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Sample records for survive intestinal transit

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum-survival, functional and potential probiotic properties in the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Kleerebezem, M.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a versatile lactic acid bacterium that is encountered in a range of environmental niches, has a proven ability to survive gastric transit, and can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. Several studies describe the effects of L. plantarum consumption on

  2. Influence of atropine and loperamide on reduced intestinal transit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Calotropis procera latex alone and in the presence of loperamide and atropine on intestinal transit in rats were determined to elucidate the action of C. procera on intestinal transit. Six groups of rats containing ten rats per group were used. Each rat in the control group (I) received 0.5 ml of normal saline.

  3. intestinal motility and transit following chronic ingestion of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    charcoal (BDH, England) was mixed with 5 ml of. 0.15% Leishman's stain (BDH, England). Twenty ml of the ... subtracted from the position of the marker nearest the caecum. The intestinal transit was calculated as length moved by marker/total length of the small intestine x 100. Motility. The animals were starved 24hours ...

  4. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  5. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  6. Assessing survival of dairy propionibacteria in gastrointestinal conditions and adherence to intestinal epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Gabriela; González, Silvia; Chaia, Adriana Pérez

    2004-01-01

    The genus Propionibacterium consists of two principal groups, cutaneous and classical or dairy. Cutaneous species are predominant members of the microbial population of human skin and have also been isolated from the feces of humans and other vertebrate animals. They are often considered opportunistic organisms and have been occasionally associated with infections in humans. Dairy propionibacteria are microorganisms extensively used in the industry for manufacture of Swiss-type cheeses and biological production of propionic acid and vitamin B12. They can be isolated from soil, vegetables, silage, raw milk, and dairy products such as kefir and different cheeses with "eyes."In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated probiotic properties for members of the genus Propionibacterium. The effects claimed are based on the production of bacteriocins, vitamins, stimulation of growth of other colonic bacteria like bifidobacteria, beneficial modification of the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora, immunomodulation, and antimutagenic activity. It is thought that to produce many of these health benefits, the probiotic microorganisms must be able to survive the transit through the hostile conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and remain at high levels in the intestine, avoiding removal by peristaltic contractions of the gut. In this sense, microorganisms with a short generation time or the ability to adhere to the intestinal mucosa will survive for prolonged periods in the body of the host. Therefore, two desirable properties for probiotic microorganisms are (1) resistance to gastric acidity, bile, and pancreatic enzymes; and (2) adhesion ability to mucosal surfaces. Dairy bacteria are traditionally not considered to persist as normal inhabitants of the human intestinal tract. Therefore, survival under GIT conditions and adherence are important properties to be considered, and tests to study them would be useful tools. In the

  7. Lubiprostone Accelerates Intestinal Transit and Alleviates Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Patients With Chronic Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarosiek, Irene; Bashashati, Mohammad; Alvarez, Alicia; Hall, Mark; Shankar, Nagasri; Gomez, Yvette; McCallum, Richard W; Sarosiek, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Lubiprostone is an effective treatment for chronic constipation (CC). The mechanism of action of lubiprostone is through increasing fluid secretion and lubrication of the intestinal lumen. The effects of lubiprostone on gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) have not been adequately explored. The current study was designed to investigate whether lubiprostone (1) alters gastrointestinal transit and (2) affects SIBO in patients with constipation. A total of 29 female patients (mean age = 39 years; range: 19-64) with CC received 2 weeks of lubiprostone (24mcg b.i.d., P.O.). Stool consistency based on Bristol stool scale and the frequency of bowel movements (BMs) were recorded. Gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, colon transit time (CTT), combined small and large bowel transit time (SLBTT) and whole gut transit time were measured using wireless motility capsule. The SIBO status was assessed by the lactulose breath test. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank, Mann-Whitney U, Spearman׳s rank correlation and Chi-square tests. Lubiprostone significantly softened the stool and increased the frequency of BM from median of 2 to 4times per week. The CTT and SLBTT were significantly shorter in responders to lubiprostone (i.e., those with ≥ 2 times increase in the number of their weekly BM) compared with nonresponders. The higher frequency of BM after treatment was significantly correlated with the acceleration of CTT, SLBTT and whole gut transit time. In all, 17 out of 25 (68%) patients, who were tested for SIBO at baseline, were positive. In addition, 7 out of 17 (41%) SIBO-positive patients became SIBO-negative after lubiprostone treatment (P lubiprostone improves the frequency of BMs, softens the stool, accelerates intestinal transit and decreases accompanying SIBO. The improvement of SIBO could be explained by the cleansing effect of increased intestinal fluid and mucus combined with enhanced intestinal motility with

  8. Small intestinal transit of spherical particles in the active rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, P.T.; Sutton, S.C.; LeRoy-Wayne, S.

    1986-03-05

    Reproducible measurements of small intestine transit for spherical particles of 0.5 ..mu.. to 1 mm diameter, have been accomplished in the conscious rat. A short cannula of polyethylene is surgically implanted into the duodenum and exists through the abdominal wall. After recovery, a bolus of saline containing colored or isotopically labeled particulate material and an internal standard of NaCr/sup 51/O/sub 4/ is introduced with a modified pipette tip that snugly fills the cannula to prevent back flow. The rats eat and drink during the transit period and are maintained on a reversed light cycle so that transit is measured during their physically active period. Glass microspheres of 1mm, 500 ..mu.., and 50 ..mu.. were followed at 30 min, 1 hr, and 2 hr intervals by opening the intestine and photographing 1 cm segments along its length. Polymer beads of 500 ..mu.., 125 ..mu.., and 70 ..mu.. were labeled with /sup 125/I and located by freezing the exteriorized intestine and counting 1 cm segments in a gamma counter. Movement of the fluid bolus as detected by NaCr/sup 51/O/sub 4/ was reproducible with the fluid front moving through 59%, 73%, and 81% of the length at 30 min, 1 hr, and 2 hr. One millimeter to 125 ..mu.. glass and polymer beads moved with the fluid bolus. Evidence for separation of the fluid phase and particles under approx. 100 ..mu.. is accumulating. It is hypothesized that small particles under a critical size may become lodged in the mucus lining of the intestinal wall.

  9. Intestinal transit time is delayed by artificial sphincters after massive enterectomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchini, A; DiDio, L J; Christoforidis, A J; Borelli, V

    1986-04-01

    Artificial sphincters were created in three groups of dogs after the resection of 87.5 percent of the intestine in each animal. Intestinal transit time was measured after 6 weeks by observing the passage of a radiopaque medium through the animals' intestinal tracts. No statistically significant differences were found between the intestinal transit times of dogs with one artificial sphincter and control animals. In dogs with two artificial sphincters there was a delay in the radiologically monitored intestinal transit time that was statistically significant compared with that of the control group.

  10. Effect of bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli on the survival of Escherichia coli and Listeria in a dynamic model of the stomach and the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gänzle, M.G.; Hertel, C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Hammes, W.P.

    1999-01-01

    The survival of Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 (bac+) and (bac-) in combination with Escherichia coli LTH 1600 or Listeria innocua DSM20649 during transit through a dynamic model of the human stomach and small intestine (GIT model) was studied. Furthermore, we determined the digestion of curvacin A

  11. Krüppel-like factor 5 is essential for proliferation and survival of mouse intestinal epithelial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandayam O. Nandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5 is a pro-proliferative transcription factor that is expressed in dividing epithelial cells of the intestinal crypt. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 has been identified as a stem cell marker in both small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. To determine whether KLF5 regulates proliferation of intestinal stem cells, we investigated the effects of Klf5 deletion specifically from the intestinal stem cells in adult mice. Mice with inducible intestinal stem cell-specific deletion of Klf5 (Lgr5-Klf5fl/fl were injected with tamoxifen for 5 consecutive days to induce Lgr5-driven Cre expression. Intestinal and colonic tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry at various time points up to 112 days following start of tamoxifen treatment. Klf5 is co-localized in the crypt-based columnar (CBC cells that express Lgr5. By 11 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, Lgr5-positive crypts from which Klf5 was deleted exhibited a loss of proliferation that was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. Beginning at 14 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, both Klf5 expression and proliferation were re-established in the transit-amplifying epithelial cells but not in the Lgr5-positive CBC cells. By 112 days post-treatment, up to 90% of the Lgr5-positive cells from which Klf5 was deleted were lost from the intestinal crypts. These results indicate a critical role for KLF5 in the survival and maintenance of intestinal stem cells.

  12. Enteral autonomy, cirrhosis, and long term transplant-free survival in pediatric intestinal failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Brenna S; Sparks, Eric A; Hall, Amber M; Duggan, Christopher; Jaksic, Tom; Modi, Biren P

    2016-01-01

    Patient selection for transplant evaluation in pediatric intestinal failure is predicated on the ability to assess long-term transplant-free survival. In light of trends toward improved survival of intestinal failure patients in recent decades, we sought to determine if the presence of biopsy-proven hepatic cirrhosis or the eventual achievement of enteral autonomy were associated with transplant-free survival. After IRB approval, records of all pediatric intestinal failure patients (parenteral nutrition (PN) >90 days) treated at a single intestinal failure center from February 2002 to September 2014 were reviewed. Chi-squared, Mann-Whitney, and log-rank testing were performed as appropriate. Of 313 patients, 174 eventually weaned off PN. Liver biopsies were available in 126 patients (most common indication was intestinal failure associated liver disease, IFALD), and 23 met histologic criteria for cirrhosis. Transplant-free survival for the whole cohort of 313 patients was 94.7% at 1 year and 89.2% at 5 years. Among patients with liver biopsies, transplant-free survival in cirrhotics vs. noncirrhotics was 95.5% vs. 94.1% at one year and 95.5% vs. 86.7% at 5 years (P=0.29). Transplant-free survival in patients who achieved enteral autonomy compared with patients who remained PN dependent was 98.2% vs. 90.3% at one year and 98.2% vs. 76.9% at 5 years (Ppediatric intestinal failure patients. There was no association between histopathological diagnosis of cirrhosis and transplant-free survival in the cohort. These data suggest that automatic transplant referral may not be required for histopathological diagnosis of cirrhosis alone, and that ongoing efforts aimed at achievement of enteral autonomy remain paramount in pediatric intestinal failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extensive Intestinal Resection Triggers Behavioral Adaptation, Intestinal Remodeling and Microbiota Transition in Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mayeur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive resection of small bowel often leads to short bowel syndrome (SBS. SBS patients develop clinical mal-absorption and dehydration relative to the reduction of absorptive area, acceleration of gastrointestinal transit time and modifications of the gastrointestinal intra-luminal environment. As a consequence of severe mal-absorption, patients require parenteral nutrition (PN. In adults, the overall adaptation following intestinal resection includes spontaneous and complex compensatory processes such as hyperphagia, mucosal remodeling of the remaining part of the intestine and major modifications of the microbiota. SBS patients, with colon in continuity, harbor a specific fecal microbiota that we called “lactobiota” because it is enriched in the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc group and depleted in anaerobic micro-organisms (especially Clostridium and Bacteroides. In some patients, the lactobiota-driven fermentative activities lead to an accumulation of fecal d/l-lactates and an increased risk of d-encephalopathy. Better knowledge of clinical parameters and lactobiota characteristics has made it possible to stratify patients and define group at risk for d-encephalopathy crises.

  14. Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme Blockade in the Intestine Increases Survival After Experimental Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLano, Frank A.; Hoyt, David B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2015-01-01

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors—6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate di-methanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin—into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multi-organ failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic. PMID:23345609

  15. [Intestinal pouches for slowing transit after extensive enterectomy. Experimental study in the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliere, T

    1980-01-01

    The experimental study of three types of intestinal pouch for slowing transit was carried out in the rat after resection of 75% of the small intestine. The consequences of these pouches are analysed compared with control animals have undergone the same resection alone. The slowing of the transit confirmed to opaque radiography of the small intestine was particularly marked in all three types of pouch. Statistical analysis of weight curves showed the existence of a favourable statistical difference for certain types of pouch from the fifth postoperative day onwards. Construction of pouches is in the rat one of the most effective procedures for slowing transit.

  16. Survival of patients identified as candidates for intestinal transplantation: a 3-year prospective follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pironi, L.; Forbes, A.; Joly, F.

    2008-01-01

    with parenteral nutrition-related liver failure (P = .364). CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm home parenteral nutrition as the primary therapeutic option for intestinal failure and support the appropriateness and potential life-saving role of timely intestinal transplantation for patients with parenteral nutrition......BACKGROUND & AIMS: The US Medicare indications for intestinal transplantation are based on failure of home parenteral nutrition. The American Society of Transplantation also includes patients at high risk of death from their primary disease or with high morbidity intestinal failure. A 3-year...... prospective study evaluated the appropriateness of these indications. METHODS: Survival on home parenteral nutrition or after transplantation was analyzed in 153 (97 adult, 56 pediatric) candidates for transplantation and 320 (262 adult, 58 pediatric) noncandidates, enrolled through a European multicenter...

  17. Sulfate-reducing bacteria slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, N L; Lin, D M; Wilson, M R; Barton, L L; Lin, H C

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) serves as a mammalian cell-derived gaseous neurotransmitter. The intestines are exposed to a second source of this gas by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Bismuth subsalicylate binds H2 S rendering it insoluble. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that SRB may slow intestinal transit in a bismuth-reversible fashion. Eighty mice were randomized to five groups consisting of Live SRB, Killed SRB, SRB+Bismuth, Bismuth, and Saline. Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a common strain of SRB, was administered by gavage at the dose of 1.0 × 10(9) cells along with rhodamine, a fluorescent dye. Intestinal transit was measured 50 minutes after gavage by euthanizing the animals, removing the small intestine between the pyloric sphincter and the ileocecal valve and visualizing the distribution of rhodamine across the intestine using an imaging system (IVIS, Perkin-Elmer). Intestinal transit (n=50) was compared using geometric center (1=minimal movement, 100=maximal movement). H2 S concentration (n=30) was also measured when small intestinal luminal content was allowed to generate this gas. The Live SRB group had slower intestinal transit as represented by a geometric center score of 40.2 ± 5.7 when compared to Saline: 73.6 ± 5.7, Killed SRB: 77.9 ± 6.9, SRB+Bismuth: 81.0 ± 2.0, and Bismuth: 73.3 ± 4.2 (Pfashion in mice. Our results demonstrate that intestinal transit is slowed by SRB and this effect could be abolished by H2 S-binding bismuth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intestinal transit and systemic metabolism of apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kathrin; Kempf, Michael; Schreier, Peter; Scheppach, Wolfgang; Schrenk, Dieter; Kautenburger, Tanja; Hecker, Dorothée; Huemmer, Wolfgang; Ackermann, Matthias; Richling, Elke

    2011-10-01

    Apples are the most widely consumed fruits in Germany and various other countries. Positive health effects of apple-derived polyphenols in vivo depend on their absorption, metabolism, distribution, and elimination from the body after consumption. Data on the metabolism of these polyphenols in humans are scarce. In order to study the intestinal transit and metabolism of apple polyphenols in humans, a variety of experiments were carried out. Polyphenols were incubated with saliva (for 5 min), simulated gastric or duodenal juice (4 or 10 h, respectively), or rat hepatocytes (4 h) under aerobic conditions, and with ileostomy fluid under aerobic conditions for 10 h. The polyphenol profile in human serum (8 h later) and renal elimination in urine (24 h later) were also investigated after consumption of 1 L apple juice. Polyphenols and their metabolites were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), and gas chromatography (GC)-MS. In the presence of native saliva or ileostomy fluid, β-glycosides of phloretin and quercetin were hydrolyzed, to varying degrees depending on the sugar moiety, and to much lesser degrees in the presence of antibiotics. In the gastric milieu, almost complete degradation of procyanidin B(2) to (-)-epicatechin was observed. In the presence of artificial duodenal juice flavan-3-ol epimerization occurred. Quercetin was completely converted to phloroglucinol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of isomeric products of hydroxycinnamic acid esters and their corresponding methyl esters was also observed, and similar results were obtained after incubation with rat hepatocytes. Products of phase II metabolism, two phloretin O-glucuronides and eight (methyl) quercetin O-glucuronides, were identified in the hepatocyte samples. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-p

  19. [Impact of ishemia-reperfusion injury on long survival rate in intestinal transplantation in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausada, Natalia; Stringa, Pablo; Cabanne, Ana; Ramisch, Diego; Machuca, Mariana; Galvao, Flavio; Coronato, Silvia; Raimondi, Jorge Clemente; Gondolesi, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    The intestine is a highly sensitive tissue to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury that will early respond increasing its permeability. Later this response is translated in morphologic and histological changes that reveal the degree of damage. The heterotopic intestinal transplantation model in rats allows to evaluate the evolution of intestinal tissue injury after ischemia-reperfusion without affecting the long survival rate. The aim of this paper is to establish a relationship between the ischemic reperfusion injury with the long-term survival Ten intestinal transplants were analyzed in adult, Wistar, inbred, male rats. Light microscopical examination was performed on intestine graft: 1) immediately post-dissection, 2) at the end of cold isquemia, 3) 30 min, 4) 48hs and 5) 5 days post-transplant procedure, respectively. Biopsies were reported according to Park's classification and extension of staining using immunohistochemestry to malondialdehyde (MDA) products. The Park's classification indexes reported in samples were 1) 0,57 +/- 1,13 (N=10); 2) 2,71 +/- 1,25 (N=10); 3) 4,14 +/- 0,89 (N=10); 4) 1,0 +/- 0,81 (N=7); 5) 0 (N=7). The highest levels of immunohistochemical detection of MDA were observed thirty minutes post-reperfusion (extension of staining between 51% to 75%). Three animals died when they were sampled at 48 hours, and the biopsies had Park's classification > or = 4 at 30 minutes post-reperfusion and endotoxemic signology. The highest degree of mucosal damage was observed immediately post-reperfusion. At 48hs the graft tended to be normalized Failure to repair the immediately I-R injury signficantly affects the long term survival.

  20. Identification of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition as a Novel Source of Fibroblasts in Intestinal Fibrosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Flier, Sarah N.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Kokkotou, Efi G.; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Zeisberg, Michael; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of Crohn disease (CD), but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is incompletely understood. As a result, specific therapies to halt or even reverse fibrosis have not been explored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intestinal fibrosis associated with a mouse model of CD and also human inflammatory bowel disease. Mice administered intrarectal 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) develop inf...

  1. Opioid peptides inhibit intestinal transit in the rat by a central mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, J J; Burks, T F

    1982-11-05

    Opiates and opioid peptides can alter gastrointestinal motility and delay transit of intraluminal contents. These experiments were designed to characterize the effects of beta-endorphin and [D-Ala2,Met5]enkephalinamide (DALA) on small intestinal transit in the rat. Rats were implanted with a polyethylene cannula in the right lateral cerebral ventricle and a silastic cannula in the proximal duodenum. Drugs were administered via the cerebral cannula or intraperitoneally (i.p.) Interstitial transit was assessed by instilling radiochromium into the duodenum and calculating the geometric center of the distribution of marker in the small intestine. beta-Endorphin and DALA produced a dose-related decrease in intestinal transit when the peptides were given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) however, neither peptide was effective when i.p. [D-Ala2,Leu5]enkephalinamide and dynorphin-(1-13) did not alter intestinal transit. The inhibitory effects of beta-endorphin and DALA were antagonized by pretreatment with naloxone or naltrexone. A quaternary amine containing opiate antagonist. N,N-diallylnormorphinium given i.p. did not alter the response to either peptide but was effective in blocking the antitransit effects of i.p. loperamide, a peripherally acting opioid agonist. In addition, DALA reduced the body weight loss produced by castor oil-induced diarrhea while beta-endorphin had no effect. These results indicate that opioid peptides can alter intestinal motility by an action within the central nervous system. While DALA and beta-endorphin produce quantitatively the same effects on small intestinal motility, qualitatively they may differ in their mechanisms of action.

  2. Lactulose breath test gas production in childhood IBS is associated with intestinal transit and bowel movement frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    In adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bacterial gas production (colonic fermentation) is related to both symptom generation and intestinal transit. Whether gas production affects symptom generation, psychosocial distress, or intestinal transit in childhood IBS is unknown. Children (ages 7-1...

  3. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  4. Silibinin attenuates radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis and reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Han, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hae-June

    2017-09-19

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for cancer patients, but its use is often restricted by the tolerance of normal tissue. As cancer patients live longer, delayed radiation effects on normal tissue have become a concern. Radiation-induced enteropathy, including inflammatory bowel disease and fibrosis, are major issues for long-term cancer survivors. To investigate whether silibinin attenuates delayed radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, we focused on intestinal fibrotic changes. Silibinin improved delayed radiation injuries in mice in association with decreased collagen deposition within the intestines and deceased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels in the intestine and plasma. Treating mice bearing CT26 mouse colon cancer tumors with both silibinin and radiation stimulated tumor regression more than radiation alone. We also investigated the effect of silibinin on the radiation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the primary mechanism of fibrosis. We assessed changes in E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and demonstrated that silibinin attenuates radiation-induced EMT. Irradiating intestinal epithelial cells increased TGF-β1 levels, but silibinin suppressed TGF-β1 expression by inhibiting Smad2/3 phosphorylation. These results suggest silibinin has the potential to serve as a useful therapeutic agent in patients with radiation-induced intestinal fibrosis.

  5. Gastric emptying, small intestinal transit and fecal output in dystrophic (mdx) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulè, Flavia; Amato, Antonella; Serio, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which results from deficiency in dystrophin, a sarcolemma protein of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, is characterized by progressive striated muscle degeneration, but various gastrointestinal clinical manifestations have been observed. The aim was to evaluate the possible impact of the dystrophin loss on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mdx mice (animal model for DMD). The gastric emptying of a carboxymethyl cellulose/phenol red dye non-nutrient meal was not significantly different at 20 min from gavaging between wild-type and mdx mice. The intestinal transit and the fecal output were significantly decreased in mdx versus normal animals, although the length of the intestine was similar in both animals. The present results provide evidence for motor intestinal alterations in mdx mice in in vivo conditions.

  6. SURVIVAL OF MICROORGANISMS FROM MODERN PROBIOTICS IN MODEL CONDITIONS OF THE INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabluchko TV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The staye of intestinal microflora affects the work of the whole organism. When composition of normal ibtestine microflora changes, its restoration is required. In our days a wide variety of probiotic drugs are available on the market which can be used to solve this problem. Most bacteria having probiotic properties represent the families Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which have poor resistance to acidic content of the stomach and toxic effects of bile salts. Various studies have clearly shown that in a person with normal acidic and bile secretion, the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are not detected after the passage through the duodenum, i.e., they perish before reaching the small intestines. In this study we compared the survival of different microorganisms which are contained in 9 probiotic drugs in a model of gastric and intestinal environments. Material and methods. In the laboratory of SI: “Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology, National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" the in vitro experiments have been evaluated to test the ability of different probiotic bacteria which were contained in 9 probiotic drugs to survive the impact of the model environment of the stomach and duodenum. Bacillus coagulans persistence was evaluated under impact of simulated environment of the stomach and duodenum, it also was assessed by the quantity of CFU by incubation on culture medium. The following were studied: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum , Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. Lactis BB-12, Saccharomyces boulardii, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus clausii, Enterococcus faecium. Microorganisms were incubated for 3 hours in a model environment of the stomach (pepsin 3 g / l, hydrochloric acid of 160 mmol / l, pH 2

  7. Enzymatically Modified Starch Favorably Modulated Intestinal Transit Time and Hindgut Fermentation in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M A; Zebeli, Q; Velde, K; Grüll, D; Molnar, T; Kandler, W; Metzler-Zebeli, B U

    2016-01-01

    Aside from being used as stabilizing agents in many processed foods, chemically modified starches may act as functional dietary ingredients. Therefore, development of chemically modified starches that are less digestible in the upper intestinal segments and promote fermentation in the hindgut receives considerable attention. This study aimed to investigate the impact of an enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on nutrient flow, passage rate, and bacterial activity at ileal and post-ileal level. Eight ileal-cannulated growing pigs were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy cornstarch as control) in a cross-over design for 10 d, followed by a 4-d collection of feces and 2-d collection of ileal digesta. On d 17, solid and liquid phase markers were added to the diet to determine ileal digesta flow for 8 h after feeding. Reduced small intestinal digestion after the consumption of the EMS diet was indicated by a 10%-increase in ileal flow and fecal excretion of dry matter and energy compared to the control diet (P<0.05). Moreover, EMS feeding reduced ileal transit time of both liquid and solid fractions compared to the control diet (P<0.05). The greater substrate flow to the large intestine with the EMS diet increased the concentrations of total and individual short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces (P<0.05). Total bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected by diet, whereas the relative abundance of the Lactobacillus group decreased (P<0.01) by 50% and of Enterobacteriaceae tended (P<0.1) to increase by 20% in ileal digesta with the EMS diet compared to the control diet. In conclusion, EMS appears to resemble a slowly digestible starch by reducing intestinal transit and increasing SCFA in the distal large intestine.

  8. Identification of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition as a Novel Source of Fibroblasts in Intestinal Fibrosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Sarah N.; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Kokkotou, Efi G.; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Zeisberg, Michael; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of Crohn disease (CD), but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is incompletely understood. As a result, specific therapies to halt or even reverse fibrosis have not been explored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intestinal fibrosis associated with a mouse model of CD and also human inflammatory bowel disease. Mice administered intrarectal 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) develop inflammation and fibrosis that resembles CD both histologically and by immunologic profile. We utilized this model to molecularly probe the contribution of EMT to intestinal fibrosis. Additionally, we utilized double-transgenic VillinCre;R26Rosa-lox-STOP-lox-LacZ mice, in which removal of the STOP cassette by Cre recombinase in villin+ intestinal epithelial cells activates permanent LacZ expression, to lineage trace epithelial cells that might undergo EMT upon TNBS administration. TNBS-induced fibrosis is associated with the presence of a significant number of cells that express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. In the lineage tagged transgenic mice, the appearance of LacZ+ cells that also express the fibroblast marker FSP1 unequivocally demonstrates EMT. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, a known inducer of EMT in epithelial cells, induces EMT in rat intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and bone morphogenic protein-7, an antagonist of TGF-β1, inhibits EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and in the TNBS-treated mice. Our study demonstrates that EMT contributes to intestinal fibrosis associated with the TNBS-induced model of Crohn colitis and that inhibition of TGF-β1 with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-7 prevents this process and prevents fibrosis. PMID:20363741

  9. Identification of epithelial to mesenchymal transition as a novel source of fibroblasts in intestinal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Sarah N; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Kokkotou, Efi G; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Zeisberg, Michael; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-06-25

    Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of Crohn disease (CD), but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is incompletely understood. As a result, specific therapies to halt or even reverse fibrosis have not been explored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to intestinal fibrosis associated with a mouse model of CD and also human inflammatory bowel disease. Mice administered intrarectal 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) develop inflammation and fibrosis that resembles CD both histologically and by immunologic profile. We utilized this model to molecularly probe the contribution of EMT to intestinal fibrosis. Additionally, we utilized double-transgenic VillinCre;R26Rosa-lox-STOP-lox-LacZ mice, in which removal of the STOP cassette by Cre recombinase in villin(+) intestinal epithelial cells activates permanent LacZ expression, to lineage trace epithelial cells that might undergo EMT upon TNBS administration. TNBS-induced fibrosis is associated with the presence of a significant number of cells that express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. In the lineage tagged transgenic mice, the appearance of LacZ(+) cells that also express the fibroblast marker FSP1 unequivocally demonstrates EMT. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, a known inducer of EMT in epithelial cells, induces EMT in rat intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and bone morphogenic protein-7, an antagonist of TGF-beta1, inhibits EMT and fibrosis both in vitro and in the TNBS-treated mice. Our study demonstrates that EMT contributes to intestinal fibrosis associated with the TNBS-induced model of Crohn colitis and that inhibition of TGF-beta1 with recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-7 prevents this process and prevents fibrosis.

  10. Transition to a Tube Feeding Formula With Real Food Ingredients in Pediatric Patients With Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Kate; Mokha, Jasmeet; Emerick, Karan; Davidovics, Zev H

    2017-04-01

    Due to concerns related primarily to allergic response and malabsorption, enteral nutrition therapy has traditionally relied on the use of elemental formulas in children with intestinal failure (IF). Blended food diets via a gastrostomy tube have been reported to improve feeding tolerance in pediatric populations receiving long-term enteral nutrition therapy. Complex macronutrients have been shown to stimulate intestinal adaptation in animal models. We report on our experience in children with IF who had an overall improvement in stool output when transitioned from an elemental formula to a tube feeding formula with real food ingredients (TFRF). Data were collected in a retrospective chart review of children with IF, >1 year of age, who were receiving enteral nutrition via continuous infusion, bolus feeding, or both. Indications for the TFRF trial were diarrhea or inconsistent stooling patterns. Ten children with a mean small bowel length of 48.3 cm were trialed on TFRF. Nine of 10 (90%) children tolerated the transition to 100% TFRF, of which 7 of 9 (78%) had their entire colon in continuity. The average age at successful transition was 29.2 months, and the average length of time to transition to 100% TFRF was 67.3 days. TFRF is well tolerated in children >1 year of age with IF; it also improves their stooling patterns. A commercially available TFRF is a cost-effective and nutritionally adequate means of providing nutrition to this patient population.

  11. Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sayani; Ashok, B K; Nishteswar, K

    2013-10-01

    Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is considered to be one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana. In folklore, the herb is well known for its laxative activity. This plant belongs to Convolvulaceae family. It is observed that the plants of this family especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins. The present experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time on Swiss albino mice and the test drugs were administered in dose of 400 mg/kg. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter. The results shows that both root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among which leaf sample is found to be better. Hence, for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant.

  12. Transition of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein on hypothermic circulatory arrest with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Hiroya; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) is increasingly employed as a highly specific marker of intestinal necrosis. However, the value of this marker associated with cardiovascular surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure serum I-FABP levels and provide the transition of I-FABP levels with hypothermic circulatory arrest to help in the management of intestinal perfusion. From August 2011 to September 2013, 33 consecutive patients who had aortic arch surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or heart valve surgery performed were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients had aortic surgery with hypothermic (23-29°C) circulatory arrest and 13 patients had heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (33°C). I-FABP levels increased, both in patients undergoing aortic surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest and heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, reaching peak levels shortly after the administration of protamine. I-FABP levels in patients with aortic surgery were significantly higher with circulatory arrest. They reached peak levels immediately after recirculation and there was a significant drop at the end of surgery (p<0.001). I-FABP levels in heart valve surgery were gradually increased, with the highest at the administration of protamine; they gradually decreased. Peak I-FABP levels were significantly higher in patients undergoing aortic surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest than in patients with heart valve surgery. However, no postoperative reperfusion injury occurred in the intestinal tract due to the use of hypothermic organ protection. Plasma I-FABP monitoring could be a valuable method for finding an intestinal ischemia in patients with cardiovascular surgery.

  13. Oxygen limitation induces acid tolerance and impacts simulated gastro-intestinal transit in Listeria monocytogenes J0161.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Danny; Allen, Stuart Ch; Phillips, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    ᅟ: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen and the causative agent of listeriosis, a severe infection to those with a pre-disposition. Infections often arise through consumption of contaminated foods, where high intrinsic resistance to food processing practises permit survival and growth. Several practises, including refrigeration, acidification and oxygen limitation are ineffective in controlling L. monocytogenes, therefore foods which do not undergo thermal processing, e.g. ready-to-eat products, are considered high risk. While the responses to several food processing practises have been investigated, there are few reports on the responses of L. monocytogenes to oxygen limitation. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen limitation on stress response andsurvival capacity during simulated gastro-intestinal transit. Anaerobiosis induced an acid tolerance response, causing cells to be more resistant to organic and inorganic acids than aerobically grown counterparts (p juice (SGJ) compared to aerobically grown cells (p monocytogenes to oxygen limitation are not extensively studied. These findings provide an initial insight into the effects of anaerobiosis on stress response and survival potential in L. monocytogenes. While it appears anaerobiosis may impact these, further work is required to confirm these findings are not strain specific.

  14. Scintigraphic Small Intestinal Transit Time and Defaecography in Patients with J-Pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Dilling Kjaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective methods for examination of pouch function are warranted for a better understanding of the functional result and treatment of dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of scintigraphic intestinal transit time and defaecography compared to the results of pouch function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL. This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch mucosal condition was evaluated by endoscopy and histology. Median transit time was 189 min (105–365. Median ejection fraction at defaecography (EF was 49% (3–77 and 62% (17–98 after first and second defecation. Median pouch volume was 223 mL (100–360. A median daily stool frequency of nine (4–25 was reported and three (14% patients suffered from daytime incontinence. No patients had symptomatic or endoscopic pouchitis; however, the histology showed unspecific inflammation in 19 (90% patients. There was no correlation between transit time, evacuation fraction (EF and pouch function in univariate analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis, but the clinical relevance is yet doubtful.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide 2 dose-dependently activates intestinal cell survival and proliferation in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrin, Douglas G; Stoll, Barbara; Guan, Xinfu

    2005-01-01

    saline or GLP-2 at three rates (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 nmol.kg(-1).d(-1)) for 7 d. Plasma GLP-2 concentrations ranged from 177 +/- 27 to 692 +/- 85 pM in the low- and high-infusion groups, respectively. GLP-2 infusion dose-dependently increased small intestinal weight, DNA and protein content, and villus...... of caspase-3 and -6 and active caspase-3 abundance decreased, yet procaspase-3 abundance increased markedly with increasing infusion rate and plasma concentration of GLP-2. The GLP-2-dose-dependent suppression of intestinal apoptosis and caspase-3 activity was associated with increased protein kinase B...... is concentration dependent at physiological GLP-2 concentrations; however, induction of cell proliferation and protein synthesis is a pharmacological response. Moreover, we show that GLP-2 stimulates intestinal cell survival and proliferation in association with induction of protein kinase B and glycogen...

  16. The scintigraphic determination of small intestinal transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, A.R.; Caride, V.J.; Shah, R.V.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.J.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diffuse disturbance in gastrointestinal motility may be present in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To further investigate small intestinal motility in IBS patients small intestinal transit time (SITT) was determined and related to the symptom status. 11 female patients with IBS (mean age 29 years) were divided into those whose predominate symptom was diarrhea (N=6), and those with only constipation (N=5). All subjects ingested an isosmotic solution of lactulose (10 gm in 150cc of water) labeled with 99m-Tc-DTPA (Sn). The patient was studied supine under a 25 inch gamma camera with data collected at 1 frame per minute for 180 minutes or until activity appeared in the ascending colon. Regions of interest were selected over the cecum and ascending colon. The time of first appearance of radioactivity in the region of the cecum was taken as the small intestinal transit time. SITT in the 5 normal females was 98.7 +- 13 min (mean +- SEM). SITT in the IBS patients with diarrhea, 67.3 +- 7 min was significantly faster (p< 0.08). SITT in the constipated IBS patients, 126 +- 12 min, was slower than normals and significantly different from diarrhea patients (p< 0.001). These studies show that IBS patients with diarrhea have significantly faster SITT than normals while constipated IBS patients have significantly slower SITT than the diarrhea subgroup. Further, this study emphasizes the need to study the various symptomatic subgroups of IBs patients independently and indicates a possible role for abnormal SITT in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  17. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a survival factor for radiation-exposed intestinal epithelial stem cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Satoshi; Martin, Kareen; Booth, Catherine; Potten, Christopher S.; de Murcia, Gilbert; Bürkle, Alexander; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key enzyme mediating the cellular response to DNA strand breaks. It plays a critical role in genomic stability and survival of proliferating cells in culture undergoing DNA damage. Intestinal epithelium is the most proliferative tissue in the mammalian body and its stem cells show extreme sensitivity to low-level genotoxic stress. We investigated the role of PARP-1 in the in vivo damage response of intestinal stem cells in crypts of PARP-1–/– and control mice following whole-body γ-irradiation (1 Gy). In the PARP-1–/– mice there was a significant delay during the first 6 h in the transient p53 accumulation in stem cells whereas an increased number of cells were positive for p21CIP1/WAF1. Either no or only marginal differences were noted in MDM2 expression, apoptosis, induction of or recovery from mitotic blockage, or inhibition of DNA synthesis. We further observed a dose-dependent reduction in crypt survival measured at 4 days post-irradiation in control mice, and this crypt-killing effect was significantly potentiated in PARP-1–/– mice. Our results thus establish that PARP-1 acts as a survival factor for intestinal stem cells in vivo and suggest a functional link with early p53 and p21CIP1/WAF1 responses. PMID:14576306

  18. Dai-Huang-Fu-Zi-Tang Alleviates Intestinal Injury Associated with Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Regulating Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore of Intestinal Mucosa Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Dai-Huang-Fu-Zi-Tang (DHFZT could regulate mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP of intestinal mucosa epithelial cells for alleviating intestinal injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. Methods. A total of 72 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (sham group, SAP group, and DHFZT group, n=24 per group. The rats in each group were divided into 4 subgroups (n=6 per subgroup accordingly at 1, 3, 6, and 12 h after the operation. The contents of serum amylase, D-lactic acid, diamine oxidase activity, and degree of MPTP were measured by dry chemical method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The change of mitochondria of intestinal epithelial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results. The present study showed that DHFZT inhibited the openness of MPTP at 3, 6, and 12 h after the operation. Meanwhile, it reduced the contents of serum D-lactic acid and activity of diamine oxidase activity and also drastically relieved histopathological manifestations and epithelial cells injury of intestine. Conclusion. DHFZT alleviates intestinal injury associated SAP via reducing the openness of MPTP. In addition, DHFZT could also decrease the content of serum diamine oxidase activity and D-lactic acid after SAP.

  19. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Vlaminck, Johnny; Claerhoudt, Sarah; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Saunders, Jimmy; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  20. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  1. Decreased gastric emptying and gastrointestinal and intestinal transits of liquid after complete spinal cord transection in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondim F. de-A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of complete spinal cord transection (SCT on gastric emptying (GE and on gastrointestinal (GI and intestinal transits of liquid in awake rats using the phenol red method. Male Wistar rats (N = 65 weighing 180-200 g were fasted for 24 h and complete SCT was performed between C7 and T1 vertebrae after a careful midline dorsal incision. GE and GI and intestinal transits were measured 15 min, 6 h or 24 h after recovery from anesthesia. A test meal (0.5 mg/ml phenol red in 5% glucose solution was administered intragastrically (1.5 ml and the animals were sacrificed by an iv thiopental overdose 10 min later to evaluate GE and GI transit. For intestinal transit measurements, 1 ml of the test meal was administered into the proximal duodenum through a cannula inserted into a gastric fistula. GE was inhibited (P<0.05 by 34.3, 23.4 and 22.7%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. GI transit was inhibited (P<0.05 by 42.5, 19.8 and 18.4%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Intestinal transit was also inhibited (P<0.05 by 48.8, 47.2 and 40.1%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. Mean arterial pressure was significantly decreased (P<0.05 by 48.5, 46.8 and 41.5%, respectively, at 15 min, 6 h and 24 h after SCT. In summary, our report describes a decreased GE and GI and intestinal transits in awake rats within the first 24 h after high SCT.

  2. Last Card: Can Nigeria Survive Another Transition? | Obi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay addresses an important variable in Nigerian politics, namely, ethnicity and the ways in which it affects the conduct of national affairs. It represents an effort at theorizing the role and place of ethnicity in the transition from authoritarianism in a multi-ethnic setting such as that represented by Nigeria. Drawing on ...

  3. Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávarri, María; Marañón, Izaskun; Ares, Raquel; Ibáñez, Francisco C; Marzo, Florencio; Villarán, María del Carmen

    2010-08-15

    Chitosan was used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in calcium alginate beads. Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were produced to encapsulate Lactobacillus gasseri (L) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B) as probiotics and the prebiotic quercetin (Q) with the objective of enhancing survival of the probiotic bacteria and keeping intact the prebiotic during exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The encapsulation yield for viable cells for chitosan-coated alginate microspheres with quercetin (L+Q and B+Q) was very low. These results, together with the study about the survival of microspheres with quercetin during storage at 4 degrees C, demonstrated that probiotic bacteria microencapsulated with quercetin did not survive. Owing to this, quercetin and L. gasseri or B. bifidum were microencapsulated separately. Microencapsulated L. gasseri and microencapsulated B. bifidum were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2h), resulting in significantly (pmicroencapsulation of L. gasseri and B. bifidum with alginate and a chitosan coating offers an effective means of delivery of viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric and intestinal juice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, H.J.; Pitman, K.; Starr, G.; Wood, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon.

  5. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  6. Lactobacillus gasseri SF1183 affects intestinal epithelial cell survival and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanda Di Luccia

    Full Text Available It is now commonly accepted that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the gut physiology and homeostasis, and that both qualitative and quantitative alterations in the compositions of the gut flora exert profound effects on the host's intestinal cells. In spite of this, the details of the interaction between commensal bacteria and intestinal cells are still largely unknown and only in few cases the molecular mechanisms have been elucidated. Here we analyze the effects of molecules produced and secreted by Lactobacillus gasseri SF1183 on human intestinal HCT116 cells. L. gasseri is a well known species of lactic acid bacteria, commonly associated to the human intestine and SF1183 is a human strain previously isolated from an ileal biopsy of an healthy volunteer. SF1183 produces and secretes, in a growth phase-dependent way, molecule(s able to drastically interfere with HCT116 cell proliferation. Although several attempts to purify and identify the bioactive molecule(s have been so far unsuccessful, a partial characterization has indicated that it is smaller than 3 kDa, thermostable and of proteinaceous nature. L. gasseri molecule(s stimulate a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle by up-regulation of p21WAF1 rendering cells protected from intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. A L. gasseri-mediated reduction of apoptosis and of cell proliferation could be relevant in protecting epithelial barrier integrity and helping in reconstituting tissutal homeostasis.

  7. Lactobacillus gasseri SF1183 affects intestinal epithelial cell survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Manzo, Nicola; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Calabrò, Viola; Crescenzi, Elvira; Ricca, Ezio; Pollice, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    It is now commonly accepted that the intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the gut physiology and homeostasis, and that both qualitative and quantitative alterations in the compositions of the gut flora exert profound effects on the host's intestinal cells. In spite of this, the details of the interaction between commensal bacteria and intestinal cells are still largely unknown and only in few cases the molecular mechanisms have been elucidated. Here we analyze the effects of molecules produced and secreted by Lactobacillus gasseri SF1183 on human intestinal HCT116 cells. L. gasseri is a well known species of lactic acid bacteria, commonly associated to the human intestine and SF1183 is a human strain previously isolated from an ileal biopsy of an healthy volunteer. SF1183 produces and secretes, in a growth phase-dependent way, molecule(s) able to drastically interfere with HCT116 cell proliferation. Although several attempts to purify and identify the bioactive molecule(s) have been so far unsuccessful, a partial characterization has indicated that it is smaller than 3 kDa, thermostable and of proteinaceous nature. L. gasseri molecule(s) stimulate a G1-phase arrest of the cell cycle by up-regulation of p21WAF1 rendering cells protected from intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis. A L. gasseri-mediated reduction of apoptosis and of cell proliferation could be relevant in protecting epithelial barrier integrity and helping in reconstituting tissutal homeostasis.

  8. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide promote survival of adult rat myenteric neurons in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgren, Katarina; Lin, Zhong; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex

    2003-01-01

    adaptation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VIP and nitric oxide (NO) influence survival of cultured, dissociated myenteric neurons. Neuronal survival was evaluated after 0, 4, and 8 days in culture. Influence of VIP and NO on neuronal survival was examined after culturing in the presence...

  9. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  10. 'The Grange', Tasmania: survival of a unique suite of 1874 transit of Venus relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Buchanan, Alex

    2004-06-01

    One of the two US expeditions in Australia for the 1874 transit of Venus was based in Campbell Town, Tasmania. While the transit was observed from this site and some of the photographs were used in the subsequent investigation of the solar parallax, its main claim to fame is the physical vestiges of the transit programme that have survived there through to the present day. These comprise foundations for instruments, two piers associated with the photographic telescope, and one of the prefabricated observatory buildings. In addition, a copy of a photograph of the transit is preserved in the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery in nearby Launceston. Collectively these form a unique suite of 1874 transit of Venus relics, and are of international importance.

  11. Five-year survival and causes of death in patients on home parenteral nutrition for severe chronic and benign intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joly, Francisca; Baxter, Janet; Staun, Michael

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIM: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is the primary treatment for chronic intestinal failure (IF). Intestinal transplantation (ITx) is indicated when there is an increased risk of death due to HPN complications or to the underlying disease. Age, pathophysiologic conditions and underl......BACKGROUND & AIM: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is the primary treatment for chronic intestinal failure (IF). Intestinal transplantation (ITx) is indicated when there is an increased risk of death due to HPN complications or to the underlying disease. Age, pathophysiologic conditions...... associated with survival and HPN dependency as well as causes of death in adult patients requiring HPN for chronic intestinal failure during the first 5 years of treatment with HPN. METHODS: A multicenter international (European and USA) questionnaire-based retrospective follow-up of a cohort of 472...

  12. The RBE-LET relationship for rodent intestinal crypt cell survival, testes weight loss, and multicellular spheroid cell survival after heavy-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E. L.; Powers-Risius, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data for survival of mouse intestinal crypt cells, mouse testes weight loss as an indicator of survival of spermatogonial stem cells, and survival of rat 9L spheroid cells after irradiation in the plateau region of unmodified particle beams ranging in mass from 4He to 139La. The LET values range from 1.6 to 953 keV/microns. These studies examine the RBE-LET relationship for two normal tissues and for an in vitro tissue model, multicellular spheroids. When the RBE values are plotted as a function of LET, the resulting curve is characterized by a region in which RBE increases with LET, a peak RBE at an LET value of 100 keV/microns, and a region of decreasing RBE at LETs greater than 100 keV/microns. Inactivation cross sections (sigma) for these three biological systems have been calculated from the exponential terminal slope of the dose-response relationship for each ion. For this determination the dose is expressed as particle fluence and the parameter sigma indicates effect per particle. A plot of sigma versus LET shows that the curve for testes weight loss is shifted to the left, indicating greater radiosensitivity at lower LETs than for crypt cell and spheroid cell survival. The curves for cross section versus LET for all three model systems show similar characteristics with a relatively linear portion below 100 keV/microns and a region of lessened slope in the LET range above 100 keV/microns for testes and spheroids. The data indicate that the effectiveness per particle increases as a function of LET and, to a limited extent, Z, at LET values greater than 100 keV/microns. Previously published results for spread Bragg peaks are also summarized, and they suggest that RBE is dependent on both the LET and the Z of the particle.

  13. Effects of laxative and N-acetylcysteine on mucus accumulation, bacterial load, transit, and inflammation in the cystic fibrosis mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Robert C; Roach, Eileen; Jansson, Kyle

    2007-09-01

    The accumulation of mucus in affected organs is characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF). The CF mouse small intestine has dramatic mucus accumulation and exhibits slower interdigestive intestinal transit. These factors are proposed to play cooperative roles that foster small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and contribute to the innate immune response of the CF intestine. It was hypothesized that decreasing the mucus accumulation would reduce SIBO and might improve other aspects of the CF intestinal phenotype. To test this, solid chow-fed CF mice were treated with an osmotic laxative to improve gut hydration or liquid-fed mice were treated orally with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to break mucin disulfide bonds. Treatment with laxative or NAC reduced mucus accumulation by 43% and 50%, respectively, as measured histologically as dilation of the intestinal crypts. Laxative and NAC also reduced bacterial overgrowth in the CF intestine by 92% and 63%, respectively. Treatment with laxative normalized small intestinal transit in CF mice, whereas NAC did not. The expression of innate immune response-related genes was significantly reduced in laxative-treated CF mice, whereas there was no significant effect in NAC-treated CF mice. In summary, laxative and NAC treatments of CF mice reduced mucus accumulation to a similar extent, but laxative was more effective than NAC at reducing bacterial load. Eradication of bacterial overgrowth by laxative treatment was associated with normalized intestinal transit and a reduction in the innate immune response. These results suggest that both mucus accumulation and slowed interdigestive small intestinal transit contribute to SIBO in the CF intestine.

  14. Inhibitory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced inflammation in surviving human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, S; Branchet-Gumila, M C; Coutanceau, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on skin fragments stimulated by a neuromediator, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Skin fragments (from plastic surgery) were maintained in survival conditions for 6 h. To induce inflammation, VIP was placed in contact with dermis by culture medium. Histological analysis was then performed on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Edema was evaluated with semiquantitative scores. Vasodilation was studied by quantifying the percentage of dilated vessels according to scores and by measuring their surface by morphometrical image analysis. TNF-alpha dosage was made on culture supernatants. Vasodilation was significantly increased after application of VIP. After treatment with oatmeal extract oligomer, the mean surface of dilated vessels and edema were significantly decreased compared with VIP-treated skin. Moreover, treatment with this extract decreased TNF-alpha.

  15. Orally administered indomethacin acutely reduces cellular prion protein in the small intestine and modestly increases survival of mice exposed to infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary R; Sharkey, Keith A; Jirik, Frank R

    2015-05-01

    The oral uptake of infectious prions represents a common way to acquire a prion disease; thus, host factors, such as gut inflammation and intestinal "leakiness", have the potential to influence infectivity. For example, the ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is known to induce intestinal inflammation and increase intestinal permeability. Previously, we reported that normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) expression was increased in experimental colitis, and since the level of PrP(C) expressed is a determinant of prion disease propagation, we hypothesized that NSAID administration prior to the oral inoculation of mice with infectious prions would increase intestinal PrP(C) expression and accelerate the onset of neurological disease. In the long-term experiments, one group of mice was gavaged with indomethacin, followed by a second gavage with brain homogenate containing mouse-adapted scrapie (ME7). Control mice received ME7 brain homogenate alone. Brain and splenic tissues were harvested at several time points for immunoblotting, including at the onset of clinical signs of disease. In a second series of experiments, mice were gavaged with indomethacin to assess the acute effects of this treatment on intestinal PrP(C) expression. Acutely, NSAID treatment reduced intestinal PrP(C) expression, and chronically, there was a modest delay in the onset of neurological disease. In contrast to our hypothesis, brief exposure to an NSAID decreased intestinal PrP(C) expression and led to a modest survival advantage following oral ingestion of infectious prions.

  16. Transforming growth factor-B3 protects murine small intestinal crypt stem cells and animal survival after irradiation, possibly by reducing stem-cell cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D; Haley, J D; Bruskin, A M; Potten, C S

    2000-04-01

    Damage to the normal replacing tissues of the body, specifically the gastro-intestinal tract, limits the treatment and hence, cure rate of cancer patients. Here, we investigate the possibility that the sensitivity of the gastro-intestinal tract can be manipulated by transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-beta3), making it more resistant to radiation in a murine model. The effects of TGF-beta3 were assessed using the crypt microcolony assay, a test of crypt stem-cell functional competence, in animal survival studies examining diarrhoea severity, labelling index and crypt size. Prior treatment with TGF-beta3 can result in a 3- to 4-fold increase (protection factor, PF) in surviving crypts, whilst longer exposure can raise the PF to almost 12. Protection of intestinal clonogenic stem cells results in marked protection of survival with a corresponding reduction in the duration and level of diarrhoea and ultimate restoration of normal histology in surviving mice. Inhibition of proliferation can be demonstrated when sufficient TGF-beta3 exposure is studied. Crypt size is also reduced. In conclusion, TGF-beta3 protects small intestinal clonogenic stem cells from radiation damage, reducing diarrhoea and animal mortality. The mode of action is believed to be specific inhibition of stem-cell proliferation.

  17. Surgical versus non-surgical treatment of feline small intestinal adenocarcinoma and the influence of metastasis on long-term survival in 18 cats (2000–2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael L.; Smith, Julie D.; Kass, Philip H.

    2011-01-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated long-term outcomes of 18 cats diagnosed with small intestinal adenocarcinoma, based on surgical versus non-surgical treatment and the presence or absence of metastasis at the time of surgery. Ten cats had surgery and histopathologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma and 8 cats did not have surgery but had cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Median survival of cats with adenocarcinoma that underwent surgical excision was 365 days and 22 days for those with suspected adenocarcinoma that did not undergo surgery (P = 0.019). Median survival of cats was 843 days for those without evidence of metastatic disease at the time of surgery and 358 days for those that had (P = 0.25). In conclusion, surgical excision is beneficial in the treatment of small intestinal adenocarcinoma in the cat, including those patients with metastasis, and may result in a significantly longer survival time compared with patients which do not have their mass surgically excised. PMID:22467965

  18. Surgical versus non-surgical treatment of feline small intestinal adenocarcinoma and the influence of metastasis on long-term survival in 18 cats (2000-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael L; Smith, Julie D; Kass, Philip H

    2011-10-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated long-term outcomes of 18 cats diagnosed with small intestinal adenocarcinoma, based on surgical versus non-surgical treatment and the presence or absence of metastasis at the time of surgery. Ten cats had surgery and histopathologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma and 8 cats did not have surgery but had cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Median survival of cats with adenocarcinoma that underwent surgical excision was 365 days and 22 days for those with suspected adenocarcinoma that did not undergo surgery (P = 0.019). Median survival of cats was 843 days for those without evidence of metastatic disease at the time of surgery and 358 days for those that had (P = 0.25). In conclusion, surgical excision is beneficial in the treatment of small intestinal adenocarcinoma in the cat, including those patients with metastasis, and may result in a significantly longer survival time compared with patients which do not have their mass surgically excised.

  19. The Influence of Zusanli and Nonmeridian Acupuncture Points on the Survival Rate and Intestinal Tissue Features after Fatal Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: (a control group (HS; (b Immediate rehydration group (IFR; (c ST36 electroacupuncture (EA delay rehydration group (EA/DFR: EA at ST36 immediately after blood loss with infusion 3 h later; (d EA nonmeridian rehydration group (SEA/DFR: EA at nonacupuncture sites with rehydration similar to EA/DFR; (e ST36 EA group (EA: EA at ST36 immediately after blood loss with no rehydration. Forty-five percent of the entire blood volume was taken out to make lethal hemorrhagic shock models. We recorded the survival rate, intestinal tissue DAO content, and microcirculation. The survival rate of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than that of the other three groups (P<0.05. Twelve hours after blood loss, intestinal tissue DAO content of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than that of the SEA/DFR group, EA group, and HS group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The mucosal blood flow of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05 each. We conclude that EA improves the blood pressure and raises the early survival rate of hemorrhagic shock rats, maintains the intestinal barrier function, and improves the degree of intestinal ischemia.

  20. Thermal analysis of ice and glass transitions in insects that do and do not survive freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, Jan; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr; Koštál, Vladimír

    2018-03-01

    Some insects rely on the strategy of freeze tolerance for winter survival. During freezing, extracellular body water transitions from the liquid to solid phase and cells undergo freeze-induced dehydration. Here we present results of a thermal analysis (from differential scanning calorimetry) of ice fraction dynamics during gradual cooling after inoculative freezing in variously acclimated larvae of two drosophilid flies, Drosophila melanogaster and Chymomyza costata. Although the species and variants ranged broadly between 0 and close to 100% survival of freezing, there were relatively small differences in ice fraction dynamics. For instance, the maximum ice fraction (IF max ) ranged between 67.9 and 77.7% total body water (TBW). The C. costata larvae showed statistically significant phenotypic shifts in parameters of ice fraction dynamics (melting point and IF max ) upon entry into diapause, cold-acclimation, and feeding on a proline-augmented diet. These differences were mostly driven by colligative effects of accumulated proline (ranging between 6 and 487 mmol.kg -1 TBW) and other metabolites. Our data suggest that these colligative effects per se do not represent a sufficient mechanistic explanation for high freeze tolerance observed in diapausing, cold-acclimated C. costata larvae. Instead, we hypothesize that accumulated proline exerts its protective role via a combination of mechanisms. Specifically, we found a tight association between proline-induced stimulation of glass transition in partially-frozen body liquids (vitrification) and survival of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Steenfeldt, Sanna; Thodberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate how splitting the dark period (scotoperiod) affects feeding behaviour and associated intestinal measures in broilers. 2. Ross 308 broilers were reared to 37 d in groups given either a daily 8-h continuous scotoperiod (DARK 8) or an intermittent light sched...

  2. Effects of casoxin 4 on morphine inhibition of small animal intestinal contractility and gut transit in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen S Patten

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Glen S Patten1,2, Richard J Head1, Mahinda Y Abeywardena1,21CSIRO Preventative Health National Research Flagship, Adelaide, Australia; 2CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground and aims: Chronic opioid analgesia has the debilitating side-effect of constipation in human patients. The major aims of this study were to: 1 characterize the opioid-specific antagonism of morphine-induced inhibition of electrically driven contraction of the small intestine of mice, rats, and guinea pigs; and 2 test if the oral delivery of small milk-derived opioid antagonist peptides could block morphine-induced inhibition of intestinal transit in mice.Methods: Mouse, rat, and guinea pig intact ileal sections were electrically stimulated to contract and inhibited with morphine in vitro. Morphine inhibition was then blocked by opioid subtype antagonists in the mouse and guinea pig. Using a polymeric dye, Poly R-478, the opioid antagonists casoxin 4 and lactoferroxin A were tested orally for blocking activity of morphine inhibition of gut transit in vivo by single or double gavage techniques.Results: The guinea pig tissue was more sensitive to morphine inhibition compared with the mouse or the rat (IC50 [half maximal inhibitory concentration] values as nmol/L ± SEM were 34 ± 3, 230 ± 13, and 310 ± 14 respectively (P < 0.01. The inhibitory influence of opioid agonists (IC50 in electrically driven ileal mouse preparations were DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin ≥ met-enkephalin ≥ dynorphin A ≥ DAMGO ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin > morphine > morphiceptin as nmol/L 13.9, 17.3, 19.5, 23.3, 230, and 403 respectively. The mouse demonstrated predominantly Κ- and δ-opioid receptor activity with a smaller µ-opioid receptor component. Both mouse and guinea pig tissue were sensitive to casoxin 4 antagonism of morphine inhibition of contraction. In contrast to naloxone, relatively high oral doses of the µ-opioid receptor antagonists

  3. Surgical versus non-surgical treatment of feline small intestinal adenocarcinoma and the influence of metastasis on long-term survival in 18 cats (2000–2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Michael L; Smith, Julie D.; Kass, Philip H

    2011-01-01

    This study retrospectively evaluated long-term outcomes of 18 cats diagnosed with small intestinal adenocarcinoma, based on surgical versus non-surgical treatment and the presence or absence of metastasis at the time of surgery. Ten cats had surgery and histopathologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma and 8 cats did not have surgery but had cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Median survival of cats with adenocarcinoma that underwent surgical excision was 365 days and 22 days for those with ...

  4. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 500 unselected patients with primary urinary bladder tumours the influence of urothelial atypia on the 5 years survival-rate was examined. All tumours were transitional-cell tumours categorized according to the T-classification. Mucosal biopsies from 7 pre-selected sites...... worse than those with normal bladder mucosa (5 years survival 42% versus 62%). This difference in survival-rate became apparent first after two years of observation. Grade II atypia in the bladder mucosa and grade III (carcinoma in situ) had equal significance assessed by the survival-rates....

  5. Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Clotilde; Botella-Carretero, José I; García-Albiach, Raimundo; Pozuelo, María J; Rodríguez-Baños, Mercedes; Baquero, Fernando; Baltadjieva, María A; del Campo, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity and resistance of Lactobacillus bulgaricus sbsp. delbrueckii collection with 100 isolates from different home-made yogurt in rural Bulgarian areas were determined. The strain K98 was the most resistant to bile salts and low pH. Survival and effects on short chain fatty acids production were tested in 20 healthy volunteers. High genetic diversity was observed in the L. bulgaricus collection by RAPD, whereas the ability of tolerate high deoxycholic acid concentrations, and different acid pHs was variable. The strain K98 was selected and used to prepare a homemade yogurt which was administered to 20 healthy volunteers (500 ml/day during 15d). A basal faecal sample and another after yogurt intake were recovered. DGGE experiments, using both universal and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) primers, demonstrated no significant changes in the qualitative composition of gut microbiota. A band corresponding to L. bulgaricus was observed in all 20 samples. Viable L. bulgaricus K98 strain was only recovered in one volunteer. After yogurt intake we found an increase of LAB and Clostridium perfringens, and a decrease of Bacteroides- Prevotella-Porphyromonas. In addition, increases of acetic, butyric and 2-hydroxy-butyric acids in faeces were detected. Genetic diversity of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus especie is high We have isolated a probiotic resistant strain to bile and high acidity, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus-K98. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal microbiota are found after ingestion of a homemade yogurt containing this strain, with a concomitant increase in faecal SCFA. Our findings support the interest in developing further studies providing different amounts of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus-K98, and should evaluate its clinical effects in human disease. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Scintigraphic small intestinal transit time and defaecography in patients with J-pouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend

    2015-01-01

    analysis. However, we found a high body mass index (BMI) and a low bowel movement frequency to be associated with a longer transit time by multivariate analysis. Scintigraphic determination of transit time and defaecography are feasible methods in patients with ileal pouch anal anastomosis...... function, mucosal condition and a questionnaire on quality of life (QoL). This cross-sectional study included 21 patients. Scintigraphic transit time and defaecography was determined with the use of Tc-99m. Pouch function was assessed by number of bowel movements, pouch volume, and continence. Pouch...

  7. Multicenter retrospective analysis of 581 patients with primary intestinal non-hodgkin lymphoma from the Consortium for Improving Survival of Lymphoma (CISL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary intestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a heterogeneous disease with regard to anatomic and histologic distribution. Thus, analyses focusing on primary intestinal NHL with large number of patients are warranted. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 581 patients from 16 hospitals in Korea for primary intestinal NHL in this retrospective analysis. We compared clinical features and treatment outcomes according to the anatomic site of involvement and histologic subtypes. Results B-cell lymphoma (n = 504, 86.7% was more frequent than T-cell lymphoma (n = 77, 13.3%. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL was the most common subtype (n = 386, 66.4%, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT was the second most common subtype (n = 61, 10.5%. B-cell lymphoma mainly presented as localized disease (Lugano stage I/II while T-cell lymphomas involved multiple intestinal sites. Thus, T-cell lymphoma had more unfavourable characteristics such as advanced stage at diagnosis, and the 5-year overall survival (OS rate was significantly lower than B-cell lymphoma (28% versus 71%, P 60 years, performance status ≥ 2, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, Lugano stage IV, presence of B symptoms, and T-cell phenotype were independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions The survival of patients with ileocecal region involvement was better than that of patients with involvement at other sites, which might be related to histologic distribution, the proportion of tumor stage, and need for surgical resection.

  8. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Transition towards the future of gastro-intestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisi, Stefania; Giovannini, Marc

    2016-02-07

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a technique with an established role in the diagnosis and staging of gastro-intestinal tumors. In recent years, the spread of new devices dedicated to tissue sampling has improved the diagnostic accuracy of EUS fine-needle aspiration. The development of EUS-guided drainage of the bilio-pancreatic region and abdominal fluid collections has allowed EUS to evolve into an interventional tool that can replace more invasive procedures. Emerging techniques applying EUS in pancreatic cancer treatment and in celiac neurolysis have been described. Recently, confocal laser endomicroscopy has been applied to EUS as a promising technique for the in vivo histological diagnosis of gastro-intestinal, bilio-pancreatic and lymph node lesions. In this state-of-the-art review, we report the most recent data from the literature regarding EUS devices, interventional EUS, EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy and EUS pancreatic cancer treatment, and we also provide an overview of their principles, clinical applications and limitations.

  9. Environmental control of phase transition and polyp survival of a massive-outbreaker jellyfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Prieto

    Full Text Available A number of causes have been proposed to account for the occurrence of gelatinous zooplankton (both jellyfish and ctenophore blooms. Jellyfish species have a complex life history involving a benthic asexual phase (polyp and a pelagic sexual phase (medusa. Strong environmental control of jellyfish life cycles is suspected, but not fully understood. This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the physicochemical conditions that control the survival and phase transition of Cotylorhiza tuberculata; a scyphozoan that generates large outbreaks in the Mediterranean Sea. Laboratory experiments indicated that the influence of temperature on strobilation and polyp survival was the critical factor controlling the capacity of this species to proliferate. Early life stages were less sensitive to other factors such as salinity variations or the competitive advantage provided by zooxanthellae in a context of coastal eutrophication. Coherently with laboratory results, the presence/absence of outbreaks of this jellyfish in a particular year seems to be driven by temperature. This is the first time the environmental forcing of the mechanism driving the life cycle of a jellyfish has been disentangled via laboratory experimentation. Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records.

  10. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  11. Surviving Socialism: Private Industry and the Transition to Socialism in China, 1945–1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Cliver

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 1950s, China’s hybrid economy recovered from years of war and crisis. China’s Communist revolutionaries and “national capitalists” (minzu zibenjia 民族资本家 cooperated in this effort and were often successful, but the relationship was not unproblematic. This article focuses on the survival strategies of factory owners in the silk industry during what the Chinese Community Party terms the “socialist transformation of private industry and commerce.” This process was initiated and mobilized by the central government but implemented by local officials, and it was influenced by capitalists’ diverse responses, which showed adaptability, perseverance, manipulation, and even resistance. One surprising discovery is that many factory owners welcomed effective state involvement in the economy, such as expansion of the system of state-contracted production in private firms, and agitated to accelerate the transition to socialism. From the Five Antis Campaign in 1952 through the “socialist high tide” of 1956, the relationship between private businesses and the state changed dramatically and reshaped China’s economy, often in unpredictable ways. In this light, China’s transition to socialism appears more complex and contested than historians have previously imagined.

  12. Thriving or just surviving? Exploring student strategies for a smoother transition to university. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Richardson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The first year of university study is one of the greatest transition periods in a student’s life. It is a time where they have to learn new academic skills as well as new social and independent living skills.  For many students, the struggle to balance the competing demands of study, work and personal commitments feels overwhelming and they report significant declines in their overall health and well-being.  However, some students appear to thrive in this new learning environment.  This presentation reports on the findings of a research project investigating the health and well-being of first year students in Australia.  It compares the experiences and coping strategies of “thriving” students with those who describe themselves as “just surviving.”  Forming close social relationships with peers, having good time management and organisational skills, together with effective coping strategies enable students to transition more successfully into university life.

  13. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 2. Intestinal transit time, stomach emptying and digestibility in short-term feeding studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M; Nugteren, D H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of jojoba oil (JO) incorporation in the diet on stomach emptying and intestinal transit time, and the digestion and absorption of JO were investigated in short-term feeding studies in rats. The animals were fed purified diets containing 18% (w/w) fat, of which half consisted of a mixture of lard and sunflower seed oil (SF) supplemented with an equivalent amount of JO. The control animals were fed a mixture of lard and SF (18%). No treatment-related differences were observed in the rate of stomach emptying or the intestinal transit time. Comparative lipid analysis of lymph, intestinal content, intestinal mucosa and faeces indicated that most of the ingested JO was degraded and absorbed. Part of the JO was present as wax ester in the lymph. Hydrolysis of JO was much slower than that of triacylglycerols and continued in the alimentary tract beyond the small intestine due to bacterial processes. JO did not influence the absorption of the conventional fat.

  14. Seminal plasma aids the survival and cervical transit of epididymal ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, J P; Pini, T; Soleilhavoup, C; Cognie, J; Bathgate, R; Lynch, G W; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C; Druart, X; de Graaf, S P

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma purportedly plays a critical role in reproduction, but epididymal spermatozoa are capable of fertilisation following deposition in the uterus, calling into question the biological requirement of this substance. Through a combination of direct observation of spermatozoa in utero using probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy, in vivo assessment of sperm fertility and in vitro analysis of various sperm functional parameters, this study investigated the role of seminal plasma in spermatozoa transit through the cervix of the ewe. Following deposition in the cervical os, epididymal spermatozoa previously exposed to seminal plasma displayed an enhanced ability to traverse the cervix as evidenced by both significantly higher pregnancy rates and numbers of spermatozoa observed at the utero-tubal junction when compared with epididymal spermatozoa not previously exposed to seminal plasma. The beneficial effect of seminal plasma on sperm transport was clearly localised to transit through the cervix as pregnancy rates of spermatozoa deposited directly into the uterus were unaffected by exposure to seminal plasma. This phenomenon was not explained by changes to sperm motion characteristics, as seminal plasma had no effect on the motility, kinematic parameters or mitochondrial membrane potential of spermatozoa. Rather, in vitro testing revealed that seminal plasma improved the ability of epididymal spermatozoa to penetrate cervical mucus recovered from ewes in oestrus. These results demonstrate that the survival and transport of ram spermatozoa through the cervix of the ewe is not linked to their motility or velocity but rather the presence of some cervical penetration trait conferred by exposure to seminal plasma. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. Survival after Resection of a Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Small Intestine in a Young Patient: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Timmers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of primary melanoma of the small intestine is rare. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man found to have a primary melanoma of the ileum. The patient presented with gradual onset of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue. A preoperative diagnosis of a small intestinal tumor was based on the findings of computed tomography scanning. This diagnosis was confirmed at laparotomy and a partial small bowel resection was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen clarified the exact nature of the lesion, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. Thorough postoperative investigation did not reveal a primary lesion in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, oculus or brain. Thus, we diagnosed this tumor as a primary lesion. One year after his operation, the patient remains well without any evidence of recurrence. Thus, we diagnosed this small bowel tumor as a primary melanoma of the small intestine.

  16. Survival after resection of a primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine in a young patient: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, T K; Schadd, E M; Monkelbaan, J F; Meij, V

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of primary melanoma of the small intestine is rare. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man found to have a primary melanoma of the ileum. The patient presented with gradual onset of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, weight loss and fatigue. A preoperative diagnosis of a small intestinal tumor was based on the findings of computed tomography scanning. This diagnosis was confirmed at laparoto-my and a partial small bowel resection was performed. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen clarified the exact nature of the lesion, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. Thorough postoperative investigation did not reveal a primary lesion in the skin, gastrointestinal tract, oculus or brain. Thus, we diagnosed this tumor as a primary lesion. One year after his operation, the patient remains well without any evidence of recurrence. Thus, we diagnosed this small bowel tumor as a primary melanoma of the small intestine.

  17. Relationship between faecal character and intestinal transit time in normal dogs and diet-sensitive dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, V E; Adams, C A; Butterwick, R F; Batt, R M

    2002-07-01

    The relationship between stool character and whole gut transit time (WGTT), which is the average time for the passage of material through the lumen of the alimentary tract from ingestion to defecation, was studied in eight control dogs and 12 dogs with non-specific dietary sensitivity. Dogs were fed four diets in a cross-over design, and faecal quality was assessed daily and WGTT determined using plastic pellets. Faecal quality was unaffected by diet in the control dogs. Dogs with dietary sensitivity produced looser faeces compared with the control dogs, and this was significant for two of the diets. There was no significant effect of diet on mean WGTT within or between groups. Minimum WGTT, which was the interval to the first appearance of markers in faeces, was shorter in sensitive dogs compared with controls, and this was significant for two of the four diets. There were significant, inverse relationships between minimum WGTT and both mean faeces score and percentage unacceptable defecations. These data suggest that rapid transit of certain dietary components may impact negatively on stool quality and contribute to loose faeces in dogs with non-specific dietary sensitivity.

  18. Targeting epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype for gastro-intestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Harn, Horng-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (G-I) cancers are one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Symptoms relate to the organ affected in the G-I tract are non-specific, making early detection and effective treatment difficult to achieve. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a reversible and dynamical process, can disperse cells in embryos, form mesenchymal cells in injured tissues, and regulate embryonic stem cell differentiation. A variety of signaling molecules and distinct pathways are involved in the initiation and progression of EMT. Recent evidence has established that EMT may endow G-I cancer cells with the capacity to invade surrounding tissues, resist apoptosis, migrate to distant organs, and develop chemoresistance. Targeting these signaling molecules and pathways associated with EMT may provide clinicians with a new approach to the treatment of G-I malignancy.

  19. Quantification of Salmonella Survival and Infection in an In vitro Model of the Human Intestinal Tract as Proxy for Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Wijnands

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques are available for assessing differences in virulence of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The use of animal models or human volunteers is not expedient for various reasons; the use of epidemiological data is often hampered by lack of crucial data. In this paper, we describe a static, sequential gastrointestinal tract (GIT model system in which foodborne pathogens are exposed to simulated gastric and intestinal contents of the human digestive tract, including the interaction of pathogens with the intestinal epithelium. The system can be employed with any foodborne bacterial pathogens. Five strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and one strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were used to assess the robustness of the system. Four S. Heidelberg strains originated from an outbreak, the fifth S. Heidelberg strain and the S. Typhimurium strain originated from routine meat inspections. Data from plate counts, collected for determining the numbers of surviving bacteria in each stage, were used to quantify both the experimental uncertainty and biological variability of pathogen survival throughout the system. For this, a hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC was employed. The model system is able to distinguish serovars/strains for in vitro infectivity when accounting for within strain biological variability and experimental uncertainty.

  20. [The effect of new antimicrobial preparations used in combination with complete gnotobiotic isolation on the survivability and intestinal microflora of total-body irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, L A; Elizbarashvili, D A; Ginodman, G A; Korshunov, V M

    1991-06-01

    The aim of these investigations was the study of the effect of different antimicrobial preparations on the survival rate and intestinal microflora of mice with experimental acute radiation sickness. These investigations revealed that the survival rate of the animals increased 3.1 times with the use of Supramycin, 2.4 times with the use of Tacef and 1.6 times with the use of Spizef and Pen-bristol. The study of the influence of these preparations on the intestinal microflora revealed that Spizef not only decreased the number of opportunistic microorganisms, but also led to a sharp drop in the level of lactobacteria. The use of Pen-bristol and Tacef led to practically complete elimination of enterobacteria enterococci, staphylococci, as well as lactobacteria. Supramycin essentially suppressed the number of opportunistic microorganisms and did not affect the level of lactobacteria. This was probably the cause of the highest effectiveness of Supramycin in comparison with Tacef, Spizef and Pen-bristol.

  1. miR-200b-containing microvesicles attenuate experimental colitis associated intestinal fibrosis by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Zhou, Cheng-Zhi; Zhu, Rui; Fan, Heng; Liu, Xing-Xing; Duan, Xue-Yun; Tang, Qing; Shou, Zhe-Xing; Zuo, Dong-Mei

    2017-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by the decrease of E-cadherin (E-Cad) and increase in vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), was demonstrated to participate in inflammatory bowel disease-related fibrosis. miR-200b plays an anti-fibrosis role in inhibiting EMT by targeting ZEB1 and ZEB2. But the stability of exogenous miR-200b in blood limits its application. Microvesicles (MVs), which can transfer miRNAs among cells and prevent them from degradation, may provide an excellent transport system for the delivery of miR-200b in the treatment of fibrosis. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were transfected with lentivirus to overexpress miR-200b. The MVs packaged with miRNA-200b were harvested for the anti-fibrotic treatment using in vitro (transforming growth factor beta 1-mediated EMT in intestinal epithelial cells: IEC-6) and in vivo (TNBS-induced intestinal fibrosis in rats) models. The pathological morphology was observed, and the fibrosis related proteins, such as E-Cad, vimentin, α-SMA, ZEB1, and ZEB2, were detected. MiR-200b-MVs would significantly reverse the morphology in TGF-β1-treated IEC-6 cells and improve the TNBS-induced colon fibrosis histologically. The treatment of miR-200b-MVs increased miR-200b levels both in the IEC-6 cells and colon, resulting in a significant prevention EMT and alleviation of fibrosis. The expression of E-Cad was increased, and the expressions of vimentin and α-SMA were decreased. ZBE1 and ZEB2, the targets of miR-200b, were also decreased. miR-200b could be transferred from genetically modified BMSCs to the target cells or tissue by MVs. The mechanisms of miR-200b-MVs in inhibiting colonic fibrosis were related to suppressing the development of EMT by targeting ZEB1and ZEB2. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical for intestinal stem cell division, survival, and differentiation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamori, Ryotaro; Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical regulators of these processes in mice. Conditional ablation of Cdc42 in the mouse intestinal epithelium resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuolar structures containing microvilli (microvillus inclusion bodies) in epithelial enterocytes, a phenotype...... reminiscent of human microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), a devastating congenital intestinal disorder that results in severe nutrient deprivation. Further analysis revealed that Cdc42-deficient stem cells had cell division defects, reduced capacity for clonal expansion and differentiation into Paneth cells......, and increased apoptosis. Cdc42 deficiency impaired Rab8a activation and its association with multiple effectors, and prevented trafficking of Rab8a vesicles to the midbody. This impeded cytokinesis, triggering crypt apoptosis and disrupting epithelial morphogenesis. Rab8a was also required for Cdc42-GTP...

  3. Transition from LDR to HDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Evaluation of tumor control, survival, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, K D; Pugh, K J; Trifiletti, D M; Libby, B; Showalter, T N

    In 2012, our institution transitioned from low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. We report clinical outcomes after brachytherapy for cervical cancer at our institution over a continuous 10-year period. From 2004 to 2014, 258 women (184 LDR and 74 HDR) were treated with tandem and ovoid brachytherapy in the multidisciplinary management of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stages IA-IVB cervical cancer. Clinical and treatment-related prognostic factors including age, stage, smoking status, relevant doses, and toxicity data were recorded. Median followup for the LDR and HDR groups was 46 months and 12 months, respectively. The majority of patients (92%) received external beam radiotherapy as well as concurrent chemotherapy (83%) before the start of brachytherapy. For all stages, the 1-year local control and overall survival (OS) rates were comparable between the LDR and HDR groups (87% vs. 81%, p = 0.12; and 75% vs. 85%, p = 0.16), respectively. Factors associated with OS on multivariate analysis include age, stage, and nodal involvement. On multivariate analysis, severe toxicity (acute or chronic) was higher with HDR than LDR (24% vs. 10%, p = 0.04). Additional prognostic factors associated with increased severe toxicity include former/current smokers and total dose to lymph nodes. This comparative retrospective analysis of a large cohort of women treated with brachytherapy demonstrates no significant difference in OS or local control between the LDR and HDR. Acute and chronic toxicity increased shortly after the implementation of HDR, highlighting the importance of continued refinement of HDR methods, including integrating advanced imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of ageing on the gastro-intestinal transit of a lactulose-supplemented mixed solid-liquid meal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, M; Börsch, G; Schaffstein, J; Lüth, I; Rickels, R; Ricken, D

    1988-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal transit of a mixed solid-liquid meal containing wheat bread, scrambled eggs, coffee labelled with 99mTc, orange juice with lactulose and indigocarmine was evaluated in 21 young control (mean age 33.5 years) and 25 elderly subjects (mean age 81.7 years) without gastrointestinal complaints or severe medical illness. The rate of gastric emptying was determined by an anterior gamma camera technique, mouth-to-caecum transit by the hydrogen breath test and whole-gut transit by the first stool passage of indigocarmine. Gastric emptying was significantly prolonged in older subjects: t1/2 = 136 +/- (SEM) 13 versus 81 +/- 4 min; p less than 0.001. Concerning mouth-to-caecum or whole-gut transit time, significant differences between the two study groups were not detected.

  5. Soymilk residue (okara as a natural immobilization carrier for Lactobacillus plantarum cells enhances soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiudong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell immobilization is an alternative to microencapsulation for the maintenance of cells in a liquid medium. However, artificial immobilization carriers are expensive and pose a high safety risk. Okara, a food-grade byproduct from soymilk production, is rich in prebiotics. Lactobacilli could provide health enhancing effects to the host. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of okara as a natural immobilizer for L. plantarum 70810 cells. The study also aimed to evaluate the effects of okara-immobilized L. plantarum 70810 cells (IL on soymilk fermentation, glucosidic isoflavone bioconversion, and cell resistance to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to show cells adherence to the surface of okara. Lactic acid, acetic acid and isoflavone analyses in unfermented and fermented soymilk were performed by HPLC with UV detection. Viability and growth kinetics of immobilized and free L. plantarum 70810 cells (FL were followed during soymilk fermentation. Moreover, changes in pH, titrable acidity and viscosity were measured by conventional methods. For in vitro testing of simulated gastrointestinal resistance, fermented soymilk was inoculated with FL or IL and an aliquot incubated into acidic MRS broth which was conveniently prepared to simulate gastric, pancreatic juices and bile salts. Survival to simulated gastric and intestinal stresses was evaluated by plate count of colony forming units on MRS agar. SEM revealed that the lactobacilli cells attached and bound to the surface of okara. Compared with FL, IL exhibited a significantly higher specific growth rate, shorter lag phase of growth, higher productions of lactic and acetic acids, a faster decrease in pH and increase in titrable acidity, and a higher soymilk viscosity. Similarly, IL in soymilk showed higher productions of daizein and genistein compared with the control. Compared with FL, IL showed reinforced resistance to simulatedgastric and

  6. Survival after primary and deferred cystectomy for stage T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

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    Bedeir Ali-El-Dein

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Cancer-specific survival is statistically comparable for primary and deferred cystectomy in T1 bladder cancer, although there is a non-significant difference in favor of primary cystectomy. In the deferred cystectomy group, the number of TURBTs beyond three is associated with lower survival. Conservative treatment should be adopted for most cases in this category.

  7. Neuropilin-2 mediated β-catenin signaling and survival in human gastro-intestinal cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaija Samuel

    Full Text Available NRP-2 is a high-affinity kinase-deficient receptor for ligands belonging to the class 3 semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor families. NRP-2 has been detected on the surface of several types of human cancer cells, but its expression and function in gastrointestinal (GI cancer cells remains to be determined. We sought to determine the function of NRP-2 in mediating downstream signals regulating the growth and survival of human gastrointestinal cancer cells. In human gastric cancer specimens, NRP-2 expression was detected in tumor tissues but not in adjacent normal mucosa. In CNDT 2.5 cells, shRNA mediated knockdown NRP-2 expression led to decreased migration and invasion in vitro (p<0.01. Focused gene-array analysis demonstrated that loss of NRP-2 reduced the expression of a critical metastasis mediator gene, S100A4. Steady-state levels and function of β-catenin, a known regulator of S100A4, were also decreased in the shNRP-2 clones. Furthermore, knockdown of NRP-2 sensitized CNDT 2.5 cells in vitro to 5FU toxicity. This effect was associated with activation of caspases 3 and 7, cleavage of PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2. In vivo growth of CNDT 2.5 cells in the livers of nude mice was significantly decreased in the shNRP-2 group (p<0.05. Intraperitoneal administration of NRP-2 siRNA-DOPC decreased the tumor burden in mice (p = 0.01. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor cell-derived NRP-2 mediates critical survival signaling in gastrointestinal cancer cells.

  8. Epizootic to enzootic transition of a fungal disease in tropical Andean frogs: Are surviving species still susceptible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to catastrophic amphibian declines throughout the world. Amphibians differ in their vulnerability to chytridiomycosis; some species experience epizootics followed by collapse while others exhibit stable host/pathogen dynamics where most amphibian hosts survive in the presence of Bd (e.g., in the enzootic state. Little is known about the factors that drive the transition between the two disease states within a community, or whether populations of species that survived the initial epizootic are stable, yet this information is essential for conservation and theory. Our study focuses on a diverse Peruvian amphibian community that experienced a Bd-caused collapse. We explore host/Bd dynamics of eight surviving species a decade after the mass extinction by using population level disease metrics and Bd-susceptibility trials. We found that three of the eight species continue to be susceptible to Bd, and that their populations are declining. Only one species is growing in numbers and it was non-susceptible in our trials. Our study suggests that some species remain vulnerable to Bd and exhibit ongoing population declines in enzootic systems where Bd-host dynamics are assumed to be stable.

  9. Twisted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition promotes progression of surviving bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT-dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Li, Lei; Zhang, Dong; Wu, Kaijie; Chen, Yule; Zeng, Jin; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin

    2011-01-01

    Human cancer cells maintain telomeres to protect cells from senescence through telomerase activity (TA) or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in different cell types. Moreover, cellular senescence can be bypassed by Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during cancer progression in diverse solid tumors. However, it has not been elucidated the characteristics of telomere maintenance and progression ability after long-term culture in bladder cancer T24 cells with hTERT dysfunction. In this study, by using a dominant negative mutant human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) vector to inhibit TA in bladder cancer T24 cells, we observed the appearance of long phenotype of telomere length and the ALT-associated PML body (APB) complex after the 27(th) passage, indicating the occurrence of ALT-like pathway in surviving T24/DN868A cells with telomerase inhibition. Meanwhile, telomerase inhibition resulted in significant EMT as shown by change in cellular morphology concomitant with variation of EMT markers. Consistently, the surviving T24/DN868A cells showed increased progression ability in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we found Twist was activated to mediate EMT in surviving T24/DN868A samples. Taken together, our findings indicate that bladder cancer T24 cells may undergo the telomerase-to-ALT-like conversion and promote cancer progression at advanced stages through promoting EMT, thus providing novel possible insight into the mechanism of resistance to telomerase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  10. Presentation, location and overall survival of pelvic recurrence after radical cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Nivedita Bhatta; Jones, J Stephen; Reuther, Alwyn M; Dreicer, Robert; Campbell, Steven C; Sanii, Kamrooz; Klein, Eric A

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the presentation, location and overall survival of pelvic recurrence after radical cystectomy (RC) for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. We reviewed a consecutive series of 130 patients who had a limited bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) and RC between 1987 and 2000, and who later developed pelvic recurrence. All patients were staged N0M0 before RC and no patient received neoadjuvant radio/chemotherapy. The boundaries of the limited PLND were the pelvic side-wall between the genitofemoral and obturator nerves, and the bifurcation of iliac vessels to the circumflex iliac vein. Pelvic recurrence was defined as a radiographic soft-tissue density of > or = 2 cm below the bifurcation of the aorta. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to determine if imaging or symptomatic presentation, age, pT stage, and pN status were predictive of overall survival. The median (range) time from RC to pelvic recurrence was 7.3 (1.2-55.4) months. No patients had concomitant distant metastasis. Of the patients, 61.5% were diagnosed with pelvic recurrence because of symptoms, and 38.5% by surveillance computed tomography (CT). Of the 130 patients, 128 died, with a median survival from the time of pelvic recurrence of 4.9 (0.1-129.3) months. The median overall survival time for pelvic recurrence diagnosed with CT was 21.6 months, vs 10.6 months for symptomatic presentations (P RC for TCC is poor even with subsequent therapy, emphasizing the need for optimum local control at the time of initial treatment.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition spectrum quantification and its efficacy in deciphering survival and drug responses of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Miow, Qing Hao; Miki, Yoshio; Noda, Tetsuo; Mori, Seiichi; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible and dynamic process hypothesized to be co-opted by carcinoma during invasion and metastasis. Yet, there is still no quantitative measure to assess the interplay between EMT and cancer progression. Here, we derived a method for universal EMT scoring from cancer-specific transcriptomic EMT signatures of ovarian, breast, bladder, lung, colorectal and gastric cancers. We show that EMT scoring exhibits good correlation with previously published, cancer-specific EMT signatures. This universal and quantitative EMT scoring was used to establish an EMT spectrum across various cancers, with good correlation noted between cell lines and tumours. We show correlations between EMT and poorer disease-free survival in ovarian and colorectal, but not breast, carcinomas, despite previous notions. Importantly, we found distinct responses between epithelial- and mesenchymal-like ovarian cancers to therapeutic regimes administered with or without paclitaxel in vivo and demonstrated that mesenchymal-like tumours do not always show resistance to chemotherapy. EMT scoring is thus a promising, versatile tool for the objective and systematic investigation of EMT roles and dynamics in cancer progression, treatment response and survival. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. Prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 enhances the hypoxic survival and G1 to S transition of carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Högel

    Full Text Available Hypoxia restricts cell proliferation and cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface but at least a subpopulation of carcinoma cells can escape the restriction. In carcinoma hypoxia may in fact select for cells with enhanced hypoxic survival and increased aggressiveness. The cellular oxygen sensors HIF proline hydroxylases (PHDs adapt the cellular functions to lowered environmental oxygen tension. PHD3 isoform has shown the strongest hypoxic upregulation among the family members. We detected a strong PHD3 mRNA expression in tumors of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. The PHD3 expression associated with expression of hypoxic marker gene. Using siRNA in cell lines derived from HNSCC we show that specific inhibition of PHD3 expression in carcinoma cells caused reduced cell survival in hypoxia. The loss of PHD3, but not that of PHD2, led to marked cell number reduction. Although caspase-3 was activated at early hypoxia no induction of apoptosis was detected. However, hypoxic PHD3 inhibition caused a block in cell cycle progression. Cell population in G1 phase was increased and the population in S phase reduced demonstrating a block in G1 to S transition under PHD3 inhibition. In line with this, the level of hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein Rb was reduced by PHD3 knock-down in hypoxia. PHD3 loss led to increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 expression but not that of p21 or p16. The data demonstrated that increased PHD3 expression under hypoxia enhances cell cycle progression and survival of carcinoma cells.

  13. Symptoms of Functional Intestinal Disorders Are Common in Patients with Celiac Disease Following Transition to a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Graff, Lesley A; Rigaux, Lisa; Bernstein, Charles N; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciarán P; Walker, John R; Duerksen, Donald R

    2017-09-01

    Celiac disease and functional intestinal disorders may overlap, yet the natural history of functional symptoms in patients with celiac disease is unknown. To investigate the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), and functional bloating (FB) symptoms among patients with celiac disease at diagnosis and during the first year of a gluten-free diet. Adults with a new diagnosis of celiac disease were surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 1 year using standardized measures for intestinal symptoms [Rome III diagnostic questionnaire and celiac symptom index (CSI)] and gluten-free diet adherence [gluten-free eating assessment tool (GF-EAT) and celiac diet adherence test]. At diagnosis, two-thirds fulfilled Rome III diagnostic questionnaire symptom criteria for IBS (52%), functional dyspepsia (27%), and/or functional bloating (9%). One year post-diagnosis, there was high adherence to a gluten-free diet as 93% reported gluten exposure less than once per month on the GF-EAT and only 8% had ongoing celiac disease symptoms (CSI score >45). The rates of those meeting IBS (22%) and functional dyspepsia (8%) symptom criteria both decreased significantly on a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of functional symptoms (any of IBS, FD or FB) at 1 year was 47%. Long-term follow-up of patients with celiac disease is necessary because many patients with celiac disease who are adherent to a gluten-free diet have persistent gastrointestinal symptoms.

  14. Persistent Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Infection Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 Adhesion by Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Dai, Lei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus characterized by diarrhea and high morbidity rates, and the mortality rate is 100% in piglets less than 2 weeks old. Pigs infected with TGEV often suffer secondary infection by other pathogens, which aggravates the severity of diarrhea, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persistent TGEV infection stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can more easily adhere to generating cells. Intestinal epithelial cells are the primary targets of TGEV and ETEC infections. We found that TGEV can persistently infect porcine intestinal columnar epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and cause EMT, consistent with multiple changes in key cell characteristics. Infected cells display fibroblast-like shapes; exhibit increases in levels of mesenchymal markers with a corresponding loss of epithelial markers; have enhanced expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs; and demonstrate increases in migratory and invasive behaviors. Additional experiments showed that the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways via TGF-β is critical for the TGEV-mediated EMT process. Cellular uptake is also modified in cells that have undergone EMT. TGEV-infected cells have higher levels of integrin α5 and fibronectin and exhibit enhanced ETEC K88 adhesion. Reversal of EMT reduces ETEC K88 adhesion and inhibits the expression of integrin α5 and fibronectin. Overall, these results suggest that TGEV infection induces EMT in IPEC-J2 cells, increasing the adhesion of ETEC K88 in the intestine and facilitating dual infection. IMPORTANCE Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea and is often followed by secondary infection by other pathogens. In this study, we showed

  15. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  16. Long-term survival after gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: focus on supplementary treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne Birgitte; Sengelov, Lisa; von der Maase, Hans

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate response and survival, as well as efficacy of subsequent supplementary treatment and follow-up strategy in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder following combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC...

  17. Grapefruit juice and its constituents augment the effect of low pH on inhibition of survival and adherence to intestinal epithelial cells of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PT193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianhua; Gyles, Carlton L; Gong, Joshua

    2012-09-03

    The present study examined the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and its adherence to intestinal epithelial cells following inoculation into grapefruit juice and apple cider. Both liquids significantly inactivated S. Typhimurium (0.8-2.2 log reduction compared to the control); surviving Salmonella in grapefruit juice was 1.0-1.4 log lower than in apple cider at 24h incubation. Grapefruit juice contains the antimicrobial substances naringin (NAR) and naringenin (NGE); however, the effect of grapefruit juice on growth and adherence of S. Typhimurium appeared not to be related to NAR. NGE at 100-200 μg/mL reduced the adherence of Salmonella to epithelial cells by 57% and 73% compared to the control (TSB at pH 7.4) after 24 h treatment, but stimulated rather than inhibited growth of Salmonella. However, when NGE at 200 μg/mL was added to TSB at pH 3.5 Salmonella survival and adherence to intestinal epithelial cells were reduced by 2.5 log and 79%, respectively, compared to the control (TSB at pH 3.5). Addition of NGE to apple cider also caused a slight reduction in the survival of S. Typhimurium, but did not enhance the inhibitory effect on adherence due to apple cider. These data showed that low pH augmented the inhibitory effect of NGE on growth and adherence of Salmonella to intestinal epithelial cells, but the mechanism of the observed augmentative effect is not clear. Understanding the mechanism of the interaction between low pH and NGE and its inhibitory effect on growth and adherence of enteric pathogens may lead to the development of new antibacterial agents. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Knockdown of human TCF4 affects multiple signaling pathways involved in cell survival, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and neuronal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Forrest

    Full Text Available Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS: a severe form of mental retardation with phenotypic similarities to Angelman, Mowat-Wilson and Rett syndromes. Genome-wide association studies have also found that common variants in TCF4 are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Although TCF4 is transcription factor, little is known about TCF4-regulated processes in the brain. In this study we used genome-wide expression profiling to determine the effects of acute TCF4 knockdown on gene expression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. We identified 1204 gene expression changes (494 upregulated, 710 downregulated in TCF4 knockdown cells. Pathway and enrichment analysis on the differentially expressed genes in TCF4-knockdown cells identified an over-representation of genes involved in TGF-β signaling, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT and apoptosis. Among the most significantly differentially expressed genes were the EMT regulators, SNAI2 and DEC1 and the proneural genes, NEUROG2 and ASCL1. Altered expression of several mental retardation genes such as UBE3A (Angelman Syndrome, ZEB2 (Mowat-Wilson Syndrome and MEF2C was also found in TCF4-depleted cells. These data suggest that TCF4 regulates a number of convergent signaling pathways involved in cell differentiation and survival in addition to a subset of clinically important mental retardation genes.

  19. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  20. Bacterial translocation and mortality on rat model of intestinal ischemia and obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael Izar Domingues da; Rasslan, Roberto; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo; Montero, Edna Frasson de Souza

    2017-08-01

    To develop an experimental model of intestinal ischemia and obstruction followed by surgical resection of the damaged segment and reestablishment of intestinal transit, looking at bacterial translocation and survival. After anesthesia, Wistar rats was subject to laparotomy, intestinal ischemia and obstruction through an ileal ligature 1.5cm of ileum cecal valve; and the mesenteric vessels that irrigate upstream of the obstruction site to approximately 7 to 10 cm were ligated. Abdominal wall was closed. Three, six or twenty-four hours after, rats were subject to enterectomy followed by an end to end anastomosis. After 24h, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lung tissues were surgically removed. It was studied survival rate and bacterial translocation. GraphPadPrism statistical program was used. Animals with intestinal ischemia and obstruction for 3 hours survived 24 hours after enterectomy; 6hx24h: survival was 70% at 24 hours; 24hx24h: survival was 70% and 40%, before and after enterectomy, respectively. Culture of tissues showed positivity on the 6hx24h and negativity on the 3hx24h. The model that best approached the clinic was the one of 6x24h of ischemia and intestinal obstruction, in which it was observed bacterial translocation and low mortality rate.

  1. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Linnet, Jan; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    transit rate. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind crossover investigation. In random order, the subjects ingested 30 g glucose or a mixture of 25 g fructose and 5 g sorbitol as 10% solutions. As a radiolabeled marker, (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was added to each test...... solution. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations and gastrointestinal progress of the radiolabeled marker were followed for the next 6-hr period. Malabsorption of small amounts of the fructose-sorbitol mixture was evident in all subjects. The area under the gastric radioactivity-time curve after...

  2. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Linnet, Jan; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    solution. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations and gastrointestinal progress of the radiolabeled marker were followed for the next 6-hr period. Malabsorption of small amounts of the fructose-sorbitol mixture was evident in all subjects. The area under the gastric radioactivity-time curve after...... ingestion of glucose did not differ from that after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture (P = 0.7897). However, the mouth-to-cecum transit of the radiolabeled marker was faster (P = 0.0033) and the percentage content of the marker in colon was higher after ingestion of the fructose-sorbitol mixture...

  3. Transitions across cognitive states and death among older adults in relation to education: A multistate survival model using data from six longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Annie; van den Hout, Ardo; Machado, Robson J M; Bennett, David A; Čukić, Iva; Deary, Ian J; Hofer, Scott M; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Huisman, Martijn; Johansson, Boo; Koval, Andriy V; van der Noordt, Maaike; Piccinin, Andrea M; Rijnhart, Judith J M; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Skoog, Johan; Skoog, Ingmar; Starr, John; Vermunt, Lisa; Clouston, Sean; Muniz Terrera, Graciela

    2018-01-25

    This study examines the role of educational attainment, an indicator of cognitive reserve, on transitions in later life between cognitive states (normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), mild MMSE impairment, and severe MMSE impairment) and death. Analysis of six international longitudinal studies was performed using a coordinated approach. Multistate survival models were used to estimate the transition patterns via different cognitive states. Life expectancies were estimated. Across most studies, a higher level of education was associated with a lower risk of transitioning from normal MMSE to mild MMSE impairment but was not associated with other transitions. Those with higher levels of education and socioeconomic status had longer nonimpaired life expectancies. This study highlights the importance of education in later life and that early life experiences can delay later compromised cognitive health. This study also demonstrates the feasibility and benefit in conducting coordinated analysis across multiple studies to validate findings. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Metronidazole-Resistant Isolate of Blastocystis spp. Is Susceptible to Nitric Oxide and Downregulates Intestinal Epithelial Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a Novel Parasite Survival Mechanism ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Haris; Wu, Zhaona; Kidwai, Fahad; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Blastocystis, one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, noninvasive, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. Blastocystis infections can be asymptomatic or cause intestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Although chronic infections are frequently reported, Blastocystis infections have also been reported to be self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. Characterizing the host innate response to Blastocystis would lead to a better understanding of the parasite's pathogenesis. Intestinal epithelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), primarily on the apical side, in order to target luminal pathogens. In this study, we show that NO production by intestinal cells may be a host defense mechanism against Blastocystis. Two clinically relevant isolates of Blastocystis, ST-7 (B) and ST-4 (WR-1), were found to be susceptible to a range of NO donors. ST-7 (B), a metronidazole-resistant isolate, was found to be more sensitive to nitrosative stress. Using the Caco-2 model of human intestinal epithelium, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) but not ST-4 (WR-1) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of Caco-2 NO production, and this was associated with downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Despite its higher susceptibility to NO, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) may have evolved unique strategies to evade this potential host defense by depressing host NO production. This is the first study to highlight a strain-to-strain variation in the ability of Blastocystis to evade the host antiparasitic NO response. PMID:21930763

  5. A metronidazole-resistant isolate of Blastocystis spp. is susceptible to nitric oxide and downregulates intestinal epithelial inducible nitric oxide synthase by a novel parasite survival mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Haris; Wu, Zhaona; Kidwai, Fahad; Tan, Kevin S W

    2011-12-01

    Blastocystis, one of the most common parasites colonizing the human intestine, is an extracellular, noninvasive, luminal protozoan with controversial pathogenesis. Blastocystis infections can be asymptomatic or cause intestinal symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Although chronic infections are frequently reported, Blastocystis infections have also been reported to be self-limiting in immunocompetent patients. Characterizing the host innate response to Blastocystis would lead to a better understanding of the parasite's pathogenesis. Intestinal epithelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), primarily on the apical side, in order to target luminal pathogens. In this study, we show that NO production by intestinal cells may be a host defense mechanism against Blastocystis. Two clinically relevant isolates of Blastocystis, ST-7 (B) and ST-4 (WR-1), were found to be susceptible to a range of NO donors. ST-7 (B), a metronidazole-resistant isolate, was found to be more sensitive to nitrosative stress. Using the Caco-2 model of human intestinal epithelium, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) but not ST-4 (WR-1) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of Caco-2 NO production, and this was associated with downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Despite its higher susceptibility to NO, Blastocystis ST-7 (B) may have evolved unique strategies to evade this potential host defense by depressing host NO production. This is the first study to highlight a strain-to-strain variation in the ability of Blastocystis to evade the host antiparasitic NO response.

  6. Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods...

  7. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira Filho, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles Júnior, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; Almeida, Samira Scalso de; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno de

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990's, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run.

  8. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    immunoreactivity was determined with antibody PAB 1801. RESULTS: The study comprised 143 patients including 31 (22%) with stage T1a disease, 60 (42%) with stage T1b and 52 (36%) with stage T1c. Mean patient age was 67 years (range 38 to 92) and mean followup was 4.7 years (range 2.4 to 9.7). Tumor grade related...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p ...PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...

  9. Radiotherapy may improve overall survival of patients with T3/T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy, the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unknown. Methods We treated 133 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis or ureter at our institution between 1998 and 2008. The 67 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery were assigned to the radiation group (RT). The clinical target volume included the renal fossa, the course of the ureter to the entire bladder, and the paracaval and para-aortic lymph nodes, which were at risk of harbouring metastatic disease in 53 patients. The tumour bed or residual tumour was targeted in 14 patients. The median radiation dose administered was 50 Gy. The 66 patients who received intravesical chemotherapy were assigned to the non-radiation group (non-RT). Results The overall survival rates for the RT and non-RT groups were not significantly different (p = 0.198). However, there was a significant difference between the survival rates for these groups based on patients with T3/T4 stage cancer. A significant difference was observed in the bladder tumour relapse rate between the irradiated and non-irradiated bladder groups (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis indicated that improved overall survival was associated with age grade 3) hematologic symptoms also occurred. Conclusion EBRT may improve overall survival for patients with T3/T4 cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour recurrence in all patients. PMID:21756352

  10. Perfil epidemiológico e morbimortalidade dos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal: experiência de um centro secundário do Nordeste Brasileiro Epidemiologic profile and morbimortality of patients undergoing reconstruction intestinal transit: experience of a secundary health service in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeany Borges e Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A reconstrução do trânsito intestinal não está isenta de riscos cirúrgicos e apresenta taxas consideráveis de complicações pós-operatórias, sendo que a infecção continua a ser um dos maiores desafios existentes neste procedimento. OBJETIVO: Perfil epidemiológico e morbimortalidade dos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente 86 prontuários de pacientes com colostomia ou ileostomia, através de fatores que tivessem impacto sobre a morbimortalidade após a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal, de janeiro de 2003 a abril de 2009. RESULTADOS: Houve 20 mulheres e 60 homens, com idade média de 43 anos. A colostomia em alça (n=34 e o trauma abdominal indicando colostomia ou ileostomia foram as condições mais frequentes. O intervalo médio entre a confecção do estoma e a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal foi 15,7 meses. O índice de morbidade foi 56,8%, sendo a infecção incisional a complicação mais comum (27.47%. A permanência hospitalar média foi 7,6 dias. Houve regressão linear positiva entre permanência hospitalar pós-operatória e a idade do paciente. Demonstrou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre o prolongamento da permanência hospitalar e a ocorrência de complicações (pBACKGROUND: The reconstruction of the intestinal tract is not surgical complications risk-free and is associated to postoperative complications high rates; furthermore, infection remains the hardest challenge in this procedure. AIM: Epidemiological profile and mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing reconstruction of intestinal transit. METHODS: Retrospectively, 86 patients with intestinal stomas were analyzed through factors that impact on the morbimortality afterwards intestinal transit reconstruction, since January 2003 to April 2009. RESULTS: Loop colostomy (n=34 and abdominal trauma implicating 38.2% of indications to colostomy or

  11. Management of intestinal failure in inflammatory bowel disease: Small intestinal transplantation or home parenteral nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Allan, Philip; Ramu, Amrutha; Vaidya, Anil; Travis, Simon; Lal, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease in particular, is a common cause of intestinal failure. Current therapeutic options include home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. For most patients, home intravenous therapy including parenteral nutrition, with a good probability of long-term survival, is the favoured choice. However, in selected patients, with specific features that may shorten survival or complicate home parenteral nutrition, intestinal transplantation presents a viable alternative. We present survival, complications, quality of life and economic considerations that currently influence individualised decision-making between home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. PMID:24696601

  12. Intestinal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, André; Anderson, David E

    2016-11-01

    A wide variety of disorders affecting the intestinal tract in cattle may require surgery. Among those disorders the more common are: intestinal volvulus, jejunal hemorrhage syndrome and more recently the duodenal sigmoid flexure volvulus. Although general principles of intestinal surgery can be applied, cattle has anatomical and behavior particularities that must be known before invading the abdomen. This article focuses on surgical techniques used to optimize outcomes and discusses specific disorders of small intestine. Diagnoses and surgical techniques presented can be applied in field conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  14. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLD) in conjunction with nephroureterectomy in the treatment of infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract: impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausi, Maurizio A; Gavioli, Mirko; De Luca, Giuseppe; Verrini, Giorgio; Peracchia, Giancarlo; Simonini, Gianluca; Viola, Massimo

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the prognostic impact of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLD) performed during nephroureterectomy on time to recurrence and survival in patients with infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract. The charts of 82 patients with T2-T4 TCC of the upper tract were retrospectively reviewed. The median patient age was 67.7 yr. Seventy-nine patients underwent nephroureterectomy and three had partial nephrectomy. Forty patients (48.8%) had RPLD with removal of more than five nodes after nephroureterectomy (group 1), whereas 42 (51.2%) had nephroureterectomy only (group 2). Median follow-up was 64.7 mo. The prognostic role of RPLD, T (2 vs. 3-4), G (2 vs. 3), N (0 vs. 1-2 vs. x), age (65 yr) and sex on time to recurrence and survival were evaluated. Median time to recurrence and overall survival were 51.2 and 52.5 mo, respectively, in group 1 and 18.5 and 21.2 mo in group 2. Univariate analysis demonstrated that RPLD and T and N status were significantly related both to time to recurrence (p=0.009, 0.008, and 0.009, respectively) and survival (p=0.000006, 0.003, and 0.003). When analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model, RPLD and T category were the only two factors demonstrating independent significance on overall survival (p=0.004 and 0.008). The results indicate a possible curative role of RPLD in the treatment of patients with infiltrative TCC of the upper urinary tract. Further randomized trials are needed to confirm these results.

  15. Expression of Proteins Involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition as Predictors of Metastasis and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    critical prognostic factor for future recurrence and survival. Understanding the epidemiology and biology of metastasis could lead to better...Work. Training Plan, months 13-24 Tasks 1 and 5. All didactic predoctoral program requirements have been completed. Oral proposal defense was...metastases. Tumor size appears to affect lymph node metastasis differently by race, a mechanism that is modified by tumor biology . Our findings support the

  16. Detailed analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor budding identifies predictors of long-term survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Ilona; Bronsert, Peter; Timme, Sylvia; Werner, Martin; Brabletz, Thomas; Hopt, Ulrich Theodor; Schilling, Oliver; Bausch, Dirk; Keck, Tobias; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by aggressive biology and poor prognosis even after resection. Long-term survival is very rare and cannot be reliably predicted. Experimental data suggest an important role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in invasion and metastasis of PDAC. Tumor budding is regarded as the morphological correlate of local invasion and cancer cell dissemination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and prognostic implications of EMT and tumor budding in PDAC of the pancreatic head. Patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database, and baseline, operative, histopathological, and follow-up data were extracted. Serial tissue slices stained for Pan-Cytokeratin served for analysis of tumor budding, and E-Cadherin, Beta-Catenin, and Vimentin staining for analysis of EMT. Baseline, operative, standard pathology, and immunohistochemical parameters were evaluated for prediction of long-term survival (≥ 30 months) in uni- and multivariate analysis. Intra- and intertumoral patterns of EMT marker expression and tumor budding provide evidence of partial EMT induction at the tumor-host interface. Lymph node ratio and E-Cadherin expression in tumor buds were independent predictors of long-term survival in multivariate analysis. Detailed immunohistochemical assessment confirms a relationship between EMT and tumor budding at the tumor-host interface. A small group of patients with favorable prognosis can be identified by combined assessment of lymph node ratio and EMT in tumor buds. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Survival analysis in patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: a comparison between open and hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Thomas Y; Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chiu, Allen W; Huan, Steven K; Lee, Ying-Huei

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the stage- and grade-specific survival rate in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) after open (ONU) or hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) with bladder-cuff excision. From January 1998 to April 2005, 143 patients with UUT-TCC were treated with either ONU or LNU and enrolled in the study. The peri-operative data were collected by retrospective chart review. The recurrence, metastasis and survival rate were calculated. The 5-year disease-specific survival of patients with pT1 disease was 88.1% after ONU and 92.0% after LNU (P = 0.745); the respective values for patients with pT2 were 11/17 and 12/15 (P = 0.874), and for pT3 were six/11 and 12/15 (P = 0.476). The incidence of bladder recurrence within 2 years after surgery was 24.7% for ONU and 19.7% for LNU (P = 0.475). The results were similar after ONU or LNU with bladder-cuff excision; bladder-cuff excision using a hand-assisted device is effective and serves as a treatment option for patients with UUT-TCC.

  18. Evaluation by computerized morphometry of histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit in rats Avaliação por morfometria computadorizada das alterações histopatológicas da parede cólica em segmentos com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vieira de Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histopathological alterations of the colon wall in segments with and without intestinal transit, by computer-assisted imaging, and to correlate these with the length of time diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal transit diversion by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosa fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups according to how long after the initial surgical procedure they were sacrificed: six, twelve and eighteen weeks. Colon segments with and without transit were subjected to histopathological study. The variables colon crypt length, mucosal ulceration, muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria, vascular congestion, number of caliciform cells, inflammatory grade and degree of inflammation, comparing the two colon segments in the different experimental groups were studied. Intestinal crypt length, muscle layer thickness of the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria and caliciform cells were measured by computer-assisted imaging method. Mean equality, variance analysis and correlation tests were used in the statistical analysis, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Comparison between segments with and without transit showed that the latter presented reduced length of colon crypts and increased muscle layer thickness of the muscularis mucosa, submucosa and muscularis propria. There were greater quantities of ulceration of the mucosal and greater degree of inflammation with increasing time without transit. Mucosal ulceration, submucosal vascular congestion, increased thickness of the submucosal and muscularis propria layers, presence of caliciform cells, inflammatory infiltrate and inflammatory grade correlated significantly with the length of time without transit. CONCLUSIONS: Histological alterations occurred in all layers of the colon wall, in the segments without intestinal transit. Ulcerations in the

  19. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  20. Flow cytometric assessment of the protectants for enhanced in vitro survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria through simulated human gastro-intestinal stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cao, Yu; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Shu, Quan; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to apply flow cytometric (FCM) analysis to assess the use of sucrose and lecithin vesicles for the protection of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in response to the challenge of gastric acidity and bile salts. FCM analysis in combination with fluorescent probes carboxyfluorescein (cF) and propidium iodide was used to reveal the physiological heterogeneity in the stressed bacteria population. Three subpopulations (intact, stressed, and damaged) were differentiated by FCM in all six examined strains. Significant changes were observed in the presence of the selected protectants. The addition of 20 mM sucrose in the simulated gastric fluid substantially increased the number of intact cells over 20 folds and reduced the damaged subpopulation by half. The presence of 2 % (w/v) lecithin vesicles was shown to protect 50 % more intact cells from the challenge of bile salts. The improved survival as evaluated by FCM analysis was further assessed for the proliferation capacity by sorting a number of cells from each subpopulation on nutrient agar plate. The result confirmed conformity between the proliferation-based cultivability and the probe-indicated viability in the samples of the intact and the damaged subpopulations. However, it also revealed the complexities of the stressed (injured) subpopulation. In conclusion, FCM analysis confirmed that the selected protectants could improve the survival of the probiotic strains in the simulated GI environments. The FCM analysis also proved to be a useful analytical tool for the probiotics research.

  1. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss Intestinal ischemia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  2. Perfil epidemiológico e morbimortalidade dos pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de trânsito intestinal: experiência de um centro secundário do nordeste Brasileiro Epidemiologic profile and morbimortality of patients undergoing to intestinal transit reconstruction: experience of a secundary health service in Brazil northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeany Borges e Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Racional- A reconstrução do trânsito intestinal não está isenta de riscos cirúrgicos e apresenta taxas consideráveis de complicações pós-operatórias, sendo que a infecção continua a ser um dos maiores desafios existentes neste procedimento. Métodos- Foram analisados retrospectivamente 86 prontuários de pacientes com colostomia ou ileostomia, através de fatores que tivessem impacto sobre a morbimortalidade após a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal, de janeiro de 2003 a abril de 2009. Resultados- Houve 20 mulheres e 60 homens, com idade média de 43 anos. A colostomia em alça (n: 34 e o trauma abdominal indicando colostomia ou ileostomia foram as condições mais frequentes. O intervalo médio entre a confecção do estoma e a reconstrução de trânsito intestinal foi 15,7 meses. O índice de morbidade foi 56,8%, sendo a infecção incisional a complicação mais comum (27.47%. A permanência hospitalar média foi 7,6 dias. Houve regressão linear positiva entre permanência hospitalar pós-operatória e a idade do paciente. Demonstrou-se associação estatisticamente significativa entre o prolongamento da permanência hospitalar e a ocorrência de complicações (pBackground - The reconstruction of the intestinal tract is not surgical complications risk-free and is associated to postoperative complications high rates; furthermore, infection remains the hardest challenge in this procedure. Methods - Retrospectively, eighty-six patients with intestinal stomas were analyzed through factors that impact on the morbimortality afterwards intestinal transit reconstruction, since January 2003 to April 2009. Results - Loop colostomy (n=34 and abdominal trauma implicating 38.2% of indications to colostomy or ileostomy were the most frequent conditions. The mean interval between stoma confection and intestinal transit reconstruction was 15.7 months. The morbidity frequency was 56.8% and incisional infection was its commonest

  3. Intratumoral CD68-, CD117-, CD56-, and CD1a-positive immune cells and the survival of Iranian patients with non-metastatic intestinal-type gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoueian, Sakineh; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Montazer, Mehdi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of intratumoral immune cell counts in Iranian gastric cancer patients. A historical cohort study was conducted on fifty patients with non-metastatic intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative gastrectomy during 2004-2008 in Imam-Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for CD56, CD68, CD117 and CD1a was performed to detect natural killer cells, macrophages, mast cells and Langerhans cells, respectively. The immune cells were counted, and the patients were then stratified into low or high immune cell counts. The prognostic significance of this grouping was analyzed using the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Thirty eight (76%) male and twelve (24%) female patients were enrolled in the study with a mean (±SD) age of 66.0 (±9.2) years. The median survival time was 15.0 (95%CI: 5.5-24.5) months. Natural killer cells, mast cells and Langerhans cells showed a positive effect on survival, whereas the reverse was true for macrophages. Multivariate analysis showed that the independent prognostic factors were location of the tumor (cardia/non-cardia), stage, the presence of extra-cytoplasmic mucin, tumor associated macrophage status (low/high), and tumor associated Langerhans cell status (low/high). In the studied population, gastric carcinoma proved to have a very poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic effect of natural killer and mast cells in tumoral tissue were dependent on the Langerhans cell count, defending the theory that dendritic cells mediate other immunocytes activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Munroa argentina, a Grass of the South American Transition Zone, Survived the Andean Uplift, Aridification and Glaciations of the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilla, Leonardo D.; Anton, Ana M.; Chiapella, Jorge O.; Manifesto, María M.; Angulo, Diego F.; Sosa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The South American Transition Zone (SATZ) is a biogeographic area in which not only orogeny (Andes uplift) and climate events (aridification) since the mid-Miocene, but also Quaternary glaciation cycles had an important impact on the evolutionary history of the local flora. To study this effect, we selected Munroa argentina, an annual grass distributed in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Prepuna and Monte. We collected 152 individuals from 20 localities throughout the species’ range, ran genetic and demographic analyses, and applied ecological niche modeling. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on cpDNA and AFLP data identified three phylogroups that correspond to the previously identified subregions within the SATZ. Molecular dating suggests that M. argentina has inhabited the SATZ since approximately 3.4 (4.2–1.2) Ma and paleomodels predict suitable climate in these areas during the Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. We conclude that the current distribution of M. argentina resulted from the fragmentation of its once continuous range and that climate oscillations promoted ecological differences that favored isolation by creating habitat discontinuity. PMID:26110533

  5. Recurrent dermatomyositis manifesting as a sign of recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: Long-term survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fitzpatrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between urological malignancies and paraneoplastic syndromes has been well documented. We report a case of recurrent dermatomyositis manifesting as a sign of metastatic recurrence of non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, a relationship which has only been referred to in a few reports. The case highlights a few important clinical challenges; firstly, the importance of thorough investigation for underlying malignancy in patients with dermatomyositis, as successful treatment of such malignancy can lead to resolution of paraneoplastic symptoms, and secondly, a high index of suspicion of recurrence in cases where paraneoplastic manifestations recur. Metastatic pulmonary recurrence without local evidence of disease at a follow-up of 4 years makes this case unique. Moreover, in the light of our experience and reported literature, a framework is suggested to approach such a diagnostic dilemma in the future. Description of the case will guide clinicians in the future, in case they encounter such an unusual clinical scenario. This could also serve as a hypothesis-generating source for designing future research as well.

  6. Transformation of the concept of border in the transition from USSR to Russian Federation: Implications for State survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Añorve Añorve

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Russian foreign policy is judged by the Western world on the basis of a series of depreciatory adjectives. The aim of this paper is to effect an historical review of the Russian (and Soviet perception of their frontier. The Russian frontier is continually changing; and the country has been both invader as well as invaded. For historical reasons, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union kept both a close watch and a strong control over the Soviet frontier, to the point of rendering it almost impenetrable. During the early years of transition, border policies relaxed consederably, to the point of instability and placing the Russian Federation on the verge of balkanization. Both Putin and Medvedev put a stop to this process. Now, partially as a result of Western pressure and reluctance to cooperate, Russia has undertaken an aggressive border policy that threatens expansion. The enormous Russian diaspora has turned out to be a successful justification for the expansion of the Russian border.

  7. Pre-cultivation with Selected Prebiotics Enhances the Survival and the Stress Response of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains in Simulated Gastrointestinal Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, Mariantonietta; Tremonte, Patrizio; Pannella, Gianfranco; Tipaldi, Luca; Cozzolino, Autilia; Romaniello, Rossana; Sorrentino, Elena; Coppola, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    In our study, we dwelled upon combinations of lactobacilli/prebiotics, considering four different strains belonging to the Lactobacillus rhamnosus species, including Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and different prebiotics often found in commercial synbiotic products, such as inulin, lactulose and polyols mannitol and sorbitol. In the first step of the research, the survival, the growth kinetic parameters and the protein expression of Lb. rhamnosus strains cultivated in presence of the different prebiotics as a unique carbon source were evaluated. In the second step, the influence of pre-cultivation in medium added of metabolizable prebiotics on the strains survival to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) transit, assayed without prebiotics addition, was estimated. Our results showed that the presence in the medium of certain low fermented prebiotics, specific for each strain, represents a stress factor that significantly affects the growth of Lb. rhamnosus strains, inducing the up-regulation of several proteins. In detail, all added prebiotics used as unique carbon source caused a growth retard compared with glucose, as testified by increased values of the lag phase and decreased values of the μmax. Mannitol evidenced intermediate μmax values between those registered with glucose and those detected with the other assayed prebiotics. Moreover, the cultivation with prebiotics induced the over expression of 7 protein bands. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the up-regulation of two specific stress proteins, called P4 (ATP-binding subunit Clpx) and P7 (GrpE), and the death kinetic parameters (resistance and cells viability) registered during the simulated GI transit of strains pre-cultivated with specific, low fermented prebiotics. Specifically, the highest resistance and gastric-vitality scores were highlighted for the strain AT195 when pre-cultivated in presence of sorbitol. Conversely, the lowest values were found in the case of DSM20021 pre

  8. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  9. Espiroquetosis intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Sempere, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    El término “espiroquetosis intestinal” fue introducido por Harland y Lee en 1967 -en una breve comunicación publicada en el British Medical Journal- para describir una infección intestinal que morfológicamente se manifiesta en la biopsia de colon/recto por la presencia de una banda de microorganismos, adheridos a la superficie del epitelio de la mucosa intestinal y que fueron identificados al microscopio electrónico como espiroquetas. La definición por lo tanto de este pr...

  10. Sequential transition of the injury phenotype, temperature-dependent survival and transcriptional response in Listeria monocytogenes following lethal H2O2 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Fumiya; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Mochizuki, Mariko; Takano, Takashi; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2017-10-16

    The food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is present persistently in food processing environments, where this bacterium is exposed to various stress factors, including oxidative stress. This study aimed to elucidate the temperature-dependent response of L. monocytogenes to H2O2 exposure and the phenotypic changes in colony formation by H2O2-treated bacteria. Survival curves indicated an increase in the resistance to H2O2 in L. monocytogenes as the temperature decreased during the stress exposure procedure. Transcriptional induction of genes with key roles in response to H2O2, including sigB and kat, was observed at 37°C, but not at 20°C, whereas other stress response genes were induced at both temperatures. Following H2O2 exposure, L. monocytogenes produced small colony phenotypes and the colony size decreased in a stress exposure duration-dependent manner. Resuscitated cells with no ability to form colonies in the absence of sodium pyruvate were also found. Our findings show the possibility that a sequential transition in the injury phenotype from small colony phenotype to resuscitated cells occurred during the course of exposure to H2O2. The higher H2O2 resistance at 20°C than 37°C suggests further investigation of the response to H2O2 exposure under the lower temperatures, including refrigeration temperature, which may contribute to elucidation of bacterial survival over extended time periods in food-processing environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  12. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P.

    2017-01-01

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient’s home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes. PMID:28481229

  13. Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, affects the early to late phagosome transition and survives in a Rab5- and Rab7-positive compartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mottola

    Full Text Available Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, inhibits phago-lysosome biogenesis to create a suitable niche for its survival and replication in macrophages. To understand the mechanism by which it subverts phagosome maturation, we used biochemical and cell biological approaches to purify and characterise the intracellular compartment where Tropheryma whipplei resides using mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We showed that in addition to Lamp-1, the Tropheryma whipplei phagosome is positive for Rab5 and Rab7, two GTPases required for the early to late phagosome transition. Unlike other pathogens, inhibition of PI(3P production was not the mechanism for Rab5 stabilisation at the phagosome. Overexpression of the inactive, GDP-bound form of Rab5 bypassed the pathogen-induced blockade of phago-lysosome biogenesis. This suggests that Tropheryma whipplei blocks the switch from Rab5 to Rab7 by acting on the Rab5 GTPase cycle. A bio-informatic analysis of the Tropheryma whipplei genome revealed a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH homologous with the GAPDH of Listeria monocytogenes, and this may be the bacterial protein responsible for blocking Rab5 activity. To our knowledge, Tropheryma whipplei is the first pathogen described to induce a "chimeric" phagosome stably expressing both Rab5 and Rab7, suggesting a novel and specific mechanism for subverting phagosome maturation.

  14. Intestinal and multivisceral retransplantation results: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizol, A P; David, A I; Yamashita, E T; Pecora, R A; D'Albuquerque, L A

    2013-04-01

    Intestinal/multivisceral transplantation (IT/MVT) is the gold standard treatment for patients with intestinal failure and complications related to total parenteral nutrition, gastrointestinal inoperable indolent tumors, or diffuse portal trombosis. Currently, the reported 1-year patient survival rate is around 80%, similar to other solid organ abdominal transplantations. Unfortunately, the patient survival decreases after the first year with the 5-year rate not close to 70% yet. Acute cellular rejection is the main cause of graft loss. Its early diagnosis may make it possible to improve survival of retransplantations. To analyze the reported results published in the last 5 years by leading transplant centers to evaluate IT/MVT retransplantation results. We performed a literature review using PubMed focusing on multivisceral and intestinal retransplantation in articles published between 2006 and 2012. In relation to the first transplantation, we analyzed demographics, imunosuppression, rejection, infection as well as graft and patient survival rates. Two centers reported results on intestinal and multivisceral retransplantations. Mazariegos et al reported their experience with 15 intestinal retransplantations in 14 pediatric recipients. Four patients died from posttransplant lymphoperliferative disease, severe acute cellular rejection, fungal sepsis, or bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm at a mean time of 5.7 months post-transplantation. Total parenteral nutrition was weaned at a median time of 32 days. Abu-Elmaged et al reported 47 cases with a 5-year survival of 47% for all retransplant modalities. Retransplantation with liver-contained visceral allograft achieved a 5-year survival rate of 61% compared with 16% for liver-free visceral grafts. Despite those huge improvements, some transplanted patients develop severe acute cellular rejection, culminating in graft loss and retransplantation. Repots on multivisceral and intestinal retransplantation outcomes suggest that

  15. A mathematical model of intestinal oedema formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer; Rivière, Béatrice; Cox, Charles S; Uray, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Intestinal oedema is a medical condition referring to the build-up of excess fluid in the interstitial spaces of the intestinal wall tissue. Intestinal oedema is known to produce a decrease in intestinal transit caused by a decrease in smooth muscle contractility, which can lead to numerous medical problems for the patient. Interstitial volume regulation has thus far been modelled with ordinary differential equations, or with a partial differential equation system where volume changes depend only on the current pressure and not on updated tissue stress. In this work, we present a computational, partial differential equation model of intestinal oedema formation that overcomes the limitations of past work to present a comprehensive model of the phenomenon. This model includes mass and momentum balance equations which give a time evolution of the interstitial pressure, intestinal volume changes and stress. The model also accounts for the spatially varying mechanical properties of the intestinal tissue and the inhomogeneous distribution of fluid-leaking capillaries that create oedema. The intestinal wall is modelled as a multi-layered, deforming, poroelastic medium, and the system of equations is solved using a discontinuous Galerkin method. To validate the model, simulation results are compared with results from four experimental scenarios. A sensitivity analysis is also provided. The model is able to capture the final submucosal interstitial pressure and total fluid volume change for all four experimental cases, and provide further insight into the distribution of these quantities across the intestinal wall.

  16. Lipid-rich enteral nutrition controls intestinal inflammation, improves intestinal motility and mucosal barrier damage in a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Liang; Tan, Shan-Jun; Cheng, Min-Hua; Zhao, Chen-Yan; Yu, Wen-Kui; He, Yu-Long; Li, Jieshou; Li, Ning

    2017-06-01

    It has been reported that lipid-rich enteral nutrition (EN) could ameliorate inflammation in various diseases. In this study, we investigated whether lipid-rich EN could control intestinal inflammation, improve intestinal motility and mucosal barrier injury after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male adult rats received saline, conventional EN, or lipid-rich EN via gavage before and after intestinal I/R injury. The superior mesenteric artery was occluded for 60 min. The sham group underwent laparotomy without superior mesenteric artery occlusion and was administrated saline. Intestinal motility was measured 4 h after intestinal I/R injury by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran transit assay; the intestinal and systemic inflammation were assessed by analyzing intestinal and serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)- 6, and IL-10, separately. The intestinal mucosal barrier injury was assessed by analyzing the serum levels of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and intestinal mucosal tight junction (TJ) proteins. The intestinal I/R injury decreased intestinal motility and intestinal mucosal TJs expression significantly when compared with the sham group (P < 0.05). The intestinal and systemic inflammatory parameters and the serum I-FABP were also significantly higher in the I/R groups than those in the sham group (P < 0.05). Both conventional and lipid-rich EN increased the intestinal motility and the intestinal mucosal TJs expression and decreased the intestinal and systemic inflammatory parameter and serum I-FABP levels to different degrees when compared with the I/R group (P < 0.05). However, lipid-rich EN significantly improved the negative alterations in these biochemical parameters when compared with the conventional EN (P < 0.05). These results suggest that lipid-rich EN might be able to control intestinal inflammation, improve intestinal motility and mucosal barrier injury after intestinal I/R injury

  17. [Intestinal microbiota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Horacio Joaquín; Menezes, Maria Elisabeth; d'Acâmpora, Armando José

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulative evidence on the multiple functions of the intestinal microflora in relation to the homeostasis of the host. At first considered as a simple mutualism, today this relationship proves to be essential to the health and to pathologic processes, particularly metabolic (eg, obesity) and gastrointestinal (eg, inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders). The first studies were conducted on the microbiota from fecal material cultured anaerobically. With the advent of molecular biology, it has become possible to determine qualitative and quantitatively the dominant, subdominant and transients species. In recent years, there were advances in the understanding of the relationship betwen the microbiota and the host, as well as among the microorganisms in their respective niches. These advances result from translational integration of microbiology with specialities such as molecular biology, cell phisiology, immunology and ecology. There are few studies on the spatial distribution of the microflora in the gut. Unravelling the topography of the microflora in mammals is a way to validate new animal models for the study of microflora.

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells by gastric acid and bile during in vitro gastrointestinal transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus can cause diarrhoeal food poisoning by production of enterotoxins in the small intestine. The prerequisite for diarrhoeal disease is thus survival during gastrointestinal passage. Methods Vegetative cells of 3 different B. cereus strains were cultivated in a real composite food matrix, lasagne verde, and their survival during subsequent simulation of gastrointestinal passage was assessed using in vitro experiments simulating transit through the human upper gastrointestinal tract (from mouth to small intestine). Results No survival of vegetative cells was observed, despite the high inoculum levels of 7.0 to 8.0 log CFU/g and the presence of various potentially protective food components. Significant fractions (approx. 10% of the consumed inoculum) of B. cereus vegetative cells survived gastric passage, but they were subsequently inactivated by bile exposure in weakly acidic intestinal medium (pH 5.0). In contrast, the low numbers of spores present (up to 4.0 log spores/g) showed excellent survival and remained viable spores throughout the gastrointestinal passage simulation. Conclusion Vegetative cells are inactivated by gastric acid and bile during gastrointestinal passage, while spores are resistant and survive. Therefore, the physiological form (vegetative cells or spores) of the B. cereus consumed determines the subsequent gastrointestinal survival and thus the infective dose, which is expected to be much lower for spores than vegetative cells. No significant differences in gastrointestinal survival ability was found among the different strains. However, considerable strain variability was observed in sporulation tendency during growth in laboratory medium and food, which has important implications for the gastrointestinal survival potential of the different B. cereus strains. PMID:23034184

  19. Physiological Mechanisms of Acute Intestinal Radiation Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION This work was sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency under PDT &E RMSS Code 3350085466 U99QMXMKO0040 H2590D. 17 COSATi CODES 18...irradiation had no effect on survival time in the pure gut death dose range where survival time is dose independent (Figure 8). Hence antimicrobial ...Figures 10 and 11) when there is an overlap of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries in these animals. Hence, antimicrobial therapy after irradiation

  20. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This antidiarrheal effect of zinc was abolished by propranolol and nifedipine. Zinc sulphate significantly reduced (p< 0.05) intestinal transit time (60.7 ± 7.13%) compared with control (85.7 ± 2.35%). It is concluded that zinc sulphate reduces the frequency of wet faeces output and intestinal motility during diarrhea via ...

  1. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Casafont, F; Guerra, A; de Benito, I; Pons-Romero, F

    2005-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT) in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. The aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. We included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. The prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p < 0.001). Cirrhotic rats with translocated bacteria had higher total aerobic intestinal counts than culture-negative MLN bacteria (p < 0.05). The prevalence of total intestinal bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic animals was 67%, and 0% in control animals (p < 0.001). According to BT, total IBO was more frequent in cirrhotic rats with BT versus those without BT (93 vs. 33%) (p < 0.001). Of the translocating bacteria, 95.6% were found to be overgrown in the cecum. The small-intestinal transit was slower in cirrhotic rats (60.5 +/- 12.7 cm vs. 81.2 +/- 5.7 cm) than in control animals (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the increase of intestinal aerobic bacteria in experimental cirrhosis is associated with translocation. In addition, IBO is frequent in cirrhotic rats, and is supposed to play an important role in the development of BT. Impaired motility of the small intestine is a common feature in cirrhosis and may be implicated in the

  2. Gastrin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihao; Luo, Yongli; Cheng, Yunjiu; Zou, Dezhi; Zeng, Aihong; Yang, Chunhua; Xu, Jia; Zhan, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication when the blood supply is reflowed in ischemic organs. Gastrin has critical function in regulating acid secretion, proliferation, and differentiation in the gastric mucosa. We aimed to determine whether gastrin has an effect on intestinal I/R damage. Intestinal I/R injury was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were induced to be hypergastrinemic by pretreated with omeprazole or directly injected with gastrin. Some hypergastrinemic rats were injected with cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist prior to I/R operation. After the animal surgery, the intestine was collected for histological analysis. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells or crypts were harvested for RNA and protein analysis. CCK-2 receptor expression, intestinal mucosal damage, cell apoptosis, and apoptotic protein caspase-3 activity were measured. We found that high gastrin in serum significantly reduced intestinal hemorrhage, alleviated extensive epithelial disruption, decreased disintegration of lamina propria, downregulated myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and caspase-3 activity, and lead to low mortality in response to I/R injury. On the contrary, CCK-2 receptor antagonist L365260 could markedly impair intestinal protection by gastrin on intestinal I/R. Severe edema of mucosal villi with severe intestinal crypt injury and numerous intestinal villi disintegrated were observed again in the hypergastrinemic rats with L365260. The survival in the hypergastrinemic rats after intestinal I/R injury was shortened by L365260. Finally, gastrin could remarkably upregulated intestinal CCK-2 receptor expression. Our data suggest that gastrin by omeprazole remarkably attenuated I/R induced intestinal injury by enhancing CCK-2 receptor expression and gastrin could be a potential mitigator for intestinal I/R damage in the clinical setting.

  3. Intestinal microbiome landscaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Lahti, Leo; Smidt, Hauke; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    High individuality, large complexity and limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying human intestinal microbiome function remain the major challenges for designing beneficial modulation strategies. Exemplified by the analysis of intestinal bacteria in a thousand Western adults, we discuss

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  5. Intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/001151.htm Small intestinal ischemia and infarction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intestinal ischemia and infarction occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage ...

  6. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has bec...

  7. Transitions across cognitive states and death among older adults in relation to education : A multistate survival model using data from six longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robitaille, Annie; van den Hout, Ardo; Machado, Robson J M; Bennett, David A; Čukić, Iva; Deary, Ian J; Hofer, Scott M; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Huisman, Martijn; Johansson, Boo; Koval, Andriy V; van der Noordt, Maaike; Piccinin, Andrea M; Rijnhart, Judith J M; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Skoog, Johan; Skoog, Ingmar; Starr, John; Vermunt, Lisa; Clouston, Sean; Muniz Terrera, Graciela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study examines the role of educational attainment, an indicator of cognitive reserve, on transitions in later life between cognitive states (normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), mild MMSE impairment, and severe MMSE impairment) and death. METHODS: Analysis of six

  8. Transition from first illicit drug use to first injection drug use among rural Appalachian drug users: A cross-sectional comparison and retrospective survival analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, April M.; Havens, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The study's objectives were to characterize initiation of injection drug use, examine the independent association of specific substance use with injection drug use, and determine factors associated with rates of transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among a sample of rural Appalachian drug users. Design Interview-administered questionnaires were administered to a sample of drug users recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Setting Appalachian Kentucky Participants Injection drug users (IDUs) (n=394) and non-IDUs (n=109) Measurements Data were collected on substance use and years from age at initiation of illicit substance use to ‘event’ (initiation of injection or date of baseline interview for non-IDUs). Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with lifetime injection drug use and transition time to injection, respectively. Findings OxyContin® was involved in nearly as many initiations to injection (48%) as were stimulants, other prescription opioids, and heroin combined; for participants who initiated with OxyContin®, the median time from which they began OxyContin® use to their first injection of OxyContin® was 3 years. Adjusting for demographics, five prescription drugs (benzodiazepines, illicit methadone, oxycodone, OxyContin® and other opiates) were associated with an increased hazard for transitioning from first illicit drug use to first injection drug use (each at pOxyContin®, is widely used nonmedically and appears to show a particularly high risk of rapid transition to injection compared with the use of other illicit drugs. PMID:21883604

  9. Lynch syndrome-related small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sun-Young; Lee, Eui-Jin; Kim, Mi-Ju; Chun, Sung Min; Bae, Young Kyung; Hong, Soon Uk; Choi, Jene; Kim, Joon Mee; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Gwang Il; Jung, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-28

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and is associated with increased risk of malignancies in multiple organs. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas are common initial manifestations of Lynch syndrome. To define the incidence and characteristics of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas, meticulous familial and clinical histories were obtained from 195 patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma, and MMR protein immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, MLH1 methylation, and germline mutational analyses were performed. Lynch syndrome was confirmed in eight patients (4%), all of whom had synchronous/metachronous malignancies without noticeable familial histories. Small-intestinal adenocarcinomas were the first clinical manifestation in 37% (3/8) of Lynch syndrome patients, and second malignancies developed within 5 years in 63% (5/8). The patients with accompanying Lynch syndrome were younger (≤50 years; P=0.04) and more likely to have mucinous adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and tended to survive longer (P=0.11) than those with sporadic cases. A meticulous patient history taking, MMR protein immunolabeling, and germline MMR gene mutational analysis are important for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome-related small-intestinal adenocarcinomas. Identifying Lynch syndrome in patients with small-intestinal adenocarcinoma can be beneficial for the early detection and treatment of additional Lynch syndrome-related cancers, especially in patients who are young or have mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  10. Intestinal, segmented, filamentous bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; Poelma, F G; Beynen, A C

    1992-06-01

    Segmented, filamentous bacteria (SFBs) are autochthonous, apathogenic bacteria, occurring in the ileum of mice and rats. Although the application of formal taxonomic criteria is impossible due to the lack of an in vitro technique to culture SFBs, microbes with a similar morphology, found in the intestine of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate host species, are considered to be related. SFBs are firmly attached to the epithelial cells of the distal ileal mucosa, their preferential ecological niche being the epithelium covering the Peyer's patches. Electron microscopic studies have demonstrated a considerable morphological diversity of SFBs, which may relate to different stages of a life cycle. Determinants of SFB colonization in vivo are host species, genotypical and phenotypical characteristics of the host, diet composition, environmental stress and antimicrobial drugs. SFBs can survive in vitro incubation, but do not multiply. On the basis of their apathogenic character and intimate relationship with the host, it is suggested that SFBs contribute to development and/or maintenance of host resistance to enteropathogens.

  11. Enteric Neuron Imbalance and Proximal Dysmotility in Ganglionated Intestine of the Sox10Dom/+ Hirschsprung Mouse ModelSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Musser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: In Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, neural crest-derived progenitors (NCPs fail to completely colonize the intestine so that the enteric nervous system is absent from distal bowel. Despite removal of the aganglionic region, many HSCR patients suffer from residual intestinal dysmotility. To test the hypothesis that inappropriate lineage segregation of NCPs in proximal ganglionated regions of the bowel could contribute to such postoperative disease, we investigated neural crest (NC-derived lineages and motility in ganglionated, postnatal intestine of the Sox10Dom/+ HSCR mouse model. Methods: Cre-mediated fate-mapping was applied to evaluate relative proportions of NC-derived cell types. Motility assays were performed to assess gastric emptying and small intestine motility while colonic inflammation was assessed by histopathology for Sox10Dom/+ mutants relative to wild-type controls. Results: Sox10Dom/+ mice showed regional alterations in neuron and glia proportions as well as calretinin+ and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS+ neuronal subtypes. In the colon, imbalance of enteric NC derivatives correlated with the extent of aganglionosis. All Sox10Dom/+ mice exhibited reduced small intestinal transit at 4 weeks of age; at 6 weeks of age, Sox10Dom/+ males had increased gastric emptying rates. Sox10Dom/+ mice surviving to 6 weeks of age had little or no colonic inflammation when compared with wild-type littermates, suggesting that these changes in gastrointestinal motility are neurally mediated. Conclusions: The Sox10Dom mutation disrupts the balance of NC-derived lineages and affects gastrointestinal motility in the proximal, ganglionated intestine of adult animals. This is the first report identifying alterations in enteric neuronal classes in Sox10Dom/+ mutants, which suggests a previously unrecognized role for Sox10 in neuronal subtype specification. Keywords: Aganglionosis, Enteric Nervous System, Neural Crest

  12. Common intestinal parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E...

  13. Intestinal parasites and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alauro, F; Lee, R V; Pao-In, K; Khairallah, M

    1985-11-01

    Intestinal parasites and pregnancy commonly coexist. Environmental, nutritional, and immunologic factors influence the clinical manifestations and determine the need for treatment of intestinal parasitism during pregnancy. No serious medical or obstetric problems attributable to intestinal parasites developed among 147 parasitized pregnant refugees living and delivering in a refugee camp in Southeast Thailand. These patients received adequate nutrition, careful prenatal monitoring, and no antiparasitic drug therapy. During pregnancy chemotherapy for intestinal parasites should not be used unless required for appropriate clinical and public health reasons.

  14. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  15. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  16. Neuromodulation of intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costes, L.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the central nervous system and the immune system have been shown to exert a crucial role in the tight regulation of the immune response in the intestine. In particular, the vagus nerve was recently unraveled as an important player in this neuromodulation of intestinal

  17. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  18. Long-term follow-up of patients on home parenteral nutrition in Europe: implications for intestinal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pironi, Loris; Joly, Francisca; Forbes, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    The indications for intestinal transplantation (ITx) are still debated. Knowing survival rates and causes of death on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) will improve decisions.......The indications for intestinal transplantation (ITx) are still debated. Knowing survival rates and causes of death on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) will improve decisions....

  19. Digestion Modelling in the Small Intestine : Impact of Dietary Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Taghipoor, Masoomeh; Barles, Guy; Georgelin, Christine; Licois, J.R.; Lescoat, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we continue the modelling of the digestion in the small intestine, started in a previous article, by investigating the effects of dietary fibre. We recall that this model aims at taking into account the three main phenomena of the digestion, namely the transit of the bolus, the degradation of feedstuffs and the absorption through the intestinal wall. In order to study the role of dietary fibre on digestion, we model their two principal physiochemical char...

  20. Survival of pathogenic and lactobacilli species of fermented olives during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco N; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Denis, Sylvain; Thévenot, Jonathan; Chalancon, Sandrine; Alric, Monique; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The present survey uses a dynamic gastric and small intestinal model to assess the survival of one pathogenic (Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933) and three lactobacilli bacteria with probiotic potential (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. pentosus TOMC-LAB2, and L. pentosus TOMC-LAB4) during their passage through the human gastrointestinal tract using fermented olives as the food matrix. The data showed that the survival of the E. coli strain in the stomach and duodenum was very low, while its transit through the distal parts (jejunum and ileum) resulted in an increase in the pathogen population. The production of Shiga toxins by this enterohemorrhagic microorganism in the ileal effluents of the in vitro system was too low to be detected by ELISA assays. On the contrary, the three lactobacilli species assayed showed a considerable resistance to the gastric digestion, but not to the intestinal one, which affected their survival, and was especially evident in the case of both L. pentosus strains. In spite of this, high population levels for all assayed microorganisms were recovered at the end of the gastrointestinal passage. The results obtained in the present study show the potential use of table olives as a vehicle of beneficial microorganisms to the human body, as well as the need for good hygienic practices on the part of olive manufacturers in order to avoid the possibility of contamination by food-borne pathogens.

  1. Survival of pathogenic and lactobacilli species of fermented olives during simulated human digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Noé eArroyo López

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present survey uses a dynamic gastric and small intestinal model to assess the survival of one pathogenic (Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL 933 and three lactobacilli bacteria with probiotic potential (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB2 and Lactobacillus pentosus TOMC-LAB4 during their passage through the human gastrointestinal tract using fermented olives as the food matrix. The data showed that the survival of the E. coli strain in the stomach and duodenum was very low, while its transit through the distal parts (jejunum and ileum resulted in an increase in the pathogen population. The production of Shiga toxins by this enterohemorrhagic microorganism in the ileal effluents of the in vitro system was too low to be detected by ELISA assays. On the contrary, the three lactobacilli species assayed showed a considerable resistance to the gastric digestion, but not to the intestinal one, which affected their survival, and was especially evident in the case of both L. pentosus strains. In spite of this, high population levels for all assayed microorganisms were recovered at the end of the gastrointestinal passage. The results obtained in the present study show the potential use of table olives as a vehicle of beneficial microorganisms to the human body, as well as the need for good hygienic practices on the part of olive manufacturers in order to avoid the possibility of contamination by food-borne pathogens.

  2. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  3. CT Diagnosis of intestinal obstruction: Findings and usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Mi Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1994-05-15

    To present the findings of intestinal obstruction and evaluate the value of CT in the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. We prospectively analyzed CT scans of twenty-two patients who were suspected to have intestinal obstruction. All 22 patients were confirmed with surgery: 10 patients with adhesion, four with primary tumor, one with metastatic intestinal tumor, two with inflammatory bowel disease, two with intussusception, two with extrinsic compression by ovarian tumor, and one with inguinal hernia. The CT scans were evaluated with special attention to their causes, locations, and CT findings and intestinal obstruction. CT diagnosis and findings were compared with surgical results. Their causes were diagnosed correctly on CT scans in seventeen of 22 cases(77.3%). Locations of the intestinal obstruction were diagnosis correctly in 16 cases(72.7%). The CT findings intestinal obstruction were categorized into dilated proximal bowel loops with normal distal loops, thickening of the affected bowel wall, presence of the transitional zone, and no detectable abnormalities. The associated extraluminal findings were fat infiltration around the dilated bowel loops, ascites, and mesenteric lymph nodes enlargement. There were two limitations of CT in our study: first, no detectable difference between jejunum and ileum on CT scans, and second, difficulty in differential diagnosis between thickened bowel wall mimicking normal non-dilated segment and mechanical obstruction from tumors or inflammatory bowel diseases. We conclude that CT is useful method in the evaluation of causes and locations of intestinal obstruction and the demonstration of the associated extraluminal abnormalities.

  4. Transplantation of intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Chicherin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of evaluation of the efficiency of the filtered aqueous suspension of white mice (donors feces and microorganisms of indigenous microflora in the correction of intestinal microbiocenosis of conventional white mice with antibiotic-associated dysbacteriosis with administration of suspension and microorganisms per os and per rectum. After the start of administration of suspension and microorganisms of fecal microflora to experimental animals the dynamics of the total content of microorganisms and the number of some representatives of intestinal microflora in 1 g of feces were evaluated in comparison with self-recovery of intestinal microflora in the control group animals. Results showed that the supernatant of an aqueous suspension of white mice (donors feces, containing microbial exometabolites and other biologically active compounds, has in a short time the most pronounced effect on the recovery of the normal intestinal microflora in experimental animals.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to chitosan and reduction in body weight (ID 679, 1499), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4663), reduction of intestinal transit time (ID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to chitosan and reduction in body weight, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, reduction of intestinal transit time and reduction of inflammation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...... of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is chitosan. The Panel considers that chitosan is sufficiently characterised....

  6. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    to treat special cases of intestinal failure. AIM: This review highlights recent developments in the area of small bowel transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over 600 reports on clinical and experimental small bowel transplantation were reviewed. Aspects concerning research development, different immunosuppressive strategies, patient and graft monitoring, and improvements in surgical techniques are discussed. RESULTS: About 700 small bowel transplantation were performed in 55 transplant centers, 44% intestine-liver, 41% isolated intestinal graft and 15% multivisceral transplantation. Rejection and infection are the main limitation of this procedure. Actual 5 years post transplantation graft survival of the total international experience is 46% for isolated intestinal graft, 43% for combined intestine-liver and nearly 30% for multivisceral transplantation. Higher graft and patient survival are seen at the more experienced centers. In a series of 165 intestinal transplantation at University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA, actuarial patient survival was reported to be over 75% at one year, 54% at 5 years and 42% at 10 years. Over 90% patients from Pittsburgh program resume an unrestricted oral diet. CONCLUSION: Small bowel transplantation has advanced from an experimental strategy to a feasible alternative for patients with permanent intestinal failure. Further refinements in graft acceptance, immunosuppressive regiments, infection management and prophylaxis, surgical techniques as well as appropriated patient referral and selection are crucial to improve outcomes.

  7. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James; Nimmo, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia in the adult may be characterized as a disorder with dilated intestinal lacteals causing loss of lymph into the lumen of the small intestine and resultant hypoproteinemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia and reduced number of circulating lymphocytes or lymphopenia. Most often, intestinal lymphangiectasia has been recorded in children, often in neonates, usually with other congenital abnormalities but initial definition in adults including the elderly has become increasingly more common. Shared clinical features with the pediatric population such as bilateral lower limb edema, sometimes with lymphedema, pleural effusion and chylous ascites may occur but these reflect the severe end of the clinical spectrum. In some, diarrhea occurs with steatorrhea along with increased fecal loss of protein, reflected in increased fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin levels, while others may present with iron deficiency anemia, sometimes associated with occult small intestinal bleeding. Most lymphangiectasia in adults detected in recent years, however, appears to have few or no clinical features of malabsorption. Diagnosis remains dependent on endoscopic changes confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing histological evidence of intestinal lymphangiectasia. In some, video capsule endoscopy and enteroscopy have revealed more extensive changes along the length of the small intestine. A critical diagnostic element in adults with lymphangiectasia is the exclusion of entities (e.g. malignancies including lymphoma) that might lead to obstruction of the lymphatic system and "secondary" changes in the small bowel biopsy. In addition, occult infectious (e.g. Whipple's disease from Tropheryma whipplei) or inflammatory disorders (e.g. Crohn's disease) may also present with profound changes in intestinal permeability and protein-losing enteropathy that also require exclusion. Conversely, rare B-cell type lymphomas have also been described even decades following initial

  8. Suppression of contractile activity in the small intestine by indomethacin and omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Bhattarai, Deepa; Phan, Tri M; Dial, Elizabeth J; Uray, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat a number of conditions, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often used to prevent NSAID-induced gastric mucosal damage; however, the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal motility are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of a prototypical NSAID, indomethacin, either alone or in conjunction with the PPI omeprazole, on intestinal motility. Rats were randomly divided into four groups treated with vehicle, omeprazole, indomethacin, or a combination of indomethacin and omeprazole. Intestinal motility and transit were measured along with inflammatory mediators in the intestinal smooth muscle, markers of mucosal damage, and bacterial counts in the intestinal wall. Indomethacin, but not omeprazole, caused mucosal injury indicated by lower gut bleeding; however, both omeprazole and indomethacin suppressed contractile activity and frequency in the distal part of the small intestine. Cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce indomethacin-induced intestinal bleeding. Furthermore, although indomethacin caused increased inflammation as indicated by increased edema development and inflammatory mediators, cotreatment with omeprazole did not reduce inflammation in the intestinal smooth muscle or prevent the increased bacterial count in the intestinal wall induced by indomethacin. We conclude that both NSAID and PPI treatment suppressed contractile activity in the distal regions of the small intestine. The suppression of intestinal contractility was associated with increased inflammation in both cases; however, indomethacin and omeprazole appear to affect intestinal motility by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Transforming growth factor-beta 3 alters intestinal smooth muscle function: implications for gastroschisis-related intestinal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Olufemi, S D; Olsen, A B; Hook-Dufresne, D M; Bandla, V; Cox, C S

    2015-05-01

    Gastroschisis (GS) is a congenital abdominal wall defect that results in the development of GS-related intestinal dysfunction (GRID). Transforming growth factor-β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to cause organ dysfunction through alterations in vascular and airway smooth muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TGF-β3 on intestinal smooth muscle function and contractile gene expression. Archived human intestinal tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for TGF-β isoforms and markers of smooth muscle gene and micro-RNA contractile phenotype. Intestinal motility was measured in neonatal rats ± TGF-β3 (0.2 and 1 mg/kg). Human intestinal smooth muscle cells (hiSMCs) were incubated with fetal bovine serum ± 100 ng/ml of TGF-β 3 isoforms for 6, 24 and 72 h. The effects of TGF-β3 on motility, hiSMC contractility and hiSMC contractile phenotype gene and micro-RNA expression were measured using transit, collagen gel contraction assay and RT-PCR analysis. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, ANOVA (n = 6-7/group). GS infants had increased immunostaining of TGF-β3 and elevated levels of micro-RNA 143 & 145 in the intestinal smooth muscle. Rats had significantly decreased intestinal transit when exposed to TGF-β3 in a dose-dependent manner compared with Sham animals. TGF-β3 significantly increased hiSMC gel contraction and contractile protein gene and micro-RNA expression. TGF-β3 contributed to intestinal dysfunction at the organ level, increased contraction at the cellular level and elevated contractile gene expression at the molecular level. A hyper-contractile response may play a role in the persistent intestinal dysfunction seen in GRID.

  10. [Acute intestinal tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Duc, C; Pha Hai, B; Pham Van, T; Ton That, B; Huguier, M

    2006-05-01

    To report cases from Vietnam of intestinal tuberculosis disease, which is uncommon but did not disappear in occidental countries. Seventy-six patients were included in this retrospective study. Mean age was 40 years and sex ratio M/F was 6. Diagnosis was established on pathological examination of resected specimen or on presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or by polymerase chain reaction. Intestinal obstruction or subobstruction was the most usual symptom (68%), and thereafter peritoneal symptoms with pain and tenderness (17%). Five patients had intractable digestive haemorrhage. Thirty-six patients had no past history or active pulmonary tuberculosis (47%). Lesions of stenosis on barium enema and thickness of intestinal wall on CT-scan were not specific. Sixty-two patients were operated on (82%) and 14 were not. Surgical techniques differed according symptoms, site and type of lesions. Intestinal resections were performed in half of the patients, others undergoing stomies or enterolysis. There were eight postoperative deaths (13% of patients operated on), seven out of these deaths were attributable to cachexy. In the postoperative period, all the patients were medically treated and follow-up in the antituberculosis centre of Hanoi. Symptomatology and operative findings of intestinal tuberculosis are similar to those observed in Crohn's disease, and sometimes in amoeboma or lymphoma. In face of stenosis and intestinal wall thickness, probability of intestinal tuberculosis is high in endemic area, but diagnosis must be suspected in occidental countries, mainly in patients immigrated coming from these areas, patients with immuno-deficiency even if they did not have past or present pulmonary tuberculosis.

  11. Melatonin reduces changes to small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Maren Oude; Patyk, Vivien; de Groot, Herbert; Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammation is known to impair the microcirculation in intestine and other organs as a result of multifactorial events. Here, we show that melatonin selectively reduces changes to the small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was infused at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg × h to induce systemic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Melatonin (single dose: 3 mg/kg × 15 min) was intravenously administered before as well as 120 and 240 min after the beginning of the LPS infusion. Systemic parameters were determined in regular intervals. Small intestine, liver, and kidney were histologically (structure of the microvessels, intravascular blood accumulation, and hemorrhages) and immunohistochemically (mast cells, granulocytes, and macrophages) analyzed. Continuous infusion of LPS resulted in dilated microvessels with intravascular blood accumulation (congestion) in liver and small intestine, the latter being particularly pronounced. Blood vessel walls remained intact, there were no hemorrhages. Melatonin significantly reduced these changes to the microvasculature in small intestine, but not in liver. It further reduced mast cell and granulocytes count in small intestine enhanced by LPS. However, except for the systemic blood pressure, melatonin neither improved LPS-dependent changes to systemic parameters nor mortality. Changes to the microvasculature during systemic inflammation are most pronounced in small intestine. Melatonin selectively diminishes these changes to small intestinal microvasculature, probably by reducing the local immune cells recruitment. However, changes to the small intestine are not decisive for the survival. We assume that the therapeutic benefit of melatonin is more likely in local intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Race Affects Outcome among Infants with Intestinal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Robert H; Balint, Jane; Horslen, Simon; Wales, Paul W.; Soden, Jason; Duggan, Christopher; Li, Ruosha; Belle, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intestinal failure is a rare, devastating condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine if ethnic and racial differences were associated with patient survival and likelihood of receiving an intestinal transplant in a contemporary cohort of children with intestinal failure. Methods This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study with data collected from chart review conducted by the Pediatric Intestinal Consortium (PIFCon). Entry criteria included infants 60 continuous days and followed for at least 2 years. Outcomes included death and intestinal transplant (ITx). Race and ethnicity were recorded as they were in the medical record. For purposes of statistical comparisons and regression modeling, categories of race were consolidated into “white” and “non-white” children. Results Of 272 subjects enrolled, 204 white and 46 non-white children were available for analysis. The 48 month cumulative incidence probability (CIP) of death without ITx was 0.40 for non-white and 0.16 for white children (p<0.001); the CIP of ITx was 0.07 for non-white vs 0.31 for white children (p=0.003). The associations between race and outcomes remained after accounting for low-birth weight, diagnosis, and being seen at a transplant center. Conclusion Race is associated with death and receiving an ITx in a large cohort of children with intestinal failure. This study highlights the need to investigate reasons for this apparent racial disparity in outcome among children with intestinal failure. PMID:24918984

  14. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aalharbi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... The quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the intestine of common carp ... Serratia liquefaciens, Shewanella putrefaciens,. Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Vibrio sp. survived after prolonged freezing. Two bacterial .... For all groups of fish, APC decreased c. 3-log ...

  15. Intestinal necrosis in young patient due to arterial tumour embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahle, Einar; Gögenur, Ismail; Nørgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    of intestinal necrosis. Histological examination showed several arterial tumour emboli, morphologically similar to the primary sarcoma. The patient died 1 year after successful surgery. Because of the improved survival of patients with osteosarcoma, acute mesenteric ischaemia should be considered in acute...

  16. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI

  17. Outcomes of surgical management of intestinal atresias | Ezomike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes of death were: Sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (1), sepsis from anastomotic leakage (1), septic shock (1), anesthesia.related (1), undetermined (1). Two of the mortalities (40%) had re.operation for anastomotic leak. Conclusions: Short.term survival of neonates with intestinal atresias in our unit is ...

  18. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    /or prodrugs to these carriers in order to increasing oral bioavailability and distribution. A number of absorptive intestinal transporters are described in terms of gene and protein classification, driving forces, substrate specificities and cellular localization. When targeting absorptive large capacity...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......, and renal re-absorption, respectively. In contrast, when targeting low-capacity transporters such as vitamin transporters, dose independent saturable absorption kinetics are suggested. We thus believe that targeting drug substrates for absorptive intestinal membrane transporters could be a feasible strategy...

  19. Bioengineering of functional human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Kentaro; Schwartz, Dana M; Zhou, Haiyang; Gilpin, Sarah E; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Ren, Xi; Sommer, Cesar A; Capilla, Amalia V; Mathisen, Douglas J; Goldstein, Allan M; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Ott, Harald C

    2017-10-10

    Patients with short bowel syndrome lack sufficient functional intestine to sustain themselves with enteral intake alone. Transplantable vascularized bioengineered intestine could restore nutrient absorption. Here we report the engineering of humanized intestinal grafts by repopulating decellularized rat intestinal matrix with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal epithelium and human endothelium. After 28 days of in vitro culture, hiPSC-derived progenitor cells differentiate into a monolayer of polarized intestinal epithelium. Human endothelial cells seeded via native vasculature restore perfusability. Ex vivo isolated perfusion testing confirms transfer of glucose and medium-chain fatty acids from lumen to venous effluent. Four weeks after transplantation to RNU rats, grafts show survival and maturation of regenerated epithelium. Systemic venous sampling and positron emission tomography confirm uptake of glucose and fatty acids in vivo. Bioengineering intestine on vascularized native scaffolds could bridge the gap between cell/tissue-scale regeneration and whole organ-scale technology needed to treat intestinal failure patients.There is a need for humanised grafts to treat patients with intestinal failure. Here, the authors generate intestinal grafts by recellularizing native intestinal matrix with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived epithelium and human endothelium, and show nutrient absorption after transplantation in rats.

  20. Impact of multidisciplinary teams for management of intestinal failure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Christina; Wales, Paul W

    2017-06-01

    To review the recent literature related to the impact of an intestinal rehabilitation program (IRP) on the management of intestinal failure in children. As publication of a systematic review of pediatric IRPs in 2013, there have been four publications further describing the impact of IRPs in children with intestinal failure. The results continue to support an improvement in survival and enteral autonomy, and a decrease in complications related to liver dysfunction, central venous catheters, and transplantation. Pediatric IRPs offer significant advantage to outcomes of children with intestinal failure. The literature is difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations. IRP collaboration is necessary to further advance the field.

  1. Functional and phylogenetic characterization of proteins detected in various nematode intestinal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A; Townsend, Reid; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic nematode intestine is responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption, and many other processes essential for reproduction and survival, making it a valuable target for anthelmintic drug treatment. However, nematodes display extreme biological diversity (including occupying distinct trophic habitats), resulting in limited knowledge of intestinal cell/protein functions of fundamental or adaptive significance. We developed a perfusion model for isolating intestinal proteins in Ascaris suum (a parasite of humans and swine), allowing for the identification of over 1000 intestinal A. suum proteins (using mass spectrometry), which were assigned to several different intestinal cell compartments (intestinal tissue, the integral and peripheral intestinal membranes, and the intestinal lumen). A multi-omics analysis approach identified a large diversity of biological functions across intestinal compartments, based on both functional enrichment analysis (identifying terms related to detoxification, proteolysis, and host-parasite interactions) and regulatory binding sequence analysis to identify putatively active compartment-specific transcription factors (identifying many related to intestinal sex differentiation or lifespan regulation). Orthologs of A. suum proteins in 15 other nematodes species, five host species, and two outgroups were identified and analyzed. Different cellular compartments demonstrated markedly different levels of protein conservation; e.g. integral intestinal membrane proteins were the most conserved among nematodes (up to 96% conservation), whereas intestinal lumen proteins were the most diverse (only 6% conservation across all nematodes, and 71% with no host orthologs). Finally, this integrated multi-omics analysis identified conserved nematode-specific intestinal proteins likely performing essential functions (including V-type ATPases and ABC transporters), which may serve as promising anthelmintic drug or vaccine targets in future

  2. Functional and Phylogenetic Characterization of Proteins Detected in Various Nematode Intestinal Compartments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A.; Townsend, Reid; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic nematode intestine is responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption, and many other processes essential for reproduction and survival, making it a valuable target for anthelmintic drug treatment. However, nematodes display extreme biological diversity (including occupying distinct trophic habitats), resulting in limited knowledge of intestinal cell/protein functions of fundamental or adaptive significance. We developed a perfusion model for isolating intestinal proteins in Ascaris suum (a parasite of humans and swine), allowing for the identification of over 1000 intestinal A. suum proteins (using mass spectrometry), which were assigned to several different intestinal cell compartments (intestinal tissue, the integral and peripheral intestinal membranes, and the intestinal lumen). A multi-omics analysis approach identified a large diversity of biological functions across intestinal compartments, based on both functional enrichment analysis (identifying terms related to detoxification, proteolysis, and host-parasite interactions) and regulatory binding sequence analysis to identify putatively active compartment-specific transcription factors (identifying many related to intestinal sex differentiation or lifespan regulation). Orthologs of A. suum proteins in 15 other nematodes species, five host species, and two outgroups were identified and analyzed. Different cellular compartments demonstrated markedly different levels of protein conservation; e.g. integral intestinal membrane proteins were the most conserved among nematodes (up to 96% conservation), whereas intestinal lumen proteins were the most diverse (only 6% conservation across all nematodes, and 71% with no host orthologs). Finally, this integrated multi-omics analysis identified conserved nematode-specific intestinal proteins likely performing essential functions (including V-type ATPases and ABC transporters), which may serve as promising anthelmintic drug or vaccine targets in future

  3. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal obstruction repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common causes of intestinal obstruction in adults are adhesions, hernias, and colon cancer. Adhesions are scars that form between loops of intestine, usually caused by prior surgery, which causes such scar formation. ...

  5. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  6. Congenital Diseases of the Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Halim (Danny)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAll research described in this dissertation is focused on understanding the pathophysiology of three rare congenital diseases of the intestine, including megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS), congenital short bowel syndrome (CSBS), and hereditary multiple

  7. Disorders of the Large Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases; Professor of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, IFFGD ... Intestine Large Intestine Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area Personal Stories Resources We provide a wide range of ...

  8. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases Professor of Psychology University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. Digestive ... Intestine Large Intestine Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area Personal Stories Resources We provide a wide range of ...

  9. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  10. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  11. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  12. CT recognition of intestinal lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormson, M.J.; Stephens, D.H.; Carlson, H.C.

    1985-02-01

    Lipomas are among the most common benign tumors of the small intestine. They are generally solitary lesions and asymptomatic. The extensive involvement of the small intestine with multiple lipomas is rare. The authors report a case of intestinal lipomatosis of the small bowel in which CT was specific enough to make the diagnosis without resorting to more invasive procedures.

  13. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support the growth of intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Ye Lei

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs are the focus of recent intense study. Current in vitro models rely on supplementation with the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 to support robust growth, ISC self-renewal, and differentiation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs are important supportive cells within the ISC niche. We hypothesized that co-culture with ISEMF enhances the growth of ISCs in vitro and allows for their successful in vivo implantation and engraftment. ISC-containing small intestinal crypts, FACS-sorted single ISCs, and ISEMFs were procured from C57BL/6 mice. Crypts and single ISCs were grown in vitro into enteroids, in the presence or absence of ISEMFs. ISEMFs enhanced the growth of intestinal epithelium in vitro in a proximity-dependent fashion, with co-cultures giving rise to larger enteroids than monocultures. Co-culture of ISCs with supportive ISEMFs relinquished the requirement of exogenous R-spondin1 to sustain long-term growth and differentiation of ISCs. Mono- and co-cultures were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. Co-culture with ISEMFs proved necessary for successful in vivo engraftment and proliferation of enteroids; implants without ISEMFs did not survive. ISEMF whole transcriptome sequencing and qPCR demonstrated high expression of specific R-spondins, well-described Wnt agonists that supports ISC growth. Specific non-supportive ISEMF populations had reduced expression of R-spondins. The addition of ISEMFs in intestinal epithelial culture therefore recapitulates a critical element of the intestinal stem cell niche and allows for its experimental interrogation and biodesign-driven manipulation.

  14. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  15. Debug your bugs-how NLRs shape intestinal host-microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eRosenstiel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The host’s ability to discriminate friend and foe and to establish a precise homeostasis with its associated microbiota is crucial for its survival and fitness. Among the mediators of intestinal host-microbe interactions, NOD-like receptor (NLR proteins take center stage. They are present in the epithelial lining and innate immune cells that constantly monitor microbial activities at the intestinal barrier. Dysfunctional NLRs predispose to intestinal inflammation as well as sensitization to extra-intestinal immune-mediated diseases and are linked to the alteration of microbial communities. Here, we review advances in our understanding of their reciprocal relationship in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis and implications for intestinal health.

  16. Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa as a function of intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.; Sandt, H. van de

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa was studied as a function of intestinal health. A microbiota was found to be important for the onset and progression of inflammatory diseases. Studies revealed a prominent effect of micro-organisms on the gene

  17. ER Stress Causes Rapid Loss of Intestinal Epithelial Stemness through Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells generate rapidly dividing transit-amplifying cells that have lost the capacity for self-renewal but cycle for a number of times until they exit the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. We know very little of the type of signals that trigger the earliest steps of stem cell differentiation and mediate a stem cell to transit-amplifying cell transition. We show that in normal intestinal epithelium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activity of the unfolded protein response (UPR are induced at the transition from stem cell to transit-amplifying cell. Induction of ER stress causes loss of stemness in a Perk-eIF2α-dependent manner. Inhibition of Perk-eIF2α signaling results in stem cell accumulation in organoid culture of primary intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that the UPR plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem cell differentiation.

  18. Measurement of small intestinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Many animal models have been devised for investigating the pathogenesis of intestinal lesions and for screening drugs for the treatment of intestinal ulcers in humans. Recently, particular attention has been focused on NSAID-induced intestinal lesions as a result of the development of the capsule endoscope and double-balloon endoscope. Ischemic enteritis, one of the most dramatic abdominal emergencies, is known to cause severe damage to the small intestine by a significant decrease of arterial blood flow in the small intestine. In this unit, two animal models for small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs or intestinal ischemia are described. Also included are methods for lesion induction and evaluation of the damage as well as the measurement of pathogenic functional and biochemical changes.

  19. [Intestinal transplant in patients with parenteral nutrition at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cos, A I; Gómez Candela, C; Vázquez, C; López Santamaría, M; Vicente, E

    2003-01-01

    Failure of the intestine, whether due to functional or anatomical reasons, constrains Parenteral Nutrition Therapy in children or adults who, as a result of intestinal resections, alterations in motility, diseases of the microvilli or other reasons, present insufficient intestine to cover their needs in terms of nutrients and fluids. Nonetheless, the maintenance of support with parenteral nutrition at home in subjects with irreversible intestinal failure is not without life-threatening complications: liver disease, recurrent sepsis and loss of central routes recommend the assessment of the indication of intestinal transplant in this group of patients. The incidence of morbidity and mortality after intestinal transplant is greater than in other transplants (kidney, liver), but the long-term survival is around 50-60%. In Spain, 7 transplants (6 children and 1 adult) have been performed so far: 3 of intestine alone, 3 of liver plus intestine and 1 mutivisceral transplant. In 4 cases, the indication for transplant was due to terminal liver disease, with the remainder being due to the loss of venous access, intractable diarrhoea and intra-abdominal desmoid tumour, respectively. Except for one girl who presented severe rejection of the graft, the rest achieved digestive autonomy. One boy has presented lymphocyte neoplasia (PTLD) after 2 years and another died after the transplant as a result of a routine liver biopsy (with functioning grafts). Of the 38 patients assessed for transplant, 18 were considered as candidates and of these, three youthful candidates for hepato-intestinal transplant (with short intestine syndrome) have died while on the waiting list and a fourth in the operating theatre prior to an attempted multivisceral transplant. Intestinal transplants must not be considered as the last desperate therapeutic option in patients with permanent intestinal failure. The type of graft, clinical expertise and the use of new inducers (Sirulimos) all contribute to the

  20. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speca, Silvia; Giusti, Ilaria; Rieder, Florian; Latella, Giovanni

    2012-07-28

    Fibrosis is a chronic and progressive process characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to stiffening and/or scarring of the involved tissue. Intestinal fibrosis may develop in several different enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. It develops through complex cell, extracellular matrix, cytokine and growth factor interactions. Distinct cell types are involved in intestinal fibrosis, such as resident mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and smooth muscle cells) but also ECM-producing cells derived from epithelial and endothelial cells (through a process termed epithelial- and endothelial-mesenchymal transition), stellate cells, pericytes, local or bone marrow-derived stem cells. The most important soluble factors that regulate the activation of these cells include cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, components of the renin-angiotensin system, angiogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin, and products of oxidative stress. It soon becomes clear that although inflammation is responsible for triggering the onset of the fibrotic process, it only plays a minor role in the progression of this condition, as fibrosis may advance in a self-perpetuating fashion. Definition of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal fibrosis may provide the key to developing new therapeutic approaches.

  1. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  2. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Bioavailability Regulates Angiogenesis and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cell Proliferation during Postnatal Small Intestinal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieve, Christopher R; Mojica, Salvador Garcia; Holoyda, Kathleen A; Hou, Xiaogang; Fowler, Kathryn L; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly conserved, master regulatory molecule required for endothelial cell proliferation, organization, migration and branching morphogenesis. Podocoryne carnea and drosophila, which lack endothelial cells and a vascular system, express VEGF homologs, indicating potential roles beyond angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. The role of VEGF in the development and homeostasis of the postnatal small intestine is unknown. We hypothesized regulating VEGF bioavailability in the postnatal small intestine would exhibit effects beyond the vasculature and influence epithelial cell stem/progenitor populations. VEGF mutant mice were created that overexpressed VEGF in the brush border of epithelium via the villin promotor following doxycycline treatment. To decrease VEGF bioavailability, sFlt-1 mutant mice were generated that overexpressed the soluble VEGF receptor sFlt-1 upon doxycycline administration in the intestinal epithelium. Mice were analyzed after 21 days of doxycycline administration. Increased VEGF expression was confirmed by RT-qPCR and ELISA in the intestine of the VEGF mutants compared to littermates. The VEGF mutant duodenum demonstrated increased angiogenesis and vascular leak as compared to littermate controls. The VEGF mutant duodenum revealed taller villi and increased Ki-67-positive cells in the transit-amplifying zone with reduced Lgr5 expression. The duodenum of sFlt-1 mutants revealed shorter villi and longer crypts with reduced proliferation in the transit-amplifying zone, reduced expression of Dll1, Bmp4 and VE-cadherin, and increased expression of Sox9 and EphB2. Manipulating VEGF bioavailability leads to profound effects on not only the intestinal vasculature, but epithelial stem and progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Elucidation of the crosstalk between VEGF signaling in the vasculature, mesenchyme and epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations may direct future cell therapies for intestinal

  3. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  4. Farnesoid X Receptor Activation Attenuates Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens J Ceulemans

    Full Text Available The farnesoid X receptor (FXR is abundantly expressed in the ileum, where it exerts an enteroprotective role as a key regulator of intestinal innate immunity and homeostasis, as shown in pre-clinical models of inflammatory bowel disease. Since intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI is characterized by hyperpermeability, bacterial translocation and inflammation, we aimed to investigate, for the first time, if the FXR-agonist obeticholic acid (OCA could attenuate intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury.In a validated rat model of intestinal IRI (laparotomy + temporary mesenteric artery clamping, 3 conditions were tested (n = 16/group: laparotomy only (sham group; ischemia 60min+ reperfusion 60min + vehicle pretreatment (IR group; ischemia 60min + reperfusion 60min + OCA pretreatment (IR+OCA group. Vehicle or OCA (INT-747, 2*30mg/kg was administered by gavage 24h and 4h prior to IRI. The following end-points were analyzed: 7-day survival; biomarkers of enterocyte viability (L-lactate, I-FABP; histology (morphologic injury to villi/crypts and villus length; intestinal permeability (Ussing chamber; endotoxin translocation (Lipopolysaccharide assay; cytokines (IL-6, IL-1-β, TNFα, IFN-γ IL-10, IL-13; apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3; and autophagy (LC3, p62.It was found that intestinal IRI was associated with high mortality (90%; loss of intestinal integrity (structurally and functionally; increased endotoxin translocation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production; and inhibition of autophagy. Conversely, OCA-pretreatment improved 7-day survival up to 50% which was associated with prevention of epithelial injury, preserved intestinal architecture and permeability. Additionally, FXR-agonism led to decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and alleviated autophagy inhibition.Pretreatment with OCA, an FXR-agonist, improves survival in a rodent model of intestinal IRI, preserves the gut barrier function and suppresses inflammation. These results turn

  5. THE USE OF FK-506 FOR SMALL INTESTINE ALLOTRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. L.; Makowka, L.; Banner, B.; Cai, X.; Cramer, D. V.; Pascualone, A.; Todo, S.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Small intestine allotransplantation in humans is not yet feasible due to the failure of the current methods of immunosuppression. FK-506, a powerful new immunosuppressive agent that is synergistic with cyclosporine, allows long-term survival of recipients of cardiac, renal, and hepatic allografts. This study compares the effects of FK-506 and cyclosporine on host survival, graft rejection, and graft-versus-host-disease in a rat small intestine transplantation model. Transplants between strongly histoincompatible ACI and Lewis (LEW) strain rats, and their F1 progeny are performed so that graft rejection alone is genetically permitted (F1→LEW) or GVHD alone permitted (LEW→F1) or that both immunologic processes are allowed to occur simultaneously (ACI→LEW). Specific doses of FK-506 result in prolonged graft and host survival in all genetic combinations tested. Furthermore, graft rejection is prevented (ACI→LEW model) or inhibited (rejection only model) and lethal acute GVHD is eliminated. Even at very high doses, cyclosporine did not prevent graft rejection or lethal GVHD, nor did it allow long-term survival of the intestinal graft or the host. Animals receiving low doses of cyclosporine have outcomes similar to the untreated control groups. No toxicity specific to FK-506 is noted, but earlier studies by other investigators suggest otherwise. PMID:1690469

  6. Biodegradable intestinal stents: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhui Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable stents are an attractive alternative to self-expanding metal stents in the treatment of intestinal strictures. Biodegradable stent can be made of biodegradable polymers and biodegradable metals (magnesium alloys. An overview on current biodegradable intestinal stents is presented. The future trends and perspectives in the development of biodegradable intestinal stents are proposed. For the biodegradable polymer intestinal stents, the clinical trials have shown promising results, although improved design of stents and reduced migration rate are expected. For the biodegradable magnesium intestinal stents, results of preliminary studies indicate magnesium alloys to have good biocompatibility. With many of the key fundamental and practical issues resolved and better methods for adjusting corrosion resistance and progressing biocompatibilities of magnesium alloys, it is possible to use biodegradable intestinal stents made of magnesium alloys in hospital in the not too distant future.

  7. RHOA GTPase Controls YAP-Mediated EREG Signaling in Small Intestinal Stem Cell Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: RHOA, a founding member of the Rho GTPase family, is critical for actomyosin dynamics, polarity, and morphogenesis in response to developmental cues, mechanical stress, and inflammation. In murine small intestinal epithelium, inducible RHOA deletion causes a loss of epithelial polarity, with disrupted villi and crypt organization. In the intestinal crypts, RHOA deficiency results in reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a loss of intestinal stem cells (ISCs that mimic effects of radiation damage. Mechanistically, RHOA loss reduces YAP signaling of the Hippo pathway and affects YAP effector epiregulin (EREG expression in the crypts. Expression of an active YAP (S112A mutant rescues ISC marker expression, ISC regeneration, and ISC-associated Wnt signaling, but not defective epithelial polarity, in RhoA knockout mice, implicating YAP in RHOA-regulated ISC function. EREG treatment or active β-catenin Catnblox(ex3 mutant expression rescues the RhoA KO ISC phenotypes. Thus, RHOA controls YAP-EREG signaling to regulate intestinal homeostasis and ISC regeneration. : In this article, Zheng and colleagues show that inducible RHOA deletion in mice causes defects in intestine epithelial polarity and deficiencies in intestinal stem cell proliferation, survival, and regeneration. They further demonstrate by genetic rescues that RHOA controls a YAP-EREG axis to mediate canonical Wnt signaling, intestinal stem cell function, and intestinal homeostasis. Keywords: mouse model, intestinal stem cell, regeneration, Rho GTPase, RhoA, Hippo signaling, YAP, Wnt signaling

  8. Utilization of donors who have suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation in intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Cal S; Kaufman, Stuart S; Girlanda, Raffaele; Little, Cheryl M; Rekhtman, Yuliya; Raofi, Vandad; Laurin, Jaqueline M; Shetty, Kirti; Fennelly, Erin M; Johnson, Lynt B; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2008-10-15

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of a person destined to become an organ donor has been associated with overall poor donor quality, especially for the intestinal donor, as splanchnic vasoconstriction that is intended to preserve coronary and cerebral blood flow may result in clinically relevant intestinal ischemia. Outcomes of recipients who receive intestine grafts that have suffered CPR are unknown. We sought to analyze our clinical experience in using intestinal grafts from donors who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation and to evaluate the outcome of recipients of organs coming from resuscitated donors when compared with recipients of nonresuscitated donors. We retrospectively analyzed the donor and recipient charts of all of our intestinal transplants with regard to the performance of donor CPR. Sixty-seven intestinal transplants were performed in 65 patients from November 2003 to December 2007. Twelve donors (18%) were identified as having suffered cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. Mean duration of CPR was 19.3+/-12.7 min. Terminal laboratory profiles of CPR donors and non-CPR donors were similar. Of the 12 resuscitated grafts, two were used for multivisceral, one for a modified multivisceral, seven for liver-intestine, and two for isolated intestinal transplant. There were no significant differences in outcome parameters such as operative time, blood use, ventilation days, length of stay, time to enteral independence, rejection, enteric bacteremia, and survival between the 12 resuscitated grafts and the 55 nonresuscitated grafts. A donor history of cardiac arrest should not automatically exclude the use of the intestine graft for transplantation.

  9. Changes in Foxp3-Positive Regulatory T Cell Number in the Intestine of Dogs With Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Intestinal Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S; Ohno, K; Fujiwara-Igarashi, A; Uchida, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2016-01-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an integral role in immunologic tolerance and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, their involvement in canine gastrointestinal diseases, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma, remains unclear. Here we show altered numbers of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive Tregs in the intestine of dogs with IBD and intestinal lymphoma. IBD was diagnosed in 48 dogs; small cell intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in 46 dogs; large cell intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in 30 dogs; and 25 healthy beagles were used as normal controls. Foxp3-positive Tregs in the duodenal mucosa were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Duodenal expression of interleukin-10 mRNA was quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The number of Foxp3-positive lamina propria cells and the expression of interleukin-10 mRNA were significantly lower in dogs with IBD than in healthy dogs and dogs with intestinal lymphoma. The number of Foxp3-positive intraepithelial cells was higher in dogs with small cell intestinal lymphoma. Some large cell intestinal lymphoma cases had high numbers of Foxp3-positive cells, but the increase was not statistically significant. Double-labeling immunofluorescence showed that CD3-positive granzyme B-negative helper T cells expressed Foxp3. In small cell intestinal lymphoma cases, the overall survival of dogs with a high Treg density was significantly worse than that of dogs with a normal Treg density. These results suggest that a change in the number of Foxp3-positive Tregs contributes to the pathogenesis of canine IBD and intestinal lymphoma by disrupting mucosal tolerance and suppressing antitumor immunity, respectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Robert C; Mueller, Racquel; Roach, Eileen

    2010-09-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Cftr(tm1UNC) (CF) and wildtype (WT) littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 μg/kg-day) was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P Lubiprostone did not affect WT crypt width but, unexpectedly, increased CF crypt width 22% (P = 0.001). Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008). Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005). Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P Lubiprostone enhanced small intestinal transit in WT mice (P = 0.024) but not in CF mice (P = 0.377). Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype, especially on bacterial overgrowth and the innate immune response. The unexpected

  11. Cytokines and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu. Novel cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-33 and IL-36, have dominant roles in mucosal immunity, whereas more established ones such as IL-18 are constantly enriched with unique properties. Th17 cells are important mucosal constituents, although their profound plasticity, makes the specific set of cytokines they secrete more important than their mere numbers. Finally, various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, and death receptor, 3 demonstrate dichotomous roles with mucosa-protective function in acute injury but proinflammatory effects during chronic inflammation. The role of cytokines in mucosal health and disease is increasingly revealed. Such information not only will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of gut inflammation, but also set the background for development of reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and cytokine-specific therapies.

  12. Epithelial calcineurin controls microbiota-dependent intestinal tumor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuker, Kenneth; Muff, Stefanie; Wang, Jun; Künzel, Sven; Bosse, Esther; Zeissig, Yvonne; Luzzi, Giuseppina; Basic, Marijana; Strigli, Anne; Ulbricht, Andrea; Kaser, Arthur; Arlt, Alexander; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; van den Brink, Gijs R; Schafmayer, Clemens; Egberts, Jan-Hendrik; Becker, Thomas; Bianchi, Marco E; Bleich, André; Röcken, Christoph; Hampe, Jochen; Schreiber, Stefan; Baines, John F; Blumberg, Richard S; Zeissig, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation-associated pathways are active in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and contribute to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Calcineurin, a phosphatase required for the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, shows increased expression in CRC. We therefore investigated the role of calcineurin in intestinal tumor development. We demonstrate that calcineurin and NFAT factors are constitutively expressed by primary IECs and selectively activated in intestinal tumors as a result of impaired stratification of the tumor-associated microbiota and toll-like receptor signaling. Epithelial calcineurin supports the survival and proliferation of cancer stem cells in an NFAT-dependent manner and promotes the development of intestinal tumors in mice. Moreover, somatic mutations that have been identified in human CRC are associated with constitutive activation of calcineurin, whereas nuclear translocation of NFAT is associated with increased death from CRC. These findings highlight an epithelial cell–intrinsic pathway that integrates signals derived from the commensal microbiota to promote intestinal tumor development. PMID:27043494

  13. The role of intestinal microbiota and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchiaroni, F; Tortora, A; Gabrielli, M; Bertucci, F; Gigante, G; Ianiro, G; Ojetti, V; Scarpellini, E; Gasbarrini, A

    2013-02-01

    The human gut is an ecosystem consisting of a great number of commensal bacteria living in symbiosis with the host. Several data confirm that gut microbiota is engaged in a dynamic interaction with the intestinal innate and adaptive immune system, affecting different aspects of its development and function. To review the immunological functions of gut microbiota and improve knowledge of its therapeutic implications for several intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases associated to dysregulation of the immune system. Significant articles were identified by literature search and selected based on content, including atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and treatment of these conditions with probiotics. Accumulating evidence indicates that intestinal microflora has protective, metabolic, trophic and immunological functions and is able to establish a "cross-talk" with the immune component of mucosal immunity, comprising cellular and soluble elements. When one or more steps in this fine interaction fail, autoimmune or auto-inflammatory diseases may occur. Furthermore, it results from the data that probiotics, used for the treatment of the diseases caused by the dysregulation of the immune system, can have a beneficial effect by different mechanisms. Gut microbiota interacts with both innate and adaptive immune system, playing a pivotal role in maintenance and disruption of gut immune quiescence. A cross talk between the mucosal immune system and endogenous microflora favours a mutual growth, survival and inflammatory control of the intestinal ecosystem. Based on these evidences, probiotics can be used as an ecological therapy in the treatment of immune diseases.  

  14. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Martino, Antonio [Trauma Center, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Pietto, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Section of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation.

  15. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bile How is intestinal failure treated? The diet needs to be adjusted according to the intestine’s ability to absorb nutrients. TPN is usually required at the beginning to maintain nutrition and good hydration although it is hoped that the small intestine ...

  16. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal epit...

  17. Statistical analysis of survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J; Breslow, N

    1984-01-01

    A general review of the statistical techniques that the authors feel are most important in the analysis of survival data is presented. The emphasis is on the study of the duration of time between any two events as applied to people and on the nonparametric and semiparametric models most often used in these settings. The unifying concept is the hazard function, variously known as the risk, the force of mortality, or the force of transition.

  18. Artificial sphincters as surgical treatment for experimental massive resection of small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacchini, A; DiDio, L J; Primo, M L; Borelli, V; Andretto, R

    1982-06-01

    A modification of the technique of Schiller, DiDio, and Anderson was adopted by extending removal of the longitudinal layer of the muscular coat to the entire perimeter of a segment of the small intestine in dogs, resulting in the construction of artificial sphincters, to assist animals undergoing enterectomy. The creation of one or two artificial sphincters prolonged the survival of dogs undergoing massive resection of the small intestine (87.5 percent of the total length).

  19. Cell lineage dynamics in the process leading to intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Hiroko; Sashikawa, Miho; Sugano, Kentaro

    2011-05-01

    Gene expression in the early stage of the transition to intestinal metaplasia in human gastric mucosa has not been determined. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between cell lineage changes and intestine-specific gene expression in the process leading to intestinal metaplasia, using Cdx2-transgenic mice. Cellular phenotypes were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and were compared with the gene expression profiles of cell lineage markers by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Up to postnatal day (PD) 20, the gastric mucosae of Cdx2-transgenic mice were histologically similar to those of their normal littermates. However, at approximately PD 20, we observed the sporadic appearance of glands in which all the epithelial cells expressed Cdx2 (Cdx2-diffuse positive glands). In the Cdx2-diffuse positive glands, parietal cells had disappeared, the proliferating zone had moved from the isthmus to the base, and absorptive cells and goblet cells were recognized. In contrast, the surrounding mucosa retained the phenotype of the gastric gland in which only some of the epithelial cells expressed Cdx2. During PDs 30 and 40, the entire fundic mucosa changed to transdifferentiated mucosa that was a composite of intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia. An increase in the expression of intestine-specific genes, with a reciprocal decrease in gastric-specific gene expression, began much earlier than the emergence of Cdx2-diffuse positive glands. A dramatic increase in intestine-specific gene expression precedes the morphological appearance of intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia.

  20. The extent of intestinal failure-associated liver disease in patients referred for intestinal rehabilitation is associated with increased mortality: an analysis of the pediatric intestinal failure consortium database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Patrick J; Oron, Assaf P; Duggan, Christopher; Squires, Robert H; Horslen, Simon P

    2017-09-05

    The advent of regional multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation programs has been associated with improved survival in pediatric intestinal failure. Yet, the optimal timing of referral for intestinal rehabilitation remains unknown. We hypothesized that the degree of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) at initiation of intestinal rehabilitation would be associated with overall outcome. The multicenter, retrospective Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium (PIFCon) database was used to identify all subjects with baseline bilirubin data. Conjugated bilirubin (CBili) was used as a marker for IFALD, and we stratified baseline bilirubin values as CBili4 mg/dL. The association between baseline CBili and mortality was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 272 subjects in the database, 191 (70%) children had baseline bilirubin data collected. 38% and 28% of patients had CBili >4 mg/dL and CBili 4 mg/dL, prematurity, race, and small bowel atresia. On regression analysis controlling for age, prematurity, and diagnosis, the risk of mortality was increased by 3-fold for baseline CBili 2-4 mg/dL (HR 3.25 [1.07-9.92], p=0.04) and 4-fold for baseline CBili >4 mg/dL (HR 4.24 [1.51-11.92], p=0.006). On secondary analysis, CBili >4 mg/dL at baseline was associated with a lower chance of attaining enteral autonomy. In children with intestinal failure treated at intestinal rehabilitation programs, more advanced IFALD at referral is associated with increased mortality and decreased prospect of attaining enteral autonomy. Early referral of children with intestinal failure to intestinal rehabilitation programs should be strongly encouraged. Treatment Study, Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Absorption sites of orally administered drugs in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Teruo

    2017-12-01

    In pharmacotherapy, drugs are mostly taken orally to be absorbed systemically from the small intestine, and some drugs are known to have preferential absorption sites in the small intestine. It would therefore be valuable to know the absorption sites of orally administered drugs and the influencing factors. Areas covered:In this review, the author summarizes the reported absorption sites of orally administered drugs, as well as, influencing factors and experimental techniques. Information on the main absorption sites and influencing factors can help to develop ideal drug delivery systems and more effective pharmacotherapies. Expert opinion: Various factors including: the solubility, lipophilicity, luminal concentration, pKa value, transporter substrate specificity, transporter expression, luminal fluid pH, gastrointestinal transit time, and intestinal metabolism determine the site-dependent intestinal absorption. However, most of the dissolved fraction of orally administered drugs including substrates for ABC and SLC transporters, except for some weakly basic drugs with higher pKa values, are considered to be absorbed sequentially from the proximal small intestine. Securing the solubility and stability of drugs prior to reaching to the main absorption sites and appropriate delivery rates of drugs at absorption sites are important goals for achieving effective pharmacotherapy.

  2. Hypotonicity induced K+ and anion conductive pathways activation in eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, M G; Giordano, M E; De Nuccio, F

    2005-01-01

    Control of cell volume is a fundamental and highly conserved physiological mechanism, essential for survival under varying environmental and metabolic conditions. Epithelia (such as intestine, renal tubule, gallbladder and gills) are tissues physiologically exposed to osmotic stress. Therefore......, the activation of 'emergency' systems of rapid cell volume regulation is fundamental in their physiology. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological response to hypotonic stress in a salt-transporting epithelium, the intestine of the euryhaline teleost Anguilla anguilla. Eel intestinal epithelium...

  3. Proteobacteria-specific IgA regulates maturation of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpuri, Julie; Raetz, Megan; Sturge, Carolyn R; Wilhelm, Cara L; Benson, Alicia; Savani, Rashmin C; Hooper, Lora V; Yarovinsky, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota changes dynamically from birth to adulthood. In this study we identified γ-Proteobacteria as a dominant phylum present in newborn mice that is suppressed in normal adult microbiota. The transition from a neonatal to a mature microbiota was in part regulated by induction of a γ-Proteobacteria-specific IgA response. Neocolonization experiments in germ-free mice further revealed a dominant Proteobacteria-specific IgA response triggered by the immature microbiota. Finally, a role for B cells in the regulation of microbiota maturation was confirmed in IgA-deficient mice. Mice lacking IgA had persistent intestinal colonization with γ-Proteobacteria that resulted in sustained intestinal inflammation and increased susceptibility to neonatal and adult models of intestinal injury. Collectively, these results identify an IgA-dependent mechanism responsible for the maturation of the intestinal microbiota.

  4. Defining the nonreturn time for intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringa, P; Lausada, N; Romanin, D; Machuca, M; Cabanne, A; Rumbo, M; Gondolesi, G

    2012-06-01

    Among the abdominal organs, the intestine is probably the most sensitive to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), a phenomenon that occurs in many intestinal disorders. Few studies have reported in detail the impact of intestinal ischemia time in mice. We evaluated the effect of various warm intestinal ischemia times in an intestinal IRI model in mice. Adult male Balb/c mice were divided into 4 groups that differed in intestinal ischemia time: G1, 30; minutes; G2, 35 minutes; G3, 40 minutes; and G4, 45 minutes. Histological evaluation showed average Park scores as follows: G1 0.6 ± 0.55; G2 1.8 ± 0.45; G3 4.8 ± 2.25; and G4 5 ± 1.79. All animals from G1 survived 30 hours. G2 animals showed intermediate behavior with all succumbing between 18 and 30 hours postprocedure. G3 and G4 displayed similar survival results with animals succumbing before 6 hours after intestinal reperfusion. These data showed that Park index scores of 3 or higher were related to early death. We concluded that the 5 minutes between 35 and 40 minutes is the critical limit, after which all mice die after reperfusion. This result may represent a valuable tool for future research in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulation of Intestinal Microbiome Prevents Intestinal Ischemic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacco, Alessandra; Dehner, Carina A.; Caturegli, Giorgio; D'Amico, Francesco; Morotti, Raffaella; Rodriguez, Manuel I.; Mulligan, David C.; Kriegel, Martin A.; Geibel, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Butyrate protects against ischemic injury to the small intestine by reducing inflammation and maintaining the structure of the intestinal barrier, but is expensive, short-lived, and cannot be administered easily due to its odor. Lactate, both economical and more palatable, can be converted into butyrate by the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed to assess in a rat model whether lactate perfusion can also protect against intestinal ischemia. Materials and Methods: Rat intestinal segments were loaded in an in vitro bowel perfusion device, and water absorption or secretion was assessed based on fluorescence of FITC-inulin, a fluorescent marker bound to a biologically inert sugar. Change in FITC concentration was used as a measure of ischemic injury, given the tendency of ischemic cells to retain water. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections at light level microscopy were examined to evaluate intestinal epithelium morphology. Comparisons between the data sets were paired Student t-tests or ANOVA with p < 0.05 performed on GraphPad. Results: Lactate administration resulted in a protective effect against intestinal ischemia of similar magnitude to that observed with butyrate. Both exhibited approximately 1.5 times the secretion exhibited by control sections (p = 0.03). Perfusion with lactate and methoxyacetate, a specific inhibitor of lactate-butyrate conversion, abolished this effect (p = 0.09). Antibiotic treatment also eliminated this effect, rendering lactate-perfused sections similar to control sections (p = 0.72). Perfusion with butyrate and methoxyacetate did not eliminate the observed increased secretion, which indicates that ischemic protection was mediated by microbial conversion of lactate to butyrate (p = 0.71). Conclusions: Lactate's protective effect against intestinal ischemia due to microbial conversion to butyrate suggests possible applications in the transplant setting for reducing ischemic injury and ameliorating intestinal preservation

  6. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Nobukatsu [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro, E-mail: kii.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Hayashi, Ryohei [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima University (Japan); Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  7. Intestinal malrotation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, R D; Rombeau, J L

    1993-05-01

    Malrotation of the intestine is an uncommon anomaly most often seen in infants, but occasionally in adults. Rarely, symptoms from malrotation may occur during pregnancy. A 30-year-old woman, with a long history of abdominal pain and constipation, developed more frequent and severe symptoms in the second trimester of pregnancy. She was monitored closely and treated conservatively and went on to deliver a full-term, healthy infant. In the postpartum period, barium radiographs demonstrated a midgut malrotation. During exploratory laparotomy, obstructive peritoneal bands were noted and were transected. The mobile cecum and ascending colon were fixated to the abdominal wall. Symptoms from a malrotation may develop during pregnancy and may be nonspecific and vague. Although complications from malrotation can be life-threatening, a conservative approach with surgical intervention in the postpartum period may be appropriate in the proper clinical setting.

  8. Motility depressed intestinal propulsion following selective jejunal myotomy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, G; Nano, M; Villata, E

    1976-01-01

    The effect of segmentary sectioning of the proximal jejunal tunica muscularis on intestinal propulsion was studied in the rat. Care was taken to avoid damage to the mucosa. In no instance was perforation or occlusion of the intestine observed. Myotomy was followed by a significant slackening of the passage of a test meal during the first 15 min after feeding, while the total transit time was virtually unchanged. Sectioning the musculature of the intestinal wall is shown to be responsible for retardation of bowel passage.

  9. Intestinal flora, probiotics, and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Hernández, Ignacio; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo; Vargas Vorackova, Florencia; Uribe, Misael

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal microflora constitutes a symbiotic ecosystem in permanent equilibrium, composed mainly of anaerobic bacteria. However, such equilibrium may be altered by daily conditions as drug use or pathologies interfering with intestinal physiology, generating an unfavorable environment for the organism. Besides, there are factors which may cause alterations in the intestinal wall, creating the conditions for translocation or permeation of substances or bacteria. In cirrhotic patients, there are many conditions that combine to alter the amount and populations of intestinal bacteria, as well as the functional capacity of the intestinal wall to prevent the permeation of substances and bacteria. Nowadays, numerous complications associated with cirrhosis have been identified, where such mechanisms could play an important role. There is evidence that some probiotic microorganisms could restore the microbiologic and immunologic equilibrium in the intestinal wall in cirrhotic patients and help in the treatment of complications due to cirrhosis. This article has the objective to review the interactions between intestinal flora, gut permeability, and the actual role of probiotics in the field of cirrhotic patients.

  10. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal

  11. Simplified scintigraphic methods for measuring gastrointestinal transit times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether simple transit measurements based on scintigraphy performed only 0, 2, 4 and 24 h after intake of a radiolabelled meal can be used to predict the mean transit time values for the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon, a study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers. Af...

  12. Simplified scintigraphic methods for measuring gastrointestinal transit times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether simple transit measurements based on scintigraphy performed only 0, 2, 4 and 24 h after intake of a radiolabelled meal can be used to predict the mean transit time values for the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon, a study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers...

  13. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...

  14. The small intestine and colon: Scintigraphic quantitation of motility in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamm, M.A. (Saint Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Medical Physiology Unit)

    1992-10-01

    Radioisotopes allow accurate quantitation of the pattern and effectiveness of the transit of chyme through the small and large intestines. Abnormalities of small bowel transit can be demonstrated in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome, and patients with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to either a visceral myopathy or neuropathy. In the colon, radioisotopic studies of transit have demonstrated the site of delayed transit in some severely constipated patients. In patients with these disorders of transit, functional studies may influence the choice of medical or surgical therapy although there are few prospective studies which have established their worth in this context. Radioisotope studies can also be utilised to study the effectiveness of delivery of drugs to the small and large bowel, and to study the adequacy of rectal evacuation in patients with a defaecatory disturbance. The low radiation dose and possibility of frequent observations make radioisotope studies valuable for clinical and research studies in functional gastrointestinal disorders. (orig.).

  15. Soy fiber delays disease onset and prolongs survival in experimental Clostridium difficile ileocecitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, W L; Choi, D M; Zhang, W; Roth, J A; Don, S H; Afonso, J J; Lee, F H; Klurfeld, D M; Rombeau, J L

    1994-01-01

    Clostridium difficile colitis is a disabling complication in critically ill patients who commonly receive broad-spectrum antibiotics and liquid diets. To date, there is no experimental model specifically designed to investigate the effects of liquid diets on this type of colitis. The addition of fiber to liquid diets normalizes gut structure and improves absorptive function in selected conditions of intestinal dysfunction. The purposes of this study were the following: (1) to develop a reproducible model to examine the interaction of acute C difficile-induced colitis and liquid diets, (2) to determine whether the addition of soy fiber to a liquid diet improves disease, and (3) to investigate possible mechanisms of fiber-mediated disease improvement. Syrian hamsters were pair-fed with either a polymeric liquid diet or the same diet with 1.4% soy fiber for 10 days. Animals were given either clindamycin and C difficile (to produce ileocecitis), or equivalent volumes of saline. Mean survival time and systematic stool examinations for C difficile toxin positivity, liquidity, and percent water were performed to determine the effect of soy fiber on disease. Survival time was prolonged by 34% (p < .05), and C difficile toxin positivity and stool liquidity were significantly reduced (p < .05) with fiber. Additional animals were studied to determine possible mechanisms for improved survival in fiber-supplemented animals. Cecal histology, colonic water absorption, cecal microflora, and gastric to anus transit time were measured in these animals. Colonic water absorption and gastric to anus transit time were significantly increased (p < .05) and decreased (p < .05) with fiber, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis Papel del sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal y de la motilidad intestinal en la traslocación bacteriana en un modelo experimental de cirrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sánchez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. Objectives: the aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. Material and methods: we included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. Results: the prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p Introducción: el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal (SBI está relacionado con la motilidad del intestino delgado y diferentes trabajos con modelos experimentales han sugerido su relación con el desarrollo de traslocación bacteriana (TB. Tanto el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal como la traslocación bacteriana son eventos frecuentes en la cirrosis hepática. Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio han sido analizar la población cecal de bacterias aerobias y el tránsito intestinal en un modelo de ratas cirróticas y su relación con la TB. Material y métodos: el estudio se ha realizado en un modelo experimental de cirrosis inducida por tetracloruro de carbono por vía oral en ratas Sprague-Dawley. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos microbiológicos convencionales a partir de ganglios linfáticos mesentéricos (GLM, sangre portal y periférica, h

  17. on gastro intestinal smooth muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    , Kaduna State. Correspondence author: am.huguma@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Combretum micranthum were studied on gastro intestinal smooth muscle of rodents. The extract was screened using ...

  18. Telescoping Intestine in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protrusion of a bowel segment into another (intussusception produces severe abdominal pain and culminates in intestinal obstruction. In adults, intestinal obstruction due to intussusception is relatively rare phenomenon, as it accounts for minority of intestinal obstructions in this population demographic. Organic lesion is usually identifiable as the cause of adult intussusceptions, neoplasms account for the majority. Therefore, surgical resection without reduction is almost always necessary and is advocated as the best treatment of adult intussusception. Here, we describe a rare case of a 44-year-old male with a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the terminal ileum, which had caused ileocolic intussusception and subsequently developed intestinal obstruction requiring surgical intervention. This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing intussusception as the initial presentation for bowel malignancy.

  19. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  20. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellanger Jérôme; Vignes Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with ana...

  1. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  3. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  4. Intestinal Oxygenotherapy of Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mazurok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The latent or mist diagnosed dysfunction of the small intestine is a common disorder in critically ill patients. Intestinal oxygenotherapy is one of the alternative ways to normalize the coordinated activity of the smooth muscles of the digestive tract.Purpose of the study. To determine the effect of intestinal oxygenotherapy in patients with enteropathies of critical conditions on the dynamics of biomarkers of the intestinal wall permeability and ischemia.Materials and methods. An open prospective descriptive study of 12 critically ill patients (7 adults, 5 children with multiple organ failure and evident or saspected dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. Pediatric patients included children with congenital heart disease who underwent open-heart surgery for the purpose of radical or palliative correction.Results. Complications related to the intestinal oxygenotherapy were not observed. On the contrary, its use in children coincided with the positive clinical dynamics: elimination of intestinal paresis, normalization of digestion of enteral nutrition. However, it is difficult to interpret the results unambiguously. Serum citrulline concentration in children is an objective marker of the functional state of the gastrointestinal tract: in the vast majority of the control points its level was <20 μmol/l; it means a very severe intestinal damage. Serum I-FABP concentration was<100 pg/ml in a significant number of control points, which, by contrast, does not allow to talk about the intestinal wall severe ischemic disturbances. In adults, the initial serum citrulline concentration was <20 μmol/l in the vast majority of control points; but by days 5—6 after the onset of intestinal oxygenation, in the majority of patients the citrulline levels exceeded >20 μmol/l (up to 80 μmol/l. No correlation between serum citrulline and I-FABP concentrations in adults was found.Conclusion. Intestinal oxygenotherapy is a promising therapeutic technique for

  5. Human tissue-engineered small intestine forms from postnatal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Daniel E; Barthel, Erik R; Speer, Allison L; Sala, Frédéric G; Hou, Xiaogang; Torashima, Yasuhiro; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) represents a potential cure for short bowel syndrome (SBS). We previously reported full-thickness intestine formation using an organoid units-on-scaffold approach in rodent and swine models. Transplanted intestinal xenografts have been documented to survive from human fetal tissue but not from postnatal tissue. We now present the first report of human TESI from postnatal tissue. Organoid units (OU) were prepared from human small bowel resection specimens, loaded onto biodegradable scaffolds and implanted into NOD/SCID gamma chain-deficient mice. After 4 weeks, TESI was harvested and immunostained for β2-microglobulin to identify human tissue, villin for enterocytes, lysozyme for Paneth cells, chromogranin-A for enteroendocrine cells, mucin-2 for goblet cells, smooth muscle actin and desmin to demonstrate muscularis, and S-100 for nerves. All TESI was of human origin. Immunofluorescence staining of human TESI reveals the presence of all four differentiated cell types of mature human small intestine, in addition to the muscularis and the supporting intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Nerve tissue is also present. Our technique demonstrates survival, growth, and differentiation of postnatally derived human small intestinal OU into full thickness TESI in murine hosts. This regenerative medicine strategy may eventually assist in the treatment of SBS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of short bowel syndrome in children. Value of the Intestinal Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uenis Tannuri

    Full Text Available Summary The main cause of acute intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, generally as a result of resection of extensive segments of small intestine. As a result, the main symptoms are watery diarrhea, malabsorption syndrome, chronic malnutrition, and death, if the patient is not properly treated. If the length of the remaining intestine is greater than 30 cm, complete adaptation is possible and the patient may not require parenteral nutrition. The currently recommended treatment includes the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition, always aimed at constant weight gain, in conjunction with surgeries aimed at elongating the dilated bowel. This set of procedures constitutes what is called an Intestinal Rehabilitation Program. This therapy was used in 16 children in periods ranging from 8 months to 7.5 years, with survival in 75% of the cases. Finally, the last resort to be used in children with complete resection of the small bowel is an intestinal transplant. However, to date there is no record of a Brazilian child that has survived this procedure, despite it being attempted in seven patients. We conclude that the results of the intestinal rehabilitation program are encouraging for the continuation of this type of treatment and stimulate the creation of the program in other pediatric care institutions.

  7. Intestinal Graft Failure: Should We Perform the Allograft Enterectomy Before or With Retransplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shunji; Mangus, Richard S; Anderson, Eve; Ekser, Burcin; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Tector, A Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal graft dysfunction is sometimes irreversible and requires allograft enterectomy with or without retransplantation. There is no comprehensive assessment of allograft enterectomy regarding indications and outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate management of patients with intestinal graft failure with special reference to indications and outcomes of allograft enterectomy and the procedure's validity as a bridge to retransplantation. Graft and patient survivals, reason for graft failure, and rejection episodes were evaluated in 221 intestinal recipients (primary transplantation [n = 201], retransplantation [n = 20]). Indications, surgical factors, and outcomes of allograft enterectomy were investigated. Reasons for isolated enterectomy included systemic infection in 11, gastrointestinal bleeding in 1, and severe electrolyte imbalance in 1, all of which were associated with rejection. One isolated intestinal transplantation patient underwent isolated enterectomy due to cytomegalovirus enteritis. One multivisceral transplantation patient underwent isolated allograft enterectomy due to bowel necrosis. Of these 15 patients, 3 died from persistent infection postoperatively, whereas 8 underwent retransplantation with median interval of 74 days (42-252 days). Allosensitization occurred between isolated enterectomy and retransplantation in 2, one of whom lost the second graft due to rejection. Simultaneous allograft enterectomy and retransplantation was performed in 3 isolated intestinal transplantation and 9 multivisceral transplantation patients. Patient survival after retransplantation was similar between patients who underwent isolated allograft enterectomy and those who did simultaneous enterectomy with retransplantation (P = 0.82). In cases of irreversible intestinal graft dysfunction, isolated allograft enterectomy successfully provides recovery from comorbidities as a lifesaving procedure and does not compromise outcomes of retransplantation.

  8. Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Methods Cftrtm1UNC (CF and wildtype (WT littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 μg/kg-day was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Results Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P P = 0.001. Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008. Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005. Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P P P = 0.024 but not in CF mice (P = 0.377. Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. Conclusions These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype, especially on bacterial overgrowth and the innate immune response. The unexpected observation of increased mucus accumulation in the crypts of lubiprostone-treated CF mice

  9. Intestinal microbiota and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, A; Lahtinen, S; Tiihonen, K; Ouwehand, A C

    2010-11-01

    The microbes in our gut can influence our weight by providing us with energy through the degradation of nondigestable carbohydrates and by affecting the cellular energy status of liver and muscle cells and the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that in several studies the gastrointestinal microbiota of overweight and obese subjects has been found to differ from that of lean subjects. The initial findings linked obesity with proportionally decreased levels of the phylum Bacteroidetes and increased levels of the phylum Firmicutes. Later, several studies have assessed the association between overweight or obesity and the gastrointestinal microbiota, applying an array of molecular methods targeting the microbiota as a whole or specific bacterial groups or species within. However, at present it is difficult to draw conclusions on which of the observed microbiota alterations are relevant; essentially all of the bacterial groups that have been studied in more than one trial have given contradictory results in regard to their association with weight. Some of these discrepancies can result from methodological issues and some from the nature of the gastrointestinal microbiota, which is an extremely complex and dynamic microbial ecosystem with high subject specificity. In addition, selecting subjects purely based on weight may result in a largely heterogeneous group with several potentially confounding factors. While it may be premature to conclude which specific groups of bacteria are prominent in the intestinal tract of overweight and obese subjects, it appears clear that microbes contribute to weight gain and related health issues, such as the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Therefore, it is important to continue to search for common microbial markers and predictors of obesity, and to study how these may be modulated with probiotics and prebiotics to promote health.

  10. Digestion modeling in the small intestine: impact of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipoor, M; Barles, G; Georgelin, C; Licois, J R; Lescoat, P

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the modeling of the digestion in the small intestine is developed by investigating specifically the effects of dietary fiber. As our previous model, this new version takes into account the three main phenomena of digestion: transit of the bolus, degradation of feedstuffs and absorption through the intestinal wall. However the two main physiochemical characteristics of dietary fiber, namely viscosity and water holding capacity, lead us to substantially modify our initial model by emphasizing the role of water and its intricated dynamics with dry matter in the bolus. Various numerical simulations given by this new model are qualitatively in agreement with the positive effect of insoluble dietary fiber on the velocity of bolus and on its degradation all along the small intestine. These simulations reproduce the negative effect of soluble dietary fiber on digestion as it has been experimentally observed. Although, this model is generic and contains a large number of parameters but, to the best of our knowledge, it is among the first qualitative dynamical models of fiber influence on intestinal digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salmonella Interaction with and Passage through the Intestinal Mucosa: Through the Lens of the Organism

    OpenAIRE

    Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within t...

  12. Statistical optimization of bambara groundnut protein isolate-alginate matrix systems on survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyanat Kaewiad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation may protect viable probiotic cells. This study aims at the evaluation of a bambara groundnut protein isolate (BGPI-alginate matrix designed for encapsulating a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The response surface methodology was employed to gain the optimal concentrations of BGPI and alginate on encapsulation efficiency and survival of encapsulated cells. The capsules were prepared at the optimal combination by the traditional extrusion method composed of 8.66% w/v BGPI and 1.85% w/v alginate. The encapsulation efficiency was 97.24%, whereas the survival rates in an acidic condition and after the freeze-drying process were 95.56% and 95.20%, respectively—higher than those using either BGPI or alginate as the encapsulating agent individually. The designed capsules increased the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG survival relative to free cells in a simulated gastric fluid by 5.00 log cfu/ml after 3 h and in a simulated intestinal fluid by 8.06 log cfu/ml after 4 h. The shelf-life studies of the capsules over 6 months at 4 °C and 30 °C indicated that the remaining number of viable cells in a BGPI-alginate capsule was significantly higher than that of free cells in both temperatures. It was demonstrated that the BGPI-alginate capsule could be utilized as a new probiotic carrier for enhanced gastrointestinal transit and storage applied in food and/or pharmaceutical products.

  13. Experimental studies on small intestinal pouch motility and evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; Riesener, K P; Anurow, M; Titkova, S; Ottinger, A; Arlt, G; Schumpelick, V

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate pouch motility and evacuation under standardised conditions with a minimum of external influence. Ileal J-pouches had been constructed 30 cm proximal to the ileocecal valve in 10 dogs (6 pelvic/4 gastric configuration). After 8 weeks the following examinations were performed: (1) measurement of pouch compliance by balloon distension, (2) measurement of pouch contractions by strain gauge transducers, (3) radiological imaging of pouch contractions and evacuation, (4) evacuation scintigraphy and (5) radiological determination of small intestinal transit time. Compliance (2.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg/ml) and small intestinal transit time (31.6 +/- 7.5 h) were significantly higher in the pouch group than in controls (0.5 +/- 0.2 mmHg/ml, 8.0 +/- 2.8 h; p evacuation (t(1/2) = 109 +/- 52 min). Strain gauge measurements revealed irregular pouch contractions without detectable propagation. Contraction amplitudes (40.4 +/- 22.9 g) and frequencies (10.4 +/- 1.0/min) were equal all over the pouch. There were no functional differences between gastric and pelvic pouch configuration. Small intestinal pouches act as reservoirs. Uncoordinated motility patterns contribute to this function. Other factors than pouch motility are responsible for evacuation.

  14. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  16. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  17. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-02-22

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  18. Parenteral nutrition in intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkchubasche AG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arlet G Kurkchubasche,1 Thomas J Herron,2 Marion F Winkler31Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, 2Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 3Department of Surgery/Nutritional Support Service, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Intestinal failure is a consequence of extensive surgical resection resulting in anatomic loss and/or functional impairment in motility or absorptive capacity. The condition is clinically characterized by the inability to maintain fluid, energy, protein, electrolyte, or micronutrient balance when on a conventionally accepted, normal diet. Parenteral nutrition (PN is the cornerstone of management until intestinal adaptation returns the patient to a PN-independent state. Intestinal length, residual anatomic segments and motility determine the need for and duration of parenteral support. The goals of therapy are to provide sufficient nutrients to enable normal growth and development in children, and support a healthy functional status in adults. This review addresses indications for PN, the formulation of the PN solution, patient monitoring, and considerations for prevention of PN-associated complications. With the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy, the important role of diet, pharmacologic interventions, and surgery is discussed.Keywords: intestinal failure, short-bowel syndrome, parenteral nutrition, home nutrition support, intestinal rehabilitation

  19. Burn Injury Alters the Intestinal Microbiome and Increases Gut Permeability and Bacterial Translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M Earley

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in burn patients who survive the initial insult of injury. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has been shown after burn injury; this can lead to the translocation of bacteria or their products (e.g., endotoxin from the intestinal lumen to the circulation, thereby increasing the risk for sepsis in immunocompromised individuals. Since the maintenance of the epithelial barrier is largely dependent on the intestinal microbiota, we examined the diversity of the intestinal microbiome of severely burned patients and a controlled mouse model of burn injury. We show that burn injury induces a dramatic dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome of both humans and mice and allows for similar overgrowths of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Furthermore, we show that the bacteria increasing in abundance have the potential to translocate to extra-intestinal sites. This study provides an insight into how the diversity of the intestinal microbiome changes after burn injury and some of the consequences these gut bacteria can have in the host.

  20. The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068

  1. Transitional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  2. Genomic and functional analysis of Romboutsia ilealis CRIBT reveals adaptation to the small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.; Hornung, B.; Renckens, B.A.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Santos, V.A. dos; Rijkers, G.T.; Schaap, P.J.; Vos, W.M. de; Smidt, H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions

  3. Microencapsulation increases survival of the probiotic L .plantarum IS-10506, but not E. faecium IS-27526 in a dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surono, Ingrid; Verhoeven, Jessica; Verbruggen, Sanne; Venema, Koen

    2018-02-23

    to test the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of two probiotic strains isolated from Dadih, Indonesian fermented buffalo milk, in a dynamic, computer controlled in vitro model of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract (TIM-1), simulating human adults. Free or microencapsulated probiotics, L.plantarum IS-10506 or E.faecium IS-27526, resuspended in milk were studied for survival in the complete TIM-1 system (stomach + small intestine) or in the gastric compartment of TIM-1 only. Hourly samples collected after the ileal-cecal valve or after the pylorus were plated on MRS agar (for Lactobacillus) or S&B agar (for Enterococcus). Survival of the free cells after transit through the complete TIM-1 system was on average for the E. faecium and L. plantarum 15.0% and 18.5%, respectively. Survival of the microencapsulated E. faecium and L. plantarum was 15.7% and 84.5%, respectively. The free cells were further assessed in only the gastric compartment of TIM-1. E. faecium and L. plantarum showed an average survival of 39% and 32%, respectively, after gastric passage. There is similar sensitivity to gastric acid as well as survival after complete upper GI tract transit of free cells, but microencapsulation only protected L. plantarum. Survival of microencapsulated L. plantarum IS-10506 is increased compared to free cells in a validated in vitro model of the upper GI tract. It increases its use as ingredient of functional foods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal mycoplasma in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, W E W

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal diversion with reconnection in active Crohn's disease (CD) indicates that luminal contents or bacteria contribute to the formation of CD lesions. Fluorescent staining for mycoplasma in freshly resected Crohn's tissue and electron microscopy reveal intracellular organisms akin to mycoplasma. Historically, tissue culture of CD has shown mycoplasma described as contaminants. Mycoplasma are surface epithelial parasites requiring exogenous cholesterol for membrane stability and cell entry. PCR of intestinal tissue has shown Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be detectable more significantly in CD. Oral M. iowae in experimental poultry localizes to the distal small bowel and colon. Hypothetically, lipopeptides of mycoplasmal membranes are proposed to cause chronicity and stronger immune responses than by other bacteria. 'Intestinal' mycoplasmas, from a number of observations, deserve consideration as organisms mediating inflammation of acute and chronic CD.

  5. Mosapride Stabilizes Intestinal Microbiota to Reduce Bacterial Translocation and Endotoxemia in CCl4-Induced Cirrhotic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Xiong, Jingfang; Xu, Jianjun; Li, Shuiming; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Dongya; Cai, Xinjun; Ping, Jian; Deng, Min; Chen, Jianyong

    2017-10-01

    Impaired intestinal motility may lead to the disruption of gut microbiota equilibrium, which in turn facilitates bacterial translocation (BT) and endotoxemia in cirrhosis. We evaluated the influence of mosapride, a prokinetic agent, on BT and DNA fingerprints of gut microbiota in cirrhotic rats. A rat model of cirrhosis was set up via subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The portal pressure, liver and intestinal damage, plasma endotoxin, BT, and intestinal transit rate (ITR) of cirrhotic rats were determined. Fecal DNA fingerprints were obtained by ERIC-PCR. The expressions of tight junction proteins were evaluated by western blotting. Mosapride treatment to cirrhotic rats significantly reduced the plasma endotoxin level and incidence of BT, accompanied by increased ITR. Cirrhotic rats (including those treated with mosapride) suffered from BT exhibited significantly lower ITR than those who are free of BT. Pearson coefficient indicated a significant and negative correlation between the plasma endotoxin level and ITR. The genomic fingerprints of intestinal microbiota from the three groups fell into three distinctive clusters. In the mosapride-treated group, Shannon's index was remarkably increased compared to the model group. Significantly positive correlation was detected between Shannon's index and ITR. Mosapride did not improve hepatic and intestinal damages and ileal expressions of occludin and ZO-1. Mosapride significantly increases intestinal motility in cirrhotic rats, thus to recover the disordered intestinal microbiota, finally resulting in decreased plasma endotoxin and BT.

  6. Loss of intestinal GATA4 prevents diet-induced obesity and promotes insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Jay V; Chandak, Prakash G; Obrowsky, Sascha; Pfeifer, Thomas; Diwoky, Clemens; Uellen, Andreas; Sattler, Wolfgang; Stollberger, Rudolf; Hoefler, Gerald; Heinemann, Akos; Battle, Michele; Duncan, Stephen; Kratky, Dagmar; Levak-Frank, Sanja

    2011-03-01

    Transcriptional regulation of small intestinal gene expression controls plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels, which are major determinants of metabolic diseases. GATA4, a zinc finger domain transcription factor, is critical for jejunal identity, and intestinal GATA4 deficiency leads to a jejunoileal transition. Although intestinal GATA4 ablation is known to misregulate jejunal gene expression, its pathophysiological impact on various components of metabolic syndrome remains unknown. Here, we used intestine-specific GATA4 knockout (GATA4iKO) mice to dissect the contribution of GATA4 on obesity development. We challenged adult GATA4iKO mice and control littermates with a Western-type diet (WTD) for 20 wk. Our findings show that WTD-fed GATA4iKO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Accordingly, plasma TG and TC levels are markedly decreased. Intestinal lipid absorption in GATA4iKO mice was strongly reduced, whereas luminal lipolysis was unaffected. GATA4iKO mice displayed a greater glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release on normal chow and even after long-term challenge with WTD remained glucose sensitive. In summary, our findings show that the absence of intestinal GATA4 has a beneficial effect on decreasing intestinal lipid absorption causing resistance to hyperlipidemia and obesity. In addition, we show that increased GLP-1 release in GATA4iKO mice decreases the risk for development of insulin resistance.

  7. Domestication and cereal feeding developed domestic pig-type intestinal microbiota in animals of suidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Maruyama, Fumito

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota have not been well elucidated. Pig is the ideal mammal model to reveal the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota because their direct wild ancestor and close phylogenetic neighbors are available for comparison. The pig has been recognized as a Lactobacillus-type animal. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota of various animals in Suidae: domestic pigs, wild boars and Red river hogs to survey the origin and evolution of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota by metagenomic approach and following quantitative PCR confirmation. The metagenomic datasets were separated in two clusters; the wild animal cluster being characterized by a high abundance of Bifidobacterium, whereas the domesticated (or captured) animal cluster by Lactobacillus. In addition, Enterobacteriaceae were harbored as the major family only in domestic Sus scrofa. We conclude that domestication may have induced a larger Enterobacteriaceae population in pigs, and the introduction of modern feeding system further caused the development of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota, with genetic and geographical factors possibly having a minor impact. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. The intestinal microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Samuel J; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been and continues to be an epidemic in the United States. Obesity has been addressed in multiple health initiatives, including Healthy People 2010, with no state meeting the proposed goal of a prevalence of obesity fad diets, incentive-based exercise programs, and gastric bypass surgery; none of which have been optimal. In a murine model, it was shown that the majority of the intestinal microbiome consists of two bacterial phyla, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes, and that the relative abundance of these two phyla differs among lean and obese mice; the obese mouse had a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (50% greater) than the lean mouse. The same results were appreciated in obese humans compared to lean subjects. The postulated explanation for this finding is that Firmicutes produce more complete metabolism of a given energy source than do Bacteroidetes, thus promoting more efficient absorption of calories and subsequent weight gain. Researchers were able to demonstrate that colonizing germ-free mice with the intestinal microbiome from obese mice led to an increased total body fat in the recipient mice despite a lack of change in diet. The converse, that, colonizing germ-free obese mice with the intestinal microbiome of thin mice causing a decreased total body fat in the recipient mice, has not yet been done. Other possible mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiome affects host obesity include induction of low-grade inflammation with lipopolysaccharide, regulation of host genes responsible for energy expenditure and storage, and hormonal communication between the intestinal microbiome and the host. The following review discusses the microbiome-obesity relationship and proposed mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota is hypothesized to influence weight gain.

  9. The treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; D'Urso, A; Papaspyropoulos, V; Mancini, P; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    Due to the rarity of the condition, large and prospective series defining the optimal method of digestive arteries revascularization, for the treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia, are lacking. The aim of this consecutive sample clinical study was to test the hypothesis that flexible application of different revascularization methods, according to individual cases, will yield the best results in the management of chronic intestinal ischemia. Eleven patients, of a mean age of 57 years, underwent revascularization of 11 digestive arteries for symptomatic chronic mesenteric occlusive disease. Eleven superior mesenteric arteries and one celiac axis were revascularized. The revascularization techniques included retrograde bypass grafting in 7 cases, antegrade bypass grafting in 2, percutaneous arterial angioplasty in 1, and arterial reimplantation in one case. The donor axis for either reimplantation or bypass grafting was the infrarenal aorta in 4 cases, an infrarenal Dacron graft in 4, and the celiac aorta in one case. Grafting materials included 5 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 3 Dacron grafts. Concomitant procedures included 3 aorto-ilio-femoral grafts and one renal artery revascularization. Mean follow-up length was 31 months. There was no operative mortality. Cumulative survival rate was 88.9% at 36 months (SE 12.1%). Primary patency rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). The symptom free rate was 90% at 36 months (SE 11.6%). Direct reimplantation, antegrade and retrograde bypass grafting, all allow good mid-term results: the choice of the optimal method depends on the anatomic and general patients status. Associated infrarenal and renal arterial lesions can be safely treated in the same time of digestive revascularization. Angioplasty alone yields poor results and should be limited to patients at poor risk for surgery.

  10. Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically naïve kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304×227 µm. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes.

  11. Galanin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, H; Messell, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum. The rele......By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum...

  12. CAMK2? in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Modulates Colitis-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis via Enhancing STAT3 Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoxiao; Meng, Zhipeng; Jin, Lihua; Xiao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Tsark, Walter M.; Ding, Lili; Gu, Ying; Zhang, Jiawei; Kim, Byungwook; He, Min; Gan, Xiaoxian; John E Shively; Yu, Hua; Xu, Rongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the major risk factors for cancer. Here, we show that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2?) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) modulates inflammatory signals and promotes colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. We have identified CAMK2? as a downstream target of colitis-induced WNT5a signaling. Furthermore, we have shown that CAMK2? protects against intestine tissue injury by increasing IEC survival and proliferation. CAMK2? knockout mice dis...

  13. In vitro assessment of the gastrointestinal transit tolerance of taxonomic reference strains from human origin and probiotic product isolates of Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masco, L; Crockaert, C; Van Hoorde, K; Swings, J; Huys, G

    2007-08-01

    Next to health promoting effects, the functional aspect of probiotic strains also involves their capacity to reach the colon as viable metabolically active cells. The present study aimed to assess the potential of 24 probiotic product isolates and 42 human reference strains of Bifidobacterium to survive gastrointestinal transit under in vitro conditions. The survival capacity of exponential and stationary phase cultures upon exposure to gastric and small intestinal juices was determined using a recently developed microplate-based assay in combination with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit. All 66 strains tested displayed a considerable loss in viability during exposure to an acidic pepsin containing solution (pH 2.0). Among the 10 taxa tested, cultures of B. animalis ssp. lactis appeared to be most capable to survive gastric transit. Although to a lesser extent, the presence of bile salts also affected the viability of most of the strains tested. Except for 3 strains, all 66 strains showed bile salt hydrolase activity using an agar-based assay. In contrast, the bifidobacterial strains used in this study appeared to possess a natural ability to survive the presence of pancreatin (pH 8.0). Although the effect was not significant, a slightly enhanced tolerance to gastrointestinal transit was observed when cells were in the stationary phase, especially when exposed to acid, compared with cells being in the exponential phase. Survival in the gastrointestinal tract appeared to be largely strain-dependent and hence implies that different strains will likely display a different behavior in functionality. The assay used in this study allows an initial assessment of strains for use as probiotic cultures prior to selecting potential candidate strains for further investigation in vivo.

  14. Microbiota, intestinal immunity, and mouse bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  15. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  16. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  17. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  18. Intestinal lesions are associated with altered intestinal microbiome and are more frequent in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Flass

    Full Text Available Cirrhosis (CIR occurs in 5-7% of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. We hypothesized that alterations in intestinal function in CF contribute to the development of CIR.Determine the frequency of macroscopic intestinal lesions, intestinal inflammation, intestinal permeability and characterize fecal microbiome in CF CIR subjects and CF subjects with no liver disease (CFnoLIV.11 subjects with CFCIR (6 M, 12.8 yrs ± 3.8 and 19 matched with CFnoLIV (10 M, 12.6 yrs ± 3.4 underwent small bowel capsule endoscopy, intestinal permeability testing by urinary lactulose: mannitol excretion ratio, fecal calprotectin determination and fecal microbiome characterization.CFCIR and CFnoLIV did not differ in key demographics or CF complications. CFCIR had higher GGT (59±51 U/L vs 17±4 p = 0.02 and lower platelet count (187±126 vs 283±60 p = 0.04 and weight (-0.86 ± 1.0 vs 0.30 ± 0.9 p = 0.002 z scores. CFCIR had more severe intestinal mucosal lesions on capsule endoscopy (score ≥4, 4/11 vs 0/19 p = 0.01. Fecal calprotectin was similar between CFCIR and CFnoLIV (166 μg/g ±175 vs 136 ± 193 p = 0.58, nl <120. Lactulose:mannitol ratio was elevated in 27/28 subjects and was slightly lower in CFCIR vs CFnoLIV (0.08±0.02 vs 0.11±0.05, p = 0.04, nl ≤0.03. Small bowel transit time was longer in CFCIR vs CFnoLIV (195±42 min vs 167±68 p<0.001, nl 274 ± 41. Bacteroides were decreased in relative abundance in CFCIR and were associated with lower capsule endoscopy score whereas Clostridium were more abundant in CFCIR and associated with higher capsule endoscopy score.CFCIR is associated with increased intestinal mucosal lesions, slower small bowel transit time and alterations in fecal microbiome. Abnormal intestinal permeability and elevated fecal calprotectin are common in all CF subjects. Disturbances in intestinal function in CF combined with changes in the microbiome may contribute to the development of hepatic fibrosis and intestinal lesions.

  19. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments

  20. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those reportedis'gi m3 from other parts of the coun- try. Mortality from childhood intestinal obstruction is still high in our environment. References. 1. Otu AA. Tropical surgical abdominal emergencies: acute intestinal obstruction. Postgrad. Doctor (Afr) 1992; 14: 51. 2.

  1. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activity of camel intestinal IAP2 and IAP5 was studied. The camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes IAP2 and IAP5 were inhibited by EDTA and phenylalanine. Keywords: Camel; Small intestine; Alkaline phosphatase ; Purification; Characterization Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol.

  2. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... 1Laboratory of Physiology of Nutrition and Food Safety, Faculty of Science, University of Oran, Algeria. ... by a well-balanced intestinal flora, an unaltered perme- ability of the intestinal mucosa, and a normal functioning immune system. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosa, in ..... Comparison of translocation.

  3. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  4. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  5. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense

  6. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano-particulate...

  7. Intestinal Obstruction from an Adhesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Obstruction from an Adhesion. Bahd Mimicking Peritonitis due to a _. Complicated Induced Unsafe Abortion: A Case Report. ABSTRACT. Miss EN. a 19—year old nullipara presented at the Accidents and Emergency unit of the Ebonyi State University. Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH), Abakaliki on the 17/5/06 with ...

  8. Entomoftoromicose intestinal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Aparecida Carvalho

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de entomoftoromicose intestinal causada por Entomophthorales, em indivíduo de 19 anos, agricultor e sem doença associada. O paciente foi submetido a ressecção intestinal e o diagnóstico foi feito após análise da peça cirúrgica. Após revisão da literatura, são discutidos a evolução clínica, as características clinicopatológicas, as dificuldades no diagnóstico e o tratamento dessa entidade rara.A case of intestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by Entomophthorales in a man with 19 years-old, farmer and without associated disease. The patient was submitted to a intestinal ressection and diagnosis was carried through after analisys of the surgical specimen. After a review of the literature, the clinical evolution, clinico-pathologic features, difficulties in diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  9. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to the intestinal exsorptive DTs. An example is the API sulfasalazine, which is a substrate for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2. Sulfasalazine absorption is found to increase when human volunteers are administered high concentrations together with the inhibitor and spice curcumin. In conclusion...

  10. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    part of the small intestine was moderately distended with worms and the associated mesenteric blood vessels were engorged. ... These rodents not only serve to keep insect populations at bay, but also act as dispersal ... experiments where they provide a lot of information on rodent physiology and behavior amongst others ...

  11. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  12. Transitional determinacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luelsdorff, P A

    1992-01-01

    In classic generative grammar a distinction is drawn between linguistic 'competence' and linguistic 'performance', the former referring to linguistic knowledge, the latter to how linguistic knowledge is used. However, this controversial differentiation obscures the additional dichotomy between linguistic knowledge for production and linguistic knowledge for recognition. In this article it is shown that production and recognition differ, that recognition is not simply the inverse of production, and that the derivation of production from recognition and recognition from production require a small set of generalizable 'transitional determinacies'. Secondly, it is shown that transitional determinacies explain the difference between 'overt' and 'covert' recognition recently observed in prosopagnosics, patients unable to recognize familiar faces. Prosopagnosics and normals are found to differ in their transitional determinacies, such that prosopagnosics require more binders (precisors) for covert recognition than normals. In general, it is concluded that transitional determinacies are as necessary to the theory of grammar as determinacies themselves.

  13. Intestine-specific Disruption of Hypoxia-inducible Factor (HIF)-2α Improves Anemia in Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nupur; Xie, Liwei; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Campbell, Andrew; Rivella, Stefano; Shah, Yatrik M

    2015-09-25

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by genetic defects in the β-globin chain. SCD is a frequently inherited blood disorder, and sickle cell anemia is a common type of hemoglobinopathy. During anemia, the hypoxic response via the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is highly activated in the intestine and is essential in iron absorption. Intestinal disruption of HIF-2α protects against tissue iron accumulation in iron overload anemias. However, the role of intestinal HIF-2α in regulating anemia in SCD is currently not known. Here we show that in mouse models of SCD, disruption of intestinal HIF-2α significantly decreased tissue iron accumulation. This was attributed to a decrease in intestinal iron absorptive genes, which were highly induced in a mouse model of SCD. Interestingly, disruption of intestinal HIF-2α led to a robust improvement in anemia with an increase in RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. This was attributed to improvement in RBC survival, hemolysis, and insufficient erythropoiesis, which is evident from a significant decrease in serum bilirubin, reticulocyte counts, and serum erythropoietin following intestinal HIF-2α disruption. These data suggest that targeting intestinal HIF-2α has a significant therapeutic potential in SCD pathophysiology. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Interactions of Intestinal Bacteria with Components of the Intestinal Mucus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Félix Sicard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is colonized by a variety of large amounts of microbes that are collectively called intestinal microbiota. Most of these microbial residents will grow within the mucus layer that overlies the gut epithelium and will act as the first line of defense against both commensal and invading microbes. This mucus is essentially formed by mucins, a family of highly glycosylated protein that are secreted by specialize cells in the gut. In this Review, we examine how commensal members of the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria use mucus to their advantage to promote their growth, develop biofilms and colonize the intestine. We also discuss how mucus-derived components act as nutrient and chemical cues for adaptation and pathogenesis of bacteria and how bacteria can influence the composition of the mucus layer.

  15. Gut microbiota - architects of small intestinal capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandagale, Avinash; Reinhardt, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The commensal gut microbiota is an environmental factor that exerts manifold effects on host physiology. One obvious trait is the impact of this densely colonized ecosystem on small intestinal mucosal vascularization. At present, the microbiota-triggered signaling pathways influencing small intestinal renewal, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling are largely unexplored. While the interplay of gut microbial communities with pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, in intestinal homeostasis is increasingly understood, it is unresolved how commensal microbiota affect the signaling pathways responsible for the formation of capillary networks in the intestinal mucosa. It is evident that intestinal vascular remodeling and renewal is disturbed in case of dysbiosis of this densely colonized microbial ecosystem, in particular under conditions of intestinal inflammation, but the effects of individual components of the gut microbiota are elusive. This review article provides an overview on the revealed microbiota-host interactions, influencing angiogenesis and vascular remodeling processes in the small intestine.

  16. Intestinal upregulation of melanin-concentrating hormone in TNBS-induced enterocolitis in adult zebrafish.

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    Brenda M Geiger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, an evolutionarily conserved appetite-regulating neuropeptide, has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Expression of MCH is upregulated in inflamed intestinal mucosa in humans with colitis and MCH-deficient mice treated with trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS develop an attenuated form of colitis compared to wild type animals. Zebrafish have emerged as a new animal model of IBD, although the majority of the reported studies concern zebrafish larvae. Regulation MCH expression in the adult zebrafish intestine remains unknown. METHODS: In the present study we induced enterocolitis in adult zebrafish by intrarectal administration of TNBS. Follow-up included survival analysis, histological assessment of changes in intestinal architecture, and assessment of intestinal infiltration by myeloperoxidase positive cells and cytokine transcript levels. RESULTS: Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently reduced fish survival. This response required the presence of an intact microbiome, since fish pre-treated with vancomycin developed less severe enterocolitis. At 6 hours post-challenge, we detected a significant influx of myeloperoxidase positive cells in the intestine and upregulation of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, and in analogy to human IBD and TNBS-induced mouse experimental colitis, we found increased intestinal expression of MCH and its receptor in TNBS-treated zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together these findings not only establish a model of chemically-induced experimental enterocolitis in adult zebrafish, but point to effects of MCH in intestinal inflammation that are conserved across species.

  17. A simple novel technique for heterotopic intestinal transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Song, P; Tian, J; Zhou, S; Yan, S; Tan, Z; Haller, H; Rong, S

    2013-03-01

    The murine heterotopic intestinal transplant model is of particular value for addressing the unique immune response in the gut and addressing the underlying immune mechanism during transplantation. Anastomotic stenosis, anastomotic bleeding, and septic shock continue to hamper procedures and plague the success. In this study, we assessed a refined technique designed to improve the success of heterotopic intestinal transplant in mice. Important factors in our refined technique included (1) a refined procedure for graft portal vein preparation, (2) a novel procedure for graft exteriorization, and most importantly (3) a knotless suturing technique designed to allow the surgeon to alter the size of the anastomosis, thus reducing anastomotic bleeding and stenosis rate. Our refined knotless method improved recipient survival to 67.5% when compared to the standard technique (53.8%). In comparison to standard knot suturing technique, which had an anastomotic stenosis rate of 8.3%, the knotless suturing technique significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic stenosis to only 2.4%. Anastomotic bleeding presented in the knotless technique in only 1.2%, whereas it presented in 6.2%, of mice in the standard technique (P < .05). This refined knotless technique offers an easy and effective method for murine heterotopic intestinal transplantation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adhesion Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Mucin

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    Keita Nishiyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive bacteria that are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (GI tracts of mammals, including humans. Since Mechnikov first proposed that yogurt could prevent intestinal putrefaction and aging, the beneficial effects of LAB have been widely demonstrated. The region between the duodenum and the terminal of the ileum is the primary region colonized by LAB, particularly the Lactobacillus species, and this region is covered by a mucus layer composed mainly of mucin-type glycoproteins. The mucus layer plays a role in protecting the intestinal epithelial cells against damage, but is also considered to be critical for the adhesion of Lactobacillus in the GI tract. Consequently, the adhesion exhibited by lactobacilli on mucin has attracted attention as one of the critical factors contributing to the persistent beneficial effects of Lactobacillus in a constantly changing intestinal environment. Thus, understanding the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin is crucial for elucidating the survival strategies of LAB in the GI tract. This review highlights the properties of the interactions between Lactobacillus and mucin, while concomitantly considering the structure of the GI tract from a histochemical perspective.

  19. Combination of dehydroepiandrosterone and orthovanadate administration reduces intestinal leukocyte recruitment in models of experimental sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Banna, Nadia; Pavlovic, Dragan; Sharawi, Nivin; Bac, Vo Hoai; Jaskulski, Mathis; Balzer, Claudius; Weber, Stefan; Nedeljkov, Vladimir; Lehmann, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was shown to improve the immune function and survival in experimental sepsis. This study examined the effect of DHEA on intestinal leukocyte recruitment during experimental sepsis, considering factors of gender (male, female and ovariectomized female animals) and combined treatment using orthovanadate (OV) in two models of sepsis. Male rats underwent colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) or endotoxemia. DHEA was administered after induction of experimental sepsis. Changes in leukocyte adherence and capillary perfusion (measured as intestinal functional capillary density - FCD) were assessed using intravital microscopy. While DHEA increased baseline leukocyte adherence in control animals, DHEA reduced leukocyte adherence and increased FCD in male animals with CASP. These effects were also observed in DHEA-treated ovariectomized female rats with CASP. Similarly, the administration of DHEA reduced the number of adherent leukocytes to intestinal venules by 30% in the endotoxemia model. The combined treatment of DHEA and OV significantly reduced adherence of leukocytes to intestinal venules and improved FCD. Our results indicate that DHEA is able to reduce intestinal leukocyte recruitment induced by experimental sepsis. Combination of DHEA with OV inhibits leukocyte adherence to intestinal endothelium, similar to what is achieved by the single administration of DHEA but with significantly improved FCD. These findings suggest a potential role for DHEA and OV in clinical sepsis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ischemic preconditioning and tacrolimus pretreatment as strategies to attenuate intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringa, P; Romanin, D; Lausada, N; Machuca, M; Raimondi, J C; Cabanne, A; Rumbo, M; Gondolesi, G

    2013-01-01

    The intestine is highly sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), a phenomenon occurring in different intestinal diseases. Several strategies to mitigate IRI are in experimental stages; unfortunately, no consensus has been reached about the most appropriate one. We report a protocol to study ischemic preconditioning (IPC) evaluation in mice and to combine IPC and tacrolimus (TAC) pretreatment in a warm ischemia model. Mice were divided into treated (IPC, TAC, and IPC + TAC) and untreated groups before intestinal ischemia. IPC, TAC, and IPC + TAC groups were able to decrease postreperfusion nitrites levels (P < .05). IPC-containing groups had a major beneficial effect by preserving the integrity of the intestinal histology (P < .05) and improving animal survival (P < .002) compared with TAC alone or the untreated group. The IPC + TAC group was the only one that showed significant improvement in lung histological analysis (P < .05). The TAC and IPC + TAC groups down-regulated intestinal expression of interleukin (II)-6 and IL1b more than 10-fold compared with the control group. Although IPC and TAC alone reduced intestinal IRI, the used of a combined therapy produced the most significant results in all the local and distant evaluated parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease - Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2008-12-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of IBD that can become seriously symptomatic and may require surgical intervention if stricture formation ensues. This review discusses existing and developing knowledge of intestinal fibrosis and its implications for therapy. Review of the literature, personal communications, unpublished observations. Known mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis include fibroblast proliferation and migration, activation of stellate cells, and extraintestinal fibroblast recruitment. However, novel mechanisms are being uncovered, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, pericyte differentiation, and fibrocyte recruitment. Most of the traditional and novel mechanisms underlying intestinal fibrosis are associated to the presence of chronic inflammation, but is also possible that fibrosis develops independently of persistent immune activation in the gut. At the moment, the development of preventive, non-interventional, and more effective management of intestinal fibrosis is hampered by the lack of a greater knowledge of its basic pathophysiology and predisposing factors. It is reasonable to expect that therapy of IBD-associated fibrosis will radically improve once the underlying mechanisms are better understood, and therapeutic modalities will emerge that prevent or reverse this complication of IBD.

  2. Inhibition of ERK1/2 worsens intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechen Ban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury has not been well investigated. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of inhibition of the ERK pathway in an in vitro and in vivo model of intestinal I/R injury. METHODS: ERK1/2 activity was inhibited using the specific inhibitor, U0126, in intestinal epithelial cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions and in mice subjected to 1 hour of intestinal ischemia followed by 6 hours reperfusion. In vitro, cell proliferation was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, apoptosis by DNA fragmentation, and migration using an in vitro model of intestinal wound healing. Cells were also transfected with a p70S6K plasmid and the effects of overexpression similarly analyzed. In vivo, the effects of U0126 on intestinal cell proliferation and apoptosis, intestinal permeability, lung and intestinal neutrophil infiltration and injury, and plasma cytokine levels were measured. Survival was also assessed after U0126. Activity of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: In vitro, inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration but enhanced cell apoptosis. Overexpression of p70S6K promoted cell proliferation and decreased cell apoptosis. In vivo, U0126 significantly increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in the intestine, increased intestinal permeability, intestinal and lung neutrophil infiltration, and injury, as well as systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Mortality was also significantly increased by U0126. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 also abolished activity of p70S6K both in vitro and in vivo models. CONCLUSION: Pharmacologic inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 worsens intestinal IR injury. The detrimental effects are mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of p70S6K, the major

  3. [Intestinal-brain axis. Neuronal and immune-inflammatory mechanisms of brain and intestine pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M; Riabichenko, E V

    2013-01-01

    Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine. An interconnection between intestine barrier function and hematoencephalic barrier regulation exists. Chronic endotoxinemia as a result of intestine barrier dysfunction forms sustained inflammation state in periventricular zone of the brain with consequent destabilization of hematoencephalic barriers and spread oF inflammation to other parts of the brain resulting in neurodegradation development.

  4. Management of intestinal obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Murray Ferguson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with incurable, advanced abdominal or pelvic malignancy often present to acute surgical departments with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. It is rare for bowel strangulation to occur in these presentations, and spontaneous resolution often occurs, so the luxury of time should be afforded while decisions are made regarding surgery. Cross-sectional imaging is valuable in determining the underlying mechanism and pathology. The majority of these patients will not be suitable for an operation, and will be best managed in conjunction with a palliative medicine team. Surgeons require a good working knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-emetics, anti-secretories and analgesics to tailor early management to individual patients, while decisions regarding potential surgery are made. Deciding if and when to perform operative intervention in this group is complex, and fraught with both technical and emotional challenges. Surgery in this group is highly morbid, with no current evidence available concerning quality of life following surgery. The limited evidence concerning operative strategy suggests that resection and primary anastomosis results in improved survival, over bypass or stoma formation. Realistic prognostication and involvement of the patient, care-givers and the multidisciplinary team in treatment decisions is mandatory if optimum outcomes are to be achieved.

  5. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  6. A Multicellular Approach Forms a Significant Amount of Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frédéric G.; Matthews, Jamil A.; Speer, Allison L.; Torashima, Yasuhiro; Barthel, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) has successfully been used to rescue Lewis rats after massive small bowel resection. In this study, we transitioned the technique to a mouse model, allowing investigation of the processes involved during TESI formation through the transgenic tools available in this species. This is a necessary step toward applying the technique to human therapy. Multicellular organoid units were derived from small intestines of transgenic mice and transplanted within the abdomen on biodegradable polymers. Immunofluorescence staining was used to characterize the cellular processes during TESI formation. We demonstrate the preservation of Lgr5- and DcamKl1-positive cells, two putative intestinal stem cell populations, in proximity to their niche mesenchymal cells, the intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs), at the time of implantation. Maintenance of the relationship between ISEMF and crypt epithelium is observed during the growth of TESI. The engineered small intestine has an epithelium containing a differentiated epithelium next to an innervated muscularis. Lineage tracing demonstrates that all the essential components, including epithelium, muscularis, nerves, and some of the blood vessels, are of donor origin. This multicellular approach provides the necessary cell population to regenerate large amounts of intestinal tissue that could be used to treat short bowel syndrome. PMID:21395443

  7. PPARγ Modulates Long Chain Fatty Acid Processing in the Intestinal Epithelium

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    Kalina Duszka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor PPARγ affects lipid metabolism in several tissues, but its role in intestinal lipid metabolism has not been explored. As alterations have been observed in the plasma lipid profile of ad libitum fed intestinal epithelium-specific PPARγ knockout mice (iePPARγKO, we submitted these mice to lipid gavage challenges. Within hours after gavage with long chain unsaturated fatty acid (FA-rich canola oil, the iePPARγKO mice had higher plasma free FA levels and lower gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels than their wild-type (WT littermates, and altered expression of incretin genes and lipid metabolism-associated genes in the intestinal epithelium. Gavage with the medium chain saturated FA-rich coconut oil did not result in differences between the two genotypes. Furthermore, the iePPARγKO mice did not exhibit defective lipid uptake and stomach emptying; however, their intestinal transit was more rapid than in WT mice. When fed a canola oil-rich diet for 4.5 months, iePPARγKO mice had higher body lean mass than the WT mice. We conclude that intestinal epithelium PPARγ is activated preferentially by long chain unsaturated FAs compared to medium chain saturated FAs. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the iePPARγKO phenotype originates from altered lipid metabolism and release in epithelial cells, as well as changes in intestinal motility.

  8. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    and exemplify their roles in drug absorption/exsorption and in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Although focus in the present Chapter is on DTs that are mentioned in American and European regulatory guidances, the intestinal transporters for nutrients and endogens (endogenous compounds) are also briefly...... that may impact drug absorption. Thus absorptive transporters may facilitate BA of APIs that are substrates/victims for the transporters and have permeability-limited absorption, i.e. those that are classified in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class 3 and 4. On the other hand, exsorptive...... transporters may restrict BA of APIs that are victims for these efflux transporters, especially those APIs classified to have solubility-limited absorption, i.e. compounds in BCS Class 2 and 4. The aim of the present Chapter is to review drug transporters (DTs) present within the intestine and to discuss...

  9. Intestine-specific Mttp deletion decreases mortality and prevents sepsis-induced intestinal injury in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

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    Jessica A Dominguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the "motor" of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO, which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0% dying compared to 5/17 (29% control mice (p<0.05. This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects

  10. Glutamine on intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A secretion: A mechanistic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wenkai Ren; Kai Wang; jie yin; shuai chen; gang liu; bie tan; Guoyao Wu; Fuller Warren Bazer; Yunayi Peng; Yulong Yin

    2016-01-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) is one important line of defense in intestinal mucosal surface to protect the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple factors, such as intestinal microbiota, intestinal cytokines and nutrients, are highly involved in intestinal production of SIgA. Recently, glutamine has been shown to affect intestinal SIgA production, however, the underlying mechanism by which glutamine promotes intestinal SIgA secretion remains to know. Here, we...

  11. Cryptic diversity in intestinal protists

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    Clark C.G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years our understanding of genetic variation within and between species of intestinal parasitic protists has changed significantly. New species names have been assigned and others have been dropped in response to new data. In this review, I summarise these findings and discuss their implications for future studies. In several cases the findings suggest that caution needs to be exercised to prevent premature conclusions being reached.

  12. Carotenoid absorption in chicken intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R; Alonso, A; Martín, M

    1978-09-01

    The powdered flowers of marigold (Tagetes erecta) are used as a cheap source of carotenoids in avicultura. Lutein (3,3'-dyhydroxi-alpha-carotene) constitutes up to 85 to 90% of marigold carotenoids. In the plant, lutein is found esterified to palmitic or estearic acid. In chicken, carotenoid is hydrolized in the first portion of the small intestine, and absorbed as free lutein. After the absorption, lutein is not re-esterified in the different chicken tissues.

  13. Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (tufting enteropathy

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    de Serres Natacha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED, also known as tufting enteropathy, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset severe intractable diarrhea causing sometimes irreversible intestinal failure. To date, no epidemiological data are available, however, the prevalence can be estimated at around 1/50,000–100,000 live births in Western Europe. The prevalence seems higher in areas with high degree of consanguinity and in patients of Arabic origin. Infants develop within the first days after birth a watery diarrhea persistent in spite of bowel rest and parenteral nutrition. Some infants are reported to have associated choanal rectal or esophageal atresia. IED is thought to be related to abnormal enterocytes development and/or differentiation. Nonspecific punctuated keratitis was reported in more than 60% of patients. Histology shows various degree of villous atrophy, with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria but specific histological abnormalities involving the epithelium with disorganization of surface enterocytes with focal crowding, resembling tufts. Several associated specific features were reported, including abnormal deposition of laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG in the basement membrane, increased expression of desmoglein and ultrastructural changes in the desmosomes, and abnormal distribution of α2β1 integrin adhesion molecules. One model of transgenic mice in which the gene encoding the transcription factor Elf3 is disrupted have morphologic features resembling IED. Parental consanguinity and/or affected siblings suggest an autosomal recessive transmission but the causative gene(s have not been yet identified making prenatal diagnosis unavailable. Some infants have a milder phenotype than others but in most patients, the severity of the intestinal malabsorption even with enteral feeding make them totally dependent on daily long-term parenteral nutrition with a subsequent

  14. Intestinal microflora and nanomedicines (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    German J Osmak

    2015-01-01

    With age of humans is changing species composition of bacteria in the gut . Numerous studies have shown that with age there is a reduction of the number of viable bacteria of the genus Bacteroides and increasing of proteolytic bacteria such as Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium and Clostridium, in the intestines of older people, may indicate a tendency to putrefaction of colon, mainly in gut of patients undergoing antibiotic therapy. Studies have shown that in elderly patients have a place incr...

  15. Intestinal Phospholipase, a Novel Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Mansbach, Charles M.; Pieroni, Gerard; Verger, Robert

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated phospholipase activity in the intestine of rats and other species. Phospholipase activity was assayed by a surface barostat technique or an egg yolk titration system. Mucosal activity was found only by the surface barostat technique with phosphatidylglycerol as substrate; it was not found with phosphatidylcholine as substrate in assays by either technique. In gut luminal fluid activity was found when both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol were used as substrate in assa...

  16. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  17. Intestinal vascular anomalies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frémond, B; Yazbeck, S; Dubois, J; Brochu, P; Garel, L; Ouimet, A

    1997-06-01

    Vascular anomalies are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in childhood. Confusing nomenclature has made objective comparisons of published cases difficult and has interfered with an established consensus regarding diagnosis and therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this study was to clarify the situation by reviewing the records of all children who had intestinal vascular anomalies who were referred to our institution from 1975 to 1995. Thirteen lesions were identified in nine children (five boys and four girls). The median age at clinical onset was 8 years. Only two patients presented with a complex syndrome (Klippel-Trenaunay, 1; Osler-Rendu-Weber, 1). Diagnosis, location, and extension of these anomalies was only possible by angiography, which indicated that seven patients had isolated venous malformations and two had arteriovenous malformations. Because the lesions did not involve the serosa, intraoperative localization was a major problem. The main findings were a few slightly dilated mesenteric veins. Treatment was conservative in four children and surgical in five. Pathological findings on resected bowel demonstrated dilated and abnormal veins in the mucosa and submucosa. Selective angiography should not be delayed in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding if results of all other investigations are negative. Because these lesions are rarely recognizable on operative inspection, precise preoperative angiographic localization of intestinal vascular anomalies is essential to allow for a safe and limited resection of the involved bowel segment. Based on a better understanding of the natural history of these lesions, a classification of vascular anomalies of intestines in children is proposed.

  18. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tresoldi das Neves Romaneli

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was established in a two-month-old infant, after an episode of enterocolitis, hypovolemic shock and severe malnutrition. After colonic resection, the patient did not recover intestinal motor function that would allow enteral feeding. Postoperative examination of remnant ileum showed the presence of ganglionic plexus and a reduced number of interstitial cells of Cajal in the proximal bowel segments. At 12 months, the patient remains dependent on total parenteral nutrition. Comments: Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis has clinical and surgical characteristics that differentiate it from the classic forms, complicating the diagnosis and the clinical and surgical management. The postoperative course may be associated with permanent morbidity due to intestinal dysmotility. The numerical reduction or alteration of neural connections in the interstitial cells of Cajal may represent a possible physiopathological basis for the condition.

  19. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An overview of EU and USA intestinal transplant current activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, A; Panaro, F; Iyer, K R

    2017-04-01

    To report the current activity of intestinal transplantation in Europe (EU) and Unites States of America (USA), underlining outcomes in the last 5 years and discussing possible trends. Data review of results was performed through analysis of ITR and UNOS registries, Eurotransplant and newsletter transplant reports, congress abstracts, international published literature, personal communications and hospital web sites. The absence in Europe of a sole organization collecting donors and the presence of many low-volume centers (less than 5 cases/year) makes the difference with USA: in the last 5 years (2010-2014), 222 intestinal/multivisceral transplants have been performed in EU countries (most of them in the UK), while in USA, the number of transplants achieved 634 procedures in the same period of time. Waiting list mortality remains unacceptable in both continents. Improved short-term results, with over 80% survival at 1 year, have been achieved in the busiest transplant centers likely due to immune-induction agents, more recently to innovative cross match strategies and optimizing organ allocation, but long term outcomes are still inferior to other organ transplants. Most long-term survivors were reintegrated to society with self-sustained socioeconomic status. The economic burden for the society is high and related costs are different between USA and EU (and inside Europe between member state's health-care systems), but cost-effectiveness for intestinal transplantation still needs to be proved. Overall intestinal transplantation continues to develop in EU and USA together with surgical and medical rehabilitation of patients affected by short gut syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Intestinal-specific activatable Myb initiates colon tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, J; Pereira, L; Putoczki, T; Millen, R; Paquet-Fifield, S; Germann, M; Liu, J; Cheasley, D; Sampurno, S; Stacker, S A; Achen, M G; Ward, R L; Waring, P; Mantamadiotis, T; Ernst, M; Ramsay, R G

    2016-05-12

    Transcription factor Myb is overexpressed in most colorectal cancers (CRC). Patients with CRC expressing the highest Myb are more likely to relapse. We previously showed that mono-allelic loss of Myb in an Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-driven CRC mouse model (Apc(Min/+)) significantly improves survival. Here we directly investigated the association of Myb with poor prognosis and how Myb co-operates with tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) (Apc) and cell cycle regulator, p27. Here we generated the first intestinal-specific, inducible transgenic model; a MybER transgene encoding a tamoxifen-inducible fusion protein between Myb and the estrogen receptor-α ligand-binding domain driven by the intestinal-specific promoter, Gpa33. This was to mimic human CRC with constitutive Myb activity in a highly tractable mouse model. We confirmed that the transgene was faithfully expressed and inducible in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) before embarking on carcinogenesis studies. Activation of the MybER did not change colon homeostasis unless one p27 allele was lost. We then established that MybER activation during CRC initiation using a pro-carcinogen treatment, azoxymethane (AOM), augmented most measured aspects of ISC gene expression and function and accelerated tumorigenesis in mice. CRC-associated symptoms of patients including intestinal bleeding and anaemia were faithfully mimicked in AOM-treated MybER transgenic mice and implicated hypoxia and vessel leakage identifying an additional pathogenic role for Myb. Collectively, the results suggest that Myb expands the ISC pool within which CRC is initiated while co-operating with TSG loss. Myb further exacerbates CRC pathology partly explaining why high MYB is a predictor of worse patient outcome.

  2. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  3. Survival and persistence of Bacillus clausii in the human gastrointestinal tract following oral administration as spore-based probiotic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelardi, E; Celandroni, F; Salvetti, S; Gueye, S A; Lupetti, A; Senesi, S

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the fate of Bacillus clausii spores orally administered as lyophilized or liquid formulation to healthy volunteers. The study was a randomized, open-label, cross-over trial in which two commercial probiotic formulations containing spores of four antibiotic-resistant B. clausii strains (OC, NR, SIN, T) were given as a single dose administration. Faecal B. clausii units of each strain were counted on selective media and extrapolated for the total weight of evacuated faeces. RAPD-PCR typing was used to confirm B. clausii identification. Bacillus clausii was found alive in faeces for up to 12 days. In some volunteers, the recovered amount of OC, NR or SIN was higher than the number of administered spores. Bioequivalence among the two formulations was demonstrated. Bacillus clausii spores survive transit through the human gastrointestinal tract. They can undergo germination, outgrowth and multiplication as vegetative forms. Bacillus clausii strains can have different ability to survive in the intestinal environment. Bacillus clausii spores administered as liquid suspension or lyophilized form behave similarly in vivo. This work contributes towards a better understanding of the behaviour of B. clausii spores as probiotics. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morton, Alison M

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation.

  5. Intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease: progress in basic and clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a potentially serious complication of inflammatory bowel disease and its pathophysiology is still unclear. This review will discuss recent developments relating to sources of fibroblasts in intestinal inflammation, mediators that modulate fibroblast activation and function, as well as new clinical, laboratory, endoscopic and radiological studies aimed at improving diagnosis and management of intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease. The fibroblast remains the central cell responsible for intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease and transforming growth factor-beta1 is still the most potent pro-fibrogenic cytokine. Novel mediators, however, are being identified that modulate fibroblast function, such as interleukin-13, interleukin-21, galectin-3, osteopontin, Wnt and toll-like receptor ligands, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha agents. New fibroblast sources are being identified, such as fibrocytes, and new mechanisms of fibroblast generation, like epithelial- and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Animal models of intestinal fibrosis are still few, but new ways to induce gut fibrosis are being explored. Serological markers indicating a clinically complicated course that includes intestinal fibrosis are promising and are being tested in adult and pediatric populations, particularly in Crohn's disease. Video capsule endoscopy, the Given Patency capsule, double balloon enteroscopy, and computed tomographic enteroscopy are some of the new modalities being developed to assess the risk and improve the diagnosis of intestinal fibrosis. Novel therapeutic approaches include endoscopic balloon dilatation with conventional and double balloon enteroscopy, and local injection of glucocorticoids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, showing partial but encouraging success. More studies are needed to improve knowledge of the pathophysiology of intestinal fibrosis if better preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures are to be

  6. Hyperosmolarity in the small intestine contributes to postprandial ghrelin suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Tylee, Tracy S; Frayo, R Scott; Cummings, David E

    2014-06-15

    Plasma levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin are suppressed by meals with an efficacy dependent on their macronutrient composition. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in osmolarity among macronutrient classes contributes to these differences. In three studies, the impact of small intestinal hyperosmolarity was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, isotonic, 2.5×, and 5× hypertonic solutions of several agents with diverse absorption and metabolism properties were infused duodenally at a physiological rate (3 ml/10 min). Jugular vein blood was sampled before and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min after infusion. Plasma ghrelin was suppressed dose dependently and most strongly by glucose. Hyperosmolar infusions of lactulose, which transits the small intestine unabsorbed, and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG), which is absorbed like glucose but remains unmetabolized, also suppressed ghrelin. Glucose, but not lactulose or 3-O-MG, infusions increased plasma insulin. In study 2, intestinal infusions of hyperosmolar NaCl suppressed ghrelin, a response that was not attenuated by coinfusion with the neural blocker lidocaine. In study 3, we reconfirmed that the low-osmolar lipid emulsion Intralipid suppresses ghrelin more weakly than isocaloric (but hypertonic) glucose. Importantly, raising Intralipid's osmolarity to that of the glucose solution by nonabsorbable lactulose supplementation enhanced ghrelin suppression to that seen after glucose. Hyperosmolar ghrelin occurred particularly during the initial 3 postinfusion hours. We conclude that small intestinal hyperosmolarity 1) is sufficient to suppress ghrelin, 2) may combine with other postprandial mechanisms to suppress ghrelin, 3) might contribute to altered ghrelin regulation after gastric bypass surgery, and 4) may inform dietary modifications for metabolic health.

  7. Survival outcome associated with the screening interval for gastric cancer in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Seonwoo; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2011-01-01

    Early gastric cancer (EGC) can be treated by endoscopic resection, which results in an excellent prognosis. Optimal screening intervals considering risk factors for gastric cancer have not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum gastric cancer screening interval in terms of long-term survival. Curative resection was performed in 561 patients with gastric cancer who had completed a questionnaire on their previous history of screening tests and risk factors. The association between EGC detection rate and previous screening history was evaluated, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were compared between various screening intervals. Multivariate analysis showed that intestinal metaplasia [hazard ratio (HR) 9.690, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.896-15.927] and previous screening history (HR 0.077, 95% CI 0.048-0.125) were independent factors associated with advanced gastric cancer. In patients without intestinal metaplasia, there was no significant difference in the extent of gastric cancer progression and the 5-year disease-free survival rate between groups with screening intervals of less than 3 years. In patients with intestinal metaplasia, the cutoff screening interval for detection of EGC and disease-free survival was 2 years. The optimum screening interval for disease-free survival for gastric cancer in a normal population is 3 years, but a screening interval of 2 years should be used for patients with intestinal metaplasia in Korea. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  9. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  10. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  11. Probiotic-derived polyphosphate enhances the epithelial barrier function and maintains intestinal homeostasis through integrin-p38 MAPK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Segawa

    Full Text Available Probiotics exhibit beneficial effects on human health, particularly in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis in a complex manner notwithstanding the diversity of an intestinal flora between individuals. Thus, it is highly probable that some common molecules secreted by probiotic and/or commensal bacteria contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protect the intestinal epithelium from injurious stimuli. To address this question, we aimed to isolate the cytoprotective compound from a lactobacillus strain, Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 which possess the ability to induce cytoprotective heat shock proteins in mouse small intestine. L. brevis was incubated in MRS broth and the supernatant was passed through with a 0.2-µm filter. Caco2/bbe cells were treated with the culture supernatant, and HSP27 expression was evaluated by Western blotting. HSP27-inducible components were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and HPLC. Finally, we identified that the HSP27-inducible fraction was polyphosphate (poly P, a simple repeated structure of phosphates, which is a common product of lactobacilli and other bacteria associated with intestinal microflora without any definitive physiological functions. Then, poly P was synthesized by poly P-synthesizing enzyme polyphosphate kinase. The synthesized poly P significantly induced HSP27 from Caco2/BBE cells. In addition, Poly P suppressed the oxidant-induced intestinal permeability in the mouse small intestine and pharmacological inhibitors of p38 MAPK and integrins counteract its protective effect. Daily intrarectal administration of poly P (10 µg improved the inflammation grade and survival rate in 4% sodium dextran sulfate-administered mice. This study, for the first time, demonstrated that poly P is the molecule responsible for maintaining intestinal barrier actions which are mediated through the intestinal integrin β1-p38 MAPK.

  12. Intestinal lengthening: an experimental and clinical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, A

    1984-01-01

    Small intestinal lengthening by the Bianchi procedure has now had successful clinical application in children and neonates with the short-bowel syndrome. This paper reviews the background experimental work and clinical cases so far treated. A personal case of intestinal lengthening in a 7-week-old baby with 35 cm jejunum is described in detail. Intestinal lengthening appears to reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition, thus allowing earlier establishment of total enteral alimentation. The pr...

  13. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Abrams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11. Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt, which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y and coil-coiled (L1287M domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt. Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress.

  14. The effect of reducing numbers of Campylobacter in broiler intestines on human health risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Johannessen, Gro; Laureano Adame, Laura

    2016-01-01

    One option for Campylobacter control in broiler chickens is to reduce the concentration in the intestinal content of the birds prior to slaughter, for example by vaccination or phage therapy. It is however unsure how such a reduction in concentration can be translated into a reduction......, a previously published risk assessment model is used, that describes the dynamics of transfer and survival of Campylobacter during broiler processing at the slaughterhouse. Data from five European countries are used as inputs for the models. For both approaches the analyses show that a one to two log reduction...... in concentration in the intestinal content has a large impact on the risk of campylobacteriosis due to the consumption of chicken meat: a relative risk reduction between 44% and 95%. Therefore it seems promising to aim interventions at a reduction of the concentration of Campylobacter in the broiler intestines...

  15. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivekar S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  16. Rapid Development of Intestinal Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Oh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma is felt to develop over a protracted time period through a series of defined steps. Several potential risk factors for the development of gastric cancer have been identified, including a family history of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. We present the case of a patient with neither risk factor who progressed in a 14 month time frame from histologically normal gastric mucosa to early stage intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma in the setting of diffuse gastric intestinal metaplasia and atrophic gastritis. This patient’s presentation conflicts with our current understanding of the development of intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  17. Cannabinoids in intestinal inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A; Camilleri, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects in intestinal inflammation and cancer. Adaptive changes of the endocannabinoid system have been observed in intestinal biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Studies on epithelial cells have shown that cannabinoids exert antiproliferative, antimetastatic and apoptotic effects as well as reducing cytokine release and promoting wound healing. In vivo, cannabinoids - via direct or indirect activation of CB(1) and/or CB(2) receptors - exert protective effects in well-established models of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer. Pharmacological elevation of endocannabinoid levels may be a promising strategy to counteract intestinal inflammation and colon cancer.

  18. Presidential Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-09

    done to facilitate the transition.52 CRS-12 53 David T. Stanley, Changing Administrations (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1965), p. 6. 54 “Pre...Conference of Mayors; Sharleen Hirsch, an educational administrator; and Jule Sugarman , a public administrator. Staff members were assigned to task forces...Issues,” Washington Post, Nov. 13, 1980, p. Al. 77 David Hoffman, “Bush Names Baker Secretary of State,” Washington Post, Nov. 10, 1988, pp. Al and

  19. [Experimental study on interdigestive migrating contractions with intestinal transection and injection of Ringer solution into intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, T

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence and mechanism of IMC are still not completely elucidated. Base on the conjecture of that the region of intestine and its ingredients may be concerning with the conduction mechanism of IMC, following experiment was performed by author. Small intestine was cut into two parts. Anal side was closed as blind end, and the end of oral side was sutured to colon or anal part of intestine by end to side anastomosis. Gastric fistula and intestinal fistula of the blind ending intestine were also made, and six pieces of force transducers were sutured to the serosa of the intestine in order to observe the movement of intestine. Under non-anesthesia and non-restricted condition for whole day long, Ringer solution was injected into gastric or intestinal fistula by 50 ml one shot or continuous dripped infusion of 250 ml per hour. The result is: In upper part of intestine, the appearance of IMC in oral and anal side of intestine is continuously observed. However, in lower part of intestine, the IMC of oral and anal part of intestine appeared completely independent without any continuity. And, as one shot of 50 ml of Ringer solution was injected, the conduction of IMC was suppressed but still observable, while continuously infused of 250 ml/hr, the IMC was completely disappeared.

  20. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth is Associated with Intestinal Inflammation in the Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Liliana; Babin, Alexandru; Picos, Alina; Dumitrascu, Dan Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is encountered in bowel disorders, including irritable bowel symptoms. Low degrees of inflammation have been recently reported in the irritable bowel syndrome. We looked for the association between intestinal inflammation and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth was assessed by the H2 glucose breath test in 90 consecutive patients with irritable bowel syndrome. A check-up of the oral cavity was carried out before the breath testing. Further on, the patients were classified into two groups, positive and negative, at the breath test. Then they were tested for intestinal inflammation with a fecal test for calprotectin. We used a semiquantitative test for this study. Both groups were compared for the association of intestinal inflammation with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A number of 24/90 (26.7%) patients with irritable bowel syndrome had small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A positive test for intestinal inflammation was significantly more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (chi(2): p<0.05). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is present in almost one quarter of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. It is significantly associated with intestinal inflammation.

  1. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  2. Effect of lactose on oro-cecal transit in lactose digesters and maldigesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Priebe, M. G.; Welling, G. W.; Vonk, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background The transit time of the small intestine, in addition to lactase activity, may influence lactose digestion and thus play a role in the occurrence of lactose intolerance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of lactose on the oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) in lactose

  3. Directional delivery of RSPO1 by mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Ju, Songwen; Lu, Ting; Xu, Yongfang; Zheng, Xiaocui; Wang, Haiyan; Ge, Yan; Ju, Songguang

    2017-07-01

    Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) commonly occurs in patients who received radiotherapy for pelvic or abdominal cancer, or who suffered from whole-body irradiation during a nuclear accident. RIII can lead to intestinal disorders and even death given its integrity damage that results from intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss. Recovery from RIII relies on the intensity of supportive treatment, which can attenuate lethal infection and give surviving stem cells an opportunity to regenerate. It has been reported that RSPO1 is a cytokine with potent and specific proliferative effects on intestinal crypt cells. MSCs have multiple RIII-healing effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-irradiation injury properties, due to its negative immune regulation and its homing ability to the damaged intestinal epithelia. To combine the comprehensive anti-injury potential of MSCs, and the potent ability of RSPO1 as a mitogenic factor for ISCs, we constructed RSPO1-modified C3H10 T1/2 cells and expected that RSPO1, the ISC-proliferative cytokine, could be delivered to the site of injury in a targeted manner. In this study, we transferred C3H10/RSPO1 intravenously via the retro-orbital sinus into mice suffering from abdominal irradiation at lethal dosages. Our findings demonstrated that C3H10/RSPO1 cells are able to directionally migrate to the injury site; enhance ISC survival, proliferation, and differentiation; and effectively repair the radiation-damaged intestinal epithelial cells. This study suggests that the directional delivery of RSPO1 by MSCs is a promising strategy to ameliorate, and even cure, RIII. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intestinal Phospholipase, a Novel Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Charles M.; Pieroni, Gerard; Verger, Robert

    1982-01-01

    We evaluated phospholipase activity in the intestine of rats and other species. Phospholipase activity was assayed by a surface barostat technique or an egg yolk titration system. Mucosal activity was found only by the surface barostat technique with phosphatidylglycerol as substrate; it was not found with phosphatidylcholine as substrate in assays by either technique. In gut luminal fluid activity was found when both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol were used as substrate in assays by the surface barostat technique, and phosphatidylcholine as substrate yielded activity in egg yolk titration. In rats in which pancreatic juice had been diverted, mucosal and gut luminal phospholipase activity was greater than in controls, thus demonstrating that enzyme activity was not due to pancreatic phospholipase. Bacterial origin of phospholipase activity was excluded in that phospholipase activity was found in germ-free rats; gastric and salivary gland origins were excluded in that continued phospholipase activity was found in rats with gastric fistula. The physiological importance of the enzyme was established by the finding that rats with pancreatic fistula absorbed 111 μmol of phosphatidylcholine and that controls absorbed 119 μmol of a 135-μmol load. Activity was found to be three times greater in the distal than in the proximal intestine; in cryptal cells it was 10 times greater than in villus tip cells. 65% of the activity in the gut lumen was tightly bound to particulate matter. We propose that intestinal phospholipase may be important in gut bacterial control, in the digestion of vegetable matter (phosphatidylglycerol is a major phospholipid in both plants and bacteria), and in the digestion of phospholipids in the gut lumen. PMID:7056853

  5. Identification and expression characterization of WntA during intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoni; Sun, Lina; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Libin; Miao, Ting; Xing, Lili; Huo, Da

    2017-08-01

    Wnt genes encode secreted glycoproteins that act as signaling molecules; these molecules direct cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival during animal development, maintenance of homeostasis and regeneration. At present, although the regeneration mechanism in Apostichopus japonicus has been studied, there is a little research on the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus. To understand the potential role of the Wnt signaling pathway in A. japonicus, we cloned and sequenced the WntA gene in A. japonicus. Protein localization analysis showed that WntA protein was ubiquitously expressed in epidermal cells, the muscle and submucosa of the intestinal tissue. After stimulation and evisceration, the dynamic changes in expression of the WntA gene and protein showed that WntA was constitutively expressed during different stages of intestine regeneration in A. japonicus, with higher levels during the early wound healing stage and late lumen formation in the residual and nascent intestinal tissues, indicating its response to intestinal regeneration. Simultaneously, cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis showed that the patterns of cell proliferation were similar to the patterns of WntA protein expression during different intestinal regeneration stages in this organism. Taken together, these results suggested that WntA might participate in intestinal regeneration and may be connected with cell proliferation, apoptosis in different intestinal layers. This research could establish a basis for further examination of WntA functions in A. japonicus and Wnt genes in other echinoderms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Intestinal complications from vascular prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, C; Calvete, J; García, J; Buch, E; Castells, P; Lledó, S

    1993-01-01

    Secondary FAE is a rare complication, usually located at the duodenum. The typical clinical presentation is like a digestive hemorrhage or a sepsis. We report two cases of FAE with atypical manifestations. The first case presented a lower digestive hemorrhage produced by the fistulization to the sigma. The second case appeared like an intestinal obliteration caused by the full emigration of a prosthesis to the jejunum. We wish to remark the importance of the clinical suspicion of a FAE (Key of diagnosis), and the sparing relevance of the complementary examinations and the urgency of a surgical treatment in order to avoid the high rate of morbi-mortality associated with this complication.

  7. Inflammatory mediators and intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M S; MacKendrick, W

    1994-06-01

    Although the causes of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well understood, there is compelling evidence to suggest that the inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This article examines the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and other mediators on the development of NEC, and attempts to explain the association of the putative NEC risk factors with altered mediator production and subsequent intestinal injury. The authors hypothesize that PAF is a key mediator in the final common pathway leading to NEC.

  8. Carvacrol reduces irinotecan-induced intestinal mucositis through inhibition of inflammation and oxidative damage via TRPA1 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Elenice M; Souza, Luan K M; Araújo, Thiago S L; Nogueira, Kerolayne M; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Araújo, Alyne R; Martins, Conceição S; Pacífico, Dvison M; de C Brito, Gerly Anne; Souza, Emmanuel P; Sousa, Damião P; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2016-12-25

    Intestinal mucositis is an inflammatory process occurring in the intestinal mucosa and is a common side effect of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) based anticancer regimens. The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) receptor is highly expressed in the intestinal mucosa and has the ability to identify cell damage signaling indicates its possible association with intestinal mucositis. Carvacrol is an agonist of the TRPA1 receptor and has anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify the supposed anti-inflammatory and protective action of carvacrol via TRPA1 activation against intestinal mucositis induced by CPT-11 in mice. Briefly, mice were treated with either DMSO 2% or CPT-11 (75 mg/kg, per 4 days, i.p.) or the carvacrol (25, 75 or 150 mg/kg, per 8 days, i.p.) before CPT-11. In other group, the animals were pretreated with HC-030031, a TRPA1 antagonist, 30 min before treatment with carvacrol. On day 7, animal survival and bacteremia were assessed, and following euthanasia, samples of the jejunum were obtained for morphometric analysis and measurement of antioxidant and pro-inflammatory markers. Carvacrol was found to exert an anti-inflammatory action against CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis through strong interactions with TRPA1 receptors; reduction in the production or release or both of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and KC); and decrease in other indicators of inflammation (MPO, NF-κB, COX-2) and oxidative stress (GSH, MDA, and NOx levels). It also contributed to the restoration of the tissue architecture of the villi and crypts in the small intestine, and improved clinical parameters such as survival, body mass variation, leukogram, and blood bacterial count. Thus, TRPA1 could be a target for future therapeutic approaches in the treatment of intestinal mucositis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of Paneth Cell Fate, Intestinal Inflammation, and Tumorigenesis by PKCλ/ι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakanishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paneth cells are a highly specialized population of intestinal epithelial cells located in the crypt adjacent to Lgr5+ stem cells, from which they differentiate through a process that requires downregulation of the Notch pathway. Their ability to store and release antimicrobial peptides protects the host from intestinal pathogens and controls intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that PKCλ/ι is required for Paneth cell differentiation at the level of Atoh1 and Gfi1, through the control of EZH2 stability by direct phosphorylation. The selective inactivation of PKCλ/ι in epithelial cells results in the loss of mature Paneth cells, increased apoptosis and inflammation, and enhanced tumorigenesis. Importantly, PKCλ/ι expression in human Paneth cells decreases with progression of Crohn’s disease. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC patients revealed that low PRKCI levels correlated with significantly worse patient survival rates. Therefore, PKCλ/ι is a negative regulator of intestinal inflammation and cancer through its role in Paneth cell homeostasis.

  10. Steered transition path sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan

    2012-06-21

    We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

  11. Monosodium L-Glutamate and Dietary Fat Differently Modify the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Meng Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chinese have been undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet-consuming lifestyle, while monosodium L-glutamate (MSG is widely used as a daily food additive. It has been reported that fat alters the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestinal microbiota, and no study was done focusing on the interaction effect of fat and MSG with respect to intestinal microbiota. The present study thus aimed to determine the effects of MSG and/or fat on intestinal microbiota, and also to identify possible interactions between these two nutrients. Methods: Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were provided to growing pigs. The microbiota from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were analyzed. Results: Our results show that both MSG and fat clearly increased the intestinal microbiota diversity. MSG and fat modified the composition of intestinal microbiota, particularly in the colon. Both MSG and fat promoted the colonization of microbes related to energy extraction in gastrointestinal tract via different ways. MSG promoted the colonization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia, while fat increased the percentage of Prevotella in colon and other intestinal segments. Conclusion: Our results will help to understand how individual or combined dietary changes modify the microbiota composition to prevent obesity.

  12. Monosodium L-Glutamate and Dietary Fat Differently Modify the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ze-Meng; Li, Tie-Jun; Wu, Li; Xiao, Ding-Fu; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yu-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese have been undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet-consuming lifestyle, while monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a daily food additive. It has been reported that fat alters the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestinal microbiota, and no study was done focusing on the interaction effect of fat and MSG with respect to intestinal microbiota. The present study thus aimed to determine the effects of MSG and/or fat on intestinal microbiota, and also to identify possible interactions between these two nutrients. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were provided to growing pigs. The microbiota from jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were analyzed. Our results show that both MSG and fat clearly increased the intestinal microbiota diversity. MSG and fat modified the composition of intestinal microbiota, particularly in the colon. Both MSG and fat promoted the colonization of microbes related to energy extraction in gastrointestinal tract via different ways. MSG promoted the colonization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia, while fat increased the percentage of Prevotella in colon and other intestinal segments. Our results will help to understand how individual or combined dietary changes modify the microbiota composition to prevent obesity.

  13. Salmonella Interaction with and Passage through the Intestinal Mucosa: Through the Lens of the Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstrom, Kelly; McCormick, Beth A

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within the host, as well as for further dissemination throughout the body, and subsequent systemic disease. In this review, we highlight some of the major hurdles Salmonella must overcome upon encountering the intestinal mucosal epithelial barrier, and examine how these bacteria surmount and exploit host defense mechanisms.

  14. Salmonella interaction with and passage through the intestinal mucosa: through the lens of the organism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly eHallstrom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotypes are invasive enteric pathogens spread through fecal contamination of food and water sources, and represent a constant public health threat around the world. The symptoms associated with salmonellosis and typhoid disease are largely due to the host response to invading Salmonella, and to the mechanisms these bacteria employ to survive in the presence of, and invade through the intestinal mucosal epithelia. Surmounting this barrier is required for survival within the host, as well as for further dissemination throughout the body, and subsequent systemic disease. In this review, we highlight some of the major hurdles Salmonella must overcome upon encountering the intestinal mucosal epithelial barrier, and examine how these bacteria surmount and exploit host defense mechanisms.

  15. [RESULTS OF GASTROPLASTY, USING ILEOCECAL SEGMENT OF INTESTINE AFTER COMBINED GASTRECTOMY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazirskiy, V A

    2015-11-01

    Results of treatment of 18 patients for locally spread gastric cancer, in whom after combined gastrectomy gastroplasty was accomplished, using ileocecal intestinal segment (the main group), were presented. In a comparison group 20 patients were included, in whom after combined gastrectomy end-to-loop esophagojejunoanastomosis was formated. Early postoperative complications have occurred in the main group--in 7 (38.8%) patients, and in comparison group--in 6 (30%). Postoperatively 2 (11.1%) and 2 (10%) patients died, accordingly. Gastroplasty, using ileo-cecal intestinal segment, have promoted reduction of the remote postgastrectomy syndromes occurrence rate from 58.8 to 11.1%. In a comparison group median survival was 18.6 mo, and in the main--a survival mediana was not achieved, because the investigation still goes on.

  16. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  17. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa D Flora

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  18. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  19. Mechanisms of intestinal inflammation and development of associated cancers: Lessons learned from mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Aya M.; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with approximately 1/5th of all human cancers. Arising from combinations of factors such as environmental exposures, diet, inherited gene polymorphisms, infections, or from dysfunctions of the immune response, chronic inflammation begins as an attempt of the body to remove injurious stimuli; however, over time, this results in continuous tissue destruction and promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis. Here we focus on intestinal inflammation and its associated cancers, a group of diseases on the rise and affecting millions of people worldwide. Intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and celiac disease. Long-standing intestinal inflammation is associated with colorectal cancer and small-bowel adenocarcinoma, as well as extraintestinal manifestations, including lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. This article highlights potential mechanisms of pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease, as well as those involved in the progression to associated cancers, most of which have been identified from studies utilizing mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into chemically induced models; genetic models, which make up the bulk of the studied models; adoptive transfer models; and spontaneous models. Studies in these models have lead to the understanding that persistent antigen exposure in the intestinal lumen, in combination with loss of epithelial barrier function, and dysfunction and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Transcriptional changes in this environment leading to cell survival, hyperplasia, promotion of angiogenesis, persistent DNA damage, or insufficient repair of DNA damage due to an excess of proinflammatory mediators are then thought to lead to sustained malignant transformation. With regards

  20. Counselling variation among physicians regarding intestinal transplant for short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Christy L; Diefenbach, Karen A; Mercurio, Mark R

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal transplant in infants with severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is an emerging therapy, yet without sufficient long-term data or established guidelines, resulting in possible variation in practice. To assess current attitudes and counselling practices among physicians regarding intestinal transplant in infants with SBS, and to determine whether counselling and management vary between subspecialists or centres. A national sample of practicing paediatric surgeons and neonatologists was surveyed via the American Academy of Paediatrics listserves. Results were analysed by physician subspecialty and again by presence or absence of intestinal transplant at respondent's centre. The survey was completed by 433 respondents, consisting of 363 neonatologists and 70 paediatric surgeons. Fifty-seven respondents (13.2%) practiced at a centre that performed intestinal transplants in children. The vast majority of respondents (91% for preterm, 95% for term neonates) felt that maintaining a neonate with SBS on total parenteral nutrition for intestinal transplant was ethically optional (neither impermissible nor obligatory), and that parents should be given an informed choice whether to pursue that option. However, only 33% indicated they often/always offer intestinal transplant as a treatment option to families in this situation. There is a marked disparity between individual physicians' beliefs regarding the acceptability of intestinal transplant for severe SBS and their reported practice. Wide variability exists among physicians with respect to their knowledge, beliefs and practice regarding severe SBS, raising concerns about transparency and justice. Survival data prior to transplant, currently unavailable, are essential to rational decision making and informed parental permission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Polaprezinc protects normal intestinal epithelium against exposure to ionizing radiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odawara, Soichi; Doi, Hiroshi; Shikata, Toshiyuki; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hitomi; Niwa, Yasue; Kosaka, Kengo; Tarutani, Kazuo; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2016-10-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), an antiulcer drug, has been reported to have antioxidant effects. The purpose of the present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of PZ in the normal intestine of C57BL/6J mice. PZ was orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight in the drinking water. Firstly, the present study compared the survival of normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells with mice that received PZ prior to or following irradiation. Next, the present study examined the sequential changes of the incidence of apoptosis in the normal intestine of mice that received irradiation. The mice that received PZ prior to irradiation demonstrated a stronger protective effect on the normal intestine compared with those that received PZ after irradiation. The present study therefore administrated PZ 2 h before irradiation in the subsequent experiments. The mice receiving PZ developed fewer apoptotic cells in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Radiation-induced cell death occurred with a peak at position 10 or lower from the base of the crypt axis, and was subsequently reduced by PZ treatment. Pretreatment with PZ protected the normal intestinal tissues from radiation-induced apoptosis.

  2. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  3. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  4. Ezetimibe Promotes Brush Border Membrane-to-Lumen Cholesterol Efflux in the Small Intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanari Nakano

    Full Text Available Ezetimibe inhibits Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1, an apical membrane cholesterol transporter of enterocytes, thereby reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption. This treatment also increases extrahepatic reverse cholesterol transport via an undefined mechanism. To explore this, we employed a trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE assay, which directly detects circulation-to-intestinal lumen 3H-cholesterol transit in a cannulated jejunal segment, and found an increase of TICE by 45%. To examine whether such increase in efflux occurs at the intestinal brush border membrane(BBM-level, we performed luminal perfusion assays, similar to TICE but the jejunal wall was labelled with orally-given 3H-cholesterol, and determined elevated BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux by 3.5-fold with ezetimibe. Such increased efflux probably promotes circulation-to-lumen cholesterol transit eventually; thus increases TICE. Next, we wondered how inhibition of NPC1L1, an influx transporter, resulted in increased efflux. When we traced orally-given 3H-cholesterol in mice, we found that lumen-to-BBM 3H-cholesterol transit was rapid and less sensitive to ezetimibe treatment. Comparison of the efflux and fractional cholesterol absorption revealed an inverse correlation, indicating the efflux as an opposite-regulatory factor for cholesterol absorption efficiency and counteracting to the naturally-occurring rapid cholesterol influx to the BBM. These suggest that the ezetimibe-stimulated increased efflux is crucial in reducing cholesterol absorption. Ezetimibe-induced increase in cholesterol efflux was approximately 2.5-fold greater in mice having endogenous ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 heterodimer, the major sterol efflux transporter of enterocytes, than the knockout counterparts, suggesting that the heterodimer confers additional rapid BBM-to-lumen cholesterol efflux in response to NPC1L1 inhibition. The observed framework for intestinal cholesterol fluxes may provide ways to

  5. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    : To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion......BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM...... of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean...

  6. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM......: To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion...... of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean...

  7. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  8. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour | Ntloko | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While 4 patients presented with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction, one IMFT was an incidental finding at laparotomy for trauma. Three I-IMFTs ... Heightened recognition of I-IMFT, albeit rare, as a cause of intestinal obstruction, including intussusception, is necessary for preoperative suspicion of I-IMFT. SAJS, VOL ...

  9. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  10. Intestinal proteome changes during infant necrotizing enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Smith, Birgitte; Qvist, Niels

    2013-01-01

    between necrotic and vital small-intestine sections and 23 proteins were identified for colon sections. Five proteins were similarly affected in the small intestine and colon: histamine receptors (HRs), actins, globins, immunoglobulin, and antitrypsin. Two heat shock proteins (HSPs) were affected...

  11. Allometric scaling relationship between frequency of intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... This study aimed to establish an allometric scaling relationship between the frequency of intestinal contractions and body mass of different mammalian species. The frequency of intestinal contractions of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse were measured using an isolated organ system. The isolated rings ...

  12. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course...

  13. Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases: Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of studies show that alterations in intestinal microbiota are linked with metabolic diseases. Here, we propose that intestinal microbiota regulation by polyphenols may be an important mechanism underlying their therapeutic benefits for metabolic diseases. This helps elucidate the intriguing pharmacology of polyphenols and optimize the treatment of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  15. Primary mouse small intestinal epithelial cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, T.; Clevers, H.

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We have recently shown that Lgr5 (Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in intestinal stem cells by an in vivo genetic lineage tracing strategy. In the past, extensive efforts have

  16. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... both Madras thorn and moringa fodders were significantly higher than that for leucaena fodder. Potential ... The in vivo measurement of nutrient digestion in the rumen and intestine requires that the animal be surgically prepared ... Various in vitro laboratory techniques have been used to predict intestinal.

  17. Allometric scaling relationship between frequency of intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study aimed to establish an allometric scaling relationship between the frequency of intestinal contractions and body mass of different mammalian species. The frequency of intestinal contractions of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse were measured using an isolated organ system. The isolated rings were prepared from ...

  18. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country.

  19. Neonatal appendicitis: a survival case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Linha Secco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of neonatal appendicitis in a children’s hospital in southern Brazil, demonstrating the impact on neonatal survival. Method: Case study with data collection from medical records, approved by the Institution and Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings. Results: The clinical picture is initially characterized by food intolerance, evolving to hypoactivity, alteration of vital signs and septicemia due to intestinal perforation. Management is exclusively surgical, since no case described in the literature was diagnosed preoperatively and the findings usually point to acute abdomen. Conclusion: A focused clinical surveillance should be established when the infant presents peritoneal irritation. Follow-up of the evolution and the worsening of the symptoms by nurses, as part of the care team in partnership with the medical team, enables an early surgical intervention, thereby avoiding complications such as septicemia and death.

  20. Human Enteroids/Colonoids and Intestinal Organoids Functionally Recapitulate Normal Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; In, Julie; Blutt, Sarah E; de Jonge, Hugo R; Estes, Mary K; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-02-19

    Identification of Lgr5 as the intestinal stem cell marker as well as the growth factors necessary to replicate adult intestinal stem cell division has led to the establishment of the methods to generate "indefinite" ex vivo primary intestinal epithelial cultures, termed "mini-intestines." Primary cultures developed from isolated intestinal crypts or stem cells (termed enteroids/colonoids) and from inducible pluripotent stem cells (termed intestinal organoids) are being applied to study human intestinal physiology and pathophysiology with great expectations for translational applications, including regenerative medicine. Here we discuss the physiologic properties of these cultures, their current use in understanding diarrhea-causing host-pathogen interactions, and potential future applications. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...

  2. Mechanisms and consequences of intestinal dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, G Adrienne; Hennet, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota is in constant flow under the influence of factors such as the diet, ingested drugs, the intestinal mucosa, the immune system, and the microbiota itself. Natural variations in the gut microbiota can deteriorate to a state of dysbiosis when stress conditions rapidly decrease microbial diversity and promote the expansion of specific bacterial taxa. The mechanisms underlying intestinal dysbiosis often remain unclear given that combinations of natural variations and stress factors mediate cascades of destabilizing events. Oxidative stress, bacteriophages induction and the secretion of bacterial toxins can trigger rapid shifts among intestinal microbial groups thereby yielding dysbiosis. A multitude of diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases but also metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes type II are associated with intestinal dysbiosis. The characterization of the changes leading to intestinal dysbiosis and the identification of the microbial taxa contributing to pathological effects are essential prerequisites to better understand the impact of the microbiota on health and disease.

  3. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  4. Rehabilitation of individuals with intestinal ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lívia Módolo; Sonobe, Helena Megumi; Vieira, Flávia De Siqueira; De Oliveira, Marissa Silva; Lenza, Nariman De Felício Bortucan; Da Silva Teles, André Aparecido

    2015-12-10

    This article will discuss an ethnographic study interpreting the rehabilitation experience of 15 individuals with an intestinal ostomy in Brazil, analysed using thematic analysis from the perspective of the sociology of health. The decoded meanings included: 'dealing with treatment and intestinal ostomy', and led to the theme 'the rehabilitation experience of patients with intestinal ostomy due to chronic illness', which addressed normality of life before intestinal illness, defining oneself and life, considering personal, family, social and therapeutic difficulties, and preparing to live with an intestinal ostomy, considering both the private and public spheres. This study will contribute to the specialised care provided in the various contexts of healthcare delivery, especially in relation to the humanisation of care of patients and implementation of appropriate strategies to meet the needs of patients.

  5. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  6. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  7. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  8. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  9. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  10. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    experienced size reductions and shape transitions from rods to cocci. In the short-term, these trends more closely resembled the response of these organisms to starvation conditions than to nutrient-rich media. Results from this experiment reproduced the physical state of cells (small cocci) in ancient halite where prokaryotes co-exist with single-celled algae. We conclude that glycerol is not the limiting factor in the survival of haloarchaea for thousands of years in fluid inclusions in halite. PMID:26569313

  11. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    and DV582A-1 experienced size reductions and shape transitions from rods to cocci. In the short-term, these trends more closely resembled the response of these organisms to starvation conditions than to nutrient-rich media. Results from this experiment reproduced the physical state of cells (small cocci in ancient halite where prokaryotes co-exist with single-celled algae. We conclude that glycerol is not the limiting factor in the survival of haloarchaea for thousands of years in fluid inclusions in halite.

  12. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea re-stricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has...... not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients' regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers...... = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional Transit allows assessment of regional GITT in patients with diarrhea. Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have faster than normal gastrointestinal transit due to faster small intestinal and colorectal transit times. The latter is caused by an increased frequency...

  13. [Neovagina with intestine: 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, A; Molina, E; Cerdá, J; Cañizo, A; Rodriguez, A; Laín, A; Fanjul, M; Vázquez, J

    2008-01-01

    The absence or hipoplasia vaginal can turn out to be isolated, associated with ambiguous genitalia, or as anatomical variant in a syndrome of sewer. The fundamental aim in the creation of a new vagina is: to obtain a good aesthetic result, to fulfil functional criteria (elasticity, sensibility, physiological inclination) and to improve the quality of life of the patients avoiding the use of molds and minimizing the morbidity of the zones donors. In this work let's sense beforehand our experience in the accomplishment of neovaginas with intestine. We analyze the clinical record of 13 patients treated surgically in the last ten years. We differentiate two groups according to the age, the diagnosis and the type of surgery: a) the first group of 8 patients present syndrome of insensibility to the androgens (4), syndrome of Rokitansky (2), extrofia of sewer (1) and mixed gonadal disgenesia (1). This group of patients were controlled in the adolescence by an average of age of 19 years (11-35 years), they fulfilling a neovagina with sigma; b) the second group of 5 patients with sewer (3), extrofia of sewer (1) and congenital suprarrenal hiperplasia (1). This group was controlled prematurely by a middle ages of one year (4 months-3 years). The intestinal segment used as neovagina was sigma (2), ileon (2) and rectum (1), and was performed during the surgical correction of her congenital malformation. Two patients have presented intestinal obstruction in the postoperatory immediate one. Four patients have needed removal of a small vaginal prolapse, and three have needed vaginal transitory expansions for introit stenosis. The long-term evolution has been favorable with an excellent aesthetic aspect. Four patients recount sexual fully satisfactory relations. We believe that the neovagina with sigma is at present the best option in patients with absence or hipoplasia vaginal. The advantages are the possibility of precocious and one time correction, a neovagina of dimensions and

  14. Evaluation of gastrointestinal transit after infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos-Ramos, L; Gama, L A; Mati, V L T; Corá, L A; Fujiwara, R T; Americo, M F

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to correlate the gastrointestinal transit profile in rats, evaluated by a biomagnetic technique, in response to infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Eggs per gram, intestinal number of worms and fecundity, and also gastric emptying time, cecum arrival time, small intestinal transit time and stool weight were determined. Assessments occurred at 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days post infection (dpi) with three infective loads (400, 2000, and 10,000 L). Gastric emptying was faster (p=0.0001) and the intestinal transit was significantly slower (p=0.001) during the infection time course. Also, linear mixed-effects models showed significantly changes in small intestinal transit after three parasite load over time. Cecum arrival was not influenced by infection time course or parasite load. As indirect effect, stool weight decreased accompanied a strong oviposition peak at 9 dpi in 400 L and 2000 L. In several motor function instances, neuromuscular dysfunction persists after mucosal inflammation has decreased. Our approach could be very helpful to evaluate gastrointestinal motor abnormalities in vivo after parasite infection. Despite parasitological data progressively decreased after 15 dpi, small intestinal transit worse over time and according to burden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the passage of Lactobacillus gasseri K7 and bifidobacteria from the stomach to intestines using a single reactor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Ah Ueli

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotic bacteria are thought to play an important role in the digestive system and therefore have to survive the passage from stomach to intestines. Recently, a novel approach to simulate the passage from stomach to intestines in a single bioreactor was developed. The advantage of this automated one reactor system was the ability to test the influence of acid, bile salts and pancreatin. Lactobacillus gasseri K7 is a strain isolated from infant faeces with properties making the strain interesting for cheese production. In this study, a single reactor system was used to evaluate the survival of L. gasseri K7 and selected bifidobacteria from our collection through the stomach-intestine passage. Results Initial screening for acid resistance in acidified culture media showed a low tolerance of Bifidobacterium dentium for this condition indicating low survival in the passage. Similar results were achieved with B. longum subsp. infantis whereas B. animalis subsp. lactis had a high survival. These initial results were confirmed in the bioreactor model of the stomach-intestine passage. B. animalis subsp. lactis had the highest survival rate (10% attaining approximately 5 × 106 cfu ml-1 compared to the other tested bifidobacteria strains which were reduced by a factor of up to 106. Lactobacillus gasseri K7 was less resistant than B. animalis subsp. lactis but survived at cell concentrations approximately 1000 times higher than other bifidobacteria. Conclusion In this study, we were able to show that L. gasseri K7 had a high survival rate in the stomach-intestine passage. By comparing the results with a previous study in piglets we could confirm the reliability of our simulation. Of the tested bifidobacteria strains, only B. animalis subsp. lactis showed acceptable survival for a successful passage in the simulation system.

  16. Evaluation of the passage of Lactobacillus gasseri K7 and bifidobacteria from the stomach to intestines using a single reactor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Philipp; Kohler, Christian; von Ah, Ueli

    2009-05-08

    Probiotic bacteria are thought to play an important role in the digestive system and therefore have to survive the passage from stomach to intestines. Recently, a novel approach to simulate the passage from stomach to intestines in a single bioreactor was developed. The advantage of this automated one reactor system was the ability to test the influence of acid, bile salts and pancreatin.Lactobacillus gasseri K7 is a strain isolated from infant faeces with properties making the strain interesting for cheese production. In this study, a single reactor system was used to evaluate the survival of L. gasseri K7 and selected bifidobacteria from our collection through the stomach-intestine passage. Initial screening for acid resistance in acidified culture media showed a low tolerance of Bifidobacterium dentium for this condition indicating low survival in the passage. Similar results were achieved with B. longum subsp. infantis whereas B. animalis subsp. lactis had a high survival.These initial results were confirmed in the bioreactor model of the stomach-intestine passage. B. animalis subsp. lactis had the highest survival rate (10%) attaining approximately 5 x 106 cfu ml-1 compared to the other tested bifidobacteria strains which were reduced by a factor of up to 106. Lactobacillus gasseri K7 was less resistant than B. animalis subsp. lactis but survived at cell concentrations approximately 1000 times higher than other bifidobacteria. In this study, we were able to show that L. gasseri K7 had a high survival rate in the stomach-intestine passage. By comparing the results with a previous study in piglets we could confirm the reliability of our simulation. Of the tested bifidobacteria strains, only B. animalis subsp. lactis showed acceptable survival for a successful passage in the simulation system.

  17. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enser, M

    1965-08-01

    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 0.01-5.0mm showed a maximum at 0.1mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 0.5mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 0.01-5.0mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0.5-0.6mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 0.8mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 0.01-2.5mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 0.01-0.4mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 0.4 and 1.0mm most was in diglycerides, and between 2.5 and 5.0mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa.

  18. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma causing intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy toddler with bilious vomiting and erythematous gluteal rash over 2 weeks had intermittent pain, constipation and decreased appetite. All labs were negative with the exception of fecal occult blood. Abdominal x-ray and ultrasound revealed dilated air-filled loops of bowel and partial small bowel obstruction. After persistent worsening abdominal pain and vomiting a CT scan with IV contrast (Fig. 1 suggested small bowel obstruction. Emergent surgery was performed and diagnostic laparoscopy revealed about 61 cm of necrotic bowel causing stricture formation and mesenteric shortening in the distal small bowel. 56 cm of inflamed bowel was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Final pathology report indicated diffuse intestinal angiomatosis with transmural involvement and focal erosion consistent with KHE (Fig. 2. Presentation is varied, consists of cutaneous lesion, retroperitoneal mass, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, intussusception, or multifocal neoplasms. Complete surgical resection with wide margins is the best therapeutic option and has achieved the best outcomes. If not treated in sufficient time, KHE has a relatively high mortality rate of 30%, with most deaths occurring due to its locally invasive effects [5]. There are limited reports of identifying features of KHE on imaging. Of 165 cases of KHE none were presented in the small bowel [5]. We report the unique case of KHE presenting as a hypervascular mass causing obstruction in the distal small bowel. Although extremely rare, KHE should be considered as a reason for severe GI stricture or obstruction in infants and children in obscure cases and included in the differential.

  19. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) lowers body weight and affects intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Ren, Wenkai; Gao, Wei; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Yinghui; Yao, Kang; Huang, Ruilin; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-06-13

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment. The ileum was collected for detecting the expression of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines and innate immune factors by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Additionally, the ileal luminal contents and feces were collected for 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the microbial composition. The intestinal microbiota in mice was disrupted with an antibiotic cocktail. The results revealed that AKG supplementation lowered body weight, promoted ileal expression of mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily (such as cryptdins-1, cryptdins-4, and cryptdins-5) while influencing the intestinal microbial composition (i.e., lowering the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio). In the antibiotic-treated mouse model, AKG supplementation failed to affect mouse body weight and inhibited the expression of cryptdins-1 and cryptdins-5 in the ileum. We concluded that AKG might affect body weight and intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

  20. Risk factors of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khvorostukhina N.F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: to study risk factors and options for clinical course of acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy. Materials and methods. A detailed study of history, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment characteristics of acute intestinal obstruction in 79 pregnant women was undertaken. Results: It was determined that a combination of intestinal obstruction, and pregnancy is more common for II and III trimester of gestation (88,5%, with more likely to develop mechanical obstruction caused by the adhesive process (77,2%. Risk factors for intestinal obstruction in pregnancy are: chronic diseases of gastrointestinal tract, surgery of abdominal cavity and pelvis, burdened obstetric and gynecological history and long-term use of progestogens during pregnancy. Difficulties in diagnosis are associated with absence of classical symptoms of disease that is caused by changes in topographical relations of abdominal cavity, increasing size of uterus, as well as lack of immune response to the emergence of a pathological process. Conclusion. Formation of pregnant women at risk for development of intestinal obstruction and preventive measures to address violations of intestinal motor function can reduce the risk of disease. Algorithm of medical tactics for suspected acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy, allowing to reduce time of diagnosis and provision of medical care.

  1. Digestive enzyme expression and epithelial structure of small intestine in neonatal rats after 16 days spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, M.; Yamasaki, M.; Hazama, A.; Ijiri, K.; Shimizu, T.

    It is important to assure whether digestive system can develop normally in neonates during spaceflight. Because the small intestine changes its function and structure drastically around weaning known as redifferentiation. Lactase expression declines and sucrase increases in small intestine for digestion of solid food before weaning. In this paper, we compared this enzyme transition and structural development of small intestine in neonatal rats after spaceflight. To find digestive genes differentially expressed in fight rats, DNA membrane macroarray was also used. Eight-day old rats were loaded to Space Shuttle Columbia, and housed in the animal facility for 16 days in space (STS-90, Neurolab mission). Two control groups (AGC; asynchronous ground control and VIV; vivarium) against flight group (FLT) were prepared. There was no difference in structure (crypt depth) and cell differentiation of epithelium between FLT and AGC by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that the amount of sucrase mRNA compared to lactase was decreased in FLT by RT-PCR. It reflected the enzyme transition was inhibited. Increase of 5 genes (APO A-I, APO A-IV, ACE, aFABP and aminopeptidase M) and decrease of carboxypeptidase-D were detected in FLT using macroarray. We think nutrition differences (less nourishment and late weaning) during spaceflight may cause inhibition of enzyme transition at least partly. The weightlessness might contribute to the inhibition through behavioral change.

  2. Opposing functions of IKKβ during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Lars; Nebelsiek, Tim; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Dann, Sara M.; Mages, Jörg; Lang, Roland; Robine, Sylvie; Kagnoff, Martin F.; Schmid, Roland M.; Karin, Michael; Arkan, Melek C.; Greten, Florian R.

    2008-01-01

    NF-κB is a key transcriptional regulator of inflammatory responses, but also controls expression of prosurvival genes, whose products protect tissues from damage and may thus act indirectly in an antiinflammatory fashion. The variable importance of these two distinct NF-κB-controlled responses impacts the potential utility of NF-κB inhibition as a treatment strategy for intractable inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show in murine models that inhibition of IKKβ-dependent NF-κB activation exacerbates acute inflammation, but attenuates chronic inflammatory disease in the intestinal tract. Acute ulcerating inflammation is aggravated because of diminished NF-κB-mediated protection against epithelial cell apoptosis and delayed mucosal regeneration secondary to reduced NF-κB-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells that secrete cytoprotective factors. In contrast, in IL-10-deficient mice, which serve as a model of chronic T cell-dependent colitis, ablation of IKKβ in the intestinal epithelium has no impact, yet IKKβ deficiency in myeloid cells attenuates inflammation and prolongs survival. These results highlight the striking context and tissue dependence of the proinflammatory and antiapoptotic functions of NF-κB. Our findings caution against the therapeutic use of IKKβ/NF-κB inhibitors in acute inflammatory settings dominated by cell loss and ulceration. PMID:18815378

  3. Opposing functions of IKKbeta during acute and chronic intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Lars; Nebelsiek, Tim; Fingerle, Alexander A; Dann, Sara M; Mages, Jörg; Lang, Roland; Robine, Sylvie; Kagnoff, Martin F; Schmid, Roland M; Karin, Michael; Arkan, Melek C; Greten, Florian R

    2008-09-30

    NF-kappaB is a key transcriptional regulator of inflammatory responses, but also controls expression of prosurvival genes, whose products protect tissues from damage and may thus act indirectly in an antiinflammatory fashion. The variable importance of these two distinct NF-kappaB-controlled responses impacts the potential utility of NF-kappaB inhibition as a treatment strategy for intractable inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show in murine models that inhibition of IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB activation exacerbates acute inflammation, but attenuates chronic inflammatory disease in the intestinal tract. Acute ulcerating inflammation is aggravated because of diminished NF-kappaB-mediated protection against epithelial cell apoptosis and delayed mucosal regeneration secondary to reduced NF-kappaB-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells that secrete cytoprotective factors. In contrast, in IL-10-deficient mice, which serve as a model of chronic T cell-dependent colitis, ablation of IKKbeta in the intestinal epithelium has no impact, yet IKKbeta deficiency in myeloid cells attenuates inflammation and prolongs survival. These results highlight the striking context and tissue dependence of the proinflammatory and antiapoptotic functions of NF-kappaB. Our findings caution against the therapeutic use of IKKbeta/NF-kappaB inhibitors in acute inflammatory settings dominated by cell loss and ulceration.

  4. From comic relief to real understanding; how intestinal gas causes symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Gas content and transit appear to conspire with the motor and sensory responses of the gut to produce gas related symptoms, both in normal individuals and especially in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In relation to gas in IBS, two questions need to be addressed: do IBS patients produce more gas and what are the relationships between intestinal gas and symptoms? The balance of evidence seems to indicate that distension is a real phenomenon in IBS and that such distension accurately reflects gas content. More problematic is extrapolation of the observations relating symptoms to gas transit and retention.

  5. Radiologic evaluation of intestinal obstruction in the neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Eun Suk; Kwon, Sun Young [Eul Ji General Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Young [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hye Jeong [Eul Ji General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiologic findings of the intestinal obstruction in the neonate according to the causes and to determine the findings useful for the differential diagnosis. The materials consisted of 29 neonates with surgically proven gastrointestinal tract obstruction. We analyzed simple abdominal radiography and barium study comparing with the operative findings. The causes of intestinal obstruction were gastric atresia in 1 case, duodenal atresia in 3 cases, small bowel atresia in 11 cases (jejunal; 3 cases, ileal; 8 cases), colonic atresia in 2 cases, Hirschsprung's disease in 9 cases, ano-rectal anomaly in 6 cases, midgut volvulus in 2 cases, and Meckel's diverticulum in 1 case. Vomiting was noted in the all cases. The abdominal distension was not noted in the cases of gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, and proximal jejunal atresia. The meconium passage was noted in 2 cases of ileal atresia and 3 cases of Hirschsprung's disease. On barium study, site of obstruction was predicted accurately in gastric atresia, duodenal atresia, proximal jejunal atresia, and colonic atresia but it was not possible in distal jejunal atresia and ileal atresia. The microcolon was noted in 2 cases of jejunal atresia, 4 cases of ileal atresia, and 2 cases of colonic atresia. Out of 9 Hirschsprung's disease transition zones were seen on rectum or rectosigmoid junction in 7 cases and barium study was normal in 2 cases. In the diagnosis of neonatal intestinal obstruction, the basic radiologic studies such as simple abdominal radiography and gastrointestinal contrast study was useful for the differential diagnosis of the proximal bowel loop atresia colonic atresia, and midgut volvulus.

  6. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection induces intestinal epithelial cell autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yulong; Li, Fengna; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Hardwidge, Philip R; Yin, Yulong

    2014-06-25

    The morbidity and mortality in piglets caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in large economic losses to the swine industry, but the precise pathogenesis of ETEC-associated diseases remains unknown. Intestinal epithelial cell autophagy serves as a host defense against pathogens. We found that ETEC induced autophagy, as measured by both the increased punctae distribution of GFP-LC3 and the enhanced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Inhibiting autophagy resulted in decreased survival of IPEC-1 cells infected with ETEC. ETEC triggered autophagy in IPEC-1 cells through a pathway involving the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Circadian Clock Mutation Promotes Intestinal Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Summa, Keith C; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Engen, Phillip; Naqib, Ankur; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Circadian rhythm disruption is a prevalent feature of modern day society that is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory diseases, and there is a clear need for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon. We have previously demonstrated that both environmental and genetic circadian rhythm disruption causes intestinal hyperpermeability and exacerbates alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability and liver pathology. The intestinal microbiota can influence intestinal barrier integrity and impact immune system function; thus, in this study, we sought to determine whether genetic alteration of the core circadian clock gene, Clock, altered the intestinal microbiota community. Male Clock(Δ19) -mutant mice (mice homozygous for a dominant-negative-mutant allele) or littermate wild-type mice were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: (i) a standard chow diet, (ii) an alcohol-containing diet, or (iii) an alcohol-control diet in which the alcohol calories were replaced with dextrose. Stool microbiota was assessed with 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing. The fecal microbial community of Clock-mutant mice had lower taxonomic diversity, relative to wild-type mice, and the Clock(Δ19) mutation was associated with intestinal dysbiosis when mice were fed either the alcohol-containing or the control diet. We found that alcohol consumption significantly altered the intestinal microbiota in both wild-type and Clock-mutant mice. Our data support a model by which circadian rhythm disruption by the Clock(Δ19) mutation perturbs normal intestinal microbial communities, and this trend was exacerbated in the context of a secondary dietary intestinal stressor. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An EST-based approach for identifying genes expressed in the intestine and gills of pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzhubei Alexei

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Atlantic salmon is an important aquaculture species and a very interesting species biologically, since it spawns in fresh water and develops through several stages before becoming a smolt, the stage at which it migrates to the sea to feed. The dramatic change of habitat requires physiological, morphological and behavioural changes to prepare the salmon for its new environment. These changes are called the parr-smolt transformation or smoltification, and pre-adapt the salmon for survival and growth in the marine environment. The development of hypo-osmotic regulatory ability plays an important part in facilitating the transition from rivers to the sea. The physiological mechanisms behind the developmental changes are largely unknown. An understanding of the transformation process will be vital to the future of the aquaculture industry. A knowledge of which genes are expressed prior to the smoltification process is an important basis for further studies. Results In all, 2974 unique sequences, consisting of 779 contigs and 2195 singlets, were generated for Atlantic salmon from two cDNA libraries constructed from the gills and the intestine, accession numbers [Genbank: CK877169-CK879929, CK884015-CK886537 and CN181112-CN181464]. Nearly 50% of the sequences were assigned putative functions because they showed similarity to known genes, mostly from other species, in one or more of the databases used. The Swiss-Prot database returned significant hits for 1005 sequences. These could be assigned predicted gene products, and 967 were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms for molecular function, biological process and/or cellular component, employing an annotation transfer procedure. Conclusion This paper describes the construction of two cDNA libraries from pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and the subsequent EST sequencing, clustering and assigning of putative function to 1005 genes expressed in the gills and/or intestine.

  10. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  11. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mitsiakos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia, first described by Waldmann et al. in 1961, is a rare congenital malformation of the lymphatics, presented with generalized edema, hypoproteinemia and lymphopenia. Diagnosis is based on endoscopy findings and pathology.We present here a case of a male neonate, second child of an indigenous woman, delivered by caesarean section. Prenatally, multiple cystic abdominal masses were identified by ultrasound. The patient was treated successfully with enterectomy and anastomosis. Histopathology revealed primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with no features of malignancy.Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare pathology, which should be differentiated while exploring abdominal masses, hypoproteinemia and edema especially in neonates.

  12. Dietary green-plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Weström, Björn R.; Linninge, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    and the distance of migration in the intestines after 30 min were used as a measurement of gastric emptying and intestinal transit. These were reduced by thylakoid supplementation in the acute study, and however not significantly also after the two-week diet study. The second aim of the study was to investigate...

  13. Trends of Incidence and Survival of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors in the United States: A Seer Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki L. Tsikitis, Betsy C. Wertheim, Marlon A. Guerrero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in detection and survival of hollow viscus gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs across time and geographic regions of the U.S.METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to investigate 19,669 individuals with newly diagnosed gastrointestinal NETs. Trends in incidence were tested using Poisson regression. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine survival.RESULTS: Incidence increased over time for NETs of all gastrointestinal sites (all P < 0.001, except appendix. Rates have risen faster for NETs of the small intestine and rectum than stomach and colon. Rectal NETs were detected at a faster pace among blacks than whites (P < 0.001 and slower in the East than other regions (P < 0.001. We observed that appendiceal and rectal NETs carry the best prognosis and survival of small intestinal and colon NETs has improved for both men and women. Colon NETs showed different temporal trends in survival according to geographic region (Pinteraction = 0.028. Improved prognosis was more consistent across the country for small intestinal NETs.CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has increased, accompanied by inconsistently improved survival for different anatomic sites among certain groups defined by race and geographic region.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of the Probiotic and Safety Properties of Bacteriocinogenic and Non-Bacteriocinogenic Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Intestines of Nile Tilapia and Common Carp for Their Use as Probiotics in Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Temgoua, Jules-Bocamdé; Zambou, François Ngoufack; Diaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Wacher, Carmen; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes

    2017-07-27

    In this study, seven bacteriocinogenic and non-bacteriocinogenic LAB strains previously isolated from the intestines of Nile tilapia and common carp and that showed potent antibacterial activity against host-derived and non-host-derived fish pathogens were assayed for their probiotic and safety properties so as to select promising candidates for in vivo application as probiotic in aquaculture. All the strains were investigated for acid and bile tolerances, transit tolerance in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, for cell surface characteristics including hydrophobicity, co-aggregation and auto-aggregation, and for bile salt hydrolase activity. Moreover, haemolytic, gelatinase and biogenic amine-producing abilities were investigated for safety assessment. The strains were found to be tolerant at low pH (two strains at pH 2.0 and all the strains at pH 3.0). All of them could also survive in the presence of bile salts (0.3% oxgall) and in simulated gastric and intestinal juices conditions. Besides, three of them were found to harbour the gtf gene involved in pH and bile salt survival. The strains also showed remarkable cell surface characteristics, and 57.14% exhibited the ability to deconjugate bile salts. When assayed for their safety properties, the strains prove to be free from haemolytic activity, gelatinase activity and they could neither produce biogenic amines nor harbour the hdc gene. They did not also show antibiotic resistance, thus confirming to be safe for application as probiotics. Among them, Lactobacillus brevis 1BT and Lactobacillus plantarum 1KMT exhibited the best probiotic potentials, making them the most promising candidates.

  15. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and function of the intestinal epithelial stem cell marker Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-M; Yan, H-C; Fu, H-L; Xu, G-F; Wang, X-Q

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we cloned the full-length cDNA of the pig Bmi1 gene (BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene), which has been indicated as an intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) marker in other mammals. This paper provides the first report of the function of Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells and a brief description of its underlying mechanism. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology was used to clone the complete pig Bmi1 sequence, and a Bmi1-pcDNA3.1 vector was constructed for transfection into an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). The proliferation ability of the cells was estimated using the MTT assay and the EdU incorporation method at different time points after seeding. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA abundances of cell cycle-related genes were also measured. The results indicated that the pig Bmi1 cDNA is 3,193 bp in length and consists of a 981 bp open reading frame, a 256 bp 5´ untranslated region (UTR), and a 1,956 bp 3' UTR. The transcript contains no signal peptides, and there are no transmembrane regions in the pig Bmi1 coded protein, which has a total of 326 AA. The overexpression of the pig Bmi1 in the IPEC-1 cells led to increased cell proliferation and a lower percentage of cells in the G1 and S phases (P cells in the G2 phase (P 0.05). Our data suggested that pig Bmi1 can increase the proliferation of IPEC-1 cells by promoting the G1/S transition and the overall cell cycle process.

  16. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  17. Maslinic acid-enriched diet decreases intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice through transcriptomic and metabolomic reprogramming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sánchez-Tena

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid-supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01. Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in Apc(Min/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the Apc(Min/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer.

  18. Development of fatal intestinal inflammation in MyD88 deficient mice co-infected with helminth and bacterial enteropathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Su

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To determine whether and how an intestinal helminth parasite, Heligomosomoides polygyrus, might impact the TLR signaling pathway during the response to a bacterial enteropathogen, MyD88 knockout and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. polygyrus, the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, or both. We found that MyD88 knockout mice co-infected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium developed more severe intestinal inflammation and elevated mortality compared to the wild-type mice. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium, intestinal injury and mortality of the co-infected MyD88 knockout mice were found to be associated with markedly reduced intestinal phagocyte recruitment, decreased expression of the chemoattractant KC, and a significant increase in bacterial translocation. Moreover, the increase in bacterial infection and disease severity were found to be correlated with a significant downregulation of antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal tissue in co-infected MyD88 knockout mice. Our results suggest that the MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role for host defense and survival during helminth and enteric bacterial co-infection.

  19. Changes in small intestinal motility and related hormones by acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung-Hee; Lee, Deuk-Joo; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kwon, Sunoh; Park, Hi-Joon; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Seungtae

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the effects of acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli (ST 36) on the hormonal changes. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received acupuncture stimulation at acupoint ST 36 or Quchi (LI 11) once a day for 3 or 5 days in the acupuncture-stimulated groups, but not received in the normal group (n=6 in each group). On day 3 or 5, animals were given 0.1 mL of charcoal orally with a bulbed steel needle, 30 min after the last acupuncture stimulation. Ten minutes later, mice were anesthetized, and the intestinal transit and the concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), motilin, ghrelin and gastrin in the serum were measured. Compared to no acupuncture stimulation, acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 for 5 days increased the intestinal transit and down-regulated the concentration of VIP and up-regulated the concentrations of motilin, ghrelin and gastrin (Pacupuncture stimulation at LI 11 did not change them signifificantly (P>0.05). Acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 for 5 days enhances the small intestinal motility and regulates the secretion of hormones related to small intestinal motility.

  20. Pathogen invasion changes the intestinal microbiota composition and induces innate immune responses in the zebrafish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Zou, Song-Song; Zhai, Li-Juan; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Fu-Miao; An, Li-Guo; Yang, Gui-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Numerous bacteria are harbored in the animal digestive tract and are impacted by several factors. Intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for maintaining the health of an organism. However, how pathogen invasion affects the microbiota composition has not been fully clarified. The mechanisms for preventing invasion by pathogenic microorganisms are yet to be elucidated. Zebrafish is a useful model for developmental biology, and studies in this organism have gradually become focused on intestinal immunity. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota of normal cultivated and infected zebrafish intestines, the aquarium water and feed samples. We found that the predominant bacteria in the zebrafish intestine belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (67%) and that feed and environment merely influenced intestinal microbiota composition only partially. Intestinal microbiota changed after a pathogenic bacterial challenge. At the genus level, the abundance of some pathogenic intestinal bacteria increased, and these genera included Halomonas (50%), Pelagibacterium (3.6%), Aeromonas (2.6%), Nesterenkonia (1%), Chryseobacterium (3.4‰), Mesorhizobium (1.4‰), Vibrio (1‰), Mycoplasma (0.7‰) and Methylobacterium (0.6‰) in IAh group. However, the abundance of some beneficial intestinal bacteria decreased, and these genera included Nitratireductor (0.8‰), Enterococcus (0.8‰), Brevundimonas (0.7‰), Lactococcus (0.7‰) and Lactobacillus (0.4‰). Additionally, we investigated the innate immune responses after infection. ROS levels in intestine increased in the early stages after a challenge and recovered subsequently. The mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptide genes lectin, hepcidin and defensin1, were upregulated in the intestine after pathogen infection. These results suggested that the invasion of pathogen could change the intestinal microbiota composition and induce intestinal innate immune responses in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Peptidases compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum intestinal lumen and apical intestinal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Rosa, Bruce A; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine.

  2. Peptidases compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum intestinal lumen and apical intestinal membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Jasmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM, and within the intestinal lumen (IL of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16 of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine.

  3. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  4. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  5. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  6. Pilot study of lithium to restore intestinal barrier function in severe graft-versus-host disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Steinbach

    Full Text Available Severe intestinal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT causes mucosal ulceration and induces innate and adaptive immune responses that amplify and perpetuate GVHD and the associated barrier dysfunction. Pharmacological agents to target mucosal barrier dysfunction in GVHD are needed. We hypothesized that induction of Wnt signaling by lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3, would potentiate intestinal crypt proliferation and mucosal repair and that inhibition of GSK3 in inflammatory cells would attenuate the deregulated inflammatory response to mucosal injury. We conducted an observational pilot study to provide data for the potential design of a randomized study of lithium. Twenty patients with steroid refractory intestinal GVHD meeting enrollment criteria were given oral lithium carbonate. GVHD was otherwise treated per current practice, including 2 mg/kg per day of prednisone equivalent. Seventeen patients had extensive mucosal denudation (extreme endoscopic grade 3 in the duodenum or colon. We observed that 8 of 12 patients (67% had a complete remission (CR of GVHD and survived more than 1 year (median 5 years when lithium administration was started promptly within 3 days of endoscopic diagnosis of denuded mucosa. When lithium was started promptly and less than 7 days from salvage therapy for refractory GVHD, 8 of 10 patients (80% had a CR and survived more than 1 year. In perspective, a review of 1447 consecutive adult HCT patients in the preceding 6 years at our cancer center showed 0% one-year survival in 27 patients with stage 3-4 intestinal GVHD and grade 3 endoscopic appearance in the duodenum or colon. Toxicities included fatigue, somnolence, confusion or blunted affect in 50% of the patients. The favorable outcomes in patients who received prompt lithium therapy appear to support the future conduct of a randomized study of lithium for management of severe GVHD with

  7. Effects of acute ethanol gavage on intestinal integrity after hemorrhage/resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relja, Borna; Henrich, Dirk; Wetzel, Gabriel; Sander, Anna Lena; Jakob, Heike; Maraslioglu, Miriam; Marzi, Ingo; Lehnert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R), increased pro-inflammatory changes contribute to tissue injury and mortality in rodent models. Ethanol (EtOH) is assumed to modulate the inflammatory response and the subsequent organ injury after H/R. Therefore, we determined the contribution of acute ethanol gavage on intestinal inflammation and injury as well as survival after H/R in rats. Fourteen hours before H/R, female LEWIS rats were gavaged with single dose of EtOH or saline (5 g/kg, 30% EtOH, H/R_EtOH group or H/R_ctrl group). Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30 ± 2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Control groups underwent surgical procedures and gavage without H/R (sham_ctrl group and sham_EtOH group). Tissue was harvested 2 h after resuscitation. Mortality was assessed 72 h after H/R. Ethanol gavage increased survival after H/R from 20% to 80%, but amplified plasma alanineaminotransferase (ALT) release compared to saline gavage (2847 ± 406 vs. 1159 ± 200 IU/L, p < 0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage index, intestinal permeability, ileal myeloperoxidase levels as indicators of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration and systemic IL-6 levels as well as ileal IL-6 and TNF gene expressions after H/R were reduced and partly restored after ethanol gavage when compared to the saline gavaged group after H/R. Taken together, we propose that acute ethanol gavage prior to H/R 1) did not enhance intestinal mucosa injury after H/R and 2) suppressed the H/R-induced inflammatory response. Both findings seem to contribute to the ethanol-induced survival benefit after H/R in our model.

  8. Ghrelin upregulates PepT1 activity in the small intestine epithelium of rats with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingquan; Shi, Bin; Shi, Kai; Ma, Guoguang; Zhang, Hongze; Lou, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongxiang; Wan, Shengxia; Liang, Dongyu

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis causes nutritional substrate malabsorption; hence, preventing gut barrier problems and improving the nutritional status in sepsis is a compelling issue. We tested whether ghrelin administration affects peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) activity in the intestinal epithelium of rats with sepsis. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, sepsis, and ghrelin-treated groups. The cecum of sham-operated rats was separated after laparotomy without ligation and perforation. Sepsis group rats underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mucosal specimens were used for immunohistochemstry, real-time PCR, and western blotting to detect PepT1 distribution, and mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. TNF-α, IL-1β, and ghrelin levels were estimated in serum and intestinal mucosal tissue by ELISA. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure PepT1 uptake by the epithelial cells. Moreover, survival, body weight, and food intake of the rats were recorded during the 7-day treatment period. All rats in the sham-operated group survived, and 80% of rats in the sepsis group died within 7d of CLP. Treatment with ghrelin attenuated the CLP-induced body weight loss, intestine mucosa damage, and the survival rate was better. In addition, ghrelin attenuated increases in TNF-α and IL-1β production. The expressions of PepT1 mRNA and protein were higher in ghrelin-treated group rats than in sepsis rats. Moreover, the uptake function of PepT1 was better in ghrelin-treated group rats. Ghrelin treatment can reduce the inflammatory response and greatly upregulate the physiological function of PepT1 in intestinal epithelial cells of rats with sepsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The IbeA invasin of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli mediates interaction with intestinal epithelia and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Roberto J; Hu, Jia; Ross, Brittany N; Sbrana, Elena; Torres, Alfredo G

    2015-05-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) pathogroup isolates are a group of isolates from the intestinal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients that can invade intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) or macrophages and survive and/or replicate within. We have identified the ibeA gene in the genome of AIEC strain NRG857c and report the contribution of IbeA to the interaction of AIEC with IECs and macrophages and colonization of the mouse intestine. An ibeA deletion mutant strain (NRG857cΔibeA) was constructed, and the in vitro effect on AIEC adhesion and invasion of nonpolarized and polarized Caco-2 cells, the adhesion and transcytosis of M-like cells, the intracellular survival in THP-1 macrophages, and the contribution to intestinal colonization of the CD-1 murine model of infection were evaluated. A significant reduction in invasion was observed with the ibeA mutant in Caco-2 and M-like cells, whereas adhesion was not affected. Complementation of the mutant reestablished Caco-2 invasive phenotype to wild-type levels. Reduction in invasion did not significantly affect transcytosis through M-like cells at early time points. The absence of ibeA significantly affected AIEC intramacrophage survival up to 24 h postinfection. No significant changes associated with IbeA were found in AIEC colonization across the murine gastrointestinal tract, but a slight reduction of gamma interferon was observed in the ceca of mice infected with the ibeA mutant. In addition, a decrease in the pathology scores was observed in the ilea and ceca of mice infected with the ibeA mutant. Our data support the function of IbeA in the AIEC invasion process, macrophage survival, and inflammatory response in the murine intestine. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. [Effect of perioperative intestinal probiotics on intestinal flora and immune function in patients with colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dajian; Chen, Xiaowu; Wu, Jinhao; Ju, Yongle; Feng, Jing; Lu, Guangsheng; Ouyang, Manzhao; Ren, Baojun; Li, Yong

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of perioperative application of intestinal probiotics to substitute oral intestinal antimicrobial agents on intestinal flora and immune function in surgical patients with colorectal cancer. Sixty patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective laparoscopic radical surgery were randomized to receive preoperative bowel preparation using oral intestinal antimicrobial agents (n=20) or using oral intestinal probiotics (Jinshuangqi Tablets, 2.0 g, 3 times daily) since the fifth day before the operation and at 24 h after the operation for 7 consecutive days. Upon admission and 7 days after the operation, fecal samples and fasting peripheral venous blood were collected from the patients to examine the intestinal flora and serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IgA, IgG, and IgM, NK cell activity, T lymphocytes subsets CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio. At 7 days after the operation, the patients receiving probiotics showed significantly increased counts of intestinal Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus (Pintestinal preparation (Pintestinal probiotics to replace preoperative oral intestinal antimicrobial agents can effectively correct intestinal flora imbalance and improve the immune function of surgical patients with colorectal cancer.

  11. Intestinal perforation secondary to metastasic lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Álvarez Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases from lung primary tumor are rare. They can cause a variety of clinical conditions such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Intestinal perforations of intestinal metastases have a very poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient with metastatic lung cancer who presents with intestinal perforation and pneumoperitoneum. A 67 year old male, immunosuppressed and smoker is diagnosed with acute abdomen secondary to perforation of a tumor of the terminal ileum, as well as three other similar injuries. Resection and anastomosis. The patient died two months after surgery. The final pathological diagnosis supports epidermoidide poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. It was concluded that given an intestinal perforation in a patient diagnosed with lung carcinoma, it shouldn´t be excluded the metastases origen . Surgery is a purely palliative procedure.

  12. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  13. Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarala, Outi

    2013-10-01

    The role of intestinal microbiota in immune-mediated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, has deservedly received a lot of attention. Evidently, changes in the intestinal microbiota are associated with type 1 diabetes as demonstrated by recent studies. Children with beta-cell autoimmunity have shown low abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and increase in the abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum in fecal microbiota. These alterations could explain increased gut permeability, subclinical small intestinal inflammation, and dysregulation of oral tolerance in type 1 diabetes. However, these studies do not provide evidence of the causative role of the gut microbiota in the development of beta-cell autoimmunity, yet. In animal models, the composition of gut microbiota modulates the function of both innate and adaptive immunity, and intestinal bacteria are regulators of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, prevention of type 1 diabetes could, in the future, be based on the interventions targeted to the gut microbiota.

  14. [Acute intestinal infections: current and upcoming vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  16. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  17. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  18. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  19. Education for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  1. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  2. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  3. Urticarial Vasculitis-Associated Intestinal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uni Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urticarial vasculitis (UV is a rare small vessel vasculitis. UV is often idiopathic but can also present in the context of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, drug reactions, infections, or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Extracutaneous complications include intestinal ischemic injuries, in UV patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Prompt recognition and treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality. This paper describes a case of urticarial vasculitis-associated intestinal ischemia.

  4. CORRECTION OF INTESTINAL COLIC IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the contemporary vision of the causes, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and clinical manifestation of intestinal colic in infants. The article also provides a detailed description of to correction of the gastrointestinal tract in the infants. Also the article opens a discussion about the benefits of using vegetable medications with a soft spasmolytic effect for this purpose.Key words: infants, intestinal colic, gastrointestinal tract dysfunction.

  5. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  6. Sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy

    OpenAIRE

    Danyelle Braga Rodrigues Cardoso; Camilo Eduardo Almeida; Mary Elizabeth de Santana; Dione Seabra de Carvalho; Helena Megumi Sonobe; Namie Okino Sawada

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to describe the experience of sexuality and other everyday life aspects for people with intestinal ostomy. Methods: qualitative, descriptive study with ten participants of the Specialized Reference Unit who gave interviews with inductive content analysis. Results: the established themes were Physical, emotional and socio-cultural changes, Changes in the exercise of sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy and Importance of the interdisciplinary support of the new sexuality. These...

  7. [Multiple diverticulosis of the small intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varola, F; Oliaro, A; Beccaria, E; Formento, E; Marcellino, A; Villata, E

    1979-06-23

    A case of jejunum-ileum multiple diverticulosis observed during a cholecystectomy due to cholelithiasis, is reported. Stress is laid on this unusual localization of diverticulosis in the small intestine. The clinical picture can be silent or present an acute or chronic symptomatology and radical surgical treatment can performed or not. When the disease involves all the intestine, without presenting serious inflammatory phenomena and without clinical symptoms (as in the case observed), medical and not surgical treatment can be envisaged.

  8. Urticarial Vasculitis-Associated Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Uni; Yfantis, Harris; Xie, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a rare small vessel vasculitis. UV is often idiopathic but can also present in the context of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, drug reactions, infections, or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Extracutaneous complications include intestinal ischemic injuries, in UV patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Prompt recognition and treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality. This paper describes a case of urticarial vasculitis-associated intestinal ischemia. PMID:27190661

  9. Endoscopic Evaluation of the Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Shields

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological achievements in the area of endoscope design and development have resulted in instruments capable of advancing beyond the reach of simple gastroscopes. Such instruments, known as enteroscopes, form the bases of small bowel endoscopy. Recent widespread use of enteroscopes have contributed significantly to the understanding of small intestinal pathology and improved the ability to diagnose and treat patients with intestinal bleeding sources.

  10. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We...

  11. Perna canaliculus and the Intestinal Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Tali Saltzman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural medicines are often an attractive option for patients diagnosed with chronic conditions. Three main classes of bioactives that have been reported from marine mussel extracts include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Commercially, the most relevant species of marine mollusks belong to two genera, Perna and Mytilus. Specifically, the Perna canaliculus species has been repeatedly demonstrated to harbor anti-inflammatory compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs that can ameliorate pro-inflammatory conditions, or proteins that can promote thrombin inhibitory activity. Recent clinical studies have posited that extracts from green-lipped mussels may lead to prebiotic activity in the intestinal microbiome that in turn has been reported to improve symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Prebiotics have been reported to favorably interact with the intestinal microbiome through the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gut, suppressing exogenous and endogenous intestinal infections and promoting homeostasis by balancing local pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. Bioactive compounds from Perna canaliculus are functional foods and, in this regard, may positively interact with the intestinal microbiome and provide novel therapeutic solutions for intra-intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions.

  12. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  13. Loss of HLTF function promotes intestinal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HLTF (Helicase-like Transcription Factor is a DNA helicase protein homologous to the SWI/SNF family involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and the regulation of gene expression. HLTF has also been found to be frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in human colon cancers. Whether this epigenetic event is required for intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Results To address the role of loss of HLTF function in the development of intestinal cancer, we generated Hltf deficient mice. These mutant mice showed normal development, and did not develop intestinal tumors, indicating that loss of Hltf function by itself is insufficient to induce the formation of intestinal cancer. On the Apcmin/+ mutant background, Hltf- deficiency was found to significantly increase the formation of intestinal adenocarcinoma and colon cancers. Cytogenetic analysis of colon tumor cells from Hltf -/-/Apcmin/+ mice revealed a high incidence of gross chromosomal instabilities, including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fragments and aneuploidy. None of these genetic alterations were observed in the colon tumor cells derived from Apcmin/+ mice. Increased tumor growth and genomic instability was also demonstrated in HCT116 human colon cancer cells in which HLTF expression was significantly decreased. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss of HLTF function promotes the malignant transformation of intestinal or colonic adenomas to carcinomas by inducing genomic instability. Our findings highly suggest that epigenetic inactivation of HLTF, as found in most human colon cancers, could play an important role in the progression of colon tumors to malignant cancer.

  14. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  15. Intestinal Tumor in a Dish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eOhta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the response of colorectal cancer tumors to novel chemotherapeutic agents is significantly complicated by their underlying genetic and epigenetic diversity. Large-scale clinical trials involving thousands of patients are often necessary in order to accurately determine efficacy during drug development. Recent advances in genetic sequencing has allowed us to improve the prediction of drug response through genetic stratification of patients into smaller populations, yet the complexity of the cancer genome still often confounds accuracy of drug response prediction. Ultimately, we may need to replicate patient’s own tumor in a dish in order to test drug responses so that the optimal treatment can be identified. We recently developed highly efficient and tractable organoid culture system for intestinal stem cells, in which single stem cells form 3D structures recapitulating original tissue architecture. This technology has also been applied to colorectal tumors and enables us to monitor the growth and response of the patient’s own tumors. In this review, we provide an overview focusing on colorectal cancer organoid culture and its perspective for clinical applications.

  16. Survival of Dutch heathlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diemont, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES OF THE THESIS

    Heathlands in The Netherlands are vanishing due to the invasion of trees. The transition from heathland to woodland in Dutch heathlands may either proceed directly or is preceded by the development of an intermediate grass heath. These changes are due to natural

  17. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  18. Breast and stomach cancer incidence and survival in migrants in the Netherlands, 1996-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Melina; Aarts, Mieke Josepha; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike; Visser, Otto; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    Migrant populations experience a health transition that influences their cancer risk, determined by environmental changes and acculturation processes. In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated differences in breast and stomach cancer risk and survival in migrants to the Netherlands.

  19. Diverging breast and stomach cancer incidence and survival in migrants in The Netherlands, 1996–2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.; Aarts, M.J.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, M.A.; Visser, O.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Migrant populations usually experience a health transition with respect to their cancer risk as a result from environmental changes and acculturation processes. We investigated potentially contrasting experiences with breast and stomach cancer risk and survival in migrants to the

  20. Agonist-Evoked Ca2+ Signaling in Enteric Glia Drives Neural Programs That Regulate Intestinal Motility in MiceSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon L. McClain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Gastrointestinal motility is regulated by enteric neural circuitry that includes enteric neurons and glia. Enteric glia monitor synaptic activity and exhibit responses to neurotransmitters that are encoded by intracellular calcium (Ca2+ signaling. What role evoked glial responses play in the neural regulation of gut motility is unknown. We tested how evoking Ca2+ signaling in enteric glia affects the neural control of intestinal motility. Methods: We used a novel chemogenetic mouse model that expresses the designer receptor hM3Dq under the transcriptional control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter (GFAP::hM3Dq mice to selectively trigger glial Ca2+ signaling. We used in situ Ca2+ imaging and immunohistochemistry to validate this model, and we assessed gut motility by measuring pellet output and composition, colonic bead expulsion time, small intestinal transit time, total gut transit time, colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC recordings, and muscle tension recordings. Results: Expression of the hM3Dq receptor is confined to GFAP-positive enteric glia in the intestines of GFAP::hM3Dq mice. In these mice, application of the hM3Dq agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO selectively triggers intracellular Ca2+ responses in enteric glia. Glial activation drove neurogenic contractions in the ileum and colon but had no effect on neurogenic relaxations. CNO enhanced the amplitude and frequency of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of the colon, and CNO increased colonic motility in vivo. CNO had no effect on the composition of fecal matter, small intestinal transit, or whole gut transit. Conclusions: Glial excitability encoded by intracellular Ca2+ signaling functions to modulate excitatory enteric circuits. Selectively triggering glial Ca2+ signaling might be a novel strategy to improve gut function in motility disorders. Keywords: Autonomic, Chemogenetic, Enteric Nervous System, Intestine, Gut

  1. Intestinal gene expression in pigs: effects of reduced feed intake during weaning and potential impact of dietary components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Eva; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Verstegen, Martin W A; Mosenthin, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    The weaning transition is characterised by morphological, histological and microbial changes, often leading to weaning-associated disorders. These intestinal changes can partly be ascribed to the lack of luminal nutrition arising from the reduced feed intake common in pigs after weaning. It is increasingly becoming clear that changes in the supply with enteral nutrients may have major impacts on intestinal gene expression. Furthermore, the major dietary constituents, i.e. carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids, participate in the regulation of intestinal gene expression. However, nutrients may also escape digestion by mammalian enzymes in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These nutrients can be used by the microflora, resulting in the production of bacterial metabolites, for example, SCFA, which may affect intestinal gene expression indirectly. The present review provides an insight on possible effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression, as it may occur post-weaning. Detailed knowledge on effects of reduced feed intake on intestinal gene expression may help to understand weaning-associated intestinal dysfunctions and diseases. Examples are given of intestinal genes which may be altered in their expression due to supply with specific nutrients. In that way, gene expression could be modulated by dietary means, thereby acting as a potential therapeutic tool. This could be achieved, for example, by influencing genes coding for digestive or absorptive proteins, thus optimising digestive function and metabolism, but also with regard to immune response, or by influencing proliferative processes, thereby enhancing mucosal repair. This would be of special interest when designing a diet to overcome weaning-associated problems.

  2. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase prevents antibiotic-induced susceptibility to enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sayeda Nasrin; Yammine, Halim; Moaven, Omeed; Ahmed, Rizwan; Moss, Angela K; Biswas, Brishti; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Rakesh; Raychowdhury, Atri; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Ghosh, Sathi; Ray, Madhury; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Barua, Soumik; Malo, Nondita S; Bhan, Atul K; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the efficacy of oral supplementation of the gut enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in preventing antibiotic-associated infections from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Clostridium difficile. The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in human health and well-being. Antibiotics inherently cause dysbiosis, an imbalance in the number and composition of intestinal commensal bacteria, which leads to susceptibility to opportunistic bacterial infections. Previously, we have shown that IAP preserves the normal homeostasis of intestinal microbiota and that oral supplementation with calf IAP (cIAP) rapidly restores the normal gut flora. We hypothesized that oral IAP supplementation would protect against antibiotic-associated bacterial infections. C57BL/6 mice were treated with antibiotic(s) ± cIAP in the drinking water, followed by oral gavage of S. Typhimurium or C. difficile. Mice were observed for clinical conditions and mortality. After a defined period of time, mice were killed and investigated for hematological, inflammatory, and histological changes. We observed that oral supplementation with cIAP during antibiotic treatment protects mice from infections with S. Typhimurium as well as with C. difficile. Animals given IAP maintained their weight, had reduced clinical severity and gut inflammation, and showed improved survival. Oral IAP supplementation protected mice from antibiotic-associated bacterial infections. We postulate that oral IAP supplementation could represent a novel therapy to protect against antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), and other enteric infections in humans.

  3. Intraintestinal administration of ulinastatin protects against sepsis by relieving intestinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bingchang; Gao, Min; Wang, Kangkai; Jiang, Yu; Peng, Yue; Zhang, Huali; Yang, Mingshi; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2017-05-01

    Intravenous administration of ulinastatin (UTI), a broad spectral protease inhibitor, has been used on an experimental basis with severe sepsis patients in Asia. However, the effects of intraintestinal administration of UTI on intestinal and multiple organ damage in sepsis have not been reported. In this study, we established a sepsis model in rats using cecal ligation and puncture and compared the effects of intraintestinal administration of UTI through an artificial fistula of duodenum and intraperitoneal administration of UTI on the pathophysiological changes of sepsis. It was found that intraintestinal administration of UTI (1) significantly improved the survival of septic rats, (2) significantly reduced the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 as well as intestinal injury biomarkers diamine oxidase, D-lactic acid, and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4, and (3) significantly reduced intestinal microscopic and ultrastructural damage of septic rats. In addition, the protective effects of intraintestinal administration of UTI were significantly better than those of intraperitoneal administration of UTI. Overall, the present study for the first time revealed that intraintestinal administration of protease inhibitor UTI could reduce systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organ dysfunction in rats with sepsis by inhibiting autodigestion of intestinal wall due to proteases and provided new research ideas and experimental evidences for treatment of sepsis by intraintestinal administration of UTI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exploits inflammation to modify swine intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eDrumo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen responsible for foodborne disease worldwide. It is a successful enteric pathogen because it has developed virulence strategies allowing it to survive in a highly inflamed intestinal environment exploiting inflammation to overcome colonization resistance provided by intestinal microbiota. In this study, we used piglets featuring an intact microbiota, which naturally develop gastroenteritis, as model for salmonellosis. We compared the effects on the intestinal microbiota induced by a wild type and an attenuated S. Typhimurium in order to evaluate whether the modifications are correlated with the virulence of the strain. This study showed that Salmonella alters microbiota in a virulence-dependent manner. We found that the wild type S. Typhimurium induced inflammation and a reduction of specific protecting microbiota species (SCFA-producing bacteria normally involved in providing a barrier against pathogens. Both these effects could contribute to impair colonization resistance, increasing the host susceptibility to wild type S. Typhimurium colonization. In contrast, the attenuated S. Typhimurium, which is characterized by a reduced ability to colonize the intestine, and by a very mild inflammatory response, was unable to successfully sustain competition with the microbiota.

  5. NHERF1/EBP50 Suppresses Wnt-β-Catenin Pathway–Driven Intestinal Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Magdalena Georgescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor molecule that interacts with β-catenin, YAP, and PTEN, has been recently implicated in the progression of various human malignancies, including colorectal cancer. We report here that NHERF1 acts as a tumor suppressor in vivo for intestinal adenoma development. NHERF1 is highly expressed at the apical membrane of mucosa intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and serosa mesothelial cells. NHERF1-deficient mice show overall longer small intestine and colon that most likely could be attributed to a combination of defects, including altered apical brush border of absorbtive IECs and increased number of secretory IECs. NHERF1 deficiency in ApcMin/+ mice resulted in significantly shorter animal survival due to markedly increased tumor burden. This resulted from a moderate increase of the overall tumor density, more pronounced in females than males, and a massive increase in the number of large adenomas in both genders. The analysis of possible pathways controlling tumor size showed upregulation of Wnt-β-catenin pathway, higher expression of unphosphorylated YAP, and prominent nuclear expression of cyclin D1 in NHERF1-deficient tumors. Similar YAP changes, with relative decrease of phosphorylated YAP and increase of nuclear YAP expression, were observed as early as the adenoma stages in the progression of human colorectal cancer. This study discusses a complex role of NHERF1 for intestinal morphology and presents indisputable evidence for its in vivo tumor suppressor function upstream of Wnt-β-catenin and Hippo-YAP pathways.

  6. Dormant Intestinal Stem Cells Are Regulated by PTEN and Nutritional Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla A. Richmond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive changes to physiological stress within the intestinal epithelium remain poorly understood. Here, we show that PTEN, a negative regulator of the PI3K→AKT→mTORC1-signaling pathway, is an important regulator of dormant intestinal stem cells (d-ISCs. Acute nutrient deprivation leads to transient PTEN phosphorylation within d-ISCs and a corresponding increase in their number. This release of PTEN inhibition renders d-ISCs functionally poised to contribute to the regenerative response during re-feeding via cell-autonomous activation of the PI3K→AKT→mTORC1 pathway. Consistent with its role in mediating cell survival, PTEN is required for d-ISC maintenance at baseline, and intestines lacking PTEN have diminished regenerative capacity after irradiation. Our results highlight a PTEN-dependent mechanism for d-ISC maintenance and further demonstrate the role of d-ISCs in the intestinal response to stress.

  7. Sildenafil normalizes bowel transit in preclinical models of constipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Sharman

    Full Text Available Guanylyl cyclase-C (GC-C agonists increase cGMP levels in the intestinal epithelium to promote secretion. This process underlies the utility of exogenous GC-C agonists such as linaclotide for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C. Because GC-C agonists have limited use in pediatric patients, there is a need for alternative cGMP-elevating agents that are effective in the intestine. The present study aimed to determine whether the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil has similar effects as linaclotide on preclinical models of constipation. Oral administration of sildenafil caused increased cGMP levels in mouse intestinal epithelium demonstrating that blocking cGMP-breakdown is an alternative approach to increase cGMP in the gut. Both linaclotide and sildenafil reduced proliferation and increased differentiation in colon mucosa, indicating common target pathways. The homeostatic effects of cGMP required gut turnover since maximal effects were observed after 3 days of treatment. Neither linaclotide nor sildenafil treatment affected intestinal transit or water content of fecal pellets in healthy mice. To test the effectiveness of cGMP elevation in a functional motility disorder model, mice were treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to induce colitis and were allowed to recover for several weeks. The recovered animals exhibited slower transit, but increased fecal water content. An acute dose of sildenafil was able to normalize transit and fecal water content in the DSS-recovery animal model, and also in loperamide-induced constipation. The higher fecal water content in the recovered animals was due to a compromised epithelial barrier, which was normalized by sildenafil treatment. Taken together our results show that sildenafil can have similar effects as linaclotide on the intestine, and may have therapeutic benefit to patients with CIC, IBS-C, and post-infectious IBS.

  8. Review: Dorothée Ninck Gbeassor, Heidi Schär Sall, David Signer, Daniel Stutz & Elena Wertli (1999. Überlebenskunst in Übergangswelten: ethnopsychologische Betreuung von Asylsuchenden [The Art of Surviving in Transitional Worlds: Counselling for the Asylum Seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Hegner

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The book "Überlebenskunst in Übergangswelten" [The Art of Surviving in Transitional Worlds] is the first of two recent publications from the Ethnological-Psychological Centre in Zurich. The branch of the Asylum-Organisation of the Canton Zurich offers people who have fled their home country and who are now suffering from psychological crisis, inpatient or in-house or ambulatory treatment. The refugees physically escaped war, torture and/or imprisonment. However, they are unable to master the difficult process of migration and gradual arrival integration into the new, cultural and social contexts in Switzerland. As a result they have psychological problems, which make it impossible for them to live a "normal" everyday life. In three houses of the Centre, the so-called Foyers, they can find potential help. The migrants meet with a team of five ethno-psychologists, which uses ethnological and psychological approaches in order to understand the newcomers' problems. Within their work, the professionals of the Centre have developed a theoretical and methodological repertoire, which is of model-character not only within Switzerland but also for other countries. David SIGNER focuses in his article on characteristic conflicts and patterns of interaction in everyday life in the Foyers. The author emphasises the need to be open for all sorts of perception and communication. Furthermore, he sheds light on the various "pitfalls" in trying to create interaction. Elena WERTLI's text concentrates on refugees suffering from suicidal crisis. She explicates that a continued dialog is sometimes of more help for people in extreme psychological situations than a fast intervention. Daniel STUTZ' approach towards the problems of a Kurdish family is to first reconstruct the latter's individual life histories. The method enables him to explain the ongoing physical problems and the family's growing fear to get infected by bacteria as an expression of the couple's fear

  9. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Camila J.; Ulloa, Pilar E.; Hedrera, Manuel; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio) of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts); Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt); Chlorella sp (Ch); Nannochloropsis oculata (No); or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng) as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen. PMID:29117213

  10. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bravo-Tello

    Full Text Available Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts; Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt; Chlorella sp (Ch; Nannochloropsis oculata (No; or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen.

  11. ROLE OF PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN ONCOLOGIC PATIENTS WITH INTESTINAL OCCLUSION AND PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aría Guerra, Eva; Cortés-Salgado, Alfonso; Mateo-Lobo, Raquel; Nattero, Lía; Riveiro, Javier; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Valbuena, Beatriz; Carabaña, Fátima; Carrero, Carmen; Grande, Enrique; Carrato, Alfredo; Botella-Carretero, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    the precise role of parenteral nutrition in the management of oncologic patients with intestinal occlusion is not well defined yet. We aimed to identify the effects of parenteral nutrition in these patients regarding prognosis. 55 patients with intestinal occlusion and peritoneal carcinomatosis were included. Parenteral nutrition aimed at 20-35 kcal/Kg/day, and 1.0 g/kg/day of amino-acids. Weight, body mass index, type of tumor, type of chemotherapy, and ECOG among others were recorded and analyzed. 69.1% of the patients had gastrointestinal tumors, 18.2% gynecologic and 12.7% others. Age was 60 ± 13y, baseline ECOG 1.5 ± 0.5 and body mass index 21.6 ± 4.3. Malnutrition was present in 85%. Survival from the start of parenteral nutrition was not significant when considering baseline ECOG (log rank = 0.593, p = 0.743), previous lines of chemotherapy (log rank = 2.117, p = 0.548), baseline BMI (log rank = 2.686, p = 0.261), or type of tumor (log rank = 2.066, p = 0.356). Survival in patients who received home parenteral nutrition after hospital discharge was higher than those who stayed in-hospital (log rank = 7.090, p = 0.008). Survival in patients who started chemotherapy during or after parenteral nutrition was higher than those who did not so (log rank = 17.316, p Parenteral nutrition in patients with advanced cancer and intestinal occlusion is safe, and in tho se who respond to chemotherapy, further administration of home parenteral nutrition together with chemotherapy may enhance prolonged survival. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Regionally acquired intestinal failure data suggest an underestimate in national service requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, A R; Paxton, C E; Gillett, P; Hoole, D; Livingstone, J; Young, D; Menon, G; Munro, F; Wilson, D C

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVES, SETTING AND PATIENTS: With complete case referral for prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) beyond term equivalent, serving a stable population of 1.25 million people, we describe the long-term outcome and survival of patients referred to an intestinal failure (IF) nutrition support team over the first 8 years of existence at a regional paediatric centre, and extrapolate to potential numbers of national home parenteral nutrition (HPN) cases and intestinal transplantation data. Retrospective analysis detailing patient demographics, interventions, use of HPN, occurrence of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), and outcomes of enteral adaptation, survival, and referral for and receipt of organ transplantation. 23 patients were referred over 8 years, 20 being PN dependent within the neonatal period. Diagnoses included short bowel syndrome (SBS) (18), neuromuscular abnormalities (4) and congenital enterocyte disorder (1). 12 696 days of PN were delivered with 314 confirmed episodes of sepsis at a median of 12 episodes per patient. 144 central venous catheters (CVCs) were required at a median of four per patient. IFALD occurred in 17 (73%) patients, with 10 (44%) referred for transplant assessment. Thirteen (56%) children received HPN. Overall mortality was 44%. A significant predictor for survival in the SBS group was residual bowel >40 cm (82% vs 28%, p = 0.049). Survival for IF at 56% was lower than reported from non-UK supra-regional centres, and nationally collected data, possibly reflecting pre-selected referral populations. Data from regional centres with complete ascertainment may be important both when counselling parents and when planning regional and national HPN and IF specialist services.

  13. Encapsulation in alginate and alginate coated-chitosan improved the survival of newly probiotic in oxgall and gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Imen; Bejar, Wacim; Ayadi, Dorra; Chouayekh, Hichem; Kammoun, Radhouane; Bejar, Samir; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2013-10-01

    This study was undertaken to develop an optimum composition model for the microencapsulation of a newly probiotic on sodium alginate using response surface methodology. The individual and interactive effects of three independent variables, namely sodium alginate concentration, biomass concentration, and hardening time, were investigated using Box-Behnken design experiments. A second ordered polynomial model was fitted and optimum conditions were estimated. The optimal conditions identified were 2% for sodium alginate, 10(10)UFC/ml for biomass, and 30 min for hardening time. The experimental value obtained for immobilized cells under these conditions was about 80.98%, which was in close agreement with the predicted value of 82.6%. Viability of microspheres (96%) was enhanced with chitosan as coating materials. The survival rates of free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 during exposure to artificial gastrointestinal conditions were compared. The results revealed that the encapsulated cells exhibited significantly higher resistances to artificial intestinal juice (AIJ) and artificial gastric juice (AGJ). Microencapsulation was also noted to effectively protect the strain from heating at 65 °C and refrigerating at 4 °C. Taken together, the findings indicated that microencapsulation conferred important protective effects to L. plantarum against the gastrointestinal conditions encountered during the transit of food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Steeg, E. van de; Grossouw, D.; Zeijdner, E.E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Verwei, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption,

  15. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase contributes to the reduction of severe intestinal epithelial damage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol-Schoenmakers, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304846953; Fiechter, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331422018; Raaben, W.; Hassing, I.; Bleumink, R.; Kruijswijk, D.; Maijoor, K.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, M.; Brands, R.; Pieters, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35112148X

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestine and is accompanied by damage of the epithelial lining and by undesired immune responses towards enteric bacteria. It has been demonstrated that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (iAP) protects against the induction of

  16. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G; Poley, Marten J; Olieman, Joanne F; Scheenstra, René; Krabbe, Paul Fm; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond Hhm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness

  17. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations increase following intestinal ischemia in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Meinen, M.; Meulen, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is an intracellular epithelial protein in the intestinal mucosa of many animals. IFABP appears in the circulation following epithelial damage, and in humans, is proven to be a parameter for damage to the mucosa. In this paper, an ELISA test designed for

  18. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    Background & aims: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  19. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Roskott, A.M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G.J.A.; Serlie, M.J.; Tabbers, M.M.; Damen, G.M.; Olthof, E.D.; Jonkers, C.F.; Kloeze, J.H.; Ploeg, R.J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Rings, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date

  20. Presentation of a nationwide multicenter registry of intestinal failure and intestinal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E. G.; Roskott, A. M.; Dijkstra, G.; Wanten, G. J.; Serlie, M. J.; Tabbers, M. M.; Damen, G.; Olthof, E. D.; Jonkers, C. F.; Kloeze, J. H.; Ploeg, R. J.; Imhann, F.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Rings, E. H. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Exact data on Dutch patients with chronic intestinal failure (CIF) and after intestinal transplantation (ITx) have been lacking. To improve standard care of these patients, a nationwide collaboration has been established. Objectives of this study were obtaining an up-to-date prevalence of CIF and

  1. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  2. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  3. Cracking the survival code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  4. Artillery Survivability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  5. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  6. Intestinal transport following transfer to increased salinity in an anadromous fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genz, Janet; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Grosell, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The ability to transition from freshwater to seawater environments is an intrinsic requirement of the life history of some fish species, including the anadromous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The differences between hyper- and hypoosmoregulation are developed quickly (in hours to days), and at all scales, from gene expression to organ function. In this study, intestinal ion and water transport was examined in O. mykiss following acute transfer from freshwater (FW) to 70% seawater (SW). Plasma [Mg²+] increased at 24h post-transfer but recovered by 72 h. In the intestinal fluids, total CO₂ was found to increase with SW exposure/acclimation, while [Na+] decreased after 24h of SW exposure. Overall, in vitro experiments demonstrated the importance of base secretion to epithelial water uptake, and suggested that the primary physiological adjustments occurred 24-72 h after acute SW transfer. The mRNA expression of ion transporters important for intestinal osmoregulation and maintenance of acid-base balance was also investigated. A Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE2) and anion exchanger (SLC26a6) were hypothesized to be involved in the transport of acid-base equivalents, Na+, and Cl⁻, but were not uniformly expressed across tissue samples, and expression, where present, did not change following salinity transfer. NHE1, however, was expressed in all examined tissues (gill, kidney, anterior intestine, and pyloric cecae), but exhibited no changes in expression following acute salinity transfer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying aerococci impact on colonization of intestinal mucous membrane with vibrions and ability to destroy staphilococus toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanskyi D.О.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the promising methods of prevention and treatment of intestinal infections is the use of probiotics. A series of experiments was carried out to study the protective effect of A. viridans vibrio in experimental vibroinfection and the introduction of staphylococcus toxin. In the intestine of animals receiving aerococcus competitive colonization takes place. Results of experiments on colonization in experimental animals which survived without signs of NAG infection showed that vibrios in the intestinal wall were almost absent, but a large number of aerococcus was found (2,5±0,2 *105. In cases of infectious process development, but in a mild form, aerococci prevailed over vibrios: (2,7±0,6 *104, and (2,0±0.2 *103 respectively. Aerococci injected subcutaneously can maintain livelihoods for several hours, destroying totally or partially introduced staphylococcus exotoxin, reducing the strength of its lethal activity

  8. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  9. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  10. Whole-bowel transit in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.G.; Clark, A.G.; Wood, E.; Reynolds, J.R.

    1986-02-01

    The transit of radiolabelled preparations through the stomach, small intestine and colon was monitored in ten patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Five patients complained of diarrhoea, and five complained of constipation. The preparations comprised a non-disintegrating capsule and a multiparticulate system. Both preparations emptied from the stomach together and at the same rates in both groups of patients. In the patients complaining of constipation, the transit times through the small intestine were the same for both preparations. In the patients complaining of diarrhoea, the capsule passed through the small intestine slightly faster than the particles, but there were no significant differences in the small-intestinal transit rates of the two patient groups. Within the colon, the transit of the capsule was faster than that of the small particles. Although movement through the colon was, on average, faster in the group of patients complaining of diarrhoea, there was considerable intersubject variability, and the differences in transit rates between the two patient groups were not statistically significant. (orig.).

  11. Fate and effect of ingested Bacillus cereus spores and vegetative cells in the intestinal tract of human-flora-associated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2006-01-01

    gradient gel electrophoresis analysis with universal 16S rRNA gene primers revealed significant changes in the intestinal microbiota of animals dosed with spores. Vero cell assays and a commercial kit (BCET-RPLA) did not reveal any enterotoxin production from B. cereus F4433/73R in the intestinal tract.......The fate and effect of Bacillus cereus F4433/73R in the intestine of human-flora-associated rats was studied using bacteriological culturing techniques and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in combination with cell assays and immunoassays for detection of enterotoxins. In faecal samples...... from animals receiving vegetative cells, only few B. cereus cells were detected. Spores survived the gastric barrier well, and were in some cases detected up to 2 weeks after ingestion. Selective growing revealed no major changes in the intestinal flora during passage of B. cereus. However, denaturing...

  12. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

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    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

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    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  15. Metabolism of 6-nitrochrysene by intestinal microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, B.W.; Campbell, W.L.; Franklin, W.; Delclos, B.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Since bacterial nitroreduction may play a critical role in the activation of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have used batch and semicontinuous culture systems to determine the ability of intestinal microflora to metabolize the carcinogen 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC). 6-NC was metabolized by the intestinal microflora present in the semicontinuous culture system to 6-aminochrysene (6-AC), N-formyl-6-aminochrysene (6-FAC), and 6-nitrosochrysene (6-NOC). These metabolites were isolated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and UV-visible spectrophotometry and compared with authentic compounds. Almost all of the 6-NC was metabolized after 10 days. Nitroreduction of 6-NC to 6-AC was rapid; the 6-AC concentration reached a maximum at 48 h. The ratio of the formation of 6-AC to 6-FAC to 6-NOC at 48 h was 93.4:6.3:0.3. Interestingly, compared with results in the semicontinuous culture system, the only metabolite detected in the batch studies was 6-AC. The rate of nitroreduction differed among human, rat, and mouse intestinal microflora, with human intestinal microflora metabolizing 6-NC to the greatest extent. Since 6-AC has been shown to be carcinogenic in mice and since nitroso derivatives of other nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are biologically active, our results suggest that the intestinal microflora has the enzymatic capacity to generate genotoxic compounds and may play an important role in the carcinogenicity of 6-NC.

  16. Intestinal microbiota: its role in digestive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Fernandez, Luis M; Lasa, Juan S; Man, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    It is now well known that intestinal microbiota exerts not only several physiological functions, but has also been implied in the mechanisms of many conditions, both intestinal and extraintestinal. These advances, to the best of our knowledge, have been made possible by the development of new ways of studying gut flora. Metagenomics, the study of genetic material taken directly from environmental samples, avoiding individual culture, has become an excellent tool to study the human microbiota. Therefore, it has demonstrated an association between an altered intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome, perhaps the most extensively studied conditions associated with this particular subject. However, microbiota has a potential role in the development of other diseases; their manifestations are not confined to the intestine only. In this article, an extensive updated review is conducted on the role intestinal microbiota has in health and in different diseases. Focus is made on the following conditions: inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, hepatic encephalopathy, and obesity.

  17. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Oormazdi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

  18. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  19. Xenotransplantation of human intestine into mouse abdomen or subcutaneous tissue: Novel platforms for the study of the human enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, N; Marsiano, N; Bruckner, R S; Scharl, M; Gutnick, M J; Yagel, S; Arciero, E; Goldstein, A M; Shpigel, N Y

    2017-09-08

    Current efforts to develop stem cell therapy as a novel treatment for neurointestinal diseases are limited by the unavailability of a model system to study cell transplantation in the human intestine. We propose that xenograft models support enteric nervous system (ENS) development in the fetal human intestine when transplanted into mice subcutaneously or intra-abdominally. Fetal human small and large intestine were grafted onto the small intestinal mesentery and into the subcutaneous tissue of immunodeficient mice for up to 4 months. Intestinal cytoarchitecture and ENS development were studied using immunohistochemistry. In both abdominal and subcutaneous grafts, the intestine developed normally with formation of mature epithelial and mesenchymal layers. The ENS was patterned in two ganglionated plexuses containing enteric neurons and glia, including cholinergic and nitrergic neuronal subtypes. c-Kit-immunoreactive interstitial cells of Cajal were present in the gut wall. Abdominal xenografts represent a novel model that supports the growth and development of fetal human intestine. This in vivo approach will be a useful method to study maturation of the ENS, the pathophysiology of neurointestinal diseases, and the long-term survival and functional differentiation of neuronal stem cells for the treatment of enteric neuropathies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. O-antigen delays lipopolysaccharide recognition and impairs antibacterial host defense in murine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia U Duerr

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signals from the cell surface of myeloid cells, it is restricted to an intracellular compartment and requires ligand internalization in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs. Yet, the functional consequence of cell-type specific receptor localization and uptake-dependent lipopolysaccharide (LPS recognition is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a strikingly delayed activation of IECs but not macrophages by wildtype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica sv. (S. Typhimurium as compared to isogenic O-antigen deficient mutants. Delayed epithelial activation is associated with impaired LPS internalization and retarded TLR4-mediated immune recognition. The O-antigen-mediated evasion from early epithelial innate immune activation significantly enhances intraepithelial bacterial survival in vitro and in vivo following oral challenge. These data identify O-antigen expression as an innate immune evasion mechanism during apical intestinal epithelial invasion and illustrate the importance of early innate immune recognition for efficient host defense against invading Salmonella.