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Sample records for survival traits generally

  1. Big Five Traits and Inclusive Generalized Prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Mark; Crawford, Jarret

    2018-01-01

    Existing meta-analytic evidence finds that low levels of Openness and Agreeableness correlate with generalized prejudice. However, previous studies relied on restricted operationalizations of generalized prejudice that only assessed prejudice toward disadvantaged, low-status groups. Across four samples (total N = 7,543), we tested the associations between Big Five traits and generalized prejudice using an inclusive operationalization of generalized prejudice. A meta-analysis of these findings...

  2. What makes a successful species? Traits facilitating survival in altered tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Mareike; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2017-06-28

    Ongoing conversion, disturbance and fragmentation of tropical forests stress this ecosystem and cause the decline or disappearance of many species. Particular traits have been identified which indicate an increasing extinction risk of a species, but traits facilitating survival in altered habitats have mostly been neglected. Here we search for traits that make a species tolerant to disturbances, thus independent of pristine forests. We identify the fauna that have an increasing effect on the ecosystem and its functioning in our human-dominated landscapes. We use a unique set of published data on the occurrences of 243 frog species in pristine and altered forests throughout the tropics. We established a forest dependency index with four levels, based on these occurrence data and applied Random Forest classification and binomial Generalized Linear Models to test whether species life history traits, ecological traits or range size influence the likelihood of a species to persist in disturbed habitats. Our results revealed that indirect developing species exhibiting a large range size and wide elevational distribution, being independent of streams, and inhabiting the leaf litter, cope best with modifications of their natural habitats. The traits identified in our study will likely persist in altered tropical forest systems and are comparable to those generally recognized for a low species extinction risk. Hence our findings will help to predict future frog communities in our human-dominated world.

  3. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in autistic traits in early adulthood and to test if there is assortative mating (non-random partner choice) for autistic traits in the general population. Design: Twin family study using structural equation

  4. A Multidimensional Measure of Trait Anxiety: The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Norman S.; Okada, Marilyn

    1975-01-01

    The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness was administered to samples of normal youth, normal adult, neurotic, and psychotic subjects. The practical and theoretical uses of the inventory are discussed, and it is specifically indicated how the inventory could be used to extend the Speilberger state-trait anxiety theory. (Author)

  5. 46 CFR 117.200 - Survival craft-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-general. 117.200 Section 117.200 Shipping... Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.200 Survival craft—general. (a) Each survival craft required on a... craft they replace. (c) A summary of survival craft requirements is provided in Table 117.200(c). Table...

  6. 46 CFR 180.200 - Survival craft-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-general. 180.200 Section 180.200 Shipping...) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 180.200 Survival craft—general. (a) Each survival craft required on a vessel by this part must meet one of the following: (1) For an...

  7. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...

  8. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...

  9. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  10. A generalized estimating equations approach to quantitative trait locus detection of non-normal traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Peter C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, most statistical developments in QTL detection methodology have been directed at continuous traits with an underlying normal distribution. This paper presents a method for QTL analysis of non-normal traits using a generalized linear mixed model approach. Development of this method has been motivated by a backcross experiment involving two inbred lines of mice that was conducted in order to locate a QTL for litter size. A Poisson regression form is used to model litter size, with allowances made for under- as well as over-dispersion, as suggested by the experimental data. In addition to fixed parity effects, random animal effects have also been included in the model. However, the method is not fully parametric as the model is specified only in terms of means, variances and covariances, and not as a full probability model. Consequently, a generalized estimating equations (GEE approach is used to fit the model. For statistical inferences, permutation tests and bootstrap procedures are used. This method is illustrated with simulated as well as experimental mouse data. Overall, the method is found to be quite reliable, and with modification, can be used for QTL detection for a range of other non-normally distributed traits.

  11. Theory of mind and hypomanic traits in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Sarah; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Blondel, Marine; Mouras, Harold; Morvan, Yannick; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2014-03-30

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. In bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM could be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in the general population with high hypomanic personality scores would be more likely to develop bipolar disorders. This study examined 298 participants. Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale. ToM was explored using the Yoni task. Participants also completed the BDI-II. Forward multiple regressions were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score in the ToM task. In the women's group, no subscales of the HPS were included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality and excitement subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities. Our study is the first to show the impact of certain dimensions of hypomanic personality on performance in ToM in a male sample. This result supports the idea that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in a healthy male population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, P.B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Ellsworth, D.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; Walters, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Forestry; Vose, J.M. [Forest Service, Otto, NC (United States). Coweeta Hydrological Lab.; Gresham, C. [Clemson Univ., Georgetown, SC (United States). Baruch Forest Inst.; Volin, J.C. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Davie, FL (United States). Div. of Science; Bowman, W.D. [Inst. of Arctic and Alpine Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Mountain Research Station]|[Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Evolutionary, Population, and Organismic Biology

    1999-09-01

    Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

  13. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  14. Prediction error variance and expected response to selection, when selection is based on the best predictor - for Gaussian and threshold characters, traits following a Poisson mixed model and survival traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Holst; Korsgaard, Inge Riis; Jensen, Just

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider selection based on the best predictor of animal additive genetic values in Gaussian linear mixed models, threshold models, Poisson mixed models, and log normal frailty models for survival data (including models with time-dependent covariates with associated fixed...... or random effects). In the different models, expressions are given (when these can be found - otherwise unbiased estimates are given) for prediction error variance, accuracy of selection and expected response to selection on the additive genetic scale and on the observed scale. The expressions given for non...... Gaussian traits are generalisations of the well-known formulas for Gaussian traits - and reflect, for Poisson mixed models and frailty models for survival data, the hierarchal structure of the models. In general the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total variance in the Gaussian part...

  15. A general mixture model for mapping quantitative trait loci by using molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a segregating population a quantitative trait may be considered to follow a mixture of (normal) distributions, the mixing proportions being based on Mendelian segregation rules. A general and flexible mixture model is proposed for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by using molecular markers.

  16. The importance and acceptability of general and maladaptive personality trait computerized assessment feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengel, Gregory J; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-01-01

    Personality traits are a useful component of clinical assessment, and have been associated with positive and negative life outcomes. Assessment of both general and maladaptive personality traits may be beneficial practice, as they may complement each other to comprehensively and accurately describe one's personality. Notably, personal preferences regarding assessment feedback have not been studied. The current study examined the acceptability of personality assessment feedback from the perspective of the examinee. Treatment-seeking participants from a university (n = 72) and Amazon.com MTurk (n = 101) completed measures of the 5-factor model and the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorder, and were then provided feedback on their general and maladaptive personality traits. Individuals then provided feedback on which aspects they found most useful. Results demonstrated strong participant agreement that the personality trait feedback was accurate and relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neonatal piglet traits of importance for survival in crates and indoor pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Berg, Peer; Jørgensen, Grete

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the same piglet traits contributed to the same causes of neonatal piglet mortality in crates (CT) and pens (PN). Gilts originating from 2 distinct genetic groups that differed in breeding value for piglet survival rate at d 5 (SR5......) were used. These were distributed to farrow in either PN or CT as follows: high-SR5 and CT (n = 30); low-SR5 and CT (n = 27); high-SR5 and PN (n = 22); and low-SR5 and PN (n = 24). Data on individual piglets were collected at birth, including interbirth interval; birth order; birth weight; rectal...... with a logit link function. No significant effect (NS) of housing was observed on the odds of a piglet being stillborn (F1,73 = 0.1, NS), being crushed (F1,53 = 1.4, NS), or dying of starvation (F1,53 = 0.3, NS). No significant differences were observed between the 2 genetic groups for any category...

  19. Predicting Academic Success: General Intelligence, "Big Five" Personality Traits, and Work Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgell, Susan D.; Lounsbury, John W.

    2004-01-01

    General intelligence, Big Five personality traits, and the construct Work Drive were studied in relation to two measures of collegiate academic performance: a single course grade received by undergraduate students in an introductory psychology course, and self-reported GPA. General intelligence and Work Drive were found to be significantly…

  20. Core features of personality disorder: differentiating general personality dysfunctioning from personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between general personality dysfunctioning (GPD) and specific personality traits (SPT) is an important focus of attention in the proposed revisions of the DSM-5. The present study explores the distinction between GPD and SPT using the self-report questionnaires General Assessment of

  1. Genetic risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder contributes to neurodevelopmental traits in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2014-10-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population. Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ≥ 1) ADHD item (n = 3623). Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ≥ 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003). These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. General and maladaptive personality dimensions and the assessment of callous-unemotional traits in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Associations between callous-unemotional traits and general and maladaptive personality dimensions are examined in adolescence. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent general and maladaptive personality dimensions can account for the variance in callous-unemotional (CU) scores. Adolescents (N = 509) and their mothers completed the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU; Frick, 2003), the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC; Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999, 2002), and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Both personality measures accounted for substantial variance in ICU scores and the overall CU profile in terms of the HiPIC and DIPSI was consistent with psychopathy conceptualizations and consistent across informant. Implications for the assessment of early externalizing trait pathology are discussed.

  3. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  4. Autistic Traits in the General Population: What Mediates the Link with Depressive and Anxious Symptomatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbrook, Ainslie; Whittingham, Koa

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population is widely recognised. This study examined the role of three potential mediating variables in the relationship between autistic traits and depressive/anxious symptomatology in the general population. Participants included 231 university…

  5. Applying a Weighted Maximum Likelihood Latent Trait Estimator to the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall D.; Bergeron, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies a weighted maximum likelihood (WML) latent trait estimator to the generalized partial credit model (GPCM). The relevant equations required to obtain the WML estimator using the Newton-Raphson algorithm are presented, and a simulation study is described that compared the properties of the WML estimator to those of the maximum…

  6. Prediction error variance and expected response to selection, when selection is based on the best predictor – for Gaussian and threshold characters, traits following a Poisson mixed model and survival traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Just

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider selection based on the best predictor of animal additive genetic values in Gaussian linear mixed models, threshold models, Poisson mixed models, and log normal frailty models for survival data (including models with time-dependent covariates with associated fixed or random effects. In the different models, expressions are given (when these can be found – otherwise unbiased estimates are given for prediction error variance, accuracy of selection and expected response to selection on the additive genetic scale and on the observed scale. The expressions given for non Gaussian traits are generalisations of the well-known formulas for Gaussian traits – and reflect, for Poisson mixed models and frailty models for survival data, the hierarchal structure of the models. In general the ratio of the additive genetic variance to the total variance in the Gaussian part of the model (heritability on the normally distributed level of the model or a generalised version of heritability plays a central role in these formulas.

  7. MACROD2 gene associated with autistic-like traits in a general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel M; Cadby, Gemma; Blangero, John; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Moses, Eric K

    2014-12-01

    There is now substantial evidence that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical autism spectrum disorders (ASD) representing the extreme end of this distribution. In this study, we sought to evaluate five independently identified genetic associations with ASD with autistic-like traits in the general population. In the study cohort, clinical phenotype and genomewide association genotype data were obtained from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The outcome measure used was the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a quantitative measure of autistic-like traits of individuals in the cohort. Total AQ scores were calculated for each individual, as well as scores for three subscales. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with ASD, reported in previously published genomewide association studies, were selected using a nominal cutoff value of P less than 1.0×10. We tested whether these five SNPs were associated with total AQ and the subscales, after adjustment for possible confounders. SNP rs4141463 located in the macro domain containing 2 (MACROD2) gene was significantly associated with the Communication/Mindreading subscale. No other SNP was significantly associated with total AQ or the subscales. The MACROD2 gene is a strong positional candidate risk factor for autistic-like traits in the general population.

  8. 46 CFR 199.150 - Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements... Vessels § 199.150 Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements; general. (a)(1) Each launching...) Unless expressly provided otherwise in this part, each survival craft must be provided with a launching...

  9. 46 CFR 133.150 - Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.150 Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements: General. (a) All survival craft required for abandonment by the total number of...

  10. Predicting transport survival of brindle and red rock lobsters Jasus edwardsii using haemolymph biochemistry and behaviour traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cedric J; Mendo, Tania C; Green, Bridget S; Gardner, Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Mortality events during live transport of Jasus edwardsii rock lobsters are common around the time of season openings in Tasmania, with lobsters from deeper fishing areas with pale shell colouration (brindle) being perceived as more susceptible than shallow-water, red-coloured (red) lobsters. The aims of this study were to assess and predict the vulnerability of brindle and red lobsters to extended emersion exposure using pre- and post-emersion data which included 28 haemolymph biochemical parameters and 5 behaviour traits. No effect of lobster shell colour on haemolymph biochemistry, behaviour traits and their vulnerability to emersion was found. A combined survival of 97% after 40h and 57% after 64h in a first experiment, and 37% after 64h in a second experiment, was observed. Behaviour traits (i.e., righting response, tail flips and three reflex behaviours) were poor indicator of survival. Haemolymph parameters were either unaffected by emersion (e.g., Brix index, protein and lipids), affected by emersion but not associated with mortality (e.g., total haemocyte counts, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, glucose and uric acid), or associated with mortality following a recovery period (e.g., pH, the sodium to potassium ratio, urea, and the activity of amylase). A build-up of anaerobic end-products and nitrogenous waste most likely resulted in the mortality. A model based on lobster size and the pre-emersion concentration of haemolymph bicarbonate and haemocyanin was found to be a useful indicator of future survival. This study provides promising leads towards the development of a blood based vulnerability test for live crustacean prior transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The genetic links between the big five personality traits and general interest domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M

    2011-12-01

    This is the first genetically informative study in which multiple informants were used to quantify the genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in general interests as well as the phenotypic and genetic links between general interests and Big Five personality traits. Self-reports and two peer ratings from 844 individuals, including 225 monozygotic and 113 dizygotic complete twin pairs, were collected. Multiple-rater scores (composites) revealed that the averaged levels of genetic and environmental effects on seven broad interest domains were similar to those on personality traits. Multivariate analyses showed that about 35% of the genetic and 9% of the environmental variance in interests were explained by personality domains, in particular by Openness. The findings suggest that interests cannot easily be considered as a byproduct of the interactions between personality genotypes and the environmental influences but rather as an internal regulation of behavior with an own genetic basis.

  12. Variants in TTC25 affect autistic trait in patients with autism spectrum disorder and general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojinovic, Dina; Brison, Nathalie; Ahmad, Shahzad; Noens, Ilse; Pappa, Irene; Karssen, Lennart C; Tiemeier, Henning; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Peeters, Hilde; Amin, Najaf

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic architecture. To identify genetic variants underlying ASD, we performed single-variant and gene-based genome-wide association studies using a dense genotyping array containing over 2.3 million single-nucleotide variants in a discovery sample of 160 families with at least one child affected with non-syndromic ASD using a binary (ASD yes/no) phenotype and a quantitative autistic trait. Replication of the top findings was performed in Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) cohort study. Significant association of quantitative autistic trait was observed with the TTC25 gene at 17q21.2 (effect size=10.2, P-value=3.4 × 10 -7 ) in the gene-based analysis. The gene also showed nominally significant association in the cohort-based ERF study (effect=1.75, P-value=0.05). Meta-analysis of discovery and replication improved the association signal (P-value meta =1.5 × 10 -8 ). No genome-wide significant signal was observed in the single-variant analysis of either the binary ASD phenotype or the quantitative autistic trait. Our study has identified a novel gene TTC25 to be associated with quantitative autistic trait in patients with ASD. The replication of association in a cohort-based study and the effect estimate suggest that variants in TTC25 may also be relevant for broader ASD phenotype in the general population. TTC25 is overexpressed in frontal cortex and testis and is known to be involved in cilium movement and thus an interesting candidate gene for autistic trait.

  13. General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.

  14. Trait mindfulness, reasons for living and general symptom severity as predictors of suicide probability in males with substance abuse or dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate suicide probability in Iranian males with substance abuse or dependence disorder and to investigate the predictors of suicide probability based on trait mindfulness, reasons for living and severity of general psychiatric symptoms.Participants were 324 individuals with substance abuse or dependence in an outpatient setting and prison. Reasons for living questionnaire, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Suicide probability Scale were used as instruments. Sample was selected based on convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS.The life-time prevalence of suicide attempt in the outpatient setting was35% and it was 42% in the prison setting. Suicide probability in the prison setting was significantly higher than in the outpatient setting (p<0.001. The severity of general symptom strongly correlated with suicide probability. Trait mindfulness, not reasons for living beliefs, had a mediating effect in the relationship between the severity of general symptoms and suicide probability. Fear of social disapproval, survival and coping beliefs and child-related concerns significantly predicted suicide probability (p<0.001.It could be suggested that trait mindfulness was more effective in preventing suicide probability than beliefs about reasons for living in individuals with substance abuse or dependence disorders. The severity of general symptom should be regarded as an important risk factor of suicide probability.

  15. Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder : Differences in psychopathology, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, CJM

    2000-01-01

    Four groups of patients with social phobia (SP) were compared with regard to psychopathologic characteristics, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Fifteen persons with discrete social phobia without any personality disorder (DSP), 28 persons with generalized social phobia

  16. Estimation and model selection of semiparametric multivariate survival functions under general censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Fan, Yanqin; Pouzo, Demian; Ying, Zhiliang

    2010-07-01

    We study estimation and model selection of semiparametric models of multivariate survival functions for censored data, which are characterized by possibly misspecified parametric copulas and nonparametric marginal survivals. We obtain the consistency and root- n asymptotic normality of a two-step copula estimator to the pseudo-true copula parameter value according to KLIC, and provide a simple consistent estimator of its asymptotic variance, allowing for a first-step nonparametric estimation of the marginal survivals. We establish the asymptotic distribution of the penalized pseudo-likelihood ratio statistic for comparing multiple semiparametric multivariate survival functions subject to copula misspecification and general censorship. An empirical application is provided.

  17. Lack of the PGA exopolysaccharide in Salmonella as an adaptive trait for survival in the host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Echeverz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria build biofilm matrices using a conserved exopolysaccharide named PGA or PNAG (poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Interestingly, while E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae encode the pgaABCD operon responsible for PGA synthesis, Salmonella lacks it. The evolutionary force driving this difference remains to be determined. Here, we report that Salmonella lost the pgaABCD operon after the divergence of Salmonella and Citrobacter clades, and previous to the diversification of the currently sequenced Salmonella strains. Reconstitution of the PGA machinery endows Salmonella with the capacity to produce PGA in a cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP dependent manner. Outside the host, the PGA polysaccharide does not seem to provide any significant benefit to Salmonella: resistance against chlorine treatment, ultraviolet light irradiation, heavy metal stress and phage infection remained the same as in a strain producing cellulose, the main biofilm exopolysaccharide naturally produced by Salmonella. In contrast, PGA production proved to be deleterious to Salmonella survival inside the host, since it increased susceptibility to bile salts and oxidative stress, and hindered the capacity of S. Enteritidis to survive inside macrophages and to colonize extraintestinal organs, including the gallbladder. Altogether, our observations indicate that PGA is an antivirulence factor whose loss may have been a necessary event during Salmonella speciation to permit survival inside the host.

  18. Do Depressive Traits and Hostility Predict Age-Related Decline in General Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Lykke Mortensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality traits are likely to be associated with stress and distress through the lifespan, and as a consequence these traits may influence the rate of age-related cognitive decline. The present study uses data from the Glostrup 1914 cohort to analyze potential effects of personality on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence.

  19. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G

    2016-01-01

    , which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis......-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care...

  20. How do drought and warming influence survival and wood traits of Picea mariana saplings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Lorena; Deslauriers, Annie; Giovannelli, Alessio; Beaulieu, Marilène; Delzon, Sylvain; Rossi, Sergio; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K

    2015-01-01

    Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to -3MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P₁₂, being on average around -3MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population

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    Margarita V. Alfimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74. We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p=0.007 and η2=0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p=0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  2. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, Margarita V; Korovaitseva, Galina I; Lezheiko, Tatyana V; Golimbet, Vera E

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB) on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74). We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p = 0.007 and η 2 = 0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p = 0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  3. "Subtypes" in the Presentation of Autistic Traits in the General Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin J.; Paton, Bryan; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the presentation of autistic traits in a large adult population sample (n = 2,343). Cluster analysis indicated two subgroups with clearly distinguishable trait profiles. One group (n = 1,059) reported greater social difficulties and lower detail orientation, while the second group (n = 1,284) reported lesser social…

  4. Genome-wide association mapping of growth dynamics detects time-specific and general quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac-Molenaar, J.A.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Granier, C.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Growth is a complex trait determined by the interplay between many genes, some of which play a role at a specific moment during development whereas others play a more general role. To identify the genetic basis of growth, natural variation in Arabidopsis rosette growth was followed in 324 accessions

  5. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  6. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Rodenburg

    Full Text Available Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions.To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake.Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses.Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight.Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  7. Dying like rabbits: general determinants of spatio-temporal variability in survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy; Palomares, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    1. Identifying general patterns of how and why survival rates vary across space and time is necessary to truly understand population dynamics of a species. However, this is not an easy task given the complexity and interactions of processes involved, and the interpopulation differences in main survival determinants. 2. Here, using European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a model and information from local studies, we investigated whether we could make inferences about trends and drivers of survival of a species that are generalizable to large spatio-temporal scales. To do this, we first focused on overall survival and then examined cause-specific mortalities, mainly predation and diseases, which may lead to those patterns. 3. Our results show that within the large-scale variability in rabbit survival, there exist general patterns that are explained by the integration of factors previously known to be important at the local level (i.e. age, climate, diseases, predation or density dependence). We found that both inter- and intrastudy survival rates increased in magnitude and decreased in variability as rabbits grow old, although this tendency was less pronounced in populations with epidemic diseases. Some causes leading to these higher mortalities in young rabbits could be the stronger effect of rainfall at those ages, as well as, other death sources like malnutrition or infanticide. 4. Predation is also greater for newborns and juveniles, especially in population without diseases. Apart from the effect of diseases, predation patterns also depended on factors, such as, density, season, and type and density of predators. Finally, we observed that infectious diseases also showed general relationships with climate, breeding (i.e. new susceptible rabbits) and age, although the association type varied between myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease. 5. In conclusion, large-scale patterns of spatio-temporal variability in rabbit survival emerge from the combination

  8. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Capacity planning of a wide-sense nonblocking generalized survivable network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

    2006-06-01

    Generalized survivable networks (GSNs) have two interesting properties that are essential attributes for future backbone networks--full survivability against link failures and support for dynamic traffic demands. GSNs incorporate the nonblocking network concept into the survivable network models. Given a set of nodes and a topology that is at least two-edge connected, a certain minimum capacity is required for each edge to form a GSN. The edge capacity is bounded because each node has an input-output capacity limit that serves as a constraint for any allowable traffic demand matrix. The GSN capacity planning problem is nondeterministic polynomial time (NP) hard. We first give a rigorous mathematical framework; then we offer two different solution approaches. The two-phase approach is fast, but the joint optimization approach yields a better bound. We carried out numerical computations for eight networks with different topologies and found that the cost of a GSN is only a fraction (from 52% to 89%) more than that of a static survivable network.

  10. Fruit flies may face a nutrient-dependent life-history trade-off between secondary sexual trait quality, survival and developmental rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lindsey J; Simpson, Stephen J; Polak, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Optimal life-history strategies are those that best allocate finite environmental resources to competing traits. We used the geometric framework for nutrition to evaluate life-history strategies followed by Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the condition-dependent performance of life-history traits, including the morphology of male secondary sexual characters, sex combs. We found that depending on their rearing environment flies faced different forms of trait trade-offs and accordingly followed different life-history strategies. High-energy, high-carbohydrate, low-protein diets supported development of the largest and most symmetrical sex combs, however, consistent with handicap models of sexual selection these foods were associated with reduced fly survival and developmental rate. Expressing the highest quality sex combs may have required secondary sexual trait quality to be traded-off with developmental rate, and our results indicated that flies unable to slow development died. As larval nutritional environments are predominantly determined by female oviposition substrate choice, we tested where mated female flies laid the most eggs. Mothers chose high-energy, high-protein foods associated with rapid larval development. Mothers avoided high-carbohydrate foods associated with maximal sex comb expression, showing they may avoid producing fewer 'sexy' sons in favour of producing offspring that develop rapidly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection by pollinators on floral traits in generalized Trollius ranunculoides (Ranunculaceae along altitudinal gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Zhao

    Full Text Available Abundance and visitation of pollinator assemblages tend to decrease with altitude, leading to an increase in pollen limitation. Thus increased competition for pollinators may generate stronger selection on attractive traits of flowers at high elevations and cause floral adaptive evolution. Few studies have related geographically variable selection from pollinators and intraspecific floral differentiation. We investigated the variation of Trollius ranunculoides flowers and its pollinators along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and measured phenotypic selection by pollinators on floral traits across populations. The results showed significant decline of visitation rate of bees along altitudinal gradients, while flies was unchanged. When fitness is estimated by the visitation rate rather than the seed number per plant, phenotypic selection on the sepal length and width shows a significant correlation between the selection strength and the altitude, with stronger selection at higher altitudes. However, significant decreases in the sepal length and width of T. ranunculoides along the altitudinal gradient did not correspond to stronger selection of pollinators. In contrast to the pollinator visitation, mean annual precipitation negatively affected the sepal length and width, and contributed more to geographical variation in measured floral traits than the visitation rate of pollinators. Therefore, the sepal size may have been influenced by conflicting selection pressures from biotic and abiotic selective agents. This study supports the hypothesis that lower pollinator availability at high altitude can intensify selection on flower attractive traits, but abiotic selection is preventing a response to selection from pollinators.

  12. Associations of Children's Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can

  13. General practitioners' home visit tendency and readmission-free survival after COPD hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Jesper; Larsen, Pia V; Paulsen, Maja S

    2014-01-01

    Background:The tendency of general practitioners (GPs) to conduct home visits is considered an important aspect of practices' accessibility and quality of care.Aims:To investigate whether GPs' tendency to conduct home visits affects 30-day readmission or death after hospitalisation with chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease.Methods:All Danish patients first-time hospitalised with COPD during the years 2006-2008 were identified. The association between the GP's tendency to conduct home visits and the time from hospital discharge until death or all-cause readmission was analysed by means of Cox...... been readmitted and 1.6% had died without readmission. A U-shaped dose-response relationship was found between GP home visit tendency and readmission-free survival. The lowest adjusted risk of readmission or death was recorded among patients who were listed with a general practice in which >20...

  14. General Inattentiveness Is a Long-Term Reliable Trait Independently Predictive of Psychological Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe

    2016-01-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the l......The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts......, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy...... adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress...

  15. Plant Survival and Mortality during Drought Can be Mediated by Co-occurring Species' Physiological and Morphological Traits: Results from a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X.; Mackay, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions among co-occurring species are mediated by plant physiology, morphology and environment. Without proper mechanisms to account for these factors, it remains difficult to predict plant mortality/survival under changing climate. A plant ecophysiological model, TREES, was extended to incorporate co-occurring species' belowground interaction for water. We used it to examine the interaction between two commonly co-occurring species during drought experiment, pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma), with contrasting physiological traits (vulnerability to cavitation and leaf water potential regulation). TREES was parameterized and validated using field-measured plant physiological traits. The root architecture (depth, profile, and root area to leaf area ratio) of juniper was adjusted to see how root morphology could affect the survival/mortality of its neighboring pine under both ambient and drought conditions. Drought suppressed plant water and carbon uptake, as well increased the average percentage loss of conductivity (PLC). Pine had 59% reduction in water uptake, 48% reduction in carbon uptake, and 38% increase in PLC, while juniper had 56% reduction in water uptake, 50% reduction in carbon and 29% increase in PLC, suggesting different vulnerability to drought as mediated by plant physiological traits. Variations in juniper root architecture further mediated drought stress on pine, from negative to positive. Different juniper root architecture caused variations in response of pine over drought (water uptake reduction ranged 0% ~63%, carbon uptake reduction ranged 0% ~ 70%, and PLC increase ranged 2% ~ 91%). Deeper or more uniformly distributed roots of juniper could effectively mitigate stress experienced by pine. In addition, the total water and carbon uptake tended to increase as the ratio of root area to leaf area increased while PLC showed non-monotonic response, suggesting the potential trade-off between maximizing resource uptake and

  16. Immune-mediated change in the expression of a sexual trait predicts offspring survival in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Chargé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The "good genes" theory of sexual selection postulates that females choose mates that will improve their offspring's fitness through the inheritance of paternal genes. In spite of the attention that this hypothesis has given rise to, the empirical evidence remains sparse, mostly because of the difficulties of controlling for the many environmental factors that may covary with both the paternal phenotype and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the hypothesis that offspring sired by males of a preferred phenotype should have better survival in an endangered bird, the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested if natural and experimentally-induced variation in courtship display (following an inflammatory challenge predicts the survival of offspring. Chicks were produced by artificial insemination of females, ensuring that any effect on survival could only arise from the transfer of paternal genes. One hundred and twenty offspring were equipped with radio transmitters, and their survival monitored in the wild for a year. This allowed assessment of the potential benefits of paternal genes in a natural setting, where birds experience the whole range of environmental hazards. Although natural variation in sire courtship display did not predict offspring survival, sires that withstood the inflammatory insult and maintained their courtship activity sired offspring with the best survival upon release. CONCLUSIONS: This finding is relevant both to enlighten the debate on "good genes" sexual selection and the management of supportive breeding programs.

  17. Towards a General Equation for the Survival of Microbes Transferred between Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    It should be possible to construct a general equation describing the survival of microbes transferred between Solar System bodies. Such an equation will be useful for constraining the likelihood of transfer of viable organisms between bodies throughout the lifetime of the Solar System, and for refining Planetary Protection constraints placed on future missions. We will discuss the construction of such an equation, present a plan for definition of pertinent factors, and will describe what research will be necessary to quantify those factors. Description: We will examine the case of microbes transferred between Solar System bodies as residents in meteorite material ejected from one body (the "intial body") and deposited on another (the "target body"). Any microbes transferred in this fashion will experience four distinct phases between their initial state on the initial body, up to the point where they colonize the target body. Each of these phases features phenomena capable of reducing or exterminating the initial microbial population. They are: 1) Ejection: Material is ejected from the initial body, imparting shock followed by rapid desiccation and cooling. 2) Transport: Material travels through interplanetary space to the target body, exposing a hypothetical microbial population to extended desiccation, irradiation, and temperature extremes. 3) Infall: Material is deposited on the target body, diminishing the microbial population through shock, mass loss, and heating. 4) Adaptation: Any microbes which survive the previous three phases must then adapt to new chemophysical conditions of the target body. Differences in habitability between the initial and target bodies dominate this phase. A suitable general-form equation can be assembled from the above factors by defining the initial number of microbes in an ejected mass and applying multiplicitive factors based on the physical phenomena inherent to each phase. It should be possible to present the resulting equation

  18. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Maree Jones

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A genome-wide association study using 2,462,046 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 x 10-8. However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 x 10-5 add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD aetiology, PRKCB1 and CBLN1.The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 x 10-6, is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 x 10-6 is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1 gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  19. A powerful parent-of-origin effects test for qualitative traits on X chromosome in general pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi-Lei; You, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jian-Long; Fung, Wing Kam; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

    2018-01-05

    Genomic imprinting is one of the well-known epigenetic factors causing the association between traits and genes, and has generally been examined by detecting parent-of-origin effects of alleles. A lot of methods have been proposed to test for parent-of-origin effects on autosomes based on nuclear families and general pedigrees. Although these parent-of-origin effects tests on autosomes have been available for more than 15 years, there has been no statistical test developed to test for parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome, until the parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPAT) and its extensions were recently proposed. However, these methods on X chromosome are only applicable to nuclear families and thus are not suitable for general pedigrees. In this article, we propose the pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPPAT) statistic to test for parent-of-origin effects in the presence of association, which can accommodate general pedigrees. When there are missing genotypes in some pedigrees, we further develop the Monte Carlo pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XMCPPAT) to test for parent-of-origin effects, by inferring the missing genotypes given the observed genotypes based on a Monte Carlo estimation. An extensive simulation study has been carried out to investigate the type I error rates and the powers of the proposed tests. Our simulation results show that the proposed methods control the size well under the null hypothesis of no parent-of-origin effects. Moreover, XMCPPAT substantially outperforms the existing tests and has a much higher power than XPPAT which only uses complete nuclear families (with both parents) from pedigrees. We also apply the proposed methods to analyze rheumatoid arthritis data for their practical use. The proposed XPPAT and XMCPPAT test statistics are valid and powerful in detecting parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome for qualitative traits based on general pedigrees and thus are recommended.

  20. Assessment of General and Specific Combining Ability and Heterosis of Some Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Lines for Vegetative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moradipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables. Plant length is a quantitative trait is controlled by many genes. These traits are difficult to study due to the complex nature of their inheritance. The combining ability estimation is useful in determining the breeding value of cucumber lines by suggesting the appropriate use in a breeding program. In studying combining ability, the most commonly utilized experimental approach is the diallel design. General combining ability is a measure of additive genetic action; and specific combining ability (SCA is deviation from additivity. General combining ability is a main effect and SCA is an interaction. The aim is to determine the breeding value of the cross. Heterosis has been utilized to exploit dominance variance through production of hybrids. There are reports on positive and negative heterosis in cucumber however, there are differences between reports. This research was conducted to estimate general and specific combining ability and heterosis in cucumber inbred lines and hybrids to produce hybrids with high yield and quality. Material and Methods: In the spring of 2014, the seven parental lines and their 21 F1 hybrid were planted at the University of Guilan, in loamy sand field. Three replications were arranged in a randomized complete block design. The sandy loam soil was prepared by plowing and disking and formed into raised beds by plowed and harrow prior to plant establishment. Rows were on 1 m centers and plants were about 25 cm apart in the row. Prior to planting 150 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen from urea and 100 kg·ha-1 of phosphorous from triple superphosphate and 80 kg·ha-1 of potassium sulfate was applied. Side dressing with the same amount of nitrogen and phosphorus occurred at 50% flowering stage. Irrigation with 250 m3·ha-1, three times weekly, was begun at plant first flowering. In each replication, 12 individuals of each line or hybrid were

  1. 46 CFR 108.550 - Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.550 Survival craft.... (c) Each survival craft must be arranged to clear each leg, column, footing, brace, mat, and each...

  2. Development of a likelihood of survival scoring system for hospitalized equine neonates using generalized boosted regression modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A Dembek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical management of critically ill equine neonates (foals can be expensive and labor intensive. Predicting the odds of foal survival using clinical information could facilitate the decision-making process for owners and clinicians. Numerous prognostic indicators and mathematical models to predict outcome in foals have been published; however, a validated scoring method to predict survival in sick foals has not been reported. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system that can be used by clinicians to predict likelihood of survival of equine neonates based on clinical data obtained on admission. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 339 hospitalized foals of less than four days of age admitted to three equine hospitals were included to develop the model. Thirty seven variables including historical information, physical examination and laboratory findings were analyzed by generalized boosted regression modeling (GBM to determine which ones would be included in the survival score. Of these, six variables were retained in the final model. The weight for each variable was calculated using a generalized linear model and the probability of survival for each total score was determined. The highest (7 and the lowest (0 scores represented 97% and 3% probability of survival, respectively. Accuracy of this survival score was validated in a prospective study on data from 283 hospitalized foals from the same three hospitals. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the survival score in the prospective population were 96%, 71%, 91%, and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The survival score developed in our study was validated in a large number of foals with a wide range of diseases and can be easily implemented using data available in most equine hospitals. GBM was a useful tool to develop the survival score. Further evaluations of this scoring system in field conditions are needed.

  3. Effects of 4-nonylphenol, fish predation and food availability on survival and life history traits of Daphnia magna straus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beklioglu, Meryem; Banu Akkas, S; Elif Ozcan, H; Bezirci, Gizem; Togan, Inci

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compound effect of environmentally relevant 4-nonylphenol (NP) concentrations and natural stressors-namely fish predation and food availability-on Daphnia magna, which were exposed to four NP concentrations (0, 1, 5 and 10 microg l(-1)) under optimum or low food concentrations (1.00 and 0.075 mg C l(-1), respectively) in water (un)conditioned by a fish predator (Alburnus alburnus). A(n) "environmentally relevant" and "no observable effect" concentration (NOEC) of NP (10 microg l(-1)) resulted in a significant reduction (P ecosystems. The deterioration of the life-history traits-namely, NP-induced delay in the age at first reproduction (P ecosystems. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking into account environmentally realistic conditions while investigating the effects of NOEC levels of toxicants on non-target aquatic species.

  4. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Spisak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the attractiveness halo – a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition versus cooperation between groups and exploratory change versus stable exploitation. It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait – for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation – whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait. The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed.

  5. The influence of different salinity conditions on egg buoyancy and development and yolk sac larval survival and morphometric traits of Baltic Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Petereit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The small pelagic sprat (Sprattus sprattus is a key ecologic player in the Baltic Sea. However, there is long-term variability in recruitment which is thought to be influenced by fluctuations in abiotic and biotic conditions experienced during the early life stages. This study concentrates on the influence of different ambient salinities on sprat egg development, egg buoyancy and survival as well as early yolk sac larval morphometric traits. Egg buoyancy significantly decreased with increasing salinity experienced during fertilization and/or incubation experiments. Field egg buoyancy measurements in 2007 and 2008 exhibited annual and seasonal differences in specific gravity, potentially associated with changes in adult sprat vertical distribution. Neither egg development time nor the duration of the yolk sac phase differed among salinity treatments. At eye pigmentation, larval standard length exhibited high variance among individuals but did not differ among treatments. The largest ecological impact of salinity experienced during spawning was the modification the buoyancy of eggs and yolk sac larvae, which determines their vertical habitat in the Baltic Sea. There are strong thermo- and oxyclines in the Baltic Sea, and thus salinity can indirectly impact the survival of these early life stages by modifying the ambient temperatures and oxygen conditions experienced.

  6. Do depressive traits and hostility predict age-related decline in general intelligence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Barefoot, John Calvin; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline...... and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between...... the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence....

  7. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-03-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.

  8. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC

  9. Relationship between nurse's general health and their personal occupational traits in Al-Zahra Hospital of Isfahan, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Adibi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Health state is one of the most important factors in their life. Individuals may be subject to threatening factors in different ways. Nurses are one main group of community whose health may be threatened due to their occupational environment. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating general health of nurses and their personal occupational traits. Method: This study is correlation-descriptive research. Statistical population consists of 220 nurses working in Al-Zahra hospital selected by random sampling. Instrument of this study includes a demographic questionnaire and a standard Goldberg 28-question questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Findings: in this study, nurses are subject to occupational events, physical and chemical harmful materials, biologic harmful materials, mental/ ergonomic harmful occupational factors. And there exists relation between their general health and their age, number of children and marital status. But no relation has been seen with their surgery records, rate of sport they do, vaccination, the unit in which they work, their occupational environment, their occupational record and posts.

  10. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  11. Specific personality traits and general personality dysfunction as predictors of the presence and severity of personality disorders in a clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of specific personality traits and general personality dysfunction in relation to the presence and severity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV]; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorders in a Dutch

  12. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Hengartner (Michael P.); D. van der Linden (Dimitri); L. Bohleber (Laura); A. von Wyl (Agnes)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the

  13. Associations of Children’s Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. Objectives To examine associations of children’s appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Methods Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009–2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children’s appetitive traits, children’s dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Results Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Conclusions Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children. PMID:23227194

  14. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R.; Blaker, Nancy M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Moore, Fhionna R.; Krebbers, Kleis F. B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes) and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the “attractiveness halo”—a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition vs. cooperation between groups and exploratory change vs. stable exploitation). It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait—for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation—whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait). The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed. PMID:25414653

  15. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A

    2009-01-01

    disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental......OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... problems on visual analogue scales (VAS-somatic and VAS-mental). Cardiac diagnosis, noncardiac comorbidity, history of mental disorder, and the number of daily social contacts were noted. Survival was followed for 6 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 33 (38.4%) patients had mental disorder, 6 dementia, 11 major...

  16. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maisa da-Silva; Gil, Luiz Herman S; e-Silva, Alexandre de-Almeida

    2012-08-02

    The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids). Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship), which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly affected by larval food availability. Greater larval food supply

  17. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  18. Living with parents or grandparents increases social capital and survival: 2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muennig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After nearly a century-long trend toward single-family living arrangements, people in wealthy nations are increasingly living in multi-generational households. Multi-generational living arrangements can, in theory, increase psychological, social, and financial capital—factors associated with improvements in health and longevity. Methods: We conducted a survival analysis using the 2014 General Social Survey-National Death Index, a prospective multi-year survey. We explored whether single generational living arrangements were associated with a higher risk of mortality than multi-generational living arrangements. Results: We explored this association for different groups (e.g., the foreign-born and those with high self-reported stress in family relationships. Healthy subjects who live in two-generation households were found to have lower premature mortality (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.82, 0.99. Otherwise, we found little evidence that living arrangements matter for the respondents’ risk of premature mortality. Conclusions: Healthy people living in two-generation households have longer survival than healthy people living on their own. Keywords: Immigrant Health, Survival, Social capital and health

  19. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  20. Geriatric emergency general surgery: Survival and outcomes in a low-middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil A; Haider, Adil H; Riviello, Robert; Zogg, Cheryl K; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Latif, Asad; Rios Diaz, Arturo J; Rehman, Zia; Zafar, Hasnain

    2015-08-01

    Geriatric patients remain largely unstudied in low-middle income health care settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the epidemiology and outcomes of older versus younger adults with emergency general surgical conditions in South Asia. Discharge data from March 2009 to April 2014 were obtained for all adult patients (≥16 years) with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes consistent with an emergency general surgery condition as defined by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Multivariable regression analyses compared patients >65 years of age with patients ≤65 years for differences in all-cause mortality, major complications, and duration of hospital stay. Models were adjusted for potential confounding owing to patient demographic and clinical case-mix data with propensity scores. We included 13,893 patients; patients >65 years constituted 15% (n = 2,123) of the cohort. Relative to younger patients, older adults were more likely to present with a number of emergency general surgery conditions, including gastrointestinal bleeding (odds ratio OR [95% CI], 2.63[1.99-3.46]), resuscitation (2.17 [1.67-2.80]), and peptic ulcer disease (2.09 [1.40-3.10]). They had an 89% greater risk-adjusted odds (1.89 [1.55-2.29]) of complications and a 63% greater odds (1.63 [1.21-2.20]) of mortality. Restricted to patients undergoing operative interventions, older adults had 95% greater odds (1.95 [1.29-2.94]) of complications and 117% greater odds (2.17 [1.62-2.91]) of mortality. Understanding unique needs of geriatric patients is critical to enhancing the management and prioritization of appropriate care in developing settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conformity to the surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines among physicians in a general intensive care unit in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'ayi, V; Karuga, R

    2010-08-01

    There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Cross sectional observational study. The general intensive care unit, Aga Khan University Hospital,Nairobi. Admitting physicians from all specialties in the general intensive care unit. The physicians had high conformity rates of 92% and 96% for the fluid resuscitation and use of va so pressors respectively for the initial resuscitation bundle. They had moderate conformity rates for blood cultures prior to administering antibiotics (57%) and administration of antibiotics within first hour of recognition of septic shock (54%). There was high conformity rate to the glucose control policy (81%), use of protective lung strategy in acute lung injury/Acute respiratory distress syndrome, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (100%) and stress ulcer prophylaxis (100%) in the management bundle. Conformity was moderate for use of sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxant policy (69%), continuous renal replacement therapies (54%) and low for steroid policy (35%), administration ofdrotrecogin alfa (0%) and selective digestive decontamination (15%). There is varying conformity to the international sepsis guidelines among physicians caring for patients in our general ICU. Since increased conformity would improve survival and reduce morbidity, there is need for sustained education and guideline based performance improvement.

  2. Integrative genomic analysis identifies ancestry-related expression quantitative trait loci on DNA polymerase β and supports the association of genetic ancestry with survival disparities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Devarajan, Karthik; Blackman, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Denise; Luce, Danièle; Deloumeaux, Jacqueline; Duflo, Suzy; Liu, Jeffrey C; Mehra, Ranee; Kulathinal, Rob J; Ragin, Camille C

    2017-03-01

    African Americans with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have a lower survival rate than whites. This study investigated the functional importance of ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HNSCC and also examined the effect of functionally important genetic elements on racial disparities in HNSCC survival. Ancestry-informative SNPs, RNA sequencing, methylation, and copy number variation data for 316 oral cavity and laryngeal cancer patients were analyzed across 178 DNA repair genes. The results of expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses were also replicated with a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data set. The effects of eQTLs on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated. Five ancestry-related SNPs were identified as cis-eQTLs in the DNA polymerase β (POLB) gene (false discovery rate [FDR] ancestry (P = .002). An association was observed between these eQTLs and OS (P ancestry-related alleles could act as eQTLs in HNSCC and support the association of ancestry-related genetic factors with survival disparities in patients diagnosed with oral cavity and laryngeal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:849-60. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. Association between the Five Factor personality traits and perceived stress: is the effect mediated by general self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Ill-health resulting from chronic stress is influenced by personality traits leading to different ways of appraising and coping with life's daily hassles. Using a large population sample the study aimed to investigate possible associations between perceived stress and the personality dimensions......-significant - whilst neuroticism had a positive association. The associations with agreeableness and openness became positive and significant, respectively, when GSE was included. All five personality-stress models were mediated by GSE, with extroversion and conscientiousness having the strongest mediating effect....... The strongest stress-association was found for neuroticism. GSE was shown to change the impact and interpretation of the personality dimensions on perceived stress. These results indicate that GSE is an important factor to consider in the link between personality and perceived stress....

  4. The Utility of General and School-Specific Personality Traits and an Examination of Their Relationship over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschleman, Kevin J.; Burns, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A university student sample was used to compare school-specific (i.e., personality at school) and general personality (i.e., personality across all life domains) over eight weeks. School-specific and general personality incrementally predicted change in school-specific criteria (i.e., school satisfaction and school citizenship behaviors). Less…

  5. The median hazard ratio: a useful measure of variance and general contextual effects in multilevel survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Wagner, Philippe; Merlo, Juan

    2017-03-15

    Multilevel data occurs frequently in many research areas like health services research and epidemiology. A suitable way to analyze such data is through the use of multilevel regression models (MLRM). MLRM incorporate cluster-specific random effects which allow one to partition the total individual variance into between-cluster variation and between-individual variation. Statistically, MLRM account for the dependency of the data within clusters and provide correct estimates of uncertainty around regression coefficients. Substantively, the magnitude of the effect of clustering provides a measure of the General Contextual Effect (GCE). When outcomes are binary, the GCE can also be quantified by measures of heterogeneity like the Median Odds Ratio (MOR) calculated from a multilevel logistic regression model. Time-to-event outcomes within a multilevel structure occur commonly in epidemiological and medical research. However, the Median Hazard Ratio (MHR) that corresponds to the MOR in multilevel (i.e., 'frailty') Cox proportional hazards regression is rarely used. Analogously to the MOR, the MHR is the median relative change in the hazard of the occurrence of the outcome when comparing identical subjects from two randomly selected different clusters that are ordered by risk. We illustrate the application and interpretation of the MHR in a case study analyzing the hazard of mortality in patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction at hospitals in Ontario, Canada. We provide R code for computing the MHR. The MHR is a useful and intuitive measure for expressing cluster heterogeneity in the outcome and, thereby, estimating general contextual effects in multilevel survival analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Big Five Personality Traits and the General Factor of Personality as Moderators of Stress and Coping Reactions Following an Emergency Alarm on a Swiss University Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; van der Linden, Dimitri; Bohleber, Laura; von Wyl, Agnes

    2017-02-01

    We conducted an online survey including 306 participants aged 18-64 years to assess the general factor of personality (GFP) and Big Five personality traits in relation to individual stress and coping reactions following a shooting emergency alarm at a Swiss university campus. Although the emergency eventually turned out to be a false alarm, various witnesses showed pronounced distress owing to a vast police operation. The GFP structure was replicated using two alternative modelling approaches. Neuroticism related substantially to acute fear and traumatic distress as well as to more enduring maladaptive coping. Agreeableness was negatively associated with the coping strategy of medication use, whereas both agreeableness and conscientiousness related positively to social activity following the emergency. The GFP related moderately to peri-traumatic distress and showed a substantial negative association with medication use and a strong positive association with social activity. In conclusion, both the GFP and Big Five traits significantly moderate stress responses following a stressful life event. The GFP predominantly relates to socially adaptive coping, whereas in particular neuroticism accounts for acute stress reactions such as fear and traumatic distress. These findings support the notion that personality influences how persons react in the face of adversity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Beyond IQ: A Latent State-Trait Analysis of General Intelligence, Dynamic Decision Making, and Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Daniel; Hagemann, Dirk; Schankin, Andrea; Hager, Marieke; Funke, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive performance measures beyond IQ. In particular, we investigated the psychometric properties of dynamic decision making variables and implicit learning variables and their relation with general intelligence and professional success. N = 173 employees from different companies and occupational groups completed…

  8. Area-based cell colony surviving fraction evaluation: A novel fully automatic approach using general-purpose acquisition hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Rundo, Leonardo; Conti, Vincenzo; Minafra, Luigi; Cammarata, Francesco Paolo; Mauri, Giancarlo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Porcino, Nunziatina

    2017-10-01

    The current methodology for the Surviving Fraction (SF) measurement in clonogenic assay, which is a technique to study the anti-proliferative effect of treatments on cell cultures, involves manual counting of cell colony forming units. This procedure is operator-dependent and error-prone. Moreover, the identification of the exact colony number is often not feasible due to the high growth rate leading to the adjacent colony merging. As a matter of fact, conventional assessment does not deal with the colony size, which is generally correlated with the delivered radiation dose or the administered cytotoxic agent. Considering that the Area Covered by Colony (ACC) is proportional to the colony number and size as well as to the growth rate, we propose a novel fully automatic approach exploiting Circle Hough Transform, to automatically detect the wells in the plate, and local adaptive thresholding, which calculates the percentage of ACC for the SF quantification. This measurement relies just on this covering percentage and does not consider the colony number, preventing inconsistencies due to intra- and inter-operator variability. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach, we compared the SFs obtained by our automatic ACC-based method against the conventional counting procedure. The achieved results (r = 0.9791 and r = 0.9682 on MCF7 and MCF10A cells, respectively) showed values highly correlated with the measurements using the traditional approach based on colony number alone. The proposed computer-assisted methodology could be integrated in laboratory practice as an expert system for the SF evaluation in clonogenic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Genetic Loci Jointly Influencing Schizophrenia Risk and the Cognitive Traits of Verbal-Numerical Reasoning, Reaction Time, and General Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeland, Olav B; Frei, Oleksandr; Kauppi, Karolina; Hill, W David; Li, Wen; Wang, Yunpeng; Krull, Florian; Bettella, Francesco; Eriksen, Jon A; Witoelar, Aree; Davies, Gail; Fan, Chun C; Thompson, Wesley K; Lam, Max; Lencz, Todd; Chen, Chi-Hua; Ueland, Torill; Jönsson, Erik G; Djurovic, Srdjan; Deary, Ian J; Dale, Anders M; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with widespread cognitive impairments. Although cognitive deficits are one of the factors most strongly associated with functional outcome in schizophrenia, current treatment strategies largely fail to ameliorate these impairments. To develop more efficient treatment strategies in patients with schizophrenia, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of these cognitive deficits is needed. Accumulating evidence indicates that genetic risk of schizophrenia may contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To identify genomic regions jointly influencing schizophrenia and the cognitive domains of reaction time and verbal-numerical reasoning, as well as general cognitive function, a phenotype that captures the shared variation in performance across cognitive domains. Combining data from genome-wide association studies from multiple phenotypes using conditional false discovery rate analysis provides increased power to discover genetic variants and could elucidate shared molecular genetic mechanisms. Data from the following genome-wide association studies, published from July 24, 2014, to January 17, 2017, were combined: schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium cohort (n = 79 757 [cases, 34 486; controls, 45 271]); verbal-numerical reasoning (n = 36 035) and reaction time (n = 111 483) in the UK Biobank cohort; and general cognitive function in CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) (n = 53 949) and COGENT (Cognitive Genomics Consortium) (n = 27 888). Genetic loci identified by conditional false discovery rate analysis. Brain messenger RNA expression and brain expression quantitative trait locus functionality were determined. Among the participants in the genome-wide association studies, 21 loci jointly influencing schizophrenia and cognitive traits were identified: 2 loci shared between schizophrenia and verbal-numerical reasoning, 6 loci shared between schizophrenia and

  10. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival: evidence from the Long Life Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina; Arbeeva, Liubov; Wu, Deqing; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Christensen, Kaare; Yashin, Anatoliy I

    2016-11-01

    The apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a classic example of a gene exhibiting pleiotropism. We examine potential pleiotropic associations of the apoE2 allele in three biodemographic cohorts of long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses from the Long Life Family Study, and intermediate mechanisms, which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis detected favorable associations of the ε2 allele with lower LDL-C levels, lower risks of HD, and better survival. The ε2 allele was associated with LDL-C in each gender and biodemographic cohort, including long-living individuals, offspring, and spouses, resulting in highly significant association in the entire sample (β = -7.1, p = 6.6 × 10 -44 ). This allele was significantly associated with HD in long-living individuals and offspring (relative risk [RR] = 0.60, p = 3.1 × 10 -6 ) but this association was not mediated by LDL-C. The protective effect on survival was specific for long-living women but it was not explained by LDL-C and HD in the adjusted model (RR = 0.70, p = 2.1 × 10 -2 ). These results show that ε2 allele may favorably influence LDL-C, HD, and survival through three mechanisms. Two of them (HD- and survival-related) are pronounced in the long-living parents and their offspring; the survival-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care and personalized medicine.

  11. A comparative study of generalized linear mixed modelling and artificial neural network approach for the joint modelling of survival and incidence of Dengue patients in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapugoda, J. C.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Survival time of patients with a disease and the incidence of that particular disease (count) is frequently observed in medical studies with the data of a clustered nature. In many cases, though, the survival times and the count can be correlated in a way that, diseases that occur rarely could have shorter survival times or vice versa. Due to this fact, joint modelling of these two variables will provide interesting and certainly improved results than modelling these separately. Authors have previously proposed a methodology using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) by joining the Discrete Time Hazard model with the Poisson Regression model to jointly model survival and count model. As Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) has become a most powerful computational tool to model complex non-linear systems, it was proposed to develop a new joint model of survival and count of Dengue patients of Sri Lanka by using that approach. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a model using ANN approach and compare the results with the previously developed GLMM model. As the response variables are continuous in nature, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) approach was adopted to model the data. To compare the model fit, measures such as root mean square error (RMSE), absolute mean error (AME) and correlation coefficient (R) were used. The measures indicate the GRNN model fits the data better than the GLMM model.

  12. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  13. Statistical study of clone survival curves after irradiation in one or two stages. Comparison and generalization of different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachet, Bernard.

    1975-01-01

    A statistical study was carried out on 208 survival curves for chlorella subjected to γ or particle radiations. The computing programmes used were written in Fortran. The different experimental causes contributing to the variance of a survival rate are analyzed and consequently the experiments can be planned. Each curve was fitted to four models by the weighted least squares method applied to non-linear functions. The validity of the fits obtained can be checked by the F test. It was possible to define the confidence and prediction zones around an adjusted curve by weighting of the residual variance, in spite of error on the doses delivered; the confidence limits can them be fixed for a dose estimated from an exact or measured survival. The four models adopted were compared for the precision of their fit (by a non-parametric simultaneous comparison test) and the scattering of their adjusted parameters: Wideroe's model gives a very good fit with the experimental points in return for a scattering of its parameters, which robs them of their presumed meaning. The principal component analysis showed the statistical equivalence of the 1 and 2 hit target models. Division of the irradiation into two doses, the first fixed by the investigator, leads to families of curves for which the equation was established from that of any basic model expressing the dose survival relationship in one-stage irradiation [fr

  14. The impact of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on survival in the general population – the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorpen Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met which has been related to common diseases like cancer, psychiatric illness and myocardial infarction. Whether the Val158Met polymorphism is associated with survival has not been evaluated in the general population. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism on survival in a population-based cohort. Methods The sample comprised 2979 non-diabetic individuals who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in the period 1995–97. The subjects were followed up with respect to mortality throughout year 2004. Results 212 men and 183 women died during the follow up. No association between codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism and survival was found. The unadjusted relative risk of death by non-ischemic heart diseases with Met/Met or Met/Val genotypes was 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–9.00 compared to Val/Val genotype. When we adjusted for age, gender, smoking, coffee intake and body mass index the relative risk decreased to 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–8.00. Conclusion During 10 year of follow-up, the Val158Met polymorphism had no impact on survival in a general population. Difference in mortality rates from non-ischemic heart diseases may be incidental and should be evaluated in other studies.

  15. The location of the Trait Emotional Intelligence in the Zuckerman's Personality Model space and the role of General Intelligence and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eduardo; García, Luis Francisco; Aluja, Anton

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between Emotional Intelligence (EI) measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and personality measured by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) with the purpose of analyzing similarities and differences of both psychological constructs. Additionally, we studied the relationship among EI, personality, General Intelligence (GI) and a social position index (SPI). Results showed that the ZKA-PQ predicts the 66% (facets) and the 64% (factors) of the TEIQue. High scores in EI correlated negatively with Neuroticism (r: -0.66) and Aggressiveness (r: -0.27); and positively with Extraversion (r: 0.62). Oblique factorial analyses demonstrated that TEIQue scales were located basically in the Neuroticism and Extraversion factors. The SPI and GI no loaded in any factor. These findings showed that EI is a not a distinct construct of personality and it cannot be isolated in the ZKA-PQ personality space. GI is related with the SPI (r: 0.26), and EI correlated with GI (r: 0.18) and SPI (r: 0.16). Nevertheless, we found differences between GI high groups and the TEIQue and ZKA-PQ factors when controlling age and sex. These findings are discussed in the individual differences context. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY OF INITIAL PARENTAL FORMS IN TOMATO FOR COMPLEX OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS TO DEVELOP HYBRIDS F1 OF CHERRY AND COCKTAIL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rechets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of estimation of general and specific combining ability of male and female parental tomato forms were given for complex of traits. The estimation was carried out according to incomplete diallel crosses 15x15. Such varities   as   ‘Trapeza’,  Rosovaya  kapelka’,  ‘Seniorita’, ‘Ocharovanie’,  ‘Tigris’   ‘Vishnya  Zheltaya’  (Gavrish, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding, and  lines: ‘46/06’,  ‘49/09’,  ‘295/09’,  ‘336/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘357/11’, ‘388/09’ (nor, ‘498’ (selection of TARI were used as intial breeding accessions, differing in bush type (determinate and indeterminate, duration of vegetative phase (ultraearly,  early, medium early, middle-ripening, fruit  shape (rounded, oval, fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with the gene nor, fruit weight (10 g. and more, brush structure (dense, friable. As a results, ‘Trapeza’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘Seniorita’, and lines: ‘295/10’, ‘49/09’,  ‘498’,  ‘357/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘388/09’  (nor were selected and recommended to be used in breeding program for development of heterotic hybrids with high fruit setting and generative bush type. The promising hybrids F1 with high constants of specific combining ability for a complex of economically valuable traits have been observed. Because of different lines and accessions were used in crossings, these hybrids varied in internode length of cluster type, classical or shorten; rounded or oval fruit shape; fruit  color, red (F1   combinations ‘354/11’ х ‘Seniorita’, ‘Trapeza’ х  ‘L.49/09’,  L.  ‘49/09’  х  L.354/11, pink (F1 combination ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’ х ‘L.354/11’, yellow (F1 combination ‘Ocharovaniye’ х  ‘Vishiya Zheltaya’, deep brown (F1 combination  ‘L.357/11’ х ‘L.354/11’.

  17. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  18. Quantitative genetic methods depending on the nature of the phenotypic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villemereuil, Pierre

    2018-01-24

    A consequence of the assumptions of the infinitesimal model, one of the most important theoretical foundations of quantitative genetics, is that phenotypic traits are predicted to be most often normally distributed (so-called Gaussian traits). But phenotypic traits, especially those interesting for evolutionary biology, might be shaped according to very diverse distributions. Here, I show how quantitative genetics tools have been extended to account for a wider diversity of phenotypic traits using first the threshold model and then more recently using generalized linear mixed models. I explore the assumptions behind these models and how they can be used to study the genetics of non-Gaussian complex traits. I also comment on three recent methodological advances in quantitative genetics that widen our ability to study new kinds of traits: the use of "modular" hierarchical modeling (e.g., to study survival in the context of capture-recapture approaches for wild populations); the use of aster models to study a set of traits with conditional relationships (e.g., life-history traits); and, finally, the study of high-dimensional traits, such as gene expression. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Survival of HIV/AIDS patients with antiretroviral therapy in association with first-line regimens from 2007 – 2010 in Haji AdamMalik general hospital Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembaren, T.; Ginting, Y.; Saragih, R. H.

    2018-03-01

    The mortality related to AIDS have decreased dramatically among HIV infected patients taking HAART. HAART is the combination of at least 3 antiretroviral drugs based on the recommendation of WHO. The recent guideline for 1st line therapy recommended by the Indonesian Ministry of Health was Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine (ZDV+3TC+NVP), Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (ZDV+3TC+EFV), Stavudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine (d4T+3TC+NVP), Stavudine/Lamivudine/Efavirenz (d4T+3TC+EFV). Due to a side effect of Stavudine, Ministry of Health plan to pass out Stavudin from the regimens for 1stline therapy.We wanted to evaluate the survival of HIV/AIDS patients with first-line regimens in HAM general hospital Medan. A cohort retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the survival of HIV/AIDS patients taking a combination of 1st line antiretroviral therapy between January 2007 and December 2010. From 2007-2010, among 609 HIV/AIDS patients with first-line ARV medication, 77.5% were male, and 22.5% were female. The most common risk infection was heterosexual. The majority of the patients were in 25-34 years old group. Most of the patients with CD4 1-50 cell/mm3. 2 years survival rate in HIV/AIDS patients taking ZDV+3TC+NVP, ZDV+3TC+EFV, d4T+3TC+NVP, d4T+3TC+EFV were 61.5%, 61.2%, 57.5% and 59.3% respectively. There were no significant differences of 24 months survival in both regiment with or without d4T, 61.8% vs 63.6%.

  20. Optimism and survival: does an optimistic outlook predict better survival at advanced ages? A twelve-year follow-up of Danish nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Jeune, Bernard; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies examining predictors of survival among the oldest-old have primarily focused on objective measures, such as physical function and health status. Only a few studies have examined the effect of personality traits on survival, such as optimism. The aim of this study...... physical and cognitive functioning and disease were taken into account the association between optimism and survival weakened in both sexes, but the general pattern persisted. Optimistic women were still at lower risk of death compared to neutral women [HR 0.85, 95 % CI (0.74-0.97)]. The risk of death...

  1. A Simple Linear Regression Method for Quantitative Trait Loci Linkage Analysis With Censored Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Carl A.; McRae, Allan F.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    Standard quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping techniques commonly assume that the trait is both fully observed and normally distributed. When considering survival or age-at-onset traits these assumptions are often incorrect. Methods have been developed to map QTL for survival traits; however, they are both computationally intensive and not available in standard genome analysis software packages. We propose a grouped linear regression method for the analysis of continuous survival data. Using...

  2. Survival in individuals with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) in comparison to a general population with known smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ekström, Magnus; Rönmark, Eva; Lindberg, Anne; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge about the natural history of severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is limited. Our aim was to compare the survival of PiZZ individuals with randomly selected controls from the Swedish general population.The PiZZ subjects (n=1585) were selected from the Swedish National AATD Register. The controls (n=5999) were randomly selected from the Swedish population register. Smoking habits were known for all subjects.Median follow-up times for the PiZZ subjects (731 never-smokers) and controls (3179 never-smokers) were 12 and 17 years, respectively (psmoking habits and presence of respiratory symptoms, the risk of death was still significantly higher for the PiZZ individuals than for the controls, hazard ratio (HR) 3.2 (95% CI 2.8-3.6; psmoking PiZZ individuals identified by screening, compared to never-smoking controls, HR 1.2 (95% CI 0.6-2.2).The never-smoking PiZZ individuals identified by screening had a similar life expectancy to the never-smokers in the Swedish general population. Early diagnosis of AAT deficiency is of utmost importance. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  3. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of pod related traits in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... assistant breeding selection. Key words: Soybean, pod traits, QTL, different environments. INTRODUCTION. Yield related traits in soybean are generally controlled by multiple genes and environmental dependent (Kwon and. Torrie, 1964). Epigenetics of genes controlling these traits also affect the yield.

  4. The Relationship between the General Self-efficacy and Personality Traits in Physical College Students%体育院校大学生一般自我效能感和人格特质的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昭红; 党王萍

    2012-01-01

    To explore general self-efficacy and personality traits of physical college students, in order to provide reference for their mental health education. A total of 320 students from 8 departments in Xi'an Physical Education University were tested by the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The results showed that home place are concerned to the self-efficacy, while gender, major and home place are concerned to Personality traits. Personality traits have a very impact on self-efficacy of physical college students. At last, the author gets a conclusion: the self-efficacy of physical college students is higher, their extropism, psychoticism and dissimulation are higher, and neuroticism is lower.%目的:了解体育院校大学生自我效能感和人格特质特点及其关系,为开展心理健康教育提供参考.方法:采用一般自我效能感量表(GSES)和艾森克人格问卷(EPQ),对西安体育学院8个系320名大学生进行调查.结果:体育院校大学生自我效能感水平与生源地因素有关,人格特质与性别、专业和生源地因素均有关.人格特质四个维度与一般自我效能感显著相关.结论:体育院校大学生自我效能感水平越高,外向性、精神质和掩饰性水平越高,神经质水平越低.

  5. General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Petersen, Anders; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2016-05-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32-.42, ps health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. UNTANGLING THE FUNGAL NICHE: A TRAIT-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Crowther

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy towards functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.

  7. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that

  8. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  9. Pollution breaks down the genetic architecture of life history traits in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Dutilleul

    Full Text Available When pollution occurs in an environment, populations present suffer numerous negative and immediate effects on their life history traits. Their evolutionary potential to live in a highly stressful environment will depend on the selection pressure strengths and on the genetic structure, the trait heritability, and the genetic correlations between them. If expression of this structure changes in a stressful environment, it becomes necessary to quantify these changes to estimate the evolutionary potential of the population in this new environment. We studied the genetic structure for survival, fecundity, and early and late growth in isogenic lines of a Caenorhabditis elegans population subject to three different environments: a control environment, an environment polluted with uranium, and a high salt concentration environment. We found a heritability decrease in the polluted environments for fecundity and early growth, two traits that were the most heritable in the control environment. The genetic structure of the traits was particularly affected in the uranium polluted environment, probably due to generally low heritability in this environment. This could prevent selection from acting on traits despite the strong selection pressures exerted on them. Moreover, phenotypic traits were more strongly affected in the salt than in the uranium environment and the heritabilities were also lower in the latter environment. Consequently the decrease in heritability was not proportional to the population fitness reduction in the polluted environments. Our results suggest that pollution can alter the genetic structure of a C. elegans population, and thus modify its evolutionary potential.

  10. Is physician adherence to prescription guidelines a general trait of health care practices or dependent on drug type?--a multilevel logistic regression analysis in South Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Merlo, Juan

    2009-08-01

    Therapeutic traditions at health care practices (HCPs) influence physicians' adherence to prescription guidelines for specific drugs, however, it is not known if such traditions affect all kinds of prescriptions or only specific types of drug. Our goal was to determine whether adherence to prescription guidelines is a common trait of HCPs or dependent on drug type. We fitted separate multi-level logistic regression models to all patients in the Skåne region who received a prescription for a statin drug (ATC: C10AA, n = 6232), an agent acting on the renin-angiotensin system (ATC: C09, n = 7222) or a proton pump inhibitor (ATC: A02BC, n = 11 563) at 198 HCPs from July 2006 to December 2006. There was a high clustering of adherence to prescription guidelines at HCPs for the different drug types (MOR(agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system) = 4.72 [95% CI: 3.90-5.92], MOR(Statins) = 2.71 [95% CI: 2.23-3.39] and MOR(Proton pump inhibitors) = 2.16 [95% CI: 1.95-2.45]). Compared with HCPs with low adherence to guidelines in two drug types, those HCPs with the highest level of adherence for these two drug types also showed a higher probability of adherence for the third drug type. Physicians' decisions to follow prescription guidelines seem to be influenced by therapeutic traditions at the HCP. Moreover, these therapeutic traditions seem to affect all kinds of prescriptions. This information can be used as basis for interventions to support rational and cost-effective medication use. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Genetic parameters of reproductive traits in pigs: a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pagnacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally pig breeding efficiency is defined as the number of piglets weaned per sow per year, so in every pig breeding programmes, great emphasis is placed on improving reproductive traits in sow lines and generally, the evaluation of litter size is carried out in most selection planes. Usually, the reproduction breeding goal is to increase the number of piglets born, but this trait, as reported by Hanenberg et al. (2001 gives an undesirable correlation with the number of stillborn piglets. Litter size is the result of a large number of traits as number of total piglets born, number of born alive, stillbirth, weaned survival; as reported by Tummaruk et al. (2000 the variation in these parameters is influenced by genetic value of the sow and by environmental factors, such as management and season. Regarding the genetic influence on the litter size, we know that the breed can influence the number of born, but its interaction with stillbirth is not significant, although Leenhouwers et al. (1999 found an higher stillbirth incidence in purebred than in crossbred litters........

  12. Rethinking plant functional types in Earth System Models: pan-tropical analysis of tree survival across environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. J.; Needham, J.; Xu, C.; Davies, S. J.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Giardina, C. P.; Condit, R.; Cordell, S.; Litton, C. M.; Hubbell, S.; Kassim, A. R. B.; Shawn, L. K. Y.; Nasardin, M. B.; Ong, P.; Ostertag, R.; Sack, L.; Tan, S. K. S.; Yap, S.; McDowell, N. G.; McMahon, S.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycling is a function of the growth and survival of trees. Current model representations of tree growth and survival at a global scale rely on coarse plant functional traits that are parameterized very generally. In view of the large biodiversity in the tropical forests, it is important that we account for the functional diversity in order to better predict tropical forest responses to future climate changes. Several next generation Earth System Models are moving towards a size-structured, trait-based approach to modelling vegetation globally, but the challenge of which and how many traits are necessary to capture forest complexity remains. Additionally, the challenge of collecting sufficient trait data to describe the vast species richness of tropical forests is enormous. We propose a more fundamental approach to these problems by characterizing forests by their patterns of survival. We expect our approach to distill real-world tree survival into a reasonable number of functional types. Using 10 large-area tropical forest plots that span geographic, edaphic and climatic gradients, we model tree survival as a function of tree size for hundreds of species. We found surprisingly few categories of size-survival functions emerge. This indicates some fundamental strategies at play across diverse forests to constrain the range of possible size-survival functions. Initial cluster analysis indicates that four to eight functional forms are necessary to describe variation in size-survival relations. Temporal variation in size-survival functions can be related to local environmental variation, allowing us to parameterize how demographically similar groups of species respond to perturbations in the ecosystem. We believe this methodology will yield a synthetic approach to classifying forest systems that will greatly reduce uncertainty and complexity in global vegetation models.

  13. Genetic parameters for fitness and neonatal behavior traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, S M; Bünger, L; Dwyer, C M

    2012-11-01

    Poor neonatal survival constrains productivity and good welfare. The heritability of survival in sheep is very low, suggesting that genetic progress will be slow. Previously we have shown that a difficult birth and low neonatal lamb vigor are important predictors of future survival. In this study we investigated the heritability of these traits, and their relationship to production traits, as an alternative indirect route to improve lamb survival. Neonatal lamb data from 11,092 animals were collected over 2 years from 290 commercial sheep flocks, using previously developed methods to rapidly assess three traits (birth assistance, lamb vigor, sucking ability) on farm. Heritabilities for neonatal traits were moderate: birth assistance (mean ± standard error; 0.26 ± 0.03), lamb vigor (0.40 ± 0.04) and sucking ability (0.32 ± 0.03). Genetic correlations between neonatal traits were moderate to high, and positive. Heritabilities for production traits were also moderate: 8-week weight (0.27 ± 0.06), 20-week weight (0.39 ± 0.07), ultrasound muscle depth (0.37 ± 0.06). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the neonatal traits and production traits were not significantly different from zero. However, lambs that were scored as of poor vigor at birth were less likely to be recorded at 8 or 20 weeks, indicating that they may have died. The data demonstrate that the neonatal survival traits of birth assistance, lamb vigor and sucking assistance are moderately heritable when treated as a lamb trait, indicating that selection to target these lamb traits would successfully, and efficiently, improve survival without influencing productivity.

  14. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  15. Comparative Analyses of Phenotypic Trait Covariation within and among Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Robinson, Beren W

    2017-10-01

    Many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits covary across the biological scales of individuals, populations, and species. However, the processes that cause traits to covary also change over these scales, challenging our ability to use patterns of trait covariance to infer process. Trait relationships are also widely assumed to have generic functional relationships with similar evolutionary potentials, and even though many different trait relationships are now identified, there is little appreciation that these may influence trait covariation and evolution in unique ways. We use a trait-performance-fitness framework to classify and organize trait relationships into three general classes, address which ones more likely generate trait covariation among individuals in a population, and review how selection shapes phenotypic covariation. We generate predictions about how trait covariance changes within and among populations as a result of trait relationships and in response to selection and consider how these can be tested with comparative data. Careful comparisons of covariation patterns can narrow the set of hypothesized processes that cause trait covariation when the form of the trait relationship and how it responds to selection yield clear predictions about patterns of trait covariation. We discuss the opportunities and limitations of comparative approaches to evaluate hypotheses about the evolutionary causes and consequences of trait covariation and highlight the importance of evaluating patterns within populations replicated in the same and in different selective environments. Explicit hypotheses about trait relationships are key to generating effective predictions about phenotype and its evolution using covariance data.

  16. Effects of Personality Traits, Religiousness/ Spirituality on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.

  17. Whole Trait Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  18. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  19. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  20. General response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to desiccation: A new role for the virulence factors sopD and sseD in survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maserati

    Full Text Available Salmonella can survive for long periods under extreme desiccation conditions. This stress tolerance poses a risk for food safety, but relatively little is known about the molecular and cellular regulation of this adaptation mechanism. To determine the genetic components involved in Salmonella's cellular response to desiccation, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis comparing S. enterica serovar Typhimurium cells equilibrated to low water activity (aw 0.11 and cells equilibrated to high water activity (aw 1.0. The analysis revealed that 719 genes were differentially regulated between the two conditions, of which 290 genes were up-regulated at aw 0.11. Most of these genes were involved in metabolic pathways, transporter regulation, DNA replication/repair, transcription and translation, and, more importantly, virulence genes. Among these, we decided to focus on the role of sopD and sseD. Deletion mutants were created and their ability to survive desiccation and exposure to aw 0.11 was compared to the wild-type strain and to an E. coli O157:H7 strain. The sopD and sseD mutants exhibited significant cell viability reductions of 2.5 and 1.3 Log (CFU/g, respectively, compared to the wild-type after desiccation for 4 days on glass beads. Additional viability differences of the mutants were observed after exposure to aw 0.11 for 7 days. E. coli O157:H7 lost viability similarly to the mutants. Scanning electron microscopy showed that both mutants displayed a different morphology compared to the wild-type and differences in production of the extracellular matrix under the same conditions. These findings suggested that sopD and sseD are required for Salmonella's survival during desiccation.

  1. Genetic architecture of rainbow trout survival from egg to adult

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehvilainen, H.; Kause, A.; Quiton, C.; Kuukka-Anttila, H.; Koskinen, H.; Paananen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Survival from birth to a reproductive adult is a challenge that only robust individuals resistant to a variety of mortality factors will overcome. To assess whether survival traits share genetic architecture throughout the life cycle, we estimated genetic correlations for survival within fingerling

  2. Is bacterial persistence a social trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Gardner

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria to evolve resistance to antibiotics has been much reported in recent years. It is less well-known that within populations of bacteria there are cells which are resistant due to a non-inherited phenotypic switch to a slow-growing state. Although such 'persister' cells are receiving increasing attention, the evolutionary forces involved have been relatively ignored. Persistence has a direct benefit to cells because it allows survival during catastrophes-a form of bet-hedging. However, persistence can also provide an indirect benefit to other individuals, because the reduced growth rate can reduce competition for limiting resources. This raises the possibility that persistence is a social trait, which can be influenced by kin selection. We develop a theoretical model to investigate the social consequences of persistence. We predict that selection for persistence is increased when: (a cells are related (e.g. a single, clonal lineage; and (b resources are scarce. Our model allows us to predict how the level of persistence should vary with time, across populations, in response to intervention strategies and the level of competition. More generally, our results clarify the links between persistence and other bet-hedging or social behaviours.

  3. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  4. The application of Gadopentate-Dimeneglumin has no impact on progression free and overall survival as well as renal function in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders if general precautions are taken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillengass, J. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Stoll, J.; Wagner, B.; Goldschmidt, H. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Zechmann, C.M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy Center, Munich (Germany); Kunz, C.; Heiss, C. [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Sumkauskaite, M. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, T.M. [InVentiv Health Clinical, Wiesbaden (Germany); Schlemmer, H.P.; Delorme, S. [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-31

    The current analysis investigated the prognostic significance of gadopentetate dimeglumine on survival and renal function in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders. In this study 263 patients who had received gadopentetate dimeglumine within a prospective trial investigating dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared with 335 patients who had undergone routine, unenhanced MRI. We found no significant prognostic impact of the application of contrast agent on progression-free survival in patients with either monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering or symptomatic myeloma and no significant prognostic impact on overall survival in patients with symptomatic myeloma. Since renal impairment is a frequent complication of myeloma, and decreased renal function is associated with a higher risk of complications in patients receiving contrast agents, we evaluated the impact of contrast agent on renal function after 1 year. In the present analysis the only significant adverse impact on kidney function occurred in symptomatic myeloma patients who already had impaired renal parameters at baseline. Here, the renal function did not recover during therapy, whereas it did so in patients with normal or only slightly impaired renal function. If general recommendations are adhered to, gadopentetate dimeglumine can be safely applied in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease. (orig.)

  5. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  6. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: Survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Gardshodn, K.; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The effects of fog sanitization with peroxyacetic acid (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid in combination) on general hygiene (aerobic plate count) and on Listeria monocytogenes were assessed in a slicing area at a salmon smokehouse and compared with the effects of foam sanitization...... sample, and a total of 288 bacterial strains were randomly isolated and tentatively identified to genus level by physiological and biochemical tests. The microflora was dominated by Neisseriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria during production. Foam sanitization caused a change...

  7. Trait-fitness relationships determine how trade-off shapes affect species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Elias; Becks, Lutz; Gaedke, Ursula

    2017-12-01

    Trade-offs between functional traits are ubiquitous in nature and can promote species coexistence depending on their shape. Classic theory predicts that convex trade-offs facilitate coexistence of specialized species with extreme trait values (extreme species) while concave trade-offs promote species with intermediate trait values (intermediate species). We show here that this prediction becomes insufficient when the traits translate non-linearly into fitness which frequently occurs in nature, e.g., an increasing length of spines reduces grazing losses only up to a certain threshold resulting in a saturating or sigmoid trait-fitness function. We present a novel, general approach to evaluate the effect of different trade-off shapes on species coexistence. We compare the trade-off curve to the invasion boundary of an intermediate species invading the two extreme species. At this boundary, the invasion fitness is zero. Thus, it separates trait combinations where invasion is or is not possible. The invasion boundary is calculated based on measurable trait-fitness relationships. If at least one of these relationships is not linear, the invasion boundary becomes non-linear, implying that convex and concave trade-offs not necessarily lead to different coexistence patterns. Therefore, we suggest a new ecological classification of trade-offs into extreme-favoring and intermediate-favoring which differs from a purely mathematical description of their shape. We apply our approach to a well-established model of an empirical predator-prey system with competing prey types facing a trade-off between edibility and half-saturation constant for nutrient uptake. We show that the survival of the intermediate prey depends on the convexity of the trade-off. Overall, our approach provides a general tool to make a priori predictions on the outcome of competition among species facing a common trade-off in dependence of the shape of the trade-off and the shape of the trait

  8. Heteroscedastic Latent Trait Models for Dichotomous Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the levels of an observed moderator variable. In the case that heteroscedasticity arises across the latent trait itself, existing models commonly distinguish between heteroscedastic residuals and a skewed trait distribution. These models have valuable applications in intelligence, personality and psychopathology research. However, existing approaches are only limited to continuous and polytomous data, while dichotomous data are common in intelligence and psychopathology research. Therefore, in present paper, a heteroscedastic latent trait model is presented for dichotomous data. The model is studied in a simulation study, and applied to data pertaining alcohol use and cognitive ability.

  9. Elevated plasma YKL-40 predicts increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and decreased survival after any cancer diagnosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.S.; Bojesen, S.E.; Mylin, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    ,899 subjects (20 to 95 years) from the Danish general population, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, observed for 11 years for cancer incidence and 14 years for death: 1,432 participants had a first incident cancer, 968 of these died. Hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer events and death after events according...... to plasma YKL-40 in sex and 10 years age percentile categories: 0% to 33%, 34% to 66%, 67% to 90%, 91% to 95%, and 96% to 100%. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of gastrointestinal cancer increased with increasing YKL-40 (trend P ....0 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5) for YKL-40 in category 34% to 66%, 1.5 for 67% to 90% (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.3), 2.4 for 91% to 95%, (95% CI, 1.3 to 4.6), and 3.4 for 96% to 100% (95% CI, 1.9 to 6.1) versus YKL-40 category 0% to 33% (P any cancer event and YKL-40 category 91% to 100% had...

  10. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Caldeira Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.

  11. Developing Leadership Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan King

    1980-01-01

    Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

  12. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  13. Habitat Fragmentation Differentially Affects Genetic Variation, Phenotypic Plasticity and Survival in Populations of a Gypsum Endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, i.e., fragment size and isolation, can differentially alter patterns of neutral and quantitative genetic variation, fitness and phenotypic plasticity of plant populations, but their effects have rarely been tested simultaneously. We assessed the combined effects of size and connectivity on these aspects of genetic and phenotypic variation in populations of Centaurea hyssopifolia, a narrow endemic gypsophile that previously showed performance differences associated with fragmentation. We grew 111 maternal families sampled from 10 populations that differed in their fragment size and connectivity in a common garden, and characterized quantitative genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity to drought for key functional traits, and plant survival, as a measure of population fitness. We also assessed neutral genetic variation within and among populations using eight microsatellite markers. Although C. hyssopifolia is a narrow endemic gypsophile, we found substantial neutral genetic variation and quantitative variation for key functional traits. The partition of genetic variance indicated that a higher proportion of variation was found within populations, which is also consistent with low population differentiation in molecular markers, functional traits and their plasticity. This, combined with the generally small effect of habitat fragmentation suggests that gene flow among populations is not restricted, despite large differences in fragment size and isolation. Importantly, population’s similarities in genetic variation and plasticity did not reflect the lower survival observed in isolated populations. Overall, our results indicate that, although the species consists of genetically variable populations able to express functional plasticity, such aspects of adaptive potential may not always reflect populations’ survival. Given the differential effects of habitat connectivity on functional traits, genetic variation and fitness

  14. Incremental Validity of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorder Traits With Respect to Psychosocial Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Leonard J; Calabrese, William R

    2016-02-01

    Traditional personality disorders (PDs) are associated with significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 Section III includes an alternative hybrid personality disorder (PD) classification approach, with both type and trait elements, but relatively little is known about the impairments associated with Section III traits. Our objective was to study the incremental validity of Section III traits--compared to normal-range traits, traditional PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology--in predicting psychosocial impairment. To that end, 628 current/recent psychiatric patients completed measures of PD traits, normal-range traits, traditional PD criteria, psychiatric symptomatology, and psychosocial impairments. Hierarchical regressions revealed that Section III PD traits incrementally predicted psychosocial impairment over normal-range personality traits, PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology. In contrast, the incremental effects for normal-range traits, PD symptom counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology were substantially smaller than for PD traits. These findings have implications for PD classification and the impairment literature more generally.

  15. Genetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Loker, S; Gengler, N; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Québec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent

  16. Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Egmond, van E.; Li, B.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    1.Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unraveling the mechanisms that may

  17. Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; van Egmond, E.; Li, Bingxi; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced-shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unravelling the mechanisms that may

  18. Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Egmond, van E.; Li, B.; Holmgren, M.

    2013-01-01

    Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unraveling the mechanisms that may explain

  19. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  20. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  1. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  2. Emotional Intelligence Abilities and Traits in Different Career Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Aikaterini; Zammuner, Vanda L.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Vouzas, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    Two studies tested hypotheses about differences in emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and traits between followers of different career paths. Compared to their social science peers, science students had higher scores in adaptability and general mood traits measured with the Emotion Quotient Inventory, but lower scores in strategic EI abilities…

  3. Gender and personality traits' (BFI-10) effect on opinion leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olexova, Cecilia; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Opinion leadership used to be perceived as a highly domain-specific trait but it was found to be multi-faceted, i.e. individuals are influential independent of a specific subject area. Another term is generalized opinion leadership. Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits on domain...

  4. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality traits and personal values: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  8. Isolating Trait and Method Variance in the Measurement of Callous and Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva-Salisbury, Melissa L; Gill, Andrew D; Stickle, Timothy R

    2017-09-01

    To examine hypothesized influence of method variance from negatively keyed items in measurement of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, nine a priori confirmatory factor analysis model comparisons of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits were evaluated on multiple fit indices and theoretical coherence. Tested models included a unidimensional model, a three-factor model, a three-bifactor model, an item response theory-shortened model, two item-parceled models, and three correlated trait-correlated method minus one models (unidimensional, correlated three-factor, and bifactor). Data were self-reports of 234 adolescents (191 juvenile offenders, 43 high school students; 63% male; ages 11-17 years). Consistent with hypotheses, models accounting for method variance substantially improved fit to the data. Additionally, bifactor models with a general CU factor better fit the data compared with correlated factor models, suggesting a general CU factor is important to understanding the construct of CU traits. Future Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits analyses should account for method variance from item keying and response bias to isolate trait variance.

  9. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  10. Trait-mediated assembly processes predict successional changes in community diversity of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Jesse R; Uriarte, María; Boukili, Vanessa K; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-04-15

    Interspecific differences in relative fitness can cause local dominance by a single species. However, stabilizing interspecific niche differences can promote local diversity. Understanding these mechanisms requires that we simultaneously quantify their effects on demography and link these effects to community dynamics. Successional forests are ideal systems for testing assembly theory because they exhibit rapid community assembly. Here, we leverage functional trait and long-term demographic data to build spatially explicit models of successional community dynamics of lowland rainforests in Costa Rica. First, we ask what the effects and relative importance of four trait-mediated community assembly processes are on tree survival, a major component of fitness. We model trait correlations with relative fitness differences that are both density-independent and -dependent in addition to trait correlations with stabilizing niche differences. Second, we ask how the relative importance of these trait-mediated processes relates to successional changes in functional diversity. Tree dynamics were more strongly influenced by trait-related interspecific variation in average survival than trait-related responses to neighbors, with wood specific gravity (WSG) positively correlated with greater survival. Our findings also suggest that competition was mediated by stabilizing niche differences associated with specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC). These drivers of individual-level survival were reflected in successional shifts to higher SLA and LDMC diversity but lower WSG diversity. Our study makes significant advances to identifying the links between individual tree performance, species functional traits, and mechanisms of tropical forest succession.

  11. Behaviour and production traits correlation of five breeds of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Information about correlations among behavioral traits and production traits may facilitate using easily measured traits to be used as alternative criteria for indirect selection to improve other traits in sheep. The purpose of this study was to estimate correlations among behavioral and production traits of five breeds of sheep. A total of 128 head of weaned lambs and 168 ewes with nursing lambs of five breeds were used in this study, i.e. Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC. Temperament was assessed in a test arena, for subsequent association with growth rate and ewe productivity. Analysis of variance of production and behavioral traits among breeds was carried out using PROC GLM of SAS software Ver. 9.0. PROCCORR was used to estimate correlations among production and behavioral variables. Weaned lambs that were more docile towards the observer had higher daily gains. Ewes that bleated more frequently when separated from their lamb had higher lamb weaning weights and lamb survival than ewes bleating fewer times under the same conditions. In BC ewes, a positive correlation was observed between frequency of bleats and lamb survival.

  12. Interpreting the Climatic Effects on Xylem Functional Traits in Two Mediterranean Oak Species: The Role of Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Angelo; Borghetti, Marco; Todaro, Luigi; Saracino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern, and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival, and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of (i) detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and (ii) exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks) rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport, resulting

  13. Interpreting the climatic effects on xylem functional traits in two Mediterranean oak species: the role of extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Rita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of i detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and ii exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport

  14. Fearless dominance and the U.S. presidency: implications of psychopathic personality traits for successful and unsuccessful political leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Waldman, Irwin D; Landfield, Kristin; Watts, Ashley L; Rubenzer, Steven; Faschingbauer, Thomas R

    2012-09-01

    Although psychopathic personality (psychopathy) is marked largely by maladaptive traits (e.g., poor impulse control, lack of guilt), some authors have conjectured that some features of this condition (e.g., fearlessness, interpersonal dominance) are adaptive in certain occupations, including leadership positions. We tested this hypothesis in the 42 U.S. presidents up to and including George W. Bush using (a) psychopathy trait estimates derived from personality data completed by historical experts on each president, (b) independent historical surveys of presidential leadership, and (c) largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance. Fearless Dominance, which reflects the boldness associated with psychopathy, was associated with better rated presidential performance, leadership, persuasiveness, crisis management, Congressional relations, and allied variables; it was also associated with several largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance, such as initiating new projects and being viewed as a world figure. Most of these associations survived statistical control for covariates, including intellectual brilliance, five factor model personality traits, and need for power. In contrast, Impulsive Antisociality and related traits of psychopathy were generally unassociated with rated presidential performance, although they were linked to some largely or entirely objective indicators of negative job performance, including Congressional impeachment resolutions, tolerating unethical behavior in subordinates, and negative character. These findings indicate that the boldness associated with psychopathy is an important but heretofore neglected predictor of presidential performance, and suggest that certain features of psychopathy are tied to successful interpersonal behavior.

  15. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  16. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  17. Quantitative trait loci for behavioural traits in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Siwek, M.Z.; Cornelissen, S.J.B.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) of behavioural traits has mainly been focussed on mouse and rat. With the rapid development of molecular genetics and the statistical tools, QTL mapping for behavioural traits in farm animals is developing. In chicken, a total of 30 QTL involved in

  18. The co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits is associated to increased suicidal ideation in nonclinical young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Raynal, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The co-occurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is not rare and has been linked to increased suicidality. Despite this significant comorbidity between ASD and BPD, no study had examined the co-occurrence of autistic traits and borderline personality disorder traits in the general population. The aim of the present study was to examine the co-occurrence of autistic and borderline traits in a non-clinical sample of young adults and its influence on the levels of suicidal ideation and depressive symptomatology. Participants were 474 college students who completed self-report questionnaires. Data were analysed using correlation and cluster analyses. Borderline personality traits and autistic traits were weakly correlated. However, cluster analysis yielded four groups: a low traits group, a borderline traits group, an autistic traits group, and a group characterized by high levels of both traits. Cluster analysis revealed that autistic and borderline traits can co-occur in a significant proportion of young adults. The high autistic and borderline traits group constituted 17% of the total sample and had higher level of suicidal ideation than the borderline traits group, despite similar levels of depressive symptoms. This result suggests that the higher suicidality observed in patients with comorbid ASD and BPD may extent to non-clinical individuals with high levels of co-occurrent autistic and borderline traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, Alexander B.; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  20. The Trait Lady Speaks Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The acknowledged expert on the 6+1 traits of writing explains what the traits are and what they are not: The traits are not a curriculum; they are part and parcel of the writing process; they are a model, not a program; they are not a prepackaged replacement for teaching writing; and they are the language of the writing workshop. The author…

  1. Separation of trait and state in stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Pliatsikas, Christos; Finnegan, Sarah; Jenkinson, Mark; Boyles, Rowan; Watkins, Kate E

    2018-04-06

    Stuttering is a disorder in which the smooth flow of speech is interrupted. People who stutter show structural and functional abnormalities in the speech and motor system. It is unclear whether functional differences reflect general traits of the disorder or are specifically related to the dysfluent speech state. We used a hierarchical approach to separate state and trait effects within stuttering. We collected sparse-sampled functional MRI during two overt speech tasks (sentence reading and picture description) in 17 people who stutter and 16 fluent controls. Separate analyses identified indicators of: (1) general traits of people who stutter; (2) frequency of dysfluent speech states in subgroups of people who stutter; and (3) the differences between fluent and dysfluent states in people who stutter. We found that reduced activation of left auditory cortex, inferior frontal cortex bilaterally, and medial cerebellum were general traits that distinguished fluent speech in people who stutter from that of controls. The stuttering subgroup with higher frequency of dysfluent states during scanning (n = 9) had reduced activation in the right subcortical grey matter, left temporo-occipital cortex, the cingulate cortex, and medial parieto-occipital cortex relative to the subgroup who were more fluent (n = 8). Finally, during dysfluent states relative to fluent ones, there was greater activation of inferior frontal and premotor cortex extending into the frontal operculum, bilaterally. The above differences were seen across both tasks. Subcortical state effects differed according to the task. Overall, our data emphasise the independence of trait and state effects in stuttering. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Bayesian method and its variational approximation for prediction of genomic breeding values in multiple traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    effect. Although the prediction accuracy with varBayes was generally lower than with MCBayes, the loss in accuracy was slight. The computational time was greatly reduced with varBayes. Conclusions In genomic selection for multiple correlated traits, multi-trait analysis was more beneficial than single-trait analysis and varBayes was much advantageous over MCBayes in computational time, which would outweigh the loss of prediction accuracy caused by the approximation procedure, and is thus considered a practical method of choice.

  3. Quantitative traits and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzJohn, Richard G

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative traits have long been hypothesized to affect speciation and extinction rates. For example, smaller body size or increased specialization may be associated with increased rates of diversification. Here, I present a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (quantitative state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]) that can be used to test such hypotheses using extant character distributions. This approach assumes that diversification follows a birth-death process where speciation and extinction rates may vary with one or more traits that evolve under a diffusion model. Speciation and extinction rates may be arbitrary functions of the character state, allowing much flexibility in testing models of trait-dependent diversification. I test the approach using simulated phylogenies and show that a known relationship between speciation and a quantitative character could be recovered in up to 80% of the cases on large trees (500 species). Consistent with other approaches, detecting shifts in diversification due to differences in extinction rates was harder than when due to differences in speciation rates. Finally, I demonstrate the application of QuaSSE to investigate the correlation between body size and diversification in primates, concluding that clade-specific differences in diversification may be more important than size-dependent diversification in shaping the patterns of diversity within this group.

  4. Callous-unemotional traits and brain structure: Sex-specific effects in anterior insula of typically-developing youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    2018-01-01

    General scientific summary: This study suggests that callous-unemotional traits have a neuroanatomical correlate within typically developing boys, but not girls. Bilateral anterior insula volume explains up to 19% of the variance in callous-unemotional traits in boys.

  5. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  6. Lying in wait: Limiting factors on a low-density ungulate population and the latent traits that can facilitate escape from them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Craig, Tim; Cameron, Matthew D.; Gall, Adrian E.; Sorum, Mathew S.

    2017-11-01

    Predation, habitat, hunting, and environmental conditions have all been implicated as regulatory mechanisms in ungulate populations. The low-density equilibrium hypothesis predicts that in low-density populations, predators regulate their prey and that the population will not escape unless predation pressure is eased. We evaluated survival of adult and juvenile moose (Alces alces) in north-central Alaska to determine whether or not the population supported the hypothesis. We instrumented adult male and female moose with radiocollars and used aerial observations to track parturition and subsequent survival of juvenile moose. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess survival. Adult annual survival rates were high (∼89%), but may be negatively influenced by winter conditions. Migratory status did not affect moose survivorship or productivity. Approximately 60% of the calf crop died before 5 months of age. Productivity was significantly lower in the northern section of the study area where there is less high-quality habitat, suggesting that, even in this low-density population, nutrition could be a limiting factor. It appears that predation on young calves, winter weather, and nutritional constraints may be interacting to limit this population. Latent traits, such as overproduction of calves and migratory behavior, which do not currently enhance fitness, may persist within this population so that individuals with these traits can reap benefits when environmental conditions change.

  7. 46 CFR 133.130 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of survival craft. 133.130 Section 133.130... SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.130 Stowage of survival craft. (a) General. Each survival craft must be stowed as follows: (1) Each survival craft must be as close to the accommodation and service...

  8. 46 CFR 180.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft equipment. 180.175 Section 180.175... TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 180.175 Survival craft equipment. (a) General. Each item of survival craft equipment must be of good quality, and...

  9. 46 CFR 117.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft equipment. 117.175 Section 117.175... AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.175 Survival craft equipment. (a) General. Each item of survival craft equipment must be of good quality, and efficient for the purpose it...

  10. Quantitative trait loci and metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, M. D.; Byrne, P. F.; Snook, M. E.; Wiseman, B. R.; Lee, E. A.; Widstrom, N. W.; Coe, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    The interpretation of quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies is limited by the lack of information on metabolic pathways leading to most economic traits. Inferences about the roles of the underlying genes with a pathway or the nature of their interaction with other loci are generally not possible. An exception is resistance to the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) in maize (Zea mays L.) because of maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone synthesized in silks via a branch of the well characterized flavonoid pathway. Our results using flavone synthesis as a model QTL system indicate: (i) the importance of regulatory loci as QTLs, (ii) the importance of interconnecting biochemical pathways on product levels, (iii) evidence for “channeling” of intermediates, allowing independent synthesis of related compounds, (iv) the utility of QTL analysis in clarifying the role of specific genes in a biochemical pathway, and (v) identification of a previously unknown locus on chromosome 9S affecting flavone level. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of maysin synthesis and associated corn earworm resistance should lead to improved breeding strategies. More broadly, the insights gained in relating a defined genetic and biochemical pathway affecting a quantitative trait should enhance interpretation of the biological basis of variation for other quantitative traits. PMID:9482823

  11. Revisiting the Holy Grail: using plant functional traits to understand ecological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Larson, Julie E; Ames, Gregory M; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Firn, Jennifer; Laughlin, Daniel C; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E; Williams, Laura; Wright, Justin

    2017-05-01

    One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general rules to explain and predict highly complex systems. Understanding and predicting ecological processes from species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used to develop mechanistic models that can predict how ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function and services in a rapidly changing world; however, significant challenges remain. In this review, we highlight recent work and outstanding questions in three areas: (i) selecting relevant traits; (ii) describing intraspecific trait variation and incorporating this variation into models; and (iii) scaling trait data to community- and ecosystem-level processes. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in the characterization of plant strategies based on traits and trait relationships, and the integration of traits into multivariate indices and models of community and ecosystem function. However, the utility of trait-based approaches in ecology will benefit from efforts that demonstrate how these traits and indices influence organismal, community, and ecosystem processes across vegetation types, which may be achieved through meta-analysis and enhancement of trait databases. Additionally, intraspecific trait variation and species interactions need to be incorporated into predictive models using tools such as Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Finally, existing models linking traits to community and ecosystem processes need to be empirically tested for their applicability to be realized. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Plant traits and trait-based vegetation modeling in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Sevanto, S.; Iversen, C. M.; Salmon, V. G.; Rogers, A.; Wullschleger, S.; Wilson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic tundra environments are characterized by extremely cold temperatures, strong winds, short growing season and thin, nutrient-poor soil layer impacted by permafrost. To survive in this environment vascular plants have developed traits that simultaneously promote high productivity under favorable environments, and survival in harsh conditions. To improve representation of Arctic tundra vegetation in Earth System Models we surveyed plant trait data bases for key trait parameters that influence modeled ecosystem carbon balance, and compared the traits within plant families occurring in the boreal, temperate and arctic zones. The parameters include photosynthetic carbon uptake efficiency (Vcmax and Jmax), root:shoot ratio, and root and leaf nitrogen content, and we focused on woody shrubs. Our results suggest that root nitrogen content in non-nitrogen fixing tundra shrubs is lower than in representatives of the same families in the boreal or temperate zone. High tissue nitrogen concentrations have been related to high vulnerability to drought. The low root nitrogen concentrations in tundra shrubs may thus be an indication of acclimation to shallow soils, and frequent freezing that has a similar impact on the plant conductive tissue as drought. With current nitrogen availability, nitrogen limitation reduces the benefits of increased temperatures and longer growing seasons to the tundra ecosystem carbon balance. Thawing of permafrost will increase nitrogen availability, and promote plant growth and carbon uptake, but it could also make the shrubs more vulnerable to freeze-thaw cycles, with the overall result of reduced shrub coverage. The final outcome of warming temperatures and thawing of permafrost on tundra shrubs will thus depend on the relative speed of warming and plant acclimation.

  13. Personality traits of Australian nurses and doctors: challenging stereotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Eley, Robert M

    2011-08-01

    This study compared temperament and character traits of Australian registered nurses and general practitioners. A cross-sectional quantitative design used the Temperament and Character Inventory. Total sample size was 426. Only main effects were detected. Nurses were higher in the temperament traits of Novelty Seeking and Reward Dependence, lower in the character traits of Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness but higher in Self-Transcendence compared with the sample of doctors. Differences in personality profiles between registered nurses and general practitioners might challenge existing stereotypes between these professions. Further exploration of traits exclusive to and shared among health professions would supplement a broad conceptualization of specialities and support the enhancement of appropriate training and career counselling. Awareness of one's temperament and character can lead to a clearer understanding of how they function in the workplace and might encourage reflection on and insight into the implications of their personality and career plans. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  15. Diallel crossing in Pinus cembra: IV. age trends in genetic parameters and genetic gain for growth and branching traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a complete 10 x 10 diallel carried out in a natural population of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. from the southern Carpathian Mountains. At age six, after nursery testing, the material was field planted on one site, using a completely randomized block design with 100 families, four replicates and 15 tree row-plots per replication, spaced 2.5 x 2.5m. Total and annual height growth, root collar diameter, number of branches per whorl and survival were assessed at successive ages between ages eight and 14 after seed. In addition, several traits that were assessed during the nursery test were used in correlation and some other analyses. Plot means of the measured traits were analyzed using the general least-squares method by means of the computer DIALL programme prepared by Schaffer and Usanis (1969. Across the field testing periods, significant (p<0.05 and highly significant (p<0.01; p<0.001 differences occurred in total height growth and root collar diameter for general and specific combining ability as well for maternalinteraction effects. These results suggest that the traits are controlled by nuclear (additive and non-additive and by nuclear x extra-nuclear gene interactions. In an ascendant trend, the additive variance, as a percent of the total genetic variance, ranged from 35% at age eight to 66% at age 14 for total height growth, while that for root collar diameter trend varied less between 16% and 34%. In a descendant trend, the dominance ratios s2SCA/ s2GCA for total height growth ranged from 0.9 at age eight to 0.3 at age 14, suggesting that the additive variance should be used in the breeding programme. Parents with significant general combining effects for all but one trait were found. For total height growth, the narrow-sense family mean heritability estimates varied in an ascendant trend between 0.45 and 0.65 while the narrow- sense individual tree heritability varied irregularly from year to year

  16. Using large-scale data analysis to assess life history and behavioural traits: the case of the reintroduced White stork Ciconia ciconia population in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doligez, B.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The White stork Ciconia ciconia has been the object of several successful reintroduction programmes in the last decades. As a consequence, populations have been monitored over large spatial scales. Despite these intense efforts, very few reliable estimates of life history traits are available for this species. Such general knowledge however constitutes a prerequisite for investigating the consequences of conservation measures. Using the large–scale and long–term ringing and resighting data set of White storks in the Netherlands, we investigated the variation of survival and resighting rates with age, time and previous individual resighting history, and in a second step supplementary feeding, using capture–recapture models. Providing food did not seem to affect survival directly, but may have an indirect effect via the alteration of migratory behaviour. Large–scale population monitoring is important in obtaining precise and reliable estimates of life history traits and assessing the consequences of conservation measures on these traits, which will prove useful for managers to take adequate measures in future conservation strategies.

  17. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  18. Cut your losses: self-amputation of injured limbs increases survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberts, Zachary; Miller, Christine W; Kiehl, Daniel; St Mary, Colette M

    2017-01-01

    Autotomy, self-induced limb loss, is an extreme trait observed throughout the animal kingdom; lizards drop their tails, crickets release their legs, and crabs drop their claws. These repeated evolutionary origins suggest that autotomy is adaptive. Yet, we do not have a firm understanding of the selective pressures that promote and maintain this extreme trait. Although multiple adaptive hypotheses exist, research has generally focused on autotomy's adaptive value as a form of predator escape. However, autotomy could also be selected to reduce the cost of an injured limb, which we investigate here. Previously, this alternative hypothesis has been challenging to directly test because when an injury occurs on an autotomizable limb, that limb is almost always dropped (i.e., autotomy is behaviorally fixed within populations). Recently, however, we have identified a species, Narnia femorata (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coreidae), where some individuals autotomize limbs in response to injury, but some do not. This natural variation allowed us to investigate both the survival costs of retaining an injured limb and the benefits of autotomizing it. In this study, we find a positive association between autotomizing injured limbs and survival, thereby quantifying a new and likely widespread benefit of autotomy-reducing the cost of injury.

  19. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    production traits were favorable. Our results indicate that it is possible to select rabbits using visually assessed disease syndromes without the need for a trade-off between health and production traits. Using a composite criterion that includes all infectious syndromes is easy to implement and heritable and is, therefore, a promising way to improve the general disease resistance in livestock species.

  20. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet is an ancient legume species whose immature pods serve as a vegetable in south and south-east Asia. The objective of this study is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with quantitative traits such as inflorescence length, peduncle length from branch to axil, peduncle length from ...

  1. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...

  2. Nonparametric functional mapping of quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Rongling; Casella, George

    2009-03-01

    Functional mapping is a useful tool for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control dynamic traits. It incorporates mathematical aspects of biological processes into the mixture model-based likelihood setting for QTL mapping, thus increasing the power of QTL detection and the precision of parameter estimation. However, in many situations there is no obvious functional form and, in such cases, this strategy will not be optimal. Here we propose to use nonparametric function estimation, typically implemented with B-splines, to estimate the underlying functional form of phenotypic trajectories, and then construct a nonparametric test to find evidence of existing QTL. Using the representation of a nonparametric regression as a mixed model, the final test statistic is a likelihood ratio test. We consider two types of genetic maps: dense maps and general maps, and the power of nonparametric functional mapping is investigated through simulation studies and demonstrated by examples.

  3. The role of maternal behavior and offspring development in the survival of mountain goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théoret-Gosselin, Rachel; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-05-01

    Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. Frequency of play strongly increased survival before weaning. Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. Kid mass was also a major determinant of both summer and winter survival. Environmental conditions mainly influenced summer survival while maternal characteristics indirectly affected winter survival through an effect on kid mass. Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed.

  4. Elevation gradient of successful plant traits for colonizing alpine summits under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteodo, Magalì; Wipf, Sonja; Stöckli, Veronika; Rixen, Christian; Vittoz, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Upward migration of plant species due to climate change has become evident in several European mountain ranges. It is still, however, unclear whether certain plant traits increase the probability that a species will colonize mountain summits or vanish, and whether these traits differ with elevation. Here, we used data from a repeat survey of the occurrence of plant species on 120 summits, ranging from 2449 to 3418 m asl, in south-eastern Switzerland to identify plant traits that increase the probability of colonization or extinction in the 20th century. Species numbers increased across all plant traits considered. With some traits, however, numbers increased proportionally more. The most successful colonizers seemed to prefer warmer temperatures and well-developed soils. They produced achene fruits and/or seeds with pappus appendages. Conversely, cushion plants and species with capsule fruits were less efficient as colonizers. Observed changes in traits along the elevation gradient mainly corresponded to the natural distribution of traits. Extinctions did not seem to be clearly related to any trait. Our study showed that plant traits varied along both temporal and elevational gradients. While seeds with pappus seemed to be advantageous for colonization, most of the trait changes also mirrored previous gradients of traits along elevation and hence illustrated the general upward migration of plant species. An understanding of the trait characteristics of colonizing species is crucial for predicting future changes in mountain vegetation under climate change. (letter)

  5. Intraspecific trait variation and the leaf economics spectrum across resource gradients and levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Siefert, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of functional trait variation across environmental gradients offers an opportunity to increase inference in the mechanistic causes of plant community assembly. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) predicts global tradeoffs in leaf traits and trait-environment relationships, but few studies have examined whether these predictions hold across different levels of organization, particularly within species. Here, we asked (1) whether the main assumptions of the LES (expected trait relationships and shifts in trait values across resource gradients) hold at the intraspecific level, and (2) how within-species trait correlations scale up to interspecific or among-community levels. We worked with leaf traits of saplings of woody species growing across light and soil N and P availability gradients in temperate rainforests of southern Chile. We found that ITV accounted for a large proportion of community-level variation in leaf traits (e.g., LMA and leaf P) and played an important role in driving community-level shifts in leaf traits across environmental gradients. Additionally, intraspecific leaf trait relationships were generally consistent with interspecific and community-level trait relationships and with LES predictions-e.g., a strong negative intraspecific LMA-leaf N correlation-although, most trait relationships varied significantly among species, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the LES at the intraspecific level. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  8. Investigation of the construct of trait emotional intelligence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroveli, Stella; Petrides, K V; Shove, Chloe; Whitehead, Amanda

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses the construct of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) with emphasis on measurement in children. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF) is introduced and its development and theoretical background are briefly explained. It is shown in two independent studies that the TEIQue-CF has satisfactory levels of internal consistency (alpha = 0.76 and alpha = 0.73, respectively) and temporal stability [r = 0.79 and r ((corrected)) = 1.00]. Trait EI scores were generally unrelated to proxies of cognitive ability, as hypothesized in trait EI theory (Petrides et al. in Matthews et al. (eds) Emotional intelligence: knowns and unknowns -- series in affective science. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 151-166). They also differentiated between pupils with unauthorized absences or exclusions from school and controls. Trait EI correlated positively with teacher-rated positive behavior and negatively with negative behavior (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, and hyperactivity).

  9. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  10. Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viitala Sirja M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments.

  11. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality: Gender-Invariant Linkages Across Different Measures of the Big Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alexander B; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples ( N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally.

  12. The Immoral Assumption Effect: Moralization Drives Negative Trait Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Peter; Johnson, Kate M; Graham, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    Jumping to negative conclusions about other people's traits is judged as morally bad by many people. Despite this, across six experiments (total N = 2,151), we find that multiple types of moral evaluations--even evaluations related to open-mindedness, tolerance, and compassion--play a causal role in these potentially pernicious trait assumptions. Our results also indicate that moralization affects negative-but not positive-trait assumptions, and that the effect of morality on negative assumptions cannot be explained merely by people's general (nonmoral) preferences or other factors that distinguish moral and nonmoral traits, such as controllability or desirability. Together, these results suggest that one of the more destructive human tendencies--making negative assumptions about others--can be caused by the better angels of our nature. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  14. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  15. Fledgling survival increases with development time and adult survival across north and south temperate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Martin, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Slow life histories are characterized by high adult survival and few offspring, which are thought to allow increased investment per offspring to increase juvenile survival. Consistent with this pattern, south temperate zone birds are commonly longer-lived and have fewer young than north temperate zone species. However, comparative analyses of juvenile survival, including during the first few weeks of the post-fledging period when most juvenile mortality occurs, are largely lacking. We combined our measurements of fledgling survival for eight passerines in South Africa with estimates from published studies of 57 north and south temperate zone songbird species to test three predictions: (1) fledgling survival increases with length of development time in the nest; (2) fledgling survival increases with adult survival and reduced brood size controlled for development time; and (3) south temperate zone species, with their higher adult survival and smaller brood sizes, exhibit higher fledgling survival than north temperate zone species controlled for development time. We found that fledgling survival was higher among south temperate zone species and generally increased with development time and adult survival within and between latitudinal regions. Clutch size did not explain additional variation, but was confounded with adult survival. Given the importance of age-specific mortality to life history evolution, understanding the causes of these geographical patterns of mortality is important.

  16. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  17. Two-part zero-inflated negative binomial regression model for quantitative trait loci mapping with count trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-05-07

    Poisson regression models provide a standard framework for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of count traits. In practice, however, count traits are often over-dispersed relative to the Poisson distribution. In these situations, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated generalized Poisson (ZIGP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression may be useful for QTL mapping of count traits. Added genetic variables to the negative binomial part equation, may also affect extra zero data. In this study, to overcome these challenges, I apply two-part ZINB model. The EM algorithm with Newton-Raphson method in the M-step uses for estimating parameters. An application of the two-part ZINB model for QTL mapping is considered to detect associations between the formation of gallstone and the genotype of markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dehydration survival of crop plants and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2018-01-08

    Dehydration survival under drought stress is defined in this review as the transition from plant activity into a quiescent state of life preservation, which will be terminated by either recovery or death, depending on the stress regime and the plant's resilience. Dehydration survival is a popular phenotype by which functional genomics attempts to test gene function in drought resistance and survival. The available reports on phenotyping and genotyping of dehydration survival in genomic studies indicate that the measurement of this trait is often biased to the extent that misguided interpretations are likely to occur. This review briefly discusses the physiological basis of dehydration survival in resurrection plants and crop plants, and concludes that in phenotyping dehydration survival there is a need to distinguish between dehydration avoidance and dehydration tolerance (also termed desiccation tolerance) in affecting survival and recovery. Without this distinction, functional genomics studies of the trait might be biased. Survival due to dehydration avoidance is expressed by the capacity to maintain a relatively high plant water status as the plant is desiccated. Survival due to dehydration tolerance is expressed by delayed mortality (mortality at a relatively low plant water status) as affected by the resilience of plant metabolism. The common test of dehydration survival, using the relative recovery after a given number of stress days, is therefore insufficient because it is mainly driven by dehydration avoidance and so ignores a possible role for dehydration tolerance. Conceivable methods for more accurate phenotyping of the two components of dehydration survival are proposed and discussed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  1. Quantitative trait loci mapping for stomatal traits in interspecific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sumathi

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. ... QTL analysis was carried out to identify the chromosomal regions affecting ... Keywords. linkage map; quantitative trait loci; stomata; stress ..... of India for providing financial support for the project.

  2. Coping skills: role of trait sport confidence and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott; Hodge, Ken

    2004-04-01

    The current research assesses relationships among coping skills, trait sport confidence, and trait anxiety. Two samples (n=47 and n=77) of international competitors from surf life saving (M=23.7 yr.) and touch rugby (M=26.2 yr.) completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, and Sport Anxiety Scale. Analysis yielded significant correlations amongst trait anxiety, sport confidence, and coping. Specifically confidence scores were positively associated with coping with adversity scores and anxiety scores were negatively associated. These findings support the inclusion of the personality characteristics of confidence and anxiety within the coping model presented by Hardy, Jones, and Gould, Researchers should be aware that confidence and anxiety may influence the coping processes of athletes.

  3. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  4. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  5. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  6. Big Five Personality Traits of Cybercrime Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijer, Steve G A; Leukfeldt, E Rutger

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of cybercrime has increased rapidly over the last decades and has become part of the everyday life of citizens. It is, therefore, of great importance to gain more knowledge on the factors related to an increased or decreased likelihood of becoming a cybercrime victim. The current study adds to the existing body of knowledge using a large representative sample of Dutch individuals (N = 3,648) to study the relationship between cybercrime victimization and the key traits from the Big Five model of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience). First, multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the personality traits and three victim groups, that is, cybercrime victims versus nonvictims, traditional crime victims versus nonvictims, and cybercrime victims versus traditional crime victims. Next, logistic regression analyses were performed to predict victimization of cyber-dependent crimes (i.e., hacking and virus infection) and cyber-enabled crimes (i.e., online intimidation, online consumer fraud, and theft from bank account). The analyses show that personality traits are not specifically associated with cybercrime victimization, but rather with victimization in general. Only those with higher scores on emotional stability were less likely to become a victim of cybercrime than traditional crime. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are little differences between personality traits related to victimization of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crimes. Only individuals with higher scores on openness to experience have higher odds of becoming a victim of cyber-enabled crimes.

  7. Personality Traits in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene......-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons...... symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms....

  8. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  9. 46 CFR 199.130 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of survival craft. 199.130 Section 199.130... craft. (a) General. Each survival craft must be stowed— (1) As close to the accommodation and service spaces as possible; (2) So that neither the survival craft nor its stowage arrangements will interfere...

  10. 46 CFR 108.530 - Stowage of survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of survival craft. 108.530 Section 108.530... AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.530 Stowage of survival craft. (a) General. Each survival craft required to be served by a launching appliance or marine evacuation system must be stowed as...

  11. 46 CFR 28.130 - Survival craft equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft equipment. 28.130 Section 28.130 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.130 Survival craft equipment. (a) General. Each item of survival craft equipment must be of good quality, effective for the purpose it is intended to serve, and...

  12. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  13. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  14. Intraspecific variability and reaction norms of forest understory plant species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Julia I.; Perakis, Steven; McKenzie, Sean C.; Lawrence, Caitlin E.; Puettmann, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Trait-based models of ecological communities typically assume intraspecific variation in functional traits is not important, though such variation can change species trait rankings along gradients in resources and environmental conditions, and thus influence community structure and function.We examined the degree of intraspecific relative to interspecific variation, and reaction norms of 11 functional traits for 57 forest understory plant species, including: intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), Δ15N, 5 leaf traits, 2 stem traits and 2 root traits along gradients in light, nitrogen, moisture and understory cover.Our results indicate that interspecific trait variation exceeded intraspecific variation by at least 50% for most, but not all traits. Intraspecific variation in Δ15N, iWUE, leaf nitrogen content and root traits was high (47-70%) compared with most leaf traits and stem traits (13-38%).Δ15N varied primarily along gradients in abiotic conditions, while light and understory cover were relatively less important. iWUE was related primarily to light transmission, reflecting increases in photosynthesis relative to stomatal conductance. Leaf traits varied mainly as a function of light availability, with some reaction norms depending on understory cover. Plant height increased with understory cover, while stem specific density was related primarily to light. Resources, environmental conditions and understory cover did not contribute strongly to the observed variation in root traits.Gradients in resources, environmental conditions and competition all appear to control intraspecific variability in most traits to some extent. However, our results suggest that species cross-over (i.e., trait rank reversals) along the gradients measured here are generally not a concern.Intraspecific variability in understory plant species traits can be considerable. However, trait data collected under a narrow range of environmental conditions appears sufficient to establish species

  15. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  16. Three Nightmare Traits in Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout E. de Vries

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an integration of dark leadership styles with dark personality traits. The core of dark leadership consists of Three Nightmare Traits (TNT—leader dishonesty, leader disagreeableness, and leader carelessness—that are conceptualized as contextualized personality traits aligned with respectively (low honesty-humility, (low agreeableness, and (low conscientiousness. It is argued that the TNT, when combined with high extraversion and low emotionality, can have serious (“explosive” negative consequences for employees and their organizations. A Situation-Trait-Outcome Activation (STOA model is presented in which a description is offered of situations that are attractive to TNT leaders (situation activation, situations that activate TNT traits (trait activation, and the kinds of outcomes that may result from TNT behaviors (outcome activation. Subsequently, the TNT and STOA models are combined to offer a description of the organizational actions that may strengthen or weaken the TNT during six career stages: attraction, selection, socialization, production, promotion, and attrition. Except for mainly negative consequences of the TNT, possible positive consequences of TNT leadership are also explored, and an outline of a research program is offered that may provide answers to the most pressing questions in dark leadership research.

  17. The influence of social structure on brood survival and development in a socially polymorphic ant: insights from a cross-fostering experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, M

    2012-11-01

    Animal societies vary in the number of breeders per group, which affects many socially and ecologically relevant traits. In several social insect species, including our study species Formica selysi, the presence of either one or multiple reproducing females per colony is generally associated with differences in a suite of traits such as the body size of individuals. However, the proximate mechanisms and ontogenetic processes generating such differences between social structures are poorly known. Here, we cross-fostered eggs originating from single-queen (= monogynous) or multiple-queen (= polygynous) colonies into experimental groups of workers from each social structure to investigate whether differences in offspring survival, development time and body size are shaped by the genotype and/or prefoster maternal effects present in the eggs, or by the social origin of the rearing workers. Eggs produced by polygynous queens were more likely to survive to adulthood than eggs from monogynous queens, regardless of the social origin of the rearing workers. However, brood from monogynous queens grew faster than brood from polygynous queens. The social origin of the rearing workers influenced the probability of brood survival, with workers from monogynous colonies rearing more brood to adulthood than workers from polygynous colonies. The social origin of eggs or rearing workers had no significant effect on the head size of the resulting workers in our standardized laboratory conditions. Overall, the social backgrounds of the parents and of the rearing workers appear to shape distinct survival and developmental traits of ant brood. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Quantitative genetic analysis of anxiety trait in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Hare, E; Chavarría, G; Raventós, H

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder type I (BPI) affects approximately 1% of the world population. Although genetic influences on bipolar disorder are well established, identification of genes that predispose to the illness has been difficult. Most genetic studies are based on categorical diagnosis. One strategy to overcome this obstacle is the use of quantitative endophenotypes, as has been done for other medical disorders. We studied 619 individuals, 568 participants from 61 extended families and 51 unrelated healthy controls. The sample was 55% female and had a mean age of 43.25 (SD 13.90; range 18-78). Heritability and genetic correlation of the trait scale from the Anxiety State and Trait Inventory (STAI) was computed by using the general linear model (SOLAR package software). we observed that anxiety trait meets the following criteria for an endophenotype of bipolar disorder type I (BPI): 1) association with BPI (individuals with BPI showed the highest trait score (F = 15.20 [5,24], p = 0.009), 2) state-independence confirmed after conducting a test-retest in 321 subjects, 3) co-segregation within families 4) heritability of 0.70 (SE: 0.060), p = 2.33 × 10 -14 and 5) genetic correlation with BPI was 0.20, (SE = 0.17, p = 3.12 × 10 -5 ). Confounding factors such as comorbid disorders and pharmacological treatment could affect the clinical relationship between BPI and anxiety trait. Further research is needed to evaluate if anxiety traits are specially related to BPI in comparison with other traits such as anger, attention or response inhibition deficit, pathological impulsivity or low self-directedness. Anxiety trait is a heritable phenotype that follows a normal distribution when measured not only in subjects with BPI but also in unrelated healthy controls. It could be used as an endophenotype in BPI for the identification of genomic regions with susceptibility genes for this disorder. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  20. Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-Count and Empathy Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri J.; Dåderman, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive…

  1. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  2. Impact of gender and personality traits (BFI-10) on opinion leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of gender and personality traits on opinion leadership. It tries to partially replicate the study about effect of Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality traits on domain-specific opinion leadership mediated through objective knowledge and generalized opinion leadership...

  3. A Comparison of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Profiles of Individuals with and without Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, K. V.; Hudry, Kristelle; Michalaria, Georgia; Swami, Viren; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which the socioemotional impairments of Asperger syndrome (AS) might be extreme manifestations of individual differences within the general population remains under-explored. We compared the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) profiles of 30 individuals with AS against the profiles of 43 group-matched controls using the Trait…

  4. Predictive Value of Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Large Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul; Rowe, Richard; Flach, Clare; Briskman, Jacqueline; Ford, Tamsin; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen; Goodman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children and adolescents are increasingly recognized as a distinctive dimension of prognostic importance in clinical samples. Nevertheless, comparatively little is known about the longitudinal effects of these personality traits on the mental health of young people from the general population. Using a…

  5. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  6. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  7. Genotype by housing interaction for conformation and workability traits in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, J.; Mark, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A total of 30,190 first-parity Danish Holstein cows housed in free stalls or tie stalls were analyzed to quantify to what degree genotype by housing interaction existed for 21 conformation and 2 workability traits. Each trait measured in different housing systems was treated as 2 separate traits...... in a bivariate animal model. Genetic correlations between the 2 traits as well as differences in genetic and residual variance were used as measurements of whether or not genotype by housing interaction occurred. Genetic correlations were in general close to unity (>0.9), except for body width (0.87 +/- 0...

  8. Using plant functional traits to guide restoration: A case study in California coastal grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeffrey; Krupa, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Restoration ecology can benefit greatly from developments in trait-based ecology that enable improved predictions of how the composition of plant communities will respond to changes in environmental conditions. Plant functional traits can be used to guide the restoration of degraded habitats...... generally from the treatments. Carbon addition led to large intraspecific trait shifts, with individuals in C addition plots having smaller, denser leaves and shorter stature. Species' trait plasticity, however, was not related to the community composition response to C addition.   Our study indicates...

  9. Perceived Personality Traits of Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…

  10. Paternal Autistic Traits Are Predictive of Infants Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Luca; Facoetti, Andrea; Bulf, Hermann; Franchin, Laura; Bettoni, Roberta; Valenza, Eloisa

    2014-01-01

    Since subthreshold autistic social impairments aggregate in family members, and since attentional dysfunctions appear to be one of the earliest cognitive markers of children with autism, we investigated in the general population the relationship between infants' attentional functioning and the autistic traits measured in their parents.…

  11. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by

  12. Do gender and personality traits influence use of deal sites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Pavlicek, Antonin

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature on impact of personality traits on technology adoption. But majority of these studies are never replicated and, therefore, it is hard to estimate how general are their findings. The focus of this paper is adoption of deal sites, and its aim to replicate...

  13. Bayesian dissection for genetic architecture of traits associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... model selection technique was used to dissect genetic architecture for traits of interest. A total of 28 main-effect ... nutrition elements for rice growth in natural ecosystems. In general ... All materials were sown on 28. April and ...

  14. Trait acclimation mitigates mortality risks of tropical canopy trees under global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eSterck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25-35ºC and ambient CO2 concentrations (390-800 ppm predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10-20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2ºC, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change.

  15. Trait Acclimation Mitigates Mortality Risks of Tropical Canopy Trees under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P. R.; Schieving, Feike; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area) to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25–35°C) and ambient CO2 concentrations (390–800 ppm) predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10–20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2°C, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change. PMID:27242814

  16. A behavioral genetic analysis of callous-unemotional traits and Big Five personality in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such as lacking empathy and emotional insensitivity, predict the onset, severity, and persistence of antisocial behavior. CU traits are heritable, and genetic influences on CU traits contribute to antisocial behavior. This study examines genetic overlap between CU traits and general domains of personality. We measured CU traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) and Big Five personality using the Big Five Inventory in a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Genetic influences on the Big Five personality dimensions could account for the entirety of genetic influences on CU traits. Item Response Theory results indicate that the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits is better at detecting clinically relevant personality variation at lower extremes of personality trait continua, particularly low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The proximate biological mechanisms that mediate genetic liabilities for CU traits remain an open question. The results of the current study suggest that understanding the development of normal personality may inform understanding of the genetic underpinnings of callous and unemotional behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Combining ability of phenological traits and seed yield in spring rapeseed genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six parents and their 15 F2 diallel progenies, totally 21 genotypes, were evaluated for genetic parameters of quantitative characteristics. The traits of interest were growing degree days (GDDs from sowing to the flowering (DDF, to end of flowering (DDE, flowering period (DFP, to maturity (DDM and seed yield (SY. Significant mean squares of general combining ability (GCA was exhibited for DDF, DDE, DFP, DDM and seed yield indicating significant differences of GCA effects of parents for these traits. Significant mean squares of specific combining ability (SCA for all the traits exhibited the importance of non additive genetic effects for the traits. Significant ratio of MS(GCA/MS(SCA and high narrow sense heritability estimates for DDF, DDE, DDM indicating the prime importance of additive genetic effects for controlling these traits. DFP was also less heritable than the other phonological traits, so the efficiency of selection for this trait will be low. All of the combinations with significant negative SCA effects for DDM had at least one parent with significant negative GCA effect for this trait. PF7045/91 with significant positive GCA effect of SY, was best combiner for improving SY. Significant positive correlation between DDM and each of two traits including DDF and DDE, indicating these traits can be used as indirect selection criteria for improving DDM.

  18. The Criteria of Love: Trait Desirability of Filipino Youth on Mate Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racidon P. Bernarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In choosing a life partner, making a ‘good match’ is what everyone hopes for. Usually we have the habit of thinking on how many potential mates are sitting around? And with that, how many would you be attracted and attached to, and how many person you’d probably never date? To find out the relevance of the claim, this quantitative study was designed to know the desirable traits being considered by the Filipino youth in selecting their potential mate, and how male and female differ in their preferences. A total of 400 Filipino university students with the age of 15 to 23 years old participated in the study through self-administered survey. General findings revealed that over the 6 trait dimensions: Physical Traits; Social Traits; Personality Traits; Skills; Achievements; and Spiritual Traits—male and female have significant difference in their trait preference in choosing their mate. Though there are traits that fall under the same degree of importance, women still have higher preference in mate selection criteria as compared to men in all traits. Overall, the trait preferences of the respondents were critically influenced by their sex. Nevertheless, this study clearly suggests the similarity that men and women put importance to traits which can help them develop and maintain an intimate and strong interpersonal relationship with their mate.

  19. Survival Processing and the Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of survival processing with a novel task for this paradigm: the Stroop color-naming task. As the literature is mixed with regard to task generalizability, with survival processing promoting better memory for words, but not better memory for faces or paired associates, these types of task investigations are important to a growing field of research. Using the Stroop task provides a unique contribution, as identifying items by color is an important evolutionary adaptation and not specific to humans as is the case with word recall. Our results indicate that survival processing, with its accompanying survival-relevance rating task, remains the best mnemonic strategy for word memory. However, our results also indicate that presenting the survival passage does not motivate better color-naming performance than color-naming alone. In addition, survival processing led to a larger amount of Stroop interference, though not significantly larger than the other conditions. Together, these findings suggest that considering one’s survival when performing memory and attention-based tasks does not enhance cognitive performance generally, although greater allocation of attentional resources to color-incongruent concrete objects could be considered adaptive. These findings support the notion that engaging in deeper processing via survival-relevance ratings may preserve these words across a variety of experimental manipulations.

  20. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  1. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  2. Personality and cognitive profiles of a general synesthetic trait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Scholte, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    The recent sharp increase in studies on synesthesia has taught us a lot about this fascinating condition. Still, while we define synesthesia as 'the mixing of senses', the great majority of synesthesia studies focus on only one synesthesia type (in particular grapheme-color synesthesia). In this

  3. The survival advantage of olfaction in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Kenta; Pavlenkovich, Viktoryia; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2008-08-05

    Olfaction is generally assumed to be critical for survival because this sense allows animals to detect food and pheromonal cues. Although the ability to sense sex pheromones [1, 2, 3] is likely to be important for insects, the contribution of general odor detection to survival is unknown. We investigated the extent to which the olfactory system confers a survival advantage on Drosophila larvae foraging for food under conditions of limited resources and competition from other larvae.

  4. Beyond mean functional traits: Influence of functional trait profiles on forest structure, production, and mortality across the eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; Grant M. Domke; Sassan S. Saatchi

    2014-01-01

    Plant functional traits (PFTs) have increased in popularity in recent years to describe various ecosystems and biological phenomena while advancing general ecological principles. To date, few have investigated distributional attributes of individual PFTs and their relationship with key attributes and processes of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to...

  5. A simple linear regression method for quantitative trait loci linkage analysis with censored observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl A; McRae, Allan F; Visscher, Peter M

    2006-07-01

    Standard quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping techniques commonly assume that the trait is both fully observed and normally distributed. When considering survival or age-at-onset traits these assumptions are often incorrect. Methods have been developed to map QTL for survival traits; however, they are both computationally intensive and not available in standard genome analysis software packages. We propose a grouped linear regression method for the analysis of continuous survival data. Using simulation we compare this method to both the Cox and Weibull proportional hazards models and a standard linear regression method that ignores censoring. The grouped linear regression method is of equivalent power to both the Cox and Weibull proportional hazards methods and is significantly better than the standard linear regression method when censored observations are present. The method is also robust to the proportion of censored individuals and the underlying distribution of the trait. On the basis of linear regression methodology, the grouped linear regression model is computationally simple and fast and can be implemented readily in freely available statistical software.

  6. Copy number variation in glutathione-S-transferase T1 and M1 predicts incidence and 5-year survival from prostate and bladder cancer, and incidence of corpus uteri cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, M S; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Bojesen, S E

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) and GSTM1 detoxify carcinogens and thus potentially contribute to inter-individual susceptibility to cancer. We determined the ability of GST copy number variation (CNV) to predict the risk of cancer in the general population. Exact copy numbers of GSTT1 and G...

  7. Diallel cross analysis for fruit traits in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica; Vasić Mirjana; Milić Dragan; Červenski Janko

    2011-01-01

    Current demands of consumers and thus producers are important when targeting watermelon breeding programs, especially in programs aimed at improvement of fruit traits. A complete diallel set has been investigated for breeding values of six watermelon lines, via general and specific combining ability, relationships between general and specific combining ability, heritability and heterosis for fruit size, rind thickness, soluble solids and fruit shape. The li...

  8. Trait-based approaches in the analysis of stream fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Emmanuel; Angermeier, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Species traits are used to study the functional organization of fish communities for a range of reasons, from simply reducing data dimensionality to providing mechanistic explanations for observed variation in communities. Ecological and life history traits have been used to understand the basic ecology of fishes and predict (1) species and community responses to habitat and climate alteration, and (2) species extinction, species invasion, and community homogenization. Many approaches in this arena have been developed during the past three decades, but they often have not been integrated with related ecological concepts or subdisciplines, which has led to confusion in terminology. We review 102 studies of species traits and then summarize patterns in traits being used and questions being addressed with trait-based approaches. Overall, studies of fish–habitat relationships that apply habitat templates and hierarchical filters dominate our sample; the most frequently used traits are related to feeding. We define and show the relationships among key terms such as fundamental and realized niches; functional traits, performance, and fitness; tactic, trait-state, syndromes, and strategies; and guilds and functional groups. We propose accelerating research to (1) quantify trait plasticity, (2) identify traits useful for testing ecological hypotheses, (3) model habitat and biotic interactions in communities while explicitly accounting for phylogenetic relationships, (4) explore how traits control community assembly, and (5) document the importance of traits in fish– community responses to anthropogenic change and in delivering ecosystem services. Further synthesis of these topics is still needed to develop concepts, models, and principles that can unify the disparate approaches taken in trait-based analysis of fish communities, link fish community ecology to general community ecology, and inform sustainable management of ecosystems.

  9. Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale: Assessing Trait Spirituality More Inclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles J.; Davis, Don E.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Brubaker, Kacy; Choe, Elise; Karaga, Sara; Dooley, Matt; O'Bryant, Brittany L.; Van Tongeren, Daryl R.; Hook, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    We develop the Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale (TSSS), which assesses experiences of closeness to the sacred, within and outside a religious tradition. After using factor analysis to finalize the scale, we examine evidence of construct validity, including latent profile analysis that reveals 5 patterns of how spirituality is experienced.

  10. Quantitative trait loci mapping for stomatal traits in interspecific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr.YASODHA

    seedling raising, field planting and maintenance of the mapping population. ... tereticornis and production of interspecific hybrids displaying hybrid vigour in terms of .... A total of 114, 115 and 129 SSR, ISSR and SRAP markers were generated .... stomatal traits with yield and adaptability would help to improve productivity of ...

  11. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... character affected by ecological surroundings, growth ... developed from each F2 by bud self-pollination for QTL analysis. ... Quantitative traits measured for the each individual plant in F2 the population and F3 families ..... sex and parental interactions (Liu et al., 1996). ... evolution of solanaceous species.

  12. Lamb survival analysis from birth to weaning in Iranian Kermani sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazandeh, Arsalan; Moghbeli, Sadrollah Molaei; Vatankhah, Mahmood; Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2012-04-01

    Survival records from 1,763 Kermani lambs born between 1996 and 2004 from 294 ewes and 81 rams were used to determine genetic and non-genetic factors affecting lamb survival. Traits included were lamb survival across five periods from birth to 7, 14, 56, 70, and 90 days of age. Traits were analyzed under Weibull proportional hazard sire models. Several binary analyses were also conducted using animal models. Statistical models included the fixed class effects of sex of lamb, month and year of birth, a covariate effect of birth weight, and random genetic effects of both sire (in survival analyses) and animal (in binary analyses). The average survival to 90 days of age was 94.8%. Hazard rates ranged from 1.00 (birth to 90 days of age) to 1.73 (birth to 7 days of age) between the two sexes indicating that male lambs were at higher risk of mortality than females (P lamb survival and lamb birth weight, suggesting that viability and birth weight could be considered simultaneously in the selection programs to obtain optimal birth weight in Kermani lambs. Estimates of heritabilities from survival analyses were medium and ranged from 0.23 to 0.29. In addition, heritability estimates obtained from binary analyses were low and varied from 0.04 to 0.09. The results of this study suggest that progress in survival traits could be possible through managerial strategies and genetic selection.

  13. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  14. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  15. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  16. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  17. Personality Traits and the Gender Gap in Ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    personality traits by far dominate the direct effects of gender. They also dominate other potential differences between the sexes like income or education as explanatory factors. Our findings suggest that women tend to be more leftist than men mainly because they have different personalities, which, in turn......What explains the gender gap in ideology, i.e. the observation that women tend to be more leftist than men? We provide new evidence showing that personality traits play a key role. Using a novel high-quality data set, we show that the mediating (i.e. indirect) effects of gender operating through......, shape their expressed ideology. Taking such mediating effects of personality traits into account explains over three quarters of the observed gender gap in general ideological preferences....

  18. Estimation of Inbreeding Coefficient and Its Effects on Lamb Survival in Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad almasi

    2016-04-01

    and serious genetic variation in the population. Inbreeding depression was observed for survival trait although the levels of inbreeding coefficient were acceptable in all of the breeds investigated in this study. Therefore, the general policy in the flocks should be continued to avoid mating between close relative parents and use of enough sires and dams selected per annum. Estimated inbreeding coefficients for Baluchi and Iranblack breeds showed high degree of close mating in these herd and due to the significant effect of inbreeding on survival, it is suggested that this breeding stations should use a breeding plan to avoid mating of close relative animals.

  19. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) maladaptive personality traits and their connections with normative personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Zara E; Pahlen, Shandell; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposes an alternative model for personality disorders, which includes maladaptive-level personality traits. These traits can be operationalized by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Although there has been extensive research on genetic and environmental influences on normative level personality, the heritability of the DSM-5 traits remains understudied. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by assessing traits indexed by the PID-5 and the International Personality Item Pool NEO (IPIP-NEO) in adult twins (N = 1,812 individuals). Research aims include (a) replicating past findings of the heritability of normative level personality as measured by the IPIP-NEO as a benchmark for studying maladaptive level traits, (b) ascertaining univariate heritability estimates of maladaptive level traits as measured by the PID-5, (c) establishing how much variation in personality pathology can be attributed to the same genetic components affecting variation in normative level personality, and (d) determining residual variance in personality pathology domains after variance attributable to genetic and environmental components of general personality has been removed. Results revealed that PID-5 traits reflect similar levels of heritability to that of IPIP-NEO traits. Further, maladaptive and normative level traits that correlate at the phenotypic level also correlate at the genotypic level, indicating overlapping genetic components contribute to variance in both. Nevertheless, we also found evidence for genetic and environmental components unique to maladaptive level personality traits, not shared with normative level traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification. © 2015 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  4. On the conceptual distinction of general causality orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin Hammershøj

    electronic questionnaires of dispositional personality traits (NEO-FFI) and general causality orientations (GCOS). Proposed separate latent models and alternative shared latent models of the underlying individual differences constructs had been developed in a previous exploratory study (Olesen, Thomsen......, that is general causality orientations can be understood as characteristic adaptations of dispositional traits....

  5. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne

    2012-10-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  7. Genetic variation of seedling traits in a random mating population of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    2004-01-01

    Forty S/sub 1/ families obtained from a random mating population of sunflower were evaluated in the laboratory for various seedling traits. The objectives of this study were to investigate the extent and nature of genetic variability and to determine the estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlations among ten seedling traits prevailing in a random mating population of sunflower. The results indicated that significant differences existed among the 40 S/sub 1/ families for all the traits evaluated. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were comparatively high for emergence rate index, root/shoot ratio, dry root weight, fresh root weight and fresh shoot weight. The estimates of broad-sense heritability were high and significant for all the traits. The study of genotypic and phenotypic correlations among these traits revealed that generally, the seedlings which took more time to emerge were vigorous for most of the traits except fresh shoot length. However, rapidly emerging seedlings had higher emergence percentage. The root traits appeared to be better indicators of seedling vigour compared to other traits as these traits exhibited strong and positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations among them. (author)

  8. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  9. Fish functional traits correlated with environmental variables in a temperate biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Keck

    Full Text Available The global biodiversity crisis has invigorated the search for generalized patterns in most disciplines within the natural sciences. Studies based on organismal functional traits attempt to broaden implications of results by identifying the response of functional traits, instead of taxonomic units, to environmental variables. Determining the functional trait responses enables more direct comparisons with, or predictions for, communities of different taxonomic composition. The North American freshwater fish fauna is both diverse and increasingly imperiled through human mediated disturbances, including climate change. The Tennessee River, USA, contains one of the most diverse assemblages of freshwater fish in North America and has more imperiled species than other rivers, but there has been no trait-based study of community structure in the system. We identified 211 localities in the upper Tennessee River that were sampled by the Tennessee Valley Authority between 2009 and 2011 and compiled fish functional traits for the observed species and environmental variables for each locality. Using fourth corner analysis, we identified significant correlations between many fish functional traits and environmental variables. Functional traits associated with an opportunistic life history strategy were correlated with localities subject to greater land use disturbance and less flow regulation, while functional traits associated with a periodic life history strategy were correlated with localities subject to regular disturbance and regulated flow. These are patterns observed at the continental scale, highlighting the generalizability of trait-based methods. Contrary to studies that found no community structure differences when considering riparian buffer zones, we found that fish functional traits were correlated with different environmental variables between analyses with buffer zones vs. entire catchment area land cover proportions. Using existing databases

  10. Fish functional traits correlated with environmental variables in a temperate biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Benjamin P; Marion, Zachary H; Martin, Derek J; Kaufman, Jason C; Harden, Carol P; Schwartz, John S; Strange, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The global biodiversity crisis has invigorated the search for generalized patterns in most disciplines within the natural sciences. Studies based on organismal functional traits attempt to broaden implications of results by identifying the response of functional traits, instead of taxonomic units, to environmental variables. Determining the functional trait responses enables more direct comparisons with, or predictions for, communities of different taxonomic composition. The North American freshwater fish fauna is both diverse and increasingly imperiled through human mediated disturbances, including climate change. The Tennessee River, USA, contains one of the most diverse assemblages of freshwater fish in North America and has more imperiled species than other rivers, but there has been no trait-based study of community structure in the system. We identified 211 localities in the upper Tennessee River that were sampled by the Tennessee Valley Authority between 2009 and 2011 and compiled fish functional traits for the observed species and environmental variables for each locality. Using fourth corner analysis, we identified significant correlations between many fish functional traits and environmental variables. Functional traits associated with an opportunistic life history strategy were correlated with localities subject to greater land use disturbance and less flow regulation, while functional traits associated with a periodic life history strategy were correlated with localities subject to regular disturbance and regulated flow. These are patterns observed at the continental scale, highlighting the generalizability of trait-based methods. Contrary to studies that found no community structure differences when considering riparian buffer zones, we found that fish functional traits were correlated with different environmental variables between analyses with buffer zones vs. entire catchment area land cover proportions. Using existing databases and fourth corner

  11. Autism spectrum disorder and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: precursors and early signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Patrick F; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Steer, Colin D

    2012-03-01

    To chart the emergence of precursors and early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autistic traits in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective longitudinal cohort study of the surviving offspring of 14,541 pregnant women from southwestern England with an expected delivery date between April 1991 and December 1992. Parents' contemporaneous reports of their infant's development (241 questionnaire responses collected up to 30 months of age) were examined in relation to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder by age 11 years (n = 86) and a measure of autistic traits, derived by factor analysis. Among the children later diagnosed with ASD, concerns about vision and hearing were more often reported in the first year, and differences in social, communication, and fine motor skills were evident from 6 months of age. Repetitive behaviors and differences in play, imitation, and feeding habits were reported in the second year. Differences in temperament emerged at 24 months of age and bowel habit by 30 months. All of these early signs were strongly associated with the presence of autistic traits in the rest of the population and these differences were often evident in the first year of development. Over the first 30 months of development, the best predictors of both later ASD and autistic traits included the Social Achievement and Communication scores from the Denver Developmental Screening Test, measures of communicative skills (Vocabulary and Combines Words) from the MacArthur Infant Communicative Development Inventories, and a repetitive behavior score. Precursors, early signs, and other developmental differences were reported in the first year of development among children from the general population who later developed autism spectrum disorder and subtler autistic traits. Other differences emerged and unfolded as development progressed. The findings confirm the long-held suspicion that early differences underscore the multifaceted

  12. Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    loss, and the Minolta color measurements L*, a*, and b* representing meat lightness, redness, and yellowness, respectively. The families consist of 3,883 progenies of 12 Duroc boars that were evaluated to identify the QTL. The linkage map consists of 462 SNP markers on 18 porcine autosomes...... were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level...... will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs...

  13. Quantifying multi-dimensional functional trait spaces of trees: empirical versus theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.; Fell, M.; Barber, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical, field studies of plant functional traits have revealed important trade-offs among pairs or triplets of traits, such as the leaf (LES) and wood (WES) economics spectra. Trade-offs include correlations between leaf longevity (LL) vs specific leaf area (SLA), LL vs mass-specific leaf respiration rate (RmL), SLA vs RmL, and resistance to breakage vs wood density. Ordination analyses (e.g., PCA) show groupings of traits that tend to align with different life-history strategies or taxonomic groups. It is unclear, however, what underlies such trade-offs and emergent spectra. Do they arise from inherent physiological constraints on growth, or are they more reflective of environmental filtering? The relative importance of these mechanisms has implications for predicting biogeochemical cycling, which is influenced by trait distributions of the plant community. We address this question using an individual-based model of tree growth (ACGCA) to quantify the theoretical trait space of trees that emerges from physiological constraints. ACGCA's inputs include 32 physiological, anatomical, and allometric traits, many of which are related to the LES and WES. We fit ACGCA to 1.6 million USFS FIA observations of tree diameters and heights to obtain vectors of trait values that produce realistic growth, and we explored the structure of this trait space. No notable correlations emerged among the 496 trait pairs, but stepwise regressions revealed complicated multi-variate structure: e.g., relationships between pairs of traits (e.g., RmL and SLA) are governed by other traits (e.g., LL, radiation-use efficiency [RUE]). We also simulated growth under various canopy gap scenarios that impose varying degrees of environmental filtering to explore the multi-dimensional trait space (hypervolume) of trees that died vs survived. The centroid and volume of the hypervolumes differed among dead and live trees, especially under gap conditions leading to low mortality. Traits most predictive

  14. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  15. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Kiers, E.T.; Currie, C.R.; McDonald, B.R.; Visser, B.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species

  16. Genetic parameters for lactose and its correlation with other milk production traits and fitness traits in pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2017-05-01

    Lactose is a major component of milk (typically around 5% of composition) that is not usually directly considered in national genetic improvement programs of dairy cattle. Daily test-day lactose yields and percentage data from pasture-based seasonal calving herds in Australia were analyzed to assess if lactose content can be used for predicting fitness traits and if an additional benefit is achieved by including lactose yield in selecting for milk yield traits. Data on lactose percentage collected from 2007 to 2014, from about 600 herds, were used to estimated genetic parameters for lactose percentage and lactose yield and correlations with other milk yield traits, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval (CIV), and survival. Daily test-day data were analyzed using bivariate random regression models. In addition, multi-trait models were also performed mainly to assess the value of lactose to predict fitness traits. The heritability of lactose percentage (0.25 to 0.37) was higher than lactose yield (0.11 to 0.20) in the first parity. Genetically, the correlation of lactose percentage with protein percentage varied from 0.3 at the beginning of lactation to -0.24 at the end of the lactation in the first parity. Similar patterns in genetic correlations were also observed in the second and third parity. At all levels (i.e., genetic, permanent environmental, and residual), the correlation between milk yield and lactose yield was close to 1. The genetic and permanent environmental correlations between lactose percentage and SCC were stronger in the second and third parity and toward the end of the lactation (-0.35 to -0.50) when SCC levels are at their maximum. The genetic correlation between lactose percentage in the first 120 d and CIV (-0.23) was similar to correlation of CIV with protein percentage (-0.28), another component trait with the potential to predict fertility. Furthermore, the correlations of estimated breeding values of lactose percentage and estimated

  17. A trait-based framework for stream algal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Katharina; Townsend, Colin Richard; Matthaei, Christoph David

    2016-01-01

    The use of trait-based approaches to detect effects of land use and climate change on terrestrial plant and aquatic phytoplankton communities is increasing, but such a framework is still needed for benthic stream algae. Here we present a conceptual framework of morphological, physiological, behavioural and life-history traits relating to resource acquisition and resistance to disturbance. We tested this approach by assessing the relationships between multiple anthropogenic stressors and algal traits at 43 stream sites. Our "natural experiment" was conducted along gradients of agricultural land-use intensity (0-95% of the catchment in high-producing pasture) and hydrological alteration (0-92% streamflow reduction resulting from water abstraction for irrigation) as well as related physicochemical variables (total nitrogen concentration and deposited fine sediment). Strategic choice of study sites meant that agricultural intensity and hydrological alteration were uncorrelated. We studied the relationships of seven traits (with 23 trait categories) to our environmental predictor variables using general linear models and an information-theoretic model-selection approach. Life form, nitrogen fixation and spore formation were key traits that showed the strongest relationships with environmental stressors. Overall, FI (farming intensity) exerted stronger effects on algal communities than hydrological alteration. The large-bodied, non-attached, filamentous algae that dominated under high farming intensities have limited dispersal abilities but may cope with unfavourable conditions through the formation of spores. Antagonistic interactions between FI and flow reduction were observed for some trait variables, whereas no interactions occurred for nitrogen concentration and fine sediment. Our conceptual framework was well supported by tests of ten specific hypotheses predicting effects of resource supply and disturbance on algal traits. Our study also shows that investigating a

  18. Matching consumer feeding behaviours and resource traits: a fourth-corner problem in food-web theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Angelo Barbosa; Faria, Lucas Del Bianco

    2018-06-06

    For decades, food web theory has proposed phenomenological models for the underlying structure of ecological networks. Generally, these models rely on latent niche variables that match the feeding behaviour of consumers with their resource traits. In this paper, we used a comprehensive database to evaluate different hypotheses on the best dependency structure of trait-matching patterns between consumers and resource traits. We found that consumer feeding behaviours had complex interactions with resource traits; however, few dimensions (i.e. latent variables) could reproduce the trait-matching patterns. We discuss our findings in the light of three food web models designed to reproduce the multidimensionality of food web data; additionally, we discuss how using species traits clarify food webs beyond species pairwise interactions and enable studies to infer ecological generality at larger scales, despite potential taxonomic differences, variations in ecological conditions and differences in species abundance between communities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. The evolutionary fate of phenotypic plasticity and functional traits under domestication in manioc: changes in stem biomechanics and the appearance of stem brittleness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Léa; McKey, Doyle; Mühlen, Gilda S; Clair, Bruno; Rowe, Nick P

    2013-01-01

    Domestication can influence many functional traits in plants, from overall life-history and growth form to wood density and cell wall ultrastructure. Such changes can increase fitness of the domesticate in agricultural environments but may negatively affect survival in the wild. We studied effects of domestication on stem biomechanics in manioc by comparing domesticated and ancestral wild taxa from two different regions of greater Amazonia. We compared mechanical properties, tissue organisation and wood characteristics including microfibril angles in both wild and domesticated plants, each growing in two different habitats (forest or savannah) and varying in growth form (shrub or liana). Wild taxa grew as shrubs in open savannah but as lianas in overgrown and forested habitats. Growth form plasticity was retained in domesticated manioc. However, stems of the domesticate showed brittle failure. Wild plants differed in mechanical architecture between shrub and liana phenotypes, a difference that diminished between shrubs and lianas of the domesticate. Stems of wild plants were generally stiffer, failed at higher bending stresses and were less prone to brittle fracture compared with shrub and liana phenotypes of the domesticate. Biomechanical differences between stems of wild and domesticated plants were mainly due to changes in wood density and cellulose microfibril angle rather than changes in secondary growth or tissue geometry. Domestication did not significantly modify "large-scale" trait development or growth form plasticity, since both wild and domesticated manioc can develop as shrubs or lianas. However, "finer-scale" developmental traits crucial to mechanical stability and thus ecological success of the plant were significantly modified. This profoundly influenced the likelihood of brittle failure, particularly in long climbing stems, thereby also influencing the survival of the domesticate in natural situations vulnerable to mechanical perturbation. We

  20. The evolutionary fate of phenotypic plasticity and functional traits under domestication in manioc: changes in stem biomechanics and the appearance of stem brittleness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Ménard

    Full Text Available Domestication can influence many functional traits in plants, from overall life-history and growth form to wood density and cell wall ultrastructure. Such changes can increase fitness of the domesticate in agricultural environments but may negatively affect survival in the wild. We studied effects of domestication on stem biomechanics in manioc by comparing domesticated and ancestral wild taxa from two different regions of greater Amazonia. We compared mechanical properties, tissue organisation and wood characteristics including microfibril angles in both wild and domesticated plants, each growing in two different habitats (forest or savannah and varying in growth form (shrub or liana. Wild taxa grew as shrubs in open savannah but as lianas in overgrown and forested habitats. Growth form plasticity was retained in domesticated manioc. However, stems of the domesticate showed brittle failure. Wild plants differed in mechanical architecture between shrub and liana phenotypes, a difference that diminished between shrubs and lianas of the domesticate. Stems of wild plants were generally stiffer, failed at higher bending stresses and were less prone to brittle fracture compared with shrub and liana phenotypes of the domesticate. Biomechanical differences between stems of wild and domesticated plants were mainly due to changes in wood density and cellulose microfibril angle rather than changes in secondary growth or tissue geometry. Domestication did not significantly modify "large-scale" trait development or growth form plasticity, since both wild and domesticated manioc can develop as shrubs or lianas. However, "finer-scale" developmental traits crucial to mechanical stability and thus ecological success of the plant were significantly modified. This profoundly influenced the likelihood of brittle failure, particularly in long climbing stems, thereby also influencing the survival of the domesticate in natural situations vulnerable to mechanical

  1. Childhood parental bonding affects adulthood trait anxiety through self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Akiyoshi; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Murakoshi, Akiko; Ono, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    The association between trait anxiety and parental bonding has been suggested. However, the mechanism remains uncertain and there is no study focused on general adult population. We investigated the association and the mechanism between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety in the general adult population. A cross-sectional retrospective survey was conducted in 2014 with 853 adult volunteers from the general population. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y) were self-administered. Structural equation modelling was used for the analysis. Childhood parental bonding affected adulthood trait anxiety indirectly mediated by self-esteem. Trait anxiety was decreased by parental care and increased by parental overprotection through self-esteem. This model explained 51.1% of the variability in STAI-Y trait anxiety scores. This study suggests an important role of self-esteem as a mediator between childhood parental bonding and adulthood trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA......, and organised the data into a structured database. We collected 9345 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported on the species level, but some...

  4. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA...... and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level...

  5. Immunity traits in pigs: substantial genetic variation and limited covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Flori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs. Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFNα, TNFα, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNγ, IL2, IL4, IL10, phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.10.4 heritability values, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ITs were weak except for a few traits that mostly include cell subsets. PCA revealed no cluster of innate or adaptive ITs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that variation in many innate and adaptive ITs is genetically controlled in swine, as already reported for a smaller number of traits by other laboratories. A limited redundancy of the traits was also observed confirming the high degree of complementarity between innate and adaptive ITs. Our data provide a genetic framework for choosing ITs to be included as selection criteria in multitrait selection

  6. Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Periviable Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Noelle; Goldstein, Ricki F; Bann, Carla M; Hintz, Susan R; Patel, Ravi M; Smith, P Brian; Bell, Edward F; Rysavy, Matthew A; Duncan, Andrea F; Vohr, Betty R; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N; Higgins, Rosemary D; Cotten, C Michael

    2017-02-16

    Data reported during the past 5 years indicate that rates of survival have increased among infants born at the borderline of viability, but less is known about how increased rates of survival among these infants relate to early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. We compared survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born at 22 to 24 weeks of gestation, as assessed at 18 to 22 months of corrected age, across three consecutive birth-year epochs (2000-2003 [epoch 1], 2004-2007 [epoch 2], and 2008-2011 [epoch 3]). The infants were born at 11 centers that participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. The primary outcome measure was a three-level outcome - survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, survival with neurodevelopmental impairment, or death. After accounting for differences in infant characteristics, including birth center, we used multinomial generalized logit models to compare the relative risk of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, survival with neurodevelopmental impairment, and death. Data on the primary outcome were available for 4274 of 4458 infants (96%) born at the 11 centers. The percentage of infants who survived increased from 30% (424 of 1391 infants) in epoch 1 to 36% (487 of 1348 infants) in epoch 3 (Pneurodevelopmental impairment increased from 16% (217 of 1391) in epoch 1 to 20% (276 of 1348) in epoch 3 (P=0.001), whereas the percentage of infants who survived with neurodevelopmental impairment did not change significantly (15% [207 of 1391] in epoch 1 and 16% [211 of 1348] in epoch 3, P=0.29). After adjustment for changes in the baseline characteristics of the infants over time, both the rate of survival with neurodevelopmental impairment (as compared with death) and the rate of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment (as compared with death) increased over time (adjusted relative risks, 1.27 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01 to 1.59] and 1

  7. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  8. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  9. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  10. Impulsivity-like traits and risky driving behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R; Murphy, Elaine M; Doane, Ashley N

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the predictive effects of five impulsivity-like traits (Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, Negative Urgency, and Positive Urgency) on driving outcomes (driving errors, driving lapses, driving violations, cell phone driving, traffic citations, and traffic collisions). With a convenience sample of 266 college student drivers, we found that each of the impulsivity-like traits was related to multiple risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency (tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative affect) was the most robust predictor of risky driving outcomes. Positive Urgency is a relatively newly conceptualized impulsivity-like trait that was not examined in the driving literature previously, suggesting a strong need to further examine its role as a personality trait related to risky driving. These findings generally support the multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-like traits, and they specifically support the addition of Positive Urgency to a list of risk factors for risky driving behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic relationship between methane emissions and conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Kargo, Morten; Lassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Conformation traits have been widely explored in dairy cattle evaluation, being a part of the total merit index for Holstein cows in different countries. They have been used as a way to access the cow’s condition in general, based on its body features. Lots of studies have analyzed the relationship...... traits in Holstein cows: height (H), body depth (BD), chest width (CW), dairy character (DC) and body condition score (BCS). Data was collected on 1114 Holstein cows from 11 commercial herds in Denmark. Methane emission was measured during milking in milking robots, and then quantifed using information...... between conformation traits and other traits of interest in dairy cattle, such as fertility, longevity and feed effciency, but little is known about how methane emissions correlate with conformation traits. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the genetic correlations between methane and six conformation...

  12. Microbial survival and odor in laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Johansen, Charlotte; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2001-01-01

    The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-were eva......The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa......-were evaluated on cotton textile. A significant survival and transfer between textiles were found for all four test strains washed in E.U. and U.S. color detergents (without bleach), whereas no survival was observed in bleach-containing detergents. Gram-negative strains generally survived in greater numbers than...... Gram-positive strains. A greater survival was observed in U.S. detergents at U.S. conditions (30 degreesC, 12 min) than in E.U. detergents at E.U. conditions (40 degreesC, 30 min). The adhesion of odorants to cotton and polyester textiles during washing and drying was studied using six previously...

  13. Genetic correlations between methane production and fertility, health, and body type traits in Danish Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetouni, L; Kargo, M; Norberg, E; Lassen, J

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate the genetic correlations between CH 4 production and body conformation, fertility, and health traits in dairy cows. Data were collected from 10 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark, including 5,758 cows with records for body conformation traits, 7,390 for fertility traits, 7,439 for health traits, and 1,397 with individual CH 4 measurements. Methane production was measured during milking in automatic milking systems, using a sniffer approach. Correlations between CH 4 and several different traits were estimated. These traits were interval between calving and first insemination, interval between first and last insemination, number of inseminations, udder diseases, other diseases, height, body depth, chest width, dairy character, top line, and body condition score. Bivariate linear models were used to estimate the genetic parameters within and between CH 4 and the other traits. In general, the genetic correlations between CH 4 and the traits investigated were low. The heritability of CH 4 was 0.25, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 for fertility and health traits, and from 0.17 to 0.74 for body conformation traits. Further research with a larger data set should be performed to more accurately establish how CH 4 relates to fertility, health, and body conformation traits in dairy cattle. This will be useful in the design of future breeding goals that consider the production of CH 4 . The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  14. Ancestrality and evolution of trait syndromes in finches (Fringillidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean‐François; Zuccon, Dario; Elias, Marianne; Pavoine, Sandrine; Henry, Pierre‐Yves; Théry, Marc; Guilbert, Éric

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Species traits have been hypothesized by one of us (Ponge, 2013) to evolve in a correlated manner as species colonize stable, undisturbed habitats, shifting from “ancestral” to “derived” strategies. We predicted that generalism, r-selection, sexual monomorphism, and migration/gregariousness are the ancestral states (collectively called strategy A) and evolved correlatively toward specialism, K-selection, sexual dimorphism, and residence/territoriality as habitat stabil...

  15. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas with sickle cell trait: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish S Permi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas is a rare pancreatic neoplasm affecting young women, has low malignant potential and amenable for surgical excision with good long-term survival. Sickle cell trait is benign condition, which involves one normal beta-globin chain and one HbS chain. Although it is a benign condition, individuals are prone to have rare complications that may predispose to death under certain circumstances. We report a rare coexistence of solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas with sickle cell trait in an 18-year-old female who underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. Histopathological examination and haemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed the diagnosis.

  16. Inheritance of quantitative traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav H.K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was carried out using five parameter model on five cross combinations with five generations i.e. parents, F1s, F2s, and F3s randomly selected from partial diallel breeding experiment. The aim of study was to investigate the mode of gene actions involved in the inheritance of quantitative traits viz. days to 50% flowering, plant height, leaves/plant, capsules/plant, capsule size, capsule weight/plant, seed yield/plant and opium yield/plant. C and D scaling test showed the presence of non allelic interaction in the inheritance for all the traits except for plant height, seed yield/plant (ND1001xIS13 and capsule size (NBR5xND1002 which showed non interacting mode of inheritance. In general, the interaction effect together i.e. additive x additive [i] and dominance x dominance [l] found in higher magnitude than the combined main effects of additive [d] and dominance [h] effects for all the traits in all the five crosses. Dominance effect [h] was found pronounced for most of the traits except days to 50% flowering where additive effect [d] was found prevalent. Among the interaction effects dominance x dominance [l] was predominant over additive x additive [i] for all traits in all the five crosses except capsules/plant and capsule size in cross ND1001xNBRI11 and leaves/plant and opium yield/plant in cross NBRI5xND1002. As per sign of dominance (h and dominance x dominance (l duplicate epistasis were noticed for all the traits except plant height and leaves/plant in cross ND1001xUO1285. Potence ratio indicated presence of over dominance for almost all the traits. Substantial amount of realized heterosis, residual heterosis in F2 and F3 progenies and high heritability with moderate to high genetic advance in F2 progeny and significant correlation among important traits in desirable direction were observed. A breeding strategy of diallel selective mating or biparental mating in early segregating generation followed by recurrent

  17. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  18. Impulsivity-related traits and their relation to DSM-5 section II and III personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Difficulties with impulse control are considered a core feature of personality disorders (PDs) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Despite this, there has been relatively little examination of the manner in which DSM-5 PDs are characterized by multidimensional models of impulsivity that parse this broad umbrella construct into smaller, more unidimensional constructs. Using the UPPS model and measure of impulsivity (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001), the relations between 4 impulsivity-related traits and interview-rated scores on both DSM-5 Section II and III PDs and PD traits were examined in a community sample of individuals currently receiving psychological or psychiatric care (N = 106). As expected, the UPPS traits manifested correlations with the new Section III trait model that were generally consistent with the assertion that this new DSM-5 trait model reflects a pathological variant of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; e.g., UPPS traits associated with FFM conscientiousness were most strongly related to DSM-5 disinhibition traits). Overall, the UPPS traits accounted best for variance in DSM-5 Section II and III Cluster B PDs, consistent with these PDs being characterized, in part, by emotionally and cognitively based forms of impulsivity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Surviving Scientific Academia . . . and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    It's been 16 years since I first took a physics class at Weber State University. Since them, I've survived graduate school in Nuclear Engineering, and a postdoc appointment doing nuclear nonproliferation. Now I'm a Technical Staff Member at Los Alamos National Laboratory working with nuclear data, the physics behind the numerical simulations of nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Along the way, I've learned a few things. First, scientific computing is everywhere in science. If you are not writing codes, you will be analyzing their output, and generally there will be more output than a human can correctly and accurately interpret in a timely manner. Second, a career in science or engineering can be very rewarding with opportunities to collaborate with and generate friendships with very bright people from all over the world.

  20. A cross-sectional exploration of the personality traits of dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L; Eley, D S; Desbrow, B; Lee, P; Ferguson, M

    2015-10-01

    Personality traits refer to habitual patterns of behaviour, thought and emotions, and have been shown to influence health professionals' career decisions, career development, job satisfaction and retention. There is an opportunity to better understand and support the career pathways of dietitians by exploring their personality traits. The two primary aspects of personality are: (i) temperament traits, which determine automatic emotional responses to experiences, and are generally stable over lifetime, and (ii) character traits, which reflect personal goals and values, and tend to develop with life experience. The present study explored the levels of temperament and character traits of dietitians, as well as their relationship to demographic variables. The study comprised a cross-sectional online survey of 346 Australian dietitians [95% female; mean (SD) age 32 (10) years; mean (SD) time since graduation 7 (9) years]. Temperament and character traits were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory. Key demographic variables were measured to describe career decisions and pathways of dietitians. Multivariate analyses of variance was used to investigate the relationship between demographic variables and personality traits. Levels of several traits were significantly associated with gender, age and highest level of education. In comparison to the general population, the dietitians displayed average levels of Novelty Seeking; high levels of Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness; and low levels of Self-Transcendence. The dietitians in the present study displayed levels of personality traits that were similar to other health professionals, although they differed from the general population. These findings are the precursor to further work that may inform recruitment strategies and career counselling in dietetics. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  2. A methodology framework for weighting genetic traits that impact greenhouse gas emission intensities in selection indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Hely, F S; Quinton, C D; Cromie, A R

    2018-01-01

    A methodological framework was presented for deriving weightings to be applied in selection indexes to account for the impact genetic change in traits will have on greenhouse gas emissions intensities (EIs). Although the emission component of the breeding goal was defined as the ratio of total emissions relative to a weighted combination of farm outputs, the resulting trait-weighting factors can be applied as linear weightings in a way that augments any existing breeding objective before consideration of EI. Calculus was used to define the parameters and assumptions required to link each trait change to the expected changes in EI for an animal production system. Four key components were identified. The potential impact of the trait on relative numbers of emitting animals per breeding female first has a direct effect on emission output but, second, also has a dilution effect from the extra output associated with the extra animals. Third, each genetic trait can potentially change the amount of emissions generated per animal and, finally, the potential impact of the trait on product output is accounted for. Emission intensity weightings derived from this equation require further modifications to integrate them into an existing breeding objective. These include accounting for different timing and frequency of trait expressions as well as a weighting factor to determine the degree of selection emphasis that is diverted away from improving farm profitability in order to achieve gains in EI. The methodology was demonstrated using a simple application to dairy cattle breeding in Ireland to quantify gains in EI reduction from existing genetic trends in milk production as well as in fertility and survival traits. Most gains were identified as coming through the dilution effect of genetic increases in milk protein per cow, although gains from genetic improvements in survival by reducing emissions from herd replacements were also significant. Emission intensities in the Irish

  3. Do alien plant species profit more from high resource supply than natives? : A trait-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Alejandro; Olff, Han

    Aim Previous studies comparing conditions of high- versus low-resource environments have pointed at differences in key traits that would allow aliens to perform better than natives under high-resource conditions. We generalize and test the robustness of this idea by exploring how trait

  4. Relationships among Perceived Stress, Trait Anger, Modes of Anger Expression and Health Status of College Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra P.; Williams, Robert L.

    Relationships among perceived stress, trait anger (general propensity to become angry), modes of anger expression, and health status were examined in a sample of 720 college students, using Caplan's conceptualization of stress as the study's framework. Propensity toward anger was assessed by the 10-item form of the Trait Anger Scale (Spielberger…

  5. Personality traits as vulnerability factors in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid; Martin, Alexandra

    2013-11-30

    Cognitive behavioural models consider certain personality traits to be risk factors for the development of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). Research on personality traits in BDD is scarce, therefore this study examined perfectionism, aesthetic sensitivity and the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) in BDD. Furthermore, the association between these personality traits and the extent of dysmorphic concerns was investigated. Individuals with BDD (n=58) and a population based control sample (n=2071), selected from a representative German population survey, completed self-report questionnaires assessing DSM-5 criteria of BDD, dysmorphic concerns, perfectionism, aesthetic sensitivity and BIS-reactivity. Individuals with BDD reported significantly higher degrees of perfectionism as well as of BIS-reactivity compared to the population based control sample, whereas the groups did not differ significantly regarding aesthetic sensitivity. However, for the total sample, each of the personality traits was related dimensionally to dysmorphic concerns. Current BDD models consider perfectionism and aesthetic sensitivity to be vulnerability factors. In addition to these concepts, the present study suggests that BIS-reactivity is related to BDD. Self-reported aesthetic sensitivity was not found to be specifically pronounced in BDD, but along with perfectionism and BIS-reactivity aesthetic sensitivity was generally associated with dysmorphic concerns. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual differences and reasoning: a study on personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensi, Luca; Giusberti, Fiorella; Nori, Raffaella; Gambetti, Elisa

    2010-08-01

    Personality can play a crucial role in how people reason and decide. Identifying individual differences related to how we actively gather information and use evidence could lead to a better comprehension and predictability of human reasoning. Recent findings have shown that some personality traits are related to similar decision-making patterns showed by people with mental disorders. We performed research with the aim to investigate delusion-proneness, obsessive-like personality, anxiety (trait and state), and reasoning styles in individuals from the general population. We introduced personality trait and state anxiety scores in a regression model to explore specific associations with: (1) amount of data-gathered prior to making a decision; and (2) the use of confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence. Results showed that all our independent variables were positively or negatively associated with the amount of data collected in order to make simple probabilistic decisions. Anxiety and obsessiveness were the only predictors of the weight attributed to evidence in favour or against a hypothesis. Findings were discussed in relation to theoretical assumptions, predictions, and clinical implications. Personality traits can predict peculiar ways to reason and decide that, in turn, could be involved to some extent in the formation and/or maintenance of psychological disorders.

  7. A metastructural model of mental disorders and pathological personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A G C; Simms, L J

    2015-08-01

    Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.

  8. Effects of normalization on quantitative traits in association test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative trait loci analysis assumes that the trait is normally distributed. In reality, this is often not observed and one strategy is to transform the trait. However, it is not clear how much normality is required and which transformation works best in association studies. Results We performed simulations on four types of common quantitative traits to evaluate the effects of normalization using the logarithm, Box-Cox, and rank-based transformations. The impact of sample size and genetic effects on normalization is also investigated. Our results show that rank-based transformation gives generally the best and consistent performance in identifying the causal polymorphism and ranking it highly in association tests, with a slight increase in false positive rate. Conclusion For small sample size or genetic effects, the improvement in sensitivity for rank transformation outweighs the slight increase in false positive rate. However, for large sample size and genetic effects, normalization may not be necessary since the increase in sensitivity is relatively modest. PMID:20003414

  9. Effects of normalization on quantitative traits in association test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Von Bing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait loci analysis assumes that the trait is normally distributed. In reality, this is often not observed and one strategy is to transform the trait. However, it is not clear how much normality is required and which transformation works best in association studies. Results We performed simulations on four types of common quantitative traits to evaluate the effects of normalization using the logarithm, Box-Cox, and rank-based transformations. The impact of sample size and genetic effects on normalization is also investigated. Our results show that rank-based transformation gives generally the best and consistent performance in identifying the causal polymorphism and ranking it highly in association tests, with a slight increase in false positive rate. Conclusion For small sample size or genetic effects, the improvement in sensitivity for rank transformation outweighs the slight increase in false positive rate. However, for large sample size and genetic effects, normalization may not be necessary since the increase in sensitivity is relatively modest.

  10. Father absence and gendered traits in sons and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Cross, Catharine P

    2017-01-01

    Research has previously found a number of apparently contradictory patterns in the relationship between 'father absence' (having a non-resident father during childhood) and the expression of gender roles, as well as other sexually dimorphic traits such as aggression. In the current study we measured a battery of sexually differentiated traits in relation to family background. 133 men and 558 women from the United States and Australia completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, the Fear Survey Schedule and the Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Principal components analysis found two main axes of variation in these traits. Firstly, a general 'reactivity' factor, on which aggression, impulsivity, and fear all loaded positively, was weakly associated with father absence in women. Secondly, 'masculinity' (consisting of high scores on masculine traits, low fear, and physical and verbal aggression) was not associated with father absence. Participants (except American males) reporting a poor childhood relationship with their parents also had high 'reactivity' but not higher 'masculinity'. We found some evidence of a link between father absence and earlier age of first coitus in American females (although not in Australia), but there was no link with age of menarche in either country. Overall, the current results suggest that previous findings linking gender development with father absence in girls may have arisen from a tendency towards greater externalising and reactive behaviour rather than a change in gender development per se.

  11. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens

    2009-03-01

    Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important.

  12. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  13. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  14. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  15. Stability of alert survivable forces during reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of current and projected strategic forces are discussed within a framework that contains elements of current US and Russian analyses. For current force levels and high alert, stability levels are high, as are the levels of potential strikes, due to the large forces deployed. As force levels drop towards those of current value target sets, the analysis becomes linear, concern shifts from stability to reconstitution, and survivable forces drop out. Adverse marginal costs generally provide disincentives for the reduction of vulnerable weapons, but the exchange of vulnerable for survivable weapons could reduce cost while increasing stability even for aggressive participants. Exchanges between effective vulnerable and survivable missile forces are studied with an aggregated, probabilistic model, which optimizes each sides` first and determines each sides` second strikes and costs by minimizing first strike costs.

  16. Individual traits as determinants of time to death under extreme drought in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Sala, Anna; Biel, Carme; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    Plants exhibit a variety of drought responses involving multiple interacting traits and processes, which makes predictions of drought survival challenging. Careful evaluation of responses within species, where individuals share broadly similar drought resistance strategies, can provide insight into the relative importance of different traits and processes. We subjected Pinus sylvestris L. saplings to extreme drought (no watering) leading to death in a greenhouse to (i) determine the relative effect of predisposing factors and responses to drought on survival time, (ii) identify and rank the importance of key predictors of time to death and (iii) compare individual characteristics of dead and surviving trees sampled concurrently. Time until death varied over 3 months among individual trees (from 29 to 147 days). Survival time was best predicted (higher explained variance and impact on the median survival time) by variables related to carbon uptake and carbon/water economy before and during drought. Trees with higher concentrations of monosaccharides before the beginning of the drought treatment and with higher assimilation rates prior to and during the treatment survived longer (median survival time increased 25-70 days), even at the expense of higher water loss. Dead trees exhibited less than half the amount of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in branches, stem and relative to surviving trees sampled concurrently. Overall, our results indicate that the maintenance of carbon assimilation to prevent acute depletion of NSC content above some critical level appears to be the main factor explaining survival time of P. sylvestris trees under extreme drought. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ownership Strategy and Subsidiary Survival in Foreign Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yi; Larimo, Jorma

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the general effect of acquirers’ ownership strategy on the survival in foreign acquisitions. Furthermore, we attempt to address five potential moderating effects: international, regional, target country experience, cultural distance, as well as host country development...

  18. Evaluation of the generalized likelihood ratio test of hypotheses on the genetic control of continuous traits/ Avaliação da razão de verossimilhança generalizada em teste de hipóteses sobre o controle genético de características contínuas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Furtado Ferreira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of genetic control in plants are carried out to characterize genetic effects and detect the existence of a major gene and/or genes of minor effects (polygenes. If the trait of interest is continuous, the likelihood can be constructed based on a model with mixtures of normal densities. Once exact tests are not evident with such models, the likelihood ratio test is generally used, using the chi-square approximation. This work aimed at evaluating such test statistic using computer simulation. Data sets were simulated using generations typical in plant studies, under two conditions of null hypothesis, without a major gene, and without polygenes. The power of the test was evaluated with both types of genes present. Different sample sizes and values of heritability were considered. Results showed that, although the empirical densities of the test statistic departed significantly from a chi-square distribution, under null hypotheses, there was a reasonable control of type I error, with a significance level of 5%. The power of the test was generally high to detect polygenes and major genes. Power is low to detect a major gene only when it explains a low fraction of genetic variation.Estudos de herança genética em plantas são realizados para caracterizar os efeitos genéticos e verificar a existência de um gene de efeito maior e/ou de genes de pequeno efeito (“poligenes”. Quando a característica de interesse é contínua, a verossimilhança é baseada em modelos de misturas de densidades normais. Uma vez que não há testes exatos evidentes para julgar a existência de um gene de efeito maior, a razão de verossimilhança generalizada é em geral utilizada, considerando a aproximação de qui-quadrado. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar esta estatística de teste através de simulação em computador. Dados foram simulados, considerando particularidades de genealogia típicas de tais estudos, e duas condições sob a hipótese de nulidade

  19. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  20. Does Trait Emotional Intelligence Predict Unique Variance in Early Career Success Beyond IQ and Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Haro García, José Manuel de; Castejón Costa, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the contribution of emotional intelligence (EI) to career success, in this study, we analyzed the relationship between trait EI (TEI), general mental ability (GMA), the big five personality traits, and career success indicators, in a sample of 130 graduates who were in the early stages of their careers. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that TEI, and especially its dimension “repair,” has incremental validity in predicting one of the career success ...

  1. Importance of health and environment as quality traits in the buying decision of organic products

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelaers, Koen; Verbeke, Wim; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design/methodology/approach - By means of stated choice preference modelling, the following hypotheses are tested: consumers prefer healt...

  2. Addictive Use Due to Personality: Focused on Big Five Personality Traits and Game Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Eui Jun Jeong; Hye Rim Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether big five personality traits affect game addiction with control of psychological, social, and demographic factors. Specifically, using data from a survey of 789 game users in Korea, we conducted a regression analysis to see the associations of psychological (loneliness/depression), social (activities with family/friends), self-efficacy (game/general), gaming (daily gaming time/perception), demographic (age/gender), and personality traits (extrav...

  3. Essays in general equilibrium theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konovalov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis focuses on various issues of general equilibrium theory and can approximately be divided into three parts. The first part of the thesis studies generalized equilibria in the Arrow-Debreu model in the situation where the strong survival assumption is not satisfied. Chapter four deals with

  4. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  5. Genetic Characterization of Dog Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilska, Joanna; Haskell, Marie J; Blott, Sarah C; Sánchez-Molano, Enrique; Polgar, Zita; Lofgren, Sarah E; Clements, Dylan N; Wiener, Pamela

    2017-06-01

    The genetic architecture of behavioral traits in dogs is of great interest to owners, breeders, and professionals involved in animal welfare, as well as to scientists studying the genetics of animal (including human) behavior. The genetic component of dog behavior is supported by between-breed differences and some evidence of within-breed variation. However, it is a challenge to gather sufficiently large datasets to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits such as behavior, which are both time-consuming and logistically difficult to measure, and known to be influenced by nongenetic factors. In this study, we exploited the knowledge that owners have of their dogs to generate a large dataset of personality traits in Labrador Retrievers. While accounting for key environmental factors, we demonstrate that genetic variance can be detected for dog personality traits assessed using questionnaire data. We identified substantial genetic variance for several traits, including fetching tendency and fear of loud noises, while other traits revealed negligibly small heritabilities. Genetic correlations were also estimated between traits; however, due to fairly large SEs, only a handful of trait pairs yielded statistically significant estimates. Genomic analyses indicated that these traits are mainly polygenic, such that individual genomic regions have small effects, and suggested chromosomal associations for six of the traits. The polygenic nature of these traits is consistent with previous behavioral genetics studies in other species, for example in mouse, and confirms that large datasets are required to quantify the genetic variance and to identify the individual genes that influence behavioral traits. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Quality of life in children surviving cancer: a personality and multi-informant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; De Fruyt, Filip; Koot, Hans M; Benoit, Yves

    2004-12-01

    To describe quality of life (QoL) of children surviving cancer in relation to their personality, using self- and maternal reports and examining differences with healthy referents. Sixty-seven children who survived childhood cancer were compared with eighty-one healthy children on QoL and personality characteristics. Children who survived cancer reported higher QoL than healthy children, whereas there were no differences for personality. Two main effects emerged for informant with children rating themselves as less neurotic and more conscientious than their mothers. The correspondence between mothers and children was substantially higher for survivors for QoL and personality ratings. QoL and trait measures share substantial variance, and personality traits significantly predict QoL. Parental personality ratings explained child QoL beyond children's personality ratings. Personality traits contribute to quality of life, indicating that personality significantly influences child's quality of life beyond the experience of a negative life event such as surviving cancer and its treatment. From a diagnostic perspective, parental trait ratings are informative in addition to children's ratings of personality to understand children's QoL.

  7. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first) primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284), and three or more primaries (n=38). Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%), with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%), had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%), and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%). When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001). Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95%) than for synchronous primaries (59%) and single primaries (59%). The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years) and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991). Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition

  8. Survival, growth and sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon exposed to infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillehammer, Marie; Ødegård, Jørgen; Madsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    tested on data consisting of 10 972 fish that died and 3959 survivors with recorded growth data. The most complex models (4 and 5) were multivariate normal-binary mixture models including growth, sexual maturity and field survival traits. Growth rate and liability of sexual maturation were treated as two...... identification of runts. Mixture models are commonly used to identify the underlying structures in such data, and the aim of this study was to develop Bayesian mixture models for the genetic analysis of health status (runt/healthy) of surviving fish from an IPN outbreak. Methods Five statistical models were......-component normal mixtures, assuming phenotypes originated from two potentially overlapping distributions, (runt/normal). Runt status was an unobserved binary trait. These models were compared to mixture models with fewer traits (Models 2 and 3) and a classical linear animal model for growth (Model 1). Results...

  9. Biostatistics series module 9: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is concerned with “time to event“ data. Conventionally, it dealt with cancer death as the event in question, but it can handle any event occurring over a time frame, and this need not be always adverse in nature. When the outcome of a study is the time to an event, it is often not possible to wait until the event in question has happened to all the subjects, for example, until all are dead. In addition, subjects may leave the study prematurely. Such situations lead to what is called censored observations as complete information is not available for these subjects. The data set is thus an assemblage of times to the event in question and times after which no more information on the individual is available. Survival analysis methods are the only techniques capable of handling censored observations without treating them as missing data. They also make no assumption regarding normal distribution of time to event data. Descriptive methods for exploring survival times in a sample include life table and Kaplan–Meier techniques as well as various kinds of distribution fitting as advanced modeling techniques. The Kaplan–Meier cumulative survival probability over time plot has become the signature plot for biomedical survival analysis. Several techniques are available for comparing the survival experience in two or more groups – the log-rank test is popularly used. This test can also be used to produce an odds ratio as an estimate of risk of the event in the test group; this is called hazard ratio (HR. Limitations of the traditional log-rank test have led to various modifications and enhancements. Finally, survival analysis offers different regression models for estimating the impact of multiple predictors on survival. Cox's proportional hazard model is the most general of the regression methods that allows the hazard function to be modeled on a set of explanatory variables without making restrictive assumptions concerning the

  10. A trait database for marine copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Philipp; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance. We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level, but some phylogenetically conserved traits, such as myelination, were reported at higher taxonomic levels, allowing the entire diversity of around 10 800 recognized marine copepod species to be covered with a few records. Aside from myelination, data coverage was highest for spawning strategy and body size, while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, PANGAEA.862968" target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.862968.

  11. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  12. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  13. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  14. Personality Traits and Body Weight: Evidence Using Sibling Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID

  15. Neyman, Markov processes and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Grace

    2013-07-01

    J. Neyman used stochastic processes extensively in his applied work. One example is the Fix and Neyman (F-N) competing risks model (1951) that uses finite homogeneous Markov processes to analyse clinical trials with breast cancer patients. We revisit the F-N model, and compare it with the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) formulation for right censored data. The comparison offers a way to generalize the K-M formulation to include risks of recovery and relapses in the calculation of a patient's survival probability. The generalization is to extend the F-N model to a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Closed-form solutions of the survival probability are available in special cases of the nonhomogeneous processes, like the popular multiple decrement model (including the K-M model) and Chiang's staging model, but these models do not consider recovery and relapses while the F-N model does. An analysis of sero-epidemiology current status data with recurrent events is illustrated. Fix and Neyman used Neyman's RBAN (regular best asymptotic normal) estimates for the risks, and provided a numerical example showing the importance of considering both the survival probability and the length of time of a patient living a normal life in the evaluation of clinical trials. The said extension would result in a complicated model and it is unlikely to find analytical closed-form solutions for survival analysis. With ever increasing computing power, numerical methods offer a viable way of investigating the problem.

  16. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  17. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  18. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART). With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study. PMID:29377896

  19. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART. With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study.

  20. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M

    2014-01-15

    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific. © 2013.

  1. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  2. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  3. Ancestrality and evolution of trait syndromes in finches (Fringillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponge, Jean-François; Zuccon, Dario; Elias, Marianne; Pavoine, Sandrine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Théry, Marc; Guilbert, Éric

    2017-12-01

    Species traits have been hypothesized by one of us (Ponge, 2013) to evolve in a correlated manner as species colonize stable, undisturbed habitats, shifting from "ancestral" to "derived" strategies. We predicted that generalism, r-selection, sexual monomorphism, and migration/gregariousness are the ancestral states (collectively called strategy A) and evolved correlatively toward specialism, K-selection, sexual dimorphism, and residence/territoriality as habitat stabilized (collectively called B strategy). We analyzed the correlated evolution of four syndromes, summarizing the covariation between 53 traits, respectively, involved in ecological specialization, r-K gradient, sexual selection, and dispersal/social behaviors in 81 species representative of Fringillidae, a bird family with available natural history information and that shows variability for all these traits. The ancestrality of strategy A was supported for three of the four syndromes, the ancestrality of generalism having a weaker support, except for the core group Carduelinae (69 species). It appeared that two different B-strategies evolved from the ancestral state A, both associated with highly predictable environments: one in poorly seasonal environments, called B1, with species living permanently in lowland tropics, with "slow pace of life" and weak sexual dimorphism, and one in highly seasonal environments, called B2, with species breeding out-of-the-tropics, migratory, with a "fast pace of life" and high sexual dimorphism.

  4. Quantitative trait loci analysis of osteocondrosis traits in the elbow joint of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O F; Busch, M E; Gregersen, V R

    2010-01-01

    Osteochondrosis is a growth disorder in the cartilage of young animals and is characterised by lesions found in the cartilage and bone. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with six osteochondrosis lesion traits in the elbow joint of finishing pigs. The traits were: thi...

  5. Context-dependent effects of cold stress on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz

    2017-06-20

    Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Functional Diversity Mediates Coral Survival under Ecological Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggett, David J; Warner, Mark E; Leggat, William

    2017-10-01

    Coral reefs have entered an era of 'ecological crisis' as climate change drives catastrophic reef loss worldwide. Coral growth and stress susceptibility are regulated by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium). The phylogenetic diversity of Symbiodinium frequently corresponds to patterns of coral health and survival, but knowledge of functional diversity is ultimately necessary to reconcile broader ecological success over space and time. We explore here functional traits underpinning the complex biology of Symbiodinium that spans free-living algae to coral endosymbionts. In doing so we propose a mechanistic framework integrating the primary traits of resource acquisition and utilisation as a means to explain Symbiodinium functional diversity and to resolve the role of Symbiodinium in driving the stability of coral reefs under an uncertain future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  8. Relationships between vital rates and ecological traits in an avian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellier, Edwige; Kéry, Marc; Schaub, Michael

    2018-03-30

    Comparative studies about the relationships between vital rates and ecological traits at the community level are conspicuously lacking for most taxa because estimating vital rates requires detailed demographic data. Identifying relationships between vital rates and ecological traits could help to better understand ecological and evolutionary demographic mechanisms that lead to interspecific differences in vital rates. We use novel dynamic N-mixture models for counts to achieve this for a whole avian community comprising 53 passerine species, while simultaneously accounting for density dependence and environmental stochasticity in recruitment and survival and, importantly, correcting our inferences for imperfect detection. Demographic stochasticity is taken into account in the form of the binomial and Poisson distributions describing survival events and number of recruits. We then explore relationships between estimated demographic parameters (i.e., vital rates) and ecological traits related to migration patterns, diet, habitat and nesting location of each species. The relative importance of recruitment and adult survival as contributors to population growth varied greatly among species, and interspecific differences in vital rates partly reflected differences in ecological traits. Migratory mode was associated with interspecific differences in population growth and density dependence. Resident species had higher population growth rates than long- and short-distance migrants. We found no relationships between diet and population growth rate. Habitat differences were associated with different growth rates: alpine, wetland and farmland species had lower population growth rates than forest species. Differences in population growth rates among nesting locations showed that breeding habitat is essential for population dynamics. Our study reveals relationships between ecological traits and contributions of vital rates to population growth and suggests ways in which

  9. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. It describes the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix of the handbook gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. Others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable with inexpensive materials found in most households. This report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah. It is the first comprehensive handbook of survival information for use by untrained citizens who want to improve their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. Sections may be easily excerpted and reproduced for mass distribution through news media

  10. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B

    2013-08-23

    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  11. Relationship Between the Estimated Breeding Values for Litter Traits at Birth and Ovarian and Embryonic Traits and Their Additive Genetic Variance in Gilts at 35 Days of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. A. Da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between the estimated breeding values (EBVs for litter traits at birth and ovulation rate (OR, average corpora luteal weight, uterine length and embryonic survival and development traits in gilts at 35 days of pregnancy by linear regression, (2 the genetic variance of OR, average corpora lutea (CL weight, uterine length and embryonic survival and development traits at 35 days of pregnancy, and (3 the genetic correlations between these traits. Landrace (n = 86 and Yorkshire × Landrace (n = 304 gilts were inseminated and slaughtered at 35 days of pregnancy. OR was assessed by dissection of the CL on both ovaries. Individual CL was weighed and the average CL weight calculated. The number of embryos (total and vital were counted and the vital embryos were individually weighed for calculation of within litter average and standard deviation (SD of the embryo weight. Length of the uterine implantation site of the vital embryos was measured and the average per gilt calculated. Results suggests that increasing the EBV for total number of piglets born would proportionally increase OR and number of embryos, while decreasing the average CL weight. On the contrary, increasing the EBV for average piglet birth weight and for within litter birth weight standard deviation would increase the average CL weight. There was no relationship between the EBVs for BW and for BWSD and vital embryonic weight at 35 days of pregnancy. OR, average CL weight, number of embryos, average weight and implantation length of the vital embryos had all moderate to high heritabilities, ranging from 0.36 (±0.18 to 0.70 (±0.17. Thus, results indicate that there is ample genetic variation in OR, average CL weight and embryonic development traits. This knowledge could be used to optimize the balance between selection for litter size, average piglets birth weight and within litter birth weight uniformity.

  12. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amou Posht-e-Masari, Hesam; Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid; Hadi Tavatori, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep. Data included 1,316 records on reproductive performances of 395 Shall ewes from 41 sires and 136 dams which were collected from 2001 to 2007 in Shall breeding station in Qazvin province at the Northwest of Iran. Studied traits were litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB), litter mean weight per lamb weaned (LMWLW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW). Test of significance to include fixed effects in the statistical model was performed using the general linear model procedure of SAS. The effects of lambing year and ewe age at lambing were significant (Psheep.

  13. Survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; G. Marquesa, Irina; Karst, Søren Michael

    2015-01-01

    Successful application of bioaugmentation for enhanced degradation of environmental pollutants is often limited by the lack of methods to monitor the survival and activity of individual bioaugmentation strains. However, recent advancements in sequencing technologies and molecular techniques now...... allow us to address these limitations. Here a complementing set of general applicable molecular methods are presented that provides detailed information on the performance of individual bioaugmentation strains under in situ conditions. The approach involves genome sequencing to establish highly specific...

  14. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette, E-mail: abp@bios.au.dk [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Göthe, Emma [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Riis, Tenna [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, Room 217, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); O' Hare, Matthew T. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  15. Functional trait composition of aquatic plants can serve to disentangle multiple interacting stressors in lowland streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Göthe, Emma; Riis, Tenna; O'Hare, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, close attention has been paid to negative impacts associated with nutrient loads to streams and rivers, but today hydromorphological alterations are considered increasingly implicated when lowland streams do not achieve good ecological status. Here, we explore if trait-abundance patterns of aquatic plants change along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and eutrophication in lowland stream sites located in Denmark. Specifically, we hypothesised that: i) changes in trait-abundance patterns occur along gradients in hydromorphological degradation and ii) trait-abundance patterns can serve to disentangle effects of eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation in lowland streams reflecting that the mechanisms behind changes differ. We used monitoring data from a total of 147 stream reaches with combined data on aquatic plant species abundance, catchment land use, hydromorphological alterations (i.e. planform, cross section, weed cutting) and water chemistry parameters. Traits related to life form, dispersal, reproduction and survival together with ecological preference values for nutrients and light (Ellenberg N and L) were allocated to 41 species representing 79% of the total species pool. We found clear evidence that habitat degradation (hydromorphological alterations and eutrophication) mediated selective changes in the trait-abundance patterns of the plant community. Specific traits could distinguish hydromorphological degradation (free-floating, surface; anchored floating leaves; anchored heterophylly) from eutrophication (free-floating, submerged; leaf area). We provide a conceptual framework for interpretation of how eutrophication and hydromorphological degradation interact and how this is reflected in trait-abundance patterns in aquatic plant communities in lowland streams. Our findings support the merit of trait-based approaches in biomonitoring as they shed light on mechanisms controlling structural changes under environmental

  16. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  17. Species climate range influences hydraulic and stomatal traits in Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Aimee E; Creek, Danielle; Peters, Jennifer M R; Ellsworth, David S; Choat, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    Plant hydraulic traits influence the capacity of species to grow and survive in water-limited environments, but their comparative study at a common site has been limited. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether selective pressures on species originating in drought-prone environments constrain hydraulic traits among related species grown under common conditions. Leaf tissue water relations, xylem anatomy, stomatal behaviour and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were measured on six Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden to determine whether these traits were related to current species climate range and to understand linkages between the traits. Hydraulically weighted xylem vessel diameter, leaf turgor loss point, the water potential at stomatal closure and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were significantly ( P Eucalyptus trees has important implications for the limits of species responses to changing environmental conditions and thus for species survival and distribution into the future, and yields new information for physiological models. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Do pioneers have r-selected traits? Life history patterns among colonizing terrestrial gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, J; Baur, B

    1993-05-01

    We examine whether pioneer species of terrestrial gastropods (snails and slugs) possess particular life history traits commonly associated with r-selection, using data on gastropod colonization in four areas in north-west Europe (the Kvarken and Tvärminne archipelagos in the Baltic, polder woods in IJsselmeer, and a rehabilitated quarry near Maastricht). Data on age at first reproduction, longevity, clutch size, egg size and lifetime fecundity were gathered from the literature. In order to control for potentially confounding effects of body size on life history traits, we compared the residuals from the allometric relations between life history traits and body size for pioneers and non-pioneers. In snails, all life history traits examined were related to body size. In slugs, all traits except age at first reproduction scaled with body size. Body sizes did not differ between pioneers and non-pioneers in any area. In all four areas, there were no significant differences between pioneers and non-pioneers in any of the life history traits examined, after body size had been taken into account. This indicates that pioneer terrestrial gastropods generally cannot be regarded as r-selected. Pioneer species may possess any of several life history strategies, and the combinations of traits shown by them may have little in common with the r-K selection concept.

  19. Leaf optical properties shed light on foliar trait variability at individual to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. N.; Serbin, S.; Dietze, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent syntheses of large trait databases have contributed immensely to our understanding of drivers of plant function at the global scale. However, the global trade-offs revealed by such syntheses, such as the trade-off between leaf productivity and resilience (i.e. "leaf economics spectrum"), are often absent at smaller scales and fail to correlate with actual functional limitations. An improved understanding of how traits vary within communities, species, and individuals is critical to accurate representations of vegetation ecophysiology and ecological dynamics in ecosystem models. Spectral data from both field observations and remote sensing platforms present a potentially rich and widely available source of information on plant traits. In particular, the inversion of physically-based radiative transfer models (RTMs) is an effective and general method for estimating plant traits from spectral measurements. Here, we apply Bayesian inversion of the PROSPECT leaf RTM to a large database of field spectra and plant traits spanning tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, agricultural plots, arid shrublands, and tundra to identify dominant sources of variability and characterize trade-offs in plant functional traits. By leveraging such a large and diverse dataset, we re-calibrate the empirical absorption coefficients underlying the PROSPECT model and expand its scope to include additional leaf biochemical components, namely leaf nitrogen content. Our work provides a key methodological contribution as a physically-based retrieval of leaf nitrogen from remote sensing observations, and provides substantial insights about trait trade-offs related to plant acclimation, adaptation, and community assembly.

  20. Emotional communication in families of conduct problem children with high versus low callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Vincent, Lucy C; Cooper, Francesca A; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relationships between parent-child emotional communication and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems. References to negative and positive emotions made by clinic-referred boys (3-9 years) and their parents were coded from direct observations of family interactions involving the discussion of shared emotional experiences. Although frequencies of parents' emotion expression did not generally relate to levels of CU traits, boys higher on CU traits were observed to be more expressive of negative emotions in conversation with their caregivers-specifically for sadness and fear. Independent coders did not judge these children to be less genuine in their emotion expression compared to their low-CU counterparts. We also examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between parents' focus on emotions and conduct problem severity. Higher levels of maternal focus on negative emotions were found to be associated with lower conduct problems in high-CU boys but related to higher conduct problems in low-CU boys. Frequencies of fathers' emotional communication were unrelated to either child CU traits or conduct problems. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conceptualization of CU traits in preadolescent children, and interventions for conduct problems in children elevated on these traits.

  1. Ten year rank-order stability of personality traits and disorders in a clinical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Samuel, Douglas B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Shea, M. Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C.; Gunderson, John G.; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the 10-year retest stability of normal traits, pathological traits, and personality disorder dimensions in a clinical sample. Method Ten-year rank order stability estimates for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality, and Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were evaluated before and after correcting for test-retest dependability and internal consistency in a clinical sample (N = 266). Results Dependability corrected stability estimates were generally in the range of .60–.90 for traits and .25–.65 for personality disorders. Conclusions The relatively lower stability of personality disorder symptoms may indicate important differences between pathological behaviors and relatively more stable self-attributed traits and imply that a full understanding of personality and personality pathology needs to take both traits and symptoms into account. The Five-Factor Theory distinction between basic tendencies and characteristic adaptations provides a theoretical framework for the separation of traits and disorders in terms of stability in which traits reflect basic tendencies that are stable and pervasive across situations, whereas personality disorder symptoms reflect characteristic maladaptations that are a function of both basic tendencies and environmental dynamics. PMID:22812532

  2. Association between 5-HTTLPR and borderline personality disorder traits among youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hankin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic association examination of borderline personality disorder traits (BPD traits in children and adolescents (ages 9-15 using two independent samples of youth recruited from the general community. We tested the a priori hypothesis that the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR would relate specifically to BPD traits in youth. This association was hypothesized based on prior genetic association research with BPD adults and theory positing that emotion dysregulation may be a core risk process contributing to BPD. Youth provided DNA via buccal cells. Both youth and a parent completed self-report measures assessing youth’s BPD traits and depressive symptoms. Results from both Study 1 (N = 242 and an independent replication sample of Study 2 (N = 144 showed that carriers of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR exhibited the highest levels of BPD traits. This relation was observed even after controlling for the substantial co-occurrence between BPD traits and depressive symptoms. This specific association between 5-HTTLPR and BPD traits among youth supports previous genetic associations with adults diagnosed with BPD and provides preliminary support for a developmental extension of etiological risk for BPD among youth.

  3. Trait space of rare plants in a fire-dependent ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gregory M; Wall, Wade A; Hohmann, Matthew G; Wright, Justin P

    2017-08-01

    The causes of species rarity are of critical concern because of the high extinction risk associated with rarity. Studies examining individual rare species have limited generality, whereas trait-based approaches offer a means to identify functional causes of rarity that can be applied to communities with disparate species pools. Differences in functional traits between rare and common species may be indicative of the functional causes of species rarity and may therefore be useful in crafting species conservation strategies. However, there is a conspicuous lack of studies comparing the functional traits of rare species and co-occurring common species. We measured 18 important functional traits for 19 rare and 134 common understory plant species from North Carolina's Sandhills region and compared their trait distributions to determine whether there are significant functional differences that may explain species rarity. Flowering, fire, and tissue-chemistry traits differed significantly between rare and common, co-occurring species. Differences in specific traits suggest that fire suppression has driven rarity in this system and that changes to the timing and severity of prescribed fire may improve conservation success. Our method provides a useful tool to prioritize conservation efforts in other systems based on the likelihood that rare species are functionally capable of persisting. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Assessing biological invasions in European Seas: Biological traits of the most widespread non-indigenous species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeccia, Alice; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Galil, Bella; Gollasch, Stephan; Minchin, Dan; Narščius, Aleksas; Olenin, Sergej; Ojaveer, Henn

    2018-02-01

    The biological traits of the sixty-eight most widespread multicellular non-indigenous species (MWNIS) in European Seas: Baltic Sea, Western European Margin of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were examined. Data for nine biological traits was analyzed, and a total of 41 separate categories were used to describe the biological and ecological functions of these NIS. Our findings show that high dispersal ability, high reproductive rate and ecological generalization are the biological traits commonly associated with MWNIS. The functional groups that describe most of the 68 MWNIS are: photoautotrophic, zoobenthic (both sessile and motile) and nektonic predatory species. However, these 'most widespread' species comprise a wide range of taxa and biological trait profiles; thereby a clear "identikit of a perfect invader" for marine and brackish environments is difficult to define. Some traits, for example: "life form", "feeding method" and "mobility", feature multiple behaviours and strategies. Even species introduced by a single pathway, e.g. vessels, feature diverse biological trait profiles. MWNIS likely to impact community organization, structure and diversity are often associated with brackish environments. For many traits ("life form", "sociability", "reproductive type", "reproductive frequency", "haploid and diploid dispersal" and "mobility"), the categories mostly expressed by the impact-causing MWNIS do not differ substantially from the whole set of MWNIS.

  5. Comparison of mayfly (Ephemeroptera) taxocenes of permanent and intermittent Central European small streams via species traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezníčková, P.; Soldán, Tomáš; Pařil, P.; Zahrádková, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2010), s. 720-729 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1133; GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant - others:Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic(CZ) MZP0002071101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * drought survival * species traits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2010

  6. Leaf stomatal traits variation within and among black poplar native populations in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Cortan, Dijana; Vilotic, Dragica; Sijacic-Nikolic, Mirjana; Miljkovic, Danijela

    2017-01-01

    Populus nigra as a keystone riparian pioneer tree species is one of the rarest and most endangered species in Europe due to the loss of its natural habitats. Genetic diversity existence is a key factor in survival of one species, and stomata as genetically controlled trait could be used for differentiation studies. With the aim of proving stomatal phenotypic variation of the four native populations of Populus nigra located on the banks of three biggest river valleys (Dunabe, Tisa and Sava) in...

  7. Personality traits, income, and economic ideology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    While the psychological underpinnings of social ideology are well established, less is known about the psychological underpinnings of economic ideology. In this study I assess whether Big Five personality traits are associated with economic ideology and when personality traits are more strongly or

  8. Personality traits in learning and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    Personality traits judged relevant for the context of learning and education are identified as a subset of a comprehensive set of 1203 trait descriptive adjectives, constructed by Brokken (1979). The identification procedure is described and relevant statistics are provided. Self- and peer-ratings

  9. Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits associated with salt tolerance in barley at the seedling stage. ... The phenotypic traits under study included: chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv, Fv/Fm), proline and carbohydrate rates, relative water content (RWC) and dry and wet weight of ...

  10. Global Land Carbon Uptake from Trait Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E. E.; Datta, A.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Fazayeli, F.; Chen, M.; Wythers, K. R.; Banerjee, A.; Atkin, O. K.; Kattge, J.; Reich, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, functional diversity in land surface models has been represented through a range of plant functional types (PFTs), each of which has a single value for all of its functional traits. Here we expand the diversity of the land surface by using a distribution of trait values for each PFT. The data for these trait distributions is from a sub-set of the global database of plant traits, TRY, and this analysis uses three leaf traits: mass based nitrogen and phosphorus content and specific leaf area, which influence both photosynthesis and respiration. The data are extrapolated into continuous surfaces through two methodologies. The first, a categorical method, classifies the species observed in TRY into satellite estimates of their plant functional type abundances - analogous to how traits are currently assigned to PFTs in land surface models. Second, a Bayesian spatial method which additionally estimates how the distribution of a trait changes in accord with both climate and soil covariates. These two methods produce distinct patterns of diversity which are incorporated into a land surface model to estimate how the range of trait values affects the global land carbon budget.

  11. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingeldein, Andrea L; White, J Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry over to affect post-settlement survival on the reef, with higher-larval-condition fish experiencing less post-settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry-over effects on post-settlement antipredator behaviours. We predicted that better-condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI) and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group-joining behaviour. Secondly, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1-4 days post-settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group-joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post-settlement. Larval traits carry over to affect post

  12. Effects of food restriction across stages of juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and adult life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J W Y; Kölliker, M

    2014-11-01

    Organisms have to allocate limited resources among multiple life-history traits, which can result in physiological trade-offs, and variation in environmental conditions experienced during ontogeny can influence reproduction later in life. Food restriction may lead to an adaptive reallocation of the limited resources among traits as a phenotypically plastic adjustment, or it can act as an overall constraint with detrimental effects throughout reproductive life. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effects of food restriction during different stages of the juvenile and early adult development on body weight, survival and reproductive success in females and males of the European earwig Forficula auricularia. Individuals either received limited or unlimited access to food across three different stages of development (fully crossed) allowing us to identify sensitive periods during development and to test both additive and interactive effects of food limitation across stages on development and reproduction. Food restriction during the early and late juvenile stage had additive negative effects on juvenile survival and adult body weight. With regard to reproductive success of females which produce up to two clutches in their lifetime, restriction specifically in the late juvenile stage led to smaller first and second clutch size, lower probability of second clutch production and reduced hatching success in the second clutch. Reproductive success of females was not significantly affected when their male mates experienced food restriction during their development. Our findings in general support the 'silver-spoon' hypothesis in that food restriction during juvenile development poses constraints on development and reproduction throughout life. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Cultural traits as units of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L

    2010-12-12

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process.

  14. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function and type. Some......; develop novel predictive models that explicitly incorporate traits and associated trade-offs; and utilize these traits to explain and predict zooplankton community structure and dynamics under different environmental conditions, including global change scenarios......Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...

  15. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  16. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  17. Alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard T; Smith, Shelby L; Kraus, Brian T; Allen, Anna V; Moses, Michael A; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L

    2018-01-17

    Trait anxiety has been shown to cause significant impairments on attentional tasks. Current research has identified alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals. Here, we further investigated the underlying alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals during their resting state and the completion of an inhibition executive functioning task. Using human participants and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings, we measured alpha band frequency in individuals both high and low in trait anxiety during their resting state, and while they completed an Eriksen Flanker Task. Results indicated that high-trait anxious individuals exhibit a desynchronization in alpha band frequency from a resting state to when they complete the Eriksen Flanker Task. This suggests that high-trait anxious individuals maintain fewer attentional resources at rest and must martial resources for task performance as compared with low-trait anxious individuals, who appear to maintain stable cognitive resources between rest and task performance. These findings add to the cognitive neuroscience literature surrounding the role of alpha band frequency in low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals.

  18. Logistic analysis of the effects of shovel trait on Carabelli's trait in a Mongoloid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P L; Hsu, J W; Lin, L M; Liu, K M

    1996-08-01

    Mongoloid populations differ from Caucasoids by having a high prevalence of shovel trait and a low prevalence of Carabelli's trait. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the shovel trait on Carabelli's trait in a Mongoloid population. The research design sought a population that resides in an isolated area and exhibits low admixture with neighboring populations. The Mongoloid group selected for study was the Bunun tribe of aborigines who inhabit an alpine area in Taiwan. The effects of sex and age on Carabelli's trait were controlled in this investigation, as was the association between tooth size and Carabelli's trait. Results show that males were more likely to have Carabelli's trait expressed on teeth than females. The buccolingual diameter of Carabelli's trait teeth was larger than that of teeth without the trait. After adjusting for sex, age, and tooth size, the existence of the shovel trait increased the likelihood of having Carabelli's trait by a factor of three, an effect that is significant.

  19. Personality traits of a music teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of individual musical instrument teaching, pedagogical abilities of a music teacher and the atmosphere he creates, result from his personality traits and can be of crucial importance for the initial and further progress of his students. The paper seeks to: describe the personality of a music instrument teacher, determine the differences in comparison to a group of non-musicians, and determine the position of personal characteristics in the structure of general and professional teacher profile. The sample comprised 60 individuals, teaching various musical instruments in five primary music schools. The research method is explorative and based on the use of the five-factor personality model (NEO PI-R was administered. The findings show that music teachers display a higher level of: openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The degree of congruence with the findings of other research is discussed and certain similarities were found, as well as differences stemming from professional and cultural specificities. Differences are proved to exist in relation to gender, musical instrument, working experience, degree of musical education and active public performance. Compared to non-musical population, it is confirmed that teachers of instrument in musical education represent a distinctive group. There are also differences between teachers who are oriented to pedagogic work only and those who, in addition, actively perform in public. Selection of teachers, according to characteristics which may be connected to students’ accomplishment, is a practical implication relevant for the music education.

  20. Correlates of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Everyday Life:Results from a Large Community Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott O Lilienfeld

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood. Using a large internet survey of members of the general population (N=3398, we examined the association between psychopathic traits, as measured by a brief but well-validated self-report measure, and occupational choice, political orientation, religious affiliation, and geographical residence. Psychopathic traits, especially those linked to fearless dominance, were positively and moderately associated with holding leadership and management positions, as well as high-risk occupations. In addition, psychopathic traits were positively associated with political conservatism, lack of belief in God, and living in Europe as opposed to the United States, although the magnitudes of these statistical effects were generally small in magnitude. Our findings offer preliminary evidence that psychopathic personality traits display meaningful response penetration into daily functioning, and raise provocative questions for future research.

  1. Psychopathy and interests: Implications of psychopathic personality traits for vocational and avocational preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Madeline G; Watts, Ashley L; Murphy, Brett A; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2018-06-21

    General personality traits and interests, both vocational and avocational, have long been considered intertwined constructs. Nevertheless, the linkages between personality disorder features, such as psychopathy, and interests are poorly understood. This study bridges this gap by examining how psychopathic traits relate to vocational and avocational interests, and to what extent these associations are distinctive to psychopathy as opposed to a broader pattern of general and abnormal personality traits. In a sample of 426 community participants, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Fearless Dominance features of psychopathy were associated with interest in a broad swath of vocational and avocational interests, whereas Self-Centered Impulsivity features were associated with realistic, artistic, enterprising, and conventional interests; most zero-order associations were in the small to medium range. Coldheartedness and the factors derived from the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale were largely unrelated to interests, although there were several notable exceptions. Narcissistic traits, as well as HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness) Honesty-Humility, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience, were also related broadly to interests. The patterns of interests associated with personality disorder traits may ultimately bear practical implications for interventions as individuals seek out positions or hobbies that suit their traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Distribution of autistic traits and their association with sociodemographic characteristics in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Eguchi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether autistic traits are normally distributed across a population and to describe their association with the sociodemographic characteristics of Japanese workers. The participants were 2075 workers aged 23-65 years from various parts of Japan. Autistic traits were measured using an abridged Japanese version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short). The AQ-Short comprises five subcomponents assessing a fascination for numbers and patterns (numbers/patterns), difficulties with imagination, a preference for routine, difficulties with social skills, and difficulties with switching attention. The five subcomponents of the autistic phenotype as well as the overall autistic phenotype itself were continuously distributed across the sample population of Japanese workers. Men had significantly higher AQ-Short scores than women. AQ-Short scores were not associated with age. Except for the numbers/patterns scores, workers of a lower socioeconomic status had significantly higher AQ-Short scores than their respective counterparts. For the numbers/patterns trait, workers of a higher socioeconomic status scored higher. Workers with low general physical activity had or tended to have higher scores for total and all subcomponent traits, except for the numbers/patterns trait. Generally, the autistic phenotype was more prevalent in workers of a low socioeconomic status, while a particular trait was prevalent among workers of a high socioeconomic status.

  3. Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in children and clinical ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08-1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04-0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliability and Hierarchical Structure of DSM-5 Pathological Traits in a Danish Mixed Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Bach, Bo; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the DSM-5 trait model in a large Danish sample (n = 1,119) with respect to reliability of the applied Danish version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) self-report form by means of internal consistency and item discrimination. In addition, we tested whether...... the five-factor structure of the DSM-5 trait model can be replicated in a Danish independent sample using the PID-5 self-report form. Finally, we examined the hierarchical structure of DSM-5 traits. In terms of internal consistency and item discrimination, the applied PID-5 scales were generally found...... reliable and functional; our data resembled the five-factor structure of previous findings, and we identified a hierarchical structure from one to five factors that was conceptually reasonable and corresponded with existing findings. These results support the new DSM-5 trait model and suggest that it can...

  5. Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, S; von Knorring, L; Ekselius, L

    2000-11-01

    As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited through self-report questionnaires. Non-smokers were more easily fatigued, more inclined to worry, more remorseful, less self-confident, less impulsive and became uneasy more frequently when urged to speed up, than smokers with OCD. Additionally, non-smokers fulfilled significantly more obsessive-compulsive personality disorder criteria as compared to the smokers (P < 0.001). We propose a clinical subtype of OCD related to non-smoking, psychasthenia, anxiety, and pronounced obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.

  6. Variation of functional clonal traits along elevation in two fern species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.B.; Chen, L.Y.; Xiong, W.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypical plasticity is generally considered among adaptive strategies by which plants can cope with environmental variation in space and time. Although much is known about plasticity in seed plants in terms of functional clonal traits while little is known about ferns. Variation of functional clonal traits of two ferns Dicranopteris dichotoma and Diplopterygium glaucum among plots differing in elevation in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China was investigated. Along with elevation increasing the two fern species showed similar variation pattern of functional clonal traits: stable spacer length, increasing specific spacer length and decreasing spacer weight per ramet and specific spacer weight. The two ferns species had similar variation pattern of ramet performance traits but different variation pattern of ramet population properties. These results suggest an evolutionary trade-off between functions of foraging for and storing of resources in the two ferns, with a functional preference for the foraging in response to environmental change. (author)

  7. Do gender and personality traits (BFI-10) influence self-perceived opinion leadership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    . This approach would require to identify opinion leaders. This paper investigates whether gender and personality traits can predict opinion leadership. Methodology/methods: The paper can be perceived as a replication in a loose sense of the term, since it replicates only a part of a previously published model...... and in one's own opinion (two variables). Generalized linear models (GLM) and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient are used to analyze data. Scientific aim: The aim of the paper is to estimate impact of gender and personality traits on opinion leadership. Findings: Extraversion is the personality...... trait closest related to opinion leadership regardless whether it is self-perceived in the eyes of others or in one's own opinion. Opinion leadership in one's own opinion can be predicted even using neuroticism, and conscientiousness. The three traits are consistent with previous findings. Unlike...

  8. Cultural ecologies of adaptive vs. maladaptive traits: A simple nonlinear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Russu, Paolo; Sacco, Pier Luigi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we generalize a model by Enquist and Ghirlanda [12] to analyze the "macro" dynamics of cumulative culture in a context where there is a coexistence of adaptive and maladaptive cultural traits. In particular, we introduce a different, nonlinear specification of the main processes at work in the cumulative culture dynamics: imperfect transmission of traits, generation of new traits, and switches from adaptive to maladaptive and vice-versa. We find that the system exhibits a variety of dynamic behaviors where the crucial force is the switching between the adaptive and maladaptive nature of a certain trait, with the other processes playing a modulating role. We identify in particular a number of dynamic regimes with distinctive characteristics.

  9. Use of multiple functional traits of protozoa for bioassessment of marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Guangjian; Xu, Henglong

    2017-06-30

    Ecological parameters based on multiply functional traits have many advantages for monitoring programs by reducing "signal to noise" ratios of observed species data. To identify potential indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution in function space, the functional patterns of protozoan communities and relationships with environmental changes were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year period. The results showed that: (1) the spatial variability in functional trait distributions of the protozoa was significantly associated with changes in environmental variables, especially chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients on spatial scale; (2) the functional traits, especially food resources and feeding type, were significantly correlated with COD and nutrients; and (3) the functional diversity indices were generally related to nutrients or COD. Based on the results, we suggest that the functional traits and diversity indices of protozoan communities may be used as more effective indicators for bioassessment of marine pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction

    Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations

  11. New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Diaz, S.; Garnier, E.; Lavorel, S.; Poorter, H.; Jaureguiberry, P.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Cornwell, W.K.; Craine, J.M.; Gurvich, D.E.; Urcelay, C.; Veneklaas, E.J.; Reich, P.B.; Poorter, L.; Wright, I.J.; Ray, P.; Enrico, L.; Pausas, J.G.; de Vos, A.C.; Buchmann, N.; Funes, G.; Quetier, F.; Hodgson, J.G.; Thompson, K.; Morgan, H.D.; ter Steege, H.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.; Sack, L.; Blonder, B.; Poschlod, P.; Vaieretti, M.V.; Conti, G.; Staver, A.C.; Aquino, S.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits are the features (morphological, physiological, phenological) that represent ecological strategies and determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels and influence ecosystem properties. Variation in plant functional traits, and trait

  12. Growth Performance and Initial Heritability Estimates for Growth Traits in Juvenile Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Josefa Pante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of performance traits of maricultured species is becoming an important concern. Improvement of performance traits is important for two reasons: it enhances the growth and survival of the animals and it translates to economic gains to the fish farmer. In the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla, growth performance of the different families and heritabilities for wet weight, test diameter and test height were estimated from 1,020 offspring from a mating of each of the 15 males with 1 or 2 females. Measurements were done monthly starting at the grow-out stage or four months after hatching. There were significant family differences for the performance traits in sea urchin reared in tanks at the BML hatchery as revealed by ANOVA. Estimates of heritabilities based on the sire component of variance were low for wet weight (0.027, test diameter (0.033 and zero for test height. Heritabilities estimated from the dam component of variance were low for wet weight (0.063, moderate for test diameter (0.286 and test height (0.227. The results indicate that test diameter and wet weight have lowly heritable traits, which means that mass or individual selection may not be the best method for improving the traits for sea urchin populations in Bolinao. Other methods such as family and combined family selection should be explored.

  13. Gender roles and traits in stress and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eMayor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Women have a life-expectancy advantage over men, but a marked disadvantage with regards to morbidity. This is known as the female-male health-survival paradox in disciplines such as medicine, medical sociology and epidemiology. Individual differences in physical and mental health are further notably explained by the degree of stress individuals endure, with women being more affected by stressors than men. Here, we briefly examine the literature on women’s disadvantage in health and stress. Beyond biological considerations, we follow with socio-cognitive explanations of gender differences in health and stress. We show that gender roles and traits (masculinity in particular explain part of the gender differences in stress, notably cognitive appraisal and coping. Stress in turn degrades health. Implications are discussed. In conclusion, traditional socialization is advantageous for men in terms of health.

  14. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Livia Alvarenga; Diepens, Noël J; Guo, Xiaoying; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We used a battery test procedure with multiple enclosures in one aquarium, which maximized uniformity of exposure for the different species, such that the remaining variability was due mostly to species traits. The relative importance of uptake from either pore water or sediment ingestion was manipulated by using 28 d aged standard OECD sediment with low (1%) and medium (5%) OM content and 13 months aged sediment with medium OM (5%) content. Survival was ≥76% and wet weight increased for all species. Reproduction of H. azteca and weight gain of H. azteca and S. corneum were significantly higher in the medium OM aged sediments than in other sediments, perhaps due to a more developed microbial community (i.e., increase in food resources). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) ranged from 3 to 114, depending on species and PCB congener, with C. riparius (3-10)traits. Enclosure-based battery tests and mechanistic BSAF models are expected to improve the quality of the exposure assessment in whole sediment toxicity tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  16. Genetics of phenotypic plasticity and biomass traits in hybrid willows across contrasting environments and years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Beyer, Friderike; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin

    2017-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits. A hybrid Salix viminalis  × ( S. viminalis × Salix schwerinii ) population with 463 individuals was clonally propagated and planted in three common garden experiments comprising one climatic contrast between Sweden and Italy and one water availability contrast in Italy. Several key phenotypic traits were measured and phenotypic plasticity was estimated as the trait value difference between experiments. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses were conducted using a dense linkage map and phenotypic effects of S. schwerinii haplotypes derived from detected QTL were assessed. Across the climatic contrast, clone predictor correlations for biomass traits were low and few common biomass QTL were detected. This indicates that the genetic regulation of biomass traits was sensitive to environmental variation. Biomass QTL were, however, frequently shared across years and across the water availability contrast. Phenology QTL were generally shared between all experiments. Substantial phenotypic plasticity was found among the hybrid offspring, that to a large extent had a genetic origin. Individuals carrying influential S. schwerinii haplotypes generally performed well in Sweden but less well in Italy in terms of biomass production. The results indicate that specific genetic elements of S. schwerinii are more suited to Swedish conditions than to those of Italy. Therefore, selection should preferably be conducted separately for such environments in order to maximize biomass

  17. Environmental pollution has sex-dependent effects on local survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Hakkarainen, Harri; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pollutants cause a potential hazard for survival in free-living animal populations. We modelled local survival (including emigration) by using individual mark–recapture histories of males and females in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) living around a point source of heavy metals (copper smelter). Local survival of F. hypoleuca females did not differ between polluted and unpolluted environments. Males, however, showed a one-third higher local-survival probability in the polluted area. Low fledgling production was generally associated with decreased local survival, but males in the polluted area showed relatively high local survival, irrespective of their fledgling number. A possible explanation of higher local survival of males in the polluted area could be a pollution-induced change in hormone (e.g. corticosterone or testosterone) levels of males. It could make them to invest more on their own survival or affect the hormonal control of breeding dispersal. The local survival of males decreased in the polluted area over the study period along with the simultaneous decrease in heavy metal emissions. This temporal trend is in agreement with the stress hormone hypothesis. PMID:17148387

  18. Effects of soybean resistance on variability in life history traits of the higher trophic level parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Li, B; Xing, G; Meng, L

    2017-02-01

    To extrapolate the influence of plant cultivars varying in resistance levels to hosts on parasitoid life history traits, we estimated variation in parasitoid developmental and reproductive performances as a function of resistance in soybean cultivars, which were randomly chosen from a line of resistant genotypes. Our study showed that the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis varied widely in offspring survival and lifetime fecundity, but varied slightly in development time and adult body size, in response to the soybean cultivars that varied in resistance to the host Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the variability in survival and lifetime fecundity was different between attacking the 2nd and the 4th instar host larvae, varying more in survival but less in lifetime fecundity when attacking the 4th than 2nd instar larvae. Our study provides further evidence supporting that plant resistance to herbivorous hosts have variable effects on different life history traits of higher trophic level parasitoids.

  19. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled to...

  20. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent

  1. Survival Strategies: LCTLs in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores an example of successful curriculum de-velopment and methodology for the study of the Quechua language at the university level. This recipe for success falls in line with rec-ommendations made by the MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages, as expressed in their May 2007 report, “Foreign Lan-guages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World”, and may be applied to the case of other LCTLs. This paper argues that, while the MLA’s report was intended for a general audi-ence of foreign language educators, its recommendations are especial-ly vital to the study of the less commonly taught languages. Among the many recommendations included in the report, two in particular stand out as being most essential to the survival of the LCTLs. These are an increase in interdisciplinary courses and inter-departmental alliances as well as a greater integration of cultural study in foreign language teaching.

  2. Some archaic traits in social life of Brskuceans: Ethnographical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudović Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author has, using the descriptive method, pointed out some archaic aspects of the social life of an undeveloped and isolated village in Montenegro. By a brief analysis of the whole of its spiritual and material self-realization, it has been possible to recognize the important traits of traditional, tribal-brotherhood way of thinking and behavior. In that sense it is a noticeable proof that they survived notwithstanding the inevitable modernization of the village. The paper has involved the following four parts: The general data about the village; the social organization; the spiritual culture and customs, and finally the social processes and the ways of thinking and behavior. The intrinsic organization of living has been expressed by the hierarchical position of each family member. The position each member has taken has been less determined by the traditional elements of the rural economy and much more by the interiorization and preservation of spiritual worthiness wherein the remembering of them has given the life a peculiar meaning. The village of Brskut has been a patriarchal milieu with an accent to the epic and combatant traditions where a child has been treated as an unfinished personality, so that the parents have cherished the merited regard only to the friends and grown-up persons as well as to the friendly oriented foreigners. Proceeding from the judgment relatives tribesmen, brotherhood men and other friends are able to form of him or her of their opinion he or she has held, he or she pleased them, experiencing the child as a disturbance by which the said relationship has been thwarted. Therefore the child has been generally neglected by the customary regulations in that milieu. The brotherhood links have been solid. The members of the same brotherhood have been visiting one another, respecting one another and helping one another believing that they have been originating from the same common ancestor. The common

  3. Network survivability performance (computer diskette)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    File characteristics: Data file; 1 file. Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; high density; 2.0MB. System requirements: Mac; Word. This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunication networks to user expectations for network survivability.

  4. Phylogenetic perspectives on reef fish functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, Sergio R; Bender, Mariana G; Siqueira, Alexandre C; Cowman, Peter F

    2018-02-01

    Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes on coral reefs. When examining reconstructed patterns for diet and feeding mode, we found examples of independent transitions to planktivory across different reef fish families. Such transitions and associated morphological alterations may represent cases in which ecological opportunity for the exploitation of different resources drives speciation and adaptation. In terms of body size, reconstructions showed that both large and small sizes appear multiple times within clades of mid-sized fishes and that extreme body sizes have arisen mostly in the last 10 million years (Myr). The reconstruction of range size revealed many cases of disparate range sizes among sister species. Such range size disparity highlights potential vicariant processes through isolation in peripheral locations. When accounting for peripheral speciation processes in sister pairs, we found a significant relationship between labrid range size and lineage age. The diversity and evolution of traits within lineages is influenced by trait-environment interactions as well as by species and trait-trait interactions, where the presence of a given trait may trigger the development of related traits or behaviours. Our effort to assess the evolution of functional diversity across reef fish clades adds to the burgeoning research focusing on the evolutionary and ecological roles of functional traits. We argue that the combination of a

  5. Early social networks predict survival in wild bottlenose dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Stanton

    Full Text Available A fundamental question concerning group-living species is what factors influence the evolution of sociality. Although several studies link adult social bonds to fitness, social patterns and relationships are often formed early in life and are also likely to have fitness consequences, particularly in species with lengthy developmental periods, extensive social learning, and early social bond-formation. In a longitudinal study of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp., calf social network structure, specifically the metric eigenvector centrality, predicted juvenile survival in males. Additionally, male calves that died post-weaning had stronger ties to juvenile males than surviving male calves, suggesting that juvenile males impose fitness costs on their younger counterparts. Our study indicates that selection is acting on social traits early in life and highlights the need to examine the costs and benefits of social bonds during formative life history stages.

  6. Climate change and functional traits affect population dynamics of a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Desprez, Marine; Fay, Remi; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri; Delord, Karine; Caswell, Hal

    2018-07-01

    Recent studies unravelled the effect of climate changes on populations through their impact on functional traits and demographic rates in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, but such understanding in marine ecosystems remains incomplete. Here, we evaluate the impact of the combined effects of climate and functional traits on population dynamics of a long-lived migratory seabird breeding in the southern ocean: the black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris, BBA). We address the following prospective question: "Of all the changes in the climate and functional traits, which would produce the biggest impact on the BBA population growth rate?" We develop a structured matrix population model that includes the effect of climate and functional traits on the complete BBA life cycle. A detailed sensitivity analysis is conducted to understand the main pathway by which climate and functional trait changes affect the population growth rate. The population growth rate of BBA is driven by the combined effects of climate over various seasons and multiple functional traits with carry-over effects across seasons on demographic processes. Changes in sea surface temperature (SST) during late winter cause the biggest changes in the population growth rate, through their effect on juvenile survival. Adults appeared to respond to changes in winter climate conditions by adapting their migratory schedule rather than by modifying their at-sea foraging activity. However, the sensitivity of the population growth rate to SST affecting BBA migratory schedule is small. BBA foraging activity during the pre-breeding period has the biggest impact on population growth rate among functional traits. Finally, changes in SST during the breeding season have little effect on the population growth rate. These results highlight the importance of early life histories and carry-over effects of climate and functional traits on demographic rates across multiple seasons in population response to climate

  7. Personality Traits, Ego Development, and the Redemptive Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jen; Klevan, Miriam; McAdams, Dan P

    2016-09-20

    Life narratives are the internalized stories that people construct to provide meaning, purpose, and coherence in their lives. Prior research suggests that psychologically healthy and socially engaged adults generally narrate their lives in a prototypical fashion labeled the redemptive self, consisting of five themes: (a) a sense of childhood advantage, (b) empathy for others' sufferings, (c) moral steadfastness, (d) turning of negative events into positive outcomes (redemption sequences), and (e) prosocial goals. The current study examines trait correlates of the redemptive self in 157 late-midlife adults. Summing thematic scores across 12 life story interview scenes, the redemptive self was positively associated with four of the Big Five traits: extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability, but unrelated to cognitive features of personality, as assessed on openness and ego development. The findings suggest those with positive socio-emotional personality traits, but not necessarily a proclivity for sophisticated thoughts, tend to have redemptive life stories. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Cultural influences on social feedback processing of character traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Fan, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Chenbo; Han, Shihui; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others') character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic) after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] and in Beijing (behavior). We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more). Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback). Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step toward a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture.

  9. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.

  10. The effect of shovel trait on Carabelli's trait in Taiwan Chinese and Aboriginal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J W; Tsai, P L; Hsiao, T H; Chang, H P; Lin, L M; Liu, K M; Yu, H S; Ferguson, D

    1997-09-01

    Chinese and other Mongoloid populations differ from Caucasoids by having a high prevalence of shovel trait and a low prevalence of Carabelli's trait. This study was conducted to compare the association between the shovel and the Carabelli's traits between Chinese and aboriginal Mongoloid populations. The research is designed to sample randomly a Chinese population and an aboriginal population having low admixture with neighboring populations. The Mongoloid aboriginal group was from the Bunun tribe who resides in an isolated alpine area in Taiwan. The effects of sex and age on Carabelli's trait were controlled in this study, as was the association between tooth size and Carabelli's trait. Our results show that males had more Carabelli's trait expressed on teeth than females in both of these two Mongoloid populations. The buccolingual diameter of Carabelli's trait teeth was larger than that of teeth without the trait. After controlling for sex, age, and tooth size, the existence of the shovel trait significantly increased the likelihood of having Carabelli's trait, especially in Chinese, which implies another significant ethnic feature for Mongoloid identification.

  11. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  12. Towards a unified model for leaf trait and trait-environment relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Harrison, S. P.; Prentice, I. C.; Peng, C.; Yang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A widely accepted core set of leaf traits describes key aspects of plant function including the coupling among carbon, nitrogen and water cycles at the leaf, plant and ecosystem scales. Our current research focuses on two questions: (1) what dimensions of correlated variation among traits apply across all vascular plants irrespective of environment; (2) how, and to what extent, can variations in community mean values of leaf traits be predicted along environmental gradients? Based on a large quantitative trait data set covering the major environmental gradients across China, we are tackling these questions via two complementary approaches: multivariate analysis of trait-trait, trait-site, and trait-environment relationships, and the development of conceptual models and testable hypotheses for the dependencies of each trait on other traits and/or specific environmental predictors. Preliminary multivariate analyses suggest the existence of at least two independent axes of variation in leaf traits, and show robust relationships between trait syndromes and growing-season climate variables. A minimal conceptual model then considers nitrogen per unit leaf area (Narea) as a function of leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and carboxylation capacity (Vcmax); LMA as a function of irradiance, temperature and water and/or nutrient stress; Vcmax as a function of irradiance, temperature and the long-term ci:ca ratio (indexed by δ13C); and the ci:ca ratio as a function of vapour pressure deficit, temperature and atmospheric pressure. Each of these dependencies has support from observations, pointing the way towards a comprehensive set of equations to predict community-mean values of core traits in next-generation terrestrial ecosystem models.

  13. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankhaya Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.

  14. Using traits to uncover tropical forest function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA

    2017-04-11

    Plant traits reflect their evolutionary history and influence physiological processes (Reich, 2014). For example, the embolism risk taken by plants, called the embolism safety margin, is a good predictor of stomatal conductance, and hence photosynthesis (Skelton et al., 2015). Trait-science has grown dramatically in the last decade as we have found niversal patterns governing the carbon and nutrient economies of plants (Bloom et al., 1985). Perhaps the greatest value of studying plant functional traits is that they yield understanding of plant functional processes.

  15. Induced mutations for quantitative traits in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics and frequency of micro-mutations induced in quantitative traits by radiation treatment and the extent of heterozygotic effects of different recessive chlorophyll-mutant-genes on quantitative trait has been presented. Mutagenic treatments increased the variance for quantitative traits in all cases although the magnitude of increase varied depending on the treatment and the selection procedure adopted. The overall superiority of the chlorophyll-mutant heterozygotes over the corresponding wild homozygotes, as noted in consecutive two seasons, was not observed when these were grown at a high level of nitrogen fertiliser. (author)

  16. Mutagenic effect of gamma-rays on improvement of yield attributing traits of greengram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, T.R.; Baisakh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Seed samples of two morphologically distinct varieties (Sujata and OBGG-52) of greengram were treated with three doses of Gamma-rays (200 Gy, 400 Gy and 600 Gy). Mutagenic treatments in general showed reduction in mean values of germination, survival and plant growth traits in comparison to control in M 1 generation and the magnitude of reduction was directly related to the dose of the mutagens. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutations includes albina, xantha, chlorina, striata and viridis in both the varieties. The varied morphological mutations observed in leaf of both the genotypes were tricotyledonary, quadrifoliate, pentafoliate and lobed leaf. Early flowering, late flowering, tall plant, trailing type, profused poded, bold poded and sterile plant were also observed as an effect of mutagen in both the genotypes. The M 2 populations showed wider range of variations than the parent varieties. Magnitude of changes varied with mutagen dose and the varieties. Higher the dose of treatment, greater the shift in the mean and variance of different yield parameters. Genetic advance estimates showed that selection in M 2 populations would be effective in improving the yield/plant. Following selection among M 2 plants and M 3 progenies on the basis of higher yield, high yielding mutant cultures in both varieties were isolated in M 4 and evaluated in M 5 generation. Gamma-ray dose of 200 Gy was most effective for improving the yield traits in both the genotypes as it brought out improvement in pods/plant, pod length and 100-seed wt. where as 400 Gy improved 100- seed wt. in only Sujata and 600 Gy improved pod length and seeds/pod only. Isolation of high yielding lines from the gamma-rays treated population of greengram proved that different doses of gamma rays induced improvement of different yield attributing characters in greengram. (author)

  17. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  18. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  19. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  20. On the challenges of using field spectroscopy to measure the impact of soil type on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Nunes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the causes of variation in functional plant traits is a central issue in ecology, particularly in the context of global change. Spectroscopy is increasingly used for rapid and non-destructive estimation of foliar traits, but few studies have evaluated its accuracy when assessing phenotypic variation in multiple traits. Working with 24 chemical and physical leaf traits of six European tree species growing on strongly contrasting soil types (i.e. deep alluvium versus nearby shallow chalk, we asked (i whether variability in leaf traits is greater between tree species or soil type, and (ii whether field spectroscopy is effective at predicting intraspecific variation in leaf traits as well as interspecific differences. Analysis of variance showed that interspecific differences in traits were generally much stronger than intraspecific differences related to soil type, accounting for 25 % versus 5 % of total trait variation, respectively. Structural traits, phenolic defences and pigments were barely affected by soil type. In contrast, foliar concentrations of rock-derived nutrients did vary: P and K concentrations were lower on chalk than alluvial soils, while Ca, Mg, B, Mn and Zn concentrations were all higher, consistent with the findings of previous ecological studies. Foliar traits were predicted from 400 to 2500 nm reflectance spectra collected by field spectroscopy using partial least square regression, a method that is commonly employed in chemometrics. Pigments were best modelled using reflectance data from the visible region (400–700 nm, while all other traits were best modelled using reflectance data from the shortwave infrared region (1100–2500 nm. Spectroscopy delivered accurate predictions of species-level variation in traits. However, it was ineffective at detecting intraspecific variation in rock-derived nutrients (with the notable exception of P. The explanation for this failure is that rock

  1. Designing an early selection morphological linear traits index for dressage in the Pura Raza Español horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerrero, M J; Cervantes, I; Molina, A; Gutiérrez, J P; Valera, M

    2017-06-01

    Making a morphological pre-selection of Pura Raza Español horses (PRE) for dressage is a challenging task within its current breeding program. The aim of our research was to design an early genetic selection morphological linear traits index to improve dressage performance, using 26 morphological linear traits and six dressage traits (walk, trot, canter, submission, general impression - partial scores - and total score) as selection criteria. The data set included morphological linear traits of 10 127 PRE (4159 males and 5968 females) collected between 2008 and 2013 (one record per horse) and 19 095 dressage traits of 1545 PRE (1476 males and 69 females; 12.4 records of average) collected between 2004 and 2014. A univariate animal model was applied to predict the breeding values (PBV). A partial least squares regression analysis was used to select the most predictive morphological linear traits PBV on the dressage traits PBV. According to the Wold Criterion, the 13 morphological linear traits (width of head, head-neck junction, upper neck line, neck-body junction, width of chest, angle of shoulder, lateral angle of knee, frontal angle of knee, cannon bone perimeter, length of croup, angle of croup, ischium-stifle distance and lateral hock angle) most closely related to total score PBV, partial scores PBV and gait scores PBV (walk, trot and canter) were selected. A multivariate genetic analysis was performed among the 13 morphological linear traits selected and the six dressage traits to estimate the genetic parameters. After it, the selection index theory was used to compute the expected genetic response using different strategies. The expected genetic response of total score PBV (0.76), partial scores PBV (0.04) and gait scores PBV (0.03) as selection objectives using morphological linear traits PBV as criteria selection were positive, but lower than that obtained using dressage traits PBV (1.80, 0.16 and 0.14 for total score PBV, partial scores PBV and gait

  2. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life......, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients...... diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores...

  3. Instrumental variable estimation in a survival context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Walter, Stefan; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    for regression analysis in a survival context, primarily under an additive hazards model, for which we describe 2 simple methods for estimating causal effects. The first method is a straightforward 2-stage regression approach analogous to 2-stage least squares commonly used for IV analysis in linear regression....... The IV approach is very well developed in the context of linear regression and also for certain generalized linear models with a nonlinear link function. However, IV methods are not as well developed for regression analysis with a censored survival outcome. In this article, we develop the IV approach....... In this approach, the fitted value from a first-stage regression of the exposure on the IV is entered in place of the exposure in the second-stage hazard model to recover a valid estimate of the treatment effect of interest. The second method is a so-called control function approach, which entails adding...

  4. Effects of hybridization between nonnative Rainbow Trout and native Westslope Cutthroat Trout on fitness-related traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinan, Daniel P.; Webb, Molly A. H.; Naish, Kerry A.; Kalinowski, Steven T.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Steed, Amber C.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between introduced and native fauna is a risk to native species and may threaten the long-term persistence of numerous taxa. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has been one of the most widely introduced species around the globe and often hybridizes with native Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii in the Rocky Mountains. Previous work has shown that hybridization negatively affects reproductive success, but identification of the traits contributing to that reduction has been elusive. In this study, we used a combination of field and laboratory techniques to assess how hybridization with Rainbow Trout affects seven traits during several stages of Westslope Cutthroat Trout development: embryonic survival, ova size, ova energy concentration, sperm motility, juvenile weight, juvenile survival, and burst swimming endurance. Rainbow Trout admixture was correlated with an increase in embryonic survival and ova energy concentration but with a decrease in juvenile weight and burst swimming endurance. These correlations differed from previously observed patterns of reproductive success and likely do not explain the declines in reproductive success associated with admixture. Future investigation of additional, unstudied traits and the use of different environments may shed light on the traits responsible for reproductive success in admixed Cutthroat Trout.

  5. Quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MSS

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... Of the quantitative traits in wheat, spike length, number of spikes per m2, grain mass per spike, number ... design with four liming variants along with three replications, in which the experimental field .... The sampling was done.

  6. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  7. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  8. Effect of temperature on life history traits during immature development of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba city, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Marta G; Sartor, Paolo D; Almirón, Walter R; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated how ambient temperature under fluctuating conditions affects the larval-pupal immature traits of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Córdoba city, Argentina, and established each species development threshold and physiological time. Based on life tables, three cohorts of each mosquito species were reared in the laboratory under small fluctuating temperatures conditions of 15.2±1.7°C, 17.9±1.6°C, 21.6±0.7°C and 25.3±0.4°C for Ae. aegypti, and 16.6±1.7°C, 18.7±1.7°C and 25.2±0.3°C for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Immature development time and survival values, and also thermal development threshold and physiological time were estimated. Development times of all larval and pupal stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly affected by the rearing temperatures, decreasing when temperature increased. Mean Ae. aegypti total (larva+pupa) development time ranged from 21.9 to 8.6 days, at 15.2 and 25.3°C, whereas, for Cx. quinquefasciatus varied between 23.5 to 9.2 days at 16.6 and 25.2°C, respectively. Larval and pupal survival of both species was affected by different rearing temperatures, increasing in general as temperature increased. For Ae. aegypti the total immature survival ranged from 26% at 15.2°C to 92% at 21.6°C; however, temperature did not have significant effect on this variable. The total immature survival of Cx. quinquefasciatus was significantly and positively affected by temperatures, ranging from 32 to 88%, at 16.6 and 25.2°C. The temperature development threshold and the physiological time estimated for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 11.11°C and 93.74 degree-days, and 10.96°C and 136.87 degree-days, respectively. The results of the present study showed that temperature significantly affects the larval-pupal immature traits of these mosquito species of sanitary importance, from the central region of Argentina. All the parameters recorded are useful for the development of

  9. Systematic design for trait introgression projects

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, John N.; Han, Ye; Wang, Lizhi; Beavis, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Key message Using an Operations Research approach, we demonstrate design of optimal trait introgression projects with respect to competing objectives. Abstract We demonstrate an innovative approach for designing Trait Introgression (TI) projects based on optimization principles from Operations Research. If the designs of TI projects are based on clear and measurable objectives, they can be translated into mathematical models with decision variables and constraints that can be translated into ...

  10. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

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    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  11. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Kim, You-Sam; Kang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Yun-Mi; Rai, Rajani; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Yup; Nam, Ki-Chang; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS), eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24), Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L), redness in meat color (CIE a), yellowness in meat color (CIE b), filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA). A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2) was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07). The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05) SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered. PMID:26580276

  12. Genome-wide Association Study to Identify Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat and Carcass Quality Traits in Berkshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and carcass quality attributes are of crucial importance influencing consumer preference and profitability in the pork industry. A set of 400 Berkshire pigs were collected from Dasan breeding farm, Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea that were born between 2012 and 2013. To perform genome wide association studies (GWAS, eleven meat and carcass quality traits were considered, including carcass weight, backfat thickness, pH value after 24 hours (pH24, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage lightness in meat color (CIE L, redness in meat color (CIE a, yellowness in meat color (CIE b, filtering, drip loss, heat loss, shear force and marbling score. All of the 400 animals were genotyped with the Porcine 62K SNP BeadChips (Illumina Inc., USA. A SAS general linear model procedure (SAS version 9.2 was used to pre-adjust the animal phenotypes before GWAS with sire and sex effects as fixed effects and slaughter age as a covariate. After fitting the fixed and covariate factors in the model, the residuals of the phenotype regressed on additive effects of each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP under a linear regression model (PLINK version 1.07. The significant SNPs after permutation testing at a chromosome-wise level were subjected to stepwise regression analysis to determine the best set of SNP markers. A total of 55 significant (p<0.05 SNPs or quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected on various chromosomes. The QTLs explained from 5.06% to 8.28% of the total phenotypic variation of the traits. Some QTLs with pleiotropic effect were also identified. A pair of significant QTL for pH24 was also found to affect both CIE L and drip loss percentage. The significant QTL after characterization of the functional candidate genes on the QTL or around the QTL region may be effectively and efficiently used in marker assisted selection to achieve enhanced genetic improvement of the trait considered.

  13. Television's Cultivation of American Adolescents' Beliefs about Alcohol and the Moderating Role of Trait Reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Boland, Wendy Attaya; Grube, Joel W

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution towards furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors.

  14. Trait-specific dependence in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne

    2002-10-01

    Informed by three theoretical frameworks--trait psychology, evolutionary psychology, and interdependence theory--we report four investigations designed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new construct and accompanying multiscale inventory, the Trait-Specific Dependence Inventory (TSDI). The TSDI assesses comparisons between present and alternative romantic partners on major dimensions of mate value. In Study 1, principal components analyses revealed that the provisional pool of theory-generated TSDI items were represented by six factors: Agreeable/Committed, Resource Accruing Potential, Physical Prowess, Emotional Stability, Surgency, and Physical Attractiveness. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis replicated these results on a different sample and tested how well different structural models fit the data. Study 3 provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the six TSDI scales by correlating each one with a matched personality trait scale that did not explicitly incorporate comparisons between partners. Study 4 provided further validation evidence, revealing that the six TSDI scales successfully predicted three relationship outcome measures--love, time investment, and anger/upset--above and beyond matched sets of traditional personality trait measures. These results suggest that the TSDI is a reliable, valid, and unique construct that represents a new trait-specific method of assessing dependence in romantic relationships. The construct of trait-specific dependence is introduced and linked with other theories of mate value.

  15. Fear inhibition in high trait anxiety.

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    Merel Kindt

    Full Text Available Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.

  16. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  17. Experimentally reduced root-microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10-20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10-30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root trait variation, interactions with symbionts and recent

  18. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  19. Environmental filtering structures tree functional traits combination and lineages across space in tropical tree assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Mengesha; Cao, Min; Zhang, Guocheng; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Yang, Jie

    2017-03-09

    Environmental filtering consistently shapes the functional and phylogenetic structure of species across space within diverse forests. However, poor descriptions of community functional and lineage distributions across space hamper the accurate understanding of coexistence mechanisms. We combined environmental variables and geographic space to explore how traits and lineages are filtered by environmental factors using extended RLQ and fourth-corner analyses across different spatial scales. The dispersion patterns of traits and lineages were also examined in a 20-ha tropical rainforest dynamics plot in southwest China. We found that environmental filtering was detected across all spatial scales except the largest scale (100 × 100 m). Generally, the associations between functional traits and environmental variables were more or less consistent across spatial scales. Species with high resource acquisition-related traits were associated with the resource-rich part of the plot across the different spatial scales, whereas resource-conserving functional traits were distributed in limited-resource environments. Furthermore, we found phylogenetic and functional clustering at all spatial scales. Similar functional strategies were also detected among distantly related species, suggesting that phylogenetic distance is not necessarily a proxy for functional distance. In summary, environmental filtering considerably structured the trait and lineage assemblages in this species-rich tropical rainforest.

  20. Effects of Drought on Morphological Traits in Some Cowpea Genotypes by Evaluating Their Combining Abilities

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    Amos Afolarin Olajide

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation was conducted to understand the genetic effects of combining ability for four different morphological traits, on 42 hybrids in randomized complete block design with three replications in water-stressed and well-watered environments. The significance of the additive variance (D and dominance variance (H1 indicated the presence of both additive and nonadditive gene actions in both environments. Among the parents, there was asymmetrical distribution of positive and negative dominant genes and the preponderance of overdominance gene action for all the traits in both environments. This study also indicated a minimum of ten genes for plant height in water-stressed environment and minimum of three and eight genes for terminal leaflet area and number of leaves per plant in both environments, respectively. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability ranged from 13.0% for number of branches per plant in water-stressed to 95.0% in well-watered environment for terminal leaflet area. The study revealed that Danilla, IT93K-432-1, and IT97K-499-35 were the best general combiners for all traits, Danilla × IT97K-499-35, and Danilla × IT93K-432-1 were found to be the best specific combiners for all traits in water-stressed environment. Genetic interactions, additive × additive and additive × dominance, were more pronounced in the inheritance of the traits. This indicated that the selection for these traits should be delayed till advanced generations.

  1. Host responses in life-history traits and tolerance to virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Israel Pagán

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how hosts respond to parasite infection is paramount in understanding the effects of parasites on host populations and hence host-parasite co-evolution. Modification of life-history traits in response to parasitism has received less attention than other defence strategies. Life-history theory predicts that parasitised hosts will increase reproductive effort and accelerate reproduction. However, empirical analyses of these predictions are few and mostly limited to animal-parasite systems. We have analysed life-history trait responses in 18 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana infected at two different developmental stages with three strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Accessions were divided into two groups according to allometric relationships; these groups differed also in their tolerance to CMV infection. Life-history trait modification upon virus infection depended on the host genotype and the stage at infection. While all accessions delayed flowering, only the more tolerant allometric group modified resource allocation to increase the production of reproductive structures and progeny, and reduced the length of reproductive period. Our results are in agreement with modifications of life-history traits reported for parasitised animals and with predictions from life-history theory. Thus, we provide empirical support for the general validity of theoretical predictions. In addition, this experimental approach allowed us to quantitatively estimate the genetic determinism of life-history trait plasticity and to evaluate the role of life-history trait modification in defence against parasites, two largely unexplored issues.

  2. Covariation in plant functional traits and soil fertility within two species-rich forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Liu

    Full Text Available The distribution of plant species along environmental gradients is expected to be predictable based on organismal function. Plant functional trait research has shown that trait values generally vary predictably along broad-scale climatic and soil gradients. This work has also demonstrated that at any one point along these gradients there is a large amount of interspecific trait variation. The present research proposes that this variation may be explained by the local-scale sorting of traits along soil fertility and acidity axes. Specifically, we predicted that trait values associated with high resource acquisition and growth rates would be found on soils that are more fertile and less acidic. We tested the expected relationships at the species-level and quadrat-level (20 × 20 m using two large forest plots in Panama and China that contain over 450 species combined. Predicted relationships between leaf area and wood density and soil fertility were supported in some instances, but the majority of the predicted relationships were rejected. Alternative resource axes, such as light gradients, therefore likely play a larger role in determining the interspecific variability in plant functional traits in the two forests studied.

  3. Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathryn M.; Ingvarsson, Pär K.; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores. PMID:22662190

  4. Reduced Cortisol in Boys with Early-Onset Conduct Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. von Polier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and the development of persistent antisocial behavior in children. However the effects of altered cortisol levels remain poorly understood in the complex context of conduct disorder, callous-unemotional (CU personality traits, and frequent comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among CU traits, antisocial behavior, and comorbid ADHD symptomatology with cortisol levels in male children and adolescents. Methods. The study included 37 boys with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD, mean age 11.9 years and 38 healthy boys (mean age 12.5 years. Participants were subjected to multiple daytime salivary cortisol measurements and a psychometric characterization. Results. Subjects in the EO-CD group with elevated CU traits showed a diminished cortisol awakening response compared to healthy participants. In the EO-CD group, high CU traits and impulsivity were associated with decreased diurnal cortisol levels, while associations with antisocial behavior were not detected. The cortisol awakening response was significantly inversely associated with hyperactivity (P=0.02 and marginally significant with CU traits (P=0.07. Conclusions. These results indicate a specific association between CU traits and a diminished stress response, which is not explained by antisocial behavior in general.

  5. Partially incorrect fossil data augment analyses of discrete trait evolution in living species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N

    2016-08-01

    Ancestral state reconstruction of discrete character traits is often vital when attempting to understand the origins and homology of traits in living species. The addition of fossils has been shown to alter our understanding of trait evolution in extant taxa, but researchers may avoid using fossils alongside extant species if only few are known, or if the designation of the trait of interest is uncertain. Here, I investigate the impacts of fossils and incorrectly coded fossils in the ancestral state reconstruction of discrete morphological characters under a likelihood model. Under simulated phylogenies and data, likelihood-based models are generally accurate when estimating ancestral node values. Analyses with combined fossil and extant data always outperform analyses with extant species alone, even when around one quarter of the fossil information is incorrect. These results are especially pronounced when model assumptions are violated, such as when there is a trend away from the root value. Fossil data are of particular importance when attempting to estimate the root node character state. Attempts should be made to include fossils in analysis of discrete traits under likelihood, even if there is uncertainty in the fossil trait data. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Evolution of Sex Differences in Trait- and Age-Specific Vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C

    2016-11-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species. I provide a review of these dynamics and illustrate associated vulnerabilities in nonhuman species. The age- and sex-specific vulnerability of such traits is then illustrated for stressor-related disruptions of boys' and girls' physical growth and play behavior, as well as for aspects of boys' and girls' and men's and women's personality, language, and spatial abilities. There is much that remains to be determined, but enough is now known to reframe trait sensitivity in ways that will allow scientists and practitioners to better identify and understand vulnerable human traits, and eventually ameliorate or prevent their expression. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  8. Trait evolution, resource specialization and vulnerability to plant extinctions among Antillean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Simmons, Benno I; Baquero, Andrea C; Martín González, Ana M; Timmermann, Allan; Maruyama, Pietro K; McGuire, Jimmy A; Ollerton, Jeff; Sutherland, William J; Rahbek, Carsten

    2018-03-28

    Species traits are thought to predict feeding specialization and the vulnerability of a species to extinctions of interaction partners, but the context in which a species evolved and currently inhabits may also matter. Notably, the predictive power of traits may require that traits evolved to fit interaction partners. Furthermore, local abiotic and biotic conditions may be important. On islands, for instance, specialized and vulnerable species are predicted to be found mainly in mountains, whereas species in lowlands should be generalized and less vulnerable. We evaluated these predictions for hummingbirds and their nectar-food plants on Antillean islands. Our results suggest that the rates of hummingbird trait divergence were higher among ancestral mainland forms before the colonization of the Antilles. In correspondence with the limited trait evolution that occurred within the Antilles, local abiotic and biotic conditions-not species traits-correlate with hummingbird resource specialization and the vulnerability of hummingbirds to extinctions of their floral resources. Specifically, hummingbirds were more specialized and vulnerable in conditions with high topographical complexity, high rainfall, low temperatures and high floral resource richness, which characterize the Antillean Mountains. These findings show that resource specialization and species vulnerability to extinctions of interaction partners are highly context-dependent. © 2018 The Author(s).

  9. Predictors of survival in surgically treated patients of spinal metastasis

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    Pravin Padalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spinal metastasis occurs in up to 40% of cancer patient. We compared the Tokuhashi and Tomita scoring systems, two commonly used scoring systems for prognosis in spinal metastases. We also assessed the different variables separately with respect to their value in predicting postsurgical life expectancy. Finally, we suggest criteria for selecting patients for surgery based on the postoperative survival pattern. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients who had been operated for metastatic disease of the spine. Predictive scoring was done according to the scoring systems proposed by Tokuhashi and Tomita. Overall survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Using the log rank test and Cox regression model we assessed the value of the individual components of each scoring system for predicting survival in these patients. Result: The factors that were most significantly associated with survival were the general condition score (Karnofsky Performance Scale (P=.000, log rank test, metastasis to internal organs (P=.0002 log rank test, and number of extraspinal bone metastases (P=.0058. Type of primary tumor was not found to be significantly associated with survival according to the revised Tokuhashi scoring system (P=.9131, log rank test. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that the Tomita score correlated more closely with survival than the Tokuhashi score. Conclusion: The patient′s performance status, extent of visceral metastasis, and extent of bone metastases are significant predictors of survival in patients with metastatic disease. Both revised Tokuhashi and Tomita scores were significantly correlated with survival. A revised Tokuhashi score of 7 or more and a Tomita score of 6 or less indicated >50% chance of surviving 6 months postoperatively. We recommend that the Tomita score be used for prognostication in patients who are contemplating surgery, as it is simpler to score and has a higher

  10. Biology: Survival of the finfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    A trait-based approach for assessing physiological sensitivity to climate change can connect a species' evolutionary past with its future vulnerability. Now a global assessment of freshwater and marine fishes reveals patterns of warming sensitivity, highlighting the importance of different biogeographies and identifying places where vulnerability runs high.

  11. A survival-reproduction trade-off in entomopathogenic nematodes mediated by their bacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelianoff, Vanya; Chapuis, Elodie; Le Brun, Nathalie; Chiral, Magali; Moulia, Catherine; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the investment of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes (Rhabditidae) in their symbiotic association with Xenorhabdus bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae). Their life cycle comprises two phases: (1) a free stage in the soil, where infective juveniles (IJs) of the nematode carry bacteria in a digestive vesicle and search for insect hosts, and (2) a parasitic stage into the insect where bacterial multiplication, nematode reproduction, and production of new IJs occur. Previous studies clearly showed benefits to the association for the nematode during the parasitic stage, but preliminary data suggest the existence of costs to the association for the nematode in free stage. IJs deprived from their bacteria indeed survive longer than symbiotic ones. Here we show that those bacteria-linked costs and benefits lead to a trade-off between fitness traits of the symbiotic nematodes. Indeed IJs mortality positively correlates with their parasitic success in the insect host for symbiotic IJs and not for aposymbiotic ones. Moreover mortality and parasitic success both positively correlate with the number of bacteria carried per IJ, indicating that the trade-off is induced by symbiosis. Finally, the trade-off intensity depends on parental effects and, more generally, is greater under restrictive environmental conditions.

  12. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  13. Genetic introgression and the survival of Florida panther kittens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Onorato, David P.; Nichols, James D.; Johnson, Warren E.; Roelke, Melody E.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of survival for the young of a species are critical for population models. These models can often be improved by determining the effects of management actions and population abundance on this demographic parameter. We used multiple sources of data collected during 1982–2008 and a live-recapture dead-recovery modeling framework to estimate and model survival of Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) kittens (age 0–1 year). Overall, annual survival of Florida panther kittens was 0.323 ± 0.071 (SE), which was lower than estimates used in previous population models. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released into occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression program to restore genetic variability. We found that kitten survival generally increased with degree of admixture: F1 admixed and backcrossed to Texas kittens survived better than canonical Florida panther and backcrossed to canonical kittens. Average heterozygosity positively influenced kitten and older panther survival, whereas index of panther abundance negatively influenced kitten survival. Our results provide strong evidence for the positive population-level impact of genetic introgression on Florida panthers. Our approach to integrate data from multiple sources was effective at improving robustness as well as precision of estimates of Florida panther kitten survival, and can be useful in estimating vital rates for other elusive species with sparse data.

  14. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  15. Within-Trait Heterogeneity in Age Group Differences in Personality Domains and Facets: Implications for the Development and Coherence of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits. PMID:25751273

  16. Niche evolution and adaptive radiation: Testing the order of trait divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Schwilk, D.W.; Webb, C.O.

    2006-01-01

    In the course of an adaptive radiation, the evolution of niche parameters is of particular interest for understanding modes of speciation and the consequences for coexistence of related species within communities. We pose a general question: In the course of an evolutionary radiation, do traits related to within-community niche differences (?? niche) evolve before or after differentiation of macrohabitat affinity or climatic tolerances (?? niche)? Here we introduce a new test to address this question, based on a modification of the method of independent contrasts. The divergence order test (DOT) is based on the average age of the nodes on a tree, weighted by the absolute magnitude of the contrast at each node for a particular trait. The comparison of these weighted averages reveals whether large divergences for one trait have occurred earlier or later in the course of diversification, relative to a second trait; significance is determined by bootstrapping from maximum-likelihood ancestral state reconstructions. The method is applied to the evolution of Ceanothus, a woody plant group in California, in which co-occurring species exhibit significant differences in a key leaf trait (specific leaf area) associated with contrasting physiological and life history strategies. Co-occurring species differ more for this trait than expected under a null model of community assembly. This ?? niche difference evolved early in the divergence of two major subclades within Ceanothus, whereas climatic distributions (?? niche traits) diversified later within each of the subclades. However, rapid evolution of climate parameters makes inferences of early divergence events highly uncertain, and differentiation of the ?? niche might have taken place throughout the evolution of the group, without leaving a clear phylogenetic signal. Similar patterns observed in several plant and animal groups suggest that early divergence of ?? niche traits might be a common feature of niche evolution in

  17. Searching for an Accurate Marker-Based Prediction of an Individual Quantitative Trait in Molecular Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Yang, Mo-Hua; Zeng, Fangqin; Biligetu, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST) SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding. PMID:28729875

  18. Searching for an Accurate Marker-Based Prediction of an Individual Quantitative Trait in Molecular Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bi Fu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding.

  19. Searching for an Accurate Marker-Based Prediction of an Individual Quantitative Trait in Molecular Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Yang, Mo-Hua; Zeng, Fangqin; Biligetu, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Molecular plant breeding with the aid of molecular markers has played an important role in modern plant breeding over the last two decades. Many marker-based predictions for quantitative traits have been made to enhance parental selection, but the trait prediction accuracy remains generally low, even with the aid of dense, genome-wide SNP markers. To search for more accurate trait-specific prediction with informative SNP markers, we conducted a literature review on the prediction issues in molecular plant breeding and on the applicability of an RNA-Seq technique for developing function-associated specific trait (FAST) SNP markers. To understand whether and how FAST SNP markers could enhance trait prediction, we also performed a theoretical reasoning on the effectiveness of these markers in a trait-specific prediction, and verified the reasoning through computer simulation. To the end, the search yielded an alternative to regular genomic selection with FAST SNP markers that could be explored to achieve more accurate trait-specific prediction. Continuous search for better alternatives is encouraged to enhance marker-based predictions for an individual quantitative trait in molecular plant breeding.

  20. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Tarayre, Michèle; Hervé, Maxime; Gigord, Luc; Atlan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability) hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  1. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hornoy

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  2. Brief Report: Sexual Orientation in Individuals with Autistic Traits--Population Based Study of 47,000 Adults in Stockholm County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Christiane E. S.; Lundin, Andreas; Åhs, Jill W.; Dalman, Christina; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between autistic traits and sexual orientation in a general adult population (N = 47,356). Autistic traits were measured with the ten items Autistic Quotient questionnaire using a cut-off score of = 6. Sexual orientation was assessed by self-report. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs)…

  3. How Anxious Do You Think I Am? Relationship between State and Trait Anxiety in Children with and without ASD during Social Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, J.; Zane, E. R.; Neumeyer, K.; Grossman, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit increased anxiety, even in non-stressful situations. We investigate general anxiousness (anxiety trait) and responses to stressful situations (anxiety state) in 22 adolescents with ASD and 32 typically developing controls. We measured trait anxiety with standardized self- and…

  4. Selection on a Subunit of the NURF Chromatin Remodeler Modifies Life History Traits in a Domesticated Strain of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E Large

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory seeks to explain how reproductive and survival traits are shaped by selection through allocations of an individual's resources to competing life functions. Although life-history traits evolve rapidly, little is known about the genetic and cellular mechanisms that control and couple these tradeoffs. Here, we find that two laboratory-adapted strains of C. elegans descended from a single common ancestor that lived in the 1950s have differences in a number of life-history traits, including reproductive timing, lifespan, dauer formation, growth rate, and offspring number. We identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL of large effect that controls 24%-75% of the total trait variance in reproductive timing at various timepoints. Using CRISPR/Cas9-induced genome editing, we show this QTL is due in part to a 60 bp deletion in the 3' end of the nurf-1 gene, which is orthologous to the human gene encoding the BPTF component of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex. Besides reproduction, nurf-1 also regulates growth rate, lifespan, and dauer formation. The fitness consequences of this deletion are environment specific-it increases fitness in the growth conditions where it was fixed but decreases fitness in alternative laboratory growth conditions. We propose that chromatin remodeling, acting through nurf-1, is a pleiotropic regulator of life history trade-offs underlying the evolution of multiple traits across different species.

  5. Impact of working memory load on cognitive control in trait anxiety: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Senqing; Zeng, Qinghong; Luo, Yangmei; Duan, Haijun; Ding, Cody; Hu, Weiping; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM) load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load) or six letters (high WM load) while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA) group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent) on reaction times (RTs) and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence) of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.

  6. Impact of working memory load on cognitive control in trait anxiety: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senqing Qi

    Full Text Available Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load or six letters (high WM load while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent on reaction times (RTs and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.

  7. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Cobos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF and protein content between sowing times (S. In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G, environment (E and single interactions (GE, GS and ES, the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%. In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%. No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  8. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  9. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, M.J.; Izquierdo, M. A.; Sanz, A.T.; Gil, J.; Flores, F.; Rubio, J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical) were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and protein content between sowing times (S). In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G), environment (E) and single interactions (GE, GS and ES), the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%). In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%). No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  10. Genotype and environment effects on sensory, nutritional, and physical traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobos, M.J.; Izquierdo, M. A.; Sanz, A.T.; Gil, J.; Flores, F.; Rubio, J.

    2016-07-01

    The development of chickpea cultivars with high quality grains for human consumption is an important objective in breeding programs. Genotype and environment effects on seed quality traits (sensorial, nutritional and physical) were studied in chickpea dry grain. Twenty genotypes were grown in winter and spring sowings over two campaigns in four different locations in southern Spain. Significant differences were observed in oil, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and protein content between sowing times (S). In winter, oil and ADF content were higher, while protein content was lower. Although, in general, highly significant variation was detected for genotype (G), environment (E) and single interactions (GE, GS and ES), the genotype effect was stronger for ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, starch and protein content, and for physical and sensory traits (r2>27%). In contrast, environment played an important role in variation in the content of amylose and amylopectin (r2=71.7%). No high relationships were found between the sensory and nutritional or physical characteristics studied. In general, our results suggest a high genetic gain for seed quality in nutritional, physical and sensory traits in chickpea. Genotypes with good seed sensory quality should be selected in the final stages of the breeding program, because it is not feasible to evaluate very large numbers of samples. However, in some cases, moderate correlations were found between sensory and either nutritional or physical traits. Therefore, indirect selection to increase the frequency of genes for sensory traits in an early stage should be considered.

  11. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  12. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Sample size for morphological traits of pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Facco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size (i.e., number of plants required to accurately estimate the average of morphological traits of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. and to check for variability in sample size between evaluation periods and seasons. Two uniformity trials (i.e., experiments without treatment were conducted for two growing seasons. In the first season (2011/2012, the seeds were sown by broadcast seeding, and in the second season (2012/2013, the seeds were sown in rows spaced 0.50 m apart. The ground area in each experiment was 1,848 m2, and 360 plants were marked in the central area, in a 2 m × 2 m grid. Three morphological traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter were evaluated 13 times during the first season and 22 times in the second season. Measurements for all three morphological traits were normally distributed and confirmed through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Randomness was confirmed using the Run Test, and the descriptive statistics were calculated. For each trait, the sample size (n was calculated for the semiamplitudes of the confidence interval (i.e., estimation error equal to 2, 4, 6, ..., 20% of the estimated mean with a confidence coefficient (1-? of 95%. Subsequently, n was fixed at 360 plants, and the estimation error of the estimated percentage of the average for each trait was calculated. Variability of the sample size for the pigeonpea culture was observed between the morphological traits evaluated, among the evaluation periods and between seasons. Therefore, to assess with an accuracy of 6% of the estimated average, at least 136 plants must be evaluated throughout the pigeonpea crop cycle to determine the sample size for the traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter in the different evaluation periods and between seasons. 

  14. Leaf anatomical traits of non-arboreal savanna species along a gradient of tree encroachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Souza Pinheiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado of Brazil, fire suppression has transformed typical savanna formations (TS into forested savanna (FS due to the phenomenon of encroachment. Under encroachment, non-arboreal plants begin to receive less light due to greater tree density and canopy closure. Here we aim to evaluate if leaf anatomical traits of non-arboreal species differ according to the degree of tree encroachment at the Assis Ecological Station - São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, we evaluated leaf tissue thickness and specific leaf area (SLA in representative non-arboreal species occurring along a gradient of tree encroachment. Leaves of TS species showed a trend towards xeromorphism, with traits reported to facilitate survival under high luminosity, such as thick leaves, thick epidermis and mesophyll, and low SLA. In contrast, FS species exhibited mesomorphic leaves, with thin mesophyll and high SLA, which are able to capture diffuse light in denser environments. Thus, non-arboreal understory species with mesomorphic leaf traits should be favored in environments with denser vegetation in contrast to typical savanna species. The results suggest that typical non-arboreal savanna species would not survive under tree encroachment due to the low competitiveness of their leaf anatomical strategies in shady environments.

  15. Restricted pleiotropy facilitates mutational erosion of major life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Agnieszka; Korona, Ryszard

    2013-11-01

    Radical shifts to new natural and human made niches can make some functions unneeded and thus exposed to genetic degeneration. Here we ask not about highly specialized and rarely used functions but those relating to major life-history traits, rate of growth, and resistance to prolonged starvation. We found that in yeast each of the two traits was visibly impaired by at least several hundred individual gene deletions. There were relatively few deletions affecting negatively both traits and likely none harming one but improving the other. Functional profiles of gene deletions affecting either growth or survival were strikingly different: the first related chiefly to synthesis of macromolecules whereas the second to maintenance and recycling of cellular structures. The observed pattern of gene indispensability corresponds to that of gene induction, providing a rather rare example of agreement between the results of deletion and expression studies. We conclude that transitions to new environments in which the ability to grow at possibly fastest rate or survive under very long starvation become practically unnecessary can result in rapid erosion of these vital functions because they are coded by many genes constituting large mutational targets and because restricted pleiotropy is unlikely to constrain this process. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California's Historic Drought of 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D Venturas

    Full Text Available Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short

  17. Child, Maternal and Demographic Factors Influencing Caregiver-Reported Autistic Trait Symptomatology in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, D. A.; Gan, D.; Kung, J.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Allison, C.; Chen, H.; Saw, S. M.; Chong, Y. S.; Rajadurai, V. S.; Tan, K. H.; Shek, P. C. L.; Yap, F.; Broekman, B. F. P.; Magiati, I.

    2018-01-01

    Current research on children's autistic traits in the general population relies predominantly on caregiver-report, yet the extent to which individual, caregiver or demographic characteristics are associated with informants' ratings has not been sufficiently explored. In this study, caregivers of 396 Singaporean two-year-olds from a birth cohort…

  18. Latent-Trait Latent-Class Analysis of Self-disclosure in the Work Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij - de Meij, A.M.; Kelderman, H.; van der Flier, H.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the literature about self-disclosure, it was hypothesized that different groups of subjects differ in their pattern of self-disclosure with respect to different areas of social interaction. An extended latent-trait latent-class model was proposed to describe these general patterns of

  19. Latent-trait latent-class analysis of selfdisclosure in the work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij - de Meij, A.M.; Kelderman, H.; van der Flier, H.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the literature about self-disclosure, it was hypothesized that different groups of subjects differ in their pattern of self-disclosure with respect to different areas of social interaction. An extended latent-trait latent-class model was proposed to describe these general patterns of

  20. Latent-Trait Latent-Class Analysis of Self-Disclosure in the Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2005-01-01

    Based on the literature about self-disclosure, it was hypothesized that different groups of subjects differ in their pattern of self-disclosure with respect to different areas of social interaction. An extended latent-trait latent-class model was proposed to describe these general patterns of self-disclosure. The model was used to analyze the data…

  1. Latent-trait latent-class analysis of selfdisclosure in the work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maij - de Meij, A.M.; Kelderman, H.; van der Flier, H.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the literature about self-disclosure, it was hypothesized that different groups of subjects differ in their pattern of self-disclosure with respect to different areas of social interaction. An extended latent-trait latent-class model was proposed to describe these general patterns of

  2. Quantitative trait loci for milk production and functional traits in two Danish Cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, M D; Rychtarova, J; Zink, V

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Danish Jersey and Danish Red cattle were independently mapped by least squares regression analysis. For Jersey breed, five grandsire families were genotyped for 186 markers on 16 chromosomes (BTAs). Eight traits analysed were milk yield (MY), fat percentage (FP), ...

  3. GlobAl Distribution of GEnetic Traits (GADGET) web server: polygenic trait scores worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Aroon T; Wang, Lu; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Conley, Andrew B; Norris, Emily T; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Jordan, I King

    2018-05-18

    Human populations from around the world show striking phenotypic variation across a wide variety of traits. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are used to uncover genetic variants that influence the expression of heritable human traits; accordingly, population-specific distributions of GWAS-implicated variants may shed light on the genetic basis of human phenotypic diversity. With this in mind, we developed the GlobAl Distribution of GEnetic Traits web server (GADGET http://gadget.biosci.gatech.edu). The GADGET web server provides users with a dynamic visual platform for exploring the relationship between worldwide genetic diversity and the genetic architecture underlying numerous human phenotypes. GADGET integrates trait-implicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from GWAS, with population genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project, to calculate genome-wide polygenic trait scores (PTS) for 818 phenotypes in 2504 individual genomes. Population-specific distributions of PTS are shown for 26 human populations across 5 continental population groups, with traits ordered based on the extent of variation observed among populations. Users of GADGET can also upload custom trait SNP sets to visualize global PTS distributions for their own traits of interest.

  4. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  5. Whole genome scan in chickens for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaam, van J.B.C.H.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Veenendaal, A.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to enable quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for carcass traits. The population consisted of 10 full-sib families originating from a cross between male and female founders chosen from two different outcross broiler lines. Founder animals, parents, offspring, and

  6. Quantitative trait loci for udder conformation and other udder traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. SCHULMAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Udder traits are important due to their correlation with clinical mastitis which causes major economic losses to the dairy farms. Chromosomal areas associated with udder conformation traits, milking speed and leakage could be used in breeding programs to improve both udder traits and mastitis resistance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for udder traits was carried out on bovine chromosomes (BTA 9, 11, 14, 18, 20, 23, and 29, where earlier studies have indicated QTL for mastitis. A granddaughter design with 12 Ayrshire sire families and 360 sons was used. The sires and sons were typed for 35 markers. The traits analysed were udder depth, fore udder attachment, central ligament, distance from udder to floor, body stature, fore teat length, udder balance, rear udder height, milking speed, and leakage. Associations between markers and traits were analysed with multiple marker regression. Five genome-wise significant QTL were detected: stature on BTA14 and 23, udder balance on BTA23, rear udder height on BTA11, and central ligament on BTA23. On BTA11 and 14 the suggested QTL positions for udder traits are at the same position as previously detected QTL for mastitis and somatic cell count.;

  7. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  8. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation documents Kennedy Space Center's Independent Assessment work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer during key programmatic reviews and provided the GSDO Program with analyses of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and ground worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, a team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedy's Vehicle Assembly Building.

  9. The Survival of the Wisest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that humans differ from other living organisms in the ability to exercise learned behavior and the individual will, which may allow people to make the changes in values necessary to survive on this planet. (DW)

  10. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  11. Spontaneous trait inference and spontaneous trait transference are both unaffected by prior evaluations of informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J

    2017-01-01

    This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.

  12. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  13. EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATION STYLE, PERSONALITY TRAIT AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Mayowa Solaja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In organizational research and practice, prolific communication is significantly linked with quality leadership traits. Leadership quality helps in mitigating the failure of an organization to survive the increasing business challenges that may result in waste of resources, talents and potentials needed for achieving optimal organizational productivity. However, an examination of academic literatures reveal that corporate leaders are often faced with the challenge of how to move smoothly between different communication styles to communicate clearly articulating ideas and knowledge to employee’s whenever the occasion demands which hinders organizational productivity. Against this background, this study explores the relationship between leadership communication style, personality trait and organizational productivity. The study utilized cross-sectional survey method. Participants were 112 academic staff of University of Lagos, Nigeria who was selected through multi-stage sampling techniques. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and personal observation. Results show that there exists a connection between leadership communication style and personality trait. Also, the finding revealed that leadership communication style determines organization productivity. More so, the finding established that personality traits and communication styles have combine effect on organizational productivity. Conclusively, the findings were discussed with reference to relevant empirical literatures with recommendations for management of organizations both for practice and future research highlighted.

  14. Fungal symbiosis and precipitation alter traits and dune building by the ecosystem engineer, Ammophila breviligulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sarah M; Bell-Dereske, Lukas; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystem engineer species influence their community and ecosystem by creating or altering the physical structure of habitats. The function of ecosystem engineers is variable and can depend on both abiotic and biotic factors. Here we make use of a primary successional system to evaluate the direct and interactive effects of climate change (precipitation) and fungal endophyte symbiosis on population traits and ecosystem function of the ecosystem engineering grass species, Ammophila breviligulata. We manipulated endophyte presence in A. breviligulata in combination with rain-out shelters and rainfall additions in a factorial field experiment established in 2010 on Lake Michigan sand dunes. We monitored plant traits, survival, growth, and sexual reproduction of A. breviligulata from 2010-2013, and quantified ecosystem engineering as the sand accumulation rate. Presence of the endophyte in A. breviligulata increased vegetative growth by up to 19%, and reduced sexual reproduction by up to 46% across all precipitation treatments. Precipitation was a less significant factor than endophyte colonization for A. breviligulata growth. Reduced precipitation increased average leaf number per tiller but had no other effects on plant traits. Changes in A. breviligulata traits corresponded to increases in sand accumulation in plots with the endophyte as well as in plots with reduced precipitation. Sand accumulation is a key ecosystem function in these primary successional habitats, and so microbial symbiosis in this ecosystem engineer could lead to direct effects on the value of these dune habitats for humans.

  15. White Matter Features Associated With Autistic Traits in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Kuno

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is among the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. Comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD or autistic traits may impair treatment response in OCD. To identify possible neurostructural deficits underlying autistic traits, we performed white matter tractography on diffusion tensor images (DTI and assessed autistic trait severity using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ in 33 OCD patients. Correlations between AQ and the DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (AD, and radial diffusivity (RD were examined in major white matter tracts that were suggested to be altered in previous OCD studies. We found a negative correlation between AQ and FA and positive correlations between AQ and MD, AD and RD in the left uncinate fasciculus using age, Beck Depression Inventory, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, intelligence quotient and medication as covariates. However, we could not detect the significant results between AQ and all DTI parameters when adding gender as a covariate. In addition, in the ASD comorbid group, FA in the left uncinate fasciculus was significantly lower than in the non-ASD comorbid group and MD and RD were significantly higher than in the non-ASD group. These results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. In ASD, the socio-emotional dysfunction is suggested to be related to the alteration of white matter microstructure in uncinate fasciculus. Our results suggest that variations in white matter features of the left uncinate fasciculus might be partly explained by autistic traits encountered in OCD patients.

  16. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  17. Physiognomy: Personality Traits Prediction by Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Zhang; Ri-Zhen Qin; Qiu-Lei Dong; Wei Gao; Hua-Rong Xu; Zhan-Yi Hu

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating individuals' personality traits and intelligence from their faces plays a crucial role in interpersonal relationship and important social events such as elections and court sentences.To assess the possible correlations between personality traits (also measured intelligence) and face images,we first construct a dataset consisting of face photographs,personality measurements,and intelligence measurements.Then,we build an end-to-end convolutional neural network for prediction of personality traits and intelligence to investigate whether self-reported personality traits and intelligence can be predicted reliably from a face image.To our knowledge,it is the first work where deep learning is applied to this problem.Experimental results show the following three points:1)"Rule-consciousness" and "Tension" can be reliably predicted from face images.2) It is difficult,if not impossible,to predict intelligence from face images,a finding in accord with previous studies.3) Convolutional neural network (CNN) features outperform traditional handcrafted features in predicting traits.

  18. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  19. Customer service skills for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium?

  20. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier