Sample records for survive extremely cold

  1. Winter Storms and Extreme Cold (United States)

    ... container with water and place them in the freezer to help keep food cold. A NOAA Weather ... exposures will eventually use up your body’s stored energy, which leads to lower body temperature. Warnings signs ...

  2. Window Performance in Extreme Cold, (United States)


    Casement windows-windows with sashes hinged on ATID difference between the indoor ambient and the side. indoor dewpoint temperatures ATIo difference...did. Installed casement windows (at 0.23 ft 3/ PREVIOUS WORK IN COLD min ft) were the only type of window with airtight- WEATHER WINDOW calculate air leakage hung sash unit to a casement or possibly adding another with no wind and with double the mean wind as latch to the casement

  3. Relationship of Extreme Cold Weather and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks. (United States)

    Cloutier, Justin M; Liu, Shuangbo; Hiebert, Brett; Tam, James W; Seifer, Colette M


    Cold weather to 0°C has been implicated as a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. The effect of more extreme cold weather on the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and ICD shocks is unknown. We sought to describe the relationship between extreme cold weather and the risk of ICD shocks. We retrospectively identified patients seen at the Pacemaker and Defibrillator Clinic at St. Boniface Hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada between 2010 and 2015 with an ICD shock. We excluded multiple shocks occurring on the same day in a single patient. We collected weather data, and evaluated the relationship between ICD shocks and weather on the same day as the shock using Negative Binomial regression. Three hundred and sixty patients experienced a total of 1,355 shocks. When excluding multiple shocks occurring in a single patient on the same day, there were 756 unique shocks. The daily high (DH) was the strongest predictor of receiving an ICD shock. Compared with the warmest days (DH above 10°C), shocks were 25% more common on the coldest days (DH below -10°C), and 8% more common on cold days (DH between -10°C and 10°C). This linear trend was statistically significant, with a p-value of 0.04. In conclusion, we found an association between extreme cold weather and ICD shocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamical Influence and Operational Impacts of an Extreme Mediterranean Cold Surge (United States)


    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. MOTIVATION 1. Cold Surge and Snowfall Event over Crete On 13 February 2004, an extremely cold air mass snowfall amount and the extreme cold. The high amplitude pattern and extreme conditions were not well forecast. The NSA Souda Bay Command Duty...AND OPERATIONAL IMPACTS OF AN EXTREME MEDITERRANEAN COLD SURGE by Adam Shinabarger June 2013 Thesis Co-Advisors: Patrick Harr Richard

  5. Cognitive Performance during a 24-Hour Cold Exposure Survival Simulation

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    Michael J. Taber


    Full Text Available Survivor of a ship ground in polar regions may have to wait more than five days before being rescued. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore cognitive performance during prolonged cold exposure. Core temperature (Tc and cognitive test battery (CTB performance data were collected from eight participants during 24 hours of cold exposure (7.5°C ambient air temperature. Participants (recruited from those who have regular occupational exposure to cold were instructed that they could freely engage in minimal exercise that was perceived to maintaining a tolerable level of thermal comfort. Despite the active engagement, test conditions were sufficient to significantly decrease Tc after exposure and to eliminate the typical 0.5–1.0°C circadian rise and drop in core temperature throughout a 24 h cycle. Results showed minimal changes in CTB performance regardless of exposure time. Based on the results, it is recommended that survivors who are waiting for rescue should be encouraged to engage in mild physical activity, which could have the benefit of maintaining metabolic heat production, improve motivation, and act as a distractor from cold discomfort. This recommendation should be taken into consideration during future research and when considering guidelines for mandatory survival equipment regarding cognitive performance.

  6. Bacterial survival responses to extreme desiccation and high humidity (United States)

    Yang, Yinjie; Yokobori, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    The presence of water is thought to be essential for life and strongly considered in life searching operation on extraterrestrial planets. In this study we show different survival responses of bacterial species to water availability and temperatures (25, 4 and - 70 o C). At these temperatures, E.coli lost viability much faster under extreme desiccation than under high humidity. Deinococcus radiodurans exhibited much higher survival rate under desiccation than under high humidity at 25 o C, while its survivals under desiccation and high humidity increased to the same level at 4 and - 70 o C. Bacillus pumilus spores generally survived well under all tested conditions. Water is favorable for the survival of most microorganisms but not a "safeguard" for all microorganisms. Microbial survival at low temperatures may not be affected by water availability. Water absence should not preclude us from seeking life on other planets.

  7. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants | Kalimba | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure (NCPAP) with or without surfactant, and Apgar scores. Results. A total of 382 neonates were included in the study. Overall survival was 26.5%. e main causes of death, as per the Perinatal Problem Identi.cation Programme (PPIP) classi.cation, were extreme multi-organ immaturity and respiratory distress syndrome.

  8. Seismic Observations in Extreme Cold Environments: IRIS Instrumentation Takes to the Cold (United States)

    Fowler, J.; Anderson, K. R.; Parker, T.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Bonnett, B.


    In 2006, the National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded a Major Research Initiative (MRI) grant to UNAVCO and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) to develop a power and communications system that will improve remote autonomous geophysical observations in the polar environments. Currently in the second year of a three year program, field developments and designs have proven that a high-quality seismic station can be operated and maintained in an extremely cold environment utilizing recent manufacturing breakthroughs in light weight battery designs and insulating materials. With modern, state-of-the-art seismic equipment now being designed to operate at very low power in more extreme temperature ranges, we have the opportunity to exploit new opportunities in polar environments with increased reliability and reduced logistics requirements on the polar field support agencies (primarily, the NSF's Office of Polar Programs). As a result of intermediate results and successes with the autonomous station design, NSF has awarded another grant to IRIS to begin to establish a pool of seismic instrumentation and station infrastructure packages designed to operate PASSCAL experiments in the polar-regions. Procurement has begun on this new pool and support of field operations have already begun on projects in Greenland (Helheim Glacier) and Antarctica (Gamburtsev Mountains Project - AGAP; Polenet; and a tomographic study of Mt Erebus). Along with the equipment, PASSCAL has now established a dedicated staff to polar projects to further enhance the support and quality of the data return for these challenging projects.

  9. Public Perception of Extreme Cold Weather-Related Health Risk in a Cold Area of Northeast China. (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Wang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Huang, Ganlin; Li, Tiantian


    A need exists for public health strategies regarding extreme weather disasters, which in recent years have become more frequent. This study aimed to understand the public's perception of extreme cold and its related health risks, which may provide detailed information for public health preparedness during an extreme cold weather event. To evaluate public perceptions of cold-related health risk and to identify vulnerable groups, we collected responses from 891 participants in a face-to-face survey in Harbin, China. Public perception was measured by calculating the score for each perception question. Locals perceived that extreme cold weather and related health risks were serious, but thought they could not avoid these risks. The significant difference in perceived acceptance level between age groups suggested that the elderly are a "high health risk, low risk perception" group, meaning that they are relatively more vulnerable owing to their high susceptibility and low awareness of the health risks associated with extreme cold weather. The elderly should be a priority in risk communication and health protective interventions. This study demonstrated that introducing risk perception into the public health field can identify vulnerable groups with greater needs, which may improve the decision-making of public health intervention strategies. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:417-421).

  10. Large reptiles and cold temperatures: Do extreme cold spells set distributional limits for tropical reptiles in Florida? (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Parry, Mark; Beauchamp, Jeff; Rochford, Mike; Smith, Brian J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Brandt, Laura A.


    Distributional limits of many tropical species in Florida are ultimately determined by tolerance to low temperature. An unprecedented cold spell during 2–11 January 2010, in South Florida provided an opportunity to compare the responses of tropical American crocodiles with warm-temperate American alligators and to compare the responses of nonnative Burmese pythons with native warm-temperate snakes exposed to prolonged cold temperatures. After the January 2010 cold spell, a record number of American crocodiles (n = 151) and Burmese pythons (n = 36) were found dead. In contrast, no American alligators and no native snakes were found dead. American alligators and American crocodiles behaved differently during the cold spell. American alligators stopped basking and retreated to warmer water. American crocodiles apparently continued to bask during extreme cold temperatures resulting in lethal body temperatures. The mortality of Burmese pythons compared to the absence of mortality for native snakes suggests that the current population of Burmese pythons in the Everglades is less tolerant of cold temperatures than native snakes. Burmese pythons introduced from other parts of their native range may be more tolerant of cold temperatures. We documented the direct effects of cold temperatures on crocodiles and pythons; however, evidence of long-term effects of cold temperature on their populations within their established ranges remains lacking. Mortality of crocodiles and pythons outside of their current established range may be more important in setting distributional limits.

  11. Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria (United States)

    Johnson, Neil; Zhao, Guannan; Caycedo, Felipe; Manrique, Pedro; Qi, Hong; Rodriguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis


    Photosynthetic organisms provide a crucial coupling between the Sun's energy and metabolic processes supporting life on Earth. Searches for extraterrestrial life focus on seeking planets with similar incident light intensities and environments. However the impact of abnormal photon arrival times has not been considered. Here we present the counterintuitive result that broad classes of extreme alien light could support terrestrial bacterial life whereas sources more similar to our Sun might not. Our detailed microscopic model uses state-of-the-art empirical inputs including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images. It predicts a highly nonlinear survivability for the basic lifeform Rsp. Photometricum whereby toxic photon feeds get converted into a benign metabolic energy supply by an interplay between the membrane's spatial structure and temporal excitation processes. More generally, our work suggests a new handle for manipulating terrestrial photosynthesis using currently-available extreme value statistics photon sources.

  12. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: a study in a monozygotic twin.

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    Maarten J Vosselman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a 'normal' sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. METHODS: The Iceman (subject A and his brother (subject B were studied during mild cold (13°C and thermoneutral conditions (31°C. Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. RESULTS: Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal, within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G. CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%, but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the

  13. Respiratory changes due to extreme cold in the Arctic environment (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, P.; Selvamurthy, W.


    Effects of acute exposure and acclimatisation to cold stress on respiratory functions were investigated in healthy tropical Indian men ( n=10). Initial baseline recordings were carried out at Delhi and thereafter serially thrice at the arctic region and once on return to Delhi. For comparison the respiratory functions were also evaluated on Russian migrants (RM; n=7) and Russian natives (RN; n=6). The respiratory functions were evaluated using standard methodology on a Vitalograph: In Indians, there was an initial decrease in lung vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume 1st s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) on acute exposure to cold stress, followed by gradual recovery during acclimatisation for 4 weeks and a further significant improvement after 9 weeks of stay at the arctic region. On return to India all the parameters reached near baseline values except for MVV which remained slightly elevated. RM and RN showed similar respiratory functions at the beginning of acute cold exposure at the arctic zone. RN showed an improvement after 10 weeks of stay whereas RM did not show much change. The respiratory responses during acute cold exposure are similar to those of initial altitude responses.


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    D. MICU


    Full Text Available Cold waves in the Romanian Carpathians, an indicator of negative temperature extremes. Cold waves are a representative indicator frequently used to analyze the incidence of cold extremes in a given area. This study was undertaken on these cold extremes in the Romanian Carpathians defined by the STARDEX project. Investigations had in view mountain weather stations located >1,000 m a.s.l. (15 sites over the 1961-2003 period of available daily temperature records. Long-term records of daily minimum temperature (blended were also studied from the available ECA&D data sets at Omu Peak station (1928-2011. Regional patterns of cold waves were expressed by comparing their frequency, duration and intensity at the weather stations located in the alpine, sub-alpine and forest vegetation belts. There is an evident inter-annual variability of cold wave duration, showing a significant increase particularly in some forest belt locations in the Southern Carpathians. However, the long-term variability trend (83 years at Omu Peak alpine station showed quite an opposite trend, corresponding to the warming process in terms of minimum temperature values. Cold waves are usually associated to a high number of consecutive frosty nights and freeze days, but they have low effects on the characteristics of snow season.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Survival Strategies in Extreme Conditions

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    Federica Migliardo


    Full Text Available Today, one of the major challenges in biophysics is to disclose the molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes. In such a frame, the understanding of the survival strategies in extreme conditions received a lot of attention both from the scientific and applicative points of view. Since nature provides precious suggestions to be applied for improving the quality of life, extremophiles are considered as useful model-systems. The main goal of this review is to present an overview of some systems, with a particular emphasis on trehalose playing a key role in several extremophile organisms. The attention is focused on the relation among the structural and dynamic properties of biomolecules and bioprotective mechanisms, as investigated by complementary spectroscopic techniques at low- and high-temperature values.

  16. Constructing and Screening a Metagenomic Library of a Cold and Alkaline Extreme Environment. (United States)

    Glaring, Mikkel A; Vester, Jan K; Stougaard, Peter


    Natural cold or alkaline environments are common on Earth. A rare combination of these two extremes is found in the permanently cold (less than 6 °C) and alkaline (pH above 10) ikaite columns in the Ikka Fjord in Southern Greenland. Bioprospecting efforts have established the ikaite columns as a source of bacteria and enzymes adapted to these conditions. They have also highlighted the limitations of cultivation-based methods in this extreme environment and metagenomic approaches may provide access to novel extremophilic enzymes from the uncultured majority of bacteria. Here, we describe the construction and screening of a metagenomic library of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the ikaite columns.

  17. Using an Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System to investigate the impact of extreme cold weather events. (United States)

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Shannon, T; Carmichael, C; Murray, V; Ibbotson, S; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G; Elliot, A J


    This report describes the development of novel syndromic cold weather public health surveillance indicators for use in monitoring the impact of extreme cold weather on attendances at EDs, using data from the 2010-11 and 2011-12 winters. A number of new surveillance indicators were created specifically for the identification and monitoring of cold weather related ED attendances, using the diagnosis codes provided for each attendance in the Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS), the first national syndromic surveillance system of its kind in the UK. Using daily weather data for the local area, a time series analysis to test the sensitivity of each indicator to cold weather was undertaken. Diagnosis codes relating to a health outcome with a potential direct link to cold weather were identified and assigned to a number of 'cold weather surveillance indicators'. The time series analyses indicated strong correlations between low temperatures and cold indicators in nearly every case. The strongest fit with temperature was cold related fractures in females, and that of snowfall was cold related fractures in both sexes. Though currently limited to a small number of sentinel EDs, the EDSSS has the ability to give near real-time detail on the magnitude of the impact of weather events. EDSSS cold weather surveillance fits well with the aims of the Cold Weather Plan for England, providing information on those particularly vulnerable to cold related health outcomes severe enough to require emergency care. This timely information aids those responding to and managing the effects on human health, both within the EDs themselves and in the community as a whole. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil nematodes and desiccation survival in the extreme arid environment of the antarctic dry valleys. (United States)

    Treonis, Amy M; Wall, Diana H


    Soil nematodes are capable of employing an anhydrobiotic survival strategy in response to adverse environmental conditions. The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica represent a unique environment for the study of anhydrobiosis because extremes of cold, salinity, and aridity combine to limit biological water availability. We studied nematode anhydrobiosis in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, using natural variation in soil properties. The coiled morphology of nematodes extracted from dry valley soils suggests that they employ anhydrobiosis, and these coiled nematodes showed enhanced revival when re-hydrated in water as compared to vermiform nematodes. Nematode coiling was correlated with soil moisture content, salinity, and water potential. In the driest soils studied (gravimetric water content snowfall and melting events. Anhydrobiosis represents an important temporal component of a dry valley nematode's life span. The ability to utilize anhydrobiosis plays a significant role in the widespread distribution and success of these organisms in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and beyond.

  19. Survival of Listeria innocua on hot and cold beef carcass surfaces. (United States)

    Prendergast, D M; Rowe, T A; Sheridan, J J


    This study aimed to determine the survival and growth of Listeria innocua on hot and cold beef carcass surfaces. Four sites, the neck, outside round, brisket and foreshank/brisket, were inoculated with L. innocua (i) immediately after dressing while hot and (ii) when cold after chilling. After inoculation, all carcasses were stored at 4 degrees C for 72 h. Survival of L. innocua on cold surfaces declined during storage and was less than on hot carcasses at all times. Data on the survival of L. innocua in broth (maximum recovery diluent) indicated that counts could not be compared with those on carcasses, in particular on cold carcasses. The results indicate that L. innocua survives on hot carcass surfaces during chilling, but declines over time on cold surfaces. The decrease in L. innocua counts on cold surfaces may be related to a synergy between the combined stresses of low available water (a(w)) and low temperature. This study is the first to determine the effect of chilling on the survival and growth of Listeria on beef carcass surfaces. The information can potentially be used to determine the survival and growth of the pathogen, L. monocytogenes on beef surfaces.

  20. Surviving the cold: molecular analyses of insect cryoprotective dehydration in the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica (Tullberg

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    Popović Željko D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects provide tractable models for enhancing our understanding of the physiological and cellular processes that enable survival at extreme low temperatures. They possess three main strategies to survive the cold: freeze tolerance, freeze avoidance or cryoprotective dehydration, of which the latter method is exploited by our model species, the Arctic springtail Megaphorura arctica, formerly Onychiurus arcticus (Tullberg 1876. The physiological mechanisms underlying cryoprotective dehydration have been well characterised in M. arctica and to date this process has been described in only a few other species: the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, an enchytraied worm, the larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica and the cocoons of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra. There are no in-depth molecular studies on the underlying cold survival mechanisms in any species. Results A cDNA microarray was generated using 6,912 M. arctica clones printed in duplicate. Analysis of clones up-regulated during dehydration procedures (using both cold- and salt-induced dehydration has identified a number of significant cellular processes, namely the production and mobilisation of trehalose, protection of cellular systems via small heat shock proteins and tissue/cellular remodelling during the dehydration process. Energy production, initiation of protein translation and cell division, plus potential tissue repair processes dominate genes identified during recovery. Heat map analysis identified a duplication of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS gene in M. arctica and also 53 clones co-regulated with TPS, including a number of membrane associated and cell signalling proteins. Q-PCR on selected candidate genes has also contributed to our understanding with glutathione-S-transferase identified as the major antioxdidant enzyme protecting the cells during these stressful procedures, and a number of protein kinase signalling molecules

  1. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H.; Vagi, Sara J.; Wolkin, Amy F.; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S.


    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning. PMID:27239260

  2. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota. (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S


    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  3. Parental perception of cold extremities and other accompanying symptoms in children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Svedberg, Lena E; Englund, Erling; Malker, Hans; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet


    Cold extremities have been noted in non-walking children with cerebral damage compared with healthy controls. Whether this is a general problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and associated with other symptoms is unknown. This study describes accompanying symptoms such as cold extremities, constipation, pain, sleeping disorders and impaired well-being in children with CP as well as treatment the children have undergone. Associations between cold extremities and other symptoms borne by the children were analysed and discussed. From information in postal surveys received from parents of children with CP, 107 children (60 boys and 47 girls) aged 5-13 years, mean 11 years 8 months (SD 2 years 11 months), were described and analysed. Besides neurological impairments, many children had cold extremities and pain, sleeping disorders, constipation, and impaired well-being. Most children had had one or more of these symptoms for over 1 year but the symptoms were largely untreated. Non-walkers generally had more symptoms than walkers. Although pain, constipation, and sleeping disorders may have different underlying causes in children with CP, these symptoms might also be mediated or aggravated by dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system. To improve the child's well-being, early recognition and treatment of accompanying symptoms is important.

  4. Temperature cycling during platelet cold storage improves in vivo recovery and survival in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Vostal, Jaroslav G; Gelderman, Monique P; Skripchenko, Andrey; Xu, Fei; Li, Ying; Ryan, Johannah; Cheng, Chunrong; Whitley, Pam; Wellington, Michael; Sawyer, Sherrie; Hanley, Shalene; Wagner, Stephen J


    Room temperature (RT) storage of platelets (PLTs) can support bacterial proliferation in contaminated units, which can lead to transfusion-transmitted septic reactions. Cold temperature storage of PLTs could reduce bacterial proliferation but cold exposure produces activation-like changes in PLTs and leads to their rapid clearance from circulation. Cold-induced changes are reversible by warming and periodic rewarming during cold storage (temperature cycling [TC]) has been proposed to alleviate cold-induced reduction in PLT circulation. A clinical trial in healthy human volunteers was designed to compare in vivo recovery, survival, and area under the curve (AUC) of radiolabeled autologous apheresis PLTs stored for 7 days at RT or under TC or cold conditions. Paired comparisons of RT versus TC and TC versus cold PLTs were conducted. Room temperature PLTs had in vivo recovery of 55.7 ± 13.9%, survival of 161.3 ± 28.8 hours, and AUC of 5031.2 ± 1643.3. TC PLTs had recovery of 42.6 ± 16.4%, survival of 48.1 ± 14.4% hours, and AUC of 1331.3 ± 910.2 (n = 12, p cold PLTs had recovery of 23.1 ± 8.8%, survival of 33.7 ± 14.7 hours, and AUC of 540.2 ± 229.6 while TC PLTs had recovery of 36.5 ± 12.9%, survival of 49.0 ± 17.3 hours, and AUC of 1164.3 ± 622.2 (n = 4, AUC had p cold storage but is not equivalent to RT storage. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Survival of bacteria exposed to extreme acceleration: implications for panspermia (United States)

    Mastrapa, R. M. E.; Glanzberg, H.; Head, J. N.; Melosh, H. J.; Nicholson, W. L.


    We studied the effect of extreme acceleration and change in acceleration, or jerk, on bacteria to determine if they could survive impact ejection from a planet. Computer simulations based on the spallation model [H.J. Melosh, Icarus 59 (1984) 234-260; H.J. Melosh, Nature 363 (1993) 498-499] for ejecting material from planetary surfaces provided estimates for acceleration, rise time, and jerk for material accelerated to escape velocity. For ejection from Mars, the maximum acceleration predicted was 3×10 6 m/s 2, or 3×10 5× g, with a rise time of 0.5 ms, and a corresponding jerk of 6×10 9 m/s 3. We tested the resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores and Deinococcus radiodurans cells to high acceleration and jerk by (1) subjecting B. subtilis spores to the forces of an ultracentrifuge and (2) firing both bacteria from a rifle into a plasticene target. We measured the survival of B. subtilis spores at extreme acceleration in an ultracentrifuge operated at its highest speed, 100 000 rpm, corresponding to an acceleration of 4.27×10 6 m/s 2, or 4.36×10 5× g. Approximately 10 7 spores were centrifuged in phosphate-buffered saline for 24, 48, 50 and 72 h. Spores were inactivated with simple exponential kinetics, and 65 h of centrifugation was required to inactivate 90% of the spore population. To test for resistance to jerk, spores of B. subtilis or cells of D. radiodurans were loaded into the rear cavities of lead pellets fired from a compressed-air pellet rifle into a target consisting of plasticene modeling clay, previously chilled to 4°C. The velocity of each pellet was measured using a chronograph and the depth of penetration of each pellet into the target was measured before removing the pellet from the clay using sterile forceps. Two different rifles were used, one with a measured pellet velocity of ˜100 m/s and the other with a velocity of ˜300 m/s. These correspond to estimated accelerations of 1.5×10 6 and 4.5×10 6 m/s 2 and jerks of 1.5×10 10 and 1

  6. Effects of cold water immersion on lower extremity joint biomechanics during running. (United States)

    Fukuchi, Claudiane Arakaki; da Rocha, Emmanuel Souza; Stefanyshyn, Darren John


    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of cryotherapy on lower extremity running biomechanics. Twenty-six healthy male volunteers were randomised into two intervention groups: cold water (cold water at ~11°C) or tepid water (tepid water at ~26°C). They were required to run at 4.0 ± 0.2 m · s(-1) before and after they underwent water immersion for 20 min. Differences between pre- and post-intervention were used to compare the influence of water intervention during running. Peak joint angles, peak joint moments, peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and contact time (CT) were calculated using three-dimensional gait analysis. Independent t-tests were applied with a significant alpha level set at 0.05. Decreased peak propulsive and vertical GRF, decreased plantarflexion moments, increased hip flexion angle and longer CT were observed following cold water immersion. Although cold water immersion (cryotherapy) affected the running movement, none of the alterations have been related to running biomechanical patterns associated with injuries. Therefore, our results indicated that cold water immersion appears safe prior to running activities.

  7. Risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns during extreme cold weather. (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie


    Environmental factors are important predictors of fires, but no study has examined the association between outdoor temperature and fire-related burn injuries. We sought to investigate the relationship between extremely cold outdoor temperatures and the risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. We carried out a time-stratified case-crossover study of 2470 patients hospitalized for fire-related burn injuries during cold months between 1989 and 2014 in Quebec, Canada. The main exposure was the minimum outdoor temperature on the day of and the day before the burn. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship between minimum temperature and fire-related burns, and assessed how associations varied across sex and age. Exposure to extreme cold temperature was associated with a significantly higher risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. Compared with 0°C, exposure to a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.22-1.87) for hospitalization for fire-related burns. The associations were somewhat stronger for women, youth, and the elderly. Compared with 0°C, a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR for fire-related burn hospitalization of 1.65 for women (95% CI 1.13-2.40), 1.60 for age fire-related burns. Measures to prevent fires should be implemented prior to the winter season, and enhanced during extreme cold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival in an extreme habitat: the roles of behaviour and energy limitation (United States)

    Plath, Martin; Tobler, Michael; Riesch, Rüdiger; García de León, Francisco J.; Giere, Olav; Schlupp, Ingo


    Extreme habitats challenge animals with highly adverse conditions, like extreme temperatures or toxic substances. In this paper, we report of a fish ( Poecilia mexicana) inhabiting a limestone cave in Mexico. Several springs inside the cave are rich in toxic H2S. We demonstrate that a behavioural adaptation, aquatic surface respiration (ASR), allows for the survival of P. mexicana in this extreme, sulphidic habitat. Without the possibility to perform ASR, the survival rate of P. mexicana was low even at comparatively low H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we show that food limitation affects the survival of P. mexicana pointing to energetically costly physiological adaptations to detoxify H2S.

  9. Cold tolerance of an Antarctic nematode that survives intracellular freezing: comparisons with other nematode species. (United States)

    Smith, T; Wharton, D A; Marshall, C J


    Panagrolaimus davidi is an Antarctic nematode with very high levels of cold tolerance. Its survival was compared with that of some other nematodes (P. rigidus, Rhabditophanes sp., Steinernema carpocapsae, Panagrellus redivivus and Ditylenchus dipsaci) in both unacclimated samples and those acclimated at 5 degrees C. Levels of recrystallization inhibition in homogenates were also compared, using the splat-cooling assay. The survival of P. davidi after the freezing of samples was notably higher than that of the other species tested, suggesting that its survival ability is atypical compared to other nematodes. In general, acclimation improved survival. Levels of recrystallization inhibition were not associated with survival but such a relationship may exist for those species that are freezing tolerant.

  10. Impacts of extreme climatic events on the energetics of long-lived vertebrates: the case of the greater flamingo facing cold spells in the Camargue. (United States)

    Deville, Anne-Sophie; Labaude, Sophie; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Béchet, Arnaud; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Porter, Warren; Fitzpatrick, Megan; Mathewson, Paul; Grémillet, David


    Most studies analyzing the effects of global warming on wild populations focus on gradual temperature changes, yet it is also important to understand the impact of extreme climatic events. Here we studied the effect of two cold spells (January 1985 and February 2012) on the energetics of greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) in the Camargue (southern France). To understand the cause of observed flamingo mass mortalities, we first assessed the energy stores of flamingos found dead in February 2012, and compared them with those found in other bird species exposed to cold spells and/or fasting. Second, we evaluated the monthly energy requirements of flamingos across 1980-2012 using the mechanistic model Niche Mapper. Our results show that the body lipids of flamingos found dead in 2012 corresponded to 2.6±0.3% of total body mass, which is close to results found in woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola) that died from starvation during a cold spell (1.7±0.1%), and much lower than in woodcocks which were fed throughout this same cold spell (13.0±2%). Further, Niche Mapper predicted that flamingo energy requirements were highest (+6-7%) during the 1985 and 2012 cold spells compared with 'normal' winters. This increase was primarily driven by cold air temperatures. Overall, our findings strongly suggest that flamingos starved to death during both cold spells. This study demonstrates the relevance of using mechanistic energetics modelling and body condition analyses to understand and predict the impact of extreme climatic events on animal energy balance and winter survival probabilities. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Notes on the implementation of the IREQ model for the assessment of extreme cold environments. (United States)

    Alfano, Francesca Romana d'Ambrosio; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe


    This paper has been devoted to the difficulties that practitioners, skilled ergonomists or occupational health experts could find in the assessment of cold environments by means of (insulation required) IREQ model at the base of the (International Standardization Organization) ISO 11079 Standard. The in-depth analysis discussed here has underlined several difficulties about: (a) the graphical calculation of the predicted limit exposures; (b) some differences in both IREQ and (duration limit exposure) DLE values reported in ISO 11079; and (c) some errors and incongruities in the program available online for the assessment of DLEs. These occurrences lead to the systematic overestimation of the DLE that exceed up to 4 h, those obtained by means of the figures reported in the Standard with the consequent unreliable assessment. Such matters justify the need to promote, in the whole scientific community involved in the ergonomics of the thermal environment, an in-depth discussion on the best practice to be followed for the assessment of extreme cold environments by means of IREQ model. Incongruities in IREQ model and errors in the code suggested by ISO 11079 Standard prevent a reliable assessment of cold environments with DLE systematically overestimated. Therefore IREQ model has been theoretically investigated trying to help both neophytes and skilled ergonomists on the best practice to be followed.

  12. Survival of fossils under extreme shocks induced by hypervelocity impacts. (United States)

    Burchell, M J; McDermott, K H; Price, M C; Yolland, L J


    Experimental data are shown for survival of fossilized diatoms undergoing shocks in the GPa range. The results were obtained from hypervelocity impact experiments which fired fossilized diatoms frozen in ice into water targets. After the shots, the material recovered from the target water was inspected for diatom fossils. Nine shots were carried out, at speeds from 0.388 to 5.34 km s(-1), corresponding to mean peak pressures of 0.2-19 GPa. In all cases, fragmented fossilized diatoms were recovered, but both the mean and the maximum fragment size decreased with increasing impact speed and hence peak pressure. Examples of intact diatoms were found after the impacts, even in some of the higher speed shots, but their frequency and size decreased significantly at the higher speeds. This is the first demonstration that fossils can survive and be transferred from projectile to target in hypervelocity impacts, implying that it is possible that, as suggested by other authors, terrestrial rocks ejected from the Earth by giant impacts from space, and which then strike the Moon, may successfully transfer terrestrial fossils to the Moon.

  13. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia? (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin


    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  14. Cold Stress (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  15. The structure and large-scale organization of extreme cold waves over the conterminous United States (United States)

    Xie, Zuowei; Black, Robert X.; Deng, Yi


    Extreme cold waves (ECWs) occurring over the conterminous United States (US) are studied through a systematic identification and documentation of their local synoptic structures, associated large-scale meteorological patterns (LMPs), and forcing mechanisms external to the US. Focusing on the boreal cool season (November-March) for 1950‒2005, a hierarchical cluster analysis identifies three ECW patterns, respectively characterized by cold surface air temperature anomalies over the upper midwest (UM), northwestern (NW), and southeastern (SE) US. Locally, ECWs are synoptically organized by anomalous high pressure and northerly flow. At larger scales, the UM LMP features a zonal dipole in the mid-tropospheric height field over North America, while the NW and SE LMPs each include a zonal wave train extending from the North Pacific across North America into the North Atlantic. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) in general simulates the three ECW patterns quite well and successfully reproduces the observed enhancements in the frequency of their associated LMPs. La Niña and the cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) favor the occurrence of NW ECWs, while the warm PDO phase, low Arctic sea ice extent and high Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) are associated with elevated SE-ECW frequency. Additionally, high Eurasian SCE is linked to increases in the occurrence likelihood of UM ECWs.

  16. Fasting increases survival to cold in FOXO, DIF, autophagy mutants and in other genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Le Bourg, Éric; Massou, Isabelle


    Fasting increases survival to a severe cold stress in young and middle-aged wild-type flies, this effect being lowered or absent at old age. As an attempt to determine the mechanisms of this effect, genes involved in metabolism (dFOXO), autophagy (Atg7), innate immunity (Dif (1) ), and resistance to cold (Frost) were studied. The 12 mutant, RNAi and control lines tested in this study displayed an increased survival to cold after fasting. This shows that fasting has a robust effect on survival to cold in many genotypes, but the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. This mechanism does not seem to be linked to metabolic pathways often considered to play a critical role in ageing and longevity determinations (insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway and autophagy).

  17. Desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in lower extremities during local cooling in young women with a cold constitution. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko


    To test the hypothesis that topical menthol-induced reactivity of cold sensation and cutaneous vasoconstriction to local cooling is augmented in individuals with a cold constitution, we examined thermal sensation and cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses at menthol-treated and untreated sites in the legs during local skin cooling in young women complaining of chilliness (C group) and young women with no complaint as a normal control group (N group). During local skin cooling, the sensitivity to cold sensation was greater in the C group than in the N group. The application of menthol enhanced the cold sensation at a low temperature in the N group, but not in the C group. Cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to local skin cooling were not altered by menthol treatment in either of the two groups. These findings suggest the desensitization of menthol-activated cold receptors in the legs of C group subjects, and a minor role of cold receptor activity in cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling.

  18. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and survival from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, J; Grell, K; Kinsey, S


    A previous US study reported poorer survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) above 0.3 μT, but based on small numbers. Data from 3073 cases of childhood ALL were pooled from prospective studies conducted in Canada...

  19. Finger cold-induced vasodilation : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.


    Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) in the finger tips generally occurs 5-10 min after the start of local cold exposure of the extremities. This phenomenon is believed to reduce the risk of local cold injuries. However, CIVD is almost absent during hypothermia, when survival of the organism takes

  20. Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines and Survivability Mode for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, E.


    One of the main challenges Wave Energy Converters have to face on the road towards commercialization is to ensure survivability in extreme condition at a reasonable capital costs. For a floating device like the Wave Dragon, a reliable mooring system is essential. The control strategy of the Wave...... Dragon aims at optimizing the power production by adapting the floating level to the incoming waves and by activating the hydro-turbines and regulating their working speed. In extreme conditions though, the control strategy could be changed in order to reduce the forces in the mooring system, lowering...... the design requirements with almost no added cost. The paper presents the result of the tank testing of a 1:51.8 scale model of a North Sea Wave Dragon in extreme wave conditions of up to 100 years of return period. The results show that the extreme loads in the main mooring line can be reduced...

  1. Habitat quality affects stress responses and survival in a bird wintering under extremely low ambient temperatures (United States)

    Cīrule, Dina; Krama, Tatjana; Krams, Ronalds; Elferts, Didzis; Kaasik, Ants; Rantala, Markus J.; Mierauskas, Pranas; Luoto, Severi; Krams, Indrikis A.


    Animals normally respond to stressful environmental stimuli by releasing glucocorticoid hormones. We investigated whether baseline corticosterone (CORT), handling-induced corticosterone concentration(s), and body condition indices of members of willow tit ( Poecile montanus) groups differed while wintering in old growth forests and managed young forests in mild weather conditions and during cold spells. Willow tits spend the winter season in non-kin groups in which dominant individuals typically claim their priority to access resources, while subordinate individuals may experience greater levels of stress and higher mortality, especially during cold spells. We captured birds to measure baseline CORT and levels of handling-induced CORT secretion after 20 min of capture. Willow tits in the young forests had higher baseline CORT and a smaller increase in CORT in response to capture than individuals in the old forests. Baseline CORT was higher in females and juvenile birds compared to adult males, whereas handling-induced CORT secretion did not differ between birds of different ages. During cold spells, baseline CORT of willow tits increased and handling-induced CORT secretion decreased, especially in birds in young forests. Willow tits' survival was higher in the old forests, with dominant individuals surviving better than subordinates. Our results show that changes in CORT secretion reflect responses to habitat quality and climate harshness, indicating young managed coniferous forests as a suboptimal habitat for the willow tit.

  2. The Support of Air Operations Under Extreme Hot and Cold Weather Conditions (Les Operatons Aeriennes en Environnement Extreme Chaud/Froid) (United States)


    at the start, 110 kg of which was MAMS fuel and food. The sleds were designed to be used as canoes for crossing open water. Skies were used whenever... cano be of hypothernia and cold injury during thei attempts to verified by extrapolation. A belier approach is to surviv. In addition, the large...Stress (FITS): Guidance for hot weather aircrafts operations. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 1979; 50(6): 639- 642. 14 - NUNNELEY SAL, MALDONADO R.J

  3. The role of stratosphere-troposphere coupling in the occurrence of extreme winter cold spells over northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tomassini


    Full Text Available Extreme cold spells over Northern Europe during winter are examined in order to address the question to what degree and in which ways stratospheric dynamics may influence the state of the troposphere. The study is based on 500 years of a pre-industrial control simulation with a comprehensive global climate model which well resolves the stratosphere, the MPI Earth System Model. Geopotential height anomalies leading to cold air outbreaks leave imprints throughout the atmosphere including the middle and lower stratosphere. A significant connection between tropospheric winter cold spells over Northern Europe and erosion of the stratospheric polar vortex is detected up to 30 hPa. In about 40 percent of the cases, the extreme cold spells are preceded by dynamical disturbances in the stratosphere. The strong warmings associated with the deceleration of the stratospheric jet cause the tropopause height to decrease over high latitudes. The compression of the tropospheric column below favors the development of high pressure anomalies and blocking signatures over polar regions. This in turn leads to the advection of cold air towards Northern Europe and the establishment of a negative annular mode pattern in the troposphere. Anomalies in the residual mean meridional circulation during the stratospheric weak vortex events contribute to the warming of the lower stratosphere, but are not key in the mechanism through which the stratosphere impacts the troposphere.

  4. Survival of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs under cold conditions is negatively influenced by frequent temperature variations. (United States)

    Herrmann, Coralie; Gern, Lise


    In this study, we tested the survival of Ixodes ricinus under cold conditions in the laboratory. We investigated how the frequency of temperature variations (from -5 °C or -10 °C to 13 °C), and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) influenced survival of questing nymphs collected in spring and autumn 2011. In experiment 1, survival of 1760 nymphs was tested at -10 °C over a short period of time to simulate very cold winter conditions. In experiment 2, survival of 1600 nymphs was tested under cold condition (-5 °C) over a long period of time to simulate common winter conditions. Ticks used for survival tests at -5 °C were screened for Borrelia by quantitative PCR, and genospecies identification was achieved by reverse line blotting. Tick age and frequency of temperature variations had a highly significant effect on I. ricinus survival while Borrelia infection was marginally significant. Hence, survival rate was higher in younger (autumn) than older (spring) nymphs and in nymphs exposed to low rather than high-frequency temperature variations. Borrelia-infected ticks tended to survive better than their uninfected counterparts. These findings suggest that in nature (i) frequent temperature changes in winter threaten tick survival more importantly than very low temperatures, (ii) older (spring) ticks are less resistant to cold than younger (autumn) individuals, and (iii) Borrelia infection plays a marginal role in I. ricinus survival during winter conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Glove and mitten protection in extreme cold weather: an Antarctic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth V. Iserson


    Full Text Available Background: Myths, misconceptions and a general lack of information surround the use of gloves and mittens in extreme cold environments. Objective: This study assessed how well an assortment of gloves and mittens performed in a very cold environment. Methods: A convenience sample of gloves and mittens were tested in Antarctica during the winter of 2016 using a calibrated thermometer (range: −148°F to +158°F/−100°C to +70°C three times over a 0.5-mile distance (~20 minutes. A small sensor on a 10-foot-long cable was taped to the radial surface of the distal small finger on the non-dominant hand. The tested clothing was donned over the probe, the maximum temperature inside the glove/mitten was established near a building exit (ambient temperature approximately 54°F/12°C, and the building was exited, initiating the test. The hand was kept immobile during the test. Some non-heated gloves were tested with chemical heat warmers placed over the volar or dorsal wrist. Results: The highest starting (96°F/36°C and ending (82°F/28°C temperatures were with electrically heated gloves. The lowest starting temperature was with electrically heated gloves with the power off (63°F/17°C. Non-heated gloves with an inserted chemical hand warmer had the lowest minimum temperature (33°F/1°C. Maximum temperatures for gloves/mittens did not correlate well with their minimum temperature. Conclusions: Coverings that maintained finger temperatures within a comfortable and safe range (at or above 59°F/15°C included the heated gloves and mittens (including some with the power off and mittens with liners. Mittens without liners (shell generally performed better than unheated gloves. Better results generally paralleled the item's cost. Inserting chemical heat warmers at the wrist increased heat loss, possibly through the exposed area around the warmer.

  6. Physiology and genetics of Listeria monocytogenes survival and growth at cold temperatures. (United States)

    Chan, Yvonne C; Wiedmann, Martin


    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause serious invasive human illness in susceptible patients, notably immunocompromised, pregnant women, and adults > 65 years old. Most human listeriosis cases appear to be caused by consumption of refrigerated ready-to-eat foods that are contaminated with high levels of L. monocytogenes. While initial L. monocytogenes levels in contaminated foods are usually low, the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive and multiply at low temperatures allows it to reach levels high enough to cause human disease, particularly if contaminated foods that allow for L. monocytogenes growth are stored for prolonged times under refrigeration. In this review, relevant knowledge on the physiology and genetics of L. monocytogenes' ability to adapt to and multiply at low temperature will be summarized and discussed, including selected relevant findings on the physiology and genetics of cold adaptation in other Gram-positive bacteria. Further improvement in our understanding of the physiology and genetics of L. monocytogenes cold growth will hopefully enhance our ability to design successful intervention strategies for this foodborne pathogen.

  7. Analyzing age-specific genetic effects on human extreme age survival in cohort-based longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Jacobsen, Rune; Sørensen, Mette


    The analysis of age-specific genetic effects on human survival over extreme ages is confronted with a deceleration pattern in mortality that deviates from traditional survival models and sparse genetic data available. As human late life is a distinct phase of life history, exploring the genetic...... effects on extreme age survival can be of special interest to evolutionary biology and health science. We introduce a non-parametric survival analysis approach that combines population survival information with individual genotype data in assessing the genetic effects in cohort-based longitudinal studies...

  8. An influence of extreme southern hemisphere cold surges on the North Atlantic Subtropical High through a shallow atmospheric circulation (United States)

    Bowerman, A. R.; Fu, R.; Yin, L.; Fernando, D. N.; Arias, P. A.; Dickinson, R. E.


    Previous studies have attributed interhemisphere influences of the atmosphere to the latitudinal propagation of planetary waves crossing the equator, to the triggering of equatorial Kelvin waves, or to monsoonal circulation. Over the American-Atlantic sector, such cross-equatorial influences rarely occur during boreal summer due to unfavorable atmospheric conditions. We have observed that an alternative mechanism provides an interhemisphere influence. When episodes of extreme cold surges and upper tropospheric westerly winds occur concurrently over southern hemisphere Amazonia, cold surges from extratropical South America can penetrate deep into southern Amazonia. Although they do not appear to influence upper tropospheric circulation of the northern hemisphere, extremely strong southerly cross-equatorial advection (>2σ standard deviations, or 2) of cold and dense air in the lower troposphere can reach as least 10°N. Such cold advection increases the northward cross-equatorial pressure gradient in the lower to middle troposphere, thus shallow northerly return flow below 500 hPa. This return flow and the strong lower tropospheric southerly cross-equatorial flow form an anomalous shallow meridional circulation spanning from southern Amazonia to the subtropical North Atlantic, with increased geopotential height anomalies exceeding +1σ to at least 18°N. It projects onto the southern edge of the North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH), increasing its pressure and leading to equatorward expansion of NASH's southern boundary. These anomalies enhance the NASH, leading to its equatorward expansion. These extreme cold surges can potentially improving the predictability of weather patterns of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, including the variability of the NASH's southern edge.

  9. The effect of extreme cold temperatures on the risk of death in the two major Portuguese cities (United States)

    Antunes, Liliana; Silva, Susana Pereira; Marques, Jorge; Nunes, Baltazar; Antunes, Sílvia


    It is well known that meteorological conditions influence the comfort and human health. Southern European countries, including Portugal, show the highest mortality rates during winter, but the effects of extreme cold temperatures in Portugal have never been estimated. The objective of this study was the estimation of the effect of extreme cold temperatures on the risk of death in Lisbon and Oporto, aiming the production of scientific evidence for the development of a real-time health warning system. Poisson regression models combined with distributed lag non-linear models were applied to assess the exposure-response relation and lag patterns of the association between minimum temperature and all-causes mortality and between minimum temperature and circulatory and respiratory system diseases mortality from 1992 to 2012, stratified by age, for the period from November to March. The analysis was adjusted for over dispersion and population size, for the confounding effect of influenza epidemics and controlled for long-term trend, seasonality and day of the week. Results showed that the effect of cold temperatures in mortality was not immediate, presenting a 1-2-day delay, reaching maximum increased risk of death after 6-7 days and lasting up to 20-28 days. The overall effect was generally higher and more persistent in Lisbon than in Oporto, particularly for circulatory and respiratory mortality and for the elderly. Exposure to cold temperatures is an important public health problem for a relevant part of the Portuguese population, in particular in Lisbon.

  10. Can winter-active bumblebees survive the cold? Assessing the cold tolerance of Bombus terrestris audax and the effects of pollen feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Owen

    Full Text Available There is now considerable evidence that climate change is disrupting the phenology of key pollinator species. The recently reported UK winter activity of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris brings a novel set of thermal challenges to bumblebee workers that would typically only be exposed to summer conditions. Here we assess the ability of workers to survive acute and chronic cold stress (via lower lethal temperatures and lower lethal times at 0°C, the capacity for rapid cold hardening (RCH and the influence of diet (pollen versus nectar consumption on supercooling points (SCP. Comparisons are made with chronic cold stress indices and SCPs in queen bumblebees. Results showed worker bees were able to survive acute temperatures likely to be experienced in a mild winter, with queens significantly more tolerant to chronic cold temperature stress. The first evidence of RCH in any Hymenoptera is shown. In addition, dietary manipulation indicated the consumption of pollen significantly increased SCP temperature. These results are discussed in the light of winter active bumblebees and climate change.

  11. Clinical characteristics and survival of patients with diabetes mellitus following non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. (United States)

    Wiessman, Maya Paryente; Liberty, Idit F; Segev, Renana Wilkof; Katz, Tiberiu; Abu Tailakh, Muhammad; Novack, Victor


    Diabetes mellitus-related lower extremity amputation is a major complication severely affecting patient survival and quality of life. To analyze epidemiological and clinical trends in the incidence and survival of lower extremity amputations among diabetes patients. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of 565 consecutive diabetes patients who underwent their first non-traumatic lower extremity amputation between January 2002 and December 2009. Major amputations were performed in 316 (55.9%) patients: 142 above the knee (25.1%) and 174 below (30.8%); 249 (44.1%) had a minor amputation. The incidence rates of amputations decreased from 2.9 to 2.1 per 1000 diabetes patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that first year mortality rates were lower among patients with minor amputations (31.7% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.569). First year mortality rates following below-knee amputation were somewhat lower than above-knee amputation (33.1 vs. 45.1%, respectively). Cox regression model of survival at 1 year after the procedure found that age (HR 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.04-1.07, P amputation (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.83, P = 0.045) and ischemic heart disease (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.26-2.24, P amputations in diabetes patients between January 2002 and December 2009 decreased slightly. However, one year mortality rates after the surgery did not decline and remained high, stressing the need for a multidisciplinary effort to prevent amputations in diabetes patients.

  12. Reliability Assessment of Advanced Flip-clip Interconnect Electronic Package Assemblies under Extreme Cold Temperatures (-190 and -120 C) (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Ghaffarian, Reza; Shapiro, Andrew; Napala, Phil A.; Martin, Patrick A.


    Flip-chip interconnect electronic package boards have been assembled, underfilled, non-destructively evaluated and subsequently subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling to assess the reliability of this advanced packaging interconnect technology for future deep space, long-term, extreme temperature missions. In this very preliminary study, the employed temperature range covers military specifications (-55 C to 100 C), extreme cold Martian (-120 C to 115 C) and asteroid Nereus (-180 C to 25 C) environments. The resistance of daisy-chained, flip-chip interconnects were measured at room temperature and at various intervals as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. Electrical resistance measurements are reported and the tests to date have not shown significant change in resistance as a function of extreme temperature thermal cycling. However, the change in interconnect resistance becomes more noticeable with increasing number of thermal cycles. Further research work has been carried out to understand the reliability of flip-chip interconnect packages under extreme temperature applications (-190 C to 85 C) via continuously monitoring the daisy chain resistance. Adaptation of suitable diagnostic techniques to identify the failure mechanisms is in progress. This presentation will describe the experimental test results of flip-chip testing under extreme temperatures.

  13. Who is more vulnerable to death from extremely cold temperatures? A case-only approach in Hong Kong with a temperate climate (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming


    The short-term effects of ambient cold temperature on mortality have been well documented in the literature worldwide. However, less is known about which subpopulations are more vulnerable to death related to extreme cold. We aimed to examine the personal characteristics and underlying causes of death that modified the association between extreme cold and mortality in a case-only approach. Individual information of 197,680 deaths of natural causes, daily temperature, and air pollution concentrations in cool season (November-April) during 2002-2011 in Hong Kong were collected. Extreme cold was defined as those days with preceding week with a daily maximum temperature at or less than the 1st percentile of its distribution. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of modification, further controlling for age, seasonal pattern, and air pollution. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by using the 5th percentile as cutoff point to define the extreme cold. Subjects with age of 85 and older were more vulnerable to extreme cold, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.33 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.45). The greater risk of extreme cold-related mortality was observed for total cardiorespiratory diseases and several specific causes including hypertensive diseases, stroke, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. Hypertensive diseases exhibited the greatest vulnerability to extreme cold exposure, with an OR of 1.37 (95 % CI, 1.13-1.65). Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of these effect modifications. This evidence on which subpopulations are vulnerable to the adverse effects of extreme cold is important to inform public health measures to minimize those effects.

  14. Surviving at any cost: guilt expression following extreme ethical conflicts in a virtual setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Cristofari

    Full Text Available Studying human behavior in response to large-scale catastrophic events, particularly how moral challenges would be undertaken under extreme conditions, is an important preoccupation for contemporary scientists and decision leaders. However, researching this issue was hindered by the lack of readily available models. Immersive virtual worlds could represent a solution, by providing ways to test human behavior in controlled life-threatening situations. Using a massively multi-player zombie apocalypse setting, we analysed spontaneously reported feelings of guilt following ethically questionable actions related to survival. The occurrence and magnitude of guilt depended on the nature of the consequences of the action. Furthermore, feelings of guilt predicted long-lasting changes in behavior, displayed as compensatory actions. Finally, actions inflicting immediate harm to others appeared mostly prompted by panic and were more commonly regretted. Thus, extreme conditions trigger a reduction of the impact of ethical norms in decision making, although awareness of ethicality is retained to a surprising extent.

  15. Microorganisms Taken to Far Extreme: an Update on Their Survival adn Growth (United States)

    Sharma, A.


    The questions that make geology at extremes so fascinating involve attempts on understanding the deep subsurface processes and their effect on what we find directly relevant at near surface short time scale interactions. What is the base of the biosphere? What are the various niches life as we know can persist? These are few of the questions that are relevant to deep subsurface geology. Not unlike any other scientific inquiry, along with extensive field and theoretical studies, these geomicrobiological questions need an experiment-based evaluation that can help constrain the geochemical parameters relevant to life's survival. Sharma et al. (2002) have taken a direct approach in constraining the microbial activity at extreme conditions by making observations within diamond anvil cells. Specific chemical component (formate) was used to constrain the metabolic activity of ambient pressure microbes at high pressures. This study opened up the possibility of life in radically extreme environments, often deficient of liquid water and showed that microbial life can find niches within the organic rich veins and inclusions, such as in (dense phase) ice. High resolution imaging within the diamond cell has provided a better insight into the state of the ambient pressure microbes. The author will present newer results on microbial survival at high pressures that provide in insight into the heterogeneous effect of high hydrostatic pressure affecting some microbes differently such that they do perish, while others remain largely viable. By monitoring microbial growth upon decompression, these experiments show the viability of the microbes at high pressures and hence the feasibility of a deep biosphere. The author will also present a combination of high temperature and pressure on the microbiological system at such far extreme conditions that show some surprising behavior.

  16. Predictors of survival in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis and extremely high prostate-specific antigen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Chul Koo


    Conclusions: PSA response to androgen deprivation therapy and serum ALP are reliable predictors of survival in patients with BMPCa presenting with extremely high PSA levels. These patients should not be deterred from active treatment based on baseline PSA values.

  17. Extremes in body mass index affect overall survival in women with cervical cancer. (United States)

    Clark, Leslie H; Jackson, Amanda L; Soo, Adrianne E; Orrey, Danielle C; Gehrig, Paola A; Kim, Kenneth H


    To examine the effect of BMI on pathologic findings, cancer recurrence and survival in cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study of cervical cancer patients treated from July 2000 to March 2013 was performed. BMI was calculated, and patients were classified by BMI. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included stage, histopathology, disease-specific survival (DSS) and recurrence free survival (RFS). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and compared using Cox proportional hazard ratios. Of 632 eligible patients, 24 (4%) were underweight, 191 (30%) were normal weight, 417 (66%) were overweight/obese. There was no difference in age (p=0.91), stage at presentation (p=0.91), grade (p=0.46), or histology (p=0.76) between weight categories. There were fewer White patients in the underweight (54%) and overweight/obese (58%) groups compared to the normal weight (71%) group (p=0.04). After controlling for prognostic factors, underweight and overweight/obese patients had worse median RFS than normal weight patients (7.6 v 25.0months, p=0.01 and 20.3 v 25.0months, p=0.03). Underweight patients also had worse OS (10.4 v 28.4months, p=0.031) and DSS (13.8 v 28.4months, p=0.04) compared to normal weight patients. Overweight/obese patients had worse OS than normal weight patients (22.2 v 28.4months, p=0.03) and a trend toward worse DSS (21.9 v 28.4months, p=0.09). Both extremes of weight (underweight and overweight/obesity) were associated with worse survival in patients with cervical cancer. Optimizing weight in cervical cancer patients may improve outcomes in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic value of biochemical variables for survival after surgery for metastatic bone disease of the extremities. (United States)

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hovgaard, Thea Bechman; Hindsø, Klaus; Petersen, Michael Mørk


    Prediction of survival in patients having surgery for metastatic bone disease in the extremities (MBDex) has been of interest in more than two decades. Hitherto no consensus on the value of biochemical variables has been achieved. Our purpose was (1) to investigate if standard biochemical variables have independent prognostic value for survival after surgery for MBDex and (2) to identify optimal prognostic cut off values for survival of biochemical variables. In a consecutive cohort of 270 patients having surgery for MBDex, we measured preoperative biochemical variables: hemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein and absolute, neutrophil and lymphocyte count. ROC curve analyses were performed to identify optimal cut off levels. Independent prognostic factors for variables were addressed with multiple Cox regression analyses. Optimal cut off levels were identified as: hemoglobin 7.45 mmol/L, absolute lymphocyte count 8.5 × 10 9 /L, neutrophil 5.68 × 10 9 /L, lymphocyte 1.37 × 10 9 /L, C-reactive protein 22.5 mg/L, and alkaline phosphatase 129 U/L. Regression analyses found alkaline phosphatase (HR 2.49) and neutrophil count (HR 2.49) to be independent prognostic factors. We found neutrophil count and alkaline phosphatase to be independent prognostic variables in predicting survival in patients after surgery for MBDex. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Incidence and predisposing factors of cold intolerance after arterial repair in upper extremity injuries. (United States)

    Klocker, Josef; Peter, Tobias; Pellegrini, Lukas; Mattesich, Monika; Loescher, Wolfgang; Sieb, Michael; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Fraedrich, Gustav


    The purpose of this report was to present abnormal posttraumatic cold intolerance in patients that previously underwent repair of arterial injuries after civilian upper limb trauma in our institution. All patients who underwent repair of arterial lesions after upper limb trauma since 1990 were reviewed, and clinical follow-up studies were performed. Patients were asked to complete the cold intolerance symptom severity (CISS) questionnaire to evaluate presence and severity of self-reported cold sensitivity, and the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire to analyze functional disability. Abnormal cold intolerance was defined as a CISS score over 30. Further analysis included evaluation of epidemiologic, clinical, and perioperative data for factors predisposing to abnormal cold intolerance. A total of 87 patients with previous repair of upper limb arterial injuries were eligible to answer the CISS and DASH questionnaires, and 56 patients (64%; 43 men; median age: 31.9 years) completed both. In our cohort, blunt trauma was the predominant cause of injury (n = 50; 89%). Accompanying lesions of nerves (n = 22; 39%) and/or orthopedic injuries (n = 36; 64%) were present in 48 patients (86%). After a median follow-up period of 5.5 years (range, 0.5-19.7), 23 patients (41% of 56) reported on abnormal cold intolerance. Patients with cold intolerance had worse functional results (as measured by the DASH questionnaire; mean ± SD, 42.7 ± 29.7 vs 11.5 ± 23.9; P < .001) when compared with patients without. Cold intolerance was more frequently seen in patients with previous nerve lesion (P = .027) and in proximal injuries (subclavian or axillary vs brachial or forearm arteries: P = .006), but was not correlated to gender, age, involvement of the dominant or nondominant arm, and the presence of ischemia, bone injury, or an isolated vascular injury. Abnormal cold intolerance is frequently seen in patients with a history of arterial repair in upper limb trauma

  20. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  1. Retention of stored water enables tropical tree saplings to survive extreme drought conditions. (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T


    Trees generally maintain a small safety margin between the stem water potential (Ψstem) reached during seasonal droughts and the Ψstem associated with their mortality. This pattern may indicate that species face similar mortality risk during extreme droughts. However, if tree species vary in their ability to regulate Ψstem, then safety margins would poorly predict drought mortality. To explore variation among species in Ψstem regulation, I subjected potted saplings of six tropical tree species to extreme drought and compared their responses with well-watered plants and pretreatment reference plants. In the drought treatment, soil water potential reached Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Cavanillesia platanifolia (Bonpl.) Kunth and Cedrela odorata L. had 100% survival and maintained Ψstem near -1 MPa (i.e., desiccation-avoiding species). Three other species, Cojoba rufescens (Benth.) Britton and Rose, Genipa americana L. and Hymenaea courbaril L. had 50%, 0% and 25% survival, respectively, and survivors had Ψstem <-6 MPa (i.e., desiccation-susceptible species). The desiccation-avoiding species had lower relative water content (RWC) in all organs and tissues (root, stem, bark and xylem) in the drought treatment than in the reference plants (means 72.0-90.4% vs 86.9-97.9%), but the survivors of the desiccation-susceptible C. rufescens had much lower RWC in the drought treatment (44.5-72.1%). Among the reference plants, the desiccation-avoiding species had lower tissue density, leaf-mass fraction and lateral-root surface area (LRA) than the desiccation-susceptible species. Additionally, C. platanifolia and C. odorata had reduced LRA in the drought treatment, which may slow water loss into dry soil. Together, these results suggest that the ability to regulate Ψstem during extreme drought is associated with functional traits that favor retention of stored water and that safety margins during seasonal drought poorly predict survival during extreme drought. © The Author

  2. Experimental selection for Drosophila survival in extremely low O(2 environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhou


    Full Text Available Cellular hypoxia, if severe enough, results usually in injury or cell death. Our research in this area has focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxic tissue injury to explore strategies to prevent injury or enhance tolerance. The current experiments were designed to determine the genetic basis for adaptation to long term low O(2 environments.With long term experimental selection over many generations, we obtained a Drosophila melanogaster strain that can live perpetually in extremely low, normally lethal, O(2 condition (as low as 4% O(2. This strain shows a dramatic phenotypic divergence from controls, including a decreased recovery time from anoxic stupor, a higher rate of O(2 consumption in hypoxic conditions, and a decreased body size and mass due to decreased cell number and size. Expression arrays showed that about 4% of the Drosophila genome altered in expression and about half of the alteration was down-regulation. The contribution of some altered transcripts to hypoxia tolerance was examined by testing the survival of available corresponding P-element insertions (and their excisions under extremely low O(2 conditions. We found that down-regulation of several candidate genes including Best1, broad, CG7102, dunce, lin19-like and sec6 conferred severe hypoxia tolerance in Drosophila.We have identified a number of genes that play an important role in the survival of a selected Drosophila strain in extremely low O(2 conditions, selected by decreasing O(2 availability over many generations. Because of conservation of pathways, we believe that such genes are critical in hypoxia adaptation in physiological or pathological conditions not only in Drosophila but also in mammals.

  3. The influence of mid-latitude storm tracks on hot, cold, dry and wet extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Coumou, Dim


    Changes in mid-latitude circulation can strongly affect the number and intensity of extreme weather events. In particular, high-amplitude quasi-stationary planetary waves have been linked to prolonged weather extremes at the surface. In contrast, analyses of fast-traveling synoptic-scale waves and

  4. The Role of Rossby-Wave Propagation in a North American Extreme Cold Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Shi


    Full Text Available The Eliassen–Palm flux and Plumb wave activity flux are calculated using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis daily dataset to determine the propagation of Rossby waves before a North American cold wave in January 2014. The results show that the upward wave activity fluxes mainly come from planetary waves 1 and 2, which provide a stable circulation background for the influence of the subplanetary-scale waves 3 and 4. The Rossby-wave propagation anomalies between the troposphere and the stratosphere are due to the modulating effects of waves 3 and 4 on waves 1 and 2. During 9–14 January 2014, the modulating effects helped strengthen upward and eastward wave activity fluxes over the Atlantic region and enhance the Pacific high in the stratosphere in its early stage. Later in 19–24 January, the downward wave activity fluxes over the east Pacific due to the modulating effects were beneficial to downward development of the stratospheric high over the Pacific and the formation of a blocking high over the west coast of North America in the troposphere accompanied by a strong adjacent cold low on the east side. These circulations benefit the southward invasion of polar cold air reaching the lower latitudes of east North America, leading to the cold wave outbreak.

  5. Metabolic insights into the cold survival strategy and overwintering of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Meng, Qian; Wang, Menglong; Zhou, Guiling; Li, Xuan; Wang, Hongtuo; Miao, Lin; Qin, Qilian; Zhang, Jihong


    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12h) plus 13°C (12h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future. In this study, metabolomics was performed to analyze the metabolic features of S. litura larvae exposed to two typical low temperatures: 15°C and 4°C, at which the development, locomotion and feeding activities are maintained or halted, respectively. The results showed that the strategies that regulate lipid and amino acid metabolism were similar at 15°C and 4°C. Cold exposure induced a metabolic shift of energy from carbohydrate to lipid and decreased free amino acids level. Biosynthesis likely contributed to the decrease in amino acids levels even at 4°C, a non-feeding temperature, suggesting an insufficient suppression of anabolism. This explains why food and high temperature pulses are necessary for their long-term cold survival. Glycometabolism was different between 15°C and 4°C. Carbohydrates were used rapidly at 15°C, while trehalose accumulated at 4°C. Interestingly, abundant trehalose and serine are prominent features of Spodoptera exigua larvae, an overwintering species, when compared to S. litura larvae. Exposure to 4°C also induced up-regulation of carbohydrase and protease in the guts of S. litura. Therefore, it is likely that concurrence of food supplement and fluctuating temperatures could facilitate the cold survival of S. litura larvae. We also found that exposure to 4°C could activate the mevalonate pathway in S. litura larvae, which might be related to glycometabolism at 4°C. Overall, our study describes

  6. Survival of the Fittest: Overcoming Oxidative Stress at the Extremes of Acid, Heat and Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Maezato


    Full Text Available The habitat of metal respiring acidothermophilic lithoautotrophs is perhaps the most oxidizing environment yet identified. Geothermal heat, sulfuric acid and transition metals contribute both individually and synergistically under aerobic conditions to create this niche. Sulfuric acid and metals originating from sulfidic ores catalyze oxidative reactions attacking microbial cell surfaces including lipids, proteins and glycosyl groups. Sulfuric acid also promotes hydrocarbon dehydration contributing to the formation of black “burnt” carbon. Oxidative reactions leading to abstraction of electrons is further impacted by heat through an increase in the proportion of reactant molecules with sufficient energy to react. Collectively these factors and particularly those related to metals must be overcome by thermoacidophilic lithoautotrophs in order for them to survive and proliferate. The necessary mechanisms to achieve this goal are largely unknown however mechanistics insights have been gained through genomic studies. This review focuses on the specific role of metals in this extreme environment with an emphasis on resistance mechanisms in Archaea.

  7. Survivability Mode and Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the cooperation agreement between Wave Dragon and Aalborg University regarding phase 2 of the development of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter. The research is carried out by testing the 1:51.8 scale model of the Wave Dragon, aiming at the assessment...... of the survivability of the device in extreme waves and evaluation of the design loads for the mooring component. The testing has been carried out in October 2010 by PhD student Stefano Parmeggiani and Master students Giovanna Bevilacqua and Giacomo Girardi Ferruzza at the Hydraulic and Coastal Laboratories...... of the department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University. The outcome of the research will be used as input for future research work aimed at the design of the mooring system and the certification of the structural design for the full scale Wave Dragon demonstrator....

  8. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  9. Constructing and screening a metagenomic library of a cold and alkaline extreme environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Stougaard, Peter


    as a source of bacteria and enzymes adapted to these conditions. They have also highlighted the limitations of cultivation-based methods in this extreme environment and metagenomic approaches may provide access to novel extremophilic enzymes from the uncultured majority of bacteria. Here, we describe...... the construction and screening of a metagenomic library of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the ikaite columns....

  10. Climate Degradation and Extreme Icing Events Constrain Life in Cold-Adapted Mammals. (United States)

    Berger, J; Hartway, C; Gruzdev, A; Johnson, M


    Despite the growth in knowledge about the effects of a warming Arctic on its cold-adapted species, the mechanisms by which these changes affect animal populations remain poorly understood. Increasing temperatures, declining sea ice and altered wind and precipitation patterns all may affect the fitness and abundance of species through multiple direct and indirect pathways. Here we demonstrate previously unknown effects of rain-on-snow (ROS) events, winter precipitation, and ice tidal surges on the Arctic's largest land mammal. Using novel field data across seven years and three Alaskan and Russian sites, we show arrested skeletal growth in juvenile muskoxen resulting from unusually dry winter conditions and gestational ROS events, with the inhibitory effects on growth from ROS events lasting up to three years post-partum. Further, we describe the simultaneous entombment of 52 muskoxen in ice during a Chukchi Sea winter tsunami (ivuniq in Iñupiat), and link rapid freezing to entrapment of Arctic whales and otters. Our results illustrate how once unusual, but increasingly frequent Arctic weather events affect some cold-adapted mammals, and suggest that an understanding of species responses to a changing Arctic can be enhanced by coalescing groundwork, rare events, and insights from local people.

  11. Model of gene expression in extreme cold - reference transcriptome for the high-Antarctic cryopelagic notothenioid fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki. (United States)

    Bilyk, Kevin T; Cheng, C-H Christina


    transcriptome. In a proof of concept, we utilized the annotated reference transcriptome to profile the gene expression patterns of gill and liver, and identified a suite of over and under-represented GO terms when compared to the tropical water zebrafish suggesting these functions may be important for surviving in freezing waters. The transcriptome resource from this study will aid future investigations of cold adaptation and thermal response of polar ectothermic species.

  12. Glomeromycota communities survive extreme levels of metal toxicity in an orphan mining site. (United States)

    Sánchez-Castro, I; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V; Cleyet-Marel, J C; Baudoin, E; van Tuinen, D


    Abandoned tailing basins and waste heaps of orphan mining sites are of great concern since extreme metal contamination makes soil improper for any human activity and is a permanent threat for nearby surroundings. Although spontaneous revegetation can occur, the process is slow or unsuccessful and rhizostabilisation strategies to reduce dispersal of contaminated dust represent an option to rehabilitate such sites. This requires selection of plants tolerant to such conditions, and optimization of their fitness and growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can enhance metal tolerance in moderately polluted soils, but their ability to survive extreme levels of metal contamination has not been reported. This question was addressed in the tailing basin and nearby waste heaps of an orphan mining site in southern France, reaching in the tailing basin exceptionally high contents of zinc (ppm: 97,333 total) and lead (ppm: 31,333 total). In order to contribute to a better understanding of AMF ecology under severe abiotic stress and to identify AMF associated with plants growing under such conditions, that may be considered in future revegetation and rhizostabilisation of highly polluted areas, nine plant species were sampled at different growing seasons and AMF root colonization was determined. Glomeromycota diversity was monitored in mycorrhizal roots by sequencing of the ribosomal LSU. This first survey of AMF in such highly contaminated soils revealed the presence of several AMF ribotypes, belonging mainly to the Glomerales, with some examples from the Paraglomerales and Diversisporales. AMF diversity and root colonization in the tailing basin were lower than in the less-contaminated waste heaps. A Paraglomus species previously identified in a polish mining site was common in roots of different plants. Presence of active AMF in such an environment is an outstanding finding, which should be clearly considered for the design of efficient rhizostabilisation processes

  13. [Restoration of the complicated locomotor functions of the upper extremities in the patients surviving ischemic stroke]. (United States)

    Bondarenko, F V; Makarova, M R; Turova, E A


    During the late and residual periods of stroke, it is necessary to pay attention to the training of complex spatial movements along with the traditional restoration of the balance and strength of para-articular muscles and the mobility of the paretic limb joints. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of robotic therapy for the recovery of the functions of the upper extremities in the late and residual periods of stroke. The study involved 52 patients who had survived ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery. The patients were divided randomly into 2 groups. All of them performed therapeutic physical exercises based on the standard technique during 5 days a week for 3 weeks. In addition, the treatment included massage, laser and pulsed current therapy. The patients of the main group (n=36) were additionally trained to perform complex spatial movements with special emphasis on their speed, fluidity, precision, and agility with the use of the Multi Joint System (MJS) robotic electromechanical device (40 min, 5 days/wk x 3wk). The analysis of the results of the study has demonstrated the statistically significant difference in the degree of improvement of the range of motion (ROM) in the elbow and shoulder joints, the speed and the accuracy of these movements between the patients of the main and control groups. It is concluded that the instrumental restoration of complex spatial movements of the upper extremities during the late and residual periods of stroke contributes not only to the improvement of the functional capabilities but also to the enhancement of independence and personal adjustment of the stroke patients.

  14. Tetramethylpyrazine protects Schwann cells from ischemia-like injury and increases cell survival in cold ischemic rat nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Yang


    Full Text Available Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, a major active ingredient of Ligusticum wallichi Franchat extract (a Chinese herb, exhibits neuroprotective properties in ischemia. In this study, we assessed its protective effects on Schwann cells (SCs by culturing them in the presence of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD conditions and measuring cell survival in cold ischemic rat nerves. In the OGD-induced ischemic injury model of SCs, we demonstrated that TMP treatment not only reduced OGD-induced cell viability losses, cell death, and apoptosis of SCs in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited LDH release, but also suppressed OGD-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax and caspase-3, as well as inhibited the consequent activation of caspase-3. In the cold ischemic nerve model, we found that prolonged cold ischemic exposure for four weeks was markedly associated with the absence of SCs, a decrease in cell viability, and apoptosis in preserved nerve segments incubated in University of Wisconsin solution (UWS alone. However, TMP attenuated nerve segment damage by preserving SCs and antagonizing the decrease in nerve fiber viability and increase in TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that TMP not only provides protective effects in an ischemia-like injury model of cultured rat SCs by regulating Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3, but also increases cell survival and suppresses apoptosis in the cold ischemic nerve model after prolonged ischemic exposure for four weeks. Therefore, TMP may be a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for preventing peripheral nervous system ischemic diseases and improving peripheral nerve storage.

  15. New Herschel-identified Orion Protostars: Characterizing An Extreme Population Of Cold Sources (United States)

    Stutz, Amelia Marie; Megeath, T.; Tobin, J.; Fischer, W.; Stanke, T.; Ali, B.; Di Francesco, J.; Henning, T.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D.; HOPS Team


    We present a new population of serendipitously identified Orion protostars. These protostars, designated PACS Bright Red Sources (PBRS), were identified in PACS 70 um observations for the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). Here we focus on the nine reddest PBRS in our sample: in contrast to the known Orion protostars targeted in HOPS, the reddest PBRS are undetected or very faint in the Spitzer 24 um imaging. They are redder than any of the known Orion Class 0 protostars, and appear similar in their 70 um to 24 um colors to the most extreme Class 0 objects known. These new Orion protostars are likely to be in a very early and short lived stage of protostellar evolution: the population of red PBRS is generally characterized by very low bolometric temperatures of 25 K and bolometric luminosities of ranging from 1 to about 10 solar luminosities. Here we present our initial characterization of these sources through analysis of the observed Spitzer, Herschel, and APEX broad-band SEDs. In addition, we will present results from our observational campaign to obtain auxiliary long-wavelength data aimed at characterizing the PBRS.

  16. The demographic impact of extreme events: stochastic weather drives survival and population dynamics in a long-lived seabird. (United States)

    Frederiksen, M; Daunt, F; Harris, M P; Wanless, S


    1. Most scenarios for future climate change predict increased variability and thus increased frequency of extreme weather events. To predict impacts of climate change on wild populations, we need to understand whether this translates into increased variability in demographic parameters, which would lead to reduced population growth rates even without a change in mean parameter values. This requires robust estimates of temporal process variance, for example in survival, and identification of weather covariates linked to interannual variability. 2. The European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (L.) shows unusually large variability in population size, and large-scale mortality events have been linked to winter gales. We estimated first-year, second-year and adult survival based on 43 years of ringing and dead recovery data from the Isle of May, Scotland, using recent methods to quantify temporal process variance and identify aspects of winter weather linked to survival. 3. Survival was highly variable for all age groups, and for second-year and adult birds process variance declined strongly when the most extreme year was excluded. Survival in these age groups was low in winters with strong onshore winds and high rainfall. Variation in first-year survival was not related to winter weather, and process variance, although high, was less affected by extreme years. A stochastic population model showed that increasing process variance in survival would lead to reduced population growth rate and increasing probability of extinction. 4. As in other cormorants, shag plumage is only partially waterproof, presumably an adaptation to highly efficient underwater foraging. We speculate that this adaptation may make individuals vulnerable to rough winter weather, leading to boom-and-bust dynamics, where rapid population growth under favourable conditions allows recovery from periodic large-scale weather-related mortality. 5. Given that extreme weather events are predicted to become

  17. The 5-minute Apgar score: survival and short-term outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight infants. (United States)

    Phalen, Ann Gibbons; Kirkby, Sharon; Dysart, Kevin


    The Apgar score is a standardized tool for evaluating newborns in the delivery room. Despite its long history and widespread use, debate remains over its reliability of predicting neonatal outcomes, especially in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the 5-minute Apgar score of extremely low-birth-weight infants, as it relates to survival and morbidities associated with prematurity and length of hospital stay. A retrospective query of the Alere neonatal database from 2001 to 2011 examined all infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and less than 1000-g birth weight. The 5-minute Apgar score was divided into 2 groups, score of 4 or greater or less than 4. The study compared results of the 5-minute Apgar score and associated morbidities in surviving infants. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Fisher exact test, t test, and multivariate regression. The sample consisted of 3898 infants with an 86.4% (n = 3366) survival rate. Controlling for gestational age and birth weight, surviving infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 4 were more likely to demonstrate nonintact survival. Infants with a low 5-minute Apgar score have greater risk for mortality and morbidities associated with prematurity.

  18. Xenon treatment protects against cold ischemia associated delayed graft function and prolongs graft survival in rats. (United States)

    Zhao, H; Watts, H R; Chong, M; Huang, H; Tralau-Stewart, C; Maxwell, P H; Maze, M; George, A J T; Ma, D


    Prolonged hypothermic storage causes ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the renal graft, which is considered to contribute to the occurrence of the delayed graft function (DGF) and chronic graft failure. Strategies are required to protect the graft and to prolong renal graft survival. We demonstrated that xenon exposure to human proximal tubular cells (HK-2) led to activation of range of protective proteins. Xenon treatment prior to or after hypothermia-hypoxia challenge stabilized the HK-2 cellular structure, diminished cytoplasmic translocation of high-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 and suppressed NF-κB activation. In the syngeneic Lewis-to-Lewis rat model of kidney transplantation, xenon exposure to donors before graft retrieval or to recipients after engraftment decreased caspase-3 expression, localized HMGB-1 within nuclei and prevented TLR-4/NF-κB activation in tubular cells; serum pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were reduced and renal function was preserved. Xenon treatment of graft donors or of recipients prolonged renal graft survival following IRI in both Lewis-to-Lewis isografts and Fischer-to-Lewis allografts. Xenon induced cell survival or graft functional recovery was abolished by HIF-1α siRNA. Our data suggest that xenon treatment attenuates DGF and enhances graft survival. This approach could be translated into clinical practice leading to a considerable improvement in long-term graft survival. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Relationship of Extreme Chromosomal Instability with Long-term Survival in a Retrospective Analysis of Primary Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roylance, Rebecca; Endesfelder, David; Gorman, Patricia


    Background: Chromosomal instability (CIN) is thought to be associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors; however, evidence from preclinical and mouse tumor models suggest that CIN may paradoxically enhance or impair cancer cell fitness. Breast cancer prognostic expression signature sets, which...... with survival outcome. Results: There was increased CIN and clonal eterogeneity in ER-negative compared with ER-positive breast cancer. Consistent with a negative impact of CIN on cellular fitness, extreme CIN in ER-negative breast cancer was an independent variable associated with improved long-term survival...

  20. Life in extreme environments: survival strategy of the endolithic desert lichen Verrucaria rubrocincta (United States)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Knauth, L. Paul; Bungartz, Frank; Klonowski, Stan; Nash, Thomas H.


    Verrucaria rubrocincta Breuss is an endolithic lichen that inhabits caliche plates exposed on the surface of the Sonoran Desert. Caliche surface temperatures are regularly in excess of 60°C during the summer and approach 0°C in the winter. Incident light intensities are high, with photosynthetically active radiation levels typically to 2,600 μmol/m2 s-1 during the summer. A cross-section of rock inhabited by V. rubrocincta shows an anatomical zonation comprising an upper micrite layer, a photobiont layer containing clusters of algal cells, and a pseudomedulla embedded in the caliche. Hyphae of the pseudomedulla become less numerous with depth below the rock surface. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic data for the caliche and micrite fall into two sloping, well-separated arrays on a δ13C δ18O plot. The δ13CPDB of the micrite ranges from 2.1 to 8.1 and δ18OSMOW from 25.4 to 28.9, whereas δ13CPDB of the caliche ranges from -4.7 to 0.7 and δ18OSMOW from 23.7 to 29.2. The isotopic data of the micrite can be explained by preferential fixing of 12C into the alga, leaving local 13C enrichment and evaporative enrichment of 18O in the water. The 14C dates of the micrite range from recent to 884 years b.p., indicating that “dead” carbon from the caliche is not a significant source for the lichen-precipitated micrite. The endolithic growth is an adaptation to the environmental extremes of exposed rock surfaces in the hot desert. The micrite layer is highly reflective and reduces light intensity to the algae below and acts as an efficient sunscreen that blocks harmful UV radiation. The micrite also acts as a cap to the lichen and helps trap moisture. The lichen survives by the combined effects of biodeterioration and biomineralization. Biodeterioration of the caliche concomitant with biomineralization of a protective surface coating of micrite results in the distinctive anatomy of V. rubrocincta.

  1. Predictors of survival in prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis and extremely high prostate-specific antigen levels. (United States)

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hong; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Yang, Seung Choul; Chung, Byung Ha


    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a surrogate marker of disease progression; however, its predictive ability in the extreme ranges is unknown. We determined the predictors of survival in patients with bone metastatic prostate cancer (BMPCa) and with extremely high PSA levels. Treatment-naïve patients (n = 248) diagnosed with BMPCa between December 2002 and June 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological features at diagnosis, namely age, body mass index, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and PSA levels, PSA nadir, time to PSA nadir and its maintenance period, PSA declining velocity, Gleason grade, clinical T stage, pain score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (ECOG PS), and the number of bone metastases were assessed. The patients were stratified according to PSA ranges of bone lesions (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period (median, 39.9 months; interquartile range, 21.5-65.9 months), there were no differences between the groups in terms of the survival endpoints. High ALP levels, shorter time to PSA nadir, and pain were associated with an increased risk of progression to CRPC, and high ALP levels, ECOG PS ≥ 1, and higher PSA nadir independently predicted CSS. PSA response to androgen deprivation therapy and serum ALP are reliable predictors of survival in patients with BMPCa presenting with extremely high PSA levels. These patients should not be deterred from active treatment based on baseline PSA values.

  2. Introduction to Cold-Hardy Tropicals for Virginia Landscapes


    Saia, John; Seamone, Joseph W.; Zilberfarb, Susanne E.


    There are thousands of species within the palm family, and three of these are known for their outstanding cold hardiness. Each of these palms is commonly reported to survive extremely cold temperatures especially in situations where the palm has become fully established in its location.

  3. Improved survival with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest with cold saline and surfacing cooling: keep it simple. (United States)

    Granja, Cristina; Ferreira, Pedro; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Pina, João


    Aim. To evaluate whether the introduction of a therapeutic hypothermia (TH) protocol consisting of cold saline infusion and surface cooling would be effective in targeting mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°C). Additionally, to evaluate if TH would improve survival after cardiac arrest. Design. Before-after design. Setting. General Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at an urban general hospital with 470 beds. Patients and Methods. Patients admitted in the ICU after cardiac arrest between 2004 and 2009 were included. Effectiveness of the TH protocol to achieve the targeted temperature was evaluated. Hospital mortality was compared before (October 2004-March 2006) and after (April 2006-September 2009) the protocol implementation. Results. Hundred and thirty patients were included, 75 patients were not submitted to TH (before TH group), and 55 were submitted to TH (TH group). There were no significant differences concerning baseline, ICU, and cardiac arrest characteristics between both groups. There was a significant reduction in hospital mortality from 61% (n = 46) in the before TH group to 40% (n = 22) in the TH group. Conclusion. Our protocol consisting of cold saline infusion and surface cooling might be effective in inducing and maintaining mild therapeutic hypothermia. TH achieved with this protocol was associated with a significant reduction in hospital mortality.

  4. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris


    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  5. Cold temperature preference in bacterially infected Drosophila melanogaster improves survival but is remarkably suboptimal. (United States)

    Fedorka, Kenneth M; Kutch, Ian C; Collins, Louisa; Musto, Edward

    Altering one's temperature preference (e.g. behavioral fever or behavioral chill) is a common immune defense among ectotherms that is likely to be evolutionarily conserved. However, the temperature chosen by an infected host may not be optimal for pathogen defense, causing preference to be inefficient. Here we examined the efficiency of temperature preference in Drosophila melanogaster infected with an LD50 of the gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To this end, we estimated the host's uninfected and infected temperature preferences as well as their optimal survival temperature. We found that flies decreased their preference from 26.3°C to 25.2°C when infected, and this preference was stable over 48h. Furthermore, the decrease in temperature preference was associated with an increased chance of surviving the infection. Nevertheless, the infected temperature preference did not coincide with the optimum temperature for infection survival, which lies at or below 21.4°C. These data suggest that the behavioral response to P. aeruginosa infection is considerably inefficient, and the mechanisms that may account for this pattern are discussed. Future studies of infected temperature preferences should document its efficiency, as this understudied aspect of behavioral immunity can provide important insight into preference evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Prunus armeniaca seed extract on health, survivability, antioxidant, blood biochemical and immune status of broiler chickens at high altitude cold desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Kalia


    Full Text Available Extreme climatic conditions and hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude hinders the growth and productivity of chickens. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of aqueous extract of Prunus armeniaca seeds on health, survivability, antioxidants, plasma biochemical parameters, and immune status of broiler chickens at high altitude. Phytochemical analysis of extract revealed the presence of high phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids contents. Before the in vivo study, in vitro efficacy evaluation indicated a significant protective effect of the extract in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes. For in vivo study, experimental groups include control (fed the basal diet, and treatment T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 which received an aqueous extract of P. armeniaca in drinking water at concentrations of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of chicken respectively, along with basal diet for 42 days. Body weight was significantly increased in all treatment groups as compared to control group and the highest body weight was recorded in T3 group. Higher profit was gained in treatment groups due to lesser mortality in chickens. Moreover, chicken in the treatment groups had significantly higher total antioxidant capacity, free radical scavenging activity, interleukin-2, total protein, albumin, globulin level and lower malondialdehyde, interleukin-6, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT and AST level as compared to control group. Results suggest that, P. armeniaca extract at 200 mg/kg body weight of chicken, exhibited the beneficial effect on growth performance and survivability rate of broilers and therefore, could be useful as phytogenic feed additive for broiler chickens at high altitude cold desert.

  7. Extremes of Survival Achieved by the Radiophile Deinococcus Radiodurans: A Model for Microbial Life on Mars (United States)

    Daly, M.; Sridhar, R.; Richmond, R.


    Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile in more than one defined way. First it is extreme in its resistance to freeze drying. Second it is probably uniquely extreme on Earth in its resistance to ionizing radiation. The polyextremophilic capacity of D. radiodurans will be considered. The selection pressures on Mars will then be considered in relation to D. radiodurans in order to support a hypothesis that if microbial life exists on Mars, then it likely includes polyextremophiles.

  8. A Guide to Making Stochastic and Single Point Predictions using the Cold Exposure Survival Model (CESM) (United States)


    connaissances nouvelles qui sont acquises. Son avantage par rapport à d’autres modèles de survie tient au fait qu’il peut être ajusté en fonction de la...l’immersion partielle ou totale dans l’eau. L’ajout de la fonction stochastique a permis d’améliorer les capacités prédictives en calculant la...the point at which Functional Time (FT) and Survival Time (ST) are attained. FT is defined by the deep body temperature when cognitive functions

  9. The correlation between stabbing-related upper extremity wounds and survival of stabbing victims with abdominal and thoracic injuries. (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris


    When treating patients with stab injuries of the torso, clinicians often lack timely information about the degree and nature of internal organ damage. An externally observable sign significantly associated with characteristics of torso injuries may therefore be useful for practitioners. One such potential sign is the presence of wounds to the hands, sometimes sustained during victims' attempt to defend themselves during the violent altercation. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association between presence of upper extremity wounds and the severity of the thoracic and intra-abdominal injuries due to stabbing. This study was carried out retrospectively using data on 8714 patients with stabbing-related injuries from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (INTR) between January 1st1997 and December 31st 2013. Patients with wounds of upper extremities in addition to torso injuries (UE group) were compared to other patients with torso injuries (TO group) in terms of demographics, injury characteristics and clinical outcome. The compared groups were found to be homogeneous in terms of age and systolic blood pressure; the number of sustained torso injuries was also identical. The UE group comprised a slightly greater percentage of females, however both groups were predominantly male. Patients with upper extremity injuries had a lower proportion of internal organ damage (36% vs. 38.5%) and lower mortality (0.9% vs. 2%). The higher mortality of patients without upper extremity wounds remained significantly different even when adjusted by other epidemiological parameters (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.33-5.08).The number of sustained upper extremity injuries was positively associated with deeper penetration of the torso by the stabbing instrument. Patients with stabbing-related upper extremity wounds had a significant survival advantage over patients without such injuries. However, a greater number of sustained upper extremity

  10. Aquaporins in the antarctic midge, an extremophile that relies on dehydration for cold survival. (United States)

    Goto, Shin G; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L


    The terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica relies extensively on dehydration to survive the low temperatures and desiccation stress that prevail in its Antarctic habitat. The loss of body water is thus a critical adaptive mechanism employed at the onset of winter to prevent injury from internal ice formation; a rapid mechanism for rehydration is equally essential when summer returns and the larva resumes the brief active phase of its life. This important role for water movement suggests a critical role for aquaporins (AQPs). Recent completion of the genome project on this species revealed the presence of AQPs in B. antarctica representing the DRIP, PRIP, BIB, RPIP, and LHIP families. Treatment with mercuric chloride to block AQPs also blocks water loss, thereby decreasing cell survival at low temperatures. Antibodies directed against mammalian or Drosophila AQPs suggest a wide tissue distribution of AQPs in the midge and changes in protein abundance in response to dehydration, rehydration, and freezing. Thus far, functional studies have been completed only for PRIP1. It appears to be a water-specific AQP, but expression levels are not altered by dehydration or rehydration. Functional assays remain to be completed for the additional AQPs. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  11. Trends in Survival and Incidence of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants at 23–26 Weeks Gestation (United States)


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between survival and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants, and identify clinical factors responsible for this association. Medical records of 350 infants at 23–26 weeks gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 137) and 2006 to 2010 (period II, n = 213) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into 23–24 and 25–26 weeks gestation, and the survival, BPD incidence, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The overall survival rate was significantly improved in period II compared to period I (80.3% vs. 70.0%, respectively; P = 0.028), especially in infants at 23–24 weeks gestation (73.9% vs. 47.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). The BPD incidence in survivors during period II (55.0%) was significantly decreased compared to period I (67.7%; P = 0.042), especially at 25–26 weeks gestation (41.7% vs. 62.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Significantly improved survival at 23–24 weeks gestation was associated with a higher antenatal steroid use and an improved 5-minute Apgar score. A significant decrease in BPD incidence at 25–26 weeks gestation was associated with early extubation, prolonged use of less invasive continuous positive airway pressure, and reduced supplemental oxygen. Improved perinatal and neonatal care can simultaneously lead to improved survival and decreased BPD incidence in extremely premature infants. PMID:26955244

  12. Trends in Survival and Incidence of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants at 23-26 Weeks Gestation. (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chang, Yun Sil; Sung, Sein; Ahn, So Yoon; Yoo, Hye Soo; Park, Won Soon


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between survival and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants, and identify clinical factors responsible for this association. Medical records of 350 infants at 23-26 weeks gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 137) and 2006 to 2010 (period II, n = 213) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into 23-24 and 25-26 weeks gestation, and the survival, BPD incidence, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The overall survival rate was significantly improved in period II compared to period I (80.3% vs. 70.0%, respectively; P = 0.028), especially in infants at 23-24 weeks gestation (73.9% vs. 47.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). The BPD incidence in survivors during period II (55.0%) was significantly decreased compared to period I (67.7%; P = 0.042), especially at 25-26 weeks gestation (41.7% vs. 62.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Significantly improved survival at 23-24 weeks gestation was associated with a higher antenatal steroid use and an improved 5-minute Apgar score. A significant decrease in BPD incidence at 25-26 weeks gestation was associated with early extubation, prolonged use of less invasive continuous positive airway pressure, and reduced supplemental oxygen. Improved perinatal and neonatal care can simultaneously lead to improved survival and decreased BPD incidence in extremely premature infants.

  13. Swim performance and thermoregulatory effects of wearing clothing in a simulated cold-water survival situation. (United States)

    Bowes, Heather; Eglin, Clare M; Tipton, Michael J; Barwood, Martin J


    Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs swim performance, increases drowning risk and often occurs whilst clothed. The impact of clothing on thermoregulation and swim performance during CWI was explored with the view of making recommendations on whether swimming is viable for self-rescue; contrary to the traditional recommendations. Ten unhabituated males (age 24 (4) years; height 1.80 (0.08) m; mass 78.50 (10.93) kg; body composition 14.8 (3.4) fat %) completed four separate CWIs in 12 °C water. They either rested clothed or naked (i.e. wearing a bathing costume) or swum self-paced clothed or naked for up to 1 h. Swim speed, distance covered, oxygen consumption and thermal responses (rectal temperature (T re), mean skin temperature (T msk) and mean body temperature T b) were measured. When clothed, participants swum at a slower pace and for a significantly shorter distance (815 (482) m, 39 (19) min) compared to when naked (1264 (564) m, 52 (18) min), but had a similar oxygen consumption indicating clothing made them less efficient. Swimming accelerated the rate of T msk and T b cooling and wearing clothing partially attenuated this drop. The impairment to swimming performance caused by clothing was greater than the thermal benefit it provided; participants withdrew due to exhaustion before hypothermia developed. Swimming is a viable self-rescue method in 12 °C water, however, clothing impairs swimming capability. Self-rescue swimming could be considered before clinical hypothermia sets in for the majority of individuals. These suggestions must be tested for the wider population.

  14. Cold temperature improves mobility and survival in Drosophila models of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Baxter


    Full Text Available Autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP is a crippling neurodegenerative disease for which effective treatment or cure remains unknown. Victims experience progressive mobility loss due to degeneration of the longest axons in the spinal cord. Over half of AD-HSP cases arise from loss-of-function mutations in spastin, which encodes a microtubule-severing AAA ATPase. In Drosophila models of AD-HSP, larvae lacking Spastin exhibit abnormal motor neuron morphology and function, and most die as pupae. Adult survivors display impaired mobility, reminiscent of the human disease. Here, we show that rearing pupae or adults at reduced temperature (18°C, compared with the standard temperature of 24°C, improves the survival and mobility of adult spastin mutants but leaves wild-type flies unaffected. Flies expressing human spastin with pathogenic mutations are similarly rescued. Additionally, larval cooling partially rescues the larval synaptic phenotype. Cooling thus alleviates known spastin phenotypes for each developmental stage at which it is administered and, notably, is effective even in mature adults. We find further that cold treatment rescues larval synaptic defects in flies with mutations in Flower (a protein with no known relation to Spastin and mobility defects in flies lacking Kat60-L1, another microtubule-severing protein enriched in the CNS. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of cold extend beyond specific alleviation of Spastin dysfunction, to at least a subset of cellular and behavioral neuronal defects. Mild hypothermia, a common neuroprotective technique in clinical treatment of acute anoxia, might thus hold additional promise as a therapeutic approach for AD-HSP and, potentially, for other neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Cold temperature improves mobility and survival in Drosophila models of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP). (United States)

    Baxter, Sally L; Allard, Denise E; Crowl, Christopher; Sherwood, Nina Tang


    Autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is a crippling neurodegenerative disease for which effective treatment or cure remains unknown. Victims experience progressive mobility loss due to degeneration of the longest axons in the spinal cord. Over half of AD-HSP cases arise from loss-of-function mutations in spastin, which encodes a microtubule-severing AAA ATPase. In Drosophila models of AD-HSP, larvae lacking Spastin exhibit abnormal motor neuron morphology and function, and most die as pupae. Adult survivors display impaired mobility, reminiscent of the human disease. Here, we show that rearing pupae or adults at reduced temperature (18°C), compared with the standard temperature of 24°C, improves the survival and mobility of adult spastin mutants but leaves wild-type flies unaffected. Flies expressing human spastin with pathogenic mutations are similarly rescued. Additionally, larval cooling partially rescues the larval synaptic phenotype. Cooling thus alleviates known spastin phenotypes for each developmental stage at which it is administered and, notably, is effective even in mature adults. We find further that cold treatment rescues larval synaptic defects in flies with mutations in Flower (a protein with no known relation to Spastin) and mobility defects in flies lacking Kat60-L1, another microtubule-severing protein enriched in the CNS. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of cold extend beyond specific alleviation of Spastin dysfunction, to at least a subset of cellular and behavioral neuronal defects. Mild hypothermia, a common neuroprotective technique in clinical treatment of acute anoxia, might thus hold additional promise as a therapeutic approach for AD-HSP and, potentially, for other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Psychoanalysis with the traumatized patient: Helping to survive extreme experiences and complicated loss


    Varvin, Sverre


    Extreme and complex traumatization represents a severe problem in today's world. Many traumatized individuals and their families live in difficult conditions in refugee camps, in shelters, and in exile. Treatment and rehabilitation approaches thus need to take social and cultural conditions into consideration. This paper will discuss how psychoanalytic therapy may be helpful for severely traumatized patients, as well as the mechanisms of change in the therapeutic process. It focuses on how tr...

  17. Prediction of survival after surgery due to skeletal metastases in the extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M S; Gerds, T A; Hindsø, K


    /54 males) who underwent joint arthroplasty surgery (140 procedures) owing to MBD in the appendicular skeleton during the period between January 2003 and December 2008. Primary cancer, pre-operative haemoglobin, fracture versus impending fracture, Karnofsky score, visceral metastases, multiple bony...... metastases and American Society of Anaesthesiologist's score were included into a series of logistic regression models. The outcome was the survival status at three, six and 12 months respectively. Results were internally validated based on 1000 cross-validations and reported as time-dependent area under...... this prognostic model will help determine whether the patients' anticipated survival makes it reasonable to subject them to extensive reconstructive surgery for which there may be an extended period of rehabilitation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:271-7....

  18. Extreme reproduction and survival of a true cliffhanger: the endangered plant, Borderea chouardii (Dioscoreaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García, M. B.; Espadaler, Xavier; Olesen, Jens Mogens


    aspects is extreme, especially the unusual double mutualistic role of ants as both pollinators and dispersers. We made a 2-year pollination census and four years of seed-dispersal experiments, recording flower visitors and dispersal rates. Fruit and seed set, self-sowing of seeds, seedling recruitment......, and fate of seedlings from seeds sowed by different agents were scored over a period of 17 years. The ants Lasius grandis and L. cinereus were the main pollinators, whereas another ant Pheidole pallidula dispersed seeds. Thus ants functioned as double mutualists. Two thirds of all new seedlings came from...

  19. Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak


    of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially...... among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme...... to below )20 C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation....

  20. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked salmon production on survival and growth of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Mohr, Mona


    Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the s......Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine...... conditions, (ii) fillets of salmon cold-smoked in a pilot plant and finally, (iii) assessment of the bacterial levels before and after processing during commercial scale production. L. monocytogenes proliferated on salmon blocks that were brined or dipped in liquid smoke and left at 25 degrees C...... in a humidity chamber for 24 h. However, combining brining and liquid smoke with a drying (25 degrees C) step reduced the bacterium 10-100 fold over a 24 h period. Non-salted, brine injected or dry salted salmon fillets were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes and cold-smoked in a pilot plant. L...

  1. Areas of potential suitability and survival of Dendroctonus valens in China under extreme climate warming scenario. (United States)

    He, S Y; Ge, X Z; Wang, T; Wen, J B; Zong, S X


    The areas in China with climates suitable for the potential distribution of the pest species red turpentine beetle (RTB) Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were predicted by CLIMEX based on historical climate data and future climate data with warming estimated. The model used a historical climate data set (1971-2000) and a simulated climate data set (2010-2039) provided by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change (TYN SC 2.0). Based on the historical climate data, a wide area was available in China with a suitable climate for the beetle in which every province might contain suitable habitats for this pest, particularly all of the southern provinces. The northern limit of the distribution of the beetle was predicted to reach Yakeshi and Elunchun in Inner Mongolia, and the western boundary would reach to Keerkezi in Xinjiang Province. Based on a global-warming scenario, the area with a potential climate suited to RTB in the next 30 years (2010-2039) may extend further to the northeast. The northern limit of the distribution could reach most parts of south Heilongjiang Province, whereas the western limit would remain unchanged. Combined with the tendency for RTB to spread, the variation in suitable habitats within the scenario of extreme climate warming and the multiple geographical elements of China led us to assume that, within the next 30 years, RTB would spread towards the northeast, northwest, and central regions of China and could be a potentially serious problem for the forests of China.

  2. Survival (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  3. Complex layered dental restorations: Are they recognizable and do they survive extreme conditions? (United States)

    Soon, Alistair S; Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J


    Recent research has shown that restorative dental materials can be recognized by microscopy and elemental analysis (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence; SEM/EDS and XRF) and that this is possible even in extreme conditions, such as cremation. These analytical methods and databases of dental materials properties have proven useful in DVI (disaster victim identification) of a commercial plane crash in 2009, and in a number of other victim identification cases. Dental materials appear on the market with ever expanding frequency. With their advent, newer methods of restoration have been proposed and adopted in the dental office. Methods might include placing multiple layers of dental materials, where they have different properties including adhesion, viscosity, or working time. These different dental materials include filled adhesives, flowable resins, glass ionomer cements, composite resins, liners and sealants. With possible combinations of different materials in these restorations, the forensic odontologist is now confronted with a new difficulty; how to recognize each individual material. The question might be posed if it is even possible to perform this task. Furthermore, an odontologist might be called upon to identify a victim under difficult circumstances, such as when presented with fragmented or incinerated remains. In these circumstances the ability to identify specific dental materials could assist in the identification of the deceased. Key to use of this information is whether these new materials and methods are detailed in the dental chart. Visual or radiographic inspection may not reveal the presence of a restoration, let alone the possible complex nature of that restoration. This study demonstrates another scientific method in forensic dental identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail:


    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  5. The forecast of the postoperative survival time of patients suffered from non-small cell lung cancer based on PCA and extreme learning machine. (United States)

    Han, Fei; Huang, De-Shuang; Zhu, Zhi-Hua; Rong, Tie-Hua


    In this paper, a new effective model is proposed to forecast how long the postoperative patients suffered from non-small cell lung cancer will survive. The new effective model which is based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) and principal component analysis (PCA) can forecast successfully the postoperative patients' survival time. The new model obtains better prediction accuracy and faster convergence rate which the model using backpropagation (BP) algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to forecast the postoperative patients' survival time can not achieve. Finally, simulation results are given to verify the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed new model.

  6. The ancient Britons: groundwater fauna survived extreme climate change over tens of millions of years across NW Europe. (United States)

    McInerney, Caitríona E; Maurice, Louise; Robertson, Anne L; Knight, Lee R F D; Arnscheidt, Jörg; Venditti, Chris; Dooley, James S G; Mathers, Thomas; Matthijs, Severine; Eriksson, Karin; Proudlove, Graham S; Hänfling, Bernd


    Global climate changes during the Cenozoic (65.5-0 Ma) caused major biological range shifts and extinctions. In northern Europe, for example, a pattern of few endemics and the dominance of wide-ranging species is thought to have been determined by the Pleistocene (2.59-0.01 Ma) glaciations. This study, in contrast, reveals an ancient subsurface fauna endemic to Britain and Ireland. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic approach, we found that two species of stygobitic invertebrates (genus Niphargus) have not only survived the entire Pleistocene in refugia but have persisted for at least 19.5 million years. Other Niphargus species form distinct cryptic taxa that diverged from their nearest continental relative between 5.6 and 1.0 Ma. The study also reveals an unusual biogeographical pattern in the Niphargus genus. It originated in north-west Europe approximately 87 Ma and underwent a gradual range expansion. Phylogenetic diversity and species age are highest in north-west Europe, suggesting resilience to extreme climate change and strongly contrasting the patterns seen in surface fauna. However, species diversity is highest in south-east Europe, indicating that once the genus spread to these areas (approximately 25 Ma), geomorphological and climatic conditions enabled much higher diversification. Our study highlights that groundwater ecosystems provide an important contribution to biodiversity and offers insight into the interactions between biological and climatic processes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Consequences of cold-ischemia time on primary nonfunction and patient and graft survival in liver transplantation: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Stahl


    Full Text Available The ability to preserve organs prior to transplant is essential to the organ allocation process.The purpose of this study is to describe the functional relationship between cold-ischemia time (CIT and primary nonfunction (PNF, patient and graft survival in liver transplant.To identify relevant articles Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane database, including the non-English literature identified in these databases, was searched from 1966 to April 2008. Two independent reviewers screened and extracted the data. CIT was analyzed both as a continuous variable and stratified by clinically relevant intervals. Nondichotomous variables were weighted by sample size. Percent variables were weighted by the inverse of the binomial variance.Twenty-six studies met criteria. Functionally, PNF% = -6.678281+0.9134701*CIT Mean+0.1250879*(CIT Mean-9.895352-0.0067663*(CIT Mean-9.895353, r2 = .625, , p<.0001. Mean patient survival: 93% (1 month, 88% (3 months, 83% (6 months and 83% (12 months. Mean graft survival: 85.9% (1 month, 80.5% (3 months, 78.1% (6 months and 76.8% (12 months. Maximum patient and graft survival occurred with CITs between 7.5-12.5 hrs at each survival interval. PNF was also significantly correlated with ICU time, % first time grafts and % immunologic mismatches.The results of this work imply that CIT may be the most important pre-transplant information needed in the decision to accept an organ.

  8. Temporal Changes in Mortality Related to Extreme Temperatures for 15 Cities in Northeast Asia: Adaptation to Heat and Maladaptation to Cold. (United States)

    Chung, Yeonseung; Noh, Heesang; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Bell, Michelle L; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho


    Understanding how the temperature-mortality association worldwide changes over time is crucial to addressing questions of human adaptation under climate change. Previous studies investigated the temporal changes in the association over a few discrete time frames or assumed a linear change. Also, most studies focused on attenuation of heat-related mortality and studied the United States or Europe. This research examined continuous temporal changes (potentially nonlinear) in mortality related to extreme temperature (both heat and cold) for 15 cities in Northeast Asia (1972-2009). We used a generalized linear model with splines to simultaneously capture 2 types of nonlinearity: nonlinear association between temperature and mortality and nonlinear change over time in the association. We combined city-specific results to generate country-specific results using Bayesian hierarchical modeling. Cold-related mortality remained roughly constant over decades and slightly increased in the late 2000s, with a larger increase for cardiorespiratory deaths than for deaths from other causes. Heat-related mortality rates have decreased continuously over time, with more substantial decrease in earlier decades, for older populations and for cardiorespiratory deaths. Our findings suggest that future assessment of health effects of climate change should account for the continuous changes in temperature-related health risk and variations by factors such as age, cause of death, and location. © Crown copyright 2017.

  9. Costs and benefits of cold acclimation in field released Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Hoffmann, Ary A; Overgaard, Johannes


    One way animals can counter the effects of climatic extremes is via physiological acclimation, but acclimating to one extreme might decrease performance under different conditions. Here, we use field releases of Drosophila melanogaster on two continents across a range of temperatures to test...... for costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation. Both types of cold acclimation had enormous benefits at low temperatures in the field; in the coldest releases only cold-acclimated flies were able to find a resource. However, this advantage came at a huge cost; flies that had not been cold......-acclimated were up to 36 times more likely to find food than the cold-acclimated flies when temperatures were warm. Such costs and strong benefits were not evident in laboratory tests where we found no reduction in heat survival of the cold-acclimated flies. Field release studies, therefore, reveal costs of cold...

  10. Sports in extreme conditions: the impact of exercise in cold temperatures on asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes. (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon


    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are frequently reported among elite athletes of outdoor endurance winter sports, particularly in cross-country and biathlon skiers. The pathogenesis of EIA is related to water loss and heat-loss through the increased respiration during exercise, leading to mediator release, airways inflammation and increased parasympathetic nervous activity in the airways, causing bronchial constriction and BHR. In the competing elite athlete this is presently considered to be due to the frequently repeated increased ventilation during training and competitions in combination with the repeated environmental exposure to cold air in outdoor winter sports. It is important that athletes at risk of asthma and BHR are monitored through regular medical control with assessment of lung function and BHR, and when BHR or asthma is diagnosed, optimal controlling treatment through anti-inflammatory treatment by inhaled steroids should be started and relieving treatment (inhaled ipratropium bromide and inhaled β2-agonists) should be used to relieve bronchial constriction if present.

  11. Survival in nuclear waste, extreme resistance, and potential applications gleaned from the genome sequence of Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Bagwell

    Full Text Available Kineococcus radiotolerans SRS30216 was isolated from a high-level radioactive environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS and exhibits gamma-radiation resistance approaching that of Deinococcus radiodurans. The genome was sequenced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute which suggested the existence of three replicons, a 4.76 Mb linear chromosome, a 0.18 Mb linear plasmid, and a 12.92 Kb circular plasmid. Southern hybridization confirmed that the chromosome is linear. The K. radiotolerans genome sequence was examined to learn about the physiology of the organism with regard to ionizing radiation resistance, the potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste, and the dimorphic life cycle. K. radiotolerans may have a unique genetic toolbox for radiation protection as it lacks many of the genes known to confer radiation resistance in D. radiodurans. Additionally, genes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and the excision repair pathway are overrepresented. K. radiotolerans appears to lack degradation pathways for pervasive soil and groundwater pollutants. However, it can respire on two organic acids found in SRS high-level nuclear waste, formate and oxalate, which promote the survival of cells during prolonged periods of starvation. The dimorphic life cycle involves the production of motile zoospores. The flagellar biosynthesis genes are located on a motility island, though its regulation could not be fully discerned. These results highlight the remarkable ability of K radiotolerans to withstand environmental extremes and suggest that in situ bioremediation of organic complexants from high level radioactive waste may be feasible.

  12. Subtercola vilae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium from an extremely high-altitude cold volcano lake in Chile. (United States)

    Villalobos, Alvaro S; Wiese, Jutta; Aguilar, Pablo; Dorador, Cristina; Imhoff, Johannes F


    A novel actinobacterium, strain DB165 T , was isolated from cold waters of Llullaillaco Volcano Lake (6170 m asl) in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences identified strain DB165 T as belonging to the genus Subtercola in the family Microbacteriaceae, sharing 97.4% of sequence similarity with Subtercola frigoramans DSM 13057 T , 96.7% with Subtercola lobariae DSM 103962 T , and 96.1% with Subtercola boreus DSM 13056 T . The cells were observed to be Gram-positive, form rods with irregular morphology, and to grow best at 10-15 °C, pH 7 and in the absence of NaCl. The cross-linkage between the amino acids in its peptidoglycan is type B2γ; 2,4-diaminobutyric acid is the diagnostic diamino acid; the major respiratory quinones are MK-9 and MK-10; and the polar lipids consist of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, 5 glycolipids, 2 phospholipids and 5 additional polar lipids. The fatty acid profile of DB165 T (5% >) contains iso-C14:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, and the dimethylacetal iso-C16:0 DMA. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain DB165 T was determined to be 65 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic analyses presented in this study, strain DB165 T (= DSM 105013 T  = JCM 32044 T ) represents a new species in the genus Subtercola, for which the name Subtercola vilae sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Proceedings of the Astrobiology Science Conference 2010. Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond (United States)


    The Program of the 2010 Astrobiology Science Conference: Evolution and Life: Surviving Catastrophes and Extremes on Earth and Beyond, included sessions on: 50 Years of Exobiology and Astrobiology: Greatest Hits; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Pre-Biological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System I; Human Exploration, Astronaut Health; Diversity in Astrobiology Research and Education; Titan: Past, Present, and Future; Energy Flow in Microbial Ecosystems; Extraterrestrial Molecular Evolution and Prebiological Chemistry: From the Interstellar Medium to the Solar System II; Astrobiology in Orbit; Astrobiology and Interdisciplinary Communication; Science from Rio Tinto: An Acidic Environment; Can We Rule Out Spontaneous Generation of RNA as the Key Step in the Origin of Life?; How Hellish Was the Hadean Earth?; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns I; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life I; Adaptation of Life in Hostile Space Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets I: Formation and Composition; Collaborative Tools and Technology for Astrobiology; Results from ASTEP and Other Astrobiology Field Campaigns II; Prebiotic Evolution: From Chemistry to Life II; Survival, Growth, and Evolution of Microrganisms in Model Extraterrestrial Environments; Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets II: Habitability and Life; Planetary Science Decadal Survey Update; Astrobiology Research Funding; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time I; State of the Art in Life Detection; Terrestrial Evolution: Implications for the Past, Present, and Future of Life on Earth; Psychrophiles and Polar Environments; Life in Volcanic Environments: On Earth and Beyond; Geochronology and Astrobiology On and Off the Earth; Bioessential Elements Through Space and Time II; Origins and Evolution of Genetic Systems; Evolution of Advanced Life; Water-rich Asteroids and Moons: Composition and Astrobiological Potential; Impact Events and Evolution; A Warm, Wet

  14. Interactive Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Growth, Fitness and Survival of the Cold-Water Coral Lophelia pertusa under Different Food Availabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina V. Büscher


    Full Text Available Cold-water corals are important bioengineers that provide structural habitat for a diverse species community. About 70% of the presently known scleractinian cold-water corals are expected to be exposed to corrosive waters by the end of this century due to ocean acidification. At the same time, the corals will experience a steady warming of their environment. Studies on the sensitivity of cold-water corals to climate change mainly concentrated on single stressors in short-term incubation approaches, thus not accounting for possible long-term acclimatisation and the interactive effects of multiple stressors. Besides, preceding studies did not test for possible compensatory effects of a change in food availability. In this study a multifactorial long-term experiment (6 months was conducted with end-of-the-century scenarios of elevated pCO2 and temperature levels in order to examine the acclimatisation potential of the cosmopolitan cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to future climate change related threats. For the first time multiple ocean change impacts including the role of the nutritional status were tested on L. pertusa with regard to growth, “fitness,” and survival. Our results show that while L. pertusa is capable of calcifying under elevated CO2 and temperature, its condition (fitness is more strongly influenced by food availability rather than changes in seawater chemistry. Whereas growth rates increased at elevated temperature (+4°C, they decreased under elevated CO2 concentrations (~800 μatm. No difference in net growth was detected when corals were exposed to the combination of increased CO2 and temperature compared to ambient conditions. A 10-fold higher food supply stimulated growth under elevated temperature, which was not observed in the combined treatment. This indicates that increased food supply does not compensate for adverse effects of ocean acidification and underlines the importance of considering the nutritional status

  15. Survival and energetic costs of repeated cold exposure in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica: a comparison between frozen and supercooled larvae. (United States)

    Teets, Nicholas M; Kawarasaki, Yuta; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L


    In this study, we examined the effects of repeated cold exposure (RCE) on the survival, energy content and stress protein expression of larvae of the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica (Diptera: Chironomidae). Additionally, we compared results between larvae that were frozen at -5°C in the presence of water during RCE and those that were supercooled at -5°C in a dry environment. Although >95% of larvae survived a single 12 h bout of freezing at -5°C, after five cycles of RCE survival of frozen larvae dropped below 70%. Meanwhile, the survival of control and supercooled larvae was unchanged, remaining around 90% for the duration of the study. At the tissue level, frozen larvae had higher rates of cell mortality in the midgut than control and supercooled larvae. Furthermore, larvae that were frozen during RCE experienced a dramatic reduction in energy reserves; after five cycles, frozen larvae had 25% less lipid, 30% less glycogen and nearly 40% less trehalose than supercooled larvae. Finally, larvae that were frozen during RCE had higher expression of hsp70 than those that were supercooled, indicating a higher degree of protein damage in the frozen group. Results were similar between larvae that had accumulated 60 h of freezing at -5°C over five cycles of RCE and those that were frozen continuously for 60 h, suggesting that the total time spent frozen determines the physiological response. Our results suggest that it is preferable, both from a survival and energetic standpoint, for larvae to seek dry microhabitats where they can avoid inoculative freezing and remain unfrozen during RCE.

  16. Cold Signaling and Cold Response in Plants


    Kenji Miura; Tsuyoshi Furumoto


    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental stresses. Freezing or extremely low temperature constitutes a key factor influencing plant growth, development and crop productivity. Plants have evolved a mechanism to enhance tolerance to freezing during exposure to periods of low, but non-freezing temperatures. This phenomenon is called cold acclimation. During cold acclimation, plants develop several mechanisms to minimize potential damages caused by low temperature. Cold respons...

  17. GBS-Based Deconvolution of the Surviving North American Collection of Cold-Hardy Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. Germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur T O Melo

    Full Text Available Plant germplasm collections can be invaluable resources to plant breeders, provided they are well-characterized. After 140 years of acquisition and curation efforts by a wide and largely non-coordinated array of private and institutional actors, the current US collection of cold-hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. is rife with misclassifications, misnomers, and mix-ups. To facilitate the systematic improvement and resource-efficient curation of these species of long-recognized horticultural potential, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS data to deconvolute this historic collection. Evaluation of a total of 138 accessions (103 A. arguta, 28 A. kolomikta, and 7 A. polygama with an interspecific set of 1,040 high-quality SNPs resulted in clear resolution of the three species. Intraspecific analysis (2,964 SNPs within A. arguta revealed a significant level of redundancy (41.7%; only 60 unique genotypes out of 103 analyzed and a sub-population structure reflecting likely geographic provenance, phenotypic classes, and hybrid pedigree. For A. kolomikta (3,425 SNPs, the level of accession redundancy was even higher (53.6%; 13 unique genotypes out of 28 analyzed; but no sub-structure was detected. Numerous instances were discovered of distinct genotypes sharing a common name, different names assigned to the same genotype, mistaken species assignments, and incorrect gender records, all critical information for both breeders and curators. In terms of method, this study demonstrates the practical and cost-effective use of GBS data to characterize plant genetic resources, despite ploidy differences and the lack of reference genomes. With the recent prohibition on further imports of Actinidia plant material into the country and with the active eradication of historic vines looming, this analysis of the US cold-hardy kiwifruit germplasm collection provides a timely assessment of the genetic resource base of an emerging, high-value specialty crop.

  18. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wierzchos, Jacek; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne; Vítek, Petr; Artieda, Octavio; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Škaloud, Pavel; Tisza, Michel; Davila, Alfonso F; Vílchez, Carlos; Garbayo, Inés; Ascaso, Carmen


    The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments...

  19. Survival and bioactivities of selected probiotic lactobacilli in yogurt fermentation and cold storage: New insights for developing a bi-functional dairy food. (United States)

    Rutella, Giuseppina Sefora; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Solieri, Lisa


    In previous work, we demonstrated that two probiotic strains, namely Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331, produce fermented milks with potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Here, we tested these strains for the survivability and the release of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides in yogurt fermentation and cold storage. For these purposes three yogurt batches were compared: one prepared using yogurt starters alone (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus 1932 and Streptococcus thermophilus 99), and the remaining two containing either PRA205 or PRA331 in addition to yogurt starters. Despite the lower viable counts at the fermentation end compared to PRA331, PRA205 overcame PRA331 in survivability during refrigerated storage for 28 days, leading to viable counts (>10(8) CFU/g) higher than the minimum therapeutic threshold (10(6) CFU/g). Analyses of in vitro ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions revealed that yogurt supplemented with PRA205 displays higher amounts of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides than that produced with PRA331 at the end of fermentation and over storage. Two ACE-inhibitory peptides, Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP) and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP), were identified and quantified. This study demonstrated that L. casei PRA205 could be used as adjunct culture for producing bi-functional yogurt enriched in bioactive peptides and in viable cells, which bring health benefits to the host as probiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endolithic microbial life in hot and cold deserts (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.


    Endolithic microorganisms (those living inside rocks) occur in hot and cold deserts and exist under extreme environmental conditions. These conditions are discussed on a comparative basis. Quantitative estimates of biomass are comparable in hot and cold deserts. Despite the obvious differences between the hot and cold desert environment, survival strategies show some common features. These endolithic organisms are able to 'switch' rapidly their metabolic activities on and off in response to changes in the environment. Conditions in hot deserts impose a more severe environmental stress on the organisms than in the cold Antarctic desert. This is reflected in the composition of the microbial flora which in hot desert rocks consist entirely of prokaryotic microorganisms, while under cold desert conditions eukaryotes predominate.

  1. Genomic Basis of Adaptive Evolution: The Survival of Amur Ide (Leuciscus waleckii) in an Extremely Alkaline Environment. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Li, Jiong-Tang; Jiang, Yanliang; Peng, Wenzhu; Yao, Zongli; Chen, Baohua; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Liu, Zhanjiang; Tai, Ruyu; Dong, Chuanju; Sun, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jian; Li, Shangqi; Zhao, Yunfeng; Yang, Jiuhui; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng


    The Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii) is a cyprinid fish that is widely distributed in Northeast Asia. The Lake Dali Nur population inhabits one of the most extreme aquatic environments on Earth, with an alkalinity up to 50 mmol/L (pH 9.6), thus providing an exceptional model with which to characterize the mechanisms of genomic evolution underlying adaptation to extreme environments. Here, we developed the reference genome assembly for L. waleckii from Lake Dali Nur. Intriguingly, we identified unusual expanded long terminal repeats (LTRs) with higher nucleotide substitution rates than in many other teleosts, suggesting their more recent insertion into the L. waleckii genome. We also identified expansions in genes encoding egg coat proteins and natriuretic peptide receptors, possibly underlying the adaptation to extreme environmental stress. We further sequenced the genomes of 10 additional individuals from freshwater and 18 from Lake Dali Nur populations, and we detected a total of 7.6 million SNPs from both populations. In a genome scan and comparison of these two populations, we identified a set of genomic regions under selective sweeps that harbor genes involved in ion homoeostasis, acid-base regulation, unfolded protein response, reactive oxygen species elimination, and urea excretion. Our findings provide comprehensive insight into the genomic mechanisms of teleost fish that underlie their adaptation to extreme alkaline environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek eWierzchos


    Full Text Available The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to extreme environments. Here we report the exceptional adaptation strategies of chlorophototrophic and eukaryotic algae, and chlorophototrophic and prokaryotic cyanobacteria to the hyperarid and extremely high solar radiation conditions occurring in this desert. Our approach combined several microscopy techniques, spectroscopic analytical methods, and molecular analyses. We found that the major adaptation strategy was to avoid the extreme environmental conditions by colonizing cryptoendolithic, as well as, hypoendolithic habitats within gypsum deposits. The cryptoendolithic colonization occurred a few millimeters beneath the gypsum surface and showed a succession of organized horizons of algae and cyanobacteria, which has never been reported for endolithic microbial communities. The presence of cyanobacteria beneath the algal layer, in close contact with sepiolite inclusions, and their hypoendolithic colonization suggest that occasional liquid water might persist within these sub-microhabitats. We also identified the presence of abundant carotenoids in the upper cryptoendolithic algal habitat and scytonemin in the cyanobacteria hypoendolithic habitat. This study illustrates that successful lithobiontic microbial colonization at the limit for microbial life is the result of a combination of adaptive strategies to avoid excess solar irradiance and extreme evapotranspiration rates, taking advantage of the complex structural and mineralogical characteristics of gypsum deposits – conceptually called rock’s habitable architecture. Additionally self-protection by synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites likely produces a shielding effect that prevents photoinhibition and lethal photooxidative damage to the chlorophototrophs, representing another

  3. Survival of the faucet snail after chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water bath treatments (United States)

    Mitchell, A.J.; Cole, Rebecca A.


    The faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, a nonindigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia, was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871 and has spread to the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes region, Montana, and most recently, the Mississippi River. The faucet snail serves as intermediate host for several trematodes that have caused large-scale mortality among water birds, primarily in the Great Lakes region and Montana. It is important to limit the spread of the faucet snail; small fisheries equipment can serve as a method of snail distribution. Treatments with chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water baths were tested to determine their effectiveness as a disinfectant for small fisheries equipment. Two treatments eliminated all test snails: (1) a 24-h exposure to Hydrothol 191 at a concentration of at least 20 mg/L and (2) a treatment with 50°C heated water for 1 min or longer. Faucet snails were highly resistant to ethanol, NaCl, formalin, Lysol, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, Baquacil, Virkon, household bleach, and pH extremes (as low as 1 and as high as 13).

  4. Trainability of cold induced vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Stoop, M.


    Peripheral cold injuries are often reported in mountaineers. Not only low ambient temperatures, but also the hypobaric circumstances are known to be major environmental risk factors. When the fingers are exposed to extreme cold for several minutes, cold induced vasodilation (CIVD) occurs, that is

  5. Effect of early low-dose hydrocortisone on survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants (PREMILOC): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, randomised trial. (United States)

    Baud, Olivier; Maury, Laure; Lebail, Florence; Ramful, Duksha; El Moussawi, Fatima; Nicaise, Claire; Zupan-Simunek, Véronique; Coursol, Anne; Beuchée, Alain; Bolot, Pascal; Andrini, Pierre; Mohamed, Damir; Alberti, Corinne


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a major complication of extreme prematurity, has few treatment options. Postnatal steroid use is controversial, but low-dose hydrocortisone might prevent the harmful effects of inflammation on the developing lung. In this study, we aimed to assess whether low-dose hydrocortisone improved survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial done at 21 French tertiary-care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), we randomly assigned (1:1), via a secure study website, extremely preterm infants inborn (born in a maternity ward at the same site as the NICU) at less than 28 weeks of gestation to receive either intravenous low-dose hydrocortisone or placebo during the first 10 postnatal days. Infants randomly assigned to the hydrocortisone group received 1 mg/kg of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate per day divided into two doses per day for 7 days, followed by one dose of 0·5 mg/kg per day for 3 days. Randomisation was stratified by gestational age and all infants were enrolled by 24 h after birth. Study investigators, parents, and patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. We used a sequential analytical design, based on intention to treat, to avoid prolonging the trial after either efficacy or futility had been established. This trial is registered with, number NCT00623740. 1072 neonates were screened between May 25, 2008, and Jan 31, 2014, of which 523 were randomly assigned (256 hydrocortisone, 267 placebo). 255 infants on hydrocortisone and 266 on placebo were included in analyses after parents withdrew consent for one child in each group. Of the 255 infants assigned to hydrocortisone, 153 (60%) survived without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, compared with 136 (51%) of 266 infants assigned to placebo (odds ratio [OR] adjusted for gestational age

  6. Effects of mild cold stress on the survival of seawater-adapted mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) maintained on food contaminated with petroleum (United States)

    Holmes, W.N.; Gorsline, J.; Cronshaw, J.


    (1) Seawater-adapted Mallard ducks maintained in the laboratory will freely consume food that has been contaminated with either any one of a variety of crude oils or a petroleum derivative such as No. 2 fuel oil. (2) During a 100-day experimental period total masses of petroleum equivalent to 50% of the mean body weight were consumed by some birds and many showed no apparent symptoms of distress. (3) The consumption of petroleum-contaminated food was frequently accompanied by a persistent hyperphagia but no clear patterns of change in body weight were associated with this condition. (4) Among those birds that survived the 100-day experimental period only small changes in mean body weight were observed between successive weighings and in most instances these represented less than 10% of the previously recorded weight. (5) In all groups, including those maintained on uncontaminated food, most of the mortality occurred following exposure to continuous mild cold stress. The total number of deaths in the groups given petroleum-contaminated food, however, was always higher than that among birds given uncontaminated food. (6) The spate of mortality that occurred in groups given petroleum-contaminated food usually occurred earlier, lasted longer, and involved more birds than it did among groups fed uncontaminated food. (7) The pattern of each episode of mortality was sometimes quantitatively related to the concentration of petroleum in the food and a striking range of relative toxicities were observed among the crude oils from different geographic regions. (8) Throughout the experiment, the mean body weight of the birds that died was always significantly less than that of the survivors in the same group; in all instances most of the loss in weight occurred during the 2 weeks preceding death. (9) Autopsy revealed that adrenal hypertrophy and lymphoepithelial involution were characteristic in all of the birds that died, suggesting that a high level of adrenocortical

  7. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.; Phoenix, G.K.; Berke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.; Berg, M.P.


    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassinglethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonablywarm air (2–10 °C for 2–14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  8. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Phoenix, G.K.; Bjerke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.A.; Berg, M.P.


    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassing lethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonably warm air (2-10 °C for 2-14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  9. Survival in extreme environment by "preserve-expand-specialize" strategy: lessons from comparative genomics of an anhydrobiotic midge. (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Kikawada, Takahiro


    Anhydrobiotic chironomid larvae of Polypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera) can withstand prolonged complete desiccation as well as other external stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent experiments showed that this insect is able to survive long-tern exposure to real outer space. At the same time, we found that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. Analysis of several remote populations of the chironomid in Africa that desiccation-related DNA damage might be a driving genetic force for rapid radiation within the species. First results of ongoing genome project suggest that origin and evolution of anhydrobiosis in this single insect species related to rapid duplication of the genes, coding late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA) and other molecular agents directly involved in desiccation resistance in the cells. Analysis of genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in the larvae subjected to desiccation shows that joint-activity of large multiple-genes coding regions in the genome involved in control of anhydrobiosis-related molecular adaptations in the chironomid.

  10. Neural Network Model for Survival and Growth of Salmonella enterica Serotype 8,20:-:z6 in Ground Chicken Thigh Meat during Cold Storage: Extrapolation to Other Serotypes. (United States)

    Oscar, T P


    Mathematical models that predict the behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting the behavior of Salmonella enterica serotype 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how well the model would predict the behavior of other serotypes of Salmonella stored under the same conditions. To develop the model, ground chicken thigh meat (0.75 cm(3)) was inoculated with 1.7 log Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 and then stored for 0 to 8 -8 to 16°C. An automated miniaturized most-probable-number (MPN) method was developed and used for the enumeration of Salmonella. Commercial software (Excel and the add-in program NeuralTools) was used to develop a multilayer feedforward neural network model with one hidden layer of two nodes. The performance of the model was evaluated using the acceptable prediction zone (APZ) method. The number of Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stayed the same (P > 0.05) during 8 days of storage at -8 to 8°C but increased (P Salmonella in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -4, 4, 12, or 16°C under the same experimental conditions. A pAPZ of ≥0.7 indicates that a model provides predictions with acceptable bias and accuracy. Thus, the results indicated that the model provided valid predictions of the survival and growth of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in ground chicken thigh meat stored for 0 to 8 days at -8 to 16°C and that the model was validated for extrapolation to four other serotypes of Salmonella.

  11. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival. (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira


    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl2) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg-1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz electromagnetic field changes the survival rate and morphometric characteristics of neurosecretory neurons of the earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta under illumination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banovački Zorana


    Full Text Available An in vivo model was set up to establish the behavioral stress response (rate of survival and morphometric characteristics of A1 protocerebral neurosecretory neurons (cell size of Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta as a result of the synergetic effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF - 50 Hz, 50 μT, 17 V/m and 50 Hz, 150 μT, 17 V/m, respectively and constant illumination (420-450 lux. If combined, these two stressors significantly (p<0.05 increased the survival rate of E. foetida in the 150 μT-exposed animals, because of delayed caudal autotomy reflex, an indicator of stress response. In addition, morphometric analysis indicated that there were changes in the protocerebral neurosecretory cells after exposure to the ELF-EMF. The present data support the view that short-term ELF-EMF exposure in “windows” of intensity is likely to stimulate the immune and neuroendocrine response of E. foetida.

  13. A pilot study of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Effects on survival and palliation of general symptoms. (United States)

    Sun, Chengtao; Yu, Huiming; Wang, Xingwen; Han, Junqing


    The inhibitory effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo have been reported in previous studies. However, the effects of MFs in the treatment of cancer have not been described in clinical trials. We investigated the effects of 420 r/min, 0.4-T extremely low-frequency MFs (ELF-MFs) on the survival and palliation of general symptoms in 13 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Toxicity and side-effects were assessed according to WHO criteria. The treatment area included the primary tumor site, metastatic sites and metastatic lymph nodes. Additionally, the patients were treated 2 h per day, 5 days per week for 6-10 weeks. The changes in general symptoms were analyzed during ELF-MF treatment and 2 weeks after the completion of therapy. Results of physical examination, routine analysis of blood, ECG and liver function, biochemical and kidney function tests were evaluated before and following treatment. All 13 patients were followed up by outpatient service or telephone interview. Our results demonstrated that decreased pleural effusion, remission of shortness of breath, relief of cancer pain, increased appetite, improved physical strength, regular bowel movement and better sleep quality was detected in 2 (15.4%), 5 (38.5%), 5 (38.5%), 6 (46.2%), 9 (69.2%), 1 (7.7%) and 2 (15.4%) patients, respectively. However, the palliation of symptoms in 2 (15.4%) patients was observed during therapy and disappeared at treatment termination. No severe toxicity or side-effects were detected in our trial. The median survival was 6.0 months (95% CI, 1.0-11.0). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 31.7 and 15.9%, respectively. This study is the first to describe survival and palliation of general symptoms in advanced NSCLC patients treated with ELF-MFs. As an effective, well-tolerated and safe treatment choice, ELF-MFs may prolong survival and improve general symptoms of advanced NSCLC patients. However, this treatment strategy

  14. Overall survival advantage of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the perioperative management of large extremity and trunk soft tissue sarcoma; a large database analysis. (United States)

    Mahmoud, Omar; Tunceroglu, Ahmet; Chokshi, Ravi; Benevenia, Joseph; Beebe, Kathleen; Patterson, Francis; DeLaney, Thomas F


    Intergroup 9514 reported promising outcomes with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for large extremity/trunk soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS). One decade later, optimum integration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy into the perioperative management of ESTS remains to be defined. The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify 3422 patients who underwent resection for large (>8cm) high-grade STS between 2004 and 2013. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate distribution of patient and tumor related factors within treatment groups while multivariate analyses were used to determine the impact of these factors on patient outcome. The Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were utilized to evaluate overall survival according to treatment regimen, with a secondary analysis based on propensity score matching to control for prescription bias and potential confounders imbalance. Hazard ratio for death was reduced by 35% with radiotherapy and 24% with chemotherapy, compared to surgery alone. Combination therapy incorporating both modalities improved 5-yr survival (62.1%) compared to either treatment alone (51.4%). The sequencing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy or whether they were delivered as adjuvant vs. as neoadjuvant therapy did not affect their efficacy. Age>50years, tumor size>11cm, and tumor location on the trunk/pelvis were poor prognostic factors. Our analysis suggests that adjunctive modalities are both critical in the treatment of large high-grade ESTS, improving survival when used individually and demonstrating synergy in combination, regardless of sequencing relative to each other or relative to surgery; thus providing a framework for future randomized trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Survival and neurological outcomes after nasopharyngeal cooling or peripheral vein cold saline infusion initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Barbut, Denise; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Cho, Jun Hwi; Sun, Shijie; Li, Yongqin; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun


    We have previously demonstrated that nasopharyngeal cooling initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves the success of resuscitation. In this study, we compared the effects of nasopharyngeal cooling with cold saline infusion initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on resuscitation outcome in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that nasopharyngeal cooling initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation would yield better resuscitation outcome when compared with cold saline infusion. Randomized, prospective animal study. University-affiliated research laboratory. Yorkshire-X domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 14 pigs weighing 38 +/- 2 kg. After 15 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed for 5 mins before defibrillation. Coincident with the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, animals were randomly assigned to receive nasopharyngeal cooling with the aid of the RhinoChill Device (BeneChill, San Diego, CA) or cold saline infusion with 30 mL/kg 4 degrees C saline. One hour after restoration of spontaneous circulation, surface cooling was begun with the aid of a water blanket in both groups and maintained for 4 hrs. Jugular vein temperature significantly decreased in animals subjected to nasopharyngeal cooling in comparison with those receiving cold saline infusion (p cold saline infusion (p cold saline infusion group (p = .02). In this model, nasopharyngeal cooling initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation improved the success of resuscitation compared to cooling with cold saline infusion.

  16. Weather Information Acquisition and Health Significance during Extreme Cold Weather in a Subtropical City:A Crosssectional Survey in Hong Kong

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Ying Yang Chan Zhe Huang Carman Ka Man Mark Chunlan Guo


    Health and disaster risk reduction are important and necessary components in building a smart city,especially when climate change may increase the frequency of extreme temperatures and the health risks of urban...

  17. Common Cold (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  18. Brassinosteroids increase winter survival of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) by affecting photosynthetic capacity and carbohydrate metabolism during the cold acclimation process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pociecha, E.; Dziurka, M.; Oklešťková, Jana; Janeczko, A.


    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2016), s. 127-135 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chlorophyll a fluorescence * Cold acclimation * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2016

  19. Neural network model for survival and growth of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in ground chicken thigh meat during cold storage: extrapolation to other serotypes (United States)

    Mathematical models that predict behavior of human bacterial pathogens in food are valuable tools for assessing and managing this risk to public health. A study was undertaken to develop a model for predicting behavior of Salmonella 8,20:-:z6 in chicken meat during cold storage and to determine how...

  20. Evaluation of cold tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    homa azizi


    Full Text Available Cold tolerance of 14 wheat cultivars under field conditions was investigated. Cultivars including Anza, Bezostaja, Pishtaz, Tous, Zagros, Zarrin, Shahryar, Falat, Ghuds, Glenson, Maroon, Navid, Niknejad and MV-17 were planted in a complete randomized block design with 3 replications in the experimental station of college of agriculture , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in autumn of 2004-2005. Growth stage of plants and chlorophyll content were measured before cold and winter survival, plant height, yield components and seed yield were measured at the end of growing season. Results showed that despite of a relatively extreme cold (-9.2 oC, most of the cultivars tolerated winter and only Zagros and Maroon with 93.3 and 73.3% winter survival, respectively, suffering winter damage. Toos cultivar had the highest seed yield and Maroon and Zagros cultivar had the lowest yield. Seed yield had the positive correlations with spikelet number per spike (r=0.85***, and 1000-seed weight (r=0.85***. Results of this experiment suggested that Glenson had the most level of cold tolerance and Maroon was the most cold sensitive cultivar. Key words: Cold tolerance, winter survival, yield, yield components, wheat.

  1. [The "culture of survival" and international public health in Latin America: the Cold War and the eradication of diseases in the mid-twentieth century]. (United States)

    Cueto, Marcos


    This article analyzes the main campaigns run by international agencies and national health bodies to eradicate infectious diseases in rural Latin America in the 1940s and 1950s. The political dimensions of the period have been studied but there has been little attention as yet to the health dimensions. This article proposes the concept of a "culture of survival" to explain the official public health problems of states with limited social policies that did not allow the exercise of citizenship. Public health, as part of this culture of survival, sought a temporary solution without confronting the social problems that led to infections and left a public health legacy in the region.

  2. PdBI cold dust imaging of two extremely red H – [4.5] > 4 galaxies discovered with SEDS and CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, K. I.; Popping, G.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Michałowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krips, M. [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Ashby, M. L. N.; Huang, J.-S.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Santini, P., E-mail: [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)


    We report Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) 1.1 mm continuum imaging toward two extremely red H – [4.5] > 4 (AB) galaxies at z > 3, which we have previously discovered making use of Spitzer SEDS and Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS ultra-deep images of the Ultra Deep Survey field. One of our objects is detected on the PdBI map with a 4.3σ significance, corresponding to S{sub ν}(1.1 mm)=0.78±0.18 mJy. By combining this detection with the Spitzer 8 and 24 μm photometry for this source, and SCUBA2 flux density upper limits, we infer that this galaxy is a composite active galactic nucleus/star-forming system. The infrared (IR)-derived star formation rate is SFR ≈ 200 ± 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which implies that this galaxy is a higher-redshift analogue of the ordinary ultra-luminous infrared galaxies more commonly found at z ∼ 2-3. In the field of the other target, we find a tentative 3.1σ detection on the PdBI 1.1 mm map, but 3.7 arcsec away of our target position, so it likely corresponds to a different object. In spite of the lower significance, the PdBI detection is supported by a close SCUBA2 3.3σ detection. No counterpart is found on either the deep SEDS or CANDELS maps, so, if real, the PdBI source could be similar in nature to the submillimeter source GN10. We conclude that the analysis of ultra-deep near- and mid-IR images offers an efficient, alternative route to discover new sites of powerful star formation activity at high redshifts.

  3. Growth and survival of Salmonella Paratyphi A in roasted marinated chicken during refrigerated storage: Effect of temperature abuse and computer simulation for cold chain management (United States)

    This research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using a one-step dynamic numerical analysis and optimization method to directly construct a tertiary model to describe the growth and survival of Salmonella Paratyphi A (SPA) in a marinated roasted chicken product. Multiple dynamic growth a...

  4. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong


    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  5. Acute lower extremity ischaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a nutshell. • A patient with sudden onset of a cold, weak, numb and painful foot has acute lower extremity ischaemia (ALEXI) until proven otherwise. Labelling patients as acute gout, acute phlegmasia (deep vein thrombosis), acute sciatica, etc. may result in unnecessary delays in treatment, with tragic consequences.

  6. Daily thermal fluctuations to a range of subzero temperatures enhance cold hardiness of winter-acclimated turtles. (United States)

    Wiebler, James M; Kumar, Manisha; Muir, Timothy J


    Although seasonal increases in cold hardiness are well documented for temperate and polar ectotherms, relatively little is known about supplemental increases in cold hardiness during winter. Because many animals are exposed to considerable thermal variation in winter, they may benefit from a quick enhancement of cold tolerance prior to extreme low temperature. Hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) overwintering in their natal nests experience substantial thermal variation in winter, and recently, it was found that brief subzero chilling of winter-acclimated hatchlings decreases subsequent chilling-induced mortality, increases blood concentrations of glucose and lactate, and protects the brain from cryoinjury. Here, we further characterize that phenomenon, termed 'cold conditioning', by exposing winter-acclimated hatchling turtles to -3.5, -7.0, or -10.5 °C gradually or repeatedly via daily thermal fluctuations over the course of 5 days and assessing their survival of a subsequent cold shock to a discriminating temperature of -12.7 °C. To better understand the physiological response to cold conditioning, we measured changes in glucose and lactate concentrations in the liver, blood, and brain. Cold conditioning significantly increased cold-shock survival, from 9% in reference turtles up to 74% in cold-conditioned turtles, and ecologically relevant daily thermal fluctuations were at least as effective at conferring cryoprotection as was gradual cold conditioning. Cold conditioning increased glucose concentrations, up to 25 μmol g -1 , and lactate concentrations, up to 30 μmol g -1 , in the liver, blood, and brain. Turtles that were cold conditioned with daily thermal fluctuations accumulated more glucose in the liver, blood, and brain, and had lower brain lactate, than those gradually cold conditioned. Given the thermal variation to which hatchling painted turtles are exposed in winter, we suggest that the supplemental protection conferred by cold

  7. Clumpy cold dark matter (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert


    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  8. Thermal survival limits of young and mature larvae of a cold stenothermal chironomid from the Alps (Diamesinae: Pseudodiamesa branickii [Nowicki, 1873]). (United States)

    Lencioni, Valeria; Bernabò, Paola


    The threats posed by climate change make it important to expand knowledge concerning cold and heat tolerance in stenothermal species from habitats potentially threatened by temperature changes. Thermal limits and basal metabolism variations were investigated in Pseudodiamesa branickii (Diptera: Chironomidae) under thermal stress between -20 and 37 °C. Supercooling point (SCP), lower (LLTs) and upper lethal temperatures (ULTs), and oxygen consumption rate were measured in overwintering young (1st and 2nd instar) and mature (3rd and 4th instar) larvae from an Alpine glacier-fed stream. Both young and mature larvae were freezing tolerant (SCPs = -7.1 °C and -6.4 °C, respectively; LLT100 -20 °C) and thermotolerant (ULT50 = 31.7 ± 0.4, 32.5 ± 0.3, respectively). However, ontogenetic differences in acute tolerance were observed. The LLT50 calculated for the young larvae (= -7.4 °C) was almost equal to their SCP (= -7.1 °C) and the overlapping of the proportion of mortality curve with the CPIF curve highlighted that the young larvae are borderline between freezing tolerance and freezing avoidance. Furthermore, a lower ULT100 in the young larvae (of ca. 1 °C), suggests that they are less thermotolerant than mature larvae. Finally, young larvae exhibit a higher oxygen consumption rate (mgO2 /gAFDM/h) at any temperature tested and are overall less resistant to oxygen depletion compared to mature larvae at ≥10 °C. These findings suggest that mature larvae enter into a dormant state by lowering their basal metabolism until environmental conditions improve in order to save energy for life cycle completion during stressful conditions. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Cold Sore (United States)

    ... pain Headache Cold sore Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Cold Urticaria (United States)

    ... management of physical urticaria. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2013;111:235. Nov. 21, 2014 Original article: . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...

  11. The impact of a cold chain break on the survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed 'Conference' pears during their shelf life. (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel


    In recent years, improved detection methods and increased fresh-cut processing of produce have led to an increased number of outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. During fruit and vegetable processing, natural protective barriers are removed and tissues are cut, causing nutrient rich exudates and providing attachment sites for microbes. Consequently, fresh-cut produce is more susceptible to microbial proliferation than whole produce. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of storage temperature on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on a fresh-cut 'Conference' pear over an 8 day storage period. Pears were cut, dipped in antioxidant solution, artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, packed under modified atmospheric conditions simulating commercial applications and stored in properly refrigerated conditions (constant storage at 4 °C for 8 days) or in temperature abuse conditions (3 days at 4 °C plus 5 days at 8 °C). After 8 days of storage, both conditions resulted in a significant decrease of S. enterica populations on pear wedges. In contrast, when samples were stored at 4 °C for 8 days, L. monocytogenes populations increased 1.6 logarithmic units, whereas under the temperature abuse conditions, L. monocytogenes populations increased 2.2 logarithmic units. Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow on fresh-cut pears processed under the conditions described here, despite low pH, refrigeration and use of modified atmosphere. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of extreme weather on two sympatric Australian passerine bird species. (United States)

    Gardner, Janet L; Rowley, Eleanor; de Rebeira, Perry; de Rebeira, Alma; Brouwer, Lyanne


    Despite abundant evidence that natural populations are responding to climate change, there are few demonstrations of how extreme climatic events (ECEs) affect fitness. Climate warming increases adverse effects of exposure to high temperatures, but also reduces exposure to cold ECEs. Here, we investigate variation in survival associated with severity of summer and winter conditions, and whether survival is better predicted by ECEs than mean temperatures using data from two coexisting bird species monitored over 37 years in southwestern Australia, red-winged fairy-wrens, Malurus elegans and white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis Changes in survival were associated with temperature extremes more strongly than average temperatures. In scrubwrens, winter ECEs were associated with survival within the same season. In both species, survival was associated with body size, and there was evidence that size-dependent mortality was mediated by carry-over effects of climate in the previous season. For fairy-wrens, mean body size declined over time but this could not be explained by size-dependent mortality as the effects of body size on survival were consistently positive. Our study demonstrates how ECEs can have individual-level effects on survival that are not reflected in long-term morphological change, and the same climatic conditions can affect similar-sized, coexisting species in different ways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Effects of being uninsured or underinsured and living in extremely poor neighborhoods on colon cancer care and survival in California: historical cohort analysis, 1996—2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorey Kevin M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the mediating effects of health insurance on poverty-colon cancer care and survival relationships and the moderating effects of poverty on health insurance-colon cancer care and survival relationships among women and men in California. Methods We analyzed registry data for 3,291 women and 3,009 men diagnosed with colon cancer between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2011 on lymph node investigation, stage at diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, wait times and survival. We obtained socioeconomic data for individual residences from the 2000 census to categorize the following neighborhoods: high poverty (30% or more poor, middle poverty (5-29% poor and low poverty (less than 5% poor. Primary health insurers were Medicaid, Medicare, private or none. Results Evidence of mediation was observed for women, but not for men. For women, the apparent effect of poverty disappeared in the presence of payer, and the effects of all forms of health insurance seemed strengthened. All were advantaged on 6-year survival compared to the uninsured: Medicaid (RR = 1.83, Medicare (RR = 1.92 and private (RR = 1.83. Evidence of moderation was also only observed for women. The effects of all forms of health insurance were stronger for women in low poverty neighborhoods: Medicaid (RR = 2.90, Medicare (RR = 2.91 and private (RR = 2.60. For men, only main effects of poverty and payers were observed, the advantaging effect of private insurance being largest. Across colon cancer care processes, Medicare seemed most instrumental for women, private payers for men. Conclusions Health insurance substantially mediates the quality of colon cancer care and poverty seems to make the effects of being uninsured or underinsured even worse, especially among women in the United States. These findings are consistent with the theory that more facilitative social and economic capital is available in more affluent neighborhoods, where women

  14. Soap Bubbles on a Cold Day. (United States)

    Waiveris, Charles


    Discusses the effects of blowing bubbles in extremely cold weather. Describes the freezing conditions of the bubbles and some physical properties. Suggests using the activity with all ages of students. (MVL)

  15. Survival of Unstressed and Acid-, Cold-, and Starvation-Stress-Adapted Listeria monocytogenes in Ham Extract with Hops Beta Acids and Consumer Acceptability of HBA on Ready-to-Eat Ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang


    Full Text Available The efficacy of hops beta acids (HBA against unstressed and stress-adapted Listeria monocytogenes in ham extract and the consumers’ acceptability of HBA on ready-to-eat (RTE hams were investigated. Unstressed or acid-, cold-, or starvation-stress-adapted L. monocytogenes was inoculated (1.3–1.5 log CFU/mL into 10% ham extract, without (control or with HBA (4.44 or 10.0 µg/mL. Survival/growth of the pathogen during storage (7.2°C, 26 days was monitored periodically. Sensory evaluation (30 participants, 9-point hedonic scale was performed with hams dipped into 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23% HBA solution. Ham extracts without HBA supported rapid growth of unstressed and stress-adapted cells with growth rates of 0.39–0.71 log CFU/mL/day and lag phases of 0–3.26 days. HBA inhibited growth of unstressed L. monocytogenes by slowing (P0.05 affect sensory attributes of RTE ham. These results are useful for RTE meat processors to develop operational protocols using HBA to control L. monocytogenes.

  16. Survival of Unstressed and Acid-, Cold-, and Starvation-Stress-Adapted Listeria monocytogenes in Ham Extract with Hops Beta Acids and Consumer Acceptability of HBA on Ready-to-Eat Ham (United States)

    Wang, Li; Shen, Cangliang


    The efficacy of hops beta acids (HBA) against unstressed and stress-adapted Listeria monocytogenes in ham extract and the consumers' acceptability of HBA on ready-to-eat (RTE) hams were investigated. Unstressed or acid-, cold-, or starvation-stress-adapted L. monocytogenes was inoculated (1.3–1.5 log CFU/mL) into 10% ham extract, without (control) or with HBA (4.44 or 10.0 µg/mL). Survival/growth of the pathogen during storage (7.2°C, 26 days) was monitored periodically. Sensory evaluation (30 participants, 9-point hedonic scale) was performed with hams dipped into 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23% HBA solution. Ham extracts without HBA supported rapid growth of unstressed and stress-adapted cells with growth rates of 0.39–0.71 log CFU/mL/day and lag phases of 0–3.26 days. HBA inhibited growth of unstressed L. monocytogenes by slowing (P 0.05) affect sensory attributes of RTE ham. These results are useful for RTE meat processors to develop operational protocols using HBA to control L. monocytogenes. PMID:26539527

  17. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica


    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  18. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  19. WISPy Cold Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Paola; Goodsell, Mark; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas


    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches -- exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques -- can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future.

  20. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Suk Yong; You, Jae Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Nearly every technical information is chased in the world. All of them are reviewed and analyzed. Some of them are chosen to study further more to review every related documents. And a probable suggestion about the excitonic process in deuteron absorbed condensed matter is proposed a way to cold fusion. 8 refs. (Author).

  1. Common cold (United States)

    ... many health problems, including colds. DO NOT use antibiotics if they are not needed. Breastfeed infants if possible. Breast milk is known to protect against respiratory tract infections in children, even years after you stop breastfeeding. Drink plenty of fluids to help your immune ...

  2. Literature review: the common cold. (United States)

    Hilding, D A


    Most colds are caused by rhinovirus infection, perhaps facilitated by chilling or stress. Virus infection begins in the nasopharynx and causes spotty destruction of the nasal ciliated epithelium. Transmission occurs chiefly via droplets of various sizes transported through the air, but some types of virus persist in moist secretions on handled objects and may retain their infectiousness. Living in crowded, poorly-ventilated quarters facilitates transmission. Not many virus particles survive in saliva and it is difficult to infect via the lips or mouth. Kissing does not efficiently spread cold infection. Prophylactic treatment with interferon does not protect against cold infection. Aspirin and acetaminophen reduced serum antibody response and increased nasal symptoms in a controlled Australian study. The combination of intranasal interferon and ipratropium with oral naproxen gave promising results in experimental rhinovirus inoculation. Basically, there has been little or no progress towards effective cold treatment in the past century.

  3. Survival in Cold Waters: Staying Alive (United States)


    For the sur- vivor at sea additional buoyancy is required to take account of the following: weight of waterlogged clothing and footwear possible...Suits. Specification No. 19, Issue 1. 15 April 1991. • Air Standardization Coordination Committee. ASCC Standard 61/12 ( Methodology for Evaluation of

  4. Coping with Cold Sores (United States)

    ... Skating Living With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Cold Sores Print A ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  5. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  6. Genomic mechanisms for cold tolerance and production of exopolysaccharides in the Arctic cyanobacterium Phormidesmis priestleyi BC1401. (United States)

    Chrismas, Nathan A M; Barker, Gary; Anesio, Alexandre M; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia


    Cyanobacteria are major primary producers in extreme cold ecosystems. Many lineages of cyanobacteria thrive in these harsh environments, but it is not fully understood how they survive in these conditions and whether they have evolved specific mechanisms of cold adaptation. Phormidesmis priestleyi is a cyanobacterium found throughout the cold biosphere (Arctic, Antarctic and alpine habitats). Genome sequencing of P. priestleyi BC1401, an isolate from a cryoconite hole on the Greenland Ice Sheet, has allowed for the examination of genes involved in cold shock response and production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). EPSs likely enable cyanobacteria to buffer the effects of extreme cold and by identifying mechanisms for EPS production in P. priestleyi BC1401 this study lays the way for investigating transcription and regulation of EPS production in an ecologically important cold tolerant cyanobacterium. We sequenced the draft genome of P. priestleyi BC1401 and implemented a new de Bruijn graph visualisation approach combined with BLAST analysis to separate cyanobacterial contigs from a simple metagenome generated from non-axenic cultures. Comparison of known cold adaptation genes in P. priestleyi BC1401 with three relatives from other environments revealed no clear differences between lineages. Genes involved in EPS biosynthesis were identified from the Wzy- and ABC-dependent pathways. The numbers of genes involved in cell wall and membrane biogenesis in P. priestleyi BC1401 were typical relative to the genome size. A gene cluster implicated in biofilm formation was found homologous to the Wps system, although the intracellular signalling pathways by which this could be regulated remain unclear. Results show that the genomic characteristics and complement of known cold shock genes in P. priestleyi BC1401 are comparable to related lineages from a wide variety of habitats, although as yet uncharacterised cold shock genes in this organism may still exist. EPS

  7. The Antarctic Chlamydomonas raudensis: an emerging model for cold adaptation of photosynthesis. (United States)

    Dolhi, Jenna M; Maxwell, Denis P; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M


    Permanently cold habitats dominate our planet and psychrophilic microorganisms thrive in cold environments. Environmental adaptations unique to psychrophilic microorganisms have been thoroughly described; however, the vast majority of studies to date have focused on cold-adapted bacteria. The combination of low temperatures in the presence of light is one of the most damaging environmental stresses for a photosynthetic organism: in order to survive, photopsychrophiles (i.e. photosynthetic organisms adapted to low temperatures) balance temperature-independent reactions of light energy capture/transduction with downstream temperature-dependent metabolic processes such as carbon fixation. Here, we review research on photopsychrophiles with a focus on an emerging model organism, Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO241 (UWO241). UWO241 is a psychrophilic green algal species and is a member of the photosynthetic microbial eukaryote community that provides the majority of fixed carbon for ice-covered lake ecosystems located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The water column exerts a range of environmental stressors on the phytoplankton community that inhabits this aquatic ecosystem, including low temperatures, extreme shade of an unusual spectral range (blue-green), high salinity, nutrient deprivation and extremes in seasonal photoperiod. More than two decades of work on UWO241 have produced one of our most comprehensive views of environmental adaptation in a cold-adapted, photosynthetic microbial eukaryote.

  8. Cold neutron interferometry (United States)

    Kitaguchi, Masaaki


    Neutron interferometry is a powerful technique for studying fundamental physics. A large dimensional interferometer for long wavelength neutrons is extremely important in order to investigate problems of fundamental physics, including tests of quantum measurement theories and searches for non-Newtonian effects of gravitation, since the sensitivity of interferometer depends on the wavelength and the interaction length. Neutron multilayer mirrors enable us to develop the large scale interferometer for long wavelength neutrons. The multilayer mirror is one of the most useful devices in cold neutron optics. A multilayer of two materials with different potentials is understood as a one-dimensional crystal, which is suitable for Bragg reflection of long wavelength neutrons. Cold and very cold neutrons can be utilized for the interferometer by using the multilayer mirrors with the proper lattice constants. Jamin-type interferometer by using beam splitting etalons (BSEs) has shown the feasibility of the development of large scale interferometer, which enables us to align the four independent mirrors within required precision. The BSE contains two parallel multilayer mirrors. A couple of the BSEs in the Jamin-type interferometer separates and recombines the two paths spatially. Although the path separation was small at the first test, now we have already demonstrated the interferometer with perfectly separated paths. This has confirmed that the multilayer mirrors cause no serious distortion of wave front to compose a interferometer. Arranging such mirrors, we are capable of establishing even a Mach-Zehnder type with much larger size. The interferometer using supermirrors, which reflects the wide range of the wavelength of neutrons, can increase the neutron counts for high precision measurements. We are planning the experiments using the interferometer both for the very cold neutrons and for the pulsed neutrons including J-PARC.

  9. Extreme environments and exobiology (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.


    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  10. Cold symptoms (image) (United States)

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  11. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse (United States)

    ... to Your Parents - or Other Adults Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  12. Cold antihydrogen and CPT

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; Bowden, N S; Oxley, P; Storry, C H; Wessels, M; Speck, A K; Estrada, J; Yesley, P S; Grzonka, D; Oelert, Walter; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Walz, J


    Progress in the quest for cold antihydrogen includes the first substantial accumulation of cold positrons and the first demonstration of positron cooling. Stacking of cold antiprotons is key to using the new antiproton decelerator facility at CERN. (22 refs).

  13. Basal tolerance to heat and cold exposure of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Enriquez


    Full Text Available The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a new pest in Europe and America which causes severe damages, mostly to stone fruit crops. Temperature and humidity are among the most important abiotic factors governing insect development and fitness. In many situations, temperature can become stressful thus compromising survival. The ability to cope with thermal stress depends on basal level of thermal tolerance. Basic knowledge on temperature-dependent mortality of D. suzukii is essential to facilitate management of this pest. The objective of the present study was to investigate D. suzukii basal cold and heat tolerance. Adults and pupae were subjected to six low temperatures (−5–7.5 °C and seven high temperatures (30–37 °C for various durations, and survival-time-temperature relationships were investigated. Data showed that males were globally more cold tolerant than females. At temperature above 5 °C, adult cold mortality became minor even after prolonged exposures (e.g., only 20% mortality after one month at 7.5 °C. Heat tolerance of males was lower than that of females at the highest tested temperatures (34, 35 and 37 °C. Pupae appeared much less cold tolerant than adults at all temperatures (e.g., Lt50 at 5° C: 4–5 d for adults vs. 21 h for pupae. Pupae were more heat tolerant than adults at the most extreme high temperatures (e.g., Lt50 at 37 °C: 30 min for adults vs. 4 h for pupae. The pupal thermal tolerance was further investigated under low vs. high humidity. Low relative humidity did not affect pupal cold survival, but it reduced survival under heat stress. Overall, this study shows that survival of D. suzukii under heat and cold conditions can vary with stress intensity, duration, humidity, sex and stage, and the methodological approach used here, which was based on thermal tolerance landscapes, provides a comprehensive description of D. suzukiithermal tolerance and limits.

  14. First complete genome sequence of a species in the genus Microterricola, an extremophilic cold active enzyme producing bacterial strain ERGS5:02 isolated from Sikkim Himalaya. (United States)

    Himanshu; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Dharam; Kumar, Rakshak


    Here, we report the first ever complete genome sequence of any species in the genus Microterricola. The bacterium Microterricola viridarii ERGS5:02 isolated from the glacial stream of Sikkim Himalaya survived at low temperature and exhibited enhanced growth upon UV treatment, in addition, it also produced cold active enzymes. The complete genome assembly of 3.7 Mb suggested for the presence of genetic elements favoring the survival of bacterium under extreme conditions of UV and low temperature besides producing amylase, lipase and protease of industrial relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan


    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  16. Cold energy (United States)

    Wallace, John P.


    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  17. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal distinct biological functions for cold shock proteins (VpaCspA and VpaCspD) in Vibrio parahaemolyticus CHN25 during low-temperature survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Chunhua; Sun, Boyi; Liu, Taigang


    Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes serious seafood-borne gastroenteritis and death in humans. Raw seafood is often subjected to post-harvest processing and low-temperature storage. To date, very little information is available regarding the biological functions of cold shock proteins (CSP...

  18. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Mechanisms for Stress Response in Hypoliths from Extreme Hyperarid Deserts (United States)

    Le, Phuong Thi; Makhalanyane, Thulani P.; Guerrero, Leandro D.; Vikram, Surendra; Van de Peer, Yves; Cowan, Don A.


    Abstract Understanding microbial adaptation to environmental stressors is crucial for interpreting broader ecological patterns. In the most extreme hot and cold deserts, cryptic niche communities are thought to play key roles in ecosystem processes and represent excellent model systems for investigating microbial responses to environmental stressors. However, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity underlying such functional processes in climatically extreme desert systems. This study presents the first comparative metagenome analysis of cyanobacteria-dominated hypolithic communities in hot (Namib Desert, Namibia) and cold (Miers Valley, Antarctica) hyperarid deserts. The most abundant phyla in both hypolith metagenomes were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes with Cyanobacteria dominating in Antarctic hypoliths. However, no significant differences between the two metagenomes were identified. The Antarctic hypolithic metagenome displayed a high number of sequences assigned to sigma factors, replication, recombination and repair, translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis. In contrast, the Namib Desert metagenome showed a high abundance of sequences assigned to carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Metagenome data analysis also revealed significant divergence in the genetic determinants of amino acid and nucleotide metabolism between these two metagenomes and those of soil from other polar deserts, hot deserts, and non-desert soils. Our results suggest extensive niche differentiation in hypolithic microbial communities from these two extreme environments and a high genetic capacity for survival under environmental extremes. PMID:27503299

  19. Cold temperatures increase cold hardiness in the next generation Ophraella communa beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shi Zhou

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle, Ophraella communa, has been introduced to control the spread of the common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, in China. We hypothesized that the beetle, to be able to track host-range expansion into colder climates, can phenotypically adapt to cold temperatures across generations. Therefore, we questioned whether parental experience of colder temperatures increases cold tolerance of the progeny. Specifically, we studied the demography, including development, fecundity, and survival, as well as physiological traits, including supercooling point (SCP, water content, and glycerol content of O. communa progeny whose parents were maintained at different temperature regimes. Overall, the entire immature stage decreased survival of about 0.2%-4.2% when parents experienced cold temperatures compared to control individuals obtained from parents raised at room temperature. However, intrinsic capacity for increase (r, net reproductive rate (R 0 and finite rate of increase (λ of progeny O. communa were maximum when parents experienced cold temperatures. Glycerol contents of both female and male in progeny was significantly higher when maternal and paternal adults were cold acclimated as compared to other treatments. This resulted in the supercooling point of the progeny adults being significantly lower compared to beetles emerging from parents that experienced room temperatures. These results suggest that cold hardiness of O. communa can be promoted by cold acclimation in previous generation, and it might counter-balance reduced survival in the next generation, especially when insects are tracking their host-plants into colder climates.

  20. Electronics for Extreme Environments (United States)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.


    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  1. Signal transduction during cold stress in plants. (United States)

    Solanke, Amolkumar U; Sharma, Arun K


    Cold stress signal transduction is a complex process. Many physiological changes like tissue break down and senescence occur due to cold stress. Low temperature is initially perceived by plasma membrane either due to change in membrane fluidity or with the help of sensors like Ca(2+) permeable channels, histidine kinases, receptor kinases and phospholipases. Subsequently, cytoskeleton reorganization and cytosolic Ca(2+) influx takes place. Increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) is sensed by CDPKs, phosphatase and MAPKs, which transduce the signals to switch on transcriptional cascades. Photosynthetic apparatus have also been thought to be responsible for low temperature perception and signal transduction. Many cold induced pathways are activated to protect plants from deleterious effects of cold stress, but till date, most studied pathway is ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway. However, the importance of CBF independent pathways in cold acclimation is supported by few Arabidopsis mutants' studies. Cold stress signaling has certain pathways common with other abiotic and biotic stress signaling which suggest cross-talks among these. Most of the economically important crops are sensitive to low temperature, but very few studies are available on cold susceptible crop plants. Therefore, it is necessary to understand signal transducing components from model plants and utilize that knowledge to improve survival of cold sensitive crop plants at low temperature.

  2. Trainability of cold induced vasodilatation in fingers and toes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Koedam, J.; Cheung, S.S.


    Subjects that repeatedly have to expose the extremities to cold may benefit from a high peripheral temperature to maintain dexterity and tissue integrity. Therefore, we investigated if repeated immersions of a hand and a foot in cold water resulted in increased skin temperatures. Nine male and seven

  3. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  4. Cold rolling precision forming of shaft parts theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jianli; Li, Yongtang


    This book presents in detail the theory, processes and equipment involved in cold rolling precision forming technologies, focusing on spline and thread shaft parts. The main topics discussed include the status quo of research on cold rolling precision forming technologies; the design and calculation of process parameters; the numerical simulation of cold rolling forming processes; and the equipment used in cold rolling forming. The mechanism of cold rolling forming is extremely complex, and research on the processes, theory and mechanical analysis of spline cold rolling forming has remained very limited to date. In practice, the forming processes and production methods used are mainly chosen on the basis of individual experience. As such, there is a marked lack of both systematic, theory-based guidelines, and of specialized books covering theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, experiments and equipment used in spline cold rolling forming processes – all key points that are included in this book and ill...

  5. Development of immunoassay for the identification of cold shock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold shock response in various organisms is induced by an abrupt downshift in temperature and leads to a dramatic increase in production of a homologous class of cold shock proteins. These proteins are essential for low temperature survival of bacteria. To identify CSP from diversified microflora, immunoassay was ...

  6. Using mobile, internet connected deep sea crawlers for spatial and temporal analysis of cold seep ecosystems and the collection of real-time classroom data for extreme environment education. (United States)

    Purser, Autun; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Duda, Alexander; Schwendner, Jakob; Bamberg, Marlene; Sohl, Frank; Doya, Carol; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Best, Mairi; Llovet, Neus Campanya I.; Scherwath, Martin; Thomsen, Laurenz


    Cabled internet and power connectivity with the deep sea allow instruments to operate in the deep sea at higher temporal resolutions than was possible historically, with the reliance on battery life and data storage capacities. In addition to the increase in sensor temporal frequency, cabled infrastructures now allow remote access to and control of mobile platforms on the seafloor. Jacobs University Bremen, in combination with collaborators from the Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments (ROBEX) project, CSIC Barcelona and Ocean Networks Canada have been operating tracked deep sea crawler vehicles at ~890 m depth at the dynamic Barkley Canyon methane seep site, Pacific Canada during the last ~4 years. The vehicle has been able to explore an area of ~50 m radius, allowing repeated visits to numerous microhabitats. Mounting a range of sensors, including temperature, pressure, conductivity, fluorescence, turbidity, flow and methane concentration sensors, as well as various camera systems a large dataset has been compiled. Several methane pockmarks are present in the survey area, and geological, biological and oceanographic changes have been monitored over a range of timescales. Several publications have been produced, and in this presentation we introduce further data currently under analysis. Cabled internet connectivity further allows mobile platforms to be used directly in education. As part of the ROBEX project, researchers and students from both terrestrial and planetary sciences are using the crawler in an ongoing study project. Students are introduced to statistical methods from both fields during the course and in later stages they can plan their own research using the in-situ crawler, and follow the progress of their investigations live, then analyse the collected data using the techniques introduced during the course. Cabled infrastructures offer a unique facility for spatial investigation of extreme ecosystems over time, and for the 'hands on

  7. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian


    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  8. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel


    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  9. Transcriptome profiling of low temperature-treated cassava apical shoots showed dynamic responses of tropical plant to cold stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    An, Dong; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng


    .... Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Thus far, there is limited information about gene regulation and signalling pathways related to the cold stress response in cassava...

  10. Cold wave lotion poisoning (United States)

    ... this page: // Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  11. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) (United States)

    ... page: // Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is a rare blood disorder in ...

  12. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.


    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering

  13. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning


    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  14. Cold knife cone biopsy (United States)

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  15. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments (United States)

    Kaur, Preeti


    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  16. Polar and K/Pg nonavian dinosaurs were low-metabolic rate reptiles vulnerable to cold-induced extinction, rather than more survivable tachyenergetic bird relatives: comment on an obsolete hypothesis (United States)

    Paul, Gregory


    The great majority of researchers concur that the presence of dinosaurs near the poles of their time are part of a large body of evidence that all Cretaceous dinosaurs had elevated metabolic rates more like their avian subbranch and mammals than low-energy reptiles. Yet a few still propose that nonavian dinosaurs were bradyenergetic ectothermic reptiles, and migrated away from the polar winters. The latter is not biologically possible because land animals cannot and never undertake very long seasonal migrations because the cost of ground locomotion is too high even for long limbed, tachyenergetic mammals to do so, much less low-energy reptiles. Nor was it geographically possible because marine barriers barred some polar dinosaurs from moving towards the winter sun. The presence of external insulation on some dinosaurs both strongly supports their being tachyenergetic endotherms and helps explain their ability to survive polar winters that included extended dark, chilling rains, sharp frosts, and blizzards so antagonistic to reptiles that the latter are absent from some locations that preserve dinosaurs including birds and mammals. The hypothesis that nonavian dinosaurs failed to survive the K/Pg crisis because they had reptilian energetics is illogical not only because they did not have such metabolisms, but because many low-energy reptiles did survive the crisis. The global super chill that apparently plagued K/Pg dinosaurs should have seriously impacted dinosaurs at all latitudes, but does not entirely readily explain their loss because some avian dinosaurs and other land tetrapods did survive. High- as well as low-latitude dinosaurs add to the growing evidence that high-energy endothermy has been a common adaptation in a wide variety of vertebrates and flying insects since the late Paleozoic.

  17. Engineering Cold Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants (United States)

    Sanghera, Gulzar S; Wani, Shabir H; Hussain, Wasim; Singh, N.B


    Plants respond with changes in their pattern of gene expression and protein products when exposed to low temperatures. Thus ability to adapt has an impact on the distribution and survival of the plant, and on crop yields. Many species of tropical or subtropical origin are injured or killed by non-freezing low temperatures, and exhibit various symptoms of chilling injury such as chlorosis, necrosis, or growth retardation. In contrast, chilling tolerant species are able to grow at such cold temperatures. Conventional breeding methods have met with limited success in improving the cold tolerance of important crop plants involving inter-specific or inter-generic hybridization. Recent studies involving full genome profiling/ sequencing, mutational and transgenic plant analyses, have provided a deep insight of the complex transcriptional mechanism that operates under cold stress. The alterations in expression of genes in response to cold temperatures are followed by increases in the levels of hundreds of metabolites, some of which are known to have protective effects against the damaging effects of cold stress. Various low temperature inducible genes have been isolated from plants. Most appear to be involved in tolerance to cold stress and the expression of some of them is regulated by C-repeat binding factor/ dehydration-responsive element binding (CBF/DREB1) transcription factors. Numerous physiological and molecular changes occur during cold acclimation which reveals that the cold resistance is more complex than perceived and involves more than one pathway. The findings summarized in this review have shown potential practical applications for breeding cold tolerance in crop and horticultural plants suitable to temperate geographical locations. PMID:21886453

  18. Engineering cold stress tolerance in crop plants. (United States)

    Sanghera, Gulzar S; Wani, Shabir H; Hussain, Wasim; Singh, N B


    Plants respond with changes in their pattern of gene expression and protein products when exposed to low temperatures. Thus ability to adapt has an impact on the distribution and survival of the plant, and on crop yields. Many species of tropical or subtropical origin are injured or killed by non-freezing low temperatures, and exhibit various symptoms of chilling injury such as chlorosis, necrosis, or growth retardation. In contrast, chilling tolerant species are able to grow at such cold temperatures. Conventional breeding methods have met with limited success in improving the cold tolerance of important crop plants involving inter-specific or inter-generic hybridization. Recent studies involving full genome profiling/ sequencing, mutational and transgenic plant analyses, have provided a deep insight of the complex transcriptional mechanism that operates under cold stress. The alterations in expression of genes in response to cold temperatures are followed by increases in the levels of hundreds of metabolites, some of which are known to have protective effects against the damaging effects of cold stress. Various low temperature inducible genes have been isolated from plants. Most appear to be involved in tolerance to cold stress and the expression of some of them is regulated by C-repeat binding factor/ dehydration-responsive element binding (CBF/DREB1) transcription factors. Numerous physiological and molecular changes occur during cold acclimation which reveals that the cold resistance is more complex than perceived and involves more than one pathway. The findings summarized in this review have shown potential practical applications for breeding cold tolerance in crop and horticultural plants suitable to temperate geographical locations.

  19. Antarctic notothenioid fish: what are the future consequences of 'losses' and 'gains' acquired during long-term evolution at cold and stable temperatures? (United States)

    Beers, Jody M; Jayasundara, Nishad


    Antarctic notothenioids dominate the fish fauna of the Southern Ocean. Evolution for millions of years at cold and stable temperatures has led to the acquisition of numerous biochemical traits that allow these fishes to thrive in sub-zero waters. The gain of antifreeze glycoproteins has afforded notothenioids the ability to avert freezing and survive at temperatures often hovering near the freezing point of seawater. Additionally, possession of cold-adapted proteins and membranes permits them to sustain appropriate metabolic rates at exceptionally low body temperatures. The notothenioid genome is also distinguished by the disappearance of traits in some species, losses that might prove costly in a warmer environment. Perhaps the best-illustrated example is the lack of expression of hemoglobin in white-blooded icefishes from the family Channichthyidae. Loss of key elements of the cellular stress response, notably the heat shock response, has also been observed. Along with their attainment of cold tolerance, notothenioids have developed an extreme stenothermy and many species perish at temperatures only a few degrees above their habitat temperatures. Thus, in light of today's rapidly changing climate, it is critical to evaluate how these extreme stenotherms will respond to rising ocean temperatures. It is conceivable that the remarkable cold specialization of notothenioids may ultimately leave them vulnerable to future thermal increases and threaten their fitness and survival. Within this context, our review provides a current summary of the biochemical losses and gains that are known for notothenioids and examines these cold-adapted traits with a focus on processes underlying thermal tolerance and acclimation capacity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Feng, S.; Brigham, D.; Beaman, B.

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a 'cold temperature surface operational' version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package. We build on our previous work to develop strategies for incorporating Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power (ULT/ULP) electronics, lower voltage power supplies, as well as innovative thermal design concepts for instrument packages. Cryotesting has indicated that our small Si RHBD CMOS chips can deliver >80% of room temperature performance at 40K (nominal minimum lunar surface temperature). We leverage collaborations, past and current, with the JPL battery development program to increase power system efficiency in extreme environments. We harness advances in MOSFET technology that provide lower voltage thresholds for power switching circuits incorporated into our low voltage power supply concept. Conventional power conversion has a lower efficiency. Our low power circuit concept based on 'synchronous rectification' could produce stable voltages as low as 0.6 V with 85% efficiency. Our distributed micro-battery-based power supply concept incorporates cold temperature power supplies operating with a 4 V or 8 V battery. This work will allow us to provide guidelines for applying the low temperature, low power system approaches generically to the widest range of surface instruments.

  1. Deep Super-SAGE transcriptomic analysis of cold acclimation in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). (United States)

    Barrios, Abel; Caminero, Constantino; García, Pedro; Krezdorn, Nicolas; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Winter, Peter; Pérez de la Vega, Marcelino


    Frost is one of the main abiotic stresses limiting plant distribution and crop production. To cope with the stress, plants evolved adaptations known as cold acclimation or chilling tolerance to maximize frost tolerance. Cold acclimation is a progressive acquisition of freezing tolerance by plants subjected to low non-freezing temperatures which subsequently allows them to survive exposure to frost. Lentil is a cool season grain legume that is challenged by winter frost in some areas of its cultivation. To better understand the genetic base of frost tolerance differential gene expression in response to cold acclimation was investigated. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross Precoz x WA8649041 were first classified as cold tolerant or cold susceptible according to their response to temperatures between -3 to -15 °C. Then, RILs from both extremes of the response curve were cold acclimated and the leaf transcriptomes of two bulks each of eight frost tolerant and seven cold susceptible RILs were investigated by Deep Super-SAGE transcriptome profiling. Thus, four RNA bulks were analysed: the acclimated susceptible, the acclimated tolerant and the respective controls (non-acclimated susceptible and non-acclimated tolerant). Approximately 16.5 million 26 nucleotide long Super-SAGE tags were sequenced in the four sets (between ~3 and 5.4 millions). In total, 133,077 different unitags, each representing a particular transcript isoform, were identified in these four sets. Tags which showed a significantly different abundance in any of the bulks (fold change ≥4.0 and a significant p-value <0.001) were selected and used to identify the corresponding lentil gene sequence. Three hundred of such lentil sequences were identified. Most of their known homologs coded for glycine-rich, cold and drought-regulated proteins, dormancy-associated proteins, proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and other membrane proteins. These were generally but not exclusively over-expressed in the

  2. Metabolomic profiling of rapid cold hardening and cold shock in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper


    and reproductive output after a subsequent cold shock but the RCH treatment alone was associated with costs in terms of reduced survival and reproductive output. The most pronounced changes following the RCH treatment were elevated levels of glucose and trehalose. Although, it is difficult to discern if a change...

  3. Engine Cold Start (United States)



  4. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females. (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi


    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Surviving in a frozen desert: environmental stress physiology of terrestrial Antarctic arthropods. (United States)

    Teets, Nicholas M; Denlinger, David L


    Abiotic stress is one of the primary constraints limiting the range and success of arthropods, and nowhere is this more apparent than Antarctica. Antarctic arthropods have evolved a suite of adaptations to cope with extremes in temperature and water availability. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the environmental physiology of terrestrial arthropods in Antarctica. To survive low temperatures, mites and Collembola are freeze-intolerant and rely on deep supercooling, in some cases supercooling below -30°C. Also, some of these microarthropods are capable of cryoprotective dehydration to extend their supercooling capacity and reduce the risk of freezing. In contrast, the two best-studied Antarctic insects, the midges Belgica antarctica and Eretmoptera murphyi, are freeze-tolerant year-round and rely on both seasonal and rapid cold-hardening to cope with decreases in temperature. A common theme among Antarctic arthropods is extreme tolerance of dehydration; some accomplish this by cuticular mechanisms to minimize water loss across their cuticle, while a majority have highly permeable cuticles but tolerate upwards of 50-70% loss of body water. Molecular studies of Antarctic arthropod stress physiology are still in their infancy, but several recent studies are beginning to shed light on the underlying mechanisms that govern extreme stress tolerance. Some common themes that are emerging include the importance of cuticular and cytoskeletal rearrangements, heat shock proteins, metabolic restructuring and cell recycling pathways as key mediators of cold and water stress in the Antarctic.

  6. Increasing Temperature Extremes during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus (United States)

    Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.


    Although the recent global warming hiatus has featured a slowdown in the annual, global mean surface air temperature trend, temperature extremes have exhibited contrasting changes, as both wintertime cold and summertime hot extremes have increased over Northern Hemisphere (NH) land from 2002-2014. To investigate the sources of NH temperature extreme variability, we use multiple linear regression analysis that includes as predictors the typical drivers of global-scale climate variability - tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST), volcanic aerosols, solar variability, and the linear time trend. This analysis suggests that natural forcings, including tropical SSTs and solar variations, have contributed to the recent increase in NH winter cold extremes. The magnitude of the recent increase in summer hot extremes is only captured after including an additional SST predictor for a pattern that resembles the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, which suggests the importance of Atlantic Ocean SSTs for recent increases in hot extremes. When the regression models are applied to local, grid point scales, they indicate the promise for substantial skill in seasonal predictions of extreme temperature over some NH regions. Overall, this work reveals important sources of natural variability in extreme temperature trends superimposed upon the long-term increase of hot extremes and decrease of cold extremes.

  7. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak


    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  9. Cold adaptation, aging, and Korean women divers haenyeo. (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Joonhee; Kim, Siyeon


    We have been studying the thermoregulatory responses of Korean breath-hold women divers, called haenyeo, in terms of aging and cold adaptation. During the 1960s to the 1980s, haenyeos received attention from environmental physiologists due to their unique ability to endure cold water while wearing only a thin cotton bathing suit. However, their overall cold-adaptive traits have disappeared since they began to wear wetsuits and research has waned since the 1980s. For social and economic reasons, the number of haenyeos rapidly decreased to 4005 in 2015 from 14,143 in 1970 and the average age of haenyeos is about 75 years old at present. For the past several years, we revisited and explored older haenyeos in terms of environmental physiology, beginning with questionnaire and field studies and later advancing to thermal tolerance tests in conjunction with cutaneous thermal threshold tests in a climate chamber. As control group counterparts, older non-diving females and young non-diving females were compared with older haenyeos in the controlled experiments. Our findings were that older haenyeos still retain local cold tolerance on the extremities despite their aging. Finger cold tests supported more superior local cold tolerance for older haenyeos than for older non-diving females. However, thermal perception in cold reflected aging effects rather than local cold acclimatization. An interesting finding was the possibility of positive cross-adaptation which might be supported by greater heat tolerance and cutaneous warm perception thresholds of older haenyeos who adapted to cold water. It was known that cold-adaptive traits of haenyeos disappeared, but we confirmed that cold-adaptive traits are still retained on the face and hands which could be interpreted by a mode switch to local adaptation from the overall adaptation to cold. Further studies on cross-adaptation between chronic cold stress and heat tolerance are needed.

  10. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.


    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced

  11. Deinococcus radiodurans bacteria of extreme;Deinococcus radiodurans bacterie de l'extreme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellay, F.X.; Matic, I.


    Extreme levels of radiation, desiccation, oxidative stress, Deinococcus radiodurans can survive in environments that degrade or damage DNA, proteins and virtually all macromolecules of life. To survive these conditions, Deinococcus have developed systems of protection, repair and recycling of exceptional efficiency. (N.C.)

  12. Plasmids of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant bacteria and their role in adaptation to cold environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz eDziewit


    Full Text Available Extremely cold environments are a challenge for all organisms. They are mostly inhabited by psychrophilic and psychrotolerant bacteria, which employ various strategies to cope with the cold. Such harsh environments are often highly vulnerable to the influence of external factors and may undergo frequent dynamic changes. The rapid adjustment of bacteria to changing environmental conditions is crucial for their survival. Such short-term evolution is often enabled by plasmids – extrachromosomal replicons that represent major players in horizontal gene transfer.The genomic sequences of thousands of microorganisms, including those of many cold-active bacteria have been obtained over the last decade, but the collected data have yet to be thoroughly analyzed. This report describes the results of a meta-analysis of the NCBI sequence databases to identify and characterize plasmids of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant bacteria.We have performed in-depth analyses of 66 plasmids, almost half of which are cryptic replicons not exceeding 10 kb in size. Our analyses of the larger plasmids revealed the presence of numerous genes, which may increase the phenotypic flexibility of their host strains. These genes encode enzymes possibly involved in (i protection against cold and ultraviolet radiation, (ii scavenging of reactive oxygen species, (iii metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleotides and lipids, (iv energy production and conversion, (v utilization of toxic organic compounds (e.g. naphthalene, and (vi resistance to heavy metals, metalloids and antibiotics. Some of the plasmids also contain type II restriction-modification systems, which are involved in both plasmid stabilization and protection against foreign DNA. Moreover, approx. 50% of the analyzed plasmids carry genetic modules responsible for conjugal transfer or mobilization for transfer, which may facilitate the spread of these replicons among various bacteria, including across species

  13. Stacking of cold antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; Oxley, P; Speck, A K; Storry, C H; Tan, J N; Wessels, M; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Walz, J; Pittner, H; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A


    The stacking of cold antiprotons is currently the only way to accumulate the large numbers of the cold antiprotons that are needed for low energy experiments. Both the largest possible number and the lowest possible temperature are desired, especially for the production and study of cold antihydrogen. The antiprotons accumulated in our particle trap have an energy 10/sup 10/ times lower than the energy of those delivered by CERN's Antiprotons Decelerator (AD). The number accumulated (more than 0.4 million in this demonstration) is linear in the number of accepted high energy antiproton pulses (32 in this demonstration). Accumulation efficiencies and losses are measured and discussed. (12 refs).

  14. Does cold activate the Drosophila melanogaster immune system? (United States)

    Salehipour-Shirazi, Golnaz; Ferguson, Laura V; Sinclair, Brent J


    Cold exposure appears to activate aspects of the insect immune system; however, the functional significance of the relationship between cold and immunity is unclear. Insect success at low temperatures is shaped in part by interactions with biotic stressors, such as pathogens, thus it is important to understand how and why immunity might be activated by cold. Here we explore which components of the immune system are activated, and whether those components differ among different kinds of cold exposure. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to both acute (2h, -2°C) and sustained (10h, -0.5°C) cold, and measured potential (antimicrobial peptide expression, phenoloxidase activity, haemocyte counts) and realised (survival of fungal infection, wound-induced melanisation, bacterial clearance) immunity following recovery. Acute cold increased circulating haemocyte concentration and the expression of Turandot-A and diptericin, but elicited a short-term decrease in the clearance of gram-positive bacteria. Sustained cold increased the expression of Turandot-A, with no effect on other measures of potential or realised immunity. We show that measures of potential immunity were up-regulated by cold, whereas realised immunity was either unaffected or down-regulated. Thus, we hypothesize that cold-activation of potential immunity in Drosophila may be a compensatory mechanism to maintain stable immune function during or after low temperature exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of photoperiodically induced reproductive diapause and cold hardening on the cold tolerance of Drosophila montana. (United States)

    Vesala, Laura; Hoikkala, Anneli


    Coping with seasonal and daily variation in environmental conditions requires that organisms are able to adjust their reproduction and stress tolerance according to environmental conditions. Females of Drosophila montana populations have adapted to survive over the dark and cold winters at high latitudes and altitudes by spending this season in photoperiodically controlled reproductive diapause and reproducing only in spring/summer. The present study showed that flies of a northern population of this species are quite tolerant of low temperatures and show high seasonal and short-term plasticity in this trait. Culturing the flies in short day length (nearly all females in reproductive diapause), as well as allowing the flies to get cold hardened before the cold treatment, increased the cold tolerance of both sexes both in chill coma recovery time test and in mortality assay. Chill coma recovery time test performed for the females of two additional D. montana populations cultured in a day length where about half of the females enter diapause, also showed that diapause can increase female cold tolerance even without a change in day length. Direct linkage between diapause and cold tolerance was found in only two strains representing a high-altitude population of the species, but the phenomenon will certainly be worth of studying in northern and southern populations of the species with larger data sets. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Could behaviour and not physiological thermal tolerance determine winter survival of aphids in cereal fields? (United States)

    Alford, Lucy; Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Georges, Romain; Burel, Françoise; van Baaren, Joan


    Traits of physiological thermotolerance are commonly measured in the laboratory as predictors of the field success of ectotherms at unfavourable temperatures (e.g. during harsh winters, heatwaves, or under conditions of predicted global warming). Due to being more complicated to measure, behavioural thermoregulation is less commonly studied, although both physiology and behaviour interact to explain the survival of ectotherms. The aphids Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae are commercially important pests of temperate cereal crops. Although coexisting, these species markedly differ in winter success, with R. padi being the most abundant species during cold winters, followed by S. avenae and lastly M. dirhodum. To better understand the thermal physiology and behavioural factors contributing to differential winter success, the lethal temperature (physiological thermotolerance) and the behaviour of aphids in a declining temperature regime (behavioural thermotolerance) of these three species were investigated. Physiological thermotolerance significantly differed between the three species, with R. padi consistently the least cold tolerant and S. avenae the most cold tolerant. However, although the least cold tolerant of the study species, significantly more R. padi remained attached to the host plant at extreme sub-zero temperatures than S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Given the success of anholocyclic R. padi in harsh winters compared to its anholocyclic counterparts, this study illustrates that behavioural differences could be more important than physiological thermotolerance in explaining resistance to extreme temperatures. Furthermore it highlights that there is a danger to studying physiological thermotolerance in isolation when ascertaining risks of ectotherm invasions, the establishment potential of exotic species in glasshouses, or predicting species impacts under climate change scenarios.

  17. Could behaviour and not physiological thermal tolerance determine winter survival of aphids in cereal fields?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Alford

    Full Text Available Traits of physiological thermotolerance are commonly measured in the laboratory as predictors of the field success of ectotherms at unfavourable temperatures (e.g. during harsh winters, heatwaves, or under conditions of predicted global warming. Due to being more complicated to measure, behavioural thermoregulation is less commonly studied, although both physiology and behaviour interact to explain the survival of ectotherms. The aphids Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae are commercially important pests of temperate cereal crops. Although coexisting, these species markedly differ in winter success, with R. padi being the most abundant species during cold winters, followed by S. avenae and lastly M. dirhodum. To better understand the thermal physiology and behavioural factors contributing to differential winter success, the lethal temperature (physiological thermotolerance and the behaviour of aphids in a declining temperature regime (behavioural thermotolerance of these three species were investigated. Physiological thermotolerance significantly differed between the three species, with R. padi consistently the least cold tolerant and S. avenae the most cold tolerant. However, although the least cold tolerant of the study species, significantly more R. padi remained attached to the host plant at extreme sub-zero temperatures than S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Given the success of anholocyclic R. padi in harsh winters compared to its anholocyclic counterparts, this study illustrates that behavioural differences could be more important than physiological thermotolerance in explaining resistance to extreme temperatures. Furthermore it highlights that there is a danger to studying physiological thermotolerance in isolation when ascertaining risks of ectotherm invasions, the establishment potential of exotic species in glasshouses, or predicting species impacts under climate change scenarios.

  18. Heating up cold agglutinins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Marvin J


    In this issue of Blood, Berentsen and coworkers describe a high response rate which is durable in some patients who receive combination fludarabine and rituximab for chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD...

  19. Chilling Out With Colds (United States)

    ... a little earlier for a few nights. De-stress. Kids who are stressed out feel worse when they have colds. Relax and use the time to read, listen to music, or watch a movie. In other words, chill ...

  20. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  1. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; Daanen, Hein A M

    Purpose of review: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  2. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  3. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey


    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  4. UV and cold tolerance of a pigment-producing Antarctic Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia


    In this paper, we describe the UV and cold tolerance of a purple violet pigment (PVP)-producing Antarctic bacterium, Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2 (PVP+) and compared its physiological adaptations with a pigmentless mutant strain (PVP-). A spontaneous deletion of vioA that codes for tryptophan monooxygenase, the first gene involved in the biosynthesis of PVP was found in PVP- strain. The PVP- culture exhibited significantly reduced survival during exponential and stationary growth phase following exposure to UVB (320 nm) and UVC (254 nm) (dose range: 0-300 J/m2) when compared to wild-type (PVP+) cultures. In addition, upon biochemical inhibition of pigment synthesis by 2(5H)-furanone, wild-type PVP+ cultures exhibited approximately 50-fold growth reduction at a higher dose (300 J/m2) of UV. Increased resistance to UV was observed upon inducing starvation state in both PVP+ and PVP- cultures. There was 80 % (SD = ±8) reduction in extrapolymeric substance (EPS) production in the PVP- cultures along with a compromised survival to freeze-thaw cycles when compared to the PVP+ cultures. Perhaps synthesis of PVP and EPS are among the key adaptive features that define the survival of this bacterium in Antarctic extreme conditions, especially during austral summer months. © 2013 Springer Japan.

  5. UV and cold tolerance of a pigment-producing Antarctic Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2. (United States)

    Mojib, Nazia; Farhoomand, Amin; Andersen, Dale T; Bej, Asim K


    In this paper, we describe the UV and cold tolerance of a purple violet pigment (PVP)-producing Antarctic bacterium, Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2 (PVP(+)) and compared its physiological adaptations with a pigmentless mutant strain (PVP(-)). A spontaneous deletion of vioA that codes for tryptophan monooxygenase, the first gene involved in the biosynthesis of PVP was found in PVP(-) strain. The PVP(-) culture exhibited significantly reduced survival during exponential and stationary growth phase following exposure to UVB (320 nm) and UVC (254 nm) (dose range: 0-300 J/m²) when compared to wild-type (PVP(+)) cultures. In addition, upon biochemical inhibition of pigment synthesis by 2(5H)-furanone, wild-type PVP(+) cultures exhibited approximately 50-fold growth reduction at a higher dose (300 J/m²) of UV. Increased resistance to UV was observed upon inducing starvation state in both PVP(+) and PVP(-) cultures. There was 80% (SD = ±8) reduction in extrapolymeric substance (EPS) production in the PVP(-) cultures along with a compromised survival to freeze-thaw cycles when compared to the PVP(+) cultures. Perhaps synthesis of PVP and EPS are among the key adaptive features that define the survival of this bacterium in Antarctic extreme conditions, especially during austral summer months.

  6. Extremely Preterm Birth (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” ...

  7. Temperature Variation and Heat Wave and Cold Spell Impacts on Years of Life Lost Among the Urban Poor Population of Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddaeus Egondi


    Full Text Available Weather extremes are associated with adverse health outcomes, including mortality. Studies have investigated the mortality risk of temperature in terms of excess mortality, however, this risk estimate may not be appealing to policy makers assessing the benefits expected for any interventions to be adopted. To provide further evidence of the burden of extreme temperatures, we analyzed the effect of temperature on years of life lost (YLL due to all-cause mortality among the population in two urban informal settlements. YLL was generated based on the life expectancy of the population during the study period by applying a survival analysis approach. Association between daily maximum temperature and YLL was assessed using a distributed lag nonlinear model. In addition, cold spell and heat wave effects, as defined according to different percentiles, were investigated. The exposure-response curve between temperature and YLL was J-shaped, with the minimum mortality temperature (MMT of 26 °C. An average temperature of 21 °C compared to the MMT was associated with an increase of 27.4 YLL per day (95% CI, 2.7–52.0 years. However, there was no additional effect for extended periods of cold spells, nor did we find significant associations between YLL to heat or heat waves. Overall, increased YLL from all-causes were associated with cold spells indicating the need for initiating measure for reducing health burdens.

  8. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G


    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  9. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight


    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  10. Expression responses of five cold tolerant related genes to two temperature dropping treatments in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (United States)

    Li, Chengze; Chang, Yaqing; Pang, Zhenguo; Ding, Jun; Ji, Nanjing


    Environmental conditions, including ambient temperature, play important roles in survival, growth development, and reproduction of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Low temperatures result in slowed growth and skin ulceration disease. In a previous study, we investigated the effect of low temperature on gene expression profiles in A. japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Genes encoding Ferritin, Lysozyme, Hsp70, gp96, and AjToll were selected from a subtracted cDNA library of A. japonicus under acute cold stress. The transcriptional expression profiles of these genes were investigated in different tissues (coelomocyte, respiratory tree, intestine, longitudinal muscle) after exposure to acute and mild temperature dropping treatments. The results show that (1) the five cold-tolerance-related genes were found in all four tissues and the highest mRNA levels were observed in coelomocyte and respiratory tree; (2) under the temperature dropping treatments, three types of transcriptional regulation patterns were observed: primary suppression followed by up-regulation at -2°C, suppressed expression throughout the two treatments, and more rarely an initial stimulation followed by suppression; and (3) gene expression suppression was more severe under acute temperature dropping than under mild temperature dropping treatment. The five cold-tolerance-related genes that were distributed mainly in coelomocyte and respiratory tissues were generally down-regulated by low temperature stress but an inverse up-regulation event was found at the extreme temperature (-2°C).

  11. The influence of short-term cold stress on the metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in polar grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łopieńska-Biernat Elżbieta


    Full Text Available Plants adapt to extremely low temperatures in polar regions by maximizing their photosynthetic efficiency and accumulating cryoprotective and osmoprotective compounds. Flowering plants of the family Poaceae growing in the Arctic and in the Antarctic were investigated. Their responses to cold stress were analyzed under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected after 24 h and 48 h of cold treatment. Quantitative and qualitative changes of sugars are found among different species, but they can differ within a genus of the family Poaceae. The values of the investigated parameters in Poa annua differed considerably depending to the biogeographic origin of plants. At the beginning of the experiment, Antarctic plants were acclimatized in greenhouse characterized by significantly higher content of sugars, including storage reserves, sucrose and starch, but lower total protein content. After 24 h of exposure to cold stress, much smaller changes in the examined parameters were noted in Antarctic plants than in locally grown specimens. Total sugar content and sucrose, starch and glucose levels were nearly constant in P. annua, but they varied significantly. Those changes are responsible for the high adaptability of P. annua to survive and develop in highly unsupportive environments and colonize new regions.

  12. Proteomic characterization of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Cornelis Joseph; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Beck, Hans C


    insight into the molecular interplay between intrinsic stress responses, inbreeding depression and temperature tolerance, we performed a proteomic characterization of a well-defined conditional inbreeding effect in a single line of Drosophila melanogaster, which suffers from extreme cold sensitivity...

  13. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma elimination of clinically important single- and mixed-species biofilms. (United States)

    Modic, Martina; McLeod, Neil P; Sutton, J Mark; Walsh, James L


    Mixed-species biofilms reflect the natural environment of many pathogens in clinical settings and are highly resistant to disinfection methods. An indirect cold atmospheric-pressure air-plasma system was evaluated under two different discharge conditions for its ability to kill representative Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) pathogens. Plasma treatment of individual 24-h-old biofilms and mixed-species biofilms that contained additional species (Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae) was considered. Under plasma conditions that favoured the production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), individual P. aeruginosa biofilms containing ca. 5.0 × 10(6) CFU were killed extremely rapidly, with no bacterial survival detected at 15 s of exposure. Staphylococcus aureus survived longer under these conditions, with no detectable growth after 60 s of exposure. In mixed-species biofilms, P. aeruginosa survived longer but all species were killed with no detectable growth at 60 s. Under plasma conditions that favoured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), P. aeruginosa showed increased survival, with the lower limit of detection reached by 120 s, and S. aureus was killed in a similar time frame. In the mixed-species model, bacterial kill was biphasic but all pathogens showed viable cells after 240 s of exposure, with P. aeruginosa showing significant survival (ca. 3.6 ± 0.6 × 10(6) CFU). Overall, this study shows the potential of indirect air plasma treatment to achieve significant bacterial kill, but highlights aspects that might affect performance against key pathogens, especially in real-life settings within mixed populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Cold water immersion: kill or cure? (United States)

    Tipton, M J; Collier, N; Massey, H; Corbett, J; Harper, M


    What is the topic of this review? This is the first review to look across the broad field of 'cold water immersion' and to determine the threats and benefits associated with it as both a hazard and a treatment. What advances does it highlight? The level of evidence supporting each of the areas reviewed is assessed. Like other environmental constituents, such as pressure, heat and oxygen, cold water can be either good or bad, threat or treatment, depending on circumstance. Given the current increase in the popularly of open cold water swimming, it is timely to review the various human responses to cold water immersion (CWI) and consider the strength of the claims made for the effects of CWI. As a consequence, in this review we look at the history of CWI and examine CWI as a precursor to drowning, cardiac arrest and hypothermia. We also assess its role in prolonged survival underwater, extending exercise time in the heat and treating hyperthermic casualties. More recent uses, such as in the prevention of inflammation and treatment of inflammation-related conditions, are also considered. It is concluded that the evidence base for the different claims made for CWI are varied, and although in most instances there seems to be a credible rationale for the benefits or otherwise of CWI, in some instances the supporting data remain at the level of anecdotal speculation. Clear directions and requirements for future research are indicated by this review. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  15. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle (Invited) (United States)

    Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M. D.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Zscheischler, J.


    The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Ongoing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that rare climate extremes can lead to a decrease in ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate the expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget. In addition to direct impact on the carbon fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration via extreme temperature and (or) drought, effects of extreme events may also lead to lagged responses, such as wildfires triggered by heat waves and droughts, or pest and pathogen outbreaks following wind-throw caused by heavy storms, reduced plant health due to drought stress or due to less frequent cold extremes in presently cold regions. One extreme event can potentially override accumulated previous carbon sinks, as shown by the Western European 2003 heat wave.. Extreme events have the potential to affect the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance through a single factor, or as a combination of factors. Climate extremes can cause carbon losses from accumulated stocks, as well as long-lasting impacts on (e.g. lagged effects) on plant growth and mortality, extending beyond the duration of the extreme event itself. The sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon balance to climate change and extreme events varies according to the type of extreme, the climatic region, the land cover, and the land management. Extreme event impacts are very relevant in forests due to the importance of lagged and memory effects on tree growth and mortality, the longevity of tree species, the large forest carbon stocks and their vulnerability, as well as the

  16. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)

  17. Dormancy cycling and persistence of seeds in soil of a cold desert halophyte shrub

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying


    .... In this study it was hypothesized that the long-lived halophytic cold desert shrub Kalidium gracile has a seed bank and dormancy cycling, which help restrict germination to a favourable time for seedling survival...

  18. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna


    and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims.......This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...

  19. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Clifford J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  20. Sun, heat, and cold injuries in cyclists. (United States)

    Helzer-Julin, M


    Cyclists are vulnerable to weather and commonly experience problems as they relate to extremes in both heat and cold. Educating cyclists on prevention of sunburn, dehydration, heat illness, hypothermia, and frostbite is the key. Limited sun exposure and proper use of sunscreens are the mainstay of treatment for prevention of sunburn. Adequate fluid and electrolyte replacement is necessary to avoid problems with dehydration and heat illness. Wind- and water-resistant clothing is recommended to protect against hypothermia and frostbite. Adequate training and acclimatization are, of course, recommended to all recreational and competitive riders for safe cycling.

  1. Shipboard Training and Maintenance for Merchant Vessel Survival Equipment. (United States)


    ventilating sytems, ard the operation of all safety equipment. (2) The preparation and launching of lifeboats and liferafts. (3) The extinction of fire. 5-8 (4...water; (2) cold conditions; (3) shark -infested waters; (ii) how 1,o riqht a capsized survival craft; (i) actions to be taken when aboard a survival

  2. Heating up cold agglutinins. (United States)

    Stone, Marvin J


    In this issue of Blood, Berentsen and coworkers describe a high response rate which is durable in some patients who receive combination fludarabine and rituximab for chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD). If confirmed, this is a significant advance in therapy for a frequently difficult clinical problem.

  3. Recent Cold War Studies (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn


    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  4. Cold spray nozzle design (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL


    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  5. Cold Regions Environmental Considerations (United States)


    MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Test Business Management Division (TEDT-TMB) US Army Developmental...losses in dry air, decreased thirst, cold-induced diuresis , and conscious under-drinking. 12 TOP 1-1-017 03 February 2009 4.4 Shelter. A

  6. Teaching "In Cold Blood." (United States)

    Berbrich, Joan D.


    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one…

  7. Qualification Testing of Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) Sensors for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project under Extreme Temperatures to Assess Reliability and to Enhance Mission Assurance (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Maki, Justin N.; Cucullu, Gordon C.


    Package Qualification and Verification (PQV) of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect technologies and various other types of qualification hardware for the Mars Exploration Rover/Mars Science Laboratory flight projects has been performed to enhance the mission assurance. The qualification of hardware (Engineering Camera and Platinum Resistance Thermometer, PRT) under extreme cold temperatures has been performed with reference to various project requirements. The flight-like packages, sensors, and subassemblies have been selected for the study to survive three times (3x) the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations and mission phases. Qualification has been performed by subjecting above flight-like qual hardware to the environmental temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures or degradation in electrical performance due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. Experiments of flight like hardware qualification test results have been described in this paper.

  8. Cold storage of rooted and non-rooted carnation cuttings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed differences depending on the cultivar tested. Specifically, the Vittorio cultivar had a better reaction to long-term storage. The survival and rooting rates of non-rooted cuttings after cold storage also showed differences depending on the cultivar tested. Vittorio cultivar reacted better to storage than the Dianora cultivar.

  9. Development of immunoassay for the identification of cold shock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 5, 2007 ... essential for low temperature survival of bacteria. To identify CSP from diversified microflora, immunoassay was developed. A small 14 kDa protein from cold tolerant mutant, CRPF8 of. Pseudomonas fluorescens was concentrated and fractionated by HPLC and antisera was raised. Specificity of anti-CRPF8 ...

  10. Terrorism in Post Cold War Iraq and Palestine: Causes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of terrorism in world politics is historical. In the Cold War era, this phenomenon was aided by the covert or overt activities of the extant superpowers; the United States and Soviet Union, and their client states. In the face of the collapse of communism and the emergence of the US as the only surviving ...

  11. To the limit of extreme malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Jacob; Buskbjerg, Camilla Viola; Støving, Rene K


    Extreme malnutrition with body mass index (BMI) as low as 10 kg/m(2) is not uncommon in anorexia nervosa, with survival enabled through complex metabolic adaptations. In contrast, outcomes from hunger strikes and famines are usually fatal after weight loss to about 40% below expected body weight...... malnutrition has not previously been reported. The present case emphasizes the importance of adherence...

  12. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium – Identification of the responsible medium components (United States)


    Background In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Results Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199). Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid) did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM), a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM), and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640) evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution) also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types. PMID:23046946

  13. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium - identification of the responsible medium components. (United States)

    Pless-Petig, Gesine; Metzenmacher, Martin; Türk, Tobias R; Rauen, Ursula


    In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199). Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid) did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM), a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM), and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640) evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution) also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types.

  14. Aggravation of cold-induced injury in Vero-B4 cells by RPMI 1640 medium – Identification of the responsible medium components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pless-Petig Gesine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In modern biotechnology, there is a need for pausing cell lines by cold storage to adapt large-scale cell cultures to the variable demand for their products. We compared various cell culture media/solutions for cold storage of Vero-B4 kidney cells, a cell line widely used in biotechnology. Results Cold storage in RPMI 1640 medium, a recommended cell culture medium for Vero-B4 cells, surprisingly, strongly enhanced cold-induced cell injury in these cells in comparison to cold storage in Krebs-Henseleit buffer or other cell culture media (DMEM, L-15 and M199. Manufacturer, batch, medium supplements and the most likely components with concentrations outside the range of the other media/solutions (vitamin B12, inositol, biotin, p-aminobenzoic acid did not cause this aggravation of cold-induced injury in RPMI 1640. However, a modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer with a low calcium concentration (0.42 mM, a high concentration of inorganic phosphate (5.6 mM, and glucose (11.1 mM; i.e. concentrations as in RPMI 1640 evoked a cell injury and loss of metabolic function corresponding to that observed in RPMI 1640. Deferoxamine improved cell survival and preserved metabolic function in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer as well as in RPMI 1640. Similar Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations did not increase cold-induced cell injury in the kidney cell line LLC-PK1, porcine aortic endothelial cells or rat hepatocytes. However, more extreme conditions (Ca2+ was nominally absent and phosphate concentration raised to 25 mM as in the organ preservation solution University of Wisconsin solution also increased cold-induced injury in rat hepatocytes and porcine aortic endothelial cells. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of low calcium and high phosphate concentrations in the presence of glucose enhances cold-induced, iron-dependent injury drastically in Vero-B4 cells, and that a tendency for this pathomechanism also exists in other cell types.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  16. Future changes in extreme temperature events using the statistical downscaling model (SDSM in the trans-boundary region of the Jhelum river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood


    On the whole in the Jhelum basin, the intensity and frequency of warm temperature extremes are likely to be higher and the intensity and frequency of cold temperature extremes to be lower in the future.

  17. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas


    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  18. Integrating new indicators of predictors that shape the public's perception of local extreme temperature in China. (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Huang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Guo, Yuming; He, Mike Z; Li, Tiantian


    The public's risk perception of local extreme heat or cold plays a critical role in community health and prevention under climate change. However, there is limited evidence on such issues in China where extreme weather is occurring more frequently due to climate change. Here, a total of 2500 residents were selected using a three-step sampling method and investigated by a questionnaire in two representative cities. We investigated risk perception of extreme heat in Beijing and extreme cold in Harbin in 2013, aiming to examine their possible correlations with multiple epidemiological factors. We found that exposure, vulnerability, and adaptive ability were significant predictors in shaping public risk perceptions of local extreme temperature. In particular, a 1°C increase in daily temperature resulted in an increased odds of perceiving serious extreme heat in Beijing (OR=1.091; 95% CI: 1.032, 1.153), while a 1°C increase in daily temperature resulted in a decreased odds of perceiving serious extreme cold in Harbin (OR=0.965; 95% CI: 0.939, 0.992). Therefore for both extreme heat and cold, frequent local extreme temperature exposure may amplify a stronger communication. Health interventions for extreme temperature should consider exposure, vulnerability, and adaptive ability factors. This will help improve the public's perception of climatic changes and their willingness to balance adaption and mitigation appropriately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inducing Cold-Sensitivity in the Frigophilic Fly Drosophila montana by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M Vigoder

    Full Text Available Cold acclimation is a critical physiological adaptation for coping with seasonal cold. By increasing their cold tolerance individuals can remain active for longer at the onset of winter and can recover more quickly from a cold shock. In insects, despite many physiological studies, little is known about the genetic basis of cold acclimation. Recently, transcriptomic analyses in Drosophila virilis and D. montana revealed candidate genes for cold acclimation by identifying genes upregulated during exposure to cold. Here, we test the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (Inos, in cold tolerance in D. montana using an RNAi approach. D. montana has a circumpolar distribution and overwinters as an adult in northern latitudes with extreme cold. We assessed cold tolerance of dsRNA knock-down flies using two metrics: chill-coma recovery time (CCRT and mortality rate after cold acclimation. Injection of dsRNAInos did not alter CCRT, either overall or in interaction with the cold treatment, however it did induced cold-specific mortality, with high levels of mortality observed in injected flies acclimated at 5°C but not at 19°C. Overall, injection with dsRNAInos induced a temperature-sensitive mortality rate of over 60% in this normally cold-tolerant species. qPCR analysis confirmed that dsRNA injection successfully reduced gene expression of Inos. Thus, our results demonstrate the involvement of Inos in increasing cold tolerance in D. montana. The potential mechanisms involved by which Inos increases cold tolerance are also discussed.

  20. Survival at Sea for Mariners, Aviators and Search and Rescue Personnel (Survie en mer pour les marins, les aviateurs et le personnel de recherche et de sauvetage)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The text discusses key issues such as drowning through cold shock and swimming failure induced by immersion in water particularly below 15 deg C, survival prediction curves and non-freezing cold injuries...

  1. Weather and Climate Extremes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Paul


    .... All extremes are presented in terms of their location and date and, where supportive information is available in the professional literature, detailed discussions of the extreme event are provided...

  2. Legacy to the extreme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)


    textabstractWe explore the differences between developing a system using extreme programming techniques, and maintaining a legacy system. We investigate whether applying extreme programming techniques to legacy maintenance is useful and feasible.

  3. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D


    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  4. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  5. The need to be cold : cold warriors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, L.


    This article discussed the changing climate of Ellesmere Island and the adaptation of the Inuit in response to the climate change, with particular reference to Canada's most northern community of Grise Fiord. Because of the changing climate, the vast northern landscape that the Inuit navigated for centuries by reading its subtle signs is becoming warmer, softer, and unpredictable. The geographic history and demographics of Grise Fiord were described. The community's main water supply comes from a glacier which is sinking. The negative impacts of ice shrinkage on this northern community and on the environment were presented. These included more international shipping through the Arctic, more resource exploration, a greater risk of environmental contamination, and reduced habitat for the polar bears and seals that eat, mate, and reproduce on the ice. Climate change impacts on the sea and sea ice were also discussed. Several photographs illustrating the changing climate were presented. The article noted that climate change could destroy the Inuit culture, making climate change an issue of human rights, notably the right to live connected to the land and the right to be cold. It was concluded that in one generation, Inuit were swept up by both a social and an economic upheaval. In one more generation, they will undergo an environmental shift. 13 figs.

  6. Progress with cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, M; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Johnson, I; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Pruys, H; Regenfus, C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N


    The creation of cold antihydrogen by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations, working at CERN's unique Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility, has ushered in a new era in atomic physics. This contribution will briefly review recent results from the ATHENA experiment. These include discussions of antiproton slowing down in a cold positron gas during antihydrogen formation, information derived on the dependence of the antihydrogen formation rate upon the temperature of the stored positron plasma and, finally, upon the spatial distribution of the emitted anti-atoms. We will discuss the implications of these studies for the major outstanding goal of trapping samples of antihydrogen for precise spectroscopic comparisons with hydrogen. The physics motivations for undertaking these challenging experiments will be briefly recalled.

  7. Cold surge: a sudden and spatially varying threat to health? (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chih; Chen, Vivian Yi-Ju; Su, Huey-Jen


    While cold surge is one of the most conspicuous features of the winter monsoon in East Asia, its impact on human health remains underexplored. Based on the definition by the Central Weather Bureau in Taiwan, we identified four cold surges between 2000 and 2003 and collected the cardiovascular disease mortality data two weeks before and two weeks after these events. We attempted to answer the following research questions: 1) whether the cold surges impose an adverse and immediate effect on cardiovascular mortality; 2) whether the people living in temperate zones have a higher tolerance of extreme temperature drop than do those in the subtropics. With geographic weighting techniques, we not only found that the cardiovascular disease mortality rates increased significantly after the cold surges, but also discovered a spatially varying pattern of tolerance to cold surges. Even within a small study area such as Taiwan, human reaction to severe weather drop differs across space. Needless to say, in the U.S., these findings should be considered in redirecting policy to address populations living in warm places when extreme temperature drops occur. PMID:19162302

  8. Dense cold matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey


    Full Text Available The possibility to study cold nuclear matter with the density of neutron star core and even larger in the laboratory experiment is discussed. Special rare kinematical trigger for relativistic ion-ion collisions is proposed for such study. Expected properties of the matter in such unusual conditions and experimental program for its study is discussed. Possible experimental setup and R&D results for position sensitive neutron detector are presented.


    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien


    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  10. Cold Stowage Flight Systems (United States)

    Campana, Sharon E.; Melendez, David T.


    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aid researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials to maintain temperature. Details of these current technologies are provided along with operational experience gained to date. This paper discusses the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  11. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad


    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  12. Temperature extremes in Europe: overview of their driving atmospheric patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andrade


    Full Text Available As temperature extremes have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation, is particularly pertinent and is discussed here for Europe and in the period 1961–2010 (50 yr. For this aim, a canonical correlation analysis, coupled with a principal component analysis (BPCCA, is applied between the monthly mean sea level pressure fields, defined within a large Euro-Atlantic sector, and the monthly occurrences of two temperature extreme indices (TN10p – cold nights and TX90p – warm days in Europe. Each co-variability mode represents a large-scale forcing on the occurrence of temperature extremes. North Atlantic Oscillation-like patterns and strong anomalies in the atmospheric flow westwards of the British Isles are leading couplings between large-scale atmospheric circulation and winter, spring and autumn occurrences of both cold nights and warm days in Europe. Although summer couplings depict lower coherence between warm and cold events, important atmospheric anomalies are key driving mechanisms. For a better characterization of the extremes, the main features of the statistical distributions of the absolute minima (TNN and maxima (TXX are also examined for each season. Furthermore, statistically significant downward (upward trends are detected in the cold night (warm day occurrences over the period 1961–2010 throughout Europe, particularly in summer, which is in clear agreement with the overall warming.

  13. NAO influence on extreme winter temperatures in Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, L.; Garcia, R.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)


    Extremely cold days (ECDs), with minimum temperatures lower than -4.6 C, have been analysed for Madrid. This threshold corresponds to the 5th percentile of the period 1963-1999. Adopting a case analysis approach, five synoptic patterns have been identified that produce these extremely low temperatures. Three of them are associated with cold air flows over the Iberian Peninsula, and the other two with a lack of significant circulation over the region. A non-linear association with the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) has been identified using log-linear models. The NAO positive phase leads to an increase in the winter frequency of those synoptic patterns associated with stagnant air flow over Iberia, while those characterised by cold, northern flows do not appear to be similarly influenced. (orig.)

  14. NAO influence on extreme winter temperatures in Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Prieto


    Full Text Available Extremely cold days (ECDs, with minimum temperatures lower than -4.6°C, have been analysed for Madrid. This threshold corresponds to the 5th percentile of the period 1963–1999. Adopting a case analysis approach, five synoptic patterns have been identified that produce these extremely low temperatures. Three of them are associated with cold air flows over the Iberian Peninsula, and the other two with a lack of significant circulation over the region. A nonlinear association with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO has been identified using log-linear models. The NAO positive phase leads to an increase in the winter frequency of those synoptic patterns associated with stagnant air flow over Iberia, while those characterised by cold, northern flows do not appear to be similarly influenced.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  15. Cryosphere and Psychrophiles: Insights into a Cold Origin of Life? (United States)

    Feller, Georges


    Psychrophiles thrive permanently in the various cold environments on Earth. Their unsuspected ability to remain metabolically active in the most extreme low temperature conditions provides insights into a possible cold step in the origin of life. More specifically, metabolically active psychrophilic bacteria have been observed at -20 °C in the ice eutectic phase (i.e., the liquid veins between sea ice crystals). In the context of the RNA world hypothesis, this ice eutectic phase would have provided stability to the RNA molecules and confinement of the molecules in order to react and replicate. This aspect has been convincingly tested by laboratory experiments.

  16. Rapid cold hardening of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Yonggyun


    Cold tolerance of the palm thrips, Thrips palmi Karny, was investigated to predict its survival in field during winter. Supercooling points of T. palmi were varied among the developmental stages and ranged from -26.4 to -18.4°C. However, the cold injuries occurred above supercooling points in terms of higher mortality. The exposure to subzero temperatures (-5° to -15°C) resulted in significant mortalities to all developmental stages of T. palmi. A preexposure to a low temperature (4°C) for 7 h significantly increased the cold tolerance of all stages of T. palmi with respect to survival at -10°C and supercooling capacity. The rapid cold hardening (RCH) was dependent on the duration of the preexposure period at 4°C in adult stage. Polyol and sugar analysis using an high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that 4°C preexposure caused accumulation of glycerol, trehalose, mannitol, and mannose in the adults. The increase in trehalose levels was more significant than the others. This study suggests that all stages of T. palmi are able to become cold-hardy by RCH, in which several polyols and sugars may play crucial roles as cryoprotectants.

  17. Cold Sore, Cold Soul? An Examination of Orolabial Herpes in Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. HOLLIDAY


    Full Text Available The sociocultural phenomenon of herpes is attributed to two strains of the herpes simplex virus: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 causes orolabial cold sores while herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is typically identified in genital lesions, though both viruses may cause clinically similar signs and symptoms anywhere in or on the body. While these infections are extremely prevalent and typically benign, media sources such as film have perpetuated a negative public perception of the disease. Thus, a large portion of society continues to associate these conditions with sexual misconduct and moral failing. Despite decades of available antiviral therapy to shorten and suppress outbreaks, movies continue to exploit herpes for degradation and for humor. Portrayal of genital herpes in films is avoided in order to avert unnecessary and grotesque nude scenes, so depictions of cold sores are preferred. This article analyzes the use of orolabial herpes lesions in selected English language films released from 1984-2012.

  18. Strong tolerance to freezing is a major survival strategy in insects inhabiting central Yakutia (Sakha Republic, Russia), the coldest region on earth. (United States)

    Li, N G


    Yakutia is a part of eastern Siberia, located in north-eastern Russia. The climate of this area is very harsh even by Siberian standards, and is characterized by the absolute temperature minimum, which is below -64.4 °C, and a long period of low temperatures reaching to a range between -47 and -55 °C. Despite such a severe climate, the fauna and flora of Yakutia present a considerably rich biodiversity, suggesting a high adaptation potential of the organisms in this area. In this study, 30 local species of insects belonging to Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera were selected to investigate cold adaptation. The identification of the cold adaptation strategy was based on the measurement of the insect body supercooling point (SCP) and hemolymph ice-nucleating activity. According to the data collected, there is a high incidence of freeze tolerant species among the insects found in Yakutsk area (Yakutsk, 62° latitude, 130° longitude): 93.3% of them were freeze tolerant, and only 6.7% were freeze avoiding. It is suggested that the evolution of cold hardiness in this region preferably develops for the selection of the strong freeze tolerance that allow the insects to survive extreme cold conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Survival strategies of microorganisms in extreme saline environments (United States)

    Imhoff, J. F.

    Halophilic representatives are found in all main lines of evolutionary descendence of microbes: in archaebacteria, Gram-negative and Gram-positive eubacteria, and also in eucaryotes. In principe all halophilic microorganisms have to adapt their surface and membrane structures to their highly ionic environments. Concerning their intracellular compartment two different strategies have been developed: Inorganic ions are largely excluded in some microorganisms while such ions are actively accumulated in others. In particular the second group of organisms has to adapt the whole metabolic machinery to the highly ionic conditions of several molar salts, whereas in the first group only the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and the extracytoplasmic structures are in contact with high concentrations of inorganic ions. In this latter group, a variety of organic solutes is accumulated in response to increases of the salinity of the environment.

  20. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [7]. In South Africa, perinatal mortality and low-birth-weight rates have in the past generally been reported only for infants weighing. ≥1 000 g at birth, because smaller infants are often regarded as miscarriages and not recorded. However, with improving maternal and neonatal care, more infants weighing 500 - 1 000 g are.

  1. Cold adaptation of enzyme reaction rates. (United States)

    Bjelic, Sinisa; Brandsdal, Bjørn O; Aqvist, Johan


    A major issue for organisms living at extreme temperatures is to preserve both stability and activity of their enzymes. Cold-adapted enzymes generally have a reduced thermal stability, to counteract freezing, and show a lower enthalpy and a more negative entropy of activation compared to mesophilic and thermophilic homologues. Such a balance of thermodynamic activation parameters can make the reaction rate decrease more linearly, rather than exponentially, as the temperature is lowered, but the structural basis for rate optimization toward low working temperatures remains unclear. In order to computationally address this problem, it is clear that reaction simulations rather than standard molecular dynamics calculations are needed. We have thus carried out extensive computer simulations of the keto-enol(ate) isomerization steps in differently adapted citrate synthases to explore the structure-function relationships behind catalytic rate adaptation to different temperatures. The calculations reproduce the absolute rates of the psychrophilic and mesophilic enzymes at 300 K, as well as the lower enthalpy and more negative entropy of activation of the cold-adapted enzyme, where the latter simulation result is obtained from high-precision Arrhenius plots. The overall catalytic effect originates from electrostatic stabilization of the transition state and enolate and the reduction of reorganization free energy. The simulations, however, show psychrophilic, mesophilic, and hyperthermophilic citrate synthases to have increasingly stronger electrostatic stabilization of the transition state, while the energetic penalty in terms of internal protein interactions follows the reverse order with the cold-adapted enzyme having the most favorable energy term. The lower activation enthalpy and more negative activation entropy observed for cold-adapted enzymes are found to be associated with a decreased protein stiffness. The origin of this effect is, however, not localized to the

  2. Antivirals for the common cold. (United States)

    Jefferson, T O; Tyrrell, D


    The common cold is a ubiquitous short and usually mild illness for which preventive and treatment interventions have been under development since the mid-40s. As our understanding of the disease has increased, more experimental antivirals have been developed. This review attempts to draw together experimental evidence of the effects of these compounds. To identify, assemble, evaluate and (if possible) synthesise the results of published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of the effects of antivirals to prevent or minimise the impact of the common cold. We searched electronic databases, corresponded with researchers and handsearched the archives of the MRC's Common Cold Unit (CCU). We included original reports of randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of antivirals on volunteers artificially infected and in individuals exposed to colds in the community. We included 241 studies assessing the effects of Interferons, interferon-inducers and other antivirals on experimental and naturally occurring common colds, contained in 230 reports. We structured our comparisons by experimental or community setting. Although intranasal interferons have high preventive efficacy against experimental colds (protective efficacy 46%, 37% to 54%) and to a lesser extent against natural colds (protective efficacy 24%, 21% to 27%) and are also significantly more effective than placebo in attenuating the course of experimental colds (WMD 15.90, 13.42 to 18.38), their safety profile makes compliance with their use difficult. For example, prolonged prevention of community colds with interferons causes blood-tinged nasal discharge (OR 4.52, 3.78 to 5.41). Dipyridamole (protective efficacy against natural colds 49%, 30% to 62%), ICI 130, 685 (protective efficacy against experimental colds 58%, 35% to 74% ), Impulsin (palmitate) (protective efficacy against natural colds 44%, CI 35% to 52% ) and Pleconaril (protective efficacy against experimental colds 71%, 15% to

  3. Dynamic changes in temperature extremes and their association with atmospheric circulation patterns in the Songhua River Basin, China (United States)

    Zhong, Keyuan; Zheng, Fenli; Wu, Hongyan; Qin, Chao; Xu, Ximeng


    Understanding dynamic changes in climate extremes is important in forecasting extreme climate events and reducing their associated impacts. The objectives of this study were to analyze the spatiotemporal variations in temperature extremes and their association with atmospheric circulation, based on daily maximum (TX) and minimum temperatures (TN) collected from 60 meteorological stations in the Songhua River Basin (SRB) and its surroundings from 1960 to 2014. Following the ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices), eight extreme temperature indices, including three warm indices, three cold indices and two extreme indices, were chosen to quantify temperature extremes. The Mann-Kendall method and linear trend analysis were used to examine the trends, and Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the temperature extremes and each atmospheric circulation. The results showed that warm indices, including the number of warm nights, warm days, and summer days, and extreme indices, including minimum TN and maximum TX, showed increasing trends in the SRB from 1960 to 2014. On the other hand, cold indices, including the number of cold nights, cold days and frost days, showed decreasing trends; Warm indices and maximum TX showed significant positive correlations with latitude (P < 0.01). The Arctic Oscillation index (AO) displayed significant negative correlations with the cold indices (P < 0.01) and positive correlations with the warm indices. The warm indices and extreme indices had positive correlations with the Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High area and intensity indices, while the reverse relationship was found between the cold indices and Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High. The Asia polar vortex area and intensity indices showed negative correlations with warm indices and extreme indices, while they were positively correlated to cold indices. The multivariate ENSO index (MEI) showed no linear correlation with any of

  4. Cold hardiness and deacclimation of overwintering Papilio zelicaon pupae. (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; Nicolai, Annegret; Ferguson, Laura V; Bernards, Mark A; Hellmann, Jessica J; Sinclair, Brent J


    Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around -20.5°C and survived brief exposures to -30°C, suggesting partial freeze tolerance. Overwintering pupae had hemolymph osmolality of approximately 920 mOsm, imparted by high concentrations of glycerol, K⁺ and Na⁺. After exposure to spring warming, supercooling points increased to approximately -17°C, and survival of a 1h exposure to -20°C decreased from 100% to 0%. This deacclimation was associated with decreased hemolymph osmolality and reduced glycerol, trehalose, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ concentrations. We compared cold tolerance of pupae to weather conditions at and beyond the species' northern range boundary. Minimum temperatures at the range boundary approached the lower lethal temperature of pupae, and were colder north of the range, suggesting that cold hardiness may set northern range limits. Minimum temperatures following warm snaps were likely to cause mortality in at least one of the past three years. Cold snaps in the spring are increasing in frequency as a result of global climate change, so are likely to be a significant source of mortality for this species, and other temperate ectotherms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial survival in response to desiccation and high humidity at above zero and subzero temperatures (United States)

    Yang, Yinjie; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    Earthly microorganisms might have contaminated Mars for millions of years by intellectual activities or natural transfer. Knowledge on the preservation of microorganisms may help our searching for life on outer planets, particularly Mars-contaminated earthly microorganisms at ancient time. Extreme dryness is one of the current Mars characteristics. However, a humid or watery Mars at earlier time was suggested by evidence accumulated in recent decades. It raises the question that whether water helps preservation of the microorganisms or not, particularly those with high possibility of interplanetary transfer like spores and Deinococci. In this study, we examined the effects of desiccation and high humidity on survival and DNA double strand breaks (DSB) of Escherichia coli, Deinococcus radiodurans and spores of Bacillus pumilus at 25, 4 and -70 °C. They exhibited different survival rates and DSB patterns under desiccation and high humidity. Higher survival and less DSB occurred at lower temperature. We suggest that some Mars-contaminated bacteria might have been viably preserved on cold Mars regions for long periods, regardless of water availability. It is more likely to find ancient spores than ancient Deinococci on Mars. In our search for preserved extraterrestrial life, priority should be given to the Mars Polar Regions.

  6. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster. (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.


    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  7. Survival of indicator organisms, e.g. E. coli in drinking water pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Silhan, J.; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.


    The survival of E. coli was investigated in used drinking water pipes from households. The investigation showed that E. coli survived longer in plastic pipes than in cupper pipes and galvanized steel pipes. The investigation also showed longer survival at cold water temperatures (15?C) than at hot...

  8. On the variability of cold region flooding (United States)

    Matti, Bettina; Dahlke, Helen E.; Lyon, Steve W.


    Cold region hydrological systems exhibit complex interactions with both climate and the cryosphere. Improving knowledge on that complexity is essential to determine drivers of extreme events and to predict changes under altered climate conditions. This is particularly true for cold region flooding where independent shifts in both precipitation and temperature can have significant influence on high flows. This study explores changes in the magnitude and the timing of streamflow in 18 Swedish Sub-Arctic catchments over their full record periods available and a common period (1990-2013). The Mann-Kendall trend test was used to estimate changes in several hydrological signatures (e.g. annual maximum daily flow, mean summer flow, snowmelt onset). Further, trends in the flood frequency were determined by fitting an extreme value type I (Gumbel) distribution to test selected flood percentiles for stationarity using a generalized least squares regression approach. Results highlight shifts from snowmelt-dominated to rainfall-dominated flow regimes with all significant trends (at the 5% significance level) pointing toward (1) lower magnitudes in the spring flood; (2) earlier flood occurrence; (3) earlier snowmelt onset; and (4) decreasing mean summer flows. Decreasing trends in flood magnitude and mean summer flows suggest widespread permafrost thawing and are supported by increasing trends in annual minimum daily flows. Trends in selected flood percentiles showed an increase in extreme events over the full periods of record (significant for only four catchments), while trends were variable over the common period of data among the catchments. An uncertainty analysis emphasizes that the observed trends are highly sensitive to the period of record considered. As such, no clear overall regional hydrological response pattern could be determined suggesting that catchment response to regionally consistent changes in climatic drivers is strongly influenced by their physical

  9. Changes in extreme temperature events over the Hindu Kush Himalaya during 1961–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Bao Sun


    Full Text Available This study uses the CMA (China Meteorological Administration global land-surface daily air temperature dataset V1.0 (GLSATD V1.0 to analyze long-term changes in extreme temperature events over the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH during 1961–2015. Results show there was a significant decrease in the number of extreme cold events (cold nights, cold days, and frost days but a significant increase in the number of extreme warm events (warm nights, warm days, and summer days over the entire HKH during 1961–2015. For percentile-based indices, trends of extreme events related to minimum temperature (Tmin were greater in magnitude than those related to maximum temperature (Tmax. For absolute-value based indices, maximum Tmax, minimum Tmin, and summer days all show increasing trends, while frost days and the diurnal temperature range (DTR show significant decreasing trends. In addition, there was a decrease in extreme cold events in most parts of east HKH, particularly in Southwest China and the Tibetan Plateau, while there was a general increase in extreme warm events over the entire HKH. Finally, the change in extreme cold events in the HKH appears to be more sensitive to elevation (with cold nights and cold days decreasing with elevation, whereas the change in warm extremes (warm nights, warm days, and maximum Tmax shows no detectable relationship with elevation. Frost days and minimum Tmin also have a good relationship with elevation, and the trend in frost days decreases with an increase in elevation while the trend in minimum Tmin increases with an increase in elevation.

  10. Circulation characteristics of persistent cold spells in central-eastern North America (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Manson, Alan H.; Li, Yanping; Meek, Chris


    The circulation patterns of persistent cold weather spells with durations longer than 10 days in central-eastern North America (United States and Canada; 32°-52°N, 95°-65°W) are investigated by using NCEP reanalysis data from 1948 to 2014. The criteria for the persistent cold spells are: (1) three-day averaged temperature anomalies for the regional average over the central-eastern United States and Canada must be below the 10th percentile, and (2) such extreme cold spells must last at least 10 days. The circulation patterns associated with these cold spells are examined to find the common signals of these events. The circulation anomaly patterns of these cold spells are categorized based on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation (AO), and other climate indices. The atmospheric circulation patterns that favor the cold spells are identified through composites of geopotential height maps for the cold spells. Negative AO phases favor persistent cold spells. Phases of sea surface temperature (SST) modes that are associated with warm SSTs in the eastern extratropical Pacific also favor persistent cold events in the study region. Stratospheric polar vortex breakdown alone is not a good predictor for the regional extreme cold spells in central-eastern North America. The meridional dispersions of quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the Pacific-North America sector in terms of cut-off zonal wavenumber modulated by background flow are analyzed to provide insight into the difference in evolution of the cold spells under different mean AO phases. The waveguide for AO > 1 is in a narrow latitudinal band centered on 40°N, whereas the waveguide for AO cold spells identified by this study can be a stepping-stone for improving winter subseasonal forecasting in North America.

  11. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte


    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme...... that classifies extreme returns for several markets jointly. The new classification scheme holds about the same information as the old one, while demanding a shorter sample period. The new classification scheme is useful....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitsky


    Full Text Available Author brings modern conception of extreme and terminal states, their types, likenesses and differences, etiology, key common chains of pathogenesis, principles and methods of their treatment. Pathophysiological data on one of extreme states — collapse — is described in details. Next publications will present the data on shock and coma.Key words: extreme and terminal states, vicious circle of pathogenesis, extreme regulation, principles of treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:74-80

  13. Behavioral and life history responses to extreme climatic conditions: Studies on a migratory songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Møller


    Full Text Available Behavioral responses to environmental change are the mechanisms that allow for rapid phenotypic change preventing temporary or permanent damage and hence preventing reductions in fitness. Extreme climatic events are by definition rare, although they are predicted to increase in amplitude and frequency in the coming years. However, our current knowledge about behavioral responses to such extreme events is scarce. Here I analyze two examples of the effects of extreme weather events on behavior and life history: (1 A comparison of behavior and life history during extremely warm and extremely cold years relative to normal years; and (2 a comparison of behavior before and after the extremely early snowfall in fall 1974 when numerous birds died in the Alps during September-October. Behavioral and life history responses of barn swallows Hirundo rustica to extremely cold and extremely warm years were positively correlated, with particularly large effect sizes in cold years. Extreme mortality in barn swallows during fall migration 1974 in the Alps eliminated more than 40% of the breeding population across large areas in Central and Northern Europe, and this affected first arrival date, changes in timing and extent of reproduction and changes in degree of breeding sociality supposedly as a consequence of correlated responses to selection. Finally, I provide directions for research that will allow us to better understand behavior and life history changes in response to extreme climate change [Current Zoology 57 (3: 351–362, 2011].

  14. Homeostatic Responses to Prolonged Cold Exposure: Human Cold Acclimatization (United States)


    they were exposed to cold. The study of the Alacalufs of Tierra del Fuego (22) has been cited as evidence for a metabolic form of cold acclimatization...Bethesda, MD 20889-5044 55 AI Commanding Officer U.S. Navy Clothing & Textile Research Facility P.O. Box 59 Natick, MA 01760-0001 Commanding Officer

  15. Gravitational Lensing as a Probe of Cold Dark Matter Subhalos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Zackrisson


    Full Text Available In the cold dark matter scenario, dark matter halos are assembled hierarchically from smaller subunits. Some of these subunits are disrupted during the merging process, whereas others survive temporarily in the form of subhalos. A long-standing problem with this picture is that the number of subhalos predicted by simulations exceeds the number of luminous dwarf galaxies seen in the vicinity of large galaxies like the Milky Way. Many of the subhalos must therefore have remained dark or very faint. If cold dark matter subhalos are as common as predicted, gravitational lensing may in principle offer a promising route to detection. In this paper, we describe the many ways through which lensing by subhalos can manifest itself, and summarize the results from current efforts to constrain the properties of cold dark matter subhalos using such effects.

  16. Lower Extremity Permanent Dialysis Vascular Access. (United States)

    Parekh, Vishal B; Niyyar, Vandana D; Vachharajani, Tushar J


    Hemodialysis remains the most commonly used RRT option around the world. Technological advances, superior access to care, and better quality of care have led to overall improvement in survival of patients on long-term hemodialysis. Maintaining a functioning upper extremity vascular access for a prolonged duration continues to remain a challenge for dialysis providers. Frequently encountered difficulties in clinical practice include (1) a high incidence of central venous catheter-related central vein stenosis and (2) limited options for creating a functioning upper extremity permanent arteriovenous access. Lack of surgical skills, fear of complications, and limited involvement of the treating nephrologists in the decision-making process are some of the reasons why lower extremity permanent dialysis access remains an infrequently used option. Similar to upper extremity vascular access options, lower extremity arteriovenous fistula remains a preferred access over arteriovenous synthetic graft. The use of femoral tunneled catheter as a long-term access should be avoided as far as possible, especially with the availability of newer graft-catheter hybrid devices. Our review provides a summary of clinical evidence published in surgical, radiology, and nephrology literature highlighting the pros and cons of different types of lower extremity permanent dialysis access. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Rare genetic variation in UNC13A may modify survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, Benjamin; Shatunov, Aleksey; Pulit, Sara; Jones, Ashley R; Sproviero, William; Gillett, Alexandra; Chen, Zhongbo; Kirby, Janine; Fogh, Isabella; Powell, John F; Leigh, P Nigel; Morrison, Karen E; Shaw, Pamela J; Shaw, Christopher E; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Lewis, Cathryn M; Al-Chalabi, Ammar


    Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA

  18. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.


    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in

  19. Cold acclimation in eucalypt hybrids. (United States)

    Almeida, M. H.; Chaves, M. M.; Silva, J. C.


    We evaluated cold resistance and the capacity for cold acclimation of different Eucalyptus genotypes. Seedlings of half-sib families of E. globulus and hybrids E. gunnii x globulus, E. viminalis x globulus and E. cypellocarpa x globulus were exposed daily for 56 days to a 9-h photoperiod at 14.7 degrees C, followed by 15 h in a dark cold room maintained at 2.5 degrees C with the root system maintained at 8 degrees C to cold harden the seedlings. Unhardened seedlings were maintained at about 16 degrees C during the dark period. Cold acclimation occurred in all families with decreases in the temperature causing 50% mortality (LT(50)) of between 1.5 and 3 degrees C. Both hardened and unhardened plants of hybrid families were more cold tolerant than E. globulus. A significant correlation between LT(50) and leaf osmotic pressure was observed; the increase in osmotic pressure in hardened plants was predominantly a result of an increase in the concentration of soluble sugars. Exotherm peaks were similar in hardened and unhardened plants. These results indicate that cold hardening increased the ability of eucalypts to endure extracellular ice formation. The maintenance of photosynthetic capacity in cold-hardened plants may also play a role in their response to freezing.

  20. Cold Hardiness of the Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). (United States)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Noyez, Annelies; Schildermans, Kristof; De Clercq, Patrick


    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), shows potential as a resource for animal feed. However, industrial production in regions where the insect is not native, like northwestern Europe, could lead to permanent establishment, which might entail environmental risks. In temperate climates, establishment depends on the insect's ability to overwinter. This study assessed the insect's cold hardiness by determining the supercooling point (SCP) and lower lethal time at 5 °C (LTime10,50,90) for different life stages. As diet or acclimation can influence cold hardiness, prepupae reared on different substrates and acclimated prepupae were tested in separate experiments. The SCP ranged from -7.3 °C for late-instar larvae to -13.7 °C for pupae. Prepupae reared on a highly nutritional substrate had a lower SCP compared with a control diet composed of chicken feed (-14.1 °C vs. -12.4 °C, respectively), whereas the SCP was unaffected by acclimation. Based on the LTime, prepupae and pupae were the most cold hardy life stages. Acclimated prepupae were most cold tolerant, with a LTime50 of 23 d. Based on an empirical relationship between LTime50 and field survival of various arthropods, it was predicted that H. illucens would survive about 47 d in the field during northwestern European winters. The results from this laboratory study suggest that H. illucens is rather unlikely to overwinter in northwestern Europe. However, caution is warranted given that diet and acclimation can influence the insect's cold hardiness and in the field the insect may survive in a diapausing state or in protected hibernacula. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Cold-induced mortality of invasive Burmese pythons in south Florida (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Hart, Kristen M.; Snow, Ray W.; Rochford, Michael R.; Dorcas, Michael E.; Reed, Robert N.


    A recent record cold spell in southern Florida (2–11 January 2010) provided an opportunity to evaluate responses of an established population of Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) to a prolonged period of unusually cold weather. We observed behavior, characterized thermal biology, determined fate of radio-telemetered (n = 10) and non-telemetered (n = 104) Burmese pythons, and analyzed habitat and environmental conditions experienced by pythons during and after a historic cold spell. Telemetered pythons had been implanted with radio-transmitters and temperature-recording data loggers prior to the cold snap. Only one of 10 telemetered pythons survived the cold snap, whereas 59 of 99 (60%) non-telemetered pythons for which we determined fate survived. Body temperatures of eight dead telemetered pythons fluctuated regularly prior to 9 January 2010, then declined substantially during the cold period (9–11 January) and exhibited no further evidence of active thermoregulation indicating they were likely dead. Unusually cold temperatures in January 2010 were clearly associated with mortality of Burmese pythons in the Everglades. Some radio-telemetered pythons appeared to exhibit maladaptive behavior during the cold spell, including attempting to bask instead of retreating to sheltered refugia. We discuss implications of our findings for persistence and spread of introduced Burmese pythons in the United States and for maximizing their rate of removal.

  2. Cold hardiness of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae). (United States)

    Luypaert, Gil; Witters, Johan; Berkvens, Nick; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; De Riek, Jan; De Clercq, Patrick


    The cold hardiness of the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, a key pest in Rhododendron simsii hybrid production in northwestern Europe, was investigated in the laboratory. Survival of eggs, larvae and female adults and reproduction capacity of female P. latus were evaluated following cold exposure at 7 °C. Adult females were also exposed to temperatures of 2 and -3 °C. Further, the supercooling point and lower lethal times of adult females were determined. No eggs survived exposure to 7 °C for 17 or more days. Larval survival upon the cold treatment decreased from 53 to 13% when exposed to 7 °C for 14 and 49 days, respectively. Two-day-old adult females exposed to 7 °C for up to 42 days did not suffer significant mortality, but when returned to 25 °C their oviposition rates were lower than those of mites maintained at 25 °C. Less than 40% of females exposed for 13 days to 2 °C survived; only 20% of these females was able to reproduce upon recovery. Subzero temperatures dramatically decreased survival and reproduction capacity of adult females. The supercooling point of female adults was -16.5 °C. Median lethal times averaged 61.2 h and 9.3 days at -3 and 2 °C, respectively. In conclusion, a long term exposure (up to 6 weeks) of R. simsii plants infested with P. latus to a temperature of 7 °C, which is required for breaking dormancy of the flowers, is not expected to have detrimental effects on the survival and reproductive performance of the female mites.

  3. Hyperbranched polyglycerol as a colloid in cold organ preservation solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Gao

    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl starch (HES is a common colloid in organ preservation solutions, such as in University of Wisconsin (UW solution, for preventing graft interstitial edema and cell swelling during cold preservation of donor organs. However, HES has undesirable characteristics, such as high viscosity, causing kidney injury and aggregation of erythrocytes. Hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG is a branched compact polymer that has low intrinsic viscosity. This study investigated HPG (MW-0.5 to 119 kDa as a potential alternative to HES for cold organ preservation. HPG was synthesized by ring-opening multibranching polymerization of glycidol. Both rat myocardiocytes and human endothelial cells were used as an in vitro model, and heart transplantation in mice as an in vivo model. Tissue damage or cell death was determined by both biochemical and histological analysis. HPG polymers were more compact with relatively low polydispersity index than HES in UW solution. Cold preservation of mouse hearts ex vivo in HPG solutions reduced organ damage in comparison to those in HES-based UW solution. Both size and concentration of HPGs contributed to the protection of the donor organs; 1 kDa HPG at 3 wt% solution was superior to HES-based UW solution and other HPGs. Heart transplants preserved with HPG solution (1 kDa, 3% as compared with those with UW solution had a better functional recovery, less tissue injury and neutrophil infiltration in syngeneic recipients, and survived longer in allogeneic recipients. In cultured myocardiocytes or endothelial cells, significantly more cells survived after cold preservation with the HPG solution than those with the UW solution, which was positively correlated with the maintenance of intracellular adenosine triphosphate and cell membrane fluidity. In conclusion, HPG solution significantly enhanced the protection of hearts or cells during cold storage, suggesting that HPG is a promising colloid for the cold storage of donor organs

  4. Evaluation of Durum Wheat Lines for Tolerance to Early Season Cold via Early Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rashidi


    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the environmental factors that affect planting date of durum wheat in mountainous North West areas of Iran. To study tolerance of 36 Durum wheat lines for cold, an experiment was conducted in mid winter (mid of February at the Agricultural Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, in 2007. Experimental design used was simple lattice. The results of analysis of variance showed that the lines under study responded differently to cold as to traits like percentage of survival, yield and its components. This indicates existence of genetic diversity among durum wheat lines. Percentage of survival of the lines 30, 5, 16, 27, 31 and 35 were for higher than those at other lines. Thus, they can be considered to be tolerant to early season cold. Comparison of means showed that lines 35, 31, 16 and 5 possessed higher percentage of survival and other percent survival also correlated positive with plant height, number of fertile spike seed yield and 1000 grain weight. As a whole line 35 was found to be more tolerant to early season cold than the others were. Cluster analysis was divided 36 lines into three groups. Lines in the third group possessed higher percentage of survival, plant height, number of fertile spike, biomass and high yield than their over all means.

  5. Linking atmospheric blocking to European temperature extremes in spring (United States)

    Brunner, Lukas; Hegerl, Gabriele; Steiner, Andrea


    The weather in Europe is influenced by a range of dynamical features such as the Atlantic storm tracks, the jet stream, and atmospheric blocking. Blocking describes an atmospheric situation in which a stationary and persistent high pressure system interrupts the climatological flow for several days to weeks. It can trigger cold and warm spells which is of special relevance during the spring season because vegetation is particularly vulnerable to extreme temperatures in the early greening phase. We investigate European cold and warm spells in the 36 springs from 1979 to 2014 in temperature data from the European daily high-resolution gridded dataset (E-OBS) and connect them to blocking derived from geopotential height fields from ERA-Interim. A highly significant link between blocking and both, cold and warm spells is found that changes during spring. Resolving monthly frequencies, we find a shift in the preferred locations of blocking throughout spring. The maximum blocking frequency during cold spells shifts from Scandinavia to the British Isles in March and April. During warm spells it continuously shifts further northward during the spring season. The location of the block is found to be essential for the sign of the relationship. Blocking over the north-eastern Atlantic and over northern Europe is strongly linked to cold conditions, while blocking over central Europe is associated with warm conditions. Consistently the spatial distribution of temperature extremes across Europe is highly sensitive to the occurrence of blocking. More than 80 % of cold spells in south-eastern Europe occur during blocking, compared to less than 30 % in northern Europe. Warm spells show the opposite pattern and more than 70 % co-occur with blocking in northern Europe, compared to less than 30 % in parts of southern Europe. We find considerable interannual variability over the analysis period from 1979 to 2014 but also a decrease in cold spells and an increase in warm spells

  6. North Sea Storm Driving of Extreme Wave Heights (United States)

    Bell, Ray; Gray, Suzanne; Jones, Oliver


    The relationship between storms and extreme ocean waves in the North sea is assessed using a long-period wave dataset and storms identified in the Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). An ensemble sensitivity analysis is used to provide information on the spatial and temporal forcing from mean sea-level pressure and surface wind associated with extreme ocean wave height responses. Extreme ocean waves in the central North Sea arise due to either the winds in the cold conveyor belt (northerly-wind events) or winds in the warm conveyor belt (southerly-wind events) of extratropical cyclones. The largest wave heights are associated with northerly-wind events which tend to have stronger wind speeds and occur as the cold conveyor belt wraps rearwards round the cyclone to the cold side of the warm front. The northerly-wind events also provide a larger fetch to the central North Sea. Southerly-wind events are associated with the warm conveyor belts of intense extratropical storms developing in the right upper-tropospheric jet exit region. There is predictability in the extreme ocean wave events up to two days before the event associated with a strengthening of a high pressure system to the west (northerly-wind events) and south-west (southerly-wind events) of the British Isles. This acts to increase the pressure gradient over the British Isles and therefore drive stronger wind speeds in the central North sea.

  7. Effects of Dehydration or Cold Exposure and Restricted Fluid Intake upon Cognitive Performance (United States)


    for extreme cold. Both dehydration and cold impaired cognitive performances. INTRODUCTION Dehydration can profoundly affect behaviors especially when... aggression (6)9 cognitive performance (18)9 Jet fighter crew performance (4)1 video target acquisition- (10), and hand steadiness - dexterity, and...Water Deficit on Body Tremperature During Rugby . South African Medical Journal. 60(1):11-14; 1981. 7. Dix:on, W.J., M.B. Br.:un, L. Engelman, J.W. Frane

  8. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose (United States)

    ... at least one-half of colds. (5) Cold viruses can only multiply when they are inside of living cells. When on an environmental surface, cold viruses cannot multiply. However, they are still infectious if ...

  9. Long-Term Climate Trends and Extreme Events in Northern Fennoscandia (1914–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Kivinen


    Full Text Available We studied climate trends and the occurrence of rare and extreme temperature and precipitation events in northern Fennoscandia in 1914–2013. Weather data were derived from nine observation stations located in Finland, Norway, Sweden and Russia. The results showed that spring and autumn temperatures and to a lesser extent summer temperatures increased significantly in the study region, the observed changes being the greatest for daily minimum temperatures. The number of frost days declined both in spring and autumn. Rarely cold winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons had a low occurrence and rarely warm spring and autumn seasons a high occurrence during the last 20-year interval (1994–2013, compared to the other 20-year intervals. That period was also characterized by a low number of days with extremely low temperature in all seasons (4–9% of all extremely cold days and a high number of April and October days with extremely high temperature (36–42% of all extremely warm days. A tendency of exceptionally high daily precipitation sums to grow even higher towards the end of the study period was also observed. To summarize, the results indicate a shortening of the cold season in northern Fennoscandia. Furthermore, the results suggest significant declines in extremely cold climate events in all seasons and increases in extremely warm climate events particularly in spring and autumn seasons.

  10. Processes for Occurrence of Strong Cold Events over Eastern China (United States)

    Song, Lei; Wu, Renguang


    An extreme cold event hit eastern China around 24 January 2016 with surface air temperature reaching more than 10°C below climatological mean. Analysis revealed that this event occurred following a northeastward extension of the Ural ridge, an intensification of the Siberian High, an accumulation of cold air around the Lake Baikal, a southwestward deepening of the East Asian trough, and a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High. A composite analysis of 37 strong cold events with temperature anomalies over eastern China exceeding -5°C identified for the winters from 1979/80 to 2015/16 shows that the above features are common to these cold events. These events are preceded by a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation by about 7 days. A stationary wave train is observed over the Eurasian continent starting about one week before. The southward intrusion of cold air to eastern China is mainly through advection of mean temperature gradient by anomalous meridional winds. A comparative analysis indicates that the southward invasion of cold air to eastern China is related to two factors. One is the latitudinal location of the wave train over the mid-high latitude Eurasian continent. The other is a subtropical wave train emanating from the mid-latitude North Atlantic. When the mid-high latitude wave train is located too northward and the subtropical wave train induces an anomalous mid-tropospheric high over southern China, the East Asian trough does not extend southwestward and the Siberian High does not expand southeastward. In such case, the cold air mainly affects Northeast China and northern Japan.

  11. TrustRank: a Cold-Start tolerant recommender system (United States)

    Zou, Haitao; Gong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Jingzhi


    The explosive growth of the World Wide Web leads to the fast advancing development of e-commerce techniques. Recommender systems, which use personalised information filtering techniques to generate a set of items suitable to a given user, have received considerable attention. User- and item-based algorithms are two popular techniques for the design of recommender systems. These two algorithms are known to have Cold-Start problems, i.e., they are unable to effectively handle Cold-Start users who have an extremely limited number of purchase records. In this paper, we develop TrustRank, a novel recommender system which handles the Cold-Start problem by leveraging the user-trust networks which are commonly available for e-commerce applications. A user-trust network is formed by friendships or trust relationships that users specify among them. While it is straightforward to conjecture that a user-trust network is helpful for improving the accuracy of recommendations, a key challenge for using user-trust network to facilitate Cold-Start users is that these users also tend to have a very limited number of trust relationships. To address this challenge, we propose a pre-processing propagation of the Cold-Start users' trust network. In particular, by applying the personalised PageRank algorithm, we expand the friends of a given user to include others with similar purchase records to his/her original friends. To make this propagation algorithm scalable to a large amount of users, as required by real-world recommender systems, we devise an iterative computation algorithm of the original personalised TrustRank which can incrementally compute trust vectors for Cold-Start users. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the consistently improvement provided by our proposed algorithm over the existing recommender algorithms on the accuracy of recommendations for Cold-Start users.

  12. Extreme low temperature tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Richard Strimbeck


    Full Text Available Woody plants in boreal to arctic environments and high mountains survive prolonged exposure to temperatures below -40˚C and minimum temperatures below -60˚C, and laboratory tests show that many of these species can also survive immersion in liquid nitrogen at -196˚C. Studies of biochemical changes that occur during acclimation, including recent proteomic and metabolomic studies, have identified changes in carbohydrate and compatible solute concentrations, membrane lipid composition, and proteins, notably dehydrins, that may have important roles in survival at extreme low temperature. Consideration of the biophysical mechanisms of membrane stress and strain lead to the following hypotheses for cellular and molecular mechanisms of survival at extreme low temperature: 1. Changes in lipid composition stabilize membranes at temperatures above the lipid phase transition temperature (-20 to 30˚C, preventing phase changes that result in irreversible injury. 2. High concentrations of oligosaccharides promote vitrification or high viscosity in the cytoplasm in freeze-dehydrated cells, which would prevent deleterious interactions between membranes. 3. Dehydrins bind membranes and further promote vitrification or act stearically to prevent membrane-membrane interactions.

  13. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S


    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  14. Extreme bosonic linear channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    The set of all channels with a fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of the necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be an extreme point of this set in terms of the complementary channel, a notion of great importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra in the spirit of Arveson. We then use this formulation to prove our main result: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, environmental purity is necessary and sufficient for the extremality of a bosonic linear (quasifree) channel. It hence follows that a Gaussian channel between finite-mode bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimum noise.

  15. Aspects of natural cold tolerance in ectothermic animals. (United States)

    Ramløv, H


    Polar, alpine and temperate ectothermic (cold-blooded) animals encounter temperatures below the melting point of their body fluids either diurnally or seasonally. These animals have developed a number of biochemical and physiological adaptations to survive the low temperatures. The problems posed to the animals during cold periods include changes in membrane and protein structure due to phase changes in these molecules, changes in electrolyte concentrations and other solutes in the body fluids as well as changes in metabolism. Cold-tolerant ectothermic animals can be divided into two groups depending which of two 'strategies' they employ to survive the low temperatures: freeze-tolerant animals which survive ice formation in the tissues and freeze-avoiding animals which tolerate the low temperatures but not crystallization of the body fluids. The adaptations are mainly directed towards the control or avoidance of ice formation and include the synthesis of low mol. wt cryoprotectants, ice-nucleating agents and antifreeze proteins. However, some of the adaptations such as the synthesis of low mol. wt cryoprotectants are also more specific in their mechanism, e.g. direct stabilizing interaction with membranes and proteins. The mechanisms employed by such animals may offer ideas and information on alternative approaches which might be usefully employed in the cryopreservation of cells and tissues frequently required in assisted reproductive technology.

  16. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae. (United States)

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo


    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Contact-free cold atmospheric plasma treatment of Deinococcus radiodurans. (United States)

    Maisch, Tim; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Mitra, Anindita; Heinlin, Julia; Karrer, Sigrid; Li, Yang-Fang; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia L


    In this study we investigated the sensitivity of Deinococcus radiodurans to contact-free cold atmospheric plasma treatment as part of a project to establish new efficient procedures for disinfection of inanimate surfaces. The Gram-positive D. radiodurans is one of the most resistant microorganisms worldwide. Stationary phases of D. radiodurans were exposed to cold atmospheric plasma for different time intervals or to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation at dose rates of 0.001-0.0656 J cm⁻², respectively. A methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (MRSA) served as control for Gram-positive bacteria. The surface microdischarge plasma technology was used for generation of cold atmospheric plasma. A plasma discharge was ignited using ambient air. Surprisingly, D. radiodurans was sensitive to the cold atmospheric plasma treatment in the same range as the MRSA strain. Survival of both bacteria decreased with increasing plasma exposure times up to 6 log₁₀ cycles (>99.999 %) within 20 s of plasma treatment. In contrast, UVC radiation of both bacteria demonstrated that D. radiodurans was more resistant to UVC treatment than MRSA. Cold atmospheric plasma seems to be a promising tool for industrial and clinical purposes where time-saving is a critical point to achieve efficient disinfection of inanimate surfaces and where protection from corrosive materials is needed.

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, David L; Filler, Dennis M; Snape, Ian


    ..., identification and adaptations of cold-tolerant bacteria, contaminant transport in cold soils and permafrost, temperature effects on biodegradation, analytical methods, treatability studies, an...

  19. A novel cold-regulated gene, COR25, of Brassica napus is involved in plant response and tolerance to cold stress. (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhong, Hui; Ren, Feng; Guo, Qian-Qian; Hu, Xu-Peng; Li, Xue-Bao


    Cold stress, which causes dehydration damage to the plant cell, is one of the most common abiotic stresses that adversely affect plant growth and crop productivity. To improve its cold-tolerance, plants often enhance expression of some cold-related genes. In this study, a cold-regulated gene encoding 25 KDa of protein was isolated from Brassica napus cDNA library using a macroarray analysis, and is consequently designated as BnCOR25. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that BnCOR25 was expressed at high levels in hypocotyls, cotyledons, stems, and flowers, but its mRNA was found at low levels in roots and leaves. Northern blot analysis revealed that BnCOR25 transcripts were significantly induced by cold and osmotic stress treatment. The data also showed that BnCOR25 gene expression is mediated by ABA-dependent pathway. Overexpression of BnCOR25 in yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) significantly enhanced the cell survival probability under cold stress, and overexpression of BnCOR25 in Arabidopsis enhances plant tolerance to cold stress. These results suggested that the BnCOR25 gene may play an important role in conferring freezing/cold tolerance in plants.

  20. Evidence for a metabolic limitation of survival in hypothermic hamsters. (United States)

    Prewitt, R. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Musacchia, X. J.


    The underlying factors limiting survival in the hypothermic state are studied. Hamsters of both sexes, clipped and unclipped, were inducted into profound hypothermia by the helium cold method until they reached a temperature between 7 and 10 C. It appears that the primary cause of death is failure of respiration due to the depletion of carbohydrate energy supplies and may explain why survival time in hypothermia is shorter than the normal hibernation time of the hamster.

  1. Investigating the impact of atmospheric blocking on temperature extremes across Europe using an objective index (United States)

    Brunner, Lukas; Steiner, Andrea; Sillmann, Jana


    Atmospheric blocking is a key contributor to European temperature extremes. It leads to stable, long-lasting weather patterns, which favor the development of cold and warm spells. The link between blocking and such temperature extremes differs significantly across Europe. In northern Europe a majority of warm spells are connected to blocking, while cold spells are suppressed during blocked conditions. In southern Europe the opposite picture arises with most cold spells occurring during blocking and warm spells suppressed. Building on earlier work by Brunner et al. (2017) this study aims at a better understanding of the connection between blocking and temperature extremes in Europe. We investigate cold and warm spells with and without blocking in observations from the European daily high-resolution gridded dataset (E-OBS) from 1979 to 2015. We use an objective extreme index (Russo et al. 2015) to identify and compare cold and warm spells across Europe. Our work is lead by the main question: Are cold/warm spells coinciding with blocking different from cold/warm spells during unblocked conditions in regard to duration, extend, or amplitude? Here we present our research question and the study setup, and show first results of our analysis on European temperature extremes. Brunner, L., G. Hegerl, and A. Steiner (2017): Connecting Atmospheric Blocking to European Temperature Extremes in Spring. J. Climate, 30, 585-594, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0518.1. Russo, S., J. Sillmann, and E. M. Fischer (2015): Top ten European heatwaves since 1950 and their occurrence in the coming decades. Environ. Res. Lett. 10.12, S. 124003. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/124003.

  2. The oatmeal nematode Panagrellus redivivus survives moderately low temperatures by freezing tolerance and cryoprotective dehydration. (United States)

    Hayashi, Masakazu; Wharton, David A


    The cold tolerance abilities of only a few nematode species have been determined. This study shows that the oatmeal nematode, Panagrellus redivivus, has modest cold tolerance with a 50% survival temperature (S (50)) of -2.5°C after cooling at 0.5°C min(-1) and freezing for 1 h. It can survive low temperatures by freezing tolerance and cryoprotective dehydration; although freezing tolerance appears to be the dominant strategy. Freezing survival is enhanced by low temperature acclimation (7 days at 5°C), with the S (50) being lowered by a small but significant amount (0.42°C). There is no cold shock or rapid cold hardening response under the conditions tested. Cryoprotective dehydration enhances the ability to survive freezing (the S (50) is lowered by 0.55°C, compared to the control, after 4 h freezing at -1°C) and this effect is in addition to that produced by acclimation. Breeding from survivors of a freezing stress did not enhance the ability to survive freezing. The cold tolerance abilities of this nematode are modest, but sufficient to enable it to survive in the cold temperate environments it inhabits.

  3. Observations of cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, J N; Gabrielse, G; Oxley, P; Speck, A; Storry, C H; Wessels, M; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Schepers, G; Sefzick, T; Walz, J; Pittner, H; Hänsch, T W; Hessels, E A


    ATRAP's e/sup +/ cooling of p in a nested Penning trap has led to reports of cold H produced during such cooling by the ATHENA and ATRAP collaborations. To observe H, ATHENA uses coincident annihilation detection and ATRAP uses field ionization followed by p storage. Advantages of ATRAP's field ionization method include the complete absence of any background events, and the first way to measure which H states are produced. ATRAP enhances the H production rate by driving many cycles of e/sup +/ cooling in the nested trap, with more H counted in an hour than the sum of all the other antimatter atoms ever reported. The number of H counted per incident high energy p is also higher than ever observed. The first measured distribution of H states is made using a pre-ionizing electric field between separated production and detection regions. The high rate and the high Rydberg states suggest that the H is formed via three-body recombination, as expected. (22 refs).

  4. Cold Quark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi


    We perform an O(alpha_s^2) perturbative calculation of the equation of state of cold but dense QCD matter with two massless and one massive quark flavor, finding that perturbation theory converges reasonably well for quark chemical potentials above 1 GeV. Using a running coupling constant and strange quark mass, and allowing for further non-perturbative effects, our results point to a narrow range where absolutely stable strange quark matter may exist. Absent stable strange quark matter, our findings suggest that quark matter in compact star cores becomes confined to hadrons only slightly above the density of atomic nuclei. Finally, we show that equations of state including quark matter lead to hybrid star masses up to M~2M_solar, in agreement with current observations. For strange stars, we find maximal masses of M~2.75M_solar and conclude that confirmed observations of compact stars with M>2M_solar would strongly favor the existence of stable strange quark matter.

  5. Vaccines for the common cold. (United States)

    Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Franco, Juan Va; Guerra, Claudia V; Felix, Maria L; Hidalgo, Ricardo; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José


    The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat, and fever (usually common cold worldwide is related to its ubiquitousness rather than its severity. The development of vaccines for the common cold has been difficult because of antigenic variability of the common cold virus and the indistinguishable multiple other viruses and even bacteria acting as infective agents. There is uncertainty regarding the efficacy and safety of interventions for preventing the common cold in healthy people. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and previously updated in 2013. To assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (September 2016), MEDLINE (1948 to September 2016), Embase (1974 to September 2016), CINAHL (1981 to September 2016), and LILACS (1982 to September 2016). We also searched three trials registers for ongoing studies and four websites for additional trials (February 2017). We included no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any virus vaccines compared with placebo to prevent the common cold in healthy people. Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted trial data. We resolved disagreements by discussion or by consulting a third review author. We found no additional RCTs for inclusion in this update. This review includes one RCT dating from the 1960s with an overall high risk of bias. The RCT included 2307 healthy participants, all of whom were included in analyses. This trial compared the effect of an adenovirus vaccine against placebo. No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 (1.14%) events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 (1.19%) events in 1168

  6. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen


    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  7. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.


    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Célia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. Results We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1Δ mutant. Conclusions In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p is essential for cold/near-freeze and freeze stress adaptation. A simple recipe with high biotechnological potential is given (United States)


    Background Freezing is an increasingly important means of preservation and storage of microbial strains used for many types of industrial applications including food processing. However, the yeast mechanisms of tolerance and sensitivity to freeze or near-freeze stress are still poorly understood. More knowledge on this regard would improve their biotechnological potential. Glycerol, in particular intracellular glycerol, has been assigned as a cryoprotectant, also important for cold/near-freeze stress adaptation. The S. cerevisiae glycerol active transporter Stl1p plays an important role on the fast accumulation of glycerol. This gene is expressed under gluconeogenic conditions, under osmotic shock and stress, as well as under high temperatures. Results We found that cells grown on STL1 induction medium (YPGE) and subjected to cold/near-freeze stress, displayed an extremely high expression of this gene, also visible at glycerol/H+ symporter activity level. Under the same conditions, the strains harbouring this transporter accumulated more than 400 mM glycerol, whereas the glycerol/H+ symporter mutant presented less than 1 mM. Consistently, the strains able to accumulate glycerol survive 25-50% more than the stl1Δ mutant. Conclusions In this work, we report the contribution of the glycerol/H+ symporter Stl1p for the accumulation and maintenance of glycerol intracellular levels, and consequently cell survival at cold/near-freeze and freeze temperatures. These findings have a high biotechnological impact, as they show that any S. cerevisiae strain already in use can become more resistant to cold/freeze-thaw stress just by simply adding glycerol to the broth. The combination of low temperatures with extracellular glycerol will induce the transporter Stl1p. This solution avoids the use of transgenic strains, in particular in food industry. PMID:21047428

  10. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark


    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  11. Can reanalysis datasets describe the persistent temperature and precipitation extremes over China? (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Huang, Dan-Qing; Yan, Pei-Wen; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Xue-Yuan


    The persistent temperature and precipitation extremes may bring damage to the economy and human due to their intensity, duration and areal coverage. Understanding the quality of reanalysis datasets in descripting these extreme events is important for detection, attribution and model evaluation. In this study, the performances of two reanalysis datasets [the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR) and Interim ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-Interim)] in reproducing the persistent temperature and precipitation extremes in China are evaluated. For the persistent temperature extremes, the two datasets can better capture the intensity indices than the frequency indices. The increasing/decreasing trend of persistent warm/cold extremes has been reasonably detected by the two datasets, particularly in the northern part of China. The ERA-Interim better reproduces the climatology and tendency of persistent warm extremes, while the 20CR has better skill to depict the persistent cold extremes. For the persistent precipitation extremes, the two datasets have the ability to reproduce the maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation. The two datasets largely underestimate the maximum consecutive dry days over the northern part of China, while overestimate the maximum consecutive wet days over the southern part of China. For the response of the precipitation extremes against the temperature variations, the ERA-Interim has good ability to depict the relationship among persistent precipitation extremes, local persistent temperature extremes, and global temperature variations over specific regions.

  12. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J


    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  13. Facts about the Common Cold (United States)

    ... different viruses. Rhinovirus is the most common cause, accounting for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other ... Of Use | Privacy Our Family Of Sites nonprofit software Join the fight for healthy lungs and healthy ...

  14. The Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica), one of the most cold-resistant species of amphibians. (United States)

    Berman, D I; Meshcheryakova, E N; Bulakhova, N A


    The Japanese tree frog, a representative of the Manchurian fauna, is characterized by an outstanding cold resistance among the anuran amphibian species studied so far. Almost 70% of the specimens from the population inhabiting the middle Amur River withstand the cooling down to-30°C; some animals, down to-35°C. This exceeds more than twofold the cold hardiness of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte, 1825), which has been considered earlier to be the most cold-resistant species. The ability of H. japonica to survive for four months in the frozen state at low temperatures makes this species independent of the temperature overwintering conditions.

  15. Phonon forces and cold denaturatio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob


    Protein unfolds upon temperature reduction as Well as upon In increase in temperature, These phenomena are called cold denaturation and hot denaturation, respectively. The contribution from quantum mode forces to denaturation is estimated using a simple phenomenological model describing the molec......Protein unfolds upon temperature reduction as Well as upon In increase in temperature, These phenomena are called cold denaturation and hot denaturation, respectively. The contribution from quantum mode forces to denaturation is estimated using a simple phenomenological model describing...

  16. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments against fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Snook, Kirsten


    Cold storage is used to preserve fruit quality after harvest during transportation in marketing channels. Low temperature can be a stressor for insects that reduces survivorship, and cold storage may contribute to the efficacy of postharvest quarantine treatments such as irradiation against quarantine insect pests. The combined effect of irradiation and cold storage was examined in a radiation-tolerant fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly), and a radiation-intolerant fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Third instars on diet or in papaya were treated with a sublethal radiation dose of 30 Gy and stored at 4 or 11 degrees C for 3-13 d and held for adult emergence. For both fruit fly species, survival of third instars to the adult stage generally decreased with increasing cold storage duration at 4 or 11 degrees C in diet or papaya. Survivorship differences were highly significant for the effects of substrate (diet > papaya), temperature (11 > 4 degrees C),and irradiation (0 > 30 Gy). Few Mediterranean fruit flies survived in any cold storage treatment after receiving a radiation dose of 30 Gy. No melon fly larvae survived to the adult stage after irradiation and 11 d cold storage at 4 or 11 degrees C in papayas. Cold storage enhances the efficacy and widens the margin of security in postharvest irradiation treatments. Potentially irradiation and cold storage can be used in combination to reduce the irradiation exposure requirements of quarantine treatments.

  17. Extreme weather-related health needs of people who are homeless. (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; van Loon, Antonia; Kralik, Debbie; Arbon, Paul; Gilbert, Sandy


    To identify the extreme weather-related health needs of homeless people and the response by homeless service providers in Adelaide, South Australia, a five-phased qualitative interpretive study was undertaken. (1) Literature review, followed by semi-structured interviews with 25 homeless people to ascertain health needs during extreme weather events. (2) Identification of homeless services. (3) Semi-structured interviews with 16 homeless service providers regarding their response to the health needs of homeless people at times of extreme weather. (4) Gap analysis. (5) Suggestions for policy and planning. People experiencing homelessness describe adverse health impacts more from extreme cold, than extreme hot weather. They considered their health suffered more, because of wet bedding, clothes and shoes. They felt more depressed and less able to keep themselves well during cold, wet winters. However, homeless service providers were more focussed on planning for extra service responses during times of extreme heat rather than extreme cold. Even though a city may be considered to have a temperate climate with a history of very hot summers, primary homeless populations have health needs during winter months. The experiences and needs of homeless people should be considered in extreme weather policy and when planning responses.

  18. Effects of pasteurisation on survival patterns of microorganisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2009 ... only Bacillus Subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the surviving organisms. The D70 -value of the most heat resistant organism B. subtilis was found to be 6.5 .... from the water-bathed medium and immediately cooled by immersion in cold water to attain room temperature. Determination of vitamin C.

  19. Survival tactics within thermally-challenging roosts: heat tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival tactics within thermally-challenging roosts: heat tolerance and cold sensitivity in the Angolan free-tailed bat, Mops condylurus. ... This presumably allowed them to minimize energy costs of thermoregulation without compromising reproductive activity or their ability to avoid predators. Bats displayed pronounced heat ...

  20. Mechanisms underlying temperature extremes in Iberia: a Lagrangian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Santos


    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the occurrence of temperature extremes in Iberia are analysed considering a Lagrangian perspective of the atmospheric flow, using 6-hourly ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the years 1979–2012. Daily 2-m minimum temperatures below the 1st percentile and 2-m maximum temperatures above the 99th percentile at each grid point over Iberia are selected separately for winter and summer. Four categories of extremes are analysed using 10-d backward trajectories initialized at the extreme temperature grid points close to the surface: winter cold (WCE and warm extremes (WWE, and summer cold (SCE and warm extremes (SWE. Air masses leading to temperature extremes are first transported from the North Atlantic towards Europe for all categories. While there is a clear relation to large-scale circulation patterns in winter, the Iberian thermal low is important in summer. Along the trajectories, air mass characteristics are significantly modified through adiabatic warming (air parcel descent, upper-air radiative cooling and near-surface warming (surface heat fluxes and radiation. High residence times over continental areas, such as over northern-central Europe for WCE and, to a lesser extent, over Iberia for SWE, significantly enhance these air mass modifications. Near-surface diabatic warming is particularly striking for SWE. WCE and SWE are responsible for the most extreme conditions in a given year. For WWE and SCE, strong temperature advection associated with important meridional air mass transports are the main driving mechanisms, accompanied by comparatively minor changes in the air mass properties. These results permit a better understanding of mechanisms leading to temperature extremes in Iberia.

  1. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server


    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  2. Statistics of Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Davison, Anthony C.


    Statistics of extremes concerns inference for rare events. Often the events have never yet been observed, and their probabilities must therefore be estimated by extrapolation of tail models fitted to available data. Because data concerning the event of interest may be very limited, efficient methods of inference play an important role. This article reviews this domain, emphasizing current research topics. We first sketch the classical theory of extremes for maxima and threshold exceedances of stationary series. We then review multivariate theory, distinguishing asymptotic independence and dependence models, followed by a description of models for spatial and spatiotemporal extreme events. Finally, we discuss inference and describe two applications. Animations illustrate some of the main ideas. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  3. Adventure and Extreme Sports. (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin


    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela


    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  5. Superheavy nuclei–cold synthesis and structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), given for the cold synthesis of new and superheavy elements, is reviewed and the use of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) and targets (RNT) is discussed. The QMFT is a complete theory of cold nuclear phenomena, namely, the cold fission, cold fusion and cluster ...

  6. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler


    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  7. Garlic for the common cold. (United States)

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc


    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence

  8. Cold Plasma Welding System for Surgical Skin Closure: In Vivo Porcine Feasibility Assessment. (United States)

    Harats, Moti; Lam, Amnon; Maller, Michael; Kornhaber, Rachel; Haik, Josef


    Cold plasma skin welding is a novel technology that bonds skin edges through soldering without the use of synthetic materials or conventional wound approximation methods such as sutures, staples, or skin adhesives. The cold plasma welding system uses a biological solder applied to the edges of a skin incision, followed by the application of cold plasma energy. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of a cold plasma welding system in approximating and fixating skin incisions compared with conventional methods and to evaluate and define optimal plasma welding parameters and histopathological tissue response in a porcine model. The cold plasma welding system (BioWeld1 System, IonMed Ltd, Yokneam, Israel) was used on porcine skin incisions using variable energy parameters. Wound healing was compared macroscopically and histologically to incisions approximated with sutures. When compared to sutured skin closure, cold plasma welding in specific system parameters demonstrated comparable and favorable wound healing results histopathologically as well as macroscopically. No evidence of epidermal damage, thermal or otherwise, was encountered in the specified parameters. Notably, bleeding, infection, and wound dehiscence were not detected at incision sites. Skin incisions welded at extreme energy parameters presented second-degree burns. Implementation of cold plasma welding has been shown to be feasible for skin closure. Initial in vivo results suggest cold plasma welding might provide equal, if not better, healing results than traditional methods of closure.

  9. Finger and toe temperatures on exposure to cold water and cold air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Struijs, N.R.; van Es, E.M.; Raymann, R.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Introduction: Subjects with a weak cold-induced vasodilatation response (CIVD) to experimental cold-water immersion of the fingers in a laboratory setting have been shown to have a higher risk for local cold injuries when exposed to cold in real life. Most of the cold injuries in real life, however,

  10. Finger and toe temperature response to cold water and cold air exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, N.R. van der; Es, E.M. van; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.


    Introduction: Subjects with a weak cold-induced vasodilatation response (CIVD) to experimental cold-water immersion of the fingers in a laboratory setting have been shown to have a higher risk for local cold injuries when exposed to cold in real life. Most of the cold injuries in real life, however,

  11. Injuries in extreme sports. (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer


    Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

  12. Deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the given codimension g ≥ 3 and initial degree p ≥ 2, a Gorenstein algebra R/I with minimal multiplicity is extremal in the sense of Schenzel [8]. This has a nice structural implication: the minimal resolution of R/I must be pure and almost linear, and so their. Betti numbers are given by Herzog and Kühl [3] formulae.

  13. Hydrological extremes and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. W. Kundzewicz


    Full Text Available Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  14. Extremism and Disability Chic (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.; Badar, Jeanmarie


    The word chic refers to something fashionable or stylish. Chic varies for individuals and groups and with time and place. Something chic may have desirable or undesirable long-term consequences. Disability and extremism are also changeable concepts, depending on comparison to social norms. People with disabilities should have the option of being…

  15. Context-dependent effects of cold stress on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle. (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz


    Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Cooperative cold denaturation: the case of the C-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9. (United States)

    Luan, Bowu; Shan, Bing; Baiz, Carlos; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Raleigh, Daniel P


    Cold denaturation is a general property of globular proteins, but it is difficult to directly characterize because the transition temperature of protein cold denaturation, T(c), is often below the freezing point of water. As a result, studies of protein cold denaturation are often facilitated by addition of denaturants, using destabilizing pHs or extremes of pressure, or reverse micelle encapsulation, and there are few studies of cold-induced unfolding under near native conditions. The thermal and denaturant-induced unfolding of single-domain proteins is usually cooperative, but the cooperativity of cold denaturation is controversial. The issue is of both fundamental and practical importance because cold unfolding may reveal information about otherwise inaccessible partially unfolded states and because many therapeutic proteins need to be stabilized against cold unfolding. It is thus desirable to obtain more information about the process under nonperturbing conditions. The ability to access cold denaturation in native buffer is also very useful for characterizing protein thermodynamics, especially when other methods are not applicable. In this work, we study a point mutant of the C-terminal domain of ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9), which has a T(c) above 0 °C. The mutant was designed to allow the study of cold denaturation under near native conditions. The cold denaturation process of I98A CTL9 was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results are consistent with apparently cooperative, two-state cold unfolding. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies show that the unfolded state expands as the temperature is lowered.

  17. Effects of recent warm and cold spells on European plant phenology. (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Seifert, Holm; Estrella, Nicole


    Climate change is already altering the magnitude and/or frequency of extreme events which will in turn affect plant fitness more than any change in the average. Although the fingerprint of anthropogenic warming in recent phenological records is well understood, the impacts of extreme events have been largely neglected. Thus, the temperature response of European phenological records to warm and cold spells was studied using the COST725 database. We restricted our analysis to the period 1951-2004 due to better spatial coverage. Warm and cold spells were identified using monthly mean ENSEMBLES temperature data on a 0.5° grid for Europe. Their phenological impact was assessed as anomalies from maps displaying mean onsets for 1930-1939. Our results clearly exhibit continental cold spells predominating in the period 1951-1988, especially during the growing season, whereas the period from 1989 onwards was mainly characterised by warm spells in all seasons. The impacts of these warm/cold spells on the onset of phenological seasons differed strongly depending on species, phase and timing. "False" phases such as the sowing of winter cereals hardly reacted to summer warm/cold spells; only the sowing of summer cereals mirrored spring temperature warm/cold spells. The heading dates of winter cereals did not reveal any consistent results probably due to fewer warm/cold spells identified in the relevant late spring months. Apple flowering and the harvest of winter cereals were the best indicators of warm/cold spells in early spring and summer, also being spatially coherent with the patterns of warm/cold spells.

  18. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics associated with Listeria monocytogenes food chain isolates displaying enhanced and diminished cold tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, P.; Chen, J.; Laing, C.

    as intermediate. Draft whole genome sequencing was performed to elucidate potential genotype/phenotype correlations. Evidence for several overlapping geno- and phenotypes were observed. Notably, isolates with a wildtype invasion gene, inlA (n=119), had faster (p=rates at 4°C than strains...... between strains with varied cold tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine if Lm isolates with enhanced cold tolerance, exhibit other high risk characteristics that may add to their survival and/or pathogenicity. To accomplish this, 166 predominantly food/food plant Lm isolates were tested...... with a truncated version (n=47). Cold tolerant isolates were more likely to be tolerant to the other three stresses than intermediate and cold sensitive isolates. Similarly, cold sensitive isolates were more likely to be sensitive to the other stresses. Cold tolerant isolates had shorter (p=0.012) lag phases...

  19. 46 CFR 180.202 - Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on oceans routes. 180... § 180.202 Survival craft—vessels operating on oceans routes. (a) Each vessel certificated to operate on an oceans route in cold water must either: (1) Be provided with inflatable buoyant apparatus of an...

  20. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons (United States)

    Abele, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias; Konrad, Gertrud


    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10-4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  1. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons


    Abele Hartmut; Jenke Tobias; Konrad Gertrud


    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the \\RB drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron $\\beta$-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10$^{-4}$ level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gr...

  2. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Hartmut


    Full Text Available We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10−4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS allows to test Newton’s gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  3. Cold hardiness research on agricultural and horticultural crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper represents an overview of cold hardiness research conducted on agricultural and horticultural crops, as well as on amenity plants in Finland. Inadequate freezing tolerance and/or winter hardiness often prevents introduction of new species and cultivars to Finland. Field observations on winter hardiness and more recently the results from laboratory freezing tests, have assisted breeders to select hardy genotypes. Research approaches for agricultural crops have evolved from observations on winter and frost damage to studies on molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation and freezing injury. The results of experiments on survival of winter cereals, grasses and clovers and frost tolerance of potato and turnip rape are discussed. The studies conducted on horticultural crops, including apple, strawberry, raspberry, currants, blueberry, sea buckthorn, perennial herbs as well as on ornamental trees and shrubs have included field evaluations of cultivars, or selections for winter hardiness, and studies on the effects of cultural management practices on winter survival. During the last decade detailed studies including controlled freezing tests have provided tools to assist in explanation of the underlying mechanisms of cold hardiness also in horticultural plants. ;

  4. Performance differences of Rhode Island Red, Bashang Long-tail Chicken, and their reciprocal crossbreds under natural cold stress. (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Yang, Xukai; Gao, Yahui; Jiao, Wenjie; Li, Xinghua; Li, Yajie; Ning, Zhonghua


    The Bashang Long-tail chicken (BS), an indigenous Chinese breed, is considered cold tolerant. We selected BS, the Rhode Island Red (RIR), and their reciprocal crossbreds for the present study. The objectives were: i) to validate whether BS is cold tolerant and whether egg production and cold tolerance of crossbreds could be improved; and ii) to determine the physiological characteristics that underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in cold environments. A total of 916 chickens were reared in warm and natural cold environments (daily mean ambient temperature varied from 7.4°C to 26.5°C in the warm environment and from -17.5°C to 27.0°C in the cold environment). To investigate their adaptability to the cold environment, the egg production performance and body weight were monitored and compared between breeds and environments. The cloacal temperature and serum biochemical parameters were monitored to reveal the physiological characteristics underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in the cold environment. The warm environment experiment showed that RIR had the highest egg production performance, and that the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. While in the cold environment RIR had the lowest egg production performance, and the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. In the cold environment BS and reciprocal crossbreds had higher triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine levels than RIR. At 35 and 39 wk of age, when the ambient temperature was extremely low (varied from -20°C to 0°C), serum glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol of BS and crossbreds were higher than RIR. Bashang Long-tail chicken has a favorable cold tolerance ability. Crossbreeding with RIR and BS is an effective way to develop cold tolerant chickens with improved egg production performance.

  5. Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production (United States)

    Lesk, Corey; Rowhani, Pedram; Ramankutty, Navin


    In recent years, several extreme weather disasters have partially or completely damaged regional crop production. While detailed regional accounts of the effects of extreme weather disasters exist, the global scale effects of droughts, floods and extreme temperature on crop production are yet to be quantified. Here we estimate for the first time, to our knowledge, national cereal production losses across the globe resulting from reported extreme weather disasters during 1964-2007. We show that droughts and extreme heat significantly reduced national cereal production by 9-10%, whereas our analysis could not identify an effect from floods and extreme cold in the national data. Analysing the underlying processes, we find that production losses due to droughts were associated with a reduction in both harvested area and yields, whereas extreme heat mainly decreased cereal yields. Furthermore, the results highlight ~7% greater production damage from more recent droughts and 8-11% more damage in developed countries than in developing ones. Our findings may help to guide agricultural priorities in international disaster risk reduction and adaptation efforts.

  6. Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production. (United States)

    Lesk, Corey; Rowhani, Pedram; Ramankutty, Navin


    In recent years, several extreme weather disasters have partially or completely damaged regional crop production. While detailed regional accounts of the effects of extreme weather disasters exist, the global scale effects of droughts, floods and extreme temperature on crop production are yet to be quantified. Here we estimate for the first time, to our knowledge, national cereal production losses across the globe resulting from reported extreme weather disasters during 1964-2007. We show that droughts and extreme heat significantly reduced national cereal production by 9-10%, whereas our analysis could not identify an effect from floods and extreme cold in the national data. Analysing the underlying processes, we find that production losses due to droughts were associated with a reduction in both harvested area and yields, whereas extreme heat mainly decreased cereal yields. Furthermore, the results highlight ~7% greater production damage from more recent droughts and 8-11% more damage in developed countries than in developing ones. Our findings may help to guide agricultural priorities in international disaster risk reduction and adaptation efforts.

  7. Seasonal survival of adult female mottled ducks (United States)

    Moon, Jena A.; Haukos, David A.; Conway, Warren C.


    The mottled duck (Anas fulgivula) is a non-migratory duck dependent on coastal habitats to meet all of its life cycle requirements in the Western Gulf Coast (WGC) of Texas and Louisiana, USA. This population of mottled ducks has experienced a moderate decline during the past 2 decades. Adult survival has been identified as an important factor influencing population demography. Previous work based on band-recovery data has provided only annual estimates of survival. We assessed seasonal patterns of female mottled duck survival from 2009 to 2012 using individuals marked with satellite platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We used temperature and movement sensors within each PTT to indicate potential mortality events. We estimated cumulative weekly survival and ranked factors influential in patterns of mortality using known-fate modeling in Program MARK. Models included 4 predictors: week; hunting and non-hunting periods; biological periods defined as breeding, brooding, molt, and pairing; and mass at time of capture. Models containing hunt periods, during and outside the mottled duck season, comprised essentially 100% of model weights where both legal and illegal harvest had a negative influence on mottled duck survival. Survival rates were low during 2009–2011 (12–38% annual rate of survival), when compared with the long-term banding average of 53% annual survival. During 2011, survival of female mottled ducks was the lowest annual rate (12%) ever documented and coincided with extreme drought. Management actions maximizing the availability of wetlands and associated upland habitats during hunting seasons and drought conditions may increase adult female mottled duck survival.

  8. Effects of Extreme Temperatures on Cause-Specific Cardiovascular Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuying Wang


    Full Text Available Objective: Limited evidence is available for the effects of extreme temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality in China. Methods: We collected data from Beijing and Shanghai, China, during 2007–2009, including the daily mortality of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease, as well as air pollution concentrations and weather conditions. We used Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the effects of extremely high and low ambient temperatures on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality. Results: For all cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, Beijing had stronger cold and hot effects than those in Shanghai. The cold effects on cause-specific cardiovascular mortality reached the strongest at lag 0–27, while the hot effects reached the strongest at lag 0–14. The effects of extremely low and high temperatures differed by mortality types in the two cities. Hypertensive disease in Beijing was particularly susceptible to both extremely high and low temperatures; while for Shanghai, people with ischemic heart disease showed the greatest relative risk (RRs = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.34 to extremely low temperature. Conclusion: People with hypertensive disease were particularly susceptible to extremely low and high temperatures in Beijing. People with ischemic heart disease in Shanghai showed greater susceptibility to extremely cold days.

  9. The association of extreme temperatures and the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito


    Seasonal variation in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been widely assumed. However, few studies have investigated the association between extreme temperatures and the incidence of TB. We collected data on cases of TB and mean temperature in Fukuoka, Japan for 2008-2012 and used time-series analyses to assess the possible relationship of extreme temperatures with TB incident cases, adjusting for seasonal and interannual variation. Our analysis revealed that the occurrence of extreme heat temperature events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (relative risk (RR) 1.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.43). We also found that the occurrence of extreme cold temperature events resulted in a significant increase in the number of TB cases (RR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.05-1.45). Sex and age did not modify the effect of either heat or cold extremes. Our study provides quantitative evidence that the number of TB cases increased significantly with extreme heat and cold temperatures. The results may help public health officials predict extreme temperature-related TB incidence and prepare for the implementation of preventive public health interventions.

  10. COLD-SAT dynamic model (United States)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary


    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  11. Nanofriction in cold ion traps. (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E


    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  12. Nordic Winter and Cold: Their Correspondence with Tomas Tranströmer's Poetry (United States)

    Hosian, Mohammad Akbar


    The Nobel Prize winning poet Tomas Tranströmer was born and bred in Sweden, a remarkably Scandinavian country. Topographically, Scandinavian countries are locations of extreme cold and snowing. This distinguishing climatic condition has had a dominant influence and impact on almost all Scandinavian art and literature, including Tomas Tranströmer's…

  13. Application of a criterion for cold cracking to casting high strength aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalpoor, M.; Eskin, D.G.; Fjaer, H.G.; Ten Cate, A.; Ontijt, N.; Katgerman, L.


    Direct chill (DC) casting of high strength 7xxx series aluminium alloys is difficult mainly due to solidification cracking (hot cracks) and solid state cracking (cold cracks). Poor thermal properties along with extreme brittleness in the as-cast condition make DC-casting of such alloys a challenging

  14. Foliar applied abscisic acid increases 'Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera) bud freezing tolerance during Autumn cold acclimation (United States)

    Economic loss due to cold weather events is a major constraint to winegrape-related industries where extreme and/or fluctuating winter temperatures induce injury and required remedial retraining and replanting increases production costs and lowers yield and fruit quality. The purpose of this study ...

  15. On the design of hybrid robust output regulation for the METIS cold chopper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Robert; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    We describe the control design and analysis of the METIS Cold Chopper (MCC) which is a critical subsystem in the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) instrument for the European-Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). The hybrid controller is used to combine time-optimal control design and

  16. Non-extremal branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Bueno


    Full Text Available We prove that for arbitrary black brane solutions of generic Supergravities there is an adapted system of variables in which the equations of motion are exactly invariant under electric–magnetic duality, i.e. the interchange of a given extended object by its electromagnetic dual. We obtain thus a procedure to automatically construct the electromagnetic dual of a given brane without needing to solve any further equation. We apply this procedure to construct the non-extremal (p,q-string of Type-IIB String Theory (new in the literature, explicitly showing how the dual (p,q-five-brane automatically arises in this construction. In addition, we prove that the system of variables used is suitable for a generic characterization of every double-extremal Supergravity brane solution, which we perform in full generality.

  17. Thermal Bridge Effect of Aerated Concrete Block Wall in Cold Regions (United States)

    Li, Baochang; Guo, Lirong; Li, Yubao; Zhang, Tiantian; Tan, Yufei


    As a self-insulating building material which can meet the 65 percent energy-efficiency requirements in cold region of China, aerated concrete blocks often go moldy, frost heaving, or cause plaster layer hollowing at thermal bridge parts in the extremely cold regions due to the restrictions of environmental climate and construction technique. L-shaped part and T-shaped part of aerated concrete walls are the most easily influenced parts by thermal bridge effect. In this paper, a field test is performed to investigate the scope of the thermal bridge effect. Moreover, a heat transfer calculation model for L-shaped wall and T-shaped wall is developed. According to the simulation results, the temperature fields of the thermal bridge affected regions are simulated and analyzed. The research outputs can provide theoretical basis for the application of aerated concrete wall in extremely cold regions.

  18. Characterising the relationship between weather extremes in Europe and synoptic circulation features (United States)

    Pfahl, S.


    Extreme weather events in Europe are closely linked to anomalies of the atmospheric circulation and in particular to circulation features like cyclones and atmospheric blocking. In this study, this linkage is systematically characterised with the help of conditional cyclone and blocking frequencies during precipitation, wind gust and temperature extremes at various locations in Europe. Such conditional frequency fields can serve as a dynamical fingerprint of the extreme events and yield insights into their most important physical driving mechanisms. Precipitation extremes over the ocean and over flat terrain are shown to be closely related to cyclones in the vicinity and the associated dynamical lifting. For extreme precipitation over complex terrain, cyclone anomalies are found at more remote locations, favouring the flow of moist air towards the topography. Wind gust extremes are associated with cyclone and blocking anomalies in opposite directions, with the cyclones occurring mostly over the North and Baltic seas for extreme events in central Europe. This setting is associated with pronounced surface pressure gradients and thus high near-surface wind velocities. Hot temperature extremes in northern and central Europe typically occur in the vicinity of a blocking anticyclone, where subsidence and radiative forcing are strong. Over southern Europe, blocking anomalies are shifted more to the north or northeast, indicating a more important role of warm air advection. Large-scale flow conditions for cold extremes are similar at many locations in Europe, with blocking anomalies over the North Atlantic and northern Europe and cyclone anomalies southeast of the cold extreme, both contributing to the advection of cold air masses. This characterisation of synoptic-scale forcing mechanisms can be helpful for better understanding and anticipating weather extremes and their long-term changes.

  19. Extremes in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Salvadori, Gianfausto; Kottegoda, Nathabandu T


    This book is about the theoretical and practical aspects of the statistics of Extreme Events in Nature. Most importantly, this is the first text in which Copulas are introduced and used in Geophysics. Several topics are fully original, and show how standard models and calculations can be improved by exploiting the opportunities offered by Copulas. In addition, new quantities useful for design and risk assessment are introduced.

  20. Cold Tolerance of Plants Used for Cold-Regions Revegetation (United States)


    from tempted to transfer the rye cold-tolerance genome to increased concentrations of solutes in cells and extra- wheat in hybrids. While the gene...Journal, 76: 516-517. Tryon, E.H. and R.P. True (1952) Blister shake of Yelenosky, G. (1988) Capacity of citrus flowers to yellow poplar. Bulletin of the

  1. Recent trends in daily temperature extremes over northeastern Spain (1960–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Kenawy


    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal characteristics of extreme temperature events in northeastern Spain have been investigated. The analysis is based on long-term, high-quality, and homogenous daily maximum and minimum temperature of 128 observatories spanning the period from 1960 to 2006. A total of 21 indices were used to assess changes in both the cold and hot tails of the daily temperature distributions. The presence of trends in temperature extremes was assessed by means of the Mann-Kendall test. However, the autocorrelation function (ACF and a bootstrap methodology were used to account for the influence of serial correlation and cross-correlation on the trend assessment. In general, the observed changes are more prevalent in hot extremes than in cold extremes. This finding can largely be linked to the increase found in the mean maximum temperature during the last few decades. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency and intensity of most of the hot temperature extremes. An increase in warm nights (TN90p: 3.3 days decade−1, warm days (TX90p: 2.7 days decade−1, tropical nights (TR20: 0.6 days decade−1 and the annual high maximum temperature (TXx: 0.27 °C decade−1 was detected in the 47-yr period. In contrast, most of the indices related to cold temperature extremes (e.g. cold days (TX10p, cold nights (TN10p, very cold days (TN1p, and frost days (FD0 demonstrated a decreasing but statistically insignificant trend. Although there is no evidence of a long-term trend in cold extremes, significant interdecadal variations were noted. Almost no significant trends in temperature variability indices (e.g. diurnal temperature range (DTR and growing season length (GSL are detected. Spatially, the coastal areas along the Mediterranean Sea and the Cantabrian Sea experienced stronger warming compared with mainland areas. Given that only few earlier studies analyzed observed changes in temperature

  2. Spa adjuvant therapy improves diabetic lower extremity arterial disease. (United States)

    Qiu, Yongbin; Zhu, Yi; Jia, Wei; Chen, Songhua; Meng, Qingzhou


    To investigate the effect of spa adjuvant therapy on diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). 128 patients with type II diabetes were separated into three groups according to the degree of lower extremity vascular stenosis. Patients within each group were then randomly divided to receive no treatment (control) or spa adjuvant therapy (treatment). Clinical symptoms, blood pressure and hemodynamic analyses were compared between control and treatment groups by Chi square or t-test. After adjuvant therapy with spa, patients' pain, numbness, and cold sensation were significantly improved compared with control groups (PSpa adjuvant therapy also significantly increased the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio of patients with mild lower extremity vascular stenosis compared with control groups (P0.05). Both in the spa and control groups, there were no significant differences before and after medication for fasting, 2-h postprandial blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) analyses (P>0.05). Spa adjuvant therapy can significantly alleviate lower extremity pain, numbness, and cold sensory symptoms in diabetic LEAD patients with stenosis. Moreover, in LEAD patients with mild stenosis, spa adjuvant therapy also improves the dorsalis pedis pulse and systolic peak velocity ratio, suggesting a potential role for spa therapy as an early intervention strategy to treat the initial stages of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermoregulatory and Immune Responses During Cold Exposure: Effects of Repeated Cold Exposure and Acute Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellani, John


    .... This information will be used in developing thermoregulatory models during cold exposure. During these studies several unanswered questions regarding thermoregulation in the cold were also addressed: (1...

  4. Life at extreme conditions: Neutron scattering studies of biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival.

  5. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim


    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  6. The impact of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory emergency department visits in Beijing, China. (United States)

    Song, Xuping; Wang, Shigong; Li, Tanshi; Tian, Jinhui; Ding, Guowu; Wang, Jiaxin; Wang, Jiexin; Shang, Kezheng


    The objectives of this article were (i) to find the association between extreme temperatures and respiratory emergency department (ED) visits and (ii) to explore the added effects of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory ED visits in Beijing from 2009 to 2012. A quasi-Poisson generalised linear model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was performed to quantify this association. The results indicated that (i) ambient temperature related to respiratory ED visits exhibited a U-shaped association. The minimum-morbidity temperature was 21.5°C. (ii) the peak relative risk (RR) of cold spells on respiratory ED visits was observed in relatively mild cold spells with a threshold below the 3rd percentile for 4days (RR=1.885, 95% CI: 1.300-2.734), and there was a reduction in risk during extremely chilly cold spells (RR=1.811, 95% CI: 1.229-2.667). However, the risk of heat waves increased with the thresholds, and the greatest risk was found for extremely hot heat waves (RR=1.932, 95% CI: 1.461-2.554). (iii) the added effect of heat waves was small, and we observed that the added heat wave effect only introduced additional risk in females (RR=1.166, 95% CI: 1.007-1.349). No added effect of cold spells was identified. In conclusion, the main effects of heat waves and cold spells on respiratory ED visits showed different change trends. In addition, the added effects of extreme temperatures on respiratory ED visits were small and negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The significance of the moult cycle to cold tolerance in the Antarctic collembolan Cryptopygus antarcticus. (United States)

    Worland, M R; Convey, P


    Research into the ecophysiology of arthropod cold tolerance has largely focussed on those parts of the year and/or the life cycle in which cold stress is most likely to be experienced, resulting in an emphasis on studies of the preparation for and survival in the overwintering state. However, the non-feeding stage of the moult cycle also gives rise to a period of increased cold hardiness in some microarthropods and, as a consequence, a proportion of the field population is cold tolerant even during the summer active period. In the case of the common Antarctic springtail Cryptopygus antarcticus, the proportion of time spent in this non-feeding stage is extended disproportionately relative to the feeding stage as temperature is reduced. As a result, the proportion of the population in a cold tolerant state, with low supercooling points (SCPs), increases at lower temperatures. We found that, at 5 degrees C, about 37% of the population are involved in ecdysis and exhibit low SCPs. At 2 degrees C this figure increased to 50% and, at 0 degrees C, we estimate that 80% of the population will have increased cold hardiness as a result of a prolonged non-feeding, premoult period. Thus, as part of the suite of life history and ecophysiological features that enable this Antarctic springtail to survive in its hostile environment, it appears that it can take advantage of and extend the use of a pre-existing characteristic inherent within the moulting cycle.

  8. The Use of Geographically Weighted Regression for the Relationship among Extreme Climate Indices in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Wang


    Full Text Available The changing frequency of extreme climate events generally has profound impacts on our living environment and decision-makers. Based on the daily temperature and precipitation data collected from 753 stations in China during 1961–2005, the geographically weighted regression (GWR model is used to investigate the relationship between the index of frequency of extreme precipitation (FEP and other climate extreme indices including frequency of warm days (FWD, frequency of warm nights (FWN, frequency of cold days (FCD, and frequency of cold nights (FCN. Assisted by some statistical tests, it is found that the regression relationship has significant spatial nonstationarity and the influence of each explanatory variable (namely, FWD, FWN, FCD, and FCN on FEP also exhibits significant spatial inconsistency. Furthermore, some meaningful regional characteristics for the relationship between the studied extreme climate indices are obtained.

  9. Tissue pH in cold-stored human donor livers preserved in University of Wisconsin solution - A noninvasive clinical study with P-31-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, RFE; vanderHoeven, JAB; Kamman, RL; Busza, AL; Ploeg, RJ; Sluiter, WJ; Slooff, MJH


    It is not known whether the tissue acidosis that accompanies cold storage is the beginning of irreversible cell injury, ultimately leading to cell death, or whether it is a natural ''protective'' mechanism for cells to survive hypoxic periods. To answer this question, the tissue pH of 45 cold-stored

  10. Turbine Research Program Cold Weather Turbine Project: Period of Performance May 27, 1999 -- March 31, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, J.; Bywaters, G.; Costin, D.; Hoskins, S.; Mattila, P.; Stowell, J.


    Northern Power Systems completed the Cold Weather Turbine (CWT) project, which was funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under subcontract XAT-9-29200-01. The project's primary goal is to develop a 100-kW wind turbine suited for deployment in remote villages in cold regions. The contract required testing and certification of the turbine to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-1 international standard through Underwriters Laboratories (UL). The contract also required Northern Power Systems to study design considerations for operation in extreme cold (-80F at the South Pole, for example). The design was based on the successful proof of concept (POC) turbine (developed under NREL and NASA contracts), considered the prototype turbine that would be refined and manufactured to serve villages in cold regions around the world.

  11. Method of cold saline storage for prehospital induced hypothermia. (United States)

    Kampmeyer, Mitch; Callaway, Clifton


    Research over the last decade has supported the use of cold intravenous (IV) fluid as a method for initiating therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest resuscitation. However, prehospital care programs employing this treatment have encountered various difficulties. Barriers to prehospital induced hypothermia (IH) protocols include the lack of effective or economically reasonable methods to maintain cold saline in the field. Validation of a simple method could allow agencies to equip numerous rigs with cold saline. The aim of this study was to determine whether a standard commercial cooler can maintain two 1-L normal saline solution (NSS) bags below 4 degrees C in three different environments. Environments simulating those of an ambulance compartment were created for the experiment. NSS temperatures were continuously recorded inside a standard commercial cooler under one of three scenarios: ambient room temperature (25 degrees C) without ice packs, ambient room temperature with ice packs, and 50 degrees C ambient temperature with ice packs. Four trials under each condition were performed. In a room-temperature environment without ice packs, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 1 hour 21 minutes. Using room temperature with ice packs, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 29 hours 53 minutes. In a constant hot environment of 50 degrees C, the NSS warmed to 4 degrees C in a mean interval of 10 hours 50 minutes. A significant difference was found between the three environments (log-rank = 17.90, df = 2, p = 0.0001). Prehospital refrigeration devices are needed for current and future IH protocols. Low-technology methods in the form of a cooler and ice packs can provide cold saline storage for longer than a full 24-hour shift in a room-temperature ambulance. In extremely hot conditions, 4 degrees C NSS can be maintained for nearly 11 hours using this method. This model exhibits an economical, easily deployable cold saline storage unit.

  12. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study? (United States)

    Douthwaite, Alison


    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  13. Talking resolved the cold war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiger, Carol


    ... nuclear nation. Historians will remind us that, in the midst of the Cold War with a nuclear arms race between the United States and the former U.S.S.R., the top leaders, Reagan and Gorbachev (who had little reason to trust each other), met in Reykjavik, Iceland, and discussed the reduction of nuclear weapons. The result of their talks was t...

  14. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.


    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  15. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend


    important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  16. Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries (United States)


    sensitive population. Alternatively, the rise may be caused by a type I statistical error (poor specifi city of the tests used to diagnose NFCI or...Pernio is believed to be caused by prolonged cold-induced vasoconstriction with subsequent hypoxemia and vessel wall infl ammation. 41,55

  17. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations. (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf


    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  18. Low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause European aedine strain, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stephanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. Up to now, investigations on the recent establishment of mosquito vectors have focused on temperatures during their phases of activity. However, cold temperatures may also act as a strong ecological constraint. Projected changes in winter climate indicate an increase of mean minimum temperatures of the coldest quarter, less frequent days with frost and a shorter frost-season in Europe at the end of the century. Nevertheless, single cold extremes are also expected to persist under warming scenarios, which have a strong impact on reproduction success. Methods Here, the temperature constraints of European Aedes albopictus eggs, which had passed through a diapause, compared to non-diapausing eggs were examined systematically under controlled laboratory conditions. Additionally, one tropical strain of Ae. albopictus and of Ae. aegypti was used in the comparison. Results The lower temperature threshold tolerated by the European eggs of Ae. albopictus which have undergone a diapause, was -10°C for long term exposures (12 and 24h and -12°C for 1h exposure. Non-diapausing eggs of European Ae. albopictus were found to hatch after a -7°C cold treatment (8, 12 and 24h exposure. Both tropical aedine species only tolerated the long term treatment at -2°C. Neither Ae. albopictus nor Ae. aegypti eggs hatched after being exposed to -15°C. Survival was mainly influenced by temperature (F = 329.2, df = 1, p  Conclusions Here, low temperature thresholds for aedine mosquito egg survival were detected. The compilation of risk maps for temperate regions can substantially be improved by considering areas where an establishment of a vector population is unlikely due to winter conditions.

  19. EDITORIAL: Cold Quantum GasesEditorial: Cold Quantum Gases (United States)

    Vassen, W.; Hemmerich, A.; Arimondo, E.


    This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of cold quantum gases. Different aspects of atom optics, matter wave interferometry, laser manipulation of atoms and molecules, and production of very cold and degenerate gases are presented. The variety of subjects demonstrates the steadily expanding role associated with this research area. The topics discussed in this issue, extending from basic physics to applications of atom optics and of cold atomic samples, include: bulletBose--Einstein condensation bulletFermi degenerate gases bulletCharacterization and manipulation of quantum gases bulletCoherent and nonlinear cold matter wave optics bulletNew schemes for laser cooling bulletCoherent cold molecular gases bulletUltra-precise atomic clocks bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to metrology and spectroscopy bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to quantum computing bulletNanoprobes and nanolithography. This special issue is published in connection with the 7th International Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, held in Lunteren, The Netherlands, from 28 September to 2 October 2002. This was the last in a series of Workshops organized with the support of the European Community that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The scientific part of the Workshop was managed by A Hemmerich, W Hogervorst, W Vassen and J T M Walraven, with input from members of the International Programme Committee who are listed below. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Petra de Gijsel from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. The Workshop was funded by the European Science Foundation (programme BEC2000+), the European Networks 'Cold Quantum Gases (CQG)', coordinated by E Arimondo, and 'Cold Atoms and Ultraprecise Atomic Clocks (CAUAC)', coordinated by J Henningsen, by the German Physical Society (DFG), by

  20. Cold Tolerance of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Eggs From the Historic and Expanded Ranges. (United States)

    Bleiker, K P; Smith, G D; Humble, L M


    Winter mortality is expected to be a key factor determining the ability of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to expand its range in Canada. We determined the mortality rate and supercooling points of eggs from the beetle's historic range in southern British Columbia as well as the recently expanded range in north-central Alberta and tested if eggs require an extended period of chilling to reach their maximum cold tolerance. We found no effect of population source or acclimation time on egg cold tolerance. Although 50% of eggs can survive brief exposure to -20.5 °C (LT50), storage at 0.3 °C and -7.5 °C for 59 d resulted in 50% and 100% mortality, respectively. Our results indicate that eggs suffer significant prefreeze mortality and are not well-adapted to overwintering: eggs are unlikely to survive winter throughout much of the beetle's range. Our results provide information that can be used to help model the climatic suitability of mountain pine beetle, including how changes in seasonality associated with new or changing climates may affect winter survival. In addition to lower lethal temperatures, it is critical that the duration of exposure to sublethal cold temperatures are considered in a comprehensive index of cold tolerance and incorporated into survival and population models. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Effect of phosphorus, potassium, and chloride nutrition on cold tolerance of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  2. Comparing cold-stored and freshly lifted water oak (Quercus nigra) seedlings based on physiological parameters (United States)

    Rosa C. Goodman; Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; Barrett C. Wilson; Emile S. Gardiner


    Water oak is often used in afforestation projects in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, but its field performance is often poor due to low survival rates and severe top dieback immediately after planting. The poor physiological quality of planting stock may be a contributing factor to this transplanting problem. In this study, cold storage was investigated to...

  3. Cold denaturation of monoclonal antibodies (United States)

    Lazar, Kristi L; Patapoff, Thomas W


    The susceptibility of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to undergo cold denaturation remains unexplored. In this study, the phenomenon of cold denaturation was investigated for a mAb, mAb1, through thermodynamic and spectroscopic analyses. tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were recorded for the guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl)-induced unfolding of mAb1 at pH 6.3 at temperatures ranging from −5 to 50°C. A three-state unfolding model incorporating the linear extrapolation method was fit to the fluorescence data to obtain an apparent free energy of unfolding, ΔGu, at each temperature. CD studies revealed that mAb1 exhibited polyproline II helical structure at low temperatures and at high GuHCl concentrations. the Gibbs-Helmholtz expression fit to the ΔGu versus temperature data from fluorescence gave a ΔCp of 8.0 kcal mol−1 K−1, a maximum apparent stability of 23.7 kcal mol−1 at 18°C, and an apparent cold denaturation temperature (TCD) of −23°C. ΔGu values for another mAb (mAb2) with a similar framework exhibited less stability at low temperatures, suggesting a depressed protein stability curve and a higher relative TCD. Direct experimental evidence of the susceptibility of mAb1 and mAb2 to undergo cold denaturation in the absence of denaturant was confirmed at pH 2.5. thus, mAbs have a potential to undergo cold denaturation at storage temperatures near −20°C (pH 6.3), and this potential needs to be evaluated independently for individual mAbs. PMID:20093856

  4. [The extremely violent child]. (United States)

    Berger, M; Bonneville, E


    More and more children have extremely violent behaviour which appears about the age of 15-16 months, when walking makes their hands free. This violence is individual, can appear suddenly at anytime, and is not accompanied by guilt. It is caused by early psychological and repeated traumas, whose importance is usually underestimated: unpredictable, violent parents, exposure to the spectacle of conjugal violence, distortion of the signals emitted by the toddler. These traumas bring about specific psychological structure. The prevention of these troubles exists but is impossible to realise in France.

  5. Extreme Programming Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server



    Extreme Programming (XP) is a radical new approach to software development that has been accepted quickly because its core practices--the need for constant testing, programming in pairs, inviting customer input, and the communal ownership of code--resonate with developers everywhere. Although many developers feel that XP is rooted in commonsense, its vastly different approach can bring challenges, frustrations, and constant demands on your patience. Unless you've got unlimited time (and who does these days?), you can't always stop to thumb through hundreds of pages to find the piece of info

  6. Mycetoma of lower extremity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahariah S


    Full Text Available Ten cases of mycetoma of the lower extremity were seen and treated at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India, during the years 1973 to 1975. Six were treated by conservative method e.g. antibiotics, sulfonamides and immobilization of the part while remaining four were submitted t o surgery. Four out o f six from the first group had recurrence and has been put on second line of therapy. Recurrence occurred in only one case from the second group and he required an above knee amputation while the remaining three are free of disease and are well rehabilitated.

  7. Common cold - how to treat at home (United States)

    ... this page: // Common cold - how to treat at home To use the ... Antibiotics are almost never needed to treat a common cold. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower ...

  8. Vitamin C and the Common Cold Revisited. (United States)

    Travis, H. Richard


    Various studies indicate that Vitamin C does not prevent or cure a cold, but it may ameliorate symptoms in some individuals. The development of a balanced life-style is more effective towards cold prevention. (DF)

  9. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  10. Influence of selected factors on bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of sire, extender, and addition of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL to extenders used on the percentage rate of spermatozoa survival after cold shock. Two groups of extenders were compared: without LDL addition (control variants and LDL enriched (experimental variants. Three extenders were used: AndroMed®, Bioxcell®, and Triladyl®. Experimental variants included 4–8% LDL addition into the AndroMed® and Bioxcell® extenders, and 6–10% LDL addition into the Triladyl® extender. In total, 12 samples of fresh semen were collected from 4 bulls during a period of 8 weeks. Bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance (1 ± 1 °C, 10 min was evaluated by the percentage rate of live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining immediately and after heat incubation (37 ± 1 °C, 120 min. The results showed the effect of sire as important and individual differences between selected sires in their sperm resistance against cold shock were confirmed. AndroMed® and Bioxcell® were found to be providing better protection of bull semen to cold shock compared to Triladyl® due to lower decline of live sperm proportion. Our results detected a positive effect of LDL addition on sperm resistance against cold shock, especially on lower decrease of live sperm percentage rate after 120 min of the heat test (P < 0.05. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal concentration of LDL in various kinds of extenders as well to state ideal time and temperature conditions for ensuring LDL reaction with sperm.

  11. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger


    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  12. Cold paresis in multifocal motor neuropathy


    Straver, Dirk C. G.; van Asseldonk, Jan-Thies H.; Notermans, Nicolette C.; Wokke, John H. J.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Franssen, Hessel


    Increased weakness during cold (cold paresis) was reported in single cases of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). This was unexpected because demyelination is a feature of MMN and symptoms of demyelination improve, rather than worsen, in cold. It was hypothesized that cold paresis in MMN does not reflect demyelination only, but may indicate the existence of inflammatory nerve lesions with permanently depolarized axons that only just conduct at normal temperature, but fail at lower temperatures...

  13. Extreme Weather Impacts on Maize Yield: The Case of Shanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoyuan Wei


    Full Text Available Extreme weather can have negative impacts on crop production. In this study, we statistically estimate the impacts of dry days, heat waves, and cold days on maize yield based on household survey data from 1993 to 2011 in ten villages of Shanxi province, China. Our results show that dry days, heat waves, and cold days have negative effects on maize yield, although these effects are marginal if these extreme events do not increase dramatically. Specifically, a one percent increase in extreme-heat-degree-days and consecutive-dry-days results in a maize yield declines of 0.2% and 0.07%, respectively. Maize yield also is reduced by 0.3% for cold days occurring during the growing season from May to September. However, these extreme events can increase dramatically in a warmer world and result in considerable reduction in maize yields. If all the historical temperatures in the villages are shifted up by 2 degrees Celsius, total impacts of these extreme events would lead to a reduction of maize yield by over 30 percent. The impacts may be underestimated since we did not exclude the offset effect of adaptation measures adopted by farmers to combat these extreme events.

  14. Superpower nuclear minimalism in the post-Cold War era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graben, E.K.


    With the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union, the strategic environment has fundamentally changed, so it would seem logical to reexamine strategy as well. There are two main schools of nuclear strategic thought: a maximalist school, which emphasizes counterforce superiority and nuclear war-fighting capability, and a MAD-plus school, which emphasizes survivability of an assured destruction capability along with the ability to deliver small, limited nuclear attacks in the event that conflict occurs. The MAD-plus strategy is the more logical of the two strategies, because the maximalist strategy is based on an attempt to conventionalize nuclear weapons which is unrealistic.

  15. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice. (United States)

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao


    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Extreme Climatic Indices to Determine Environmental Change in Former and Present Karner Blue Butterfly Habitats (United States)

    Liu, H.; Gomezdelcampo, E.


    The Karner Blue butterfly is a federally endangered species that once was widely distributed throughout 12 states along the northern part of the United States and Ontario, Canada. Now it only exists in seven states. Many factors are considered to have affected the extinction of this species and this study examines the effect of climate change on the persistence of the Karner Blue butterfly. Five sites were selected to study the effect of climate change. Three sites currently have a Karner Blue population (Allegan, MI, Fort McCoy, WI, and Saratoga, NY) and two sites the Karner Blue has disappeared (Oak Openings, OH, and Pinery, Ontario). Daily climate data from the 1950s to 2005 were used for calculating 13 extreme climatic indices related to precipitation and temperature. The data were broken into two time periods (pre-1984 and post-1984) to analyze how those indices have changed since the butterfly disappeared from the two sites. Statistical analyses including t-tests and ANOVA were used to compare these indices within two time periods among five sites. The results showed that different indices have changed differently among the five sites. The number of extreme hot days and number of extreme cold days per year have a statistically significant change in the sites where the Karner Blue butterfly disappeared. The precipitation-related indices do not show a statistically significant different trend among the five sites. Temperature seems to have more of an effect on the existence of the Karner Blue butterfly. Furthermore, butterfly population size and lake effects are also important factors that cannot be neglected. Larger populations seem to have better chances to survive during a dramatic climate change event.

  17. Biomolecular Effects of Cold Plasma Exposure (United States)

    Mogul, Rakesh; Bolshakov, Alexander A.; Chan, Suzanne L.; Stevens, Ramsey D.; Khare, Bishun N.; Meyyappan, M.; Trent, Jonathan D.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)


    The effects of cold plasma exposure on Deinococcus radiodurans, plasmid DNA and model proteins were assessed using microbiological, spectrometric and biochemical techniques. Exposure of D. radiodurans, an extremely radiation resistant microbe, to O2 plasma (less than or equal to 25 W, approx. 45 mTorr, 90 min) yielded a approx. 99.999 % sterilization and the sterilization rate was increased approx. 10-fold at 100 W and 500 mTorr. AFM images shows that the exposed cells are significantly deformed and possess 50-70 nm concavities. IR analysis indicates the chemical degradation of lipids, proteins and carotenoids of the cell wall and membrane. Intracellular damage was indicated by major absorbance loss at 1245, 1651 and 1538/cm corresponding to degradation of DNA and proteins, respectively. Biochemical experiments demonstrate that plasmas induce strand scissions and crosslinking of plasmid DNA, and reduction of enzyme activity; the degradation is power dependent with total sample loss occurring in 60 s at 200 W and 500 mTorr. Emission spectroscopy shows that D. radiodurans is volatilized into CO2, CO, N2 and H2O confirming the removal of biological matter from contaminated surfaces. The O2 plasma impacts several cellular components predominantly through chemical degradation by atomic oxygen. A CO2, plasma, however, was not effective at degrading D. radiodurans, revealing the importance of plasma composition, which has implications for planetary protection and the contamination of Mars.

  18. Zinc for the common cold. (United States)

    Singh, Meenu; Das, Rashmi R


    The common cold is one of the most widespread illnesses and is a leading cause of visits to the doctor and absenteeism from school and work. Trials conducted in high-income countries since 1984 investigating the role of zinc for the common cold symptoms have had mixed results. Inadequate treatment masking and reduced bioavailability of zinc from some formulations have been cited as influencing results. To assess whether zinc (irrespective of the zinc salt or formulation used) is efficacious in reducing the incidence, severity and duration of common cold symptoms. In addition, we aimed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity in results obtained and to assess their clinical significance. In this updated review, we searched CENTRAL (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to January 2013), CINAHL (1981 to January 2013), Web of Science (1985 to January 2013), LILACS (1982 to January 2013), WHO ICTRP and Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials using zinc for at least five consecutive days to treat, or for at least five months to prevent the common cold. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Five trials were identified in the updated searches in January 2013 and two of them did not meet our inclusion criteria. We included 16 therapeutic trials (1387 participants) and two preventive trials (394 participants). Intake of zinc was associated with a significant reduction in the duration (days) (mean difference (MD) -1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.72 to -0.34) (P = 0.003) (I(2) statistic = 89%) but not the severity of common cold symptoms (MD -1.06, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.23) (P = 0.11) (I(2) statistic = 84%). The proportion of participants who were symptomatic after seven days of treatment was significantly smaller (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00) (P = 0.05) than those in the control, (I(2 )statistic = 75%). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of developing a

  19. Seedling phenology and cold hardiness: Moving targets (United States)

    Diane L. Haase


    Phenology is the annual cycle of plant development as influenced by seasonal variations. Dormancy and cold hardiness are two aspects of the annual cycle. In temperate plants, the development of cold hardiness results in the ability to withstand subfreezing winter temperatures. Cold hardiness is also a reflection of overall stress resistance. In addition to describing...

  20. Projected Changes in Temperature Extremes in China Using PRECIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Zhang


    Full Text Available Temperature extremes can cause disastrous impacts on ecological and social economic systems. China is very sensitive to climate change, as its warming rate exceeds that of the global mean level. This paper focused on the spatial and temporal changes of the temperature extremes characterized by the 95th percentile of maximum temperature (TX95, the 5th percentile of the minimum temperature (TN5, high-temperature days (HTD and low-temperature days (LTD. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures generated by PRECIS under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs are used in the research. The results show that: (1 Model simulation data can reproduce the spatial distribution features of the maximum temperature (Tmax and minimum temperature (Tmin as well as that of the extreme temperature indices; (2 By the end of the 21st century (2070–2099, both the Tmax and Tmin are warmer than the baseline level (1961–1990 in China and the eight sub-regions. However, there are regional differences in the asymmetrical warming features, as the Tmin warms more than the Tmax in the northern part of China and the Tibetan Plateau, while the Tmax warms more than the Tmin in the southern part of China; (3 The frequency of the warm extremes would become more usual, as the HTD characterized by the present-day threshold would increase by 106%, 196% and 346%, under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, while the cold extremes characterized by the LTD would become less frequent by the end of the 21st century, decreasing by 75%, 90% and 98% under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The southern and eastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau respond sensitively to changes in both the hot and cold extremes, suggesting its higher likelihood to suffer from climate warming; (4 The intensity of the warm (cold extremes would increase (decrease significantly, characterized by the changes in the TX95 (TN5 by the end of the 21st century, and the magnitude of the

  1. Extreme evolved solar systems (EESS) (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris


    In just 20 years, we went from not knowing if the solar system is a fluke of Nature to realising that it is totally normal for stars to have planets. More remarkably, it is now clear that planet formation is a robust process, as rich multi-planet systems are found around stars more massive and less massive than the Sun. More recently, planetary systems have been identified in increasingly complex architectures, including circumbinary planets, wide binaries with planets orbiting one or both stellar components, and planets in triple stellar systems.We have also learned that many planetary systems will survive the evolution of their host stars into the white dwarf phase. Small bodies are scattered by unseen planets into the gravitational field of the white dwarfs, tidally disrupt, form dust discs, and eventually accrete onto the white dwarf, where they can be spectroscopically detected. HST/COS has played a critical role in the study these evolved planetary systems, demonstrating that overall the bulk composition of the debris is rocky and resembles in composition the inner the solar system, including evidence for water-rich planetesimals. Past observations of planetary systems at white dwarfs have focused on single stars with main-sequence progenitors of 1.5 to 2.5Msun. Here we propose to take the study of evolved planetary systems into the extremes of parameter ranges to answer questions such as: * How efficient is planet formation around 4-10Msun stars? * What are the metallicities of the progenitors of debris-accreting white dwarfs?* What is the fate of circumbinary planets?* Can star-planet interactions generate magnetic fields in the white dwarf host?

  2. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Lefèvre


    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4 or greigite (Fe3S4 and cause cells to align along the Earth’s geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic–anoxic interface (OAI in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  3. Liquid Water Restricts Habitability in Extreme Deserts. (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Brown, Sarah; Landenmark, Hanna; Samuels, Toby; Siddall, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Jennifer


    Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp. In the presence of water, short-wavelength UV radiation more effectively kills Gloeocapsa sp. colonies, which we hypothesize is caused by factors including the greater penetration of UV radiation into hydrated colonies compared to desiccated colonies. The data predict that deserts where maximum thermal stress or irradiation occurs in conjunction with the presence of liquid water may be less habitable to some organisms than more extreme arid deserts where organisms can dehydrate prior to being exposed to these extremes, thus minimizing thermal and radiation damage. Life in extreme deserts is poised between the deleterious effects of the presence and the lack of liquid water. Key Words: Deserts-Extremophiles-Stress-High temperatures-UV radiation-Desiccation. Astrobiology 17, 309-318.

  4. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller? (United States)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Tully, R. Brent; Hoffman, Yehuda; Pomarède, Daniel; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra


    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ˜ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect.

  5. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  6. Cold dark matter heats up. (United States)

    Pontzen, Andrew; Governato, Fabio


    A principal discovery in modern cosmology is that standard model particles comprise only 5 per cent of the mass-energy budget of the Universe. In the ΛCDM paradigm, the remaining 95 per cent consists of dark energy (Λ) and cold dark matter. ΛCDM is being challenged by its apparent inability to explain the low-density 'cores' of dark matter measured at the centre of galaxies, where centrally concentrated high-density 'cusps' were predicted. But before drawing conclusions, it is necessary to include the effect of gas and stars, historically seen as passive components of galaxies. We now understand that these can inject heat energy into the cold dark matter through a coupling based on rapid gravitational potential fluctuations, explaining the observed low central densities.

  7. Women survive severe famines and epidemics better than men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia; Oksuzyan, Anna

    Women live longer than men almost everywhere. Research provides evidence for both biological and behavioral factors modulating this gender gap, leaving open the question of what are its fundamental determinants. An unexplored source of information is when men and women experience extremely high...... better than men. In all populations they had lower mortality and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer. Infant ages contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality better than newborn boys. Our...... results lend support to the hypothesis that the gender survival gap has deep biological roots....

  8. Early prediction of extreme stratospheric polar vortex states based on causal precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Marlene; Runge, Jakob; Coumou, Dim


    Variability in the stratospheric polar vortex (SPV) can influence the tropospheric circulation and thereby winter weather. Early predictions of extreme SPV states are thus important to improve forecasts of winter weather including cold spells. However, dynamical models are usually restricted in lead

  9. Note on a thin-shell wormhole in extremal Reissner-Nordström geometry (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    We show that the cold near horizon of the extremal Reissner-Nordström can be considered as the throat of a thin-shell wormhole with arbitrarily small exotic matter and positive angular pressure. Such a wormhole is physical and stable against radial perturbations provided an appropriate perfect fluid exists at the throat.

  10. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  11. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose


    The gust events described in the IEC-standard are formulated as coherent gusts of an inherent deterministic character, whereas the gusts experienced in real situation are of a stochastic nature with a limited spatial extension. This conceptual differencemay cause substantial differences in the load......, 1996]. However, dealing with wind turbine design, not only detailed knowledge on the spatial/time structure of the gust event is required. The probabilityof occurrence of a gust event with a given wind speed amplitude/magnitude is equally important. This theme is addressed in the present report......"Modelling of Extreme Gusts for Design Calculations " (NEWGUST), which is co-funded through JOULEIII on contract no. JOR3-CT98-0239....

  12. Detection of heat and cold waves in Montevergine time series (1884-2015) (United States)

    Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio


    In recent years, extreme events related to cooling and heating have taken high resonance, motivating the scientific community to carry out an intensive research activity, aimed to detect their variability and frequency. In this work, we have investigated about the frequency, the duration, the severity and the intensity of heat and cold waves in a Southern Italy high-altitude region, by analysing the climatological time series collected in Montevergine observatory. Following the guidelines provided by CLIVAR project (Climate and Ocean Variability, Predictability and Change), we have adopted indicators based on percentiles and duration to define a heat wave and cold event. Main results have highlighted a strong and significant positive trend in the last 40 years (1974-2015) in heat waves frequency, severity and intensity. On the contrary, in recent decades, cold wave events have exhibited a significant and positive trend only in intensity. Moreover, through the usage of two Wavelet Analysis tools, the Cross Wavelet Transform and the Wavelet Coherence, we have investigated about the connections between the extreme temperature events occurred in Montevergine and the large-scale atmospheric patterns. The heat wave events have exhibited relevant relationships with the Western European Zonal Circulation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, whereas the variability of cold wave events have shown linkages with the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern and the North Sea Caspian Pattern. In addition, the main features of synoptic patterns that have caused summer heat waves and winter cold waves in Montevergine site are presented.

  13. (Talk) The Survival Of Gas Clouds In The Circumgalactic Medium Of Milky Way-Like Galaxies (United States)

    Armillotta, Lucia


    Several lines of evidence have shown that low-redshift galaxies are surrounded by extended halos of multiphase gas, the so-called 'circumgalactic medium' with a significant component of cold and ionized gas (T cold gas in the hot and low-density galactic coronae. Our simulations include radiative cooling, thermal conduction and photoionizing heating. The main result is that the survival time of the clouds strongly depends on their mass: clouds with mass larger than 5x10^4 solar masses lose cold gas during their trajectory but at very low rates. They can survive the journey through the galactic corona for several hundreds of Myr, potentially providing a significant amount of cold gas accretion in star-forming galaxies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Gönençgil


    Full Text Available In this study, we determined extreme maximum and minimum temperatures in both summer and winter seasons at the stations in the Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey.In the study, the data of 24 meteorological stations for the daily maximum and minimumtemperatures of the period from 1970–2010 were used. From this database, a set of four extreme temperature indices applied warm (TX90 and cold (TN10 days and warm spells (WSDI and cold spell duration (CSDI. The threshold values were calculated for each station to determine the temperatures that were above and below the seasonal norms in winter and summer. The TX90 index displays a positive statistically significant trend, while TN10 display negative nonsignificant trend. The occurrence of warm spells shows statistically significant increasing trend while the cold spells shows significantly decreasing trend over the Mediterranean coastline in Turkey.

  15. [Cold urticaria: case series and literature review]. (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge Mario; Ramírez, Ruth Helena; Tamayo, Liliana María; Chinchilla, Carlos Fernando; Cardona, Ricardo


    Cold urticaria is one of the five most common causes of chronic urticaria and is grouped as a physical urticaria. It can occur after exposure to cold, either through solid objects, air or liquids. Patients may have symptoms of urticaria, angioedema, respiratory distress and even anaphylaxis when the skin is exposed to a cold environment, such as handling refrigerated objects, swimming in cold water or entering an air-conditioned room. Five cases of cold urticaria are presented, followed by a brief literature review.

  16. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror


    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  17. Nonfreezing Cold-Induced Injuries (United States)


    3Department of Occupational Medicine, Trenchard Lines, Upavon, Pewsey, Wilts; 4Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research clear ICD-9 (International Statistical Classification of Disease ) code for NFCI, and most reported figures are not actually prevalence but...sweating even in cold weather [27] and the hyperhidrosis increases the risk of fungal infections [29]. In the most severe cases gangrene can develop

  18. Hemolymph metabolites and osmolality are tightly linked to cold tolerance of Drosophila species: a comparative study. (United States)

    Olsson, Trine; MacMillan, Heath A; Nyberg, Nils; Staerk, Dan; Malmendal, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes


    Drosophila, like most insects, are susceptible to low temperatures, and will succumb to temperatures above the freezing point of their hemolymph. For these insects, cold exposure causes a loss of extracellular ion and water homeostasis, leading to chill injury and eventually death. Chill-tolerant species are characterized by lower hemolymph [Na(+)] than chill-susceptible species and this lowered hemolymph [Na(+)] is suggested to improve ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure. It has therefore also been hypothesized that hemolymph Na(+) is replaced by other 'cryoprotective' osmolytes in cold-tolerant species. Here, we compared the hemolymph metabolite profiles of five drosophilid species with marked differences in chill tolerance. All species were examined under 'normal' thermal conditions (i.e. 20°C) and following cold exposure (4 h at 0°C). Under benign conditions, total hemolymph osmolality was similar among all species despite chill-tolerant species having lower hemolymph [Na(+)]. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that chill-tolerant species instead have higher levels of sugars and free amino acids in their hemolymph, including classical 'cryoprotectants' such as trehalose and proline. In addition, we found that chill-tolerant species maintain a relatively stable hemolymph osmolality and metabolite profile when exposed to cold stress while sensitive species suffer from large increases in osmolality and massive changes in their metabolic profiles during a cold stress. We suggest that the larger contribution of classical cryoprotectants in chill-tolerant Drosophila plays a non-colligative role for cold tolerance that contributes to osmotic and ion homeostasis during cold exposure and, in addition, we discuss how these comparative differences may represent an evolutionary pathway toward more extreme cold tolerance of insects. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Probability distribution analysis of observational extreme events and model evaluation (United States)

    Yu, Q.; Lau, A. K. H.; Fung, J. C. H.; Tsang, K. T.


    Earth's surface temperatures were the warmest in 2015 since modern record-keeping began in 1880, according to the latest study. In contrast, a cold weather occurred in many regions of China in January 2016, and brought the first snowfall to Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong province in 67 years. To understand the changes of extreme weather events as well as project its future scenarios, this study use statistical models to analyze on multiple climate data. We first use Granger-causality test to identify the attribution of global mean temperature rise and extreme temperature events with CO2 concentration. The four statistical moments (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis) of daily maximum temperature distribution is investigated on global climate observational, reanalysis (1961-2010) and model data (1961-2100). Furthermore, we introduce a new tail index based on the four moments, which is a more robust index to measure extreme temperatures. Our results show that the CO2 concentration can provide information to the time series of mean and extreme temperature, but not vice versa. Based on our new tail index, we find that other than mean and variance, skewness is an important indicator should be considered to estimate extreme temperature changes and model evaluation. Among the 12 climate model data we investigate, the fourth version of Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) from National Center for Atmospheric Research performs well on the new index we introduce, which indicate the model have a substantial capability to project the future changes of extreme temperature in the 21st century. The method also shows its ability to measure extreme precipitation/ drought events. In the future we will introduce a new diagram to systematically evaluate the performance of the four statistical moments in climate model output, moreover, the human and economic impacts of extreme weather events will also be conducted.

  20. Identification of large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation in the US northeast (United States)

    Agel, Laurie; Barlow, Mathew; Feldstein, Steven B.; Gutowski, William J.


    Patterns of daily large-scale circulation associated with Northeast US extreme precipitation are identified using both k-means clustering (KMC) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) applied to tropopause height. The tropopause height provides a compact representation of the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity, which is closely related to the overall evolution and intensity of weather systems. Extreme precipitation is defined as the top 1% of daily wet-day observations at 35 Northeast stations, 1979-2008. KMC is applied on extreme precipitation days only, while the SOM algorithm is applied to all days in order to place the extreme results into the overall context of patterns for all days. Six tropopause patterns are identified through KMC for extreme day precipitation: a summertime tropopause ridge, a summertime shallow trough/ridge, a summertime shallow eastern US trough, a deeper wintertime eastern US trough, and two versions of a deep cold-weather trough located across the east-central US. Thirty SOM patterns for all days are identified. Results for all days show that 6 SOM patterns account for almost half of the extreme days, although extreme precipitation occurs in all SOM patterns. The same SOM patterns associated with extreme precipitation also routinely produce non-extreme precipitation; however, on extreme precipitation days the troughs, on average, are deeper and the downstream ridges more pronounced. Analysis of other fields associated with the large-scale patterns show various degrees of anomalously strong moisture transport preceding, and upward motion during, extreme precipitation events.

  1. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments (United States)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don


    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  2. Moving in extreme environments:extreme loading; carriage versus distance


    Lucas, Samuel J. E.; Helge, Jørn W.; Schütz, Uwe H W; Goldman, Ralph F.; Cotter, James D


    This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of extreme loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses extreme duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the extreme met...

  3. Lower extremity injuries in snowboarding. (United States)

    Ishimaru, Daichi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Sumi, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji


    In snowboarding, the upper extremity is known as the most common injury site and little information is available for lower extremity injuries. Here, we aim to discuss lower extremity injuries during snowboarding. We retrospectively analyzed the epidemiologic factors, injury types, and injury mechanisms for injured snowboarders (7,793 cases) between 2004-2005 and 2008-2009 seasons; information was gathered via questionnaires. Individuals were classified into a lower extremity injury group (961 cases) and a control group with other injuries (6,832 cases). The incidence of lower extremity injuries in snowboarding was 0.16 per 1,000 participant days, accounting for 12.3% of all snowboarding injuries. The mean age of the lower extremity injury group and injured control group was 26.1 years ± 5.9 years and 25.1 years ± 5.6 years, respectively. Approximately 90% of snowboarders in both the groups were equipped with soft-shelled boots. Skilled snowboarders tended to sustain lower extremity injuries (psnowboarding is lacerations/contusions caused by collision with other snow sport participants. Lower extremity injuries in snowboarding differ considerably from well-known upper extremity injuries in terms of injury types and mechanisms. The incidence of lower extremity injuries is high and deserves further attention. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  4. Identification of cold responsive genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridization. (United States)

    Peng, Jinxia; Wei, Pinyuan; Chen, Xiuli; Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiaohan


    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world. Despite L. vannamei having tropical origins, it is being reared subtropically, with low temperature stress being one of the most severe threats to its growth, survival and distribution. To unravel the molecular basis of cold tolerance in L. vannamei, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) platform was employed to identify cold responsive genes in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Both forward and reverse cDNA libraries were constructed, followed by dot blot hybridization, cloning, sequence analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. These approaches identified 92 cold induced and 48 cold inhibited ESTs to give a total of 37 cold induced and 17 cold inhibited contigs. Some of the identified genes related to stress response or cell defense, such as tetraspanins (TSPANs), DEAD-box helicase, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothionein (MT), which were more abundant in the forward SSH library than in the reverse SSH library. The most abundant Est was a tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) homolog dubbed LvTSPAN8. A multiple sequence alignment and transmembrane domain prediction was also performed for LvTSPAN8. LvTSPAN8 expression was also examined in the gills, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas following cold exposure and showed the highest expression levels in the hepatopancreas. Overall, this study was able to identify several known genes and novel genes via SSH that appear to be associated with cold stress and will help to provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance in L. vannamei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Robert [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Peter [BMT Scientific Marine Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shi, Shan [Houston Offshore Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Marinho, Thiago [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). LabOceano


    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  6. Treatment of the common cold. (United States)

    Supiyaphun, Pakpoom; Kerekhanjananarong, Virachai; Saengpanich, Supinda; Cutchavaree, Amnuay


    Common colds are usually treated by the patients themselves with over-the-counter (OTC) cold medications. Many cough and cold remedies are available and sold freely without prescription. The authors conducted a study to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, the quality of life (QOL) and the patient's opinion and appreciation on the drugs (POD) between Dayquil/Nyquil and Actifed DM plus paracetamol syrup. In this prospective, investigator-blinded clinical trial, 120 patients, aged between 15 and 60 years old, with common colds within 72 hours, who accepted the trial and gave informed written consent, were randomized into two treatment groups. One patient was excluded due to evidence of bacterial infection. Fifty-nine patients were treated with Dayquil/Nyquil (D/N group), while the other 60 patients had Actifed DM plus paracetamol (ADM/P group) for three days. On day 1 the patient's demographic data (sex, age, body weight, blood pressure, co-existing diseases/conditions, drug use, and allergy to any drugs), the most prominent symptoms and its duration were recorded. All patients were screened for bacterial infection by physical examination, complete blood count and sinus radiographs. The symptoms (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing, cough, sore throat, fever and headache) and signs (injected nasal mucosa, nasal discharge and pharyngeal discharge) were scored, based on 4-point scale (0 to 3), on days 1 and 4. Changing of the symptoms and QOL were recorded on the diary card. The patient's opinion and appreciation on the drugs (POD) was assessed on day 4. The effectiveness (the ability to lessen the symptoms and signs), QOL and POD between two treatments were compared. The demographic data between the two groups were similar. The four most common prominent symptoms of common colds in our series were cough (47.9%), sore throat (26.17%), rhinorrhea (8.4%) and headache (8.4%). However, both treatments were equally effective in lessening the symptoms (P = 0.426) and

  7. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic yeasts and growth in substrate-limited habitats (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.


    The high, dry valleys of the Ross Desert of Antarctic, characterized by extremely low temperatures, aridity and a depauperate biota, are used as an analog of the postulated extreme climates of other planetary bodies of the Solar System to test the hypothesis that if life could be supported by Ross, it might be possible where similar conditions prevail. The previously considered sterility of the Ross Desert soil ecosystem has yielded up an indigenous yeast, Cryptoccus vishniacci, which is able to resist the extremes of cold, wet and dry freezing, and long arid periods, while making minimal nutritional demands on the soil.

  8. Correlation of volumetric flow rate and skin blood flow with cold intolerance in digital replantation. (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Mi, Jingyi; Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Xiaoyun; Yao, Qun; Qiu, Yang


    Cold intolerance is a common complication of digital replantation. The exact etiology is unclear, but it is considered to be multifactorial, including nonsurgical characteristics, vascular, and neurologic conditions. Blood flow may play a significant role in cold intolerance. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of digital blood flow, including volumetric flow rate (VFR) and skin blood flow (SkBF), with cold intolerance in replanted fingers.A retrospective study was conducted among patients who underwent digital replantation between 2010 and 2013. Patients were selected into study cohort based on the inclusion criteria. Surgical data was collected on each patient, including age, sex, injury mechanism, amputation level, ischemia time, number of arteries repaired, and whether or not vascular crisis occurred. Patients were included as study cohort with both nerves repaired and without chronic disease. Cold intolerance was defined as a Cold Intolerance Symptom Severity (CISS) score over 30. The arterial flow velocity and caliber were measured by Color Doppler Ultrasound and the digital VFR was calculated. The SkBF was measured by Laser Speckle Imager. Both VFR and SkBF were calculated as a percentage of the contralateral fingers. Comparative study of surgical data and blood flow was performed between the patient with and without cold intolerance. Correlation between VFR and SkBF was also analyzed.A total of 93 patients met inclusion criteria for the study. Approximately, 42 patients were identified as having cold intolerance. Fingers that survived vascular crisis had a higher incidence of cold intolerance with a lower VFR and SkBF. The VFR was higher in 2-artery replantation, but the SkBF and incidence of cold intolerance did not differ significantly. No differences were found in age, sex, injury mechanism, amputation level, or ischemia time. Furthermore, no correlation was found between VFR and SkBF.Cold intolerance of digital replantation is associated

  9. Survival of sea-water-adapted trout, Salmo trutta L. ranched in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stig; Rasmussen, Gorm


    The effect of seawater adaptation on the survival of coastally released post-smelt trout, Salmo trutta L., was investigated by release: (1) directly (with no adaptation); (2) after retention in net pens in the sea for 29-131 days (delayed release); (3) after feeding with a high salt diet (12...... survival rate. A longer adaptation period did not increase survival. On average, survival was increased by 36%. Survival was not increased by high-salt diets. Until attainment of the legal size for capture, survival was 9.6% higher on average, with extremes as low as 1.7% and as high as 38% in individual...

  10. Survivability of a metapopulation under local extinctions (United States)

    Kundu, Srilena; Majhi, Soumen; Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Ghosh, Dibakar; Rakshit, Biswambhar


    A metapopulation structure in landscape ecology comprises a group of interacting spatially separated subpopulations or patches of the same species that may experience several local extinctions. This makes the investigation of survivability (in the form of global oscillation) of a metapopulation on top of diverse dispersal topologies extremely crucial. However, among various dispersal topologies in ecological networks, which one can provide higher metapopulation survivability under local extinction is still not well explored. In this article, we scrutinize the robustness of an ecological network consisting of prey-predator patches having Holling type I functional response, against progressively extinct population patches. We present a comprehensive study on this while considering global, small-world, and scale-free dispersal of the subpopulations. Furthermore, we extend our work in enhancing survivability in the form of sustained global oscillation by introducing asymmetries in the dispersal rates of the considered species. Our findings affirm that the asynchrony among the patches plays an important role in the survivability of a metapopulation. In order to demonstrate the model independence of the observed phenomenon, we perform a similar analysis for patches exhibiting Holling type II functional response. On the grounds of the obtained results, our work is expected to provide a better perception of the influence of dispersal arrangements on the global survivability of ecological networks.

  11. Performance of Portable Ventilators Following Storage at Temperature Extremes. (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Britton, Tyler J; Johannigman, Jay A; Petro, Michael C; Branson, Richard D


    In the current theater of operation, medical devices are often shipped and stored at ambient conditions. The effect of storage at hot and cold temperature extremes on ventilator performance is unknown. We evaluated three portable ventilators currently in use or being evaluated for use by the Department of Defense (731, Impact Instrumentation; T1, Hamilton Medical; and Revel, CareFusion) at temperature extremes in a laboratory setting. The ventilators were stored at temperatures of 60°C and -35°C for 24 hours and were allowed to acclimate to room temperature for 30 minutes before evaluation. The T1 required an extra 15 to 30 minutes of acclimation to room temperature before the ventilator would deliver breaths. All delivered tidal volumes at room temperature and after storage at temperature extremes were less than the ±10% American Society for Testing and Materials standard with the Revel. Delivered tidal volumes at the pediatric settings were less than the ±10% threshold after storage at both temperatures and at room temperature with the 731. Storage at extreme temperature affected the performance of the portable ventilators tested. This study showed that portable ventilators may need an hour or more of acclimation time at room temperature after storage at temperature extremes to operate as intended. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.


    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  13. Impacts of temperature extremes on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Czech Republic (United States)

    Davídkovová, H.; Kyselý, J.; Plavcová, E.; Urban, A.; Kriz, B.; Kyncl, J.


    Elevated mortality associated with high ambient temperatures in summer represents one of the main impacts of weather extremes on human society. Increases in cardiovascular mortality during heat waves have been reported in many European countries; much less is known about which particular cardiovascular disorders are most affected during heat waves, and whether similar patterns are found for morbidity (hospital admissions). Relatively less understood is also cold-related mortality and morbidity in winter, when the relationships between weather and human health are more complex, less direct, and confounded by other factors such as epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. The present study analyses relationships between temperature extremes and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We make use of the datasets on hospital admissions and daily mortality in the population of the Czech Republic (about 10.3 million) over 1994-2009. The data have been standardized to remove the effects of the long-term trend and the seasonal and weekly cycles. Periods when the morbidity/mortality data were affected by epidemics of influenza and other acute respiratory infections have been removed from the analysis. We use analogous definitions for hot and cold spells based on quantiles of daily average temperature anomalies, which allows for a comparison of the findings for summer hot spells and winter cold spells. The main aims of the study are (i) to identify deviations of mortality and morbidity from the baseline associated with hot and cold spells, (ii) to compare the hot- and cold-spell effects for individual cardiovascular diseases (e.g. ischaemic heart disease I20-I25, cerebrovascular disease I60-I69, hypertension I10, aterosclerosis I70) and to identify those diagnoses that are most closely linked to temperature extremes, (iii) to identify population groups most vulnerable to temperature extremes, and (iv) to compare the links to temperature extremes for morbidity and

  14. The Cold man. A clinical case of the cold sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri


    Full Text Available The lack of correlation between available knowledge and the current approach to Somatoform Disorders is highlighted.. Methods: the study, via the analysis of an unusual clinical case of an anomalous sensation of cold, examines various hypotheses on the physiopathology of somatization. Conclusions: a conceptualization would focus attention on the level of patients’ preoccupation with their symptoms, on the anomalies of the variations of perceptions and on patients’ hyperarousal. It could lead to a more harmonious position in psychiatry, between anthropologically-based understanding and interpretation of psychophysical information.

  15. Herschel's "Cold Debris Disks": Background Galaxies or Quiescent Rims of Planetary Systems? (United States)

    Krivov, A. V.; Eiroa, C.; Loehne, T.; Marshall, J. P.; Montesinos, B.; DelBurgo, C.; Absil, O.; Ardila, D.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; hide


    Infrared excesses associated with debris disk host stars detected so far peak at wavelengths around approx, 100 micron or shorter. However, 6 out of 31 excess sources studied in the Herschel Open Time Key Programme, DUNES, have been seen to show significant-and in some cases extended-excess emission at 160 micron, which is larger than the 100 micron excess. This excess emission has been attributed to circumstellar dust and has been suggested to stem from debris disks colder than those known previously. Since the excess emission of the cold disk candidates is extremely weak, challenging even the unrivaled sensitivity of Herschel, it is prudent to carefully consider whether some or even all of them may represent unrelated galactic or extragalactic emission, or even instrumental noise. We re-address these issues using several distinct methods and conclude that it is highly unlikely that none of the candidates represents a true circumstellar disk. For true disks, both the dust temperatures inferred from the spectral energy distributions and the disk radii estimated from the images suggest that the dust is nearly as cold as a blackbody. This requires the grains to be larger than approx. 100 micron, even if they are rich in ices or are composed of any other material with a low absorption in the visible. The dearth of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict that grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit should be present. We explore several conceivable scenarios: transport-dominated disks, disks of low dynamical excitation, and disks of unstirred primordial macroscopic grains. Our qualitative analysis and collisional simulations rule out the first two of these scenarios, but show the feasibility of the third one. We show that such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. They should be composed of macroscopic solids larger than millimeters, but

  16. Atmosphere and water loss from early Mars under extreme solar wind and extreme ultraviolet conditions. (United States)

    Terada, Naoki; Kulikov, Yuri N; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Tielong


    The upper limits of the ion pickup and cold ion outflow loss rates from the early martian atmosphere shortly after the Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence (ZAMS) were investigated. We applied a comprehensive 3-D multi-species magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model to an early martian CO(2)-rich atmosphere, which was assumed to have been exposed to a solar XUV [X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)] flux that was 100 times higher than today and a solar wind that was about 300 times denser. We also assumed the late onset of a planetary magnetic dynamo, so that Mars had no strong intrinsic magnetic field at that early period. We found that, due to such extreme solar wind-atmosphere interaction, a strong magnetic field of about approximately 4000 nT was induced in the entire dayside ionosphere, which could efficiently protect the upper atmosphere from sputtering loss. A planetary obstacle ( approximately ionopause) was formed at an altitude of about 1000 km above the surface due to the drag force and the mass loading by newly created ions in the highly extended upper atmosphere. We obtained an O(+) loss rate by the ion pickup process, which takes place above the ionopause, of about 1.5 x 10(28) ions/s during the first water loss equivalent to a global martian ocean with a depth of approximately 8 m. Consequently, even if the magnetic protection due to the expected early martian magnetic dynamo is neglected, ion pickup and sputtering were most likely not the dominant loss processes for the planet's initial atmosphere and water inventory. However, it appears that the cold ion outflow into the martian tail, due to the transfer of momentum from the solar wind to the ionospheric plasma, could have removed a global ocean with a depth of 10-70 m during the first < or =150 million years after the Sun arrived at the ZAMS.

  17. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose


    (PDF) of turbulence driven short-term extreme wind shear events, conditioned on the mean wind speed, for an arbitrary recurrence period. The model is based on an asymptotic expansion, and only a few and easily accessible parameters are needed as input. The model of the extreme PDF is supplemented...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  18. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Simulation Training in the Extreme: Simulation-based Training in a Mountain Weather Chamber. (United States)

    Pietsch, Urs; Ney, Ludwig; Kreuzer, Oliver; Berner, Armin; Lischke, Volker

    Mountain rescue operations often confront crews with extreme weather conditions. Extremely cold temperatures make standard treatment sometimes difficult or even impossible. It is well-known that most manual tasks, including those involved in mountain rescue operations, are slowed by extremely cold weather. To lessen and improve the decrement in performance of emergency medical treatment caused by cold-induced manual impairment and inadequate medical equipment and supplies, simulation training in a weather chamber, which can produce wind and temperatures up to -22°C, was developed. It provides a promising tool to train the management of complex multidisciplinary settings, thus reducing the occurrence of fatal human and technical errors and increasing the safety for both the patient and the mountain emergency medical service crew. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. North Atlantic storm driving of extreme wave heights in the North Sea (United States)

    Bell, R. J.; Gray, S. L.; Jones, O. P.


    The relationship between storms and extreme ocean waves in the North Sea is assessed using a long-period wave data set and storms identified in the Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim). An ensemble sensitivity analysis is used to provide information on the spatial and temporal forcing from mean sea-level pressure and surface wind associated with extreme ocean wave height responses. Extreme ocean waves in the central North Sea arise due to intense extratropical cyclone winds from either the cold conveyor belt (northerly-wind events) or the warm conveyor belt (southerly-wind events). The largest wave heights are associated with northerly-wind events which tend to have stronger wind speeds and occur as the cold conveyor belt wraps rearward round the cyclone to the cold side of the warm front. The northerly-wind events provide a larger fetch to the central North Sea to aid wave growth. Southerly-wind events are associated with the warm conveyor belts of intense extratropical cyclones that develop in the left upper tropospheric jet exit region. Ensemble sensitivity analysis can provide early warning of extreme wave events by demonstrating a relationship between wave height and high pressure to the west of the British Isles for northerly-wind events 48 h prior. Southerly-wind extreme events demonstrate sensitivity to low pressure to the west of the British Isles 36 h prior.

  20. WITHDRAWN: Antivirals for the common cold. (United States)

    Jefferson, T O; Tyrrell, D


    The common cold is a ubiquitous short and usually mild illness for which preventive and treatment interventions have been under development since the mid-40s. As our understanding of the disease has increased, more experimental antivirals have been developed. This review attempts to draw together experimental evidence of the effects of these compounds. To identify, assemble, evaluate and (if possible) synthesise the results of published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of the effects of antivirals to prevent or minimise the impact of the common cold. We searched electronic databases, corresponded with researchers and handsearched the archives of the MRC's Common Cold Unit (CCU). We included original reports of randomised and quasi-randomised trials assessing the effects of antivirals on volunteers artificially infected and in individuals exposed to colds in the community. We included 241 studies assessing the effects of Interferons, interferon-inducers and other antivirals on experimental and naturally occurring common colds, contained in 230 reports. We structured our comparisons by experimental or community setting. Although intranasal interferons have high preventive efficacy against experimental colds (protective efficacy 46%, 37% to 54%) and to a lesser extent against natural colds (protective efficacy 24%, 21% to 27%) and are also significantly more effective than placebo in attenuating the course of experimental colds (WMD 15.90, 13.42 to 18.38), their safety profile makes compliance with their use difficult. For example, prolonged prevention of community colds with interferons causes blood-tinged nasal discharge (OR 4.52, 3.78 to 5.41). Dipyridamole (protective efficacy against natural colds 49%, 30% to 62%), ICI 130, 685 (protective efficacy against experimental colds 58%, 35% to 74% ), Impulsin (palmitate) (protective efficacy against natural colds 44%, CI 35% to 52% ) and Pleconaril (protective efficacy against experimental colds 71%, 15% to

  1. Habitability in Extreme Conditions (United States)

    de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre

    A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to provide variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success

  2. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

  3. Tolerance to multiple climate stressors: A case study of Douglas-fir drought and cold hardiness (United States)

    Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A; St. Clair, John Bradley


    Summary: 1. Drought and freeze events are two of the most common forms of climate extremes which result in tree damage or death, and the frequency and intensity of both stressors may increase with climate change. Few studies have examined natural covariation in stress tolerance traits to cope with multiple stressors among wild plant populations. 2. We assessed the capacity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), an ecologically and economically important species in the northwestern USA, to tolerate both drought and cold stress on 35 populations grown in common gardens. We used principal components analysis to combine drought and cold hardiness trait data into generalized stress hardiness traits to model geographic variation in hardiness as a function of climate across the Douglas-fir range. 3. Drought and cold hardiness converged among populations along winter temperature gradients and diverged along summer precipitation gradients. Populations originating in regions with cold winters had relatively high tolerance to both drought and cold stress, which is likely due to overlapping adaptations for coping with winter desiccation. Populations from regions with dry summers had increased drought hardiness but reduced cold hardiness, suggesting a trade-off in tolerance mechanisms. 4. Our findings highlight the necessity to look beyond bivariate trait–climate relationships and instead consider multiple traits and climate variables to effectively model and manage for the impacts of climate change on widespread species.

  4. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rozsypal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The codling moth (Cydia pomonella is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. CONCLUSION: Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer.

  5. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl


    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions. PMID:25035801

  6. Likelihood estimators for multivariate extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël


    The main approach to inference for multivariate extremes consists in approximating the joint upper tail of the observations by a parametric family arising in the limit for extreme events. The latter may be expressed in terms of componentwise maxima, high threshold exceedances or point processes, yielding different but related asymptotic characterizations and estimators. The present paper clarifies the connections between the main likelihood estimators, and assesses their practical performance. We investigate their ability to estimate the extremal dependence structure and to predict future extremes, using exact calculations and simulation, in the case of the logistic model.

  7. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John


    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  8. Antihistamines for the common cold. (United States)

    De Sutter, An I M; Saraswat, Avadhesh; van Driel, Mieke L


    The common cold is an upper respiratory tract infection, most commonly caused by a rhinovirus. It affects people of all age groups and although in most cases it is self limiting, the common cold still causes significant morbidity. Antihistamines are commonly offered over the counter to relieve symptoms for patients affected by the common cold, however there is not much evidence of their efficacy. To assess the effects of antihistamines on the common cold. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1948 to July week 4, 2015), EMBASE (2010 to August 2015), CINAHL (1981 to August 2015), LILACS (1982 to August 2015) and Biosis Previews (1985 to August 2015). We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using antihistamines as monotherapy for the common cold. We excluded any studies with combination therapy or using antihistamines in patients with an allergic component in their illness. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We collected adverse effects information from the included trials. We included 18 RCTs, which were reported in 17 publications (one publication reports on two trials) with 4342 participants (of which 212 were children) suffering from the common cold, both naturally occurring and experimentally induced. The interventions consisted of an antihistamine as monotherapy compared with placebo. In adults there was a short-term beneficial effect of antihistamines on severity of overall symptoms: on day one or two of treatment 45% had a beneficial effect with antihistamines versus 38% with placebo (odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.92). However, there was no difference between antihistamines and placebo in the mid term (three to four days) to long term (six to 10 days). When evaluating individual symptoms such as nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea and sneezing, there was some beneficial effect of the sedating antihistamines compared to placebo (e.g. rhinorrhoea on day three: mean difference (MD) -0

  9. Cold hardiness increases with age in juvenile Rhododendron populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev eArora


    Full Text Available Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant's ability to cold acclimate. Because woody perennials are long-lived and often have a prolonged juvenile (pre-flowering phase, it is conceivable that both chronological and physiological age factors influence adaptive traits such as stress tolerance. This study investigated annual cold hardiness (CH changes in several hybrid Rhododendron populations based on Tmax, an estimate of the maximum rate of freezing injury (ion leakage in cold-acclimated leaves from juvenile progeny. Data from F2 and backcross populations derived from R. catawbiense and R. fortunei parents indicated significant annual increases in Tmax ranging from 3.7 to to 6.4 C as the seedlings aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase (6.7° C was observed in comparisons of 1- and 2-year-old F1 progenies from a R. catawbiense x R. dichroanthum cross. In contrast, CH of the mature parent plants (> 10 years old did not change significantly over the same evaluation period. In leaf samples from a natural population of R. maximum, CH evaluations over two years resulted in an average Tmax value for juvenile 2- to 3- year- old plants that was 9.2 C lower than the average for mature (~30 years old plants. . A reduction in CH was also observed in three hybrid rhododendron cultivars clonally propagated by rooted cuttings (ramets - Tmax of 4-year-old ramets was significantly lower than the Tmax estimates for the 30- to 40-year-old source plants (ortets. In both the wild R. maximum population and the hybrid cultivar group, higher accumulation of a cold-acclimation responsive 25kDa leaf dehydrin was associated with older plants and higher CH. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH are discussed.

  10. ExtremeBounds: Extreme Bounds Analysis in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hlavac


    Full Text Available This article introduces the R package ExtremeBounds to perform extreme bounds analysis (EBA, a sensitivity test that examines how robustly the dependent variable of a regression model is related to a variety of possible determinants. ExtremeBounds supports Leamer's EBA that focuses on the upper and lower extreme bounds of regression coefficients, as well as Sala-i-Martin's EBA which considers their entire distribution. In contrast to existing alternatives, it can estimate models of a variety of user-defined sizes, use regression models other than ordinary least squares, incorporate non-linearities in the model specification, and apply custom weights and standard errors. To alleviate concerns about the multicollinearity and conceptual overlap of examined variables, ExtremeBounds allows users to specify sets of mutually exclusive variables, and can restrict the analysis to coefficients from regression models that yield a variance inflation factor within a prespecified limit.

  11. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010 (United States)


    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  12. Revisiting the Cold ILC Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Padamsee, Hasan


    At the first ILC Workshop, discussions were underway to re-examine the parameters of the cold ILC. Using the TESLA parameters MathCad program developed in 1991, I examined several variations to explore consequences to the capital and operating costs of the linac (cryomodules, RF, & refrigerator). The cost coefficients were chosen to match the distribution of the above items in the TESLA TDR at 25 MV/m. One parameter varied is the gradient from 25 to 50 MV/m coupled with a realistic Q as well as an optimistic Q (1010

  13. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan


    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  14. Declining ring-necked pheasants in the Klamath Basin, California: II. Survival, productivity, and cover (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Buhler, D.R.; Henny, Charles J.; Drew, A.D.


    Cover condition and its influence on nesting success, survival, and body condition of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were evaluated at Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge (TLNWR) and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge (LKNWR). Inadequate nesting cover was responsible for extremely low nest success early in the nesting season at TLNWR. Later in the season at TLNWR, spring-planted crops provided cover to conceal nesting and renesting hens; however, only 0.07 young were produced (to 1 August) per hen during the study. The extremely low reproductive rates were well below those required to maintain a stable population. At TLNWR, most adult mortality during spring and early summer (before crops provided adequate cover) apparently resulted from predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This mortality occurred weeks before insecticide applications. Hard winters (cold temperatures and heavy snowfall) periodically reduce the pheasant population in the Klamath Basin and again greatly reduced numbers during the last year of this study. Unfortunately, pheasant populations declined under the conditions found during this study and were unable to recover from the hard winter of 1992 to 1993. Mean body mass and tarsal length of adult hen pheasants at TLNWR, which is intensively farmed, were less than those for hens at LKNWR, which is not intensively farmed. Results of our study suggest that TLNWR hens may have been nutritionally stressed, and that the amount and distribution of vegetative cover needs to be improved at TLNWR. Habitat management of edge cover along agricultural crops should feature perennial grasses and legumes with small tracts of land interspersed throughout the agricultural fields to provide alternative cover for wildlife in general including pheasants.

  15. Conserved TRAM Domain Functions as an Archaeal Cold Shock Protein via RNA Chaperone Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang


    Full Text Available Cold shock proteins (Csps enable organisms to acclimate to and survive in cold environments and the bacterial CspA family exerts the cold protection via its RNA chaperone activity. However, most Archaea do not contain orthologs to the bacterial csp. TRAM, a conserved domain among RNA modification proteins ubiquitously distributed in organisms, occurs as an individual protein in most archaeal phyla and has a structural similarity to Csp proteins, yet its biological functions remain unknown. Through physiological and biochemical studies on four TRAM proteins from a cold adaptive archaeon Methanolobus psychrophilus R15, this work demonstrated that TRAM is an archaeal Csp and exhibits RNA chaperone activity. Three TRAM encoding genes (Mpsy_0643, Mpsy_3043, and Mpsy_3066 exhibited remarkable cold-shock induced transcription and were preferentially translated at lower temperature (18°C, while the fourth (Mpsy_2002 was constitutively expressed. They were all able to complement the cspABGE mutant of Escherichia coli BX04 that does not grow in cold temperatures and showed transcriptional antitermination. TRAM3066 (gene product of Mpsy_3066 and TRAM2002 (gene product of Mpsy_2002 displayed sequence-non-specific RNA but not DNA binding activity, and TRAM3066 assisted RNases in degradation of structured RNA, thus validating the RNA chaperone activity of TRAMs. Given the chaperone activity, TRAM is predicted to function beyond a Csp.

  16. RDM4 modulates cold stress resistance in Arabidopsis partially through the CBF-mediated pathway. (United States)

    Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Yanping; Cao, Minjie; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Hu, Yuanlei; Deng, Xin; He, Xin-Jian; Zhu, Jian-Kang


    The C-REPEAT-BINDING FACTOR (CBF) pathway has important roles in plant responses to cold stress. How the CBF genes themselves are activated after cold acclimation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized cold tolerance of null mutant of RNA-DIRECTED DNA METHYLATION 4 (RDM4), which encodes a protein that associates with RNA polymerases Pol V and Pol II, and is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis. The results showed that dysfunction of RDM4 reduced cold tolerance, as evidenced by decreased survival and increased electrolyte leakage. Mutation of RDM4 resulted in extensive transcriptomic reprogramming. CBFs and CBF regulon genes were down-regulated in rdm4 but not nrpe1 (the largest subunit of PolV) mutants, suggesting that the role of RDM4 in cold stress responses is independent of the RdDM pathway. Overexpression of RDM4 constitutively increased the expression of CBFs and regulon genes and decreased cold-induced membrane injury. A great proportion of genes affected by rdm4 overlapped with those affected by CBFs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation results suggested that RDM4 is important for Pol II occupancy at the promoters of CBF2 and CBF3. We present evidence of a considerable role for RDM4 in regulating gene expression at low temperature, including the CBF pathway in Arabidopsis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. A specific glycerol kinase induces rapid cold hardening of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. (United States)

    Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun


    Insects in temperate zones survive low temperatures by migrating or tolerating the cold. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a serious insect pest on cabbage and other cruciferous crops worldwide. We showed that P. xylostella became cold-tolerant by expressing rapid cold hardiness (RCH) in response to a brief exposure to moderately low temperature (4°C) for 7h along with glycerol accumulation in hemolymph. Glycerol played a crucial role in the cold-hardening process because exogenously supplying glycerol significantly increased the cold tolerance of P. xylostella larvae without cold acclimation. To determine the genetic factor(s) responsible for RCH and the increase of glycerol, four glycerol kinases (GKs), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (PxGPDH) were predicted from the whole P. xylostella genome and analyzed for their function associated with glycerol biosynthesis. All predicted genes were expressed, but differed in their expression during different developmental stages and in different tissues. Expression of the predicted genes was individually suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) using double-stranded RNAs specific to target genes. RNAi of PxGPDH expression significantly suppressed RCH and glycerol accumulation. Only PxGK1 among the four GKs was responsible for RCH and glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, PxGK1 expression was significantly enhanced during RCH. These results indicate that a specific GK, the terminal enzyme to produce glycerol, is specifically inducible during RCH to accumulate the main cryoprotectant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Performance under Climatic Stress and the Fallacy of the ’Average’ Soldier: Potentially Serious Implications for Military Operations in Extreme Climates (United States)


    expect extreme hardship in their daily lives. From this, they undoubtedly have acquired many simple and effective skills for coping with the environment...comparison of the orientation of American and Soviet research on human behavior in extreme cold suggests that cultura ] and other background factors can account

  19. Extreme Environments: Why NASA? (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.


    Life on our planet is the only known example in the universe and so we are relegated to this planet for the study of life. However, life may be a natural consequence of planet formation, and so the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life may be greatly informed by planetary exploration. Astrobiology has adopted several approaches to study life on Earth, for deducing our origins, for determining the likelihood of life elsewhere, and for enabling the search for evidence of past or present life. The first approach has been the Exobiology Program, centered around understanding the origins of life and which supports individual investigator research. Second has been the construction of consortia-type research in which researchers from different disciplines focus on a larger problem. This structure began with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and has grown to include the Astrobiology Institute - a collection of competitively selected groups of researchers attacking problems in Astrobiology as individual teams and as a consolidated Institute. With the formation of an intellectual basis for exploring for life elsewhere, Astrobiology has initiated the competitive research and development program in instrument development (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development [ASTID] Program) that would enable future mission instruments for the exploration of planetary bodies in the search for prebiotic chemistry, habitable environments (past or present), biomarkers, and possibly life itself. However, the act of exploring requires robust instrumentation, mobile robotic platforms, efficient operations, and a high level of autonomy. To this end, Astrobiology has started a new research activity that promotes scientifically-driven robotic exploration of extreme environments on Earth that are analogous to suspected habitable environments on other planetary bodies. The program is called Astrobiology Science and Technology for

  20. How birds cope physiologically and behaviourally with extreme climatic events. (United States)

    Wingfield, John C; Pérez, Jonathan H; Krause, Jesse S; Word, Karen R; González-Gómez, Paulina L; Lisovski, Simeon; Chmura, Helen E


    As global climate change progresses, the occurrence of potentially disruptive climatic events such as storms are increasing in frequency, duration and intensity resulting in higher mortality and reduced reproductive success. What constitutes an extreme climatic event? First we point out that extreme climatic events in biological contexts can occur in any environment. Focusing on field and laboratory data on wild birds we propose a mechanistic approach to defining and investigating what extreme climatic events are and how animals cope with them at physiological and behavioural levels. The life cycle of birds is made up of life-history stages such as migration, breeding and moult that evolved to match a range of environmental conditions an individual might expect during the year. When environmental conditions deteriorate and deviate from the expected range then the individual must trigger coping mechanisms (emergency life-history stage) that will disrupt the temporal progression of life-history stages, but enhance survival. Using the framework of allostasis, we argue that an extreme climatic event in biological contexts can be defined as when the cumulative resources available to an individual are exceeded by the sum of its energetic costs-a state called allostatic overload. This allostatic overload triggers the emergency life-history stage that temporarily allows the individual to cease regular activities in an attempt to survive extreme conditions. We propose that glucocorticoid hormones play a major role in orchestrating coping mechanisms and are critical for enduring extreme climatic events.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Diagnosis and management of cold urticaria. (United States)

    Singleton, Reid; Halverstam, Caroline P


    Cold urticaria is a physical urticaria characterized by a localized or systemic eruption of papules upon exposure of the skin to cold air, liquids, and/or objects. In some cases, angioedema and anaphylaxis also may occur. The symptoms of cold urticaria can have a negative impact on patients' quality of life. Second-generation H1 antihistamines are the first line of treatment in cold urticaria; however, patients who are unresponsive to initial treatment with H1 antihistamines may require further management options. Avoidance of cold exposure is the most effective prophylactic measure. In mild to moderate cases, the primary goal of therapy is to improve the patient's quality of life. In more severe cases, treatment measures to protect the patient's airway, breathing, and circulation may be necessary. We report the case of a 23-year-old man with cold urticaria who was refractory to initial therapy with H1 antihistamines. A review of the literature also is provided.

  2. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. (comps.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))


    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  3. Increasing climate extremes under global warming - What is the driving force? (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho


    More climate extreme events have occurred in recent years, including the continual development of extreme drought in California, the severe cold winters in the eastern U.S. since 2014, 2015 Washington drought, and excessive wildfire events over Alaska in 2015. These have been casually attributed to global warming. However, a need for further understanding of mechanisms responsible for climate extremes is growing. In this presentation, we'll use sets of climate model simulation that designed to identify the role of the oceanic feedback in increasing climate extremes under global warming. One is with a fully coupled climate model forced by 1% ramping CO2, and the other is with an atmosphere only model forced by the same CO2 forcing. By contrasting these two, an importance of the oceanic feedback in increasing climate extremes under global warming can be diagnosed.

  4. Changes in Climate Extremes and Catastrophic Events in the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Yao, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Liguang


    The spatiotemporal changes in 21 indices of extreme temperature and precipitation for the Mongolian Plateau from 1951 to 2012 were investigated on the basis of daily temperature and precipitation data from 70 meteorological stations. Changes in catastrophic events, such as droughts, floods...... was shown for total precipitation from west to east as based on the spatial distribution of decadal trends. Drought was the most serious extreme disaster, and prolonged drought for longer than 3 yr occurred about every 7-11 yr. An increasing trend in the disaster area was apparent for flood events from 1951......, and snowstorms, were also investigated for the same period. The correlations between catastrophic events and the extreme indices were examined. The results show that the Mongolian Plateau experienced an asymmetric warming trend. Both the cold extremes and warm extremes showed greater warming at night than...

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Low Temperature-Treated Phlox subulata and Analysis of the Genes Involved in Cold Stress. (United States)

    Qu, Yanting; Zhou, Aimin; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Huanwei; Liang, Ming; Han, Hui; Zuo, Yuhu


    Phlox subulata, a perennial herbaceous flower, can survive during the winter of northeast China, where the temperature can drop to -30 °C, suggesting that P. subulata is an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of cold acclimation in plants. However, little is known about the gene expression profile of P. subulata under cold stress. Here, we examined changes in cold stress-related genes in P. subulata. We sequenced three cold-treated (CT) and control (CK) samples of P. subulata. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment of the obtained reads, 99,174 unigenes were generated. Based on similarity searches with known proteins in public protein databases, 59,994 unigenes were functionally annotated. Among all differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 8302, 10,638 and 11,021 up-regulated genes and 9898, 17,876, and 12,358 down-regulated genes were identified after treatment at 4, 0, and -10 °C, respectively. Furthermore, 3417 up-regulated unigenes were expressed only in CT samples. Twenty major cold-related genes, including transcription factors, antioxidant enzymes, osmoregulation proteins, and Ca²⁺ and ABA signaling components, were identified, and their expression levels were estimated. Overall, this is the first transcriptome sequencing of this plant species under cold stress. Studies of DEGs involved in cold-related metabolic pathways may facilitate the discovery of cold-resistance genes.

  6. Cryophenomena in the Cold Desert of Atacama (United States)

    Buchroithner, Dr.; Trombotto, Dr.


    The study area of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas in the High Atacama Andes of Chile (68°39' W, 27°02' S), a kind of Patagonian "bajo sin salida", shows well preserved landforms resulting from a combination of slope, eolian, lacustrine/litoral, fluvial, glacial and periglacial regimes. They permit the reconstruction of geomorphological processes within this isolated catchment of approximately 160 km2. The mean annual air temperature varies between -2 and -4 °C and the precipitation is approximately 150 mm/a. Snowfall is frequent but the snow is quickly sublimated, redeposited and/or covered by cryosediments, i.e. mainly pumice pebbles. Water bodies present icings, even in summer. Regarding its climatic conditions the study area represents an extremely cold desertic region. Extremophile microfauna was also found. The area displays both in situ mountain permafrost and creeping permafrost. The active layer is 30 to 45 cm thick. It is a periglacial macro-environment where interdependent processes, and not only cryogenic processes but also erosion and eolian deposition and the action of fluvial washout mainly caused by precipitation, accumulation, retransportation/redeposition and melting of snow, play an important role. The cryogenic geomorphology of the Valle de Barrancas Blancas is varied and contains microforms such as patterned ground and microforms caused by cryoturbation, as well as mesoforms like rockglaciers and cryoplanation surfaces. Slopes are strongly affected by gelifluction. New cryoforms in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere like the Atacama Pingo (Pingo atacamensis) and Permafrosted Dunes ("Dunas heladas") were found. Intense niveo-eolian processes participate in the erosion of preexisting landforms, in the formation of subterraneous ice layers, and the retransportation/redeposition of snow and sediments. Studies of this periglacial environment are crucial for the understanding of Tundrean paleoenvironments and Martian conditions.

  7. Resistive wall wakefields in the extreme anomalous skin effect regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobedov


    Full Text Available Usual treatments of resistive wall effects in accelerators are limited to the normal skin effect regime of electrical conductivity in metals. Therefore they do not generally apply to the situations when beam-exposed metallic surfaces of the vacuum chamber are held at cryogenic temperatures, where simple metals exhibit anomalous skin effect behavior. These situations occasionally occur in accelerators with cold-bore devices, such as small-gap superconducting undulators. The amount of anomalous resistivity material can be substantial to significantly influence beam dynamics. To accurately estimate these effects, we expand the conventional treatment of resistive wall in accelerators into the extreme anomalous skin effect region. Starting with the surface impedance expressions, we derive resistive wall related quantities commonly used in accelerator physics, such as wake functions, wake potentials, loss factor, etc. in the extreme anomalous skin effect region. We follow with examples for resistive wall generated heat and transverse mode-coupling instability.

  8. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald


    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  9. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections


    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian


    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connection...





    The present work deals with the study of cold storage refrigeration plant and simulation of refrigeration system to evaluate the cooling load and annual energy consumption for cold storage applications. The specific temperature and humidity range is required for properly storing any particular food and thus facilitates its preservation for a longer duration of time. The present cold storage capacity in India is grossly inadequate and with a positive future outlook for the agro, food processin...

  11. Survival Following Resection for Soft Tissue Sarcomas | Igun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For intermediate grade lesions, Kaposi's sarcoma carried the lowest mean survival time (MST) of 1 year, fibroblastic fibrosarcoma 2 years and undifferentiated sarcoma 3 years. The average MST for all high grade lesions was 2 years. Upper extremity lesions carried the worst prognosis with a MST of 1½ years, head, neck, ...

  12. Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming (United States)

    Shongwe, M. E.


    energy and dynamic horizontal advection of heat. There is clear evidence that the central North Atlantic Ocean was the major source of energy for the Autumn 2006 extreme event. Within Europe, anomalously high atmospheric water-vapor loading played a significant role through its strong greenhouse effect which resulted in an increase of downwelling infrared flux to the surface. Potential influences and connections between boreal snow cover during the melt season (February--April) and near-surface temperature in the spring season are established. Large amounts of snow act as a precursor to cold spring seasons by altering the coupling between the land and the overlying air through a modification of the surface energy and hydrological processes. In operational numerical models, a snow signal is found to provide some seasonal forecast skill for cold spring seasons in Europe. Changes in the intensity of droughts and floods in Africa in response to global warming are investigated and compared with changes in mean precipitation simulated by an ensemble of climate models selected from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report (AR4) set. The model simulations are objectively combined using a Bayesian weighting procedure. In southern Africa south of about 15° S, the most robust climate-change signal is a shortening of the main rainfall season. This arises from a delayed onset of seasonal rainfall associated with a reduction in lower-tropospheric moisture advection from the southwestern Indian Ocean. The semi-arid areas closer to the Kalahari desert are projected to become drier, while the wet areas are projected to become wetter. East Africa is projected to get wet in the future climate, much wetter than other regions within the same latitudinal belt. The zonal asymmetry in tropical precipitation increase is associated with a shift towards positive Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM)-like events via an alteration in the structure of the Eastern

  13. Genome-wide association study of cold tolerance of Chinese indica rice varieties at the bud burst stage. (United States)

    Zhang, Mengchen; Ye, Jing; Xu, Qun; Feng, Yue; Yuan, Xiaoping; Yu, Hanyong; Wang, Yiping; Wei, Xinghua; Yang, Yaolong


    A region containing three genes on chromosome 1 of indica rice was associated with cold tolerance at the bud burst stage; these results may be useful for breeding cold-tolerant lines. Low temperature at the bud burst stage is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting rice growth, especially in regions where rice seeds are sown directly. In this study, we investigated cold tolerance of rice at the bud burst stage and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on the 5K rice array of 249 indica rice varieties widely distributed in China. We improved the method to assess cold tolerance at the bud burst stage in indica rice, and used severity of damage (SD) and seed survival rate (SR) as the cold-tolerant indices. Population structure analysis demonstrated that the Chinese indica panel was divided into three subgroups. In total, 47 significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci associated with SD and SR, were detected by association mapping based on mixed linear model. Because some loci overlapped between SD and SR, the loci contained 13 genome intervals and most of them have been reported previously. A major QTL for cold tolerance on chromosome 1 at the position of 31.6 Mb, explaining 13.2% of phenotypic variation, was selected for further analysis. Through LD decay, GO enrichment, RNA-seq data, and gene expression pattern analyses, we identified three genes (LOC_Os01g55510, LOC_Os01g55350 and LOC_Os01g55560) that were differentially expressed between cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties, suggesting they may be candidate genes for cold tolerance. Together, our results provide a new method to assess cold tolerance in indica rice, and establish the foundation for isolating genes related to cold tolerance that could be used in rice breeding.

  14. Global transcriptional profiling of a cold-tolerant rice variety under moderate cold stress reveals different cold stress response mechanisms. (United States)

    Zhao, Junliang; Zhang, Shaohong; Yang, Tifeng; Zeng, Zichong; Huang, Zhanghui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Xiaofei; Leach, Jan; Leung, Hei; Liu, Bin


    Gene expression profiling under severe cold stress (4°C) has been conducted in plants including rice. However, rice seedlings are frequently exposed to milder cold stresses under natural environments. To understand the responses of rice to milder cold stress, a moderately low temperature (8°C) was used for cold treatment prior to genome-wide profiling of gene expression in a cold-tolerant japonica variety, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH). A total of 5557 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found at four time points during moderate cold stress. Both the DEGs and differentially expressed transcription factor genes were clustered into two groups based on their expression, suggesting a two-phase response to cold stress and a determinative role of transcription factors in the regulation of stress response. The induction of OsDREB2A under cold stress is reported for the first time in this study. Among the anti-oxidant enzyme genes, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were upregulated, suggesting that the glutathione system may serve as the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger in LTH. Changes in expression of genes in signal transduction pathways for auxin, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) imply their involvement in cold stress responses. The induction of ABA response genes and detection of enriched cis-elements in DEGs suggest that ABA signaling pathway plays a dominant role in the cold stress response. Our results suggest that rice responses to cold stress vary with the specific temperature imposed and the rice genotype. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.


    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  16. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian


    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  17. Review on cold-formed steel connections. (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian


    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  18. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Huei Lee


    Full Text Available The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  19. Use of ``Cold Spell'' indices to quantify excess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity during winter (November to March 2000-2007): case study in Porto (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana; Carvalho, Vânia; Góis, Joaquim; Sousa, Carlos


    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the occurrence of cold episodes and excess hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Porto, Portugal, in order to further understand the effects of cold weather on health in milder climates. Excess COPD winter morbidity was calculated from admissions for November to March (2000-2007) in the Greater Porto Metropolitan Area (GPMA). Cold spells were identified using several indices (Díaz, World Meteorological Organization, Cold Spell Duration Index, Australian Index and Ondas’ Project Index) for the same period. Excess admissions in the periods before and after the occurrence of cold spells were calculated and related to the cold spells identified. The COPD seasonal variation admission coefficient (CVSA) showed excess winter admissions of 59 %, relative to other months. The effect of cold spell on the aggravation of COPD occurs with a lag of at least 2 weeks and differs according to the index used. This study indicates the important role of the persistence of cold periods of at least 2 weeks duration in the increase in COPD admissions. The persistence of moderate temperatures (Tmin ≤5 °C) for a week can be more significant for increasing COPD admissions than very low temperatures (Tmin ≤ 1.6 °C) for just a few days. The Ondas projects’ index provides the most accurate detection of the negative impacts of cold persistency on health, while the Diaz index is better at evaluating the consequences of short extreme cold events.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini


    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.