surge and was maintained after formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Although the Ski protein is absent from the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-ski) was expressed, and the level of c-ski mRNA was unchanged even after the LH surge. The combined results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggested that its expression is regulated posttranscriptionally.

  17. Expression of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) is a predictor of uveal melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabiano, Rosario; Puzzo, Lidia; Barresi, Valeria; Cardile, Venera; Loreto, Carla; Ragusa, Marco; Russo, Andrea; Reibaldi, Michele; Longo, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Melanoma arising from melanocytes within the choroid is the most frequent primary intraocular neoplasm in adults. It is biologically distinct from cutaneous melanoma by a very strong propensity to metastasize the liver. Raf kinase inhibitor protein is a member of an evolutionarily conserved group of proteins called phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins. It is an interacting partner of Raf-1 and a negative regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade initiated by Raf-1. Raf kinase inhibitor protein expression is low in many human cancers and represents an indicator of poor prognosis and/or induction of metastasis. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression levels of Raf kinase inhibitor protein and phosphorylated Raf kinase inhibitor protein in primary uveal melanoma with and without metastasis, and evaluated their association with other high risk characteristics for metastasis in order to assess whether Raf kinase inhibitor protein and phosphorylated Raf kinase inhibitor protein can be used to predict metastasis. A significant low expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein was seen in patients with metastasis but not in patients without metastasis. The latter more frequently had a high expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein. No significant difference was seen in phosphorylated Raf kinase inhibitor protein expression between patients with and without metastasis. Raf kinase inhibitor protein expression is a suitable and easily determinable marker in the primary tumour that could predict the risk of uveal melanoma to metastasize, and hence guide strategies for monitoring and therapy.

  18. Discovery-based protein expression profiling identifies distinct subgroups and pathways in leiomyosarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirik, Ufuk; Hansson, Karin; Krogh, Morten

    2014-01-01

    subgroups within the leiomyosarcomas with distinct protein expression patterns. Pathways analysis indicates that key biologic nodes like apoptosis, cytoskeleton remodeling, and telomere regulation are differentially regulated among these subgroups. Finally, investigating the similarities between protein...

  19. Decreased expression of breast cancer resistance protein in the duodenum in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Christian; Hruz, Petr; Gutmann, Heike; Terracciano, Luigi; Beuers, Ulrich; Lehmann, Frank; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The expression of transporters involved in bile acid homeostasis is differentially regulated during obstructive cholestasis. Since the drug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is known to transport bile acids, we investigated whether duodenal BCRP expression

  20. An efficient protocol to enhance recombinant protein expression using ethanol in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Chhetri

    2015-01-01

    • In addition to being inexpensive, easy to manage, universal, and quick to perform, the proposed method does not require any commercial kits and, can be used for various recombinant proteins expressed in the E. coli expression system.

  1. Glial fibrillary acidic protein isoform expression in plaque related astrogliosis in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Middeldorp, J.; Kooijman, L.; Sluijs, J.A; Kooi, E.J.; Moeton, M.; Freriks, M.; Mizee, M.R.; Hol, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid plaques are surrounded by reactive astrocytes with an increased expression of intermediate filaments including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Different GFAP isoforms have been identified that are differentially expressed by specific subpopulations of

  2. Glial fibrillary acidic protein isoform expression in plaque related astrogliosis in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Middeldorp, Jinte; Kooijman, Lieneke; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Kooi, Evert-Jan; Moeton, Martina; Freriks, Michel; Mizee, Mark R; Hol, Elly M

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid plaques are surrounded by reactive astrocytes with an increased expression of intermediate filaments including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Different GFAP isoforms have been identified that are differentially expressed by specific subpopulations of

  3. Gene expression and protein localisation of calcyclin, a calcium-binding protein of the S-100 family in fresh neuroblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, G P; Fabretti, G; Kuznicki, J; Massimo, L; Scaruffi, P; Brisigotti, M; Mazzocco, K

    1995-01-01

    Calcyclin gene, a Ca(2+)-binding protein with homology to S-100, has been found to be expressed at different levels in leukaemic cells and in other tumour cells. We recently reported the expression of the gene in human neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines, and suggested a possible role of calcyclin in cell differentiation. To extend our findings, we investigated the expression of the gene in NB cells induced to differentiate by retinoic acid (RA), using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Time-course experiments employing LA-N-5 cells showed that calcyclin mRNA appeared 2 h after RA treatment, long before the cells were blocked in the G1 cell-cycle phase and before the neurite-like structures outgrew from the cell bodies. This suggests the involvement of the gene in the early phase of cell differentiation. Furthermore, we investigated mRNA expression in a series of fresh neuroblastomas. NB tumours showed a heterogeneous pattern of calcyclin expression, although calcyclin seemed to be expressed more frequently in cases with a favourable Shimada histology. We also studied the expression of the protein in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues, by using a specific anticalcyclin antibody. The protein was detected in stromal cells which characterise a more mature histological type, and in nerve sheaths, whereas neuroblasts were negative. The tissue that expressed calcyclin protein showed a Schwann-like differentiation and, unlike S-100 protein, calcyclin was expressed in the perineurium.

  4. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs) encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adriana Fusaro; Amanda Mangeon; Ricardo Magrani Junqueira; Carla Andréa Benício Rocha; Tatiana Cardoso Coutinho; Rogério Margis; Gilberto Sachetto-Martins

    2001-01-01

    ... cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from...

  5. A Generic Protocol for Intracellular Expression of Recombinant Proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Trang; Huynh, Phuong; Truong, Tuom; Nguyen, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is a potential and attractive host for the production of recombinant proteins. Different expression systems for B. subtilis have been developed recently, and various target proteins have been recombinantly synthesized and purified using this host. In this chapter, we introduce a generic protocol to express a recombinant protein in B. subtilis. It includes protocols for (1) using our typical expression vector (plasmid pHT254) to introduce a target gene, (2) transformation of the target vector into B. subtilis, and (3) evaluation of the actual expression of a recombinant protein.

  6. Expression of RNA virus proteins by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids is hindered at multiple steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Überla Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins of human and animal viruses are frequently expressed from RNA polymerase II dependent expression cassettes to study protein function and to develop gene-based vaccines. Initial attempts to express the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV and the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV by eukaryotic promoters revealed restrictions at several steps of gene expression. Results Insertion of an intron flanked by exonic sequences 5'-terminal to the open reading frames (ORF of VSV-G and RSV-F led to detectable cytoplasmic mRNA levels of both genes. While the exonic sequences were sufficient to stabilise the VSV-G mRNA, cytoplasmic mRNA levels of RSV-F were dependent on the presence of a functional intron. Cytoplasmic VSV-G mRNA levels led to readily detectable levels of VSV-G protein, whereas RSV-F protein expression remained undetectable. However, RSV-F expression was observed after mutating two of four consensus sites for polyadenylation present in the RSV-F ORF. Expression levels could be further enhanced by codon optimisation. Conclusion Insufficient cytoplasmic mRNA levels and premature polyadenylation prevent expression of RSV-F by RNA polymerase II dependent expression plasmids. Since RSV replicates in the cytoplasm, the presence of premature polyadenylation sites and elements leading to nuclear instability should not interfere with RSV-F expression during virus replication. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the destabilisation of the RSV-F and VSV-G mRNAs and the different requirements for their rescue by insertion of an intron remain to be defined.

  7. Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yasuda, Tomoko [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Hatta, Mitsutoki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Shimomura, Iichiro [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Yamagata, Kazuya, E-mail: k-yamaga@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2009-11-06

    Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

  8. FGFR Family Members Protein Expression as Prognostic Markers in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Koos; Clausen, Martijn J A M; van Es, Robert J J; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Melchers, Lieuwe J; Koole, Ron; Langendijk, Johannes A; van Diest, Paul J; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor family member proteins (FGFR1-4) have been identified as promising novel therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in a wide spectrum of solid tumors. The present study investigates the expression and prognostic value of four FGFR family member proteins in a large multicenter oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) cohort. Protein expression of FGFR1-4 was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing 951 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded OCSCC and OPSCC tissues from the University Medical Center Utrecht and University Medical Center Groningen. Protein expression was correlated to overall survival using Cox regression models, and bootstrapping was performed as internal validation. FGFR proteins were highly expressed in 39-64 % of OCSCC and 63-79 % of OPSCC. Seventy-three percent (299/412) of OCSCC and 85 % (305/357) of OPSCC highly co-expressed two or more FGFR family member proteins. FGFR1 protein was more frequently highly expressed in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative OPSCC than HPV-positive OPSCC (82 vs. 65 %; p = 0.008). Furthermore, protein expression of FGFR family members was not related to overall survival in OCSCC or OPSCC (p > 0.05). FGFR family members are frequently highly expressed in OCSCC and OPSCC. These FGFR family member proteins are therefore potential targets for novel therapies that are urgently required to improve survival of OCSCC and OPSCC patients.

  9. Differential expression of proteins and phosphoproteins during larval metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2011-09-03

    Background: The spontaneous metamorphosis of the polychaete Capitella sp. I larvae into juveniles requires minor morphological changes, including segment formation, body elongation, and loss of cilia. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression patterns of both proteins and phosphoproteins during the transition from larvae to juveniles in this species. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by multiplex fluorescent staining and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis to identify the differentially expressed proteins as well as the protein and phosphoprotein profiles of both competent larvae and juveniles.Results: Twenty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified in the two developmental stages. Expression patterns of two of those proteins were examined at the protein level by Western blot analysis while seven were further studied at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Results showed that proteins related to cell division, cell migration, energy storage and oxidative stress were plentifully expressed in the competent larvae; in contrast, proteins involved in oxidative metabolism and transcriptional regulation were abundantly expressed in the juveniles.Conclusion: It is likely that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in regulating the larval metamorphosis process and can be used as protein markers for studying molecular mechanisms associated with larval metamorphosis in polychaetes. © 2011 Chandramouli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Production of therapeutic proteins in algae, analysis of expression of seven human proteins in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasala, Beth A; Muto, Machiko; Lee, Philip A; Jager, Michal; Cardoso, Rosa M F; Behnke, Craig A; Kirk, Peter; Hokanson, Craig A; Crea, Roberto; Mendez, Michael; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are widely used today in many industries, including the biopharmaceutical industry, and can be expressed in bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cell cultures, or in transgenic plants and animals...

  11. Expression and Significance of WT1 and Betacatenin Proteins in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression, clinic-pathologic significance and the relevance of WT1 protein β-catenin protein in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods: A total of 48 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from patients with resected NSCLC were collected and none had received radiotherapy or chemotherapy before surgical resection. The expressions of WT1 and β-catenin proteins were detected with immunohistchemistry. All data were dealt with SPSS19.0 statistical software while the relationship between WT1 protein or β-catenin protein and each clinical pathological characteristic was tested by Pearson X2 and Fisher’s Exact Test, and X2 test of independence of two attributes was performed for the relevant analysis of the two indexes. Results: The positive expression rates of WT1 and aberrant β-catenin proteins were 62.5% (30/48 and 72.9% (35/48 in NSCLC, respectively. There was significant association between WT1 protein and lymph node metastasis (X2 = 4.480, df = 1, P = 0.034, but no obvious connection was observed between WT1 protein and genders, ages, tumor sizes, pathological patterns, differentiated degrees and pTNM stagings (P > 0.05. Aberrant expression of β-catenin protein was closely correlated with differentiation degrees (X2 = 8.224, df = 2, P = 0.016, and the results of further comparisons of differentiation degrees showed that there were significant differences between highly and moderately differentiated groups (P = 0.026, and between highly and lowly differentiated groups (P = 0.031, but the difference between moderately and lowly differentiated groups was not significant (P = 0.655. Similar to WT1 protein, there was no close relation between the aberrant expression of β-catenin protein and genders, ages, tumor sizes, pathological patterns, differentiated degrees and pTNM stagings (P > 0.05. The relationship between WT1 protein expression and aberrant expression of β-catenin protein was analyzed

  12. Expressing the human proteome for affinity proteomics: optimising expression of soluble protein domains and in vivo biotinylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keates, Tracy; Cooper, Christopher D O; Savitsky, Pavel; Allerston, Charles K; Phillips, Claire; Hammarström, Martin; Daga, Neha; Berridge, Georgina; Mahajan, Pravin; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A; Müller, Susanne; Gräslund, Susanne; Gileadi, Opher

    2012-06-15

    The generation of affinity reagents to large numbers of human proteins depends on the ability to express the target proteins as high-quality antigens. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) focuses on the production and structure determination of human proteins. In a 7-year period, the SGC has deposited crystal structures of >800 human protein domains, and has additionally expressed and purified a similar number of protein domains that have not yet been crystallised. The targets include a diversity of protein domains, with an attempt to provide high coverage of protein families. The family approach provides an excellent basis for characterising the selectivity of affinity reagents. We present a summary of the approaches used to generate purified human proteins or protein domains, a test case demonstrating the ability to rapidly generate new proteins, and an optimisation study on the modification of >70 proteins by biotinylation in vivo. These results provide a unique synergy between large-scale structural projects and the recent efforts to produce a wide coverage of affinity reagents to the human proteome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the expression of chicken anemia virus proteins in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacorte, C.C.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen of chicken worldwide, causing severe anemia and immunodeficiency. Its small single-stranded DNA genome (2.3 kb) encodes three proteins: VP1, the only structural protein, VP2, a protein phosphatase, and VP3, also known as apoptin, which induces

  14. Cloning and expression of a small heat shock protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gene was also expressed weakly under salinity, heavy metal, low temperature and oxidative stresses; the expression levels under these conditions were remarkably lower than those under heat stress. Cell viability experiments showed that the heterologous expression of CaHSP24 could enhance the viability of ...

  15. Snorkel: An Epitope Tagging System for Measuring the Surface Expression of Membrane Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Brown; Stafford, Lewis J.; Dale Onisk; Tony Joaquim; Alhagie Tobb; Larissa Goldman; David Fancy; James Stave; Ross Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Tags are widely used to monitor a protein's expression level, interactions, protein trafficking, and localization. Membrane proteins are often tagged in their extracellular domains to allow discrimination between protein in the plasma membrane from that in internal pools. Multipass membrane proteins offer special challenges for inserting a tag since the extracellular regions are often composed of small loops and thus inserting an epitope tag risks perturbing the structure, function, or locati...

  16. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbottam ePiya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs. Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs.

  17. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs.

  18. Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

    2004-01-01

    Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during…

  19. Differential Expression of Two Paralogous Genes of Bacillus subtilis Encoding Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Cordula; Nijland, Reindert; Hartskamp, Mariska van; Bron, Sierd; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    The Bacillus subtilis genome comprises two paralogous single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) genes, ssb and ywpH, which show distinct expression patterns. The main ssb gene is strongly expressed during exponential growth and is coregulated with genes encoding the ribosomal proteins S6 and S18.

  20. [Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 ion channel protein in human odontoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-yun; Wu, Sheng; Hu, De-yu; Que, Ke-hua

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) ion channel protein in human odontoblasts (OD). Twenty intact and healthy third molars extracted for orthodontic purpose were included. The quality of dental tissue sections was determined through HE staining, and the OD layer was further determined by dentin sialophosphoproteins (DSPP) antibody staining, and finally the expression of TRPV3 ion channel protein in human dental pulp tissue was examined by TRPV3 ion channel protein-specific antibody. The expression of TRPV3 channel proteins in human OD at different part of dental pulp was compared using Image Pro Plus (IPP) and SPSS software. TRPV3 channel protein expressed on the cell body of OD in the coronal and root pulp, and the expression in the coronal pulp was significantly higher than that in the root pulp. The TRPV3 protein also expressed at the odontoblastic process, with the higher expression in the crown (IA = 2516 ± 162) than in the root (IA = 2224 ± 150) and external root (IA = 2121 ± 92) (P 0.05). Human odonoblasts expressed TRPV3 ion channel protein and the expression level was different at different part of dental pulp OD.

  1. Differential analysis of protein expression in RNA-binding-protein transgenic and parental rice seeds cultivated under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rika; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Adachi, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Yamada, Akiyo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-02-07

    Transgenic plants tolerant to various environmental stresses are being developed to ensure a consistent food supply. We used a transgenic rice cultivar with high saline tolerance by introducing an RNA-binding protein (RBP) from the ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum); differences in salt-soluble protein expression between nontransgenic (NT) and RBP rice seeds were analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), a gel-based proteomic method. To identify RBP-related changes in protein expression under salt stress, NT and RBP rice were cultured with or without 200 mM sodium chloride. Only two protein spots differed between NT and RBP rice seeds cultured under normal conditions, one of which was identified as a putative abscisic acid-induced protein. In NT rice seeds, 91 spots significantly differed between normal and salt-stress conditions. Two allergenic proteins of NT rice seeds, RAG1 and RAG2, were induced by high salt. In contrast, RBP rice seeds yielded seven spots and no allergen spots with significant differences in protein expression between normal and salt-stress conditions. Therefore, expression of fewer proteins was altered in RBP rice seeds by high salt than those in NT rice seeds.

  2. Differential Analysis of Protein Expression in RNA-Binding-Protein Transgenic and Parental Rice Seeds Cultivated under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic plants tolerant to various environmental stresses are being developed to ensure a consistent food supply. We used a transgenic rice cultivar with high saline tolerance by introducing an RNA-binding protein (RBP) from the ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum); differences in salt-soluble protein expression between nontransgenic (NT) and RBP rice seeds were analyzed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), a gel-based proteomic method. To identify RBP-related changes in protein expression under salt stress, NT and RBP rice were cultured with or without 200 mM sodium chloride. Only two protein spots differed between NT and RBP rice seeds cultured under normal conditions, one of which was identified as a putative abscisic acid-induced protein. In NT rice seeds, 91 spots significantly differed between normal and salt-stress conditions. Two allergenic proteins of NT rice seeds, RAG1 and RAG2, were induced by high salt. In contrast, RBP rice seeds yielded seven spots and no allergen spots with significant differences in protein expression between normal and salt-stress conditions. Therefore, expression of fewer proteins was altered in RBP rice seeds by high salt than those in NT rice seeds. PMID:24410502

  3. Grb7 gene amplification and protein expression by FISH and IHC in ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ZENG, MANMAN; Yang, Zhu; Hu, Xiaoyu; LIU, Yi; YANG, XIAOTAO; Ran, Hailong; Li, Yanan; Li, Xu; YU, QIUBO

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Overexpression of growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (Grb7) has been found in numerous human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between Grb7 gene amplification and protein expression in ovarian cancer (OC). Methods: We use Tissue Microarray (TMA) respectively to detect the gene amplification and protein expression of Grb7 in 90 cases OC and 10 control specimens of normal ovarian tissues by IHC and FISH. Results: The Grb7 protein expression by IHC ana...

  4. In vivo deglycosylation of recombinant proteins in plants by co-expression with bacterial PNGase F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Tarlan; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-01-01

    At present, several eukaryotic expression systems including yeast, insect and mammalian cells and plants are used for the production of recombinant proteins. Proteins with potential N-glycosylation sites are efficiently glycosylated when expressed in these systems. However, the ability of the eukaryotic expression systems to glycosylate may be not desirable for some proteins. If target proteins that do not carry N-linked glycans in the native host contain potential N-linked glycosylation sites, they can be aberrantly glycosylated in the eukaryotic expression systems, thus, potentially impairing biological activity. Recently, we have developed a strategy of enzymatic deglycosylation of proteins in vivo by co-introducing bacterial PNGase F via agroinfiltration followed by transient expression in plants. (1) Here, we summarize our work on this topic and its potential implications.

  5. Cooperation of bisphenol A and leptin in inhibition of caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Anna; Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of bisphenol A and leptin on caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Caspase-3 and survivin expression was measured at the transcript level by real-time PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting. In addition, caspase-3 activity was measured, using a fluorometric assay, upon exposure to bisphenol A (40 nM) alone, leptin (2.5 nM) alone, and the combination of both agents. 17β-estradiol (40 nM) was used as a positive control for estrogenic properties of bisphenol A. Results showed that the interaction between bisphenol A and leptin, which was similar to that observed between 17β-estradiol and leptin, led to the inhibition of caspase-3 expression and activity in OVCAR-3 cells. Surprisingly, survivin was found to not be involved in the anti-apoptotic activity of either agent. Also, results showed that leptin inhibits caspase-3 activity by acting on the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway, but bisphenol A and 17β-estradiol by the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. In conclusion, the study reveals that bisphenol A and leptin interact to inhibit caspase-3 expression and activity by modulating STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in OVCAR-3 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Expression of Merlin protein in non-small cell lung carcinoma and the clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianpeng; Wang, Li; Yu, Fenglei

    2011-06-01

    To determine the expression and clinical significance of Merlin protein in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expression of Merlin protein in 45 cases of NSCLC and adjacent tissue of NSCLC and normal lung tissue was checked by immunohistochemistry. The relation between the expression of Merlin protein and the multiple factors of pathological type, gender, P-TNM stage, differentiation and lymph node metastasis was analyzed. The expression rates of Merlin protein in NSCLC and normal lung tissue sections were 73.33% and 15.56%, respectively (PMerlin protein was not associated with the pathological type, gender, P-TNM stage, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). Merlin protein might contribute to the initiation of metastasis of NSCLC.

  7. Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-03-01

    While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development.

  8. Snorkel: an epitope tagging system for measuring the surface expression of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Stafford, Lewis J; Onisk, Dale; Joaquim, Tony; Tobb, Alhagie; Goldman, Larissa; Fancy, David; Stave, James; Chambers, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Tags are widely used to monitor a protein's expression level, interactions, protein trafficking, and localization. Membrane proteins are often tagged in their extracellular domains to allow discrimination between protein in the plasma membrane from that in internal pools. Multipass membrane proteins offer special challenges for inserting a tag since the extracellular regions are often composed of small loops and thus inserting an epitope tag risks perturbing the structure, function, or location of the membrane protein. We have developed a novel tagging system called snorkel where a transmembrane domain followed by a tag is appended to the cytoplasmic C-terminus of the membrane protein. In this way the tag is displayed extracellularly, but structurally separate from the membrane protein. We have tested the snorkel tag system on a diverse panel of membrane proteins including GPCRs and ion channels and demonstrated that it reliably allows for monitoring of the surface expression.

  9. Snorkel: an epitope tagging system for measuring the surface expression of membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brown

    Full Text Available Tags are widely used to monitor a protein's expression level, interactions, protein trafficking, and localization. Membrane proteins are often tagged in their extracellular domains to allow discrimination between protein in the plasma membrane from that in internal pools. Multipass membrane proteins offer special challenges for inserting a tag since the extracellular regions are often composed of small loops and thus inserting an epitope tag risks perturbing the structure, function, or location of the membrane protein. We have developed a novel tagging system called snorkel where a transmembrane domain followed by a tag is appended to the cytoplasmic C-terminus of the membrane protein. In this way the tag is displayed extracellularly, but structurally separate from the membrane protein. We have tested the snorkel tag system on a diverse panel of membrane proteins including GPCRs and ion channels and demonstrated that it reliably allows for monitoring of the surface expression.

  10. Machine learning in computational biology to accelerate high-throughput protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sastry, Anand; Monk, Jonathan M.; Tegel, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    over 40 000 unique human protein fragments have been expressed in E. coli. These datasets enable quantitative tracking of entire cellular proteomes and present new avenues for understanding molecular-level properties influencing expression and solubility. Results: Combining computational biology......Motivation: The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) enables the simultaneous characterization of thousands of proteins across various tissues to pinpoint their spatial location in the human body. This has been achieved through transcriptomics and high-throughput immunohistochemistry-based approaches, where...

  11. Development of an expression system for eukarytoic proteins in methylotropic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidstrom, M.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an expression vector for methylotrophic bacteria for use in the production of C{sup 13} and H{sup 2} labelled eukaryotic proteins by growing methylotrophic bacteria on labelled methanol or methylamine. The eukaryotic proteins calmodulin and troponin C were chosen as test cases. Genes encoding both proteins were cloned into different constructions and tested for expression. Moderate amounts of troponin C were found with one of the constructions.

  12. Antibody-bound amyloid precursor protein upregulates ornithine decarboxylase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Tatjana; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Gabrielsson, Maria

    2006-01-01

    domain. Alterations in gene expression evoked by antibody-bound APP were analysed using human pathway-finder gene arrays and the largest change in expression levels was found for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). These results were confirmed by Western blotting which showed even higher upregulation...... signalling events. This study shows that antibody-bound APP leads to altered gene expression that may be relevant to AD....

  13. Changes in protein expression in p53 deleted spontaneous thymic lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, Bent; Vorum, Henrik; Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2004-01-01

    By the use of high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and computerized image analysis we investigated and compared the expression of cellular proteins from p53 positive (+/+) mouse thymocytes, p53-/- thymocytes before neoplastic transformation, and from cell lines derived from two...... spontaneous p53-/- thymic lymphomas, SM5 and SM7. A total of around 1500 proteins were detected on individual gels. Only changes in protein expression by a factor of 2 or more were considered. In the thymic lymphoma cells 3-5% of the proteins were found to be differentially regulated when compared...... with the protein expression in p53+/+ and p53-/- thymocytes. Only a minority (13 proteins) of the quantitatively changed proteins were common for the two thymic lymphoma cell lines, suggesting that the p53 deficiency mainly results in genetic dysfunctions which are individual for a given tumor. Two of the detected...

  14. High-throughput Cloning and Expression of Integral Membrane Proteins in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several structural genomics centers have been established and a remarkable number of three-dimensional structures of soluble proteins have been solved. For membrane proteins, the number of structures solved has been significantly trailing those for their soluble counterparts, not least because over-expression and purification of membrane proteins is a much more arduous process. By using high throughput technologies, a large number of membrane protein targets can be screened simultaneously and a greater number of expression and purification conditions can be employed, leading to a higher probability of successfully determining the structure of membrane proteins. This unit describes the cloning, expression and screening of membrane proteins using high throughput methodologies developed in our laboratory. Basic Protocol 1 deals with the cloning of inserts into expression vectors by ligation-independent cloning. Basic Protocol 2 describes the expression and purification of the target proteins on a miniscale. Lastly, for the targets that express at the miniscale, basic protocols 3 and 4 outline the methods employed for the expression and purification of targets at the midi-scale, as well as a procedure for detergent screening and identification of detergent(s) in which the target protein is stable. PMID:24510647

  15. The effect of HCV Core protein on the expression of miR-150

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayad Khanizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hepatitis C virus (HCV is considered as one of the major pathogenic agents of chronic liver diseases. Previous studies have shown that HCV proteins can interaction with gene regulatory networks such as microRNAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on the expression of miR-150 in a cell culture model. Materials and Methods: Plasmids expressing full HCV core protein was transfected into Huh7 cell lines while a GFP expressing plasmid employed as negative control. Subsequently, total RNA extracted and Real-Time PCR performed to measure the expression level of miR-150 expression. Moreover, trypan blue exclusion assay was performed to investigate the effect of core protein on cell viability. Results: The gene expression analysis of miR-150 in Huh7 cells showed that endogenous HCV core protein could significantly down regulation of miR-150 when compared to GFP control plasmid and normal cells (P<0.01. Beside, core protein induced no significant proliferative or cytotoxic effects on hepatic cells as determined by trypan blue exclusion assay (P<0.05. Conclusion: Our study suggests that HCV core protein can led to down regulation of miR-150 expression. This data revealed that HCV protein interactions with cell regulatory machinery may contribute to pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases.

  16. Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Wu, Wei-Chi; Hsu, Jason; Weng, Shih-Ting; Lin, Tsai-Leng; Liu, Chun-Yi; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Huang, Ching-Tsan

    2008-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus is thought to possess and enhance a variety of human immune functions. An immuno-modulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) isolated from G. lucidum exhibited potent mitogenic effects upon human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). However, LZ-8-mediated signal transduction in the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression within human T cells is largely unknown. Here we cloned the LZ-8 gene of G. lucidum, and expressed the recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) by means of a yeast Pichia pastoris protein expression system. We found that rLZ-8 induces IL-2 gene expression via the Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), via reactive oxygen species (ROS), and differential protein kinase-dependent pathways within human primary T cells and cultured Jurkat T cells. In essence, we have established the nature of the rLZ-8-mediated signal-transduction pathways, such as PTK/protein kinase C (PKC)/ROS, PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/ERK1/2, and PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/p38 pathways in the regulation of IL-2 gene expression within human T cells. Our current results of analyzing rLZ-8-mediated signal transduction in T cells might provide a potential application for rLZ-8 as a pharmacological immune-modulating agent. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Human survivin and Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin act in synergy against a murine melanoma in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Aguilar-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Immune-based anti-tumor or anti-angiogenic therapies hold considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. The first approach seeks to activate tumor antigen-specific T lymphocytes while, the second, delays tumor growth by interfering with blood supply. Tumor Associated Antigens are often employed to target tumors with therapeutic drugs, but some are also essential for tumor viability. Survivin (Surv is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family that is considered a Tumor Associated Antigen important for cancer cell viability and proliferation. On the other hand, Trypanosoma cruzi (the agent of Chagas' disease calreticulin (TcCRT displays remarkable anti-angiogenic properties. Because these molecules are associated with different tumor targets, we reasoned that immunization with a Surv-encoding plasmid (pSurv and concomitant TcCRT administration should generate a stronger anti-tumor response than application of either treatment separately. To evaluate this possibility, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with pSurv and challenged with an isogenic melanoma cell line that had been pre-incubated with recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT. Following tumor cell inoculation, mice were injected with additional doses of rTcCRT. For the combined regimen we observed in mice that: i. Tumor growth was impaired, ii. Humoral anti-rTcCRT immunity was induced and, iii. In vitro rTcCRT bound to melanocytes, thereby promoting the incorporation of human C1q and subsequent macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells. These observations are interpreted to reflect the consequence of the following sequence of events: rTcCRT anti-angiogenic activity leads to stress in tumor cells. Murine CRT is then translocated to the external membrane where, together with rTcCRT, complement C1 is captured, thus promoting tumor phagocytosis. Presentation of the Tumor Associated Antigen Surv induces the adaptive anti-tumor immunity and, independently, mediates anti-endothelial cell immunity leading

  18. [The expression and clinical significance of Wnt-1 induced secreted protein-1 in breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Tian, Chao; Meng, Wen-jian; Zhang, Jian-hui; Li, Lui; Zhang, Pu-rong; Long, Qi-ming; Tao, Ping

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the expression of Wnt-1 induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) between breast cancer and paired normal breast tissues and to explore the significance of WISP-1 in breast cancer tumorigenesis. The mRNA and protein expressions of WISP-1 in human breast cancer were measured by Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining and further analyzed the relationship between WISP-1 expression and clinic pathologic characters. WISP-1 expression in breast cancer was higher than that in normal breast tissue (P = 0.001). The mRNA expression level of WISP-1 was correlated with tumor size, staging, lymph node status, differentiated degree and HER-2 status (P WISP-1 protein expression level was correlated with lymph node status, differentiated degree and HER-2 status (P WISP-1 expression in human breast cancer increases significantly and may play a key role in the invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer.

  19. Arabidopsis mRNA polyadenylation machinery: comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions and gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Min

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyadenylation of mRNA is one of the critical processing steps during expression of almost all eukaryotic genes. It is tightly integrated with transcription, particularly its termination, as well as other RNA processing events, i.e. capping and splicing. The poly(A tail protects the mRNA from unregulated degradation, and it is required for nuclear export and translation initiation. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that the polyadenylation process is also involved in the regulation of gene expression. The polyadenylation process requires two components, the cis-elements on the mRNA and a group of protein factors that recognize the cis-elements and produce the poly(A tail. Here we report a comprehensive pairwise protein-protein interaction mapping and gene expression profiling of the mRNA polyadenylation protein machinery in Arabidopsis. Results By protein sequence homology search using human and yeast polyadenylation factors, we identified 28 proteins that may be components of Arabidopsis polyadenylation machinery. To elucidate the protein network and their functions, we first tested their protein-protein interaction profiles. Out of 320 pair-wise protein-protein interaction assays done using the yeast two-hybrid system, 56 (~17% showed positive interactions. 15 of these interactions were further tested, and all were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and/or in vitro co-purification. These interactions organize into three distinct hubs involving the Arabidopsis polyadenylation factors. These hubs are centered around AtCPSF100, AtCLPS, and AtFIPS. The first two are similar to complexes seen in mammals, while the third one stands out as unique to plants. When comparing the gene expression profiles extracted from publicly available microarray datasets, some of the polyadenylation related genes showed tissue-specific expression, suggestive of potential different polyadenylation complex configurations. Conclusion An

  20. A New Strain Collection for Improved Expression of Outer Membrane Proteins

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    Ina Meuskens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all integral membrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria belong to the transmembrane β-barrel family. These proteins are not only important for nutrient uptake and homeostasis, but are also involved in such processes as adhesion, protein secretion, biofilm formation, and virulence. As surface exposed molecules, outer membrane β-barrel proteins are also potential drug and vaccine targets. High production levels of heterologously expressed proteins are desirable for biochemical and especially structural studies, but over-expression and subsequent purification of membrane proteins, including outer membrane proteins, can be challenging. Here, we present a set of deletion mutants derived from E. coli BL21(DE3 designed for the over-expression of recombinant outer membrane proteins. These strains harbor deletions of four genes encoding abundant β-barrel proteins in the outer membrane (OmpA, OmpC, OmpF, and LamB, both single and in all combinations of double, triple, and quadruple knock-outs. The sequences encoding these outer membrane proteins were deleted completely, leaving only a minimal scar sequence, thus preventing the possibility of genetic reversion. Expression tests in the quadruple mutant strain with four test proteins, including a small outer membrane β-barrel protein and variants thereof as well as two virulence-related autotransporters, showed significantly improved expression and better quality of the produced proteins over the parent strain. Differences in growth behavior and aggregation in the presence of high salt were observed, but these phenomena did not negatively influence the expression in the quadruple mutant strain when handled as we recommend. The strains produced in this study can be used for outer membrane protein production and purification, but are also uniquely useful for labeling experiments for biophysical measurements in the native membrane environment.

  1. Protein A-mouse acidic mammalian chitinase-V5-His expressed in periplasmic space of Escherichia coli possesses chitinase functions comparable to CHO-expressed protein.

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    Akinori Kashimura

    Full Text Available Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase has been shown to be associated with asthma in mouse models, allergic inflammation and food processing. Here, we describe an E. coli-expression system that allows for the periplasmic production of active AMCase fused to Protein A at the N-terminus and V5 epitope and (His6 tag (V5-His at the C-terminus (Protein A-AMCase-V5-His in E. coli. The mouse AMCase cDNA was cloned into the vector pEZZ18, which is an expression vector containing the Staphylococcus Protein A promoter, with the signal sequence and truncated form of Protein A for extracellular expression in E. coli. Most of the Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was present in the periplasmic space with chitinolytic activity, which was measured using a chromogenic substrate, 4-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside. The Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was purified from periplasmic fractions using an IgG Sepharose column followed by a Ni Sepharose chromatography. The recombinant protein showed a robust peak of activity with a maximum observed activity at pH 2.0, where an optimal temperature was 54°C. When this protein was preincubated between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0 on ice for 1 h, full chitinolytic activity was retained. This protein was also heat-stable till 54°C, both at pH 2.0 and 7.0. The chitinolytic activity of the recombinant AMCase against 4-nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside was comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. Furthermore, the recombinant AMCase bound to chitin beads, cleaved colloidal chitin and released mainly N,N'-diacetylchitobiose fragments. Thus, the E. coli-expressed Protein A-mouse AMCase-V5-His fusion protein possesses chitinase functions comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. This recombinant protein can be used to elucidate detailed biomedical functions of the mouse AMCase.

  2. Protein A-Mouse Acidic Mammalian Chitinase-V5-His Expressed in Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli Possesses Chitinase Functions Comparable to CHO-Expressed Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yuta; Iwabuchi, Kokoro; Matsushima, Yudai; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2013-01-01

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has been shown to be associated with asthma in mouse models, allergic inflammation and food processing. Here, we describe an E. coli-expression system that allows for the periplasmic production of active AMCase fused to Protein A at the N-terminus and V5 epitope and (His)6 tag (V5-His) at the C-terminus (Protein A-AMCase-V5-His) in E. coli. The mouse AMCase cDNA was cloned into the vector pEZZ18, which is an expression vector containing the Staphylococcus Protein A promoter, with the signal sequence and truncated form of Protein A for extracellular expression in E. coli. Most of the Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was present in the periplasmic space with chitinolytic activity, which was measured using a chromogenic substrate, 4-nitrophenyl N,N′-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside. The Protein A-AMCase-V5-His was purified from periplasmic fractions using an IgG Sepharose column followed by a Ni Sepharose chromatography. The recombinant protein showed a robust peak of activity with a maximum observed activity at pH 2.0, where an optimal temperature was 54°C. When this protein was preincubated between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0 on ice for 1 h, full chitinolytic activity was retained. This protein was also heat-stable till 54°C, both at pH 2.0 and 7.0. The chitinolytic activity of the recombinant AMCase against 4-nitrophenyl N,N′-diacetyl-β-D-chitobioside was comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. Furthermore, the recombinant AMCase bound to chitin beads, cleaved colloidal chitin and released mainly N,N′-diacetylchitobiose fragments. Thus, the E. coli-expressed Protein A-mouse AMCase-V5-His fusion protein possesses chitinase functions comparable to the CHO-expressed AMCase. This recombinant protein can be used to elucidate detailed biomedical functions of the mouse AMCase. PMID:24244337

  3. Differential expression of speckled POZ protein, SPOP: Putative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the SPOP protein was detected in high abundance only in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and seminiferous tubule of the testis, echoing previous reports of involvement of ubiquitination in neuron cells and in spermatogenesis. In other mouse tissues and human cancer cell lines analysed, only low SPOP protein ...

  4. In vivo extracellular matrix protein expression by human periodontal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that the orthodontic force applied to teeth generates a series of events that remodel the periodontal ligament (PDL). Extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) are described as molecular regulators of these events. However, the exact contribution of these proteins in human PDL modeling by orthodontic force ...

  5. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-Xin; Song, Hai-Yan; Dong, Yin-Ying; Hu, Chao; Zheng, Qiong-Dan; Xue, Tong-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Jie; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Liu, Yin-Kun; Cui, Jie-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion into the surrounding matrix has been well documented as an early event of metastasis occurrence. However, the dynamic expression patterns of proteins during early invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are largely unknown. Using a three-dimensional HCC invasion culture model established previously, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of identified proteins during early invasion of HCC. Highly metastatic MHCC97H cells and a liver tissue fragment were long-term co-cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor to simulate different pathological states of HCC invasion. The established spherical co-cultures were collected on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 for dynamic expression pattern analysis. Significantly different proteins among spheroids at different time points were screened and identified using quantitative proteomics of iTRAQ labeling coupled with LC-MS/MS. Dynamic expression patterns of differential proteins were further categorized by K-means clustering. The expression modes of several differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by Western blot and qRT-PCR. Time course analysis of invasion/metastasis gene expressions (MMP2, MMP7, MMP9, CD44, SPP1, CXCR4, CXCL12, and CDH1) showed remarkable, dynamic alterations during the invasion process of HCC. A total of 1,028 proteins were identified in spherical co-cultures collected at different time points by quantitative proteomics. Among these proteins, 529 common differential proteins related to HCC invasion were clustered into 25 types of expression patterns. Some proteins displayed significant dynamic alterations during the early invasion process of HCC, such as upregulation at the early invasion stage and downregulation at the late invasion stage (e.g., MAPRE1, PHB2, cathepsin D, etc.) or continuous upregulation during the entire invasion process (e.g., vitronectin, Met, clusterin, ICAM1, GSN, etc.). Dynamic expression patterns of candidate proteins during the early invasion

  6. Expression of melanin and insecticidal protein from Rhodotorula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the salmon/red melanin and the insecticidal producing genes of Rhodotorula glutinis was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pZErO-1. This work suggests that in Rhodotorula species melanin and insecticidal toxin are co-expressed and therefore possibly co-evolved. Keywords: Rhodotorula ...

  7. Protein-trap version 2.1: screening for expressed proteins in mammalian cells based on their localizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovychenko Oleksandr V

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Protein-trap" is a method that allows epitope-tagging of endogenous proteins. This method allows for the identification of endogenously expressed proteins that exhibit specific localization of interest. This method has been recently reported for its application in the study of Drosophila development by using a relatively large epitope, green-fluorescent-protein (GFP. Result Herein, we report a new "protein-trap" vector for mammalian cells. This new method utilizes a much smaller epitope-tag and also allows for drug-selection prior to the epitope-tagging. Pre-selection by drug resulted in the highly efficient protein-trapping frequency. Conclusion The "protein-trap" method based on this new vector is expected to serve as a complimentary approach to the previously reported GFP-based method.

  8. Protein-trap version 2.1: screening for expressed proteins in mammalian cells based on their localizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineshchekova, Olga O; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Vdovychenko, Oleksandr V; Sato, Thomas N

    2004-01-01

    Background "Protein-trap" is a method that allows epitope-tagging of endogenous proteins. This method allows for the identification of endogenously expressed proteins that exhibit specific localization of interest. This method has been recently reported for its application in the study of Drosophila development by using a relatively large epitope, green-fluorescent-protein (GFP). Result Herein, we report a new "protein-trap" vector for mammalian cells. This new method utilizes a much smaller epitope-tag and also allows for drug-selection prior to the epitope-tagging. Pre-selection by drug resulted in the highly efficient protein-trapping frequency. Conclusion The "protein-trap" method based on this new vector is expected to serve as a complimentary approach to the previously reported GFP-based method. PMID:15018653

  9. Detection of soluble expression and in vivo interactions of the inner membrane protein OppC using green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Q J; Zhai, J F; Zhang, M; Zhang, B

    2015-12-22

    In this study, the in vivo interaction system of oligopeptide permease (Opp) proteins was analyzed, and a high expression system of inner membrane protein OppC was constructed by flexible usage of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The Escherichia coli OppC gene, which encodes a transmembrane component of oligopeptide transporter, was cloned into different vectors. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into different E. coli strains, and the expression conditions were optimized. The effect of plasmids and expression strains on OppC production was evaluated by in-gel and western blot analyses. OppC produced by the pWaldo-GFPe vector, harboring the GFP reporter gene, transformed into E. coli C43(DE3) provided sufficient functional protein for biochemical and biophysical studies. In vivo protein-protein interactions were detected among oligopeptide permease proteins using a GFP fragment reassembly protocol. The substrate binding protein OppA showed no interaction with the other components, while the ATP-binding component OppD did not interact with OppF. OppD and OppF interacted with the transmembrane components OppB and OppC. OppB also showed direct interaction with OppC. In vivo OppC functionality was determined by constructing an OppC gene deletion strain. OppC was shown to be essential for peptide uptake, and non-essential for cell viability. These results could help in elucidating the oligopeptide transport mechanism in bacteria.

  10. Intraclonal protein expression heterogeneity in recombinant CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbrough, Warren; Munro, Trent P; Gray, Peter

    2009-12-23

    Therapeutic glycoproteins have played a major role in the commercial success of biotechnology in the post-genomic era. But isolating recombinant mammalian cell lines for large-scale production remains costly and time-consuming, due to substantial variation and unpredictable stability of expression amongst transfected cells, requiring extensive clone screening to identify suitable high producers. Streamlining this process is of considerable interest to industry yet the underlying phenomena are still not well understood. Here we examine an antibody-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clone at single-cell resolution using flow cytometry and vectors, which couple light and heavy chain transcription to fluorescent markers. Expression variation has traditionally been attributed to genetic heterogeneity arising from random genomic integration of vector DNA. It follows that single cell cloning should yield a homogeneous cell population. We show, in fact, that expression in a clone can be surprisingly heterogeneous (standard deviation 50 to 70% of the mean), approaching the level of variation in mixed transfectant pools, and each antibody chain varies in tandem. Phenotypic variation is fully developed within just 18 days of cloning, yet is not entirely explained by measurement noise, cell size, or the cell cycle. By monitoring the dynamic response of subpopulations and subclones, we show that cells also undergo slow stochastic fluctuations in expression (half-life 2 to 11 generations). Non-genetic diversity may therefore play a greater role in clonal variation than previously thought. This also has unexpected implications for expression stability. Stochastic gene expression noise and selection bias lead to perturbations from steady state at the time of cloning. The resulting transient response as clones reestablish their expression distribution is not ordinarily accounted for but can contribute to declines in median expression over timescales of up to 50 days. Noise

  11. Intraclonal protein expression heterogeneity in recombinant CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Pilbrough

    Full Text Available Therapeutic glycoproteins have played a major role in the commercial success of biotechnology in the post-genomic era. But isolating recombinant mammalian cell lines for large-scale production remains costly and time-consuming, due to substantial variation and unpredictable stability of expression amongst transfected cells, requiring extensive clone screening to identify suitable high producers. Streamlining this process is of considerable interest to industry yet the underlying phenomena are still not well understood. Here we examine an antibody-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO clone at single-cell resolution using flow cytometry and vectors, which couple light and heavy chain transcription to fluorescent markers. Expression variation has traditionally been attributed to genetic heterogeneity arising from random genomic integration of vector DNA. It follows that single cell cloning should yield a homogeneous cell population. We show, in fact, that expression in a clone can be surprisingly heterogeneous (standard deviation 50 to 70% of the mean, approaching the level of variation in mixed transfectant pools, and each antibody chain varies in tandem. Phenotypic variation is fully developed within just 18 days of cloning, yet is not entirely explained by measurement noise, cell size, or the cell cycle. By monitoring the dynamic response of subpopulations and subclones, we show that cells also undergo slow stochastic fluctuations in expression (half-life 2 to 11 generations. Non-genetic diversity may therefore play a greater role in clonal variation than previously thought. This also has unexpected implications for expression stability. Stochastic gene expression noise and selection bias lead to perturbations from steady state at the time of cloning. The resulting transient response as clones reestablish their expression distribution is not ordinarily accounted for but can contribute to declines in median expression over timescales of up to 50

  12. Changes in ovarian protein expression during primordial follicle formation in the hamster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anindit; Reisdorph, Nichole; Guda, Babu; Pandey, Sanjit; Roy, Shyamal K

    2012-01-01

    Although many proteins have been shown to affect the transition of primordial follicles to the primary stage, factors regulating the formation of primordial follicles remains sketchy at best. Differentiation of somatic cells into early granulosa cells during ovarian morphogenesis is the hallmark of primordial follicle formation; hence, critical changes are expected in protein expression. We wanted to identify proteins, the expression of which would correlate with the formation of primordial follicles as a first step to determine their biological function in folliculogenesis. Proteins were extracted from embryonic (E15) and 8-day old (P8) hamster ovaries and fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained with Proteosilver, and images of protein profiles corresponding to E15 and P8 ovaries were overlayed to identify protein spots showing altered expression. Some of the protein spots were extracted from SyproRuby-stained preparative gels, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Both E15 and P8 ovaries had high molecular weight proteins at acidic, basic, and neutral ranges; however, we focused on small molecular weight proteins at 4-7 pH range. Many of those spots might represent post-translational modification. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the identity of these proteins. The formation of primordial follicles on P8 correlated with many differentially and newly expressed proteins. Whereas Ebp1 expression was downregulated in ovarian somatic cells, Sfrs3 expression was specifically upregulated in newly formed granulosa cells of primordial follicles on P8. The results show for the first time that the morphogenesis of primordial follicles in the hamster coincides with altered and novel expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation, transcriptional regulation and metabolism. Therefore, formation of primordial follicles is an active process requiring differentiation of somatic cells into early granulosa cells and

  13. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  14. Cell-free expression of protein kinase a for rapid activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leippe, Donna M; Zhao, Kate Qin; Hsiao, Kevin; Slater, Michael R

    2010-05-19

    Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag((R)) fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  15. Cell-Free Expression of Protein Kinase a for Rapid Activity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Leippe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag ® fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  16. Cell-Free Expression of Protein Kinase A for Rapid Activity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Leippe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag® fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  17. [The protein expression profiles induced by trimethyltin chloride in Vero cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun; Zhu, Li-jin; Jv, Li; Qian, Ya-ling; Zhang, Xing

    2011-10-01

    To explore the biomarkers and mechanism of kidney toxicity induced by trimethyltin chloride (TMT-Cl) through analyzing the differences of protein expression profiles between vero cells and vero cells exposed to TMT-Cl. The differences of protein expression levels of three paired samples of vero cells and vero cells exposed to TMT-Cl were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-linear trap quadrupole (LC-ESI-LTQ). The differences of expression levels of Annexin A1 and α-Tubulin proteins were validated with western blot assay, and the differences of mRNA expression levels of Annexin A1 and α-Tubulin genes were detected with quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fifteen spots of differential expression in protein profiles between vero cells and vero cells exposed to TMT-Cl were found, and 9 of these spots were identified by LC-ESI-LTQ. The expression levels of 3 proteins (Annexin A1,similar to RAN protein and a hypothetical protein) increased and the expression levels of 6 proteins(growth factor receptor-bound protein 10, tubulin alpha 6, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, similar to elongation factor SIII p15 subunit, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and a hypothetical protein) reduced. The expression levels of α-Tubulin protein and mRNA significantly decreased in vero cells exposed to TMT-Cl, as compared with vero cells (P < 0.01). The expression of Annexin A1 protein in all exposure groups was significantly up-regulated, the expression of Annexin A1 mRNA in the groups exposed to 25 and 50 µmol/L TMT-Cl was significantly down-regulated, and The expression of Annexin A1 mRNA in the group exposed to 100 µmol/L TMT-Cl was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01). The results of present study suggest that 9 proteins with differential expression detected by LC-ESI-LTQ may be related to the kidney toxicity induced by TMT-Cl, which can serve as the biomarkers of early

  18. [Expression of c-jun protein after experimental rat brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Yong-hong

    2010-02-01

    To observe e-jun protein expression after rat brain concussion and explore the forensic pathologic markers following brain concussion. Fifty-five rats were randomly divided into brain concussion group and control group. The expression of c-jun protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. There were weak positive expression of c-jun protein in control group. In brain concussion group, however, some neutrons showed positive expression of c-jun protein at 15 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 3 h after brain concussion. The research results suggest that detection of c-jun protein could be a marker to determine brain concussion and estimate injury time after brain concussion.

  19. Immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in oral nevi and melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jorge E.; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Paes-de-Almeida, Oslei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in 38 oral nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. Study Design: Expression of this ubiquitin protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 49 oral melanocytic lesions, including 38 intramucosal nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. The labeling index (LI) was assessed considering the percentage of cells expressing nuclear positivity out of the total number of cells, counting 1000 cells per slide. Results: Skp2 protein was rarely expressed in intramucosal nevi, in contrast to oral melanomas, which showed high levels of this protein. Conclusion: These results indicate that Skp2 protein may play a role in the development and progression of oral melanomas, and it also could be useful as an immunohistochemical marker for differential diagnosis of oral benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Key words:Oral melanoma, oral nevi, Skp2, cell cycle, immunohistochemistry. PMID:23385514

  20. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  1. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Claudia S; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-08-01

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fast identification of folded human protein domains expressed in E. coli suitable for structural analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Brigitte

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput protein structure analysis of individual protein domains requires analysis of large numbers of expression clones to identify suitable constructs for structure determination. For this purpose, methods need to be implemented for fast and reliable screening of the expressed proteins as early as possible in the overall process from cloning to structure determination. Results 88 different E. coli expression constructs for 17 human protein domains were analysed using high-throughput cloning, purification and folding analysis to obtain candidates suitable for structural analysis. After 96 deep-well microplate expression and automated protein purification, protein domains were directly analysed using 1D 1H-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC was used to detect natively folded protein. With these two analytical methods, six constructs (representing two domains were quickly identified as being well folded and suitable for structural analysis. Conclusion The described approach facilitates high-throughput structural analysis. Clones expressing natively folded proteins suitable for NMR structure determination were quickly identified upon small scale expression screening using 1D 1H-NMR and/or analytical HIC. This procedure is especially effective as a fast and inexpensive screen for the 'low hanging fruits' in structural genomics.

  3. miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, Declan J., E-mail: dj.mckenna@ulster.ac.uk [Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Derry BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Patel, Daksha, E-mail: d.patel@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); McCance, Dennis J., E-mail: d.mccance@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-05

    A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in the cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. - Highlights: • miR-24 and miR-205 are induced during keratinocyte differentiation. • This induction is lost in keratinocytes expressing HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7. • miR-205 is dependent upon pRb expression. • miR-24 targets p27 in cycling keratinocytes.

  4. Expression of Epitope-Tagged Proteins in Mammalian Cells in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay M; Styers, Melanie L; Sztul, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Before the advent of molecular methods to tag proteins, visualization of proteins within cells required the use of antibodies directed against the protein of interest. Thus, only proteins for which antibodies were available could be visualized. Epitope tagging allows the detection of all proteins with existing sequence information, irrespective of the availability of antibodies directed against them. This technique involves the generation of DNA constructs that express the protein of interest tagged with an epitope that can be recognized by a commercially available antibody. Proteins can be tagged with a wide variety of epitopes using commercially available vectors that allow expression in mammalian cells. Epitope-tagged proteins are easily transfected into mammalian cell lines and, in most cases, tightly mimic the behavior of the endogenous protein. Tagged proteins exogenously expressed in cells provide different types of information depending on the subsequent detection approaches. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-tag antibodies, relative to known markers of cellular organelles, can provide information on the subcellular localization of the tagged protein and may provide clues regarding the protein's function. Immunofluorescence with anti-tag antibodies can also be utilized to assess the tagged protein's responses to cellular signals and pharmacological treatments. Immunoprecipitations with anti-tag antibodies can recover protein complexes containing the protein of interest, resulting in the identification of interacting proteins. Recovery of tagged proteins on affinity matrices allows their purification for use in biochemical assays. In addition, specialized fluorescent tags, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) allow the analysis of cellular dynamics in live cells in real time.

  5. Classification, expression pattern and comparative analysis of sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding glycine-rich proteins (GRPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusaro Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the isolation of the first glycine-rich proteins (GRPs in plants a wealth of new GRPs have been identified. The highly specific but diverse expression pattern of grp genes, taken together with the distinct sub-cellular localization of some GRP groups, clearly indicate that these proteins are involved in several independent physiological processes. Notwithstanding the absence of a clear definition of the role of GRPs in plant cells, studies conducted with these proteins have provided new and interesting insights into the molecular biology and cell biology of plants. Complexly regulated promoters and distinct mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression have been demonstrated and new protein targeting pathways, as well as the exportation of GRPs from different cell types have been discovered. These data show that GRPs can be useful as markers and/or models to understand distinct aspects of plant biology. In this paper, the structural and functional features of these proteins in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. are summarized. Since this is the first description of GRPs in sugarcane, special emphasis has been given to the expression pattern of these GRP genes by studying their abundance and prevalence in the different cDNA-libraries of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project . The comparison of sugarcane GRPs with GRPs from other species is also discussed.

  6. Downregulation of ATM Gene and Protein Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Ferreira, T M M; Bueno, R C; Terra, E M; Avante, M L; Tinucci-Costa, M; Carvalho, M; Cassali, G D; Linde, S D; Rogatto, S R; Laufer-Amorim, R

    2016-11-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein associated with DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. In women, ATM transcript and protein downregulation have been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas, and the absence of ATM protein expression has been associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ATM gene and protein expression in canine mammary tumors and their association with clinical outcome. ATM gene and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in normal mammary gland samples (n = 10), benign mammary tumors (n = 11), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 19), and metastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 11). Lower ATM transcript levels were detected in benign mammary tumors and carcinomas compared with normal mammary glands (P = .011). Similarly, lower ATM protein expression was observed in benign tumors (P = .0003), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (P ATM gene or protein levels were detected among benign tumors and nonmetastatic and metastatic mammary carcinomas (P > .05). The levels of ATM gene or protein expression were not significantly associated with clinical and pathological features or with survival. Similar to human breast cancer, the data in this study suggest that ATM gene and protein downregulation is involved in canine mammary gland tumorigenesis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia.

  8. Evaluation of differential protein expression in Haliclona aquarius and sponge-associated microorganisms under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanick, Rodrigo Cunha; de Sousa Barbosa, Herbert; Frazão, Leonardo Revoredo; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Coutinho, Cristiano Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    A comparative proteomic approach was used to assess differentially expressed proteins in marine sponges after 36 h of exposure to cadmium (Cd). After separation performed by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 46 protein spots indicated differential expression, and 17 of these proteins were identified by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. From the proteins identified, 76% were attributed to sponge-associated microorganisms (fungi and bacteria), and 24% were attributed to Haliclona aquarius. Some of the proteins that were identified may be related to cell proliferation and differentiation or processes of oxidative stress repair and energy procurement. An integrated evaluation based on spot expression levels and the postulated functions of these proteins allowed a more accurate evaluation of the stress caused to the sponge holobiont system by cadmium exposure. This study could provide new insights into the use of a proteomic approach in the marine sponge to assess the effects of Cd pollution in a marine environment.

  9. Expression of autophagy related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma: comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yoon Jin; Kim, Yon Hee; Cho, Nam Hoon; Koo, Ja Seung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the expression of autophagy related proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) with that of autophagy related proteins in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and to determinate its implication. Tissue microarray containing 114 ILC and 692 IDC was constructed, and immunohistochemistry was performed for autophagy related protein (beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B, p62) and Ki-67. No significant difference in expression of autophagy-related proteins between pleomorphic type (n = 12) and classic type (n = 102) of ILC was observed, whereas ILC and IDC showed distinguished features that tumoral beclin-1, stromal LC3A, tumoral LC3B, tumoral p62 were highly expressed in IDC and tumoral BNIP3 was highly expressed in ILC (P < 0.001). Beclin-1 expression was correlated with ER negativity (P = 0.016) and TNBC type (P = 0.024). BNIP3 expression was correlated with ER positivity (p = 0.040). Using multivariate Cox analysis, shorter overall survival was associated with tumoral beclin-1 positivity (hazard ratio: 21.19, 95% CI: 1.098-409.1, P = 0.043). In conclusion, ILC and IDC showed different expression pattern of autophagy-related proteins in tumor and stroma that demonstrated by higher expression of tumoral beclin-1, stromal LC3A, tumoral LC3B, tumoral p62 in IDC, and higher expression of tumoral BNIP3 in ILC.

  10. Dual-function vector for protein expression in both mammalian cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, M; Angelo, K

    2002-01-01

    and oocytes. To address this problem, we have constructed a plasmid vector, pXOOM, that can function as a template for expression in both oocytes and mammalian cells. By including all the necessary RNA stability elements for oocyte expression in a standard mammalian expression vector, we have obtained a dual-function...... vector capable of supporting protein production in both Xenopus oocytes and CHO-K1 cells at an expression level equivalent to the levels obtained with vectors optimized for either oocyte or mammalian expression. Our functional studies have been performed with hERGI, KCNQ4, and Kv1.3 potassium channels....... will often engage both oocytes and mammalian cells. Efficient expression of a protein in both systems have thus far only been possible by subcloning the cDNA into two different vectors because several different molecular requirements should be fulfilled to obtain a high protein level in both mammalian cells...

  11. Intraclonal protein expression heterogeneity in recombinant CHO cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilbrough, Warren; Munro, Trent P; Gray, Peter

    2009-01-01

    .... Here we examine an antibody-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clone at single-cell resolution using flow cytometry and vectors, which couple light and heavy chain transcription to fluorescent markers...

  12. Expression of hepatitis B virus large envelope protein in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korec, E; Korcová, J; Palková, Z; Vondrejs, V; Korínek, V; Reinis, M; Bichko, V V; Hlozánek, I

    1989-01-01

    The gene coding for hepatitis B large envelope protein was cloned under the lac promoter in bacterial vector pUC-8 and under the ADH1 promoter in yeast expression shuttle vector pVT103-U, and expression of HBsAg in bacteria and yeast was determined. The strongest expression of large envelope protein was obtained after transformation of the protease-deficient yeast strain BJ1991. The recombinant large envelope protein did not form complex 22-nm particles and was not secreted into medium.

  13. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the marine fish parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yong-Zhan; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Rui-Jun; Li, Wei; Huang, Xia-Zi; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, An-Xing

    2015-06-30

    Cryptocaryoniasis is a severe disease of farmed marine fish caused by the parasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans. This disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but studies on proteins linked to disease development and antigenic proteins for vaccine development have been relatively scarce to date. In this study, 53 protein spots with differential abundance, representing 12 proteins, were identified based on a pair-wise comparison among theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Meanwhile, 33 protein spots that elicited serological responses in rabbits were identified, representing 9 proteins. In addition, 27 common antigenic protein spots reacted with grouper anti-sera, representing 10 proteins. Most of the identified proteins were involved in cytoskeletal and metabolic pathways. Among these proteins, actin and α-tubulin appeared in all three developmental stages with differences in molecular weights and isoelectric points; 4 proteins (vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit α, mcm2-3-5 family protein, 26S proteasome subunit P45 family protein and dnaK protein) were highly expressed only in theronts; while protein kinase domain containing protein and heat shock protein 70 showed high levels of expression only in trophonts and tomonts, respectively. Moreover, actin was co-detected with 3 rabbit anti-sera while β-tubulin, V-type ATPase α subunit family protein, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial-type hsp70, and dnaK proteins showed immunoreactivity with corresponding rabbit anti-sera in theronts, trophonts, and tomonts. Furthermore, β-tubulin, the metabolic-related protein enolase, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, malate dehydrogenase, as well as polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, protein kinase domain containing protein, TNFR/NGFR cysteine-rich region family protein, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit α, were commonly detected by grouper anti-sera. Therefore, these findings could contribute to an understanding of

  14. TLR3 expression correlates with apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma and predicts prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Ming; Xu, Yu-Yin; Chen, Li; Li, Xing-Yu; Qin, Jing; Shen, Ying

    2015-04-09

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays a key role in innate immunity. In the present study, we analyzed tissues of patients with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to determine the significance of the relationship between TLR3 expression and cell proliferation, apoptosis, hepatitis B virus infections, angiogenesis and prognosis. We collected paraffin-embedded tissues from 85 patients with HCC who had complete histories and were followed for >5 years. The expression and intracellular localization of TLR3 and downstream proteins (TRIF, NF-κB, and IRF3) were detected using immunohistochemistry. Further, we determined the expression of proteins that mediate cell proliferation (Ki67, cyclin D1), apoptosis (survivin, bcl-2, caspases 3, 8, and 9), and angiogenesis (CD34, MMP-2) as well as the HBV proteins HBsAg and HBcAg. Apoptosis in HCC tissues was detected using TUNEL. We conducted dual-labeling immunohistochemical analyses of TLR3 expression and TUNEL activity. TLR3 expression was significantly lower in HCC tissues compared with adjacent tissues. TRIF, NF-κB, and IRF3 correlated positively with TLR3 expression. Survivin and Bcl-2 expression correlated negatively with TLR3. The frequencies of caspases 3, 8, and 9 expression correlated positively with TLR3 signaling proteins. Cytoplasmic TLR3 and serum levels of HBsAg correlated positively. The apoptotic index determined using the TUNEL method and correlated positively with TLR3 expression. TLR3 expression in the cytoplasm correlated positively with TUNEL-positive cells and HBsAg. Ki67 and cyclin D1 correlated negatively with TLR3 expression. MMP-2 expression, microvessel density (CD34(+)) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) correlated negatively with TLR3 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis shows that TLR3 expression correlated with longer survival. The expression of TLR3 in HCC tissues may exert a synergistic effect on apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells, MMP-2 expression, generation of EPCs

  15. S-peptide epitope tagging for protein purification, expression monitoring, and localization in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, Jennifer S; Lee, Sun-Hee; Meng, Xue Wei; Vroman, Benjamin T; Kaufmann, Scott H; Karnitz, Larry M

    2004-11-01

    Epitope tags are widely used in cell biology and biochemistry research. The S-peptide/S-protein interaction has previously been utilized to purify polypeptides expressed in bacteria. We have now re-engineered the S-peptide/S-protein system to allow isolation of S-peptide-tagged polypeptides and their binding partners from eukaryotic cells with S-protein-agarose. In addition, two anti-S-peptide monoclonal antibodies have been generated for analysis of expression and subcellular localization of S-peptide-tagged polypeptides. These reagents make the S-peptide/S-protein system an attractive alternative to currently available epitope tagging methods.

  16. Learning to predict expression efficacy of vectors in recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wen-Ching; Liang, Po-Huang; Shih, Yan-Ping; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Lin, Wen-chang; Hsu, Chun-Nan

    2010-01-18

    Recombinant protein production is a useful biotechnology to produce a large quantity of highly soluble proteins. Currently, the most widely used production system is to fuse a target protein into different vectors in Escherichia coli (E. coli). However, the production efficacy of different vectors varies for different target proteins. Trial-and-error is still the common practice to find out the efficacy of a vector for a given target protein. Previous studies are limited in that they assumed that proteins would be over-expressed and focused only on the solubility of expressed proteins. In fact, many pairings of vectors and proteins result in no expression. In this study, we applied machine learning to train prediction models to predict whether a pairing of vector-protein will express or not express in E. coli. For expressed cases, the models further predict whether the expressed proteins would be soluble. We collected a set of real cases from the clients of our recombinant protein production core facility, where six different vectors were designed and studied. This set of cases is used in both training and evaluation of our models. We evaluate three different models based on the support vector machines (SVM) and their ensembles. Unlike many previous works, these models consider the sequence of the target protein as well as the sequence of the whole fusion vector as the features. We show that a model that classifies a case into one of the three classes (no expression, inclusion body and soluble) outperforms a model that considers the nested structure of the three classes, while a model that can take advantage of the hierarchical structure of the three classes performs slight worse but comparably to the best model. Meanwhile, compared to previous works, we show that the prediction accuracy of our best method still performs the best. Lastly, we briefly present two methods to use the trained model in the design of the recombinant protein production systems to improve

  17. A Western Blot Protocol for Detection of Proteins Heterologously Expressed in Xenopus laevis Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    Oocytes of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, are often used for expression and biochemical characterization of transporter proteins as the oocytes are particularly suitable for uptake assays and electrophysiological recordings. Assessment of the expression level of expressed transporters at the individual oocyte level is often desirable when comparing properties of wild type and mutant transporters. However, a large content of yolk platelets in the oocyte cytoplasm makes this a challenging task. Here we report a method for fast and easy, semiquantitative Western blot analysis of proteins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

  18. MicroRNAs tend to synergistically control expression of genes encoding extensively-expressed proteins in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering complicated microRNA (miRNA biogenesis and action mechanisms, it was thought so high energy-consuming for a cell to afford simultaneous over-expression of many miRNAs. Thus it prompts that an alternative miRNA regulation pattern on protein-encoding genes must exist, which has characteristics of energy-saving and precise protein output. In this study, expression tendency of proteins encoded by miRNAs’ target genes was evaluated in human organ scale, followed by quantitative assessment of miRNA synergism. Expression tendency analysis suggests that universally expressed proteins (UEPs tend to physically interact in clusters and participate in fundamental biological activities whereas disorderly expressed proteins (DEPs are inclined to relatively independently execute organ-specific functions. Consistent with this, miRNAs that mainly target UEP-encoding mRNAs, such as miR-21, tend to collaboratively or even synergistically act with other miRNAs in fine-tuning protein output. Synergistic gene regulation may maximize miRNAs’ efficiency with less dependence on miRNAs’ abundance and overcome the deficiency that targeting plenty of genes by single miRNA makes miRNA-mediated regulation high-throughput but insufficient due to target gene dilution effect. Furthermore, our in vitro experiment verified that merely 25 nM transfection of miR-21 be sufficient to influence the overall state of various human cells. Thus miR-21 was identified as a hub in synergistic miRNA–miRNA interaction network. Our findings suggest that synergistic miRNA–miRNA interaction is an important endogenous miRNA regulation mode, which ensures adequate potency of miRNAs at low abundance, especially those implicated in fundamental biological regulation.

  19. Differential expression of breast cancer-resistance protein, lung resistance protein, and multidrug resistance protein 1 in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Shuang Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the altering expression profiles of efflux transporters such as breast cancer-resistance protein (BCRP, lung resistance protein (LRP, and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB during the development of early diabetic retinopathy (DR and/or aging in mice. METHODS: Relative mRNA and protein expression profiles of these three efflux transporters in the retina during the development of early DR and/or aging in mice were examined. The differing expression profiles of Zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA in the retina as well as the perfusion characterization of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran and Evans blue were examined to evaluate the integrity of the inner BRB. RESULTS: There were significant alterations in these three efflux transporters’ expression profiles in the mRNA and protein levels of the retina during the development of diabetes mellitus and/or aging. The development of early DR was confirmed by the expression profiles of ZO-1 and VEGFA in the retina as well as the compromised integrity of the inner BRB. CONCLUSION: The expression profiles of some efflux transporters such as BCRP, LRP, and MDR1 in mice retina during diabetic and/or aging conditions are tested, and the attenuated expression of BCRP, LRP, and MDR1 along with the breakdown of the inner BRB is found, which may be linked to the pathogenesis of early DR.

  20. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Soo Bong; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Woo; Do, Yoon Jun; Park, Jae-Hong; Yang, Boh-Suk

    2012-05-01

    Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL). Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski) was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  1. Modular Integrated Secretory System Engineering in Pichia pastoris To Enhance G-Protein Coupled Receptor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Katrien; Vandewalle, Kristof; Laukens, Bram; Laeremans, Toon; Vosters, Olivier; Langer, Ingrid; Parmentier, Marc; Steyaert, Jan; Callewaert, Nico

    2016-10-21

    Membrane protein research is still hampered by the generally very low levels at which these proteins are naturally expressed, necessitating heterologous expression. Protein degradation, folding problems, and undesired post-translational modifications often occur, together resulting in low expression levels of heterogeneous protein products that are unsuitable for structural studies. We here demonstrate how the integration of multiple engineering modules in Pichia pastoris can be used to increase both the quality and the quantity of overexpressed integral membrane proteins, with the human CXCR4 G-protein coupled receptor as an example. The combination of reduced proteolysis, enhanced ER folding capacity, GlycoDelete-based N-Glycan trimming, and nanobody-based fold stabilization improved the expression of this GPCR in P. pastoris from a low expression level of a heterogeneously glycosylated, proteolyzed product to substantial quantities (2-3 mg/L shake flask culture) of a nonproteolyzed, homogeneously glycosylated proteoform. We expect that this set of tools will contribute to successful expression of more membrane proteins in a quantity and quality suitable for functional and structural studies.

  2. A Guide to Transient Expression of Membrane Proteins in HEK-293 Cells for Functional Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Amanda; Wong, Aloysius; Esau, Luke; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Gehring, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K(+) channel, AtGORK (At5G37500) in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins.

  3. A guide to transient expression of membrane proteins in HEK-293 cells for functional characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ooi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293 cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium, K+ channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ channel, AtGORK (At5G37500 in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins.

  4. BioBrick™ compatible vector system for protein expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikh, Ilya B; Held, Mark; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    We report here the creation of a modular, plasmid-based protein expression system utilizing elements of the native Rhodobacter puf promoter in a BioBrick(TM)-based vector system with DsRed encoding a red fluorescent reporter protein. A suite of truncations of the puf promoter were made to assess the influence of different portions of this promoter on expression of heterologous proteins. The 3' end of puf was found to be particularly important for increasing expression, with transformants accumulating significant quantities of DsRed under both aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. Expression levels of this reporter protein in Rhodobacter sphaeroides were comparable to those achieved in Escherichia coli using the strong, constitutive P lac promoter, thus demonstrating the robustness of the engineered system. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability to tune the designed expression system by modulating cellular DsRed levels based upon the promoter segment utilized and oxygenation conditions. Last, we show that the new expression system is able to drive expression of a membrane protein, proteorhodopsin, and that membrane purifications from R. sphaeroides yielded significant quantities of proteorhodopsin. This toolset lays the groundwork for the engineering of multi-step pathways, including recalcitrant membrane proteins, in R. sphaeroides.

  5. A Guide to Transient Expression of Membrane Proteins in HEK-293 Cells for Functional Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Amanda Siok Lee

    2016-07-19

    The human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells are commonly used as host for the heterologous expression of membrane proteins not least because they have a high transfection efficiency and faithfully translate and process proteins. In addition, their cell size, morphology and division rate, and low expression of native channels are traits that are particularly attractive for current-voltage measurements. Nevertheless, the heterologous expression of complex membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels for biological characterization and in particular for single-cell applications such as electrophysiology remains a challenge. Expression of functional proteins depends largely on careful step-by-step optimization that includes the design of expression vectors with suitable identification tags, as well as the selection of transfection methods and detection parameters appropriate for the application. Here, we use the heterologous expression of a plant potassium channel, the Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell outward-rectifying K+ channel, AtGORK (At5G37500) in HEK-293 cells as an example, to evaluate commonly used transfection reagents and fluorescent detection methods, and provide a detailed methodology for optimized transient transfection and expression of membrane proteins for in vivo studies in general and for single-cell applications in particular. This optimized protocol will facilitate the physiological and cellular characterization of complex membrane proteins.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum in the process of recombinant protein expression in bioreactors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum is a favorable host cell for the production of recombinant proteins, such as important enzymes and pharmaceutical proteins, due to its excellent potential advantages. Herein, we sought to systematically explore the influence of recombinant protein expression on the transcription and metabolism of C. glutamicum. Two C. glutamicum strains, the wild-type strain and an engineered strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP, were cultured in parallel in 5-L bioreactors to study the change in metabolism in the process of EGFP expression. The results revealed that EGFP expression had great effects on the growth and metabolism of C. glutamicum and contributed to metabolism-like anaerobic conditions as follows: glycolysis was enhanced, the TCA cycle was shunted, and Glu, Val, Met, lactate and acetate were accumulated to produce sufficient ATP for EGFP production and transfer. Many differentially expressed genes related to ribosomal protein, transcriptional regulators, and energy metabolism were found to be expressed in the presence of EGFP, laying the foundation for identifying genomic loci to change the flow of the host cell metabolism to improve the ability of expressing foreign proteins in C. glutamicum.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum in the process of recombinant protein expression in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Guo, Wenwen; Wang, Fen; Zhan, Chunjun; Yang, Yankun; Liu, Xiuxia; Bai, Zhonghu

    2017-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) is a favorable host cell for the production of recombinant proteins, such as important enzymes and pharmaceutical proteins, due to its excellent potential advantages. Herein, we sought to systematically explore the influence of recombinant protein expression on the transcription and metabolism of C. glutamicum. Two C. glutamicum strains, the wild-type strain and an engineered strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), were cultured in parallel in 5-L bioreactors to study the change in metabolism in the process of EGFP expression. The results revealed that EGFP expression had great effects on the growth and metabolism of C. glutamicum and contributed to metabolism-like anaerobic conditions as follows: glycolysis was enhanced, the TCA cycle was shunted, and Glu, Val, Met, lactate and acetate were accumulated to produce sufficient ATP for EGFP production and transfer. Many differentially expressed genes related to ribosomal protein, transcriptional regulators, and energy metabolism were found to be expressed in the presence of EGFP, laying the foundation for identifying genomic loci to change the flow of the host cell metabolism to improve the ability of expressing foreign proteins in C. glutamicum.

  8. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication.

  9. [Expression and significance of CD147 protein in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Chan; Han, Zhao-Dong; Dai, Qi-Shan; Zou, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Ye, Yong-Kang; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhong, Wei-De

    2009-07-14

    To investigate the expression of CD147 in prostate cancer and discuss its diagnostic value in prostate cancer. The method of immunohistochemical SP was employed to detect the expression of CD147 in 101 cases of prostate cancer, 90 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, 36 cases of normal prostate and 15 cases of embryonic prostate by so as to evaluate its clinical significance in the histological classification and prognosis of prostate cancer. The CD147 expression was positively expressed in 67/101 (66.3%) of prostate cancer, 21/90 (23.3%) of benign prostatic hypertrophy, 2/36 (5.6%) of normal prostate and 0/15 (0.0) of embryonic prostate respectively. A positive expression of CD147 was dramatically associated with TNM stage (P prostatic capsule invasion (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.006). The detection of CD147 is helpful to raise the early diagnosis rate of prostate cancer. It will become a tumor marker of reflecting the malignant degree and predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer.

  10. Fluorescent protein-expressing neural progenitor cells as a tool for transplantation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Skardelly

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to generate quadruple fluorescent protein (QFP transgenic mice as a source for QFP-expressing neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs that could be utilized as a tool for transplantation research. When undifferentiated, these NSCs only express cyan fluorescent protein (CFP; however, upon neuronal differentiation, the cells express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. During astrocytic differentiation, the cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP, and during oligodendrocytic differentiation, the cells express red fluorescent protein (DsRed. Using immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and electrophysiology, quadruple transgenic NPCs (Q-NPCs and GFP-sorted NPCs were comprehensively characterized in vitro. Overall, the various transgenes did not significantly affect proliferation and differentiation of transgenic NPCs in comparison to wild-type NPCs. In contrast to a strong CFP and GFP expression in vitro, NPCs did not express YFP and dsRed either during proliferation or after differentiation in vitro. GFP-positive sorted NPCs, expressing GFP under the control of the human GFAP promoter, demonstrated a significant improvement in astroglial differentiation in comparison to GFP-negative sorted NPCs. In contrast to non-sorted and GFP-positive sorted NPCs, GFP-negative sorted NPCs demonstrated a high proportion of neuronal differentiation and proved to be functional in vitro. At 6 weeks after the intracerebroventricular transplantation of Q-NPCs into neonatal wild-type mice, CFP/DCX (doublecortin double-positive transplanted cells were observed. The Q-NPCs did not express any other fluorescent proteins and did not mature into neuronal or glial cells. Although this model failed to visualize NPC differentiation in vivo, we determined that activation of the NPC glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP promoter, as indicated by GFP expression, can be used to separate neuronal and glial progenitors as a valuable

  11. 5´-UTR introns enhance protein expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Hisashi; Kondo, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takafumi; Yarimizu, Tohru; Akada, Rinji

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most suitable microorganisms for recombinant protein production. To enhance protein production, various expression systems have been intensively studied. However, the effect of introns on protein expression has not been examined deeply in S. cerevisiae. In this study, we analyzed the effect of some introns on protein expression. RPS25A, RPS26A, and RPS26B contain single introns within the 5´-untranslated regions (5´-UTRs), and RPS24A has an intron just downstream of the initiation codon. Expression activity of the promoter regions containing introns (intron promoters) were analyzed by luciferase reporter assays. These intron promoters showed higher expression than the TDH3 promoter (TDH3p), which is one of the strongest promoters in S. cerevisiae. Deletion of the introns from these promoters decreased luciferase expression, indicating that introns have a role in enhancing protein expression. To develop artificial strong intron promoters, several chimeric promoters were constructed using the TDH3p and the RPS25A intron promoter. A construct containing the entire TDH3p followed by the RPS25A intron showed about 50-fold higher expression than the TDH3p alone. Inducible expressions driven by the GAL10 promoter and the CUP1 promoter were also enhanced by the RPS25A intron. However, enhancement of mRNA accumulation by the TDH3p and the GAL10 promoter with the RPS25A intron was lower than the effect on luciferase activity, suggesting that the intron affects post-transcriptionally. The chimeric promoter, TDH3p-RPS25A-intron, enhanced expressions of some, but not all proteins examined, indicating that 5'-UTR introns increase production of a certain type of recombinant proteins in S. cerevisiae.

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Protein Profiles Involved in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chiang-Yen; Liang, Shih-Shin; Huang, Chun-Hao; Chi, Shu-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hsi, Edward; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins among various stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by shotgun proteomics using nano-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry and stable isotope dimethyl labeling. Methods Differentially expressed proteins were identified and compared based on the mass spectral differences of their isotope-labeled peptide fragments generated from protease digestion. Results Our quantitative proteomic analysis of the differentially expressed proteins with stable isotope (deuterium/hydrogen ratio, ≥2) identified a total of 353 proteins, with at least 5 protein biomarker proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between cancer and normal mice by at least a 2-fold alteration. These 5 protein biomarker candidates include α-enolase, α-catenin, 14-3-3 β, VDAC1, and calmodulin with high confidence levels. The expression levels were also found to be in agreement with those examined by Western blot and histochemical staining. Conclusions The systematic decrease or increase of these identified marker proteins may potentially reflect the morphological aberrations and diseased stages of pancreas carcinoma throughout progressive developments leading to PDAC. The results would form a firm foundation for future work concerning validation and clinical translation of some identified biomarkers into targeted diagnosis and therapy for various stages of PDAC. PMID:26262590

  13. Proteomic analysis of Lawsonia intracellularis reveals expression of outer membrane proteins during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Eleanor; Alberdi, M Pilar; Inglis, Neil F; Lainson, Alex; Porter, Megan E; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Mclean, Kevin; Smith, David G E

    2014-12-05

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the aetiological agent of the commercially significant porcine disease, proliferative enteropathy. Current understanding of host-pathogen interaction is limited due to the fastidious microaerophilic obligate intracellular nature of the bacterium. In the present study, expression of bacterial proteins during infection was investigated using a mass spectrometry approach. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of two isolates of L. intracellularis from heavily-infected epithelial cell cultures and database mining using fully annotated L. intracellularis genome sequences identified 19 proteins. According to the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional classification, proteins were identified with roles in cell metabolism, protein synthesis and oxidative stress protection; seven proteins with putative or unknown function were also identified. Detailed bioinformatic analyses of five uncharacterised proteins, which were expressed by both isolates, identified domains and motifs common to other outer membrane-associated proteins with important roles in pathogenesis including adherence and invasion. Analysis of recombinant proteins on Western blots using immune sera from L. intracellularis-infected pigs identified two proteins, LI0841 and LI0902 as antigenic. The detection of five outer membrane proteins expressed during infection, including two antigenic proteins, demonstrates the potential of this approach to interrogate L. intracellularis host-pathogen interactions and identify novel targets which may be exploited in disease control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pichia pastoris expressed EtMic2 protein as a potential vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Peipei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Shi, Wenyan; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Fangkun; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-09-15

    Chicken coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species leads to tremendous economic losses to the avian industry worldwide. Identification of parasite life cycle specific antigens is a critical step in recombinant protein vaccine development against Eimeria infections. In the present study, we amplified and cloned the microneme-2 (EtMIC2) gene from Eimeria tenella wild type strain SD-01, and expressed the EtMic2 protein using Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli expression systems, respectively. The EtMic2 proteins expressed by P. pastoris and E. coli were used as vaccines to immunize chickens and their protective efficacies were compared and evaluated. The results indicated that both P. pastoris and E. coli expressed EtMic2 proteins exhibited good immunogenicity in stimulating host immune responses and the Pichia expressed EtMic2 provided better protection than the E. coli expressed EtMic2 did by significantly increasing growth rate, inducing high specific antibody response, reducing the oocyst output and cecal lesions. Particularly, the Pichia expressed EtMic2 protein exhibited much better ability in inducing cell mediated immune response than the E. coli expressed EtMic2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of lipin-1 expression increases monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayasu; Oka, Kazuya [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 affects lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 depletion using siRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes increased MCP-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipin-1 is involved in adipose inflammation. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. Expression of adipose lipin-1 is reduced in obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the significance of this reduction remains unclear. This study investigated if and how reduced lipin-1 expression affected metabolism. We assessed mRNA expression levels of various genes related to adipocyte metabolism in lipin-1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes by introducing its specific small interfering RNA. In lipin-1-depleted adipocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased, although the other genes tested were not altered. The conditioned media from the cells promoted monocyte chemotaxis. The increase in MCP-1 expression was prevented by treatment with quinazoline or salicylate, inhibitors of nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation. Because MCP-1 is related to adipose inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, these results suggest that a reduction in adipose lipin-1 in obesity may exacerbate adipose inflammation and metabolism.

  16. T1 high-grade bladder carcinoma outcome: the role of p16, topoisomerase-IIα, survivin, and E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Luque, Rafael J; Menendez, Carmen Luz; Bollito, Enrico; Brunelli, Matteo; Martignoni, Guido; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Blanca, Ana; Baroni, Gianna; Minervini, Andrea; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    High-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with subepithelial connective tissue invasion (T1HG) is an aggressive disease at high risk of progression after transurethral resection/Bacillus Calmette-Guerin standardized therapy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer has identified T1HG bladder carcinoma that is single and ≤3 cm in the largest dimension at first diagnosis as a category in which the prognosis cannot be further stratified based on conventional criteria. This category may benefit from biomarker analysis as a valuable tool to determine the patient's outcome. To further the issue of biomarkers in predicting aggressiveness in single T1HG bladder carcinoma ≤3 cm in greatest dimension at first diagnosis, we have conducted a validation study of the