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Sample records for survival times ranged

  1. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation documents Kennedy Space Center's Independent Assessment work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer during key programmatic reviews and provided the GSDO Program with analyses of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and ground worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, a team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedy's Vehicle Assembly Building.

  2. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  3. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  4. Lineages that cheat death: surviving the squeeze on range size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Evolutionary lineages differ greatly in their net diversification rates, implying differences in rates of extinction and speciation. Lineages with a large average range size are commonly thought to have reduced extinction risk (although linking low extinction to high diversification has proved elusive). However, climate change cycles can dramatically reduce the geographic range size of even widespread species, and so most species may be periodically reduced to a few populations in small, isolated remnants of their range. This implies a high and synchronous extinction risk for the remaining populations, and so for the species as a whole. Species will only survive through these periods if their individual populations are "threat tolerant," somehow able to persist in spite of the high extinction risk. Threat tolerance is conceptually different from classic extinction resistance, and could theoretically have a stronger relationship with diversification rates than classic resistance. I demonstrate that relationship using primates as a model. I also show that narrowly distributed species have higher threat tolerance than widespread ones, confirming that tolerance is an unusual form of resistance. Extinction resistance may therefore operate by different rules during periods of adverse global environmental change than in more benign periods.

  5. Fledgling survival increases with development time and adult survival across north and south temperate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Martin, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Slow life histories are characterized by high adult survival and few offspring, which are thought to allow increased investment per offspring to increase juvenile survival. Consistent with this pattern, south temperate zone birds are commonly longer-lived and have fewer young than north temperate zone species. However, comparative analyses of juvenile survival, including during the first few weeks of the post-fledging period when most juvenile mortality occurs, are largely lacking. We combined our measurements of fledgling survival for eight passerines in South Africa with estimates from published studies of 57 north and south temperate zone songbird species to test three predictions: (1) fledgling survival increases with length of development time in the nest; (2) fledgling survival increases with adult survival and reduced brood size controlled for development time; and (3) south temperate zone species, with their higher adult survival and smaller brood sizes, exhibit higher fledgling survival than north temperate zone species controlled for development time. We found that fledgling survival was higher among south temperate zone species and generally increased with development time and adult survival within and between latitudinal regions. Clutch size did not explain additional variation, but was confounded with adult survival. Given the importance of age-specific mortality to life history evolution, understanding the causes of these geographical patterns of mortality is important.

  6. Nonbreeding home‐range size and survival of lesser prairie‐chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samantha G.; Haukos, David A.; Plumb, Reid T.; Lautenbach, Joseph M.; Sullins, Daniel S.; Kraft, John D.; Lautenbach, Jonathan D.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    The lesser prairie‐chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a species of conservation concern with uncertain regulatory status, has experienced population declines over the past century. Most research on lesser prairie‐chickens has focused on the breeding season, with little research conducted during the nonbreeding season, a period that exerts a strong influence on demography in other upland game birds. We trapped lesser prairie‐chickens on leks and marked them with either global positioning system (GPS) satellite or very high frequency (VHF) transmitters to estimate survival and home‐range size during the nonbreeding season. We monitored 119 marked lesser prairie‐chickens in 3 study areas in Kansas, USA, from 16 September to 14 March in 2013, 2014, and 2015. We estimated home‐range size using Brownian Bridge movement models (GPS transmitters) and fixed kernel density estimators (VHF transmitters), and female survival using Kaplan–Meier known‐fate models. Average home‐range size did not differ between sexes. Estimated home‐range size was 3 times greater for individuals fitted with GPS satellite transmitters ( = 997 ha) than those with VHF transmitters ( = 286 ha), likely a result of the temporal resolution of the different transmitters. Home‐range size of GPS‐marked birds increased 2.8 times relative to the breeding season and varied by study area and year. Home‐range size was smaller in the 2013–2014 nonbreeding season ( = 495 ha) than the following 2 nonbreeding seasons ( = 1,290 ha and  = 1,158 ha), corresponding with drought conditions of 2013, which were alleviated in following years. Female survival () was high relative to breeding season estimates, and did not differ by study area or year ( = 0.73 ± 0.04 [SE]). Future management could remain focused on the breeding season because nonbreeding survival was 39–44% greater than the previous breeding season; however, considerations of total space

  7. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  8. Cougar survival and source-sink structure on Greater Yellowstone's Northern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, T.K.; Haroldson, M.A.; Murphy, K.M.; Buotte, P.C.; Hornocker, M.G.; Quigley, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    We studied survival and causes of mortality of radiocollared cougars (Puma concolor) on the Greater Yellowstone Northern Range (GYNR) prior to (1987–1994) and after wolf (Canis lupus) reintroduction (1998–2005) and evaluated temporal, spatial, and environmental factors that explain variation in adult, subadult, and kitten survival. Using Program MARK and multimodel inference, we modeled cougar survival based on demographic status, season, and landscape attributes. Our best models for adult and independent subadults indicated that females survived better than males and survival increased with age until cougars reached older ages. Lower elevations and increasing density of roads, particularly in areas open to cougar hunting north of Yellowstone National Park (YNP), increased mortality risks for cougars on the GYNR. Indices of ungulate biomass, cougar and wolf population size, winter severity, rainfall, and individual characteristics such as the presence of dependent young, age class, and use of Park or Wilderness were not important predictors of survival. Kitten survival increased with age, was lower during winter, increased with increasing minimum estimates of elk calf biomass, and increased with increasing density of adult male cougars. Using our best model, we mapped adult cougar survival on the GYNR landscape. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated a good model fit for both female (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70–0.92, n = 35 locations) and male cougars (AUC = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.74–0.94, n = 49 locations) relative to hunter harvest locations in our study area. Using minimum estimates of survival necessary to sustain the study population, we developed a source-sink surface and we identify several measures that resource management agencies can take to enhance cougar population management based on a source-sink strategy.

  9. Effect of liquid nitrogen storage time on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were undertaken on the effect of liquid nitrogen (LN) storage time on survival and regeneration of somatic embryos of cocoa (Theobroma cacao l.). Somatic embryos from different cocoa genotypes (AMAZ 3-2, AMAZ 10-1, AMAZ 12, SIAL 93, and IMC 14) at 15.45% moisture content were cryopreserved in LN ...

  10. Effect of fibrinolysis inhibitors on survival time of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smok, W.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities of alleviation of the gastrointestinal syndrome of acute radiation sickness by modification of haemorrhagic diathesis using EACA and traskolan were studied. A significant prolongation of the mean survival time was obtained in the irradiated rats treated with EACA. 7 tabs., 10 refs. (author)

  11. Bacterial survival following shock compression in the GigaPascal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazael, Rachael; Fitzmaurice, Brianna C.; Foglia, Fabrizia; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility that life can exist within previously unconsidered habitats is causing us to expand our understanding of potential planetary biospheres. Significant populations of living organisms have been identified at depths extending up to several km below the Earth's surface; whereas laboratory experiments have shown that microbial species can survive following exposure to GigaPascal (GPa) pressures. Understanding the degree to which simple organisms such as microbes survive such extreme pressurization under static compression conditions is being actively investigated. The survival of bacteria under dynamic shock compression is also of interest. Such studies are being partly driven to test the hypothesis of potential transport of biological organisms between planetary systems. Shock compression is also of interest for the potential modification and sterilization of foodstuffs and agricultural products. Here we report the survival of Shewanella oneidensis bacteria exposed to dynamic (shock) compression. The samples examined included: (a) a "wild type" (WT) strain and (b) a "pressure adapted" (PA) population obtained by culturing survivors from static compression experiments to 750 MPa. Following exposure to peak shock pressures of 1.5 and 2.5 GPa the proportion of survivors was established as the number of colony forming units (CFU) present after recovery to ambient conditions. The data were compared with previous results in which the same bacterial samples were exposed to static pressurization to the same pressures, for 15 minutes each. The results indicate that shock compression leads to survival of a significantly greater proportion of both WT and PA organisms. The significantly shorter duration of the pressure pulse during the shock experiments (2-3 μs) likely contributes to the increased survival of the microbial species. One reason for this can involve the crossover from deformable to rigid solid-like mechanical relaxational behavior that occurs for

  12. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Kelly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached by focusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kind of substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time. The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “ever-living present.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductory matter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternal recurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is a treatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations in the n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have done away with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives as eternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of the nature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notion of holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory. I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence of actual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in his reflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentially more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in the last section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin, as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’s inspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretation leads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of its reconciliation

  13. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Kelly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached byfocusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kindof substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time.The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “everlivingpresent.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complexholistic”theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductorymatter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternalrecurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is atreatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations inthe n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have doneaway with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives aseternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of thenature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notionof holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory.I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence ofactual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in hisreflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentiallymore integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in thelast section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin,as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’sinspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretationleads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of itsreconciliation with the once-only view

  14. What affects local community hospitals' survival in turbulent times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Che; Wang, Shiow-Ing

    2015-06-01

    Hospital closures became a prevalent phenomenon in Taiwan after the implementation of a national health insurance program. A wide range of causes contributes to the viability of hospitals, but little is known about the situation under universal coverage health systems. The purpose of present study is to recognize the factors that may contribute to hospital survival under the universal coverage health system. This is a retrospective case-control study. Local community hospitals that contracted with the Bureau of National Health Insurance in 1998 and remained open during the period 1998-2011 are the designated cases. Controls are local community hospitals that closed during the same period. Using longitudinal representative health claim data, 209 local community hospitals that closed during 1998-2011 were compared with 165 that remained open. Variables related to institutional characteristics, degree of competition, characteristics of patients and financial performance were analyzed by logistic regression models. Hospitals' survival was positively related to specialty hospital, the number of respiratory care beds, the physician to population ratio, the number of clinics in the same region, a highly competitive market and the occupancy rate of elderly patients in the hospital. Teaching hospitals, investor-owned hospitals, the provision of obstetrics services or home care, and the number of medical centers or other local community hospitals may jeopardize the chance of survival. Factors-enhanced local hospitals to survive under the universal coverage health system have been identified. Hospital managers could manipulate these findings and adapt strategies for subsistence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  15. Time dependent ethnic convergence in colorectal cancer survival in hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundahl Scott A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer death rates have been declining, this trend is not consistent across all ethnic groups. Biological, environmental, behavioral and socioeconomic explanations exist, but the reason for this discrepancy remains inconclusive. We examined the hypothesis that improved cancer screening across all ethnic groups will reduce ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods Through the Hawaii Tumor Registry 16,424 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were identified during the years 1960–2000. Cox regression analyses were performed for each of three cohorts stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese. The models included stage of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex as predictors of survival. Results Mortality rates improved significantly for all ethnic groups. Moreover, with the exception of Hawaiians, rates for all ethnic groups converged over time. Persistently lower survival for Hawaiians appeared linked with more cancer treatment. Conclusion Ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer mortality rates appear primarily the result of differential utilization of health care. If modern screening procedures can be provided equally to all ethnic groups, ethnic outcome differences can be virtually eliminated.

  16. Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehney, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening (±S.E.) of 1.8 ±0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of 226 Ra + 228 Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment

  17. Clinical findings and survival time in dogs with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Amelie; Rush, John E; Yang, Vicky K; Freeman, Lisa M

    2018-04-10

    Dogs with advanced heart failure are a clinical challenge for veterinarians but there are no studies reporting clinical features and outcome of this population. To describe clinical findings and outcome of dogs with advanced heart failure caused by degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). Fifty-four dogs with advanced heart failure because of DMVD. For study purposes, advanced heart failure was defined as recurrence of congestive heart failure signs despite receiving the initially prescribed dose of pimobendan, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and furosemide >4 mg/kg/day. Data were collected for the time of diagnosis of Stage C heart failure and time of diagnosis of advanced heart failure. Date of death was recorded. At the diagnosis of advanced heart failure, doses of pimobendan (n = 30), furosemide (n = 28), ACEI (n = 13), and spironolactone (n = 4) were increased, with ≥1 new medications added in most dogs. After initial diagnosis of advanced heart failure, 38 (70%) dogs had additional medications adjustments (median = 2 [range, 0-27]), with the final total medication number ranging from 2-10 (median = 5). Median survival time after diagnosis of advanced heart failure was 281 days (range, 3-885 days). Dogs receiving a furosemide dose >6.70 mg/kg/day had significantly longer median survival times (402 days [range, 3-885 days] versus 129 days [range 9-853 days]; P = .017). Dogs with advanced heart failure can have relatively long survival times. Higher furosemide dose and non-hospitalization were associated with longer survival. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Effect of antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract on survival time after neutron and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Antibiotic decontaminated and conventional rats were whole-body irradiated with 8 MeV neutrons (1.5 to 13 Gy) or 137 Cs gamma radiation (9 to 20 Gy). The animals were checked for survival at four hour intervals from the second to the seventh day postirradiation and at eight hour intervals on other days. Decontamination of the GI tract increased median survival time 1 to 5 days in this range of dose dependency, whereas the effect of decontamination was negligible for doses that produced mostly intestinal death. These results suggest that sepsis and endotoxin produced by bacteria from the intestinal tract play little role in acute intestinal radiation death

  19. Unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost laser range finder for real-time range imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Isa; Nakhmani, Arie

    2017-06-01

    Range imaging plays an essential role in many fields: 3D modeling, robotics, heritage, agriculture, forestry, reverse engineering. One of the most popular range-measuring technologies is laser scanner due to its several advantages: long range, high precision, real-time measurement capabilities, and no dependence on lighting conditions. However, laser scanners are very costly. Their high cost prevents widespread use in applications. Due to the latest developments in technology, now, low-cost, reliable, faster, and light-weight 1D laser range finders (LRFs) are available. A low-cost 1D LRF with a scanning mechanism, providing the ability of laser beam steering for additional dimensions, enables to capture a depth map. In this work, we present an unsynchronized scanning with a low-cost LRF to decrease scanning period and reduce vibrations caused by stop-scan in synchronized scanning. Moreover, we developed an algorithm for alignment of unsynchronized raw data and proposed range image post-processing framework. The proposed technique enables to have a range imaging system for a fraction of the price of its counterparts. The results prove that the proposed method can fulfill the need for a low-cost laser scanning for range imaging for static environments because the most significant limitation of the method is the scanning period which is about 2 minutes for 55,000 range points (resolution of 250x220 image). In contrast, scanning the same image takes around 4 minutes in synchronized scanning. Once faster, longer range, and narrow beam LRFs are available, the methods proposed in this work can produce better results.

  20. Real-time high dynamic range laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegoni, C.; Leon Swisher, C.; Fumene Feruglio, P.; Giedt, R. J.; Rousso, D. L.; Stapleton, S.; Weissleder, R.

    2016-04-01

    In conventional confocal/multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, images are typically acquired under ideal settings and after extensive optimization of parameters for a given structure or feature, often resulting in information loss from other image attributes. To overcome the problem of selective data display, we developed a new method that extends the imaging dynamic range in optical microscopy and improves the signal-to-noise ratio. Here we demonstrate how real-time and sequential high dynamic range microscopy facilitates automated three-dimensional neural segmentation. We address reconstruction and segmentation performance on samples with different size, anatomy and complexity. Finally, in vivo real-time high dynamic range imaging is also demonstrated, making the technique particularly relevant for longitudinal imaging in the presence of physiological motion and/or for quantification of in vivo fast tracer kinetics during functional imaging.

  1. Clever mothers balance time and effort in parental care: a study on free-ranging dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of suckling during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously, and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group livi...

  2. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common sound levels (Wen B, Wang GI, Dean I, Delgutte B. J Neurosci 29: 13797–13808, 2009). We investigated the time course of dynamic range adaptation by recording from AN fibers with a stimulus in which the sound levels periodically switch from one nonuniform level distribution to another (Dean I, Robinson BL, Harper NS, McAlpine D. J Neurosci 28: 6430–6438, 2008). Dynamic range adaptation occurred rapidly, but its exact time course was difficult to determine directly from the data because of the concomitant firing rate adaptation. To characterize the time course of dynamic range adaptation without the confound of firing rate adaptation, we developed a phenomenological “dual adaptation” model that accounts for both forms of AN adaptation. When fitted to the data, the model predicts that dynamic range adaptation occurs as rapidly as firing rate adaptation, over 100–400 ms, and the time constants of the two forms of adaptation are correlated. These findings suggest that adaptive processing in the auditory periphery in response to changes in mean sound level occurs rapidly enough to have significant impact on the coding of natural sounds. PMID:22457465

  3. Predicting survival time in noncurative patients with advanced cancer: a prospective study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Zhou, Lingjun; Wee, B; Shen, Fengping; Ma, Xiuqiang; Zhao, Jijun

    2014-05-01

    Accurate prediction of prognosis for cancer patients is important for good clinical decision making in therapeutic and care strategies. The application of prognostic tools and indicators could improve prediction accuracy. This study aimed to develop a new prognostic scale to predict survival time of advanced cancer patients in China. We prospectively collected items that we anticipated might influence survival time of advanced cancer patients. Participants were recruited from 12 hospitals in Shanghai, China. We collected data including demographic information, clinical symptoms and signs, and biochemical test results. Log-rank tests, Cox regression, and linear regression were performed to develop a prognostic scale. Three hundred twenty patients with advanced cancer were recruited. Fourteen prognostic factors were included in the prognostic scale: Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, pain, ascites, hydrothorax, edema, delirium, cachexia, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin, sodium, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values. The score was calculated by summing the partial scores, ranging from 0 to 30. When using the cutoff points of 7-day, 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day survival time, the scores were calculated as 12, 10, 8, and 6, respectively. We propose a new prognostic scale including KPS, pain, ascites, hydrothorax, edema, delirium, cachexia, WBC count, hemoglobin, sodium, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, AST, and ALP values, which may help guide physicians in predicting the likely survival time of cancer patients more accurately. More studies are needed to validate this scale in the future.

  4. Mean exit time and survival probability within the CTRW formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, M.; Masoliver, J.

    2007-05-01

    An intense research on financial market microstructure is presently in progress. Continuous time random walks (CTRWs) are general models capable to capture the small-scale properties that high frequency data series show. The use of CTRW models in the analysis of financial problems is quite recent and their potentials have not been fully developed. Here we present two (closely related) applications of great interest in risk control. In the first place, we will review the problem of modelling the behaviour of the mean exit time (MET) of a process out of a given region of fixed size. The surveyed stochastic processes are the cumulative returns of asset prices. The link between the value of the MET and the timescale of the market fluctuations of a certain degree is crystal clear. In this sense, MET value may help, for instance, in deciding the optimal time horizon for the investment. The MET is, however, one among the statistics of a distribution of bigger interest: the survival probability (SP), the likelihood that after some lapse of time a process remains inside the given region without having crossed its boundaries. The final part of the manuscript is devoted to the study of this quantity. Note that the use of SPs may outperform the standard “Value at Risk" (VaR) method for two reasons: we can consider other market dynamics than the limited Wiener process and, even in this case, a risk level derived from the SP will ensure (within the desired quintile) that the quoted value of the portfolio will not leave the safety zone. We present some preliminary theoretical and applied results concerning this topic.

  5. Pulse Based Time-of-Flight Range Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbolandi, Hamed; Plack, Markus; Kolb, Andreas

    2018-05-23

    Pulse-based Time-of-Flight (PB-ToF) cameras are an attractive alternative range imaging approach, compared to the widely commercialized Amplitude Modulated Continuous-Wave Time-of-Flight (AMCW-ToF) approach. This paper presents an in-depth evaluation of a PB-ToF camera prototype based on the Hamamatsu area sensor S11963-01CR. We evaluate different ToF-related effects, i.e., temperature drift, systematic error, depth inhomogeneity, multi-path effects, and motion artefacts. Furthermore, we evaluate the systematic error of the system in more detail, and introduce novel concepts to improve the quality of range measurements by modifying the mode of operation of the PB-ToF camera. Finally, we describe the means of measuring the gate response of the PB-ToF sensor and using this information for PB-ToF sensor simulation.

  6. Characterization of modulated time-of-flight range image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Cree, Michael J.; Carnegie, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    A number of full field image sensors have been developed that are capable of simultaneously measuring intensity and distance (range) for every pixel in a given scene using an indirect time-of-flight measurement technique. A light source is intensity modulated at a frequency between 10-100 MHz, and an image sensor is modulated at the same frequency, synchronously sampling light reflected from objects in the scene (homodyne detection). The time of flight is manifested as a phase shift in the illumination modulation envelope, which can be determined from the sampled data simultaneously for each pixel in the scene. This paper presents a method of characterizing the high frequency modulation response of these image sensors, using a pico-second laser pulser. The characterization results allow the optimal operating parameters, such as the modulation frequency, to be identified in order to maximize the range measurement precision for a given sensor. A number of potential sources of error exist when using these sensors, including deficiencies in the modulation waveform shape, duty cycle, or phase, resulting in contamination of the resultant range data. From the characterization data these parameters can be identified and compensated for by modifying the sensor hardware or through post processing of the acquired range measurements.

  7. Time-of-flight range imaging for underwater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Hannes; Catregn, Gion-Pol; Leutenegger, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Precise and low-cost range imaging in underwater settings with object distances on the meter level is demonstrated. This is addressed through silicon-based time-of-flight (TOF) cameras operated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) at visible, rather than near-IR wavelengths. We find that the attainable performance depends on a variety of parameters, such as the wavelength dependent absorption of water, the emitted optical power and response times of the LEDs, or the spectral sensitivity of the TOF chip. An in-depth analysis of the interplay between the different parameters is given and the performance of underwater TOF imaging using different visible illumination wavelengths is analyzed.

  8. Optimal Frequency Ranges for Sub-Microsecond Precision Pulsar Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael Timothy; McLaughlin, Maura; Cordes, James; Chatterjee, Shami; Lazio, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Precision pulsar timing requires optimization against measurement errors and astrophysical variance from the neutron stars themselves and the interstellar medium. We investigate optimization of arrival time precision as a function of radio frequency and bandwidth. We find that increases in bandwidth that reduce the contribution from receiver noise are countered by the strong chromatic dependence of interstellar effects and intrinsic pulse-profile evolution. The resulting optimal frequency range is therefore telescope and pulsar dependent. We demonstrate the results for five pulsars included in current pulsar timing arrays and determine that they are not optimally observed at current center frequencies. We also find that arrival-time precision can be improved by increases in total bandwidth. Wideband receivers centered at high frequencies can reduce required overall integration times and provide significant improvements in arrival time uncertainty by a factor of $\\sim$$\\sqrt{2}$ in most cases, assuming a fixed integration time. We also discuss how timing programs can be extended to pulsars with larger dispersion measures through the use of higher-frequency observations.

  9. Precise Time Synchronisation and Ranging in Nano-Satellite Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabs, Martin; Plettemeier, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Precise time synchronization and ranging is very important for a variety of scientific experiments with more than two nano-satellites: For synthetic aperture radar (SAR) applications, for example, the radar signal phase (which corresponds to a synchronized time) as well as the location must be known on each satellite forming synthetic antenna. Also multi-static radar systems, MIMO radar systems or radio tomography applications will take advantage from highly accurate synchronization and position determination. We propose a method for synchronizing the time as well as measuring the distance between nano-satellites very precisely by utilizing mm-wave radio links. This approach can also be used for time synchronization of more than two satellites and accordingly determinating the precise relative location of nano-satellites in space. The time synchronization signal is modulated onto a mm-wave carrier. In the simplest form it is a harmonic sinusoidal signal with a frequency in the MHz range. The distance is measured with a frequency sweep or short pulse modulated onto a different carrier frequency. The sweep or pulse transmission start is synchronized to the received time synchronization. The time synchronization transmitter receives the pulse/sweep signal and can calculate the (double) time of flight for both signals. This measurement can be easily converted to the distance. The use of a mm-wave carrier leads to small antennas and the free space loss linked to the high frequency reduces non line of sight echoes. It also allows a high sweep/pulse bandwidth enabling superior ranging accuracy. Additionally, there is also less electromagnetic interference probability since telemetry and scientific applications typically do not use mm-wavefrequencies. Since the system is working full-duplex the time synchronization can be performed continuously and coherently. Up to now the required semiconductor processes did not achieve enough gain/bandwidth to realize this concept at

  10. Extending the Dynamic Range of a Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estee, Justin; S πRIT Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The use of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in intermediate heavy ion reactions faces some challenges in addressing the energy losses that range from the small energy loss of relativistic pions to the large energy loss of slow moving heavy ions. A typical trade-off can be to set the smallest desired signals to be well within the lower limits of the dynamic range of the electronics while allowing for some larger signals to saturate the electronics. With wire plane anodes, signals from readout pads further away from the track remain unsaturated and allow signals from tracks with saturated pads to be accurately recovered. We illustrate this technique using data from the SAMURAI Pion-Reconstruction and Ion-Tracker (S πRIT) TPC , which recently measured pions and light charged particles in collisions of Sn+Sn isotopes. Our method exploits knowledge of how the induced charge distribution depends on the distance from the track to smoothly extend dynamic range even when some of the pads in the track are saturated. To accommodate the analysis of slow moving heavy ions, we have extended the Bichsel energy loss distributions to handle slower moving ions as well. In this talk, I will discuss a combined approach which successfully extends the dynamic range of the TPC electronics. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant Nos. DE-SC0014530, DE-NA0002923, US NSF Grant No. PHY-1565546 and the Japan MEXT KAKENHI Grant No. 24105004.

  11. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997

  12. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaola-Galván, P; Oliver, J L; Hackenberg, M; Coronado, A V; Ivanov, P Ch; Carpena, P

    2012-06-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome.

  13. Real-time range acquisition by adaptive structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koninckx, Thomas P; Van Gool, Luc

    2006-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a "self-adaptive" system for real-time range acquisition. Reconstructions are based on a single frame structured light illumination. Instead of using generic, static coding that is supposed to work under all circumstances, system adaptation is proposed. This occurs on-the-fly and renders the system more robust against instant scene variability and creates suitable patterns at startup. A continuous trade-off between speed and quality is made. A weighted combination of different coding cues--based upon pattern color, geometry, and tracking--yields a robust way to solve the correspondence problem. The individual coding cues are automatically adapted within a considered family of patterns. The weights to combine them are based on the average consistency with the result within a small time-window. The integration itself is done by reformulating the problem as a graph cut. Also, the camera-projector configuration is taken into account for generating the projection patterns. The correctness of the range maps is not guaranteed, but an estimation of the uncertainty is provided for each part of the reconstruction. Our prototype is implemented using unmodified consumer hardware only and, therefore, is cheap. Frame rates vary between 10 and 25 fps, dependent on scene complexity.

  14. Individual differences in long-range time representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Camila S; Caetano, Marcelo S; Balci, Fuat; Claessens, Peter M E; Zana, Yossi

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures. A linear regression fit also outperformed a power model fit for the aggregated data. An individual-participant-based analysis showed better fits of a linear model to the data of 14 participants; better fits of a power function with an exponent β > 1 to the data of 12 participants; and better fits of a power function with β discount rates in intertemporal choice to the compressed nature of subjective time must entail the characterization of subjective time on an individual-participant basis.

  15. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  16. Precise digital integration in wide time range: theory and realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, A.M.; Pavlenko, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The digital integration method based on using high-speed precision analog-to-digital converters (ADC) has become widely used over the recent years. The paper analyzes the limitations of this method that are caused by the signal properties, ADC sampling rate and noise spectral density of the ADC signal path. This analysis allowed creating digital integrators with accurate synchronization and achieving an integration error of less than 10 −5 in the time range from microseconds to tens of seconds. The structure of the integrator is described and its basic parameters are presented. The possibilities of different ADC chips in terms of their applicability to digital integrators are discussed. A comparison with other integrating devices is presented.

  17. The Rheology of the Earth in the Intermediate Time Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SCHEIDEGGER

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available The evidence bearing upon the rheology of the " tectonically
    significant layers" of the Earth (" tectonosphere " in the intermediate
    time range (4 hours to 15000 years is analyzed. This evidence is
    based upon observations of rock-behavior in the laboratory, of seismic
    aftershock sequences, of Earth tides and of the decay of the Chandler wobble.
    It is shown that of the rheological models (Maxwell-material, Kelvin-material,
    and logarithmically creeping material advocated in the literature, only that
    based on logarithmic creep does not contradict any of the observational
    evidence available to date. In addition, a strength limit may be present.

  18. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  19. The role of donor age and ischemic time on survival following orthotopic heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rizzo, D F; Menkis, A H; Pflugfelder, P W; Novick, R J; McKenzie, F N; Boyd, W D; Kostuk, W J

    1999-04-01

    The advances in immunotherapy, along with a liberalization of eligibility criteria have contributed significantly to the ever increasing demand for donor organs. In an attempt to expand the donor pool, transplant programs are now accepting older donors as well as donors from more remote areas. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of donor age and organ ischemic time on survival following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). From April 1981 to December 1996 372 adult patients underwent OHT at the University of Western Ontario. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of outcome. Variables affecting survival were then entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to develop probability models for 30-day- and 1-year-mortality. The mean age of the recipient population was 45.6 +/- 12.3 years (range 18-64 years: 54 56 years). The majority (329 patients, 86.1%) were male and the most common indications for OHT were ischemic (n = 180) and idiopathic (n = 171) cardiomyopathy. Total ischemic time (TIT) was 202.4 +/- 84.5 minutes (range 47-457 minutes). In 86 donors TIT was under 2 hours while it was between 2 and 4 hours in 168, and more than 4 hours in 128 donors. Actuarial survival was 80%, 73%, and 55% at 1, 5, and 10 years respectively. By Cox proportional hazards models, recipient status (Status I-II vs III-IV; risk ratio 1.75; p = 0.003) and donor age, examined as either a continuous or categorical variable ([age or = 35; risk ratio 1.98; p or = 50; risk ratio 2.20; p or = 50; risk ratio 1.83; p 50 years (p = 0.009). By stepwise logistic regression analysis, a probability model for survival was then developed based on donor age, the interaction between donor age and ischemic time, and patient status. Improvements in myocardial preservation and peri-operative management may allow for the safe utilization of donor organs with prolonged ischemic times. Older donors are associated with decreased peri-operative and long

  20. Association between time to disease progression end points and overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Simron Singh,1 Xufang Wang,2 Calvin HL Law1 1Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Novartis Oncology, Florham Park, NJ, USA Abstract: Overall survival can be difficult to determine for slowly progressing malignancies, such as neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether time to disease progression is positively associated with overall survival in patients with such tumors. A literature review identified 22 clinical trials in patients with neuroendocrine tumors that reported survival probabilities for both time to disease progression (progression-free survival and time to progression and overall survival. Associations between median time to disease progression and median overall survival and between treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival were analyzed using weighted least-squares regression. Median time to disease progression was significantly associated with median overall survival (coefficient 0.595; P=0.022. In the seven randomized studies identified, the risk reduction for time to disease progression was positively associated with the risk reduction for overall survival (coefficient on −ln[HR] 0.151; 95% confidence interval −0.843, 1.145; P=0.713. The significant association between median time to disease progression and median overall survival supports the assertion that time to disease progression is an alternative end point to overall survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. An apparent albeit not significant trend correlates treatment effects on time to disease progression and treatment effects on overall survival. Informal surveys of physicians’ perceptions are consistent with these concepts, although additional randomized trials are needed. Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors, progression-free survival, disease progression, mortality

  1. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, Herve

    The basic goal of human computer interaction is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Within this context, the use of hand postures in replacement of traditional devices such as keyboards, mice and joysticks is being explored by many researchers. The goal is to interpret human postures via mathematical algorithms. Hand posture recognition has gained popularity in recent years, and could become the future tool for humans to interact with computers or virtual environments. An exhaustive description of the frequently used methods available in literature for hand posture recognition is provided. It focuses on the different types of sensors and data used, the segmentation and tracking methods, the features used to represent the hand postures as well as the classifiers considered in the recognition process. Those methods are usually presented as highly robust with a recognition rate close to 100%. However, a couple of critical points necessary for a successful real-time hand posture recognition system require major improvement. Those points include the features used to represent the hand segment, the number of postures simultaneously recognizable, the invariance of the features with respect to rotation, translation and scale and also the behavior of the classifiers against non-perfect hand segments for example segments including part of the arm or missing part of the palm. A 3D time-of-flight camera named SR4000 has been chosen to develop a new methodology because of its capability to provide in real-time and at high frame rate 3D information on the scene imaged. This sensor has been described and evaluated for its capability for capturing in real-time a moving hand. A new recognition method that uses the 3D information provided by the range camera to recognize hand postures has been proposed. The different steps of this methodology including the segmentation, the tracking, the hand

  2. Measuring survival time: a probability-based approach useful in healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In some clinical situations, the choice between treatment options takes into account their impact on patient survival time. Due to practical constraints (such as loss to follow-up), survival time is usually estimated using a probability calculation based on data obtained in clinical studies or trials. The two techniques most commonly used to estimate survival times are the Kaplan-Meier method and the actuarial method. Despite their limitations, they provide useful information when choosing between treatment options.

  3. Association of the Timing of Pregnancy With Survival in Women With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javaid; Amir, Eitan; Rochon, Paula A.; Giannakeas, Vasily; Sun, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Importance Increasing numbers of women experience pregnancy around the time of, or after, a diagnosis of breast cancer. Understanding the effect of pregnancy on survival in women with breast cancer will help in the counseling and treatment of these women. Objective To compare the overall survival of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy or in the postpartum period with that of women who had breast cancer but did not become pregnant. Design, Setting, and Participants This population-based, retrospective cohort study linked health administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, comprising 7553 women aged 20 to 45 years at the time of diagnosis with invasive breast cancer, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2014. Exposures Any pregnancy in the period from 5 years before, until 5 years after, the index date of the diagnosis of breast cancer. Women were classified into the following 4 exposure groups: no pregnancy (the referent), pregnancy before breast cancer, pregnancy-associated breast cancer, and pregnancy following breast cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures Five-year actuarial survival rates for all exposure groups, age-adjusted and multivariable hazard ratios [HRs] of pregnancy for overall survival for all exposure groups, and time-dependent hazard ratios for women with pregnancy following breast cancer. Results Among the 7553 women in the study (mean age at diagnosis, 39.1 years; median, 40 years; range, 20-44 years) the 5-year actuarial survival rate was 87.5% (95% CI, 86.5%-88.4%) for women with no pregnancy, 85.3% (95% CI, 82.8%-87.8%) for women with pregnancy before breast cancer (age-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.27; P = .73), and 82.1% (95% CI, 78.3%-85.9%) for women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (age-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.91-1.53; P = .20). The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 96.7% (95% CI, 94.1%-99.3%) for women who had pregnancy 6 months or more after diagnosis of breast cancer, vs 87

  4. Brain oscillatory subsequent memory effects differ in power and long-range synchronization between semantic and survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Marie-Christin; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Memory crucially depends on the way information is processed during encoding. Differences in processes during encoding not only lead to differences in memory performance but also rely on different brain networks. Although these assumptions are corroborated by several previous fMRI and ERP studies, little is known about how brain oscillations dissociate between different memory encoding tasks. The present study therefore compared encoding related brain oscillatory activity elicited by two very efficient encoding tasks: a typical deep semantic item feature judgment task and a more elaborative survival encoding task. Subjects were asked to judge words either for survival relevance or for animacy, as indicated by a cue presented prior to the item. This allowed dissociating pre-item activity from item-related activity for both tasks. Replicating prior studies, survival processing led to higher recognition performance than semantic processing. Successful encoding in the semantic condition was reflected by a strong decrease in alpha and beta power, whereas successful encoding in the survival condition was related to increased alpha and beta long-range phase synchrony. Moreover, a pre-item subsequent memory effect in theta power was found which did not vary with encoding condition. These results show that measures of local synchrony (power) and global long range-synchrony (phase synchronization) dissociate between memory encoding processes. Whereas semantic encoding was reflected in decreases in local synchrony, increases in global long range synchrony were related to elaborative survival encoding, presumably reflecting the involvement of a more widespread cortical network in this task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex-related time-dependent variations in post-stroke survival-evidence of a female stroke survival advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2007-01-01

    the influence of gender on post-stroke mortality, from the time of admission through the subsequent years until death or censoring ( mean follow-up time: 538 days). All patients underwent an evaluation including stroke severity, computed tomography and cardiovascular risk factors. Independent predictors......Background: Women live longer than men, yet most studies show that gender has no influence on survival after stroke. Methods: A registry was started in 2001, with the aim of registering all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, and it now holds 39,484 patients of which 48% are female. We studied...... of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 22,222 individuals with a complete data set. Results: Females were older and had severer stroke. Interestingly, the risk of death between genders was time dependent. The female/male stroke mortality rate favoured women from the first day...

  6. Evaluating time to cancer recurrence as a surrogate marker for survival from an information theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ariel; Molenberghs, Geert

    2008-10-01

    The last two decades have seen a lot of development in the area of surrogate marker validation. One of these approaches places the evaluation in a meta-analytic framework, leading to definitions in terms of trial- and individual-level association. A drawback of this methodology is that different settings have led to different measures at the individual level. Using information theory, Alonso et al. proposed a unified framework, leading to a new definition of surrogacy, which offers interpretational advantages and is applicable in a wide range of situations. In this work, we illustrate how this information-theoretic approach can be used to evaluate surrogacy when both endpoints are of a time-to-event type. Two meta-analyses, in early and advanced colon cancer, respectively, are then used to evaluate the performance of time to cancer recurrence as a surrogate for overall survival.

  7. Preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging of single brain metastases correlates with patient survival times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Berghoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MRI-based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI visualizes the local differences in water diffusion in vivo. The prognostic value of DWI signal intensities on the source images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC maps respectively has not yet been studied in brain metastases (BM. METHODS: We included into this retrospective analysis all patients operated for single BM at our institution between 2002 and 2010, in whom presurgical DWI and BM tissue samples were available. We recorded relevant clinical data, assessed DWI signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values and performed histopathological analysis of BM tissues. Statistical analyses including uni- and multivariate survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: 65 patients (34 female, 31 male with a median overall survival time (OS of 15 months (range 0-99 months were available for this study. 19 (29.2% patients presented with hyper-, 3 (4.6% with iso-, and 43 (66.2% with hypointense DWI. ADCmean values could be determined in 32 (49.2% patients, ranged from 456.4 to 1691.8*10⁻⁶ mm²/s (median 969.5 and showed a highly significant correlation with DWI signal intensity. DWI hyperintensity correlated significantly with high amount of interstitial reticulin deposition. In univariate analysis, patients with hyperintense DWI (5 months and low ADCmean values (7 months had significantly worse OS than patients with iso/hypointense DWI (16 months and high ADCmean values (30 months, respectively. In multivariate survival analysis, high ADCmean values retained independent statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative DWI findings strongly and independently correlate with OS in patients operated for single BM and are related to interstitial fibrosis. Inclusion of DWI parameters into established risk stratification scores for BM patients should be considered.

  8. Modelling the joint distribution of competing risks survival times using copula functions

    OpenAIRE

    Kaishev, V. K.; Haberman, S.; Dimitrova, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of modelling the joint distribution of survival times in a competing risks model, using copula functions is considered. In order to evaluate this joint distribution and the related overall survival function, a system of non-linear differential equations is solved, which relates the crude and net survival functions of the modelled competing risks, through the copula. A similar approach to modelling dependent multiple decrements was applied by Carriere (1994) who used a Gaussian cop...

  9. Integrated survival analysis using an event-time approach in a Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P; Dreitz, Victoria J; Heisey, Dennis M

    2015-02-01

    Event-time or continuous-time statistical approaches have been applied throughout the biostatistical literature and have led to numerous scientific advances. However, these techniques have traditionally relied on knowing failure times. This has limited application of these analyses, particularly, within the ecological field where fates of marked animals may be unknown. To address these limitations, we developed an integrated approach within a Bayesian framework to estimate hazard rates in the face of unknown fates. We combine failure/survival times from individuals whose fates are known and times of which are interval-censored with information from those whose fates are unknown, and model the process of detecting animals with unknown fates. This provides the foundation for our integrated model and permits necessary parameter estimation. We provide the Bayesian model, its derivation, and use simulation techniques to investigate the properties and performance of our approach under several scenarios. Lastly, we apply our estimation technique using a piece-wise constant hazard function to investigate the effects of year, age, chick size and sex, sex of the tending adult, and nesting habitat on mortality hazard rates of the endangered mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) chicks. Traditional models were inappropriate for this analysis because fates of some individual chicks were unknown due to failed radio transmitters. Simulations revealed biases of posterior mean estimates were minimal (≤ 4.95%), and posterior distributions behaved as expected with RMSE of the estimates decreasing as sample sizes, detection probability, and survival increased. We determined mortality hazard rates for plover chicks were highest at birth weights and/or whose nest was within agricultural habitats. Based on its performance, our approach greatly expands the range of problems for which event-time analyses can be used by eliminating the need for having completely known fate data.

  10. Integrated survival analysis using an event-time approach in a Bayesian framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.; Dreitz, VJ; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Event-time or continuous-time statistical approaches have been applied throughout the biostatistical literature and have led to numerous scientific advances. However, these techniques have traditionally relied on knowing failure times. This has limited application of these analyses, particularly, within the ecological field where fates of marked animals may be unknown. To address these limitations, we developed an integrated approach within a Bayesian framework to estimate hazard rates in the face of unknown fates. We combine failure/survival times from individuals whose fates are known and times of which are interval-censored with information from those whose fates are unknown, and model the process of detecting animals with unknown fates. This provides the foundation for our integrated model and permits necessary parameter estimation. We provide the Bayesian model, its derivation, and use simulation techniques to investigate the properties and performance of our approach under several scenarios. Lastly, we apply our estimation technique using a piece-wise constant hazard function to investigate the effects of year, age, chick size and sex, sex of the tending adult, and nesting habitat on mortality hazard rates of the endangered mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) chicks. Traditional models were inappropriate for this analysis because fates of some individual chicks were unknown due to failed radio transmitters. Simulations revealed biases of posterior mean estimates were minimal (≤ 4.95%), and posterior distributions behaved as expected with RMSE of the estimates decreasing as sample sizes, detection probability, and survival increased. We determined mortality hazard rates for plover chicks were highest at birth weights and/or whose nest was within agricultural habitats. Based on its performance, our approach greatly expands the range of problems for which event-time analyses can be used by eliminating the need for having completely known fate data.

  11. Surviving in a metastable de Sitter space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Mondal, Swapnamay; Sen, Ashoke; Verma, Mritunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a metastable de Sitter space any object has a finite life expectancy beyond which it undergoes vacuum decay. However, by spreading into different parts of the universe which will fall out of causal contact of each other in future, a civilization can increase its collective life expectancy, defined as the average time after which the last settlement disappears due to vacuum decay. We study in detail the collective life expectancy of two comoving objects in de Sitter space as a function of the initial separation, the horizon radius and the vacuum decay rate. We find that even with a modest initial separation, the collective life expectancy can reach a value close to the maximum possible value of 1.5 times that of the individual object if the decay rate is less than 1% of the expansion rate. Our analysis can be generalized to any number of objects, general trajectories not necessarily at rest in the comoving coordinates and general FRW space-time. As part of our analysis we find that in the current state of the universe dominated by matter and cosmological constant, the vacuum decay rate is increasing as a function of time due to accelerated expansion of the volume of the past light cone. Present decay rate is about 3.7 times larger than the average decay rate in the past and the final decay rate in the cosmological constant dominated epoch will be about 56 times larger than the average decay rate in the past. This considerably weakens the lower bound on the half-life of our universe based on its current age.

  12. Surviving in a metastable de Sitter space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Mondal, Swapnamay [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Verma, Mritunjay [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); International Centre for Theoretical Sciences,Malleshwaram, Bengaluru 560 012 (India)

    2015-09-21

    In a metastable de Sitter space any object has a finite life expectancy beyond which it undergoes vacuum decay. However, by spreading into different parts of the universe which will fall out of causal contact of each other in future, a civilization can increase its collective life expectancy, defined as the average time after which the last settlement disappears due to vacuum decay. We study in detail the collective life expectancy of two comoving objects in de Sitter space as a function of the initial separation, the horizon radius and the vacuum decay rate. We find that even with a modest initial separation, the collective life expectancy can reach a value close to the maximum possible value of 1.5 times that of the individual object if the decay rate is less than 1% of the expansion rate. Our analysis can be generalized to any number of objects, general trajectories not necessarily at rest in the comoving coordinates and general FRW space-time. As part of our analysis we find that in the current state of the universe dominated by matter and cosmological constant, the vacuum decay rate is increasing as a function of time due to accelerated expansion of the volume of the past light cone. Present decay rate is about 3.7 times larger than the average decay rate in the past and the final decay rate in the cosmological constant dominated epoch will be about 56 times larger than the average decay rate in the past. This considerably weakens the lower bound on the half-life of our universe based on its current age.

  13. Lessons from Cacti: How to Survive the Prickles of Life during Tough Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, Alan S.; Bigger, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    The saguaro cactus looked a little like humans, in different shapes and sizes. How on earth do they survive in a climate that seems so inhospitable? It is possible to learn lessons for life from a cactus, if one can only get beyond the thorns, and that these lessons will assist one to survive during tough or prickly times. These plants survive…

  14. Enhancement of radiation effect on mouse intestinal crypt survival by timing of 5-fluorouracil administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, E.; Coffey, C.; Maruyama, Y.

    1977-01-01

    There is a marked dependence of mouse crypt survival on the sequence of combined drug-radiation treatment and on the time lapse between irradiation and drug administration. When 5-fluorouracil is administered 6 hours after irradiation or later (up to 18 hours postirradiation), crypt survival drops significantly

  15. Survival and prognostic factors at time of diagnosis in high-grade appendicular osteosarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding-Rasmussen, Thomas; Thorn, Andrea Pohly; Horstmann, Peter

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival of patients with high-grade osteosarcoma (HOS), the most common primary bone cancer, has not improved significantly the last 30 years and the disease remains a major challenge. The purpose of this study is to evaluate survival in relation to prognostic factors at time of diag...

  16. Providing Survivable Real-Time Communication Service for Distributed Mission Critical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Wei; Bettati, Riccardo; Vaidya, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    This document is the final report for Providing Survivable Real-Time Communication Service for Distributed Mission Critical Systems, a Texas A AND M project funded through the DARPA Fault Tolerant Networks Program...

  17. Frozen in Time? Microbial strategies for survival and carbon metabolism over geologic time in a Pleistocene permafrost chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, R.; Douglas, T. A.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost soils have received tremendous interest due to their importance as a global carbon store with the potential to be thawed over the coming centuries. Instead of being 'frozen in time,' permafrost contains active microbes. Most metagenomic studies have focused on Holocene aged permafrost. Here, we target Pleistocene aged ice and carbon rich permafrost (Yedoma), which can differ in carbon content and stage of decay. Our aim was to understand how microbes in the permafrost transform organic matter over geologic time and to identify physiological and biochemical adaptations that enable long-term survival. We used next-generation sequencing to characterize microbial communities along a permafrost age gradient. Samples were collected from the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Permafrost Tunnel near Fox, AK, which penetrates a hillside providing access to permafrost ranging in age from 12 to 40 kyr. DNA was extracted directly from unthawed samples. 16S rRNA amplicon (16S) and shotgun metagenome sequencing revealed significant age-driven differences. First, microbial diversity declines with permafrost age, likely due to long-term exposure to environmental stresses and a reduction in metabolic resources. Second, we observed taxonomic differences among ages, with an increasing abundance of Firmicutes (endospore-formers) in older samples, suggesting that dormancy is a common survival strategy in older permafrost. Ordination of 16S and metagenome data revealed age-based clustering. Genes differing significantly between age categories included those involved in lipopolysaccharide assembly, cold-response, and carbon processing. These data point to the physiological adaptations to long-term frozen conditions and to the metabolic processes utilized in ancient permafrost. In fact, a gene common in older samples is involved in cadaverine production, which could potentially explain the putrefied smell of Pleistocene aged permafrost. Coupled with soil

  18. Inferring the colonization of a mountain range--refugia vs. nunatak survival in high alpine ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated whether high alpine specialists survived ice ages in situ on small ice-free islands of habitat, so-called nunataks, or whether glacial survival was restricted to larger massifs de refuge at the periphery. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in a local radiation of high alpine carabid beetles (genus Trechus) in the Orobian Alps, Northern Italy. While summits along the northern ridge of this mountain range were surrounded by the icesheet as nunataks during the last glacial maximum, southern areas remained unglaciated. We analyse a total of 1366 bp of mitochondrial (Cox1 and Cox2) data sampled from 150 individuals from twelve populations and 530 bp of nuclear (PEPCK) sequence sampled for a subset of 30 individuals. Using Bayesian inference, we estimate ancestral location states in the gene trees, which in turn are used to infer the most likely order of recolonization under a model of sequential founder events from a massif de refuge from the mitochondrial data. We test for the paraphyly expected under this model and for reciprocal monophyly predicted by a contrasting model of prolonged persistence of nunatak populations. We find that (i) only three populations are incompatible with the paraphyly of the massif de refuge model, (ii) both mitochondrial and nuclear data support separate refugial origins for populations on the western and eastern ends of the northern ridge, and (iii) mitochondrial node ages suggest persistence on the northern ridge for part of the last ice age. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children is not associated with decreased survival or with worse neurological outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Brasme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma, one of the most frequent brain tumors in children, is the source of painful remorse and sometimes lawsuits. We analyzed its consequences for tumor stage, survival, and sequelae. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study included all cases of pediatric medulloblastoma from a region of France between 1990 and 2005. We collected the demographic, clinical, and tumor data and analyzed the relations between the interval from symptom onset until diagnosis, initial disease stage, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. RESULTS: The median interval from symptom onset until diagnosis for the 166 cases was 65 days (interquartile range 31-121, range 3-457. A long interval (defined as longer than the median was associated with a lower frequency of metastasis in the univariate and multivariate analyses and with a larger tumor volume, desmoplastic histology, and longer survival in the univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for confounding factors. The time to diagnosis was significantly associated with IQ score among survivors. No significant relation was found between the time to diagnosis and neurological disability. In the 62 patients with metastases, a long prediagnosis interval was associated with a higher T stage, infiltration of the fourth ventricle floor, and incomplete surgical resection; it nonetheless did not influence survival significantly in this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: We found complex and often inverse relations between time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children and initial severity factors, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. This interval appears due more to the nature of the tumor and its progression than to parental or medical factors. These conclusions should be taken into account in the information provided to parents and in expert assessments produced for malpractice claims.

  20. On the Survival Time of a Duplex System: A Sokhotski-Plemelj Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond J. Vanderperre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the survival time of a renewable duplex system characterized by warm standby and subjected to a priority rule. In order to obtain the Laplace transform of the survival function, we employ a stochastic process endowed with time-dependent transition measures satisfying coupled partial differential equations. The solution procedure is based on the theory of sectionally holomorphic functions combined with the notion of dual transforms. Finally, we introduce a security interval related to a prescribed security level and a suitable risk criterion based on the survival function of the system. As an example, we consider the particular case of deterministic repair. A computer-plotted graph displays the survival function together with the security interval corresponding to a security level of 90%.

  1. Clever mothers balance time and effort in parental care: a study on free-ranging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of nursing during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group-living canids. They face high early-life mortality, which in turn reduces fitness benefits of the mother from a batch of pups. We carried out a field-based study on free-ranging dogs in India to understand the nature of maternal care. Our analysis reveals that mothers reduce investment in energy-intensive active care and increase passive care as the pups grow older, thereby keeping overall levels of care more or less constant over pup age. Using the patterns of mother-pup interactions, we define the different phases of maternal care behaviour.

  2. Median Survival Time of Endometrial Cancer Patients with Lymphovascular Invasion at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyikeen, Wan Adnan Wan Nor; Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2016-11-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy among females worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the median survival time of endometrial cancer patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). A list of 121 endometrial cancer cases registered at Hospital USM between 2000 until 2011 was retrospectively reviewed. The survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare the survival of the patients based on socio-demographics and clinical presentation. Only 108 patients, 87.0%, were included who were of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included menopause in 67.6% of patients and diabetes mellitus in 39.8% of patients; additionally, 63.4% of patients were nulliparous. Tumour staging was as follows: 24.5% stage I, 10.8% stage II, 26.5% stage III and 38.2% stage IV. The overall median survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was 70.20 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.79, 88.61). The significant factors were age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and treatment received. The overall survival of endometrial cancer was low. A prospective study needs to be carried out to discover more effective and accurate tests for the early detection of endometrial cancer.

  3. Median survival time of patients after transcatheter chemo-embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, Z.; Haq, T.; Munir, K.; Usman, M.U.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect on survival after trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Stadium Road, Karachi, from December 1997 to September 2005. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing TACE procedure for HCC were prospectively followed. Forty three patients were enrolled from December 1997 to March 2003 in the study and subjected to chemo embolization therapy. Eight out of 43 patients were excluded from the study, who lost to follow-up. All the patients were followed till their death. Median and mean survival were calculated. Results: The median survival of these 35 patients was 410 days (13.6 months), with 95% confidence interval (236 days lower bound and 536 days upper bound). Mean survival time was 603 days (20.1 months) with 95% confidence interval (394 days lower bound and 812 days upper bound). There was significant difference in mean survival time (in days) by Child's Pugh class (X2 = 12.384; df=2, p-value=0.002). Conclusion: The study showed that TACE is an effective palliative treatment. TACE increases the median survival time. (author)

  4. Time-related survival effects of two gluconasturtiin hydrolysis products on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A E Elaine; Jager, Tjalling; van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Glucosinolates are compounds produced by commercial crops which can hydrolyse in a range of natural toxins that may exert detrimental effects on beneficial soil organisms. This study examined the effects of 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate and 3-phenylpropionitrile on the survival and growth of the w...

  5. Helicopter crashes into water: warning time, final position, and other factors affecting survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Baker, Susan P; Shanahan, Dennis F; Haaland, Wren L

    2014-04-01

    According to 40 yr of data, the fatality rate for a helicopter crash into water is approximately 25%. Does warning time and the final position of the helicopter in the water influence the survival rate? The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was queried to identify helicopter crashes into water between 1981 and 2011 in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii. Fatality rate, amount of warning time prior to the crash, and final position of the helicopter were identified. There were 133 helicopters that crashed into water with 456 crew and passengers. Of these, 119 occupants (26%) did not survive; of those who did survive, 38% were injured. Twelve died after making a successful escape from the helicopter. Crashes with 1 min. However, more than half of fatalities (57%) came from crashes for which the warning time could not be determined. Lack of warning time and how to survive in the water after the crash should be a topic for study in all marine survival/aircraft ditching courses. Investigators should be trained to provide estimates of warning time when investigating helicopter crashes into water.

  6. The time dependent association of adrenaline administration and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewy, Gordon A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Chikani, Vatsal; Sanders, Arthur B; Otto, Charles W; Spaite, Daniel W; Kern, Karl B

    2015-11-01

    Recommended for decades, the therapeutic value of adrenaline (epinephrine) in the resuscitation of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is controversial. To investigate the possible time-dependent outcomes associated with adrenaline administration by Emergency Medical Services personnel (EMS). A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a near statewide cardiac resuscitation database between 1 January 2005 and 30 November 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of the time interval between EMS dispatch and the initial dose of adrenaline on survival. The primary endpoints were survival to hospital discharge and favourable neurologic outcome. Data from 3469 patients with witnessed OHCA were analyzed. Their mean age was 66.3 years and 69% were male. An initially shockable rhythm was present in 41.8% of patients. Based on a multivariable logistic regression model with initial adrenaline administration time interval (AATI) from EMS dispatch as the covariate, survival was greatest when adrenaline was administered very early but decreased rapidly with increasing (AATI); odds ratio 0.94 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.92-0.97). The AATI had no significant effect on good neurological outcome (OR=0.96, 95% CI=0.90-1.02). In patients with OHCA, survival to hospital discharge was greater in those treated early with adrenaline by EMS especially in the subset of patients with a shockable rhythm. However survival rapidly decreased with increasing adrenaline administration time intervals (AATI). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The survival time of chocolates on hospital wards: covert observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Moualed, Daniel J; Nicolson, Phillip L R; Adjei, Felicia D; Cakebread, Holly E; Duehmke, Rudolf M; Martin, Claire A

    2013-12-14

    To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment. Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study. Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom. Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates. Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study containing a total of 258 individual chocolates). These boxes were kept under continuous covert surveillance, with the time recorded when each chocolate was eaten. Median survival time of a chocolate. 191 out of 258 (74%) chocolates were observed being eaten. The mean total observation period was 254 minutes (95% confidence interval 179 to 329). The median survival time of a chocolate was 51 minutes (39 to 63). The model of chocolate consumption was non-linear, with an initial rapid rate of consumption that slowed with time. An exponential decay model best fitted these findings (model R(2)=0.844, P<0.001), with a survival half life (time taken for 50% of the chocolates to be eaten) of 99 minutes. The mean time taken to open a box of chocolates from first appearance on the ward was 12 minutes (95% confidence interval 0 to 24). Quality Street chocolates survived longer than Roses chocolates (hazard ratio for survival of Roses v Quality Street 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.93, P=0.014). The highest percentages of chocolates were consumed by healthcare assistants (28%) and nurses (28%), followed by doctors (15%). From our observational study, chocolate survival in a hospital ward was relatively short, and was modelled well by an exponential decay model. Roses chocolates were preferentially consumed to Quality Street chocolates in a ward setting. Chocolates were consumed primarily by healthcare assistants and nurses, followed by doctors. Further practical studies are needed.

  8. Two-way laser ranging and time transfer experiments between LOLA and an Earth-based satellite laser ranging station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Neumann, G. A.; Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E. M.; Hoffman, E.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Mcgarry, J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) has established time-of-flight measurements with mm precision to targets orbiting the Earth and the Moon using single-ended round-trip laser ranging to passive optical retro-reflectors. These high-precision measurements enable advances in fundamental physics, solar system dynamics. However, the received signal strength suffers from a 1/R4 decay, which makes it impractical for measuring distances beyond the Moon's orbit. On the other hand, for a two-way laser transponder pair, where laser pulses are both transmitted to and received from each end of the laser links, the signal strength at both terminals only decreases by 1/R2, thus allowing a greater range of distances to be covered. The asynchronous transponder concept has been previously demonstrated by a test in 2005 between the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) aboard the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft and NASA's Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) at a distance of ˜0.16 AU. In October 2013, regular two-way transponder-type range measurements were obtained over 15 days between the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and NASA's ground station at White Sands, NM. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) provides us a unique capability to test time-transfer beyond near Earth orbit. Here we present results from two-way transponder-type experiments between LOLA and GGAO conducted in March 2014 and 2017. As in the time-transfer by laser link (T2L2) experiments between a ground station and an earth-orbiting satellite, LOLA and GGAO ranged to each other simultaneously in these two-way tests at lunar distance. We measured the time-of-flight while cross-referencing the spacecraft clock to the ground station time. On May 4th, 2017, about 20 minutes of two-way measurements were collected. The

  9. Examining the Influence of Campus Climate on Students' Time to Degree: A Multilevel Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Castellanos, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing longitudinal data of 3477 students from 28 institutions, we examine the effects of structural diversity and quality of interracial relation on students' persistence towards graduation within six years. We utilize multilevel discrete-time survival analysis to account for the longitudinal persistence patterns as well as the nested…

  10. Childhood cancer survival in Switzerland (1976-2013): Time-trends and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Belle, Fabiën N; Grotzer, Michael A; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Population-based studies on childhood cancer survival are key to monitor progress against cancer and to detect potential differences between regions and other subgroups in the population. We investigated time trends and factors associated with childhood cancer survival on a national level in Switzerland, from 1976 to 2013. We extracted data from the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry of 5,776 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer from 1985 to 2014 in Switzerland. We calculated age-adjusted 5-year survival, defined the annual reduction in risk of death (ARR), and explored associations of survival with clinical and demographic factors. Overall, 5-year survival improved significantly, from 64% in 1976-1983 to 88% in 2004-2013. ARR over the whole period was 4% for all diagnostic groups, greatest for Hodgkin lymphomas (8%), ependymomas (6%), Burkitt's lymphomas (6%) and germ cell tumours (6%). Children treated in hospitals without specialised paediatric cancer centre for leukaemia (HR 12.9), lymphoma (HR 5.0) and neuroblastoma (HR 3.7) were at higher risk of death. In French-speaking Switzerland, risk of death was lower for lymphoma (HR 0.6), CNS tumours (HR 0.7) and neuroblastoma (HR 0.5). Children with migration background had a higher risk of death from all tumours except bone tumours. Childhood cancer survival significantly improved from 1976 to 2013, but there is room for further improvement. Survival rates varied by type of clinical treatment, language region and nationality. All paediatric cancer patients should be referred to a specialised paediatric cancer centre. Further research is needed to intervene and completely eliminate inequalities in survival. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Measurement of Survival Time in Brachionus Rotifers: Synchronization of Maternal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Gen; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David M; Ushio, Hideki

    2016-07-22

    Rotifers are microscopic cosmopolitan zooplankton used as models in ecotoxicological and aging studies due to their several advantages such as short lifespan, ease of culture, and parthenogenesis that enables clonal culture. However, caution is required when measuring their survival time as it is affected by maternal age and maternal feeding conditions. Here we provide a protocol for powerful and reproducible measurement of the survival time in Brachionus rotifers following a careful synchronization of culture conditions over several generations. Empirically, poor synchronization results in early mortality and a gradual decrease in survival rate, thus resulting in weak statistical power. Indeed, under such conditions, calorie restriction (CR) failed to significantly extend the lifespan of B. plicatilis although CR-induced longevity has been demonstrated with well-synchronized rotifer samples in past and present studies. This protocol is probably useful for other invertebrate models, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, because maternal age effects have also been reported in these species.

  12. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos

    2017-09-01

    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  13. Modeling time-to-event (survival) data using classification tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2017-12-01

    Time to the occurrence of an event is often studied in health research. Survival analysis differs from other designs in that follow-up times for individuals who do not experience the event by the end of the study (called censored) are accounted for in the analysis. Cox regression is the standard method for analysing censored data, but the assumptions required of these models are easily violated. In this paper, we introduce classification tree analysis (CTA) as a flexible alternative for modelling censored data. Classification tree analysis is a "decision-tree"-like classification model that provides parsimonious, transparent (ie, easy to visually display and interpret) decision rules that maximize predictive accuracy, derives exact P values via permutation tests, and evaluates model cross-generalizability. Using empirical data, we identify all statistically valid, reproducible, longitudinally consistent, and cross-generalizable CTA survival models and then compare their predictive accuracy to estimates derived via Cox regression and an unadjusted naïve model. Model performance is assessed using integrated Brier scores and a comparison between estimated survival curves. The Cox regression model best predicts average incidence of the outcome over time, whereas CTA survival models best predict either relatively high, or low, incidence of the outcome over time. Classification tree analysis survival models offer many advantages over Cox regression, such as explicit maximization of predictive accuracy, parsimony, statistical robustness, and transparency. Therefore, researchers interested in accurate prognoses and clear decision rules should consider developing models using the CTA-survival framework. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Bacterial intelligence: imitation games, time-sharing, and long-range quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria are far more intelligent than we can think of. They adopt different survival strategies to make their life comfortable. Researches on bacterial communication to date suggest that bacteria can communicate with each other using chemical signaling molecules as well as using ion channel mediated electrical signaling. Though in past few decades the scopes of chemical signaling have been investigated extensively, those of electrical signaling have received less attention. In this article, we present a novel perspective on time-sharing behavior, which maintains the biofilm growth under reduced nutrient supply between two distant biofilms through electrical signaling based on the experimental evidence reported by Liu et al., in 2017. In addition, following the recent work by Humphries et al. Cell 168(1):200-209, in 2017, we highlight the consequences of long range electrical signaling within biofilm communities through spatially propagating waves of potassium. Furthermore, we address the possibility of two-way cellular communication between artificial and natural cells through chemical signaling being inspired by recent experimental observation (Lentini et al. 2017) where the efficiency of artificial cells in imitating the natural cells is estimated through cellular Turing test. These three spectacular observations lead us to envisage and devise new classical and quantum views of these complex biochemical networks that have never been realized previously.

  15. Factors associated with supermarket and convenience store closure: a discrete time spatial survival modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    While there is a literature on the distribution of food stores across geographic and social space, much of this research uses cross-sectional data. Analyses attempting to understand whether the availability of stores across neighborhoods is associated with diet and/or health outcomes are limited by a lack of understanding of factors that shape the emergence of new stores and the closure of others. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations spanning seven years (2006-2012) and tract-level census data in four US cities: Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; San Francisco, California. A spatial discrete-time survival model was used to identify factors associated with an earlier and/or later closure time of a store. Sales volume was typically the strongest indicator of store survival. We identified heterogeneity in the association between tract-level poverty and racial composition with respect to store survival. Stores in high poverty, non-White tracts were often at a disadvantage in terms of survival length. The observed patterns of store survival varied by some of the same neighborhood sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyle and health outcomes, which could lead to confusion in interpretation in studies of the estimated effects of introduction of food stores into neighborhoods on health.

  16. Time to treatment as a quality metric in lung cancer: Staging studies, time to treatment, and patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Liao, Kai-Ping; Swisher, Stephen G.; Blumenschein, George R.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Prompt staging and treatment are crucial for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We determined if predictors of treatment delay after diagnosis were associated with prognosis. Materials and methods: Medicare claims from 28,732 patients diagnosed with NSCLC in 2004–2007 were used to establish the diagnosis-to-treatment interval (ideally ⩽35 days) and identify staging studies during that interval. Factors associated with delay were identified with multivariate logistic regression, and associations between delay and survival by stage were tested with Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: Median diagnosis-to-treatment interval was 27 days. Receipt of PET was associated with delays (57.4% of patients with PET delayed [n = 6646/11,583] versus 22.8% of those without [n = 3908/17,149]; adjusted OR = 4.48, 95% CI 4.23–4.74, p < 0.001). Median diagnosis-to-PET interval was 15 days; PET-to-clinic, 5 days; and clinic-to-treatment, 12 days. Diagnosis-to-treatment intervals <35 days were associated with improved survival for patients with localized disease and those with distant disease surviving ⩾1 year but not for patients with distant disease surviving <1 year. Conclusion: Delays between diagnosing and treating NSCLC are common and associated with use of PET for staging. Reducing time to treatment may improve survival for patients with manageable disease at diagnosis

  17. [Survival time of HIV/AIDS cases and related factors in Beijing, 1995-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, J; He, S F; Chen, J; Lu, H Y

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the survival time of HIV/AIDS cases and related factors in Beijing from 1995 to 2015. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the data of 12 874 HIV/AIDS cases. The data were collected from Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Information Management System. Life table method was applied to calculate the survival proportion, and Cox proportion hazard regression model were used to identify the factors related with survival time. Results: Among 12 874 HIV/AIDS cases, 303 (2.4%) died of AIDS related diseases; 9 346 (72.6%) received antiretroviral therapy. The average survival time was 226.5 months (95 %CI : 223.0-230.1), and the survival rates of 1, 5, 10, and 15 years were 98.2%, 96.4%, 93.2%, and 91.9% respectively. Multivariate Cox proportion hazard regression model showed that AIDS phase ( HR =1.439, 95 %CI : 1.041-1.989), heterosexual transmission ( HR =1.646, 95 %CI : 1.184-2.289), being married ( HR =2.186, 95 %CI : 1.510-3.164); older age (≥60 years) at diagnosis ( HR =6.608, 95 %CI : 3.546-12.316); lower CD(4)(+)T cell counts at diagnosis (<350 cells/μl) ( HR =8.711, 95 %CI : 5.757-13.181); receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART) ( HR =18.223, 95 %CI : 13.317-24.937) were the high risk factors influencing the survival of AIDS patients compared with HIV phase, homosexual transmission, being unmarried, younger age (≤30 years), higher CD(4)(+)T cell count (≥350 cell/μl) and receiving ART. Conclusion: The average survival time of HIV/AIDS cases was 226.5 months after diagnoses. Receiving ART, higher CD(4)(+)T cell counts at the first test, HIV phase, younger age, being unmarried and the homosexual transmission were related to the longer survival time of HIV/AIDS cases. Receiving no ART, the lower CD(4)(+)T cell counts at the first test, AIDS phase, older age, being married and heterosexual transmission indicated higher risk of death due to AIDS.

  18. Increasing survival time decreases the cost-effectiveness of using "test & treat'' to eliminate HIV epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bradley G; Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Treating HIV-infected individuals reduces their viral load, consequently increasing their survival time and decreasing their infectivity. It has been proposed that universal testing and treatment (i.e., universal "test & treat'') could lead to HIV elimination and would be extremely cost-effective. It is now being debated whether to use a universal "test & treat'' approach in the "real-world'' as a prevention strategy to control HIV epidemics. However current modeling predictions of the impact, and cost-effectiveness, of universal `"est & treat'' strategies are based on an unrealistically short survival time for treated individuals. Here we use mathematical modeling and a longer, more realistic, survival time. We model the potential impact of a universal "test & treat'' strategy in South Africa. Our results show that increasing the length of the survival time on treatment, although beneficial to individuals, reduces the probability of eliminating HIV and decreases the cost-effectiveness of using universal "test & treat'' strategies. Therefore our results show that individual-level benefits and public health benefits will conflict when using "test &treat'' strategies to reduce HIV transmission.

  19. Palliative Sedation in Advanced Cancer Patients: Does it Shorten Survival Time? - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, B; Chandra, Prabha S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST) was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  20. Mediation Analysis with Survival Outcomes: Accelerated Failure Time vs. Proportional Hazards Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Lois A; MacKinnon, David P; DeRubeis, Robert J; Baraldi, Amanda N

    2016-01-01

    Survival time is an important type of outcome variable in treatment research. Currently, limited guidance is available regarding performing mediation analyses with survival outcomes, which generally do not have normally distributed errors, and contain unobserved (censored) events. We present considerations for choosing an approach, using a comparison of semi-parametric proportional hazards (PH) and fully parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) approaches for illustration. We compare PH and AFT models and procedures in their integration into mediation models and review their ability to produce coefficients that estimate causal effects. Using simulation studies modeling Weibull-distributed survival times, we compare statistical properties of mediation analyses incorporating PH and AFT approaches (employing SAS procedures PHREG and LIFEREG, respectively) under varied data conditions, some including censoring. A simulated data set illustrates the findings. AFT models integrate more easily than PH models into mediation models. Furthermore, mediation analyses incorporating LIFEREG produce coefficients that can estimate causal effects, and demonstrate superior statistical properties. Censoring introduces bias in the coefficient estimate representing the treatment effect on outcome-underestimation in LIFEREG, and overestimation in PHREG. With LIFEREG, this bias can be addressed using an alternative estimate obtained from combining other coefficients, whereas this is not possible with PHREG. When Weibull assumptions are not violated, there are compelling advantages to using LIFEREG over PHREG for mediation analyses involving survival-time outcomes. Irrespective of the procedures used, the interpretation of coefficients, effects of censoring on coefficient estimates, and statistical properties should be taken into account when reporting results.

  1. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokura, Teruo; Onoue, Masaharu; Mutai, Masahiko

    1980-01-01

    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Palliative sedation in advanced cancer patients: Does it shorten survival time? - A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. Objectives: This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Results: Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. Conclusion: This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  3. It's Deja Vu All over Again: Using Multiple-Spell Discrete-Time Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John B.; Singer, Judith D.

    1995-01-01

    The multiple-spell discrete-time survival analysis method is introduced and illustrated using longitudinal data on exit from and reentry into the teaching profession. The method is applicable to many educational problems involving the sequential occurrence of disparate events or episodes. (SLD)

  4. Causal inference for long-term survival in randomised trials with treatment switching: Should re-censoring be applied when estimating counterfactual survival times?

    OpenAIRE

    Latimer, N.R.; White, I.R.; Abrams, K.R.; Sieburt, U.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment switching often has a crucial impact on estimates of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new oncology treatments. Rank preserving structural failure time models (RPSFTM) and two-stage estimation (TSE) methods estimate ‘counterfactual’ (i.e. had there been no switching) survival times and incorporate re-censoring to guard against informative censoring in the counterfactual dataset. However, re-censoring causes a loss of longer term survival information which is problematic when e...

  5. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Benjamin; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Mouridsen, Kim; Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K.; Bjoernerud, Atle; Haaberg, Asta K.; Kvinnsland, Yngve

    2011-01-01

    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  6. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Benjamin (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)), email: benjamin.garzon@ntnu.no; Emblem, Kyrre E. (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dept. of Radiology, MGH-HST AA Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)); Mouridsen, Kim (Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)); Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Bjoernerud, Atle (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Haaberg, Asta K. (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Dept. of Medical Imaging, St Olav' s Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)); Kvinnsland, Yngve (NordicImagingLab, Bergen (Norway))

    2011-11-15

    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  7. 33 CFR 150.503 - What are the time interval requirements for maintenance on survival craft falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the time interval requirements for maintenance on survival craft falls? 150.503 Section 150.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters... maintenance on survival craft falls? (a) Each fall used in a launching device for survival craft or rescue...

  8. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L1B Time-Tagged Laser Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L1B Time-Tagged Laser Ranges (ILUTP1B) data set contains laser ranges, returned pulses, and deviation for returned pulses in...

  9. Effects of absolute fasting on reproduction and survival of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburi, Nicolás E; Martín, Pablo R

    2016-08-01

    A South American freshwater gastropod, the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, has become a driver of ecosystemic changes in wetlands and an important rice pest after its introduction to various parts of the world, mainly Asia. The objective of this study was to study the effect of an abrupt interruption in food availability in the short term (up to 4 weeks) and long term (up to 8 months) on survival and reproductive activity. The main results indicate that short-term fasting mainly affects the survival of males, but only when they are raised together with females, probably due to a greater mate-searching activity that increases mortality in the individuals with lower reserves. The number of copulating snails or egg-laying females shows an abrupt drop when fasting and a rapid recovery after the food supply is restored. The strategy of discontinuing reproductive activity prioritizes energy conservation for the survival of the females. Interpopulation variation in resistance to starvation was observed in adults, which can be explained to some extent by the food availability that they experienced in their natural environment. No interpopulational differences in survival were seen in hatchlings. The mean maximum values of survival under starvation were 52.6 days in hatchlings and the 3.3% of adults survive over than 200 days, which may be a relevant trait in dispersal and establishment in new habitats.

  10. Application of accelerated failure time models for breast cancer patients' survival in Kurdistan Province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Asrin; Delpisheh, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second common cause of cancer-induced mortalities in Iranian women. There has been a rapid development in hazard models and survival analysis in the last decade. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients using accelerated failure time models (AFT). This was a retrospective-analytic cohort study. About 313 women with a pathologically proven diagnosis of breast cancer who had been treated during a 7-year period (since January 2006 until March 2014) in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province of Iran were recruited. Performance among AFT was assessed using the goodness of fit methods. Discrimination among the exponential, Weibull, generalized gamma, log-logistic, and log-normal distributions was done using Akaik information criteria and maximum likelihood. The 5 years OS was 75% (95% CI = 74.57-75.43). The main results in terms of survival were found for the different categories of the clinical stage covariate, tumor metastasis, and relapse of cancer. Survival time in breast cancer patients without tumor metastasis and relapse were 4, 2-fold longer than other patients with metastasis and relapse, respectively. One of the most important undermining prognostic factors in breast cancer is metastasis; hence, knowledge of the mechanisms of metastasis is necessary to prevent it so occurrence and treatment of metastatic breast cancer and ultimately extend the lifetime of patients.

  11. Survival time and effect of selected predictor variables on survival in owned pet cats seropositive for feline immunodeficiency and leukemia virus attending a referral clinic in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Sgamma, Elena Assunta; Proverbio, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases worldwide. This retrospective study investigated survival times and effects of selected predictor factors on survival time in a population of owned pet cats in Northern Italy testing positive for the presence of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigen. One hundred and three retrovirus-seropositive cats, 53 FIV-seropositive cats, 40 FeLV-seropositive cats, and 10 FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were included in the study. A population of 103 retrovirus-seronegative age and sex-matched cats was selected. Survival time was calculated and compared between retrovirus-seronegative, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to study the effect of selected predictor factors (male gender, peripheral blood cytopenia as reduced red blood cells - RBC- count, leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia, hypercreatininemia and reduced albumin to globulin ratio) on survival time in retrovirus-seropositive populations. Median survival times for seronegative cats, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were 3960, 2040, 714 and 77days, respectively. Compared to retrovirus-seronegative cats median survival time was significantly lower (P<0.000) in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats. Median survival time in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats was also significant lower (P<0.000) when compared to FIV-seropositive cats. Hazard ratio of death in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats being respectively 3.4 and 7.4 times higher, in comparison to seronegative cats and 2.3 and 4.8 times higher in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats as compared to FIV-seropositive cats. A Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that FIV and FeLV-seropositive cats with reduced RBC counts at time of diagnosis of seropositivity had significantly shorter survival times when compared to FIV and Fe

  12. Optical timing receiver for the NASA laser ranging system. Part I. Constant-fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA laser ranging system are essentially determined by time-resolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device, primarily a standard of microchannel-plate-type photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector, a timing discriminator, a high-precision time-interval digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the time-interval digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to their time-resolution capabilities, and to design a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-precision time digitizer which will be used in the laser ranging system receiver. (auth)

  13. Survival times with and without tube feeding in patients with dementia or psychiatric diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keiko; Hirayama, Keisuke; Hirao, Akihiko; Kondo, Keiko; Hayashi, Hideki; Kadota, Koichi; Asaba, Hiroyuki; Ishizu, Hideki; Nakata, Kenji; Kurisu, Kairi; Oshima, Etsuko; Yokota, Osamu; Yamada, Norihito; Terada, Seishi

    2017-11-01

    It is widely supposed that there has been no evidence of increased survival in patients with advanced dementia receiving enteral tube feeding. However, more than a few studies have reported no harmful outcome from tube feeding in dementia patients compared to in patients without dementia. This was a retrospective study. Nine psychiatric hospitals in Okayama Prefecture participated in this survey. All inpatients fulfilling the entry criteria were evaluated. All subjects suffered from difficulty with oral intake. Attending physicians thought that the patients could not live without long-term artificial nutrition. The physicians decided whether to make use of long-term artificial nutrition between January 2012 and December 2014. We evaluated 185 patients. Their mean age was 76.6 ± 11.4 years. Of all subjects, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 78) formed the biggest group, schizophrenia patients (n = 44) the second, and those with vascular dementia (n = 30) the third. The median survival times were 711 days for patients with tube feeding and 61 days for patients without tube feeding. In a comparison different types of tube feeding, median survival times were 611 days for patients with a nasogastric tube and more than 1000 days for those with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Patients with tube feeding survived longer than those without tube feeding, even among dementia patients. This study suggests that enteral nutrition for patients with dementia prolongs survival. Additionally, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding may be safer than nasogastric tube feeding among patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Systematic review of survival time in experimental mouse stroke with impact on reliability of infarct estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Carina Kirstine; Klarskov, Mikkel Buster; Hasseldam, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    infarcts with more substantial edema. Purpose: This paper will give an overview of previous studies of experimental mouse stroke, and correlate survival time to peak time of edema formation. Furthermore, investigations of whether the included studies corrected the infarct measurements for edema...... of reasons for the translational problems from mouse experimental stroke to clinical trials probably exists, including infarct size estimations around the peak time of edema formation. Furthermore, edema is a more prominent feature of stroke in mice than in humans, because of the tendency to produce larger...... of the investigated process. Our findings indicate a need for more research in this area, and establishment of common correction methodology....

  15. The Application of Extended Cox Proportional Hazard Method for Estimating Survival Time of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Hartina; Astuti Thamrin, Sri; Tahir, Sulaiha; Mukhlisin, Ahmad; Mirna Apriani, M.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is one type of cancer that is the leading cause of death worldwide. This study aims to model the factors that affect the survival time and rate of cure of breast cancer patients. The extended cox model, which is a modification of the proportional hazard cox model in which the proportional hazard assumptions are not met, is used in this study. The maximum likelihood estimation approach is used to estimate the parameters of the model. This method is then applied to medical record data of breast cancer patient in 2011-2016, which is taken from Hasanuddin University Education Hospital. The results obtained indicate that the factors that affect the survival time of breast cancer patients are malignancy and leukocyte levels.

  16. Evaluation of Survival Time of Tooth Color Dental Materials in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat-Al-Molook Ajami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In restorative dentistry, selecting the proper material is an important factor for clinical success. The objective of this study was clinical evaluation of survival time of three tooth color materials in primary anterior teeth. Methods: In this interventional clinical trial study, 94 deciduous anterior teeth (36 teeth in boys, 58 teeth in girls belonging to 3-5 year old children in Pediatric Department of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry, Iran were selected. Selective dental materials included compoglass, glass-ionomer Fuji II LC, and composite resin. The data were analyzed with Kaplan–Meyer and Log rank test. Results: compoglass had the highest survival time in comparison with composite and glass-ionomer. Nine months retention rate for teeth restored with compoglass, composite resin and glass-ionomer were estimated: 95%, 21%, and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Compoglass can be a suitable material for anterior primary teeth restoration

  17. Evaluation of Survival Time of Tooth Color Dental Materials in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In restorative dentistry, selecting the proper material is an important factor for clinical success. The objective of this study was clinical evaluation of survival time of three tooth color materials in primary anterior teeth. Methods: In this interventional clinical trial study, 94 deciduous anterior teeth (36 teeth in boys, 58 teeth in girls belonging to 3-5 year old children in Pediatric Department of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry, Iran were selected. Selective dental materials included compoglass, glass-ionomer Fuji II LC, and composite resin. The data were analyzed with Kaplan–Meyer and Log rank test. Results: compoglass had the highest survival time in comparison with composite and glass-ionomer. Nine months retention rate for teeth restored with compoglass, composite resin and glass-ionomer were estimated: 95%, 21%, and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Compoglass can be a suitable material for anterior primary teeth restoration.

  18. Survivable architectures for time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine

    2014-08-01

    The increased network reach and customer base of next-generation time and wavelength division multiplexed PON (TWDM-PONs) have necessitated rapid fault detection and subsequent restoration of services to its users. However, direct application of existing solutions for conventional PONs to TWDM-PONs is unsuitable as these schemes rely on the loss of signal (LOS) of upstream transmissions to trigger protection switching. As TWDM-PONs are required to potentially use sleep/doze mode optical network units (ONU), the loss of upstream transmission from a sleeping or dozing ONU could erroneously trigger protection switching. Further, TWDM-PONs require its monitoring modules for fiber/device fault detection to be more sensitive than those typically deployed in conventional PONs. To address the above issues, three survivable architectures that are compliant with TWDM-PON specifications are presented in this work. These architectures combine rapid detection and protection switching against multipoint failure, and most importantly do not rely on upstream transmissions for LOS activation. Survivability analyses as well as evaluations of the additional costs incurred to achieve survivability are performed and compared to the unprotected TWDM-PON. Network parameters that impact the maximum achievable network reach, maximum split ratio, connection availability, fault impact, and the incremental reliability costs for each proposed survivable architecture are highlighted.

  19. Mediation Analysis with Survival Outcomes: Accelerated Failure Time vs. Proportional Hazards Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Lois A.; MacKinnon, David P.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Baraldi, Amanda N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Survival time is an important type of outcome variable in treatment research. Currently, limited guidance is available regarding performing mediation analyses with survival outcomes, which generally do not have normally distributed errors, and contain unobserved (censored) events. We present considerations for choosing an approach, using a comparison of semi-parametric proportional hazards (PH) and fully parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) approaches for illustration. Method: We compare PH and AFT models and procedures in their integration into mediation models and review their ability to produce coefficients that estimate causal effects. Using simulation studies modeling Weibull-distributed survival times, we compare statistical properties of mediation analyses incorporating PH and AFT approaches (employing SAS procedures PHREG and LIFEREG, respectively) under varied data conditions, some including censoring. A simulated data set illustrates the findings. Results: AFT models integrate more easily than PH models into mediation models. Furthermore, mediation analyses incorporating LIFEREG produce coefficients that can estimate causal effects, and demonstrate superior statistical properties. Censoring introduces bias in the coefficient estimate representing the treatment effect on outcome—underestimation in LIFEREG, and overestimation in PHREG. With LIFEREG, this bias can be addressed using an alternative estimate obtained from combining other coefficients, whereas this is not possible with PHREG. Conclusions: When Weibull assumptions are not violated, there are compelling advantages to using LIFEREG over PHREG for mediation analyses involving survival-time outcomes. Irrespective of the procedures used, the interpretation of coefficients, effects of censoring on coefficient estimates, and statistical properties should be taken into account when reporting results. PMID:27065906

  20. Mediation Analysis with Survival Outcomes: Accelerated Failure Time Versus Proportional Hazards Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois A Gelfand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survival time is an important type of outcome variable in treatment research. Currently, limited guidance is available regarding performing mediation analyses with survival outcomes, which generally do not have normally distributed errors, and contain unobserved (censored events. We present considerations for choosing an approach, using a comparison of semi-parametric proportional hazards (PH and fully parametric accelerated failure time (AFT approaches for illustration.Method: We compare PH and AFT models and procedures in their integration into mediation models and review their ability to produce coefficients that estimate causal effects. Using simulation studies modeling Weibull-distributed survival times, we compare statistical properties of mediation analyses incorporating PH and AFT approaches (employing SAS procedures PHREG and LIFEREG, respectively under varied data conditions, some including censoring. A simulated data set illustrates the findings.Results: AFT models integrate more easily than PH models into mediation models. Furthermore, mediation analyses incorporating LIFEREG produce coefficients that can estimate causal effects, and demonstrate superior statistical properties. Censoring introduces bias in the coefficient estimate representing the treatment effect on outcome – underestimation in LIFEREG, and overestimation in PHREG. With LIFEREG, this bias can be addressed using an alternative estimate obtained from combining other coefficients, whereas this is not possible with PHREG.Conclusions: When Weibull assumptions are not violated, there are compelling advantages to using LIFEREG over PHREG for mediation analyses involving survival-time outcomes. Irrespective of the procedures used, the interpretation of coefficients, effects of censoring on coefficient estimates, and statistical properties should be taken into account when reporting results.

  1. Integration of RNA-Seq and RPPA data for survival time prediction in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Zerrin; Ercan, Muserref Ece

    2017-10-01

    Integration of several types of patient data in a computational framework can accelerate the identification of more reliable biomarkers, especially for prognostic purposes. This study aims to identify biomarkers that can successfully predict the potential survival time of a cancer patient by integrating the transcriptomic (RNA-Seq), proteomic (RPPA), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. The proposed method -RPBioNet- employs a random walk-based algorithm that works on a PPI network to identify a limited number of protein biomarkers. Later, the method uses gene expression measurements of the selected biomarkers to train a classifier for the survival time prediction of patients. RPBioNet was applied to classify kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) patients based on their survival time classes (long- or short-term). The RPBioNet method correctly identified the survival time classes of patients with between 66% and 78% average accuracy for three data sets. RPBioNet operates with only 20 to 50 biomarkers and can achieve on average 6% higher accuracy compared to the closest alternative method, which uses only RNA-Seq data in the biomarker selection. Further analysis of the most predictive biomarkers highlighted genes that are common for both cancer types, as they may be driver proteins responsible for cancer progression. The novelty of this study is the integration of a PPI network with mRNA and protein expression data to identify more accurate prognostic biomarkers that can be used for clinical purposes in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Survival According to Ambulance Response Times After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik; Hansen, Steen Møller; Gerds, Thomas A; Kragholm, Kristian; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Karlsson, Lena; Lippert, Freddy K; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-12-20

    Bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but it is unknown to what degree bystander CPR remains positively associated with survival with increasing time to potential defibrillation. The main objective was to examine the association of bystander CPR with survival as time to advanced treatment increases. We studied 7623 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients between 2005 and 2011, identified through the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between time from 911 call to emergency medical service arrival (response time) and survival according to whether bystander CPR was provided (yes or no). Reported are 30-day survival chances with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals. With increasing response times, adjusted 30-day survival chances decreased for both patients with bystander CPR and those without. However, the contrast between the survival chances of patients with versus without bystander CPR increased over time: within 5 minutes, 30-day survival was 14.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8-16.4) versus 6.3% (95% CI: 5.1-7.6), corresponding to 2.3 times higher chances of survival associated with bystander CPR; within 10 minutes, 30-day survival chances were 6.7% (95% CI: 5.4-8.1) versus 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5-3.1), corresponding to 3.0 times higher chances of 30-day survival associated with bystander CPR. The contrast in 30-day survival became statistically insignificant when response time was >13 minutes (bystander CPR vs no bystander CPR: 3.7% [95% CI: 2.2-5.4] vs 1.5% [95% CI: 0.6-2.7]), but 30-day survival was still 2.5 times higher associated with bystander CPR. Based on the model and Danish out-of-hospital cardiac arrest statistics, an additional 233 patients could potentially be saved annually if response time was reduced from 10 to 5 minutes and 119 patients if response time was reduced from 7 (the median

  3. A systematic method for characterizing the time-range performance of ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, A D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is linked to the ability to measure the signal time-of-flight in order to provide an accurate radar-to-target range estimate. Having knowledge of the actual time range and timing nonlinearities of a trace is therefore important when seeking to make quantitative range estimates. However, very few practical methods have been formally reported in the literature to characterize GPR time-range performance. This paper describes a method to accurately measure the true time range of a GPR to provide a quantitative assessment of the timing system performance and detect and quantify the effects of timing nonlinearity due to timing jitter. The effect of varying the number of samples per trace on the true time range has also been investigated and recommendations on how to minimize the effects of timing errors are described. The approach has been practically applied to characterize the timing performance of two commercial GPR systems. The importance of the method is that it provides the GPR community with a practical method to readily characterize the underlying accuracy of GPR systems. This in turn leads to enhanced target depth estimation as well as facilitating the accuracy of more sophisticated GPR signal processing methods. (paper)

  4. Timely disclosure of progress in long-term cancer survival: the boomerang method substantially improved estimates in a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring cancer survival is a key task of cancer registries, but timely disclosure of progress in long-term survival remains a challenge. We introduce and evaluate a novel method, denoted "boomerang method," for deriving more up-to-date estimates of long-term survival. We applied three established methods (cohort, complete, and period analysis) and the boomerang method to derive up-to-date 10-year relative survival of patients diagnosed with common solid cancers and hematological malignancies in the United States. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 9 database, we compared the most up-to-date age-specific estimates that might have been obtained with the database including patients diagnosed up to 2001 with 10-year survival later observed for patients diagnosed in 1997-2001. For cancers with little or no increase in survival over time, the various estimates of 10-year relative survival potentially available by the end of 2001 were generally rather similar. For malignancies with strongly increasing survival over time, including breast and prostate cancer and all hematological malignancies, the boomerang method provided estimates that were closest to later observed 10-year relative survival in 23 of the 34 groups assessed. The boomerang method can substantially improve up-to-dateness of long-term cancer survival estimates in times of ongoing improvement in prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of mercury on health and first-year survival of free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Williams, G E; Frederick, P C; Spalding, M G

    1999-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have a negative impact on the health and survival of nestling and juvenile free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida. During 1994, when health and survival was monitored in a cohort of young birds with naturally variable concentrations of Hg, packed cell volume was positively correlated with blood Hg concentrations, and high Hg concentration in blood was not related to the probability of surviving during the first 10.5 months of life. During 1995, 70 first-hatched great egret chicks were included in a Hg field-dosing experiment to compare the effects of elevated Hg on health and survival. Birds were dosed while in the nest orally every 2.5 days for 15 days with 0.5 mg of methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) for an estimated intake of 1.54 mg MeHgCl/kg food intake. These birds were compared with controls, which received an estimated 0.41 mg MeHgCl/kg food. No differences were observed in health parameters or in the probability of surviving during the first 8 months of age between egrets that were dosed with Hg and those that were not. A likely explanation for the lack of any effects on health and survival between both groups could be that chicks at this age were eliminating most of the dietary Hg through the production of new feathers.

  6. Optical timing receiver for the NASA Spaceborne Ranging System. Part II: high precision event-timing digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovar, Branko; Turko, Bojan

    1978-08-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA Spaceborne Laser Ranging System are essentially determined by the timeresolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device; (e.g., photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector), a timing discriminator, a high-precision event-timing digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the resolution of the event-timing digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to the time-resolution capabilities, and to develop a very low time walk timing discriminator and a high-resolution event-timing digitizer to be used in the high-resolution spaceborne laser ranging system receiver. This part of the report describes the development of a high precision event-timing digitizer. The event-timing digitizer is basically a combination of a very accurate high resolution real time digital clock and an interval timer. The timing digitizer is a high resolution multiple stop clock, counting the time up to 131 days in 19.5 ps increments.

  7. Optical timing receiver for the NASA Spaceborne Ranging System. Part I. Dual peak-sensing timing discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.; Zizka, G.

    1978-01-01

    Position-resolution capabilities of the NASA Spaceborne Laser Ranging System are essentially determined by the time-resolution capabilities of its optical timing receiver. The optical timing receiver consists of a fast photoelectric device; (e.g., photomultiplier or an avalanche photodiode detector), a timing discriminator, a high-precision event-timing digitizer, and a signal-processing system. The time-resolution capabilities of the receiver are determined by the photoelectron time spread of the photoelectric device, the time walk and resolution characteristics of the timing discriminator, and the resolution of the event-timing digitizer. It is thus necessary to evaluate available fast photoelectronic devices with respect to their time-resolution capabilities, to design a very low time walk timing discriminator and to develop a high-resolution event-timing digitizer which will be used in the high-resolution spaceborne laser ranging system receiver. The development of a new dual-peak sensing timing discriminator is described. The amplitude dependent time walk is less than +-150 psec for a 100:1 dynamic range of Gaussian-shaped input signals having pulse widths between 11 and 17 nsec. The unit produces 800 mV negative output pulses, each 10 nsec wide, and 3V positive pulses with widths of 15 nsec. The time delay through the discriminator is approximately 37 nsec. In this discriminator the input signal is processed by a peak-crossing circuit which produces a bipolar pulse having its zero-crossing point at the peak of the input signal. All essential functions in the discriminator are performed by means of tunnel diodes with backward diodes as nonlinear loads. The discriminator is designed to be CAMAC compatible to a conventional time-interval unit or a high-precision event timing digitizer. The adjustment procedure for obtaining minimum time walk is also given

  8. Time-reversed lasing in the terahertz range and its preliminary study in sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yun, E-mail: shenyunoptics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Huaqing [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Deng, Xiaohua [Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Guoping [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-02-05

    Time-reversed lasing in a uniform slab and a grating structure are investigated in the terahertz range. The results show that both the uniform slab and grating can support terahertz time-reversed lasing. Nevertheless, due to the tunable effective refractive index, the grating structure can not only exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab, but also can realize significant absorption in a broader operating frequency range. Furthermore, applications of terahertz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are preliminarily studied in a single-channel coherent perfect absorber system. - Highlights: • Time-reversed lasing are investigated in the terahertz range. • The grating structure exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab. • THz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are studied.

  9. Status of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) throughout the species range, threats to survival, and prognosis for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, L. R.; Drauch Schreier, Andrea; Lepla, K.; McAdam, S. O.; McLellan, J; Parsley, Michael J.; Paragamian, V L; Young, S P

    2016-01-01

    White Sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (WS), are distributed throughout three major river basins on the West Coast of North America: the Sacramento-San Joaquin, Columbia, and Fraser River drainages. Considered the largest North American freshwater fish, some WS use estuarine habitat and make limited marine movements between river basins. Some populations are listed by the United States or Canada as threatened or endangered (upper Columbia River above Grand Coulee Dam; Kootenai River; lower, middle and, upper Fraser River and Nechako River), while others do not warrant federal listing at this time (Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers; Columbia River below Grand Coulee Dam; Snake River). Threats that impact WS throughout the species’ range include fishing effects and habitat alteration and degradation. Several populations suffer from recruitment limitations or collapse due to high early life mortality associated with these threats. Efforts to preserve WS populations include annual monitoring, harvest restrictions, habitat restoration, and conservation aquaculture. This paper provides a review of current knowledge on WS life history, ecology, physiology, behavior, and genetics and presents the status of WS in each drainage. Ongoing management and conservation efforts and additional research needs are identified to address present and future risks to the species.

  10. Pre-hospital transport times and survival for Hypotensive patients with penetrating thoracic trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Swaroop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achieving definitive care within the "Golden Hour" by minimizing response times is a consistent goal of regional trauma systems . This study hypothesizes that in urban Level I Trauma Centers, shorter pre-hospital times would predict outcomes in penetrating thoracic injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using a statewide trauma registry for the years 1999-2003 . Total pre-hospital times were measured for urban victims of penetrating thoracic trauma. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were compared by pre-hospital time using STATA statistical software. Results: During the study period, 908 patients presented to the hospital after penetrating thoracic trauma, with 79% surviving . Patients with higher injury severity scores (ISS were transported more quickly. Injury severity scores (ISS ≥16 and emergency department (ED hypotension (systolic blood pressure, SBP <90 strongly predicted mortality (P < 0.05 for each . In a logistic regression model including age, race, and ISS, longer transport times for hypotensive patients were associated with higher mortality rates (all P values <0.05. This was seen most significantly when comparing patient transport times 0-15 min and 46-60 min (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In victims of penetrating thoracic trauma, more severely injured patients arrive at urban trauma centers sooner . Mortality is strongly predicted by injury severity, although shorter pre-hospital times are associated with improved survival . These results suggest that careful planning to optimize transport time-encompassing hospital capacity and existing resources, traffic patterns, and trauma incident densities may be beneficial in areas with a high burden of penetrating trauma.

  11. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, Matthew T.; Ojerholm, Eric; Roses, Robert E.; Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M.; Mamtani, Ronac; Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A.; Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Datta, Jashodeep

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered

  12. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roses, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Roses@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mamtani, Ronac [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Datta, Jashodeep [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered.

  13. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  14. Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting Range Profiling of Moving Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedborg Julia

    2016-01-01

    TCSPC is a statistic method that requires an acquisition time and therefore the range profile of a non-stationary object (target may be corrupted. Here, we present results showing that it is possible to reconstruct the range profile of a moving target and calculate the velocity of the target.

  15. Compensation for the distortion in satellite laser range predictions due to varying pulse travel times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunonen, Matti

    1993-01-01

    A method for compensating for the effect of the varying travel time of a transmitted laser pulse to a satellite is described. The 'observed minus predicted' range differences then appear to be linear, which makes data screening or use in range gating more effective.

  16. Time biases in laser ranging observations: A concerning issue of Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Belli, A.; Lemoine, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Time transfer by Laser Ranging (LR) recently demonstrated a remarkable stability (a few ps over ∼1000 s) and accuracy (synchronizing both space and ground clocks over distances from a few thousands to tens of thousands kilometers. Given its potential role in navigation, fundamental physics and metrology, it is crucial that synergy between laser ranging and Time&Frequency (T/F) technologies improves to meet the present and future space geodesy requirements. In this article, we examine the behavior of T/F systems that are used in LR tracking stations of the international laser ranging service. The approach we investigate is to compute time synchronization between clocks used at LR stations using accurate data of the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment onboard the satellite Jason-2 (Samain et al., 2014). Systematic time biases are estimated against the UTC time scale for a set of 22 observing stations in 2013, in the range of zero to a few μ s. Our results suggest that the ILRS network suffers from accuracy issues, due to time biases in the laser ranging observations. We discuss how these systematic effects impact the precise orbit determination of LAGEOS geodetic satellites over a 1-year analysis, and additionally give a measure of the local effect into station coordinates, regarding in particular the effect in the east-west component that is of 2-6 mm for a typical systematic time bias of one μ s.

  17. Does prehospital time affect survival of major trauma patients where there is no prehospital care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Dharap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survival after major trauma is considered to be time dependent. Efficient prehospital care with rapid transport is the norm in developed countries, which is not available in many lower middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prehospital time and primary treatment given on survival of major trauma patients in a setting without prehospital care. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a university hospital in Mumbai, from January to December 2014. The hospital has a trauma service but no organized prehospital care or defined interhospital transfer protocols. All patients with life- and/or limb-threatening injuries were included in the study. Injury time and arrival time were noted and the interval was defined as “prehospital time” for the directly arriving patients and as “time to tertiary care” for those transferred. Primary outcome measure was in-hospital death (or discharge. Results: Of 1181 patients, 352 were admitted directly from the trauma scene and 829 were transferred from other hospitals. In-hospital mortality was associated with age, mechanism and mode of injury, shock, Glasgow Coma Score <9, Injury Severity Score ≥16, need for intubation, and ventilatory support on arrival; but neither with prehospital time nor with time to tertiary care. Transferred patients had a significantly higher mortality (odds ratio = 1.869, 95% confidence interval = 1.233–2.561, P = 0.005 despite fewer patients with severe injury. Two hundred and ninety-four (35% of these needed airway intervention while 108 (13% needed chest tube insertion on arrival to the trauma unit suggesting inadequate care at primary facility. Conclusion: Mortality is not associated with prehospital time but with transfers from primary care; probably due to deficient care. To improve survival after major trauma, enhancement of resources for resuscitation and capacity building of on

  18. Parent-child communication and marijuana initiation: evidence using discrete-time survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Silber-Ashley, Olivia; Farrelly, Matthew C; Dench, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This study supplements existing literature on the relationship between parent-child communication and adolescent drug use by exploring whether parental and/or adolescent recall of specific drug-related conversations differentially impact youth's likelihood of initiating marijuana use. Using discrete-time survival analysis, we estimated the hazard of marijuana initiation using a logit model to obtain an estimate of the relative risk of initiation. Our results suggest that parent-child communication about drug use is either not protective (no effect) or - in the case of youth reports of communication - potentially harmful (leading to increased likelihood of marijuana initiation). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival according to ambulance response-times after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    30-day survival chances decreased for both patients with bystander CPR and those without. However, the contrast between the survival chances of patients with versus without bystander CPR increased over time: within 5 minutes, 30-day survival was 14.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8-16.4) versus...... 6.3% (95% CI: 5.1-7.6), corresponding to 2.3 times higher chances of survival associated with bystander CPR; within 10 minutes, 30-day survival chances were 6.7% (95% CI: 5.4-8.1) versus 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5-3.1), corresponding to 3.0 times higher chances of 30-day survival associated with bystander...... CPR. The contrast in 30-day survival became statistically insignificant when response time was >13 minutes (bystander CPR vs no bystander CPR: 3.7% [95% CI: 2.2-5.4] vs 1.5% [95% CI: 0.6-2.7]), but 30-day survival was still 2.5 times higher associated with bystander CPR. Based on the model and Danish...

  20. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and its relation to survival among patients with stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, A C R K; van Erning, F N; van Gestel, Y R B M; Creemers, G J M; Punt, C J A; van Oijen, M G H; Lemmens, V E P P

    2015-11-01

    Currently available data suggest that delaying the start of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients has a detrimental effect on survival. We analysed which factors impact on the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and evaluated the influence on overall survival (OS). Stage III colon cancer patients who underwent resection and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2008 and 2013 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy was subdivided into: ⩽ 4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13-16 weeks post-surgery. Multivariable regressions were performed to assess the influence of several factors on the probability of starting treatment within 8 weeks post-surgery and to evaluate the association of timing of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-year OS. 6620 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, 14% commenced after 8 weeks. Factors associated with starting treatment after 8 weeks were older age (Odds ratio (OR) 65-74 versus colon cancer patients within 8 weeks post-surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biologically-equivalent dose and long-term survival time in radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, Marco; Hanin, Leonid

    2007-01-01

    Within the linear-quadratic model the biologically-effective dose (BED)-taken to represent treatments with an equal tumor control probability (TCP)-is commonly (and plausibly) calculated according to BED(D) = -log[S(D)]/α. We ask whether in the presence of cellular proliferation this claim is justified and examine, as a related question, the extent to which BED approximates an isoeffective dose (IED) defined, more sensibly, in terms of an equal long-term survival probability, rather than TCP. We derive, under the assumption that cellular birth and death rates are time homogeneous, exact equations for the isoeffective dose, IED. As well, we give a rigorous definition of effective long-term survival time, T eff . By using several sets of radiobiological parameters, we illustrate potential differences between BED and IED on the one hand and, on the other, between T eff calculated as suggested here or by an earlier recipe. In summary: (a) the equations currently in use for calculating the effective treatment time may underestimate the isoeffective dose and should be avoided. The same is the case for the tumor control probability (TCP), only more so; (b) for permanent implants BED may be a poor substitute for IED; (c) for a fractionated treatment schedule, interpreting the observed probability of cure in terms of a TCP formalism that refers to the end of the treatment (rather than T eff ) may result in a miscalculation (underestimation) of the initial number of clonogens

  2. Using Concurrent Cardiovascular Information to Augment Survival Time Data for Evaluating Orthostatic Tilt Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Fiedler, James; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Koslovsky, Matthew D.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2018-01-01

    Head-up tilt (HUT) tests often are used in research to measure orthostatic intolerance (OI) (inability to appropriately control blood pressure while upright) in clinical populations and otherwise healthy individuals after interventions. Post-space flight orthostatic intolerance is a well-known phenomenon, and countermeasures to its development has been an active area of research at NASA. In the NASA HUT protocol, subjects lie horizontally on an automatic tilt table for baseline measurements before being raised to 80deg head-up tilt for a defined period of time or until signs or symptoms of presyncope ensues (light-headedness, nausea, dizziness, sweating, weakness or fainting). Multiple measures are collected to evaluate the cardiovascular system's ability to respond appropriately to the orthostatic challenge. However if the intended duration of the HUT is short, the ability to detect changes in OI due to an intervention or its prevention by a countermeasure may be limited by a small number of failures to permit comparisons based on survival time alone. Thus, the time-trajectory of the cardiovascular data becomes an important additional source of information. In particular, we will show how various measures of trajectory variability can effectively augment survival analysis for the assessment of OI in a joint model when high censoring rates are present.

  3. Slow Freezing or Vitrification of Oocytes: Their Effects on Survival and Meiotic Spindles, and the Time Schedule for Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shee-Uan Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the slow-freezing method with increased sucrose concentration and new vitrification techniques significantly improve the results of cryopreservation of human oocytes. The recent perfection for vitrification includes the concepts of increase of cooling and warming rates using minimum volume methods, and decrease of toxicity by reducing the concentration of cryoprotectants. In the recent literature, the survival of cryopreserved oocytes ranged from 74% to 90% using the slow-freezing method and from 84% to 99% by vitrification. Overall, the survival rate of oocytes from vitrification (95%, 899/948 appeared higher than that of the slow-freezing method (75%, 1,275/1,683. The microtubules of meiotic spindles are vulnerable to the thermal changes and will depolymerize. After incubation, the microtubules repolymerize. Spindle recovery is faster after vitrification than slow freezing. Even so, after 3 hours of incubation, spindle recuperation is similar between vitrification and slow freezing. Considering both aspects of spindle recovery and oocyte aging, the time schedule for oocyte cryopreservation program makes fertilization in the optimal time. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is performed for oocytes at 3 hours of post-thaw incubation from the slow-freezing method and 2 hours from vitrification, with restoration of meiotic spindles. The pregnancy potential of cryopreserved oocytes is comparable to that of fresh oocytes or frozen embryos. Cryopreservation of oocytes would importantly contribute to oocyte donation and preservation of fertility for cancer patients.

  4. Using Concurrent Cardiovascular Information to Augment Survival Time Data from Orthostatic Tilt Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Fiedler, James; Lee, Stuart M. M.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic Intolerance (OI) is the propensity to develop symptoms of fainting during upright standing. OI is associated with changes in heart rate, blood pressure and other measures of cardiac function. Problem: NASA astronauts have shown increased susceptibility to OI on return from space missions. Current methods for counteracting OI in astronauts include fluid loading and the use of compression garments. Multivariate trajectory spread is greater as OI increases. Pairwise comparisons at the same time within subjects allows incorporation of pass/fail outcomes. Path length, convex hull area, and covariance matrix determinant do well as statistics to summarize this spread Missing data problems Time series analysis need many more time points per OTT session treatment of trend? how incorporate survival information?

  5. Gene expression profiling of canine osteosarcoma reveals genes associated with short and long survival times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nagesha AS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling of spontaneous tumors in the dog offers a unique translational opportunity to identify prognostic biomarkers and signaling pathways that are common to both canine and human. Osteosarcoma (OS accounts for approximately 80% of all malignant bone tumors in the dog. Canine OS are highly comparable with their human counterpart with respect to histology, high metastatic rate and poor long-term survival. This study investigates the prognostic gene profile among thirty-two primary canine OS using canine specific cDNA microarrays representing 20,313 genes to identify genes and cellular signaling pathways associated with survival. This, the first report of its kind in dogs with OS, also demonstrates the advantages of cross-species comparison with human OS. Results The 32 tumors were classified into two prognostic groups based on survival time (ST. They were defined as short survivors (dogs with poor prognosis: surviving fewer than 6 months and long survivors (dogs with better prognosis: surviving 6 months or longer. Fifty-one transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, with common upregulation of these genes in the short survivors. The overexpressed genes in short survivors are associated with possible roles in proliferation, drug resistance or metastasis. Several deregulated pathways identified in the present study, including Wnt signaling, Integrin signaling and Chemokine/cytokine signaling are comparable to the pathway analysis conducted on human OS gene profiles, emphasizing the value of the dog as an excellent model for humans. Conclusion A molecular-based method for discrimination of outcome for short and long survivors is useful for future prognostic stratification at initial diagnosis, where genes and pathways associated with cell cycle/proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis could be potential targets for diagnosis and therapy. The similarities between human and canine OS makes the

  6. The effect of large decoherence on mixing time in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-28

    In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.

  7. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  8. Time Biases in laser ranging measurements; impacts on geodetic products (Reference Frame and Orbitography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, A.; Exertier, P.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The GGOS objectives are to maintain a geodetic network with an accuracy of 1 mm and a stability of 0.1 mm per year. For years, the laser ranging technique, which provide very accurate absolute distances to geodetic targets enable to determine the scale factor as well as coordinates of the geocenter. In order to achieve this goal, systematic errors appearing in the laser ranging measurements must be considered and solved. In addition to Range Bias (RB), which is the primary source of uncertainty of the technique, Time Bias (TB) has been recently detected by using the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) space instrument capability on-board the satellite Jason-2. Instead of determining TB through the precise orbit determination that is applied to commonly used geodetic targets like LAGEOS to estimate global geodetic products, we have developed, independently, a dedicated method to transfer time between remote satellite laser ranging stations. As a result, the evolving clock phase shift to UTC of around 30 stations has been determined under the form of time series of time bias per station from 2008 to 2016 with an accuracy of 3-4 ns. It demonstrated the difficulty, in terms of Time & Frequency used technologies, to locally maintain accuracy and long term stability at least in the range of 100 ns that is the current requirement for time measurements (UTC) for the laser ranging technique. Because some laser ranging stations oftently exceed this limit (from 100 ns to a few μs) we have been studying these effects first on the precision orbit determination itself, second on the station positioning. We discuss the impact of TB on LAGEOS and Jason-2 orbits, which appears to affect the along-track component essentially. We also investigate the role of TB in global geodetic parameters as the station coordinates. Finally, we propose to provide the community with time series of time bias of laser ranging stations, under the form of a data- handling-file in order to be included in

  9. Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1–2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals (1,650 mg/m2/day). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.

  10. Effect of Migration Pathway on Travel Time and Survival of Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Johnson, Gary E.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Hughes, Michael S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2012-02-01

    Off-channel areas (side channels, tidal flats, sand bars, and shallow-water bays) may serve as important migration corridors through estuarine environments for salmon and steelhead smolts. Relatively large percentages (21-33%) of acoustic-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts were detected migrating through off-channel areas of the Columbia River estuary in 2008. The probability of survival for off-channel migrants (0.78-0.94) was similar to or greater than the survival probability of main channel migrants (0.67-0.93). Median travel times were similar for all species or run types and migration pathways we examined, ranging from 1-2 d. The route used by smolts to migrate through the estuary may affect their vulnerability to predation. Acoustic-tagged steelhead that migrated nearest to avian predator nesting colonies experienced higher predation rates (24%) than those that migrated farthest from the colonies (10%). The use of multiple migration pathways may be advantageous to out-migrating smolts because it helps to buffer against high rates of mortality, which may occur in localized areas, and helps to minimize inter- and intraspecific competition.

  11. A new variable interval schedule with constant hazard rate and finite time range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugallo, Mehdi; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2018-05-27

    We propose a new variable interval (VI) schedule that achieves constant probability of reinforcement in time while using a bounded range of intervals. By sampling each trial duration from a uniform distribution ranging from 0 to 2 T seconds, and then applying a reinforcement rule that depends linearly on trial duration, the schedule alternates reinforced and unreinforced trials, each less than 2 T seconds, while preserving a constant hazard function. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Routing Multiple UAVs under Flight Range and Service Time Window Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKAYA, Murat; SEVİNÇ, Ender

    2017-01-01

    Recently using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) either for military or civilian purposes is getting popularity. However, UAVs have their own limitations which require adopted approaches to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) promised by the applications depending on effective use of UAVs. One of the important limitations of the UAVs encounter is the flight range. Most of the time, UAVs have very scarce energy resources and, thus, they have relatively short flight ranges. Besides, for the appl...

  13. Improving Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Condition for Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the delay-range-dependent stability for systems with interval time-varying delay. Through defining the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and estimating the derivative of the LKF by introducing new vectors, using free matrices and reciprocally convex approach, the new delay-range-dependent stability conditions are obtained. Two well-known examples are given to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed theoretical results.

  14. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holtermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  15. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Suadicani, Poul; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  16. A better understanding of long-range temporal dependence of traffic flow time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Wang, Xingmin; Sun, Haowei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    Long-range temporal dependence is an important research perspective for modelling of traffic flow time series. Various methods have been proposed to depict the long-range temporal dependence, including autocorrelation function analysis, spectral analysis and fractal analysis. However, few researches have studied the daily temporal dependence (i.e. the similarity between different daily traffic flow time series), which can help us better understand the long-range temporal dependence, such as the origin of crossover phenomenon. Moreover, considering both types of dependence contributes to establishing more accurate model and depicting the properties of traffic flow time series. In this paper, we study the properties of daily temporal dependence by simple average method and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based method. Meanwhile, we also study the long-range temporal dependence by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The results show that both the daily and long-range temporal dependence exert considerable influence on the traffic flow series. The DFA results reveal that the daily temporal dependence creates crossover phenomenon when estimating the Hurst exponent which depicts the long-range temporal dependence. Furthermore, through the comparison of the DFA test, PCA-based method turns out to be a better method to extract the daily temporal dependence especially when the difference between days is significant.

  17. Multi-configuration time-dependent density-functional theory based on range separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, E.; Knecht, S.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory is extended to the time-dependent regime. An exact variational formulation is derived. The approximation, which consists in combining a long-range Multi-Configuration- Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) treatment with an adiabatic short...... (srGGA) approximations. As expected, when modeling long-range interactions with the MCSCF model instead of the adiabatic Buijse-Baerends density-matrix functional as recently proposed by Pernal [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184105 (2012)10.1063/1.4712019], the description of both the 1D doubly-excited state...

  18. Analyzing survival curves at a fixed point in time for paired and clustered right-censored data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pei-Fang; Chi, Yunchan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Shyr, Yu; Liao, Yi-De

    2018-01-01

    In clinical trials, information about certain time points may be of interest in making decisions about treatment effectiveness. Rather than comparing entire survival curves, researchers can focus on the comparison at fixed time points that may have a clinical utility for patients. For two independent samples of right-censored data, Klein et al. (2007) compared survival probabilities at a fixed time point by studying a number of tests based on some transformations of the Kaplan-Meier estimators of the survival function. However, to compare the survival probabilities at a fixed time point for paired right-censored data or clustered right-censored data, their approach would need to be modified. In this paper, we extend the statistics to accommodate the possible within-paired correlation and within-clustered correlation, respectively. We use simulation studies to present comparative results. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of these methods using two real data sets. PMID:29456280

  19. Survival analysis using S analysis of time-to-event data

    CERN Document Server

    Tableman, Mara

    2003-01-01

    Survival Analysis Using S: Analysis of Time-to-Event Data is designed as a text for a one-semester or one-quarter course in survival analysis for upper-level or graduate students in statistics, biostatistics, and epidemiology. Prerequisites are a standard pre-calculus first course in probability and statistics, and a course in applied linear regression models. No prior knowledge of S or R is assumed. A wide choice of exercises is included, some intended for more advanced students with a first course in mathematical statistics. The authors emphasize parametric log-linear models, while also detailing nonparametric procedures along with model building and data diagnostics. Medical and public health researchers will find the discussion of cut point analysis with bootstrap validation, competing risks and the cumulative incidence estimator, and the analysis of left-truncated and right-censored data invaluable. The bootstrap procedure checks robustness of cut point analysis and determines cut point(s). In a chapter ...

  20. Survival with Three-Times Weekly In-Center Nocturnal Versus Conventional Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianglin; Suri, Rita S.; Nesrallah, Gihad; Lindsay, Robert; Garg, Amit X.; Lester, Keith; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the duration of hemodialysis treatments improves outcomes remains controversial. Here, we evaluated survival and clinical changes associated with converting from conventional hemodialysis (mean=3.75 h/treatment) to in-center nocturnal hemodialysis (mean=7.85 h/treatment). All 959 consecutive patients who initiated nocturnal hemodialysis for the first time in 77 Fresenius Medical Care facilities during 2006 and 2007 were eligible. We used Cox models to compare risk for mortality during 2 years of follow-up in a 1:3 propensity score–matched cohort of 746 nocturnal and 2062 control patients on conventional hemodialysis. Two-year mortality was 19% among nocturnal hemodialysis patients compared with 27% among conventional patients. Nocturnal hemodialysis associated with a 25% reduction in the risk for death after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dialysis vintage (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% confidence interval=0.61–0.91, P=0.004). With respect to clinical features, interdialytic weight gain, albumin, hemoglobin, dialysis dose, and calcium increased on nocturnal therapy, whereas postdialysis weight, predialysis systolic blood pressure, ultrafiltration rate, phosphorus, and white blood cell count declined (all P<0.001). In summary, notwithstanding the possibility of residual selection bias, conversion to treatment with nocturnal hemodialysis associates with favorable clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and improved survival compared with propensity score–matched controls. The potential impact of extended treatment time on clinical outcomes while maintaining a three times per week hemodialysis schedule requires evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:22362905

  1. Impact of latency time on survival for adolescents and young adults with a second primary malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Melanie; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Li, Qian; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2018-03-15

    The adverse impact of second primary malignancies (SPMs) on survival is substantial for adolescents and young adults (AYAs; ie, those 15-39 years old). No studies have evaluated whether the latency time between the first malignancy (the primary malignancy [PM]) and the SPM affects cancer-specific survival (CSS). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 13 regions from 1992 to 2008 was used to ascertain whether the latency time (1-5 vs ≥ 6 years) to the development of an SPM affected the CSS and overall survival with respect to either the PM or SPM for AYAs with common SPMs. The majority of 1515 AYAs with an SPM had their PM diagnosed between the ages of 26 and 39 years (74.2%) and an SPM diagnosed within 1 to 5 years (72.9%) of the PM's diagnosis. Overall, AYAs that developed an SPM 1 to 5 years after the diagnosis (vs ≥ 6 years) had an increased risk of death from cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-3.29) as well as any cause (HR, 2.60; 95% CI, 2.04-3.32). Specifically, for AYAs with an SPM that was leukemia or a colorectal, breast, or central nervous system malignancy, a shorter latency time (1-5 years) from their PM diagnosis was associated with an overall significantly increased risk of death (2.6-fold) from either their PM or that particular SPM. However, latency did not appear to affect the CSS with respect to either the PM or SPM for AYA patients with a lymphoma or sarcoma SPM. Most AYAs who develop an SPM do so within 1 to 5 years of their primary cancer diagnosis, and they have an increased risk of death from cancer in comparison with AYAs with an SPM developing after longer survivorship intervals. Cancer 2018;124:1260-8. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Splenectomy increases the survival time of heart allograft via developing immune tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The spleen is an active lymphoid organ. The effect of splenectomy on the immune response remains unclear. This study investigated whether splenectomy can induce immune tolerance and has a beneficial role in cardiac allograft. Methods Wistar rats were used for heart donors. The Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats designated as the recipients of heart transplantation (HT) were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, splenectomy, HT, splenectomy + HT. The survival of transplanted hearts was assessed by daily checking of abdominal palpation. At various time points after transplantation, the transplanted hearts were collected and histologically examined; the level of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) and rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (annexin-v+ PI+ cells) in the blood were analyzed by using flow cytometric method. Results 1) Splenectomy significantly prolonged the mean survival time of heart allografts (7 ± 1.1 days and 27 ± 1.5 days for HT and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 12-14/group, HT vs. splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy delayed pathological changes (inflammatory cell infiltration, myocardial damage) of the transplanted hearts in splenectomy + HT rats; 3) The level of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the blood of splenectomized rats was significantly increased within 7 days (2.4 ± 0.5%, 4.9 ± 1.3% and 5.3 ± 1.0% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p splenectomy surgery and gradually decreased to baseline level; 4) Splenectomy increased the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (day 7: 0.3 ± 0.05%, 3.9 ± 0.9% and 4.1 ± 0.9% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy inhibits the development of pathology and prolongs the survival time of cardiac allograft. The responsible mechanism is associated with induction of immune

  3. Time-delay interferometric ranging for space-borne gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Vallisneri, Michele; Armstrong, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (mHz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors, the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel times will necessarily be unequal and time varying, and (because of aberration) will have different values on up- and down-links. In such unequal-armlength interferometers, laser-phase noise will be canceled by taking linear combinations of the laser-phase observables measured between pairs of spacecraft, appropriately time shifted by the light propagation times along the corresponding arms. This procedure, known as time-delay interferometry (TDI), requires an accurate knowledge of the light-time delays as functions of time. Here we propose a high-accuracy technique to estimate these time delays, and we study its use in the context of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We refer to this ranging technique, which relies on the TDI combinations themselves, as time-delay interferometric ranging (TDIR). For every TDI combination, we show that, by minimizing the rms power in that combination (averaged over integration times ∼10 4 s) with respect to the time-delay parameters, we obtain estimates of the time delays accurate enough to cancel laser noise to a level well below the secondary noises. Thus TDIR allows the implementation of TDI without the use of dedicated interspacecraft ranging systems, with a potential simplification of the LISA design. In this paper we define the TDIR procedure formally, and we characterize its expected performance via simulations with the Synthetic LISA software package

  4. Probability of Survival Decision Aid (PSDA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Amin, Mitesh; Santee, William R

    2008-01-01

    A Probability of Survival Decision Aid (PSDA) is developed to predict survival time for hypothermia and dehydration during prolonged exposure at sea in both air and water for a wide range of environmental conditions...

  5. Does quasi-long-range order in the two-dimensional XY model really survive weak random phase fluctuations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudry, Christopher; Wen Xiaogang

    1999-01-01

    Effective theories for random critical points are usually non-unitary, and thus may contain relevant operators with negative scaling dimensions. To study the consequences of the existence of negative-dimensional operators, we consider the random-bond XY model. It has been argued that the XY model on a square lattice, when weakly perturbed by random phases, has a quasi-long-range ordered phase (the random spin wave phase) at sufficiently low temperatures. We show that infinitely many relevant perturbations to the proposed critical action for the random spin wave phase were omitted in all previous treatments. The physical origin of these perturbations is intimately related to the existence of broadly distributed correlation functions. We find that those relevant perturbations do enter the Renormalization Group equations, and affect critical behavior. This raises the possibility that the random XY model has no quasi-long-range ordered phase and no Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition

  6. Fluid particles only separate exponentially in the dissipation range of turbulence after extremely long times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Rohit; Bragg, Andrew D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we consider how the statistical moments of the separation between two fluid particles grow with time when their separation lies in the dissipation range of turbulence. In this range, the fluid velocity field varies smoothly and the relative velocity of two fluid particles depends linearly upon their separation. While this may suggest that the rate at which fluid particles separate is exponential in time, this is not guaranteed because the strain rate governing their separation is a strongly fluctuating quantity in turbulence. Indeed, Afik and Steinberg [Nat. Commun. 8, 468 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00389-8] argue that there is no convincing evidence that the moments of the separation between fluid particles grow exponentially with time in the dissipation range of turbulence. Motivated by this, we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) to compute the moments of particle separation over very long periods of time in a statistically stationary, isotropic turbulent flow to see if we ever observe evidence for exponential separation. Our results show that if the initial separation between the particles is infinitesimal, the moments of the particle separation first grow as power laws in time, but we then observe convincing evidence that at sufficiently long times the moments do grow exponentially. However, this exponential growth is only observed after extremely long times ≳200 τη , where τη is the Kolmogorov time scale. This is due to fluctuations in the strain rate about its mean value measured along the particle trajectories, the effect of which on the moments of the particle separation persists for very long times. We also consider the backward-in-time (BIT) moments of the article separation, and observe that they too grow exponentially in the long-time regime. However, a dramatic consequence of the exponential separation is that at long times the difference between the rate of the particle separation forward in time (FIT) and BIT grows

  7. Efficient and Fast Implementation of Embedded Time-of-Flight Ranging System Based on FPGAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Weiguo; Lyu, Congyi; Jiang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Time-of-flight cameras perceive depth information about the surrounding environment with an amplitude-modulated near-infrared light source. The distance between the sensor and objects is calculated through measuring the time the light needs to travel. To be used in fast and embedded applications......, such as 3-D reconstruction, visual SLAM, human-robot interactions, and object detection, the 3-D imaging must be performed at high frame rates and accuracy. Thus, this paper presents a real-time field programmable gate arrays platform that calculates the phase shift and then the distance. Experimental...... results shown that the platform can acquire ranging images at the maximum frame rate of 131fps with a fine measurement precision (appropriately 5.1mm range error at 1.2m distance with the proper integration time). Low resource utilization and power consumption of the proposed system make it very suitable...

  8. Thresholds and timing of pre-operative thrombocytosis and ovarian cancer survival: analysis of laboratory measures from electronic medical records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, Gabriella D.; Samuel, Jacob M.; Fromal, Jason T.; Keene, Spencer; Crispens, Marta A.; Khabele, Dineo; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytosis has been associated with poor ovarian cancer prognosis. However, comparisons of thresholds to define thrombocytosis and evaluation of relevant timing of platelet measurement has not been previously conducted. We selected Tumor Registry confirmed ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer cases diagnosed between 1995–2013 from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Laboratory measured platelet values from electronic medical records (EMR) were used to determine thrombocytosis at three thresholds: a platelet count greater than 350, 400, or 450 × 10 9 /liter. Timing was evaluated with 5 intervals: on the date of diagnosis, and up to 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks prior to the date of diagnosis. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) for association with overall survival; adjustment included age, stage, grade, and histologic subtype of disease. Pre-diagnosis platelet measures were available for 136, 241, 280, 297, and 304 cases in the five intervals. The prevalence of thrombocytosis decreased with increasing thresholds and was generally consistent across the five time intervals, ranging from 44.8–53.2 %, 31.6–39.4 %, and 19.9–26.1 % across the three thresholds. Associations with higher grade and stage of disease gained significance as the threshold increased. With the exception of the lowest threshold on the date of diagnosis (HR 350 : 1.55, 95 % CI: 0.97–2.47), all other survival associations were significant, with the highest reaching twice the risk of death for thrombocytosis on the date of diagnosis (HR 400 : 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.25–3.23). Our EMR approach yielded associations comparable to published findings from medical record abstraction approaches. In addition, our results indicate that lower thrombocytosis thresholds and platelet measures up to 8 weeks before diagnosis may inform ovarian cancer characteristics and prognosis

  9. Western aeronautical test range real-time graphics software package MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

    1988-01-01

    The master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) software package used on the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of the NASA Ames Research Center is described. MAGIC is a resident real-time research tool available to flight researchers-scientists in the NASA mission control centers of the WATR at the Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California. The hardware configuration and capabilities of the real-time software package are also discussed.

  10. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  11. Survival time of bacteria on different plastics by application of ultraviolet rays and desinfectants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, S.

    1975-01-01

    The survival times of four sorts of germs were studied (Staph. albus, Staph. aureus, E.coli and Clebsiella) on 28 different plastic surfaces under different ambient conditions, (darkness, daylight, UV-radiation) and after preceding disinfection of the surfaces. For these studies, a formaldehydecontaining, phenolic, and a surface-active preparation were used. No essential differences in the survival times of the 4 types of germs tested were found. Besides the chemical basic structure additional substances were found to play a substantial role for the autobactericides. The dark values which could help to obtain findings about auto-bactericides did not show significant correspondence within the groups of the plastics. Only for a few materials a safe auto-bactericide could be found (alkyd lake, phenol resin). In the case of some other substances (some preparations made of PVC, polystyrene, polyacetal) an effect on the germs could be seen which was, at least totally seen, unfavourable, if all test conditions (darkness, daylight, UV-radiation) are viewed as a total. As comparative values on glass had shown a lower lethal rate of the germs, a certain auto-bactericide is likely to exist in all plastics tested. A considerable antibacterial effect of daylight was found, even with low daylight quotients and clased windows. UV-rays also diminished the number of germs on the plastic surfaces considerably, even with only indirect irradiation. Delayed effects of desinfecting agents partially depend on the surface material. Thus the phenolic agent showed strong delayed effects on the acryl glas, polyethylene, phenol resin, polycarbonate, but less on PVC. Phormaldehyde showed a good long-term effect only on phenol resin. (orig.) [de

  12. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  13. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A. Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes. PMID:27999250

  14. PSO-Based Robot Path Planning for Multisurvivor Rescue in Limited Survival Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Geng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the strength of a trapped person often declines with time in urgent and dangerous circumstances, adopting a robot to rescue as many survivors as possible in limited time is of considerable significance. However, as one key issue in robot navigation, how to plan an optimal rescue path of a robot has not yet been fully solved. This paper studies robot path planning for multisurvivor rescue in limited survival time using a representative heuristic, particle swarm optimization (PSO. First, the robot path planning problem including multiple survivors is formulated as a discrete optimization one with high constraint, where the number of rescued persons is taken as the unique objective function, and the strength of a trapped person is used to constrain the feasibility of a path. Then, a new integer PSO algorithm is presented to solve the mathematical model, and several new operations, such as the update of a particle, the insertion and inversion operators, and the rapidly local search method, are incorporated into the proposed algorithm to improve its effectiveness. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the capacity of our method in generating optimal paths with high quality.

  15. Long Range Dependence Prognostics for Bearing Vibration Intensity Chaotic Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the chaotic features and typical fractional order characteristics of the bearing vibration intensity time series, a forecasting approach based on long range dependence (LRD is proposed. In order to reveal the internal chaotic properties, vibration intensity time series are reconstructed based on chaos theory in phase-space, the delay time is computed with C-C method and the optimal embedding dimension and saturated correlation dimension are calculated via the Grassberger–Procaccia (G-P method, respectively, so that the chaotic characteristics of vibration intensity time series can be jointly determined by the largest Lyapunov exponent and phase plane trajectory of vibration intensity time series, meanwhile, the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated by the Wolf method and phase plane trajectory is illustrated using Duffing-Holmes Oscillator (DHO. The Hurst exponent and long range dependence prediction method are proposed to verify the typical fractional order features and improve the prediction accuracy of bearing vibration intensity time series, respectively. Experience shows that the vibration intensity time series have chaotic properties and the LRD prediction method is better than the other prediction methods (largest Lyapunov, auto regressive moving average (ARMA and BP neural network (BPNN model in prediction accuracy and prediction performance, which provides a new approach for running tendency predictions for rotating machinery and provide some guidance value to the engineering practice.

  16. Child mortality inequalities across Rwanda districts: a geoadditive continuous-time survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Niragire

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Child survival programmes are efficient when they target the most significant and area-specific factors. This study aimed to assess the key determinants and spatial variation of child mortality at the district level in Rwanda. Data from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey were analysed for 8817 live births that occurred during five years preceding the survey. Out of the children born, 433 had died before survey interviews were carried out. A full Bayesian geo-additive continuous-time hazard model enabled us to maximise data utilisation and hence improve the accuracy of our estimates. The results showed substantial district- level spatial variation in childhood mortality in Rwanda. District-specific spatial characteristics were particularly associated with higher death hazards in two districts: Musanze and Nyabihu. The model estimates showed that there were lower death rates among children from households of medium and high economic status compared to those from low-economic status households. Factors, such as four antenatal care visits, delivery at a health facility, prolonged breastfeeding and mothers younger than 31 years were associated with lower child death rates. Long preceding birth intervals were also associated with fewer hazards. For these reasons, programmes aimed at reducing child mortality gaps between districts in Rwanda should target maternal factors and take into consideration district-specific spatial characteristics. Further, child survival gains require strengthening or scaling-up of existing programmes pertaining to access to, and utilisation of maternal and child health care services as well as reduction of the household gap in the economic status.

  17. Child mortality inequalities across Rwanda districts: a geoadditive continuous-time survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niragire, François; Achia, Thomas N O; Lyambabaje, Alexandre; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2017-05-11

    Child survival programmes are efficient when they target the most significant and area-specific factors. This study aimed to assess the key determinants and spatial variation of child mortality at the district level in Rwanda. Data from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey were analysed for 8817 live births that occurred during five years preceding the survey. Out of the children born, 433 had died before survey interviews were carried out. A full Bayesian geo-additive continuous-time hazard model enabled us to maximise data utilisation and hence improve the accuracy of our estimates. The results showed substantial district- level spatial variation in childhood mortality in Rwanda. District-specific spatial characteristics were particularly associated with higher death hazards in two districts: Musanze and Nyabihu. The model estimates showed that there were lower death rates among children from households of medium and high economic status compared to those from low-economic status households. Factors, such as four antenatal care visits, delivery at a health facility, prolonged breastfeeding and mothers younger than 31 years were associated with lower child death rates. Long preceding birth intervals were also associated with fewer hazards. For these reasons, programmes aimed at reducing child mortality gaps between districts in Rwanda should target maternal factors and take into consideration district-specific spatial characteristics. Further, child survival gains require strengthening or scaling-up of existing programmes pertaining to access to, and utilisation of maternal and child health care services as well as reduction of the household gap in the economic status.

  18. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  19. Simultaneous calibration of ensemble river flow predictions over an entire range of lead times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemri, S.; Fundel, F.; Zappa, M.

    2013-10-01

    Probabilistic estimates of future water levels and river discharge are usually simulated with hydrologic models using ensemble weather forecasts as main inputs. As hydrologic models are imperfect and the meteorological ensembles tend to be biased and underdispersed, the ensemble forecasts for river runoff typically are biased and underdispersed, too. Thus, in order to achieve both reliable and sharp predictions statistical postprocessing is required. In this work Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is applied to statistically postprocess ensemble runoff raw forecasts for a catchment in Switzerland, at lead times ranging from 1 to 240 h. The raw forecasts have been obtained using deterministic and ensemble forcing meteorological models with different forecast lead time ranges. First, BMA is applied based on mixtures of univariate normal distributions, subject to the assumption of independence between distinct lead times. Then, the independence assumption is relaxed in order to estimate multivariate runoff forecasts over the entire range of lead times simultaneously, based on a BMA version that uses multivariate normal distributions. Since river runoff is a highly skewed variable, Box-Cox transformations are applied in order to achieve approximate normality. Both univariate and multivariate BMA approaches are able to generate well calibrated probabilistic forecasts that are considerably sharper than climatological forecasts. Additionally, multivariate BMA provides a promising approach for incorporating temporal dependencies into the postprocessed forecasts. Its major advantage against univariate BMA is an increase in reliability when the forecast system is changing due to model availability.

  20. Empirical mode decomposition and long-range correlation analysis of sunspot time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee

    2010-01-01

    Sunspots, which are the best known and most variable features of the solar surface, affect our planet in many ways. The number of sunspots during a period of time is highly variable and arouses strong research interest. When multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is employed to study the fractal properties and long-range correlation of the sunspot series, some spurious crossover points might appear because of the periodic and quasi-periodic trends in the series. However many cycles of solar activities can be reflected by the sunspot time series. The 11-year cycle is perhaps the most famous cycle of the sunspot activity. These cycles pose problems for the investigation of the scaling behavior of sunspot time series. Using different methods to handle the 11-year cycle generally creates totally different results. Using MF-DFA, Movahed and co-workers employed Fourier truncation to deal with the 11-year cycle and found that the series is long-range anti-correlated with a Hurst exponent, H, of about 0.12. However, Hu and co-workers proposed an adaptive detrending method for the MF-DFA and discovered long-range correlation characterized by H≈0.74. In an attempt to get to the bottom of the problem in the present paper, empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data-driven adaptive method, is applied to first extract the components with different dominant frequencies. MF-DFA is then employed to study the long-range correlation of the sunspot time series under the influence of these components. On removing the effects of these periods, the natural long-range correlation of the sunspot time series can be revealed. With the removal of the 11-year cycle, a crossover point located at around 60 months is discovered to be a reasonable point separating two different time scale ranges, H≈0.72 and H≈1.49. And on removing all cycles longer than 11 years, we have H≈0.69 and H≈0.28. The three cycle-removing methods—Fourier truncation, adaptive detrending and the

  1. Timing of chemotherapy and survival in patients with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Amanda K; Nelson, Rebecca; Patel, Supriya S; Luu, Carrie; Ko, Michelle; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kim, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the timing of chemotherapy in gastric cancer by comparing survival outcomes in treatment groups. METHODS: Patients with surgically resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2006 were identified from the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program. To evaluate the population most likely to receive and/or benefit from adjunct chemotherapy, inclusion criteria consisted of Stage II or III gastric cancer patients > 18 years of age who underwent curative-intent surgical resection. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the receipt of chemotherapy: (1) no chemotherapy; (2) preoperative chemotherapy; or (3) postoperative chemotherapy. Clinical and pathologic characteristics were compared across the different treatment arms. RESULTS: Of 1518 patients with surgically resected gastric cancer, 327 (21.5%) received perioperative chemotherapy. The majority of these 327 patients were male (68%) with a mean age of 61.5 years; and they were significantly younger than non-chemotherapy patients (mean age, 70.7; P advanced gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: This study supports the implementation of a randomized trial comparing the timing of perioperative therapy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. PMID:24392183

  2. Stochastic calculus analysis of optical time-of-flight range imaging and estimation of radial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Lee

    2017-07-01

    Time-of-flight range imaging is analyzed using stochastic calculus. Through a series of interpretations and simplifications, the stochastic model leads to two methods for estimating linear radial velocity: maximum likelihood estimation on the transition probability distribution between measurements, and a new method based on analyzing the measured correlation waveform and its first derivative. The methods are tested in a simulated motion experiment from (-40)-(+40)  m/s, with data from a camera imaging an object on a translation stage. In tests maximum likelihood is slow and unreliable, but when it works it estimates the linear velocity with standard deviation of 1 m/s or better. In comparison the new method is fast and reliable but works in a reduced velocity range of (-20)-(+20)  m/s with standard deviation ranging from 3.5 m/s to 10 m/s.

  3. Acoustic time-of-flight for proton range verification in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Avery, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.Avery@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Vander Stappen, François [Ion Beam Applications SA, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium); Sehgal, Chandra M. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Measurement of the arrival times of thermoacoustic waves induced by pulsed proton dose depositions (protoacoustics) may provide a proton range verification method. The goal of this study is to characterize the required dose and protoacoustic proton range (distance) verification accuracy in a homogeneous water medium at a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: Gaussian-like proton pulses with 17 μs widths and instantaneous currents of 480 nA (5.6 × 10{sup 7} protons/pulse, 3.4 cGy/pulse at the Bragg peak) were generated by modulating the cyclotron proton source with a function generator. After energy degradation, the 190 MeV proton pulses irradiated a water phantom, and the generated protoacoustic emissions were measured by a hydrophone. The detector position and proton pulse characteristics were varied. The experimental results were compared to simulations. Different arrival time metrics derived from acoustic waveforms were compared, and the accuracy of protoacoustic time-of-flight distance calculations was assessed. Results: A 27 mPa noise level was observed in the treatment room during irradiation. At 5 cm from the proton beam, an average maximum pressure of 5.2 mPa/1 × 10{sup 7} protons (6.1 mGy at the Bragg peak) was measured after irradiation with a proton pulse with 10%–90% rise time of 11 μs. Simulation and experiment arrival times agreed well, and the observed 2.4 μs delay between simulation and experiment is attributed to the difference between the hydrophone’s acoustic and geometric centers. Based on protoacoustic arrival times, the beam axis position was measured to within (x, y) = (−2.0,  0.5) ± 1 mm. After deconvolution of the exciting proton pulse, the protoacoustic compression peak provided the most consistent measure of the distance to the Bragg peak, with an error distribution with mean = − 4.5 mm and standard deviation = 2.0 mm. Conclusions: Based on water tank measurements at a clinical hospital-based cyclotron

  4. Time delays of supernova neutrinos from new long-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaney, R.A.; Starkman, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1995-01-01

    A new long-range interaction between heavy neutrinos may solve some current problems in large-scale structure, if the new interaction mimics gravity. Assuming that the dark matter is dominated by ∼100 eV τ neutrinos, we investigate whether time delay measurements on supernova neutrinos can test this possibility. We find that such experiments can rule out or detect specific forms of the new interaction potential. In addition, we find the exact dispersive nature of the interacting medium to be critical in determining the time delay: even small corrections to the potential can dramatically alter the magnitude of the effect

  5. The Health Rationale for Family Planning: Timing of Births and Child Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations, New York, NY. Population Div.

    Among the most influential findings from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) were those linking fertility patterns to child survival, in particular the findings concerning the high infant and child mortality for children born after a short birth interval. This study examined the relations between fertility and child survival based on more recent data…

  6. Patients with type 2 diabetes benefit from primary care-based disease management: a propensity score matched survival time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Anna; Büscher, Guido; Thomas, Karsten; Graf, Christian; Müller, Dirk; Stock, Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of a nationwide German diabetes mellitus disease management program (DMP) on survival time and costs in comparison to routine care. The authors conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using routine administration data from Germany's largest sickness fund to identify insured suffering from diabetes in 2002. A total of 95,443 insured with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were born before January 1, 1962 met the defined inclusion criteria, resulting in 19,888 pairs of DMP participants and nonparticipants matched for socioeconomic and health status using propensity score matching methods. This is the first time propensity score matching has been used to evaluate a survival benefit of DMPs. In the time frame analyzed (3 years), mean survival time for the DMP group was 1045 days vs. 985 days for the routine care group (Ptime. They also incurred lower costs compared to propensity score matched insured in routine care.

  7. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  8. Radio frequency (RF) time-of-flight ranging for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorbjornsen, B; White, N M; Brown, A D; Reeve, J S

    2010-01-01

    Position information of nodes within wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is often a requirement in order to make use of the data recorded by the sensors themselves. On deployment the nodes normally have no prior knowledge of their position and thus a locationing mechanism is required to determine their positions. In this paper, we describe a method to determine the point-to-point range between sensor nodes as part of the locationing process. A two-way time-of-flight (TOF) ranging scheme is presented using narrow-band RF. The frequency difference between the transceivers involved with the point-to-point measurement is used to obtain a sub-clock TOF phase offset measurement in order to achieve high resolution TOF measurements. The ranging algorithm has been developed and prototyped on a TI CC2430 development kit with no additional hardware being required. Performance results have been obtained for the line-of-sight (LOS), non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and indoor conditions. Accuracy is typically better than 7.0 m RMS for the LOS condition over 250.0 m and 15.8 m RMS for the NLOS condition over 120.0 m using a 100 sample average. Indoor accuracy is measured to 1.7 m RMS using a 1000 sample average over 8.0 m. Ranging error is linear and does not increase with the increased transmitter–receiver distance. Our TOA ranging scheme demonstrates a novel system where resolution and accuracy are time dependent in comparison with alternative frequency-dependent methods using narrow-band RF

  9. Timing of electromyographic activity and ranges of motion during simple motor tasks of upper extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syczewska Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Improvement of the upper extremities’ performance is one of the key aims in the rehabilitation process. In order to achieve high effectiveness of this process the amount of functional improvement achieved by a patient during the therapy needs to be assessed. The aim of this study was to obtain electromyographic (EMG activity profiles of the upper extremity muscles during execution of simple tasks in healthy subjects. Additionally the ranges of wrist, elbow and shoulder joints were measured and reported during performed trials. The second aim was to determine whether the movement execution and ranges of move­ments and muscular activity depend on age. Material and methods: Twenty-eight healthy adults, age range 21 to 65 years old, participated in the study. Surface electrodes were placed bilaterally on 7 upper extremity muscles. To obtain information about the beginning and end of the movement task and ranges of upper extremity joints, 13 markers were placed on the elbows and wrists of both upper extremities. The move­ments of the segments were calculated (distal vs proximal in five simple functional tasks (each task involved only one joint, performed while sitting. Kinematic data were collected by the VICON 460 system, and electromyographic data with the Mo­tion Lab EMG system. Results: Charts of timing of EMG activity of the upper extremity muscles together with ranges of upper extremity joint motion were obtained. Conclusion: The results show that the number of muscles activated and the time (or percentage of the task during which they are active depend on the type of the task and age. These data can be used as a reference in evaluation of functional deficits of patients.

  10. The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bie

    Full Text Available Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001, and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.

  11. Phylogenetic heritability of geographic range size in haematophagous ectoparasites: time of divergence and variation among continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Boris R; Shenbrot, Georgy I; van der Mescht, Luther; Warburton, Elizabeth M; Khokhlova, Irina S

    2018-04-12

    To understand existence, patterns and mechanisms behind phylogenetic heritability in the geographic range size (GRS) of parasites, we measured phylogenetic signal (PS) in the sizes of both regional (within a region) and continental (within a continent) geographic ranges of fleas in five regions. We asked whether (a) GRS is phylogenetically heritable and (b) the manifestation of PS varies between regions. We also asked whether geographic variation in PS reflects the effects of the environment's spatiotemporal stability (e.g. glaciation disrupting geographic ranges) or is associated with time since divergence (accumulation differences among species over time). Support for the former hypothesis would be indicated by stronger PS in southern than in northern regions, whereas support for the latter hypothesis would be shown by stronger PS in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the derived lineages than in regions with a large proportion of species belonging to the basal lineages. We detected significant PS in both regional and continental GRSs of fleas from Canada and in continental GRS of fleas from Mongolia. No PS was found in the GRS of fleas from Australia and Southern Africa. Venezuelan fleas demonstrated significant PS in regional GRS only. Local Indicators of Phylogenetic Association detected significant local positive autocorrelations of GRS in some clades even in regions in which PS has not been detected across the entire phylogeny. This was mainly characteristic of younger taxa.

  12. NOAA's Strategy to Improve Operational Weather Prediction Outlooks at Subseasonal Time Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T.; Toepfer, F.; Stajner, I.; DeWitt, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA is planning to extend operational global numerical weather prediction to sub-seasonal time range under the auspices of its Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) and Extended Range Outlook Programs. A unification of numerical prediction capabilities for weather and subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescales is underway at NOAA using the Finite Volume Cubed Sphere (FV3) dynamical core as the basis for the emerging unified system. This presentation will overview NOAA's strategic planning and current activities to improve prediction at S2S time-scales that are ongoing in response to the Weather Research and Forecasting Innovation Act of 2017, Section 201. Over the short-term, NOAA seeks to improve the operational capability through improvements to its ensemble forecast system to extend its range to 30 days using the new FV3 Global Forecast System model, and by using this system to provide reforecast and re-analyses. In parallel, work is ongoing to improve NOAA's operational product suite for 30 day outlooks for temperature, precipitation and extreme weather phenomena.

  13. Application of lidar techniques to time-of-flight range imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Refael; Streeter, Lee; Cree, Michael J; Dorrington, Adrian A

    2015-11-20

    Amplitude-modulated continuous wave (AMCW) time-of-flight (ToF) range imaging cameras measure distance by illuminating the scene with amplitude-modulated light and measuring the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected modulation envelope. This method of optical range measurement suffers from errors caused by multiple propagation paths, motion, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation. In this paper a ToF camera is modified to operate in modes analogous to continuous wave (CW) and stepped frequency continuous wave (SFCW) lidar. In CW operation the velocity of objects can be measured. CW measurement of velocity was linear with true velocity (R2=0.9969). Qualitative analysis of a complex scene confirms that range measured by SFCW is resilient to errors caused by multiple propagation paths, phase wrapping, and nonideal amplitude modulation which plague AMCW operation. In viewing a complicated scene through a translucent sheet, quantitative comparison of AMCW with SFCW demonstrated a reduction in the median error from -1.3  m to -0.06  m with interquartile range of error reduced from 4.0 m to 0.18 m.

  14. End points for adjuvant therapy trials: has the time come to accept disease-free survival as a surrogate end point for overall survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharlene; Sargent, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    The intent of adjuvant therapy is to eradicate micro-metastatic residual disease following curative resection with the goal of preventing or delaying recurrence. The time-honored standard for demonstrating efficacy of new adjuvant therapies is an improvement in overall survival (OS). This typically requires phase III trials of large sample size with lengthy follow-up. With the intent of reducing the cost and time of completing such trials, there is considerable interest in developing alternative or surrogate end points. A surrogate end point may be employed as a substitute to directly assess the effects of an intervention on an already accepted clinical end point such as mortality. When used judiciously, surrogate end points can accelerate the evaluation of new therapies, resulting in the more timely dissemination of effective therapies to patients. The current review provides a perspective on the suitability and validity of disease-free survival (DFS) as an alternative end point for OS. Criteria for establishing surrogacy and the advantages and limitations associated with the use of DFS as a primary end point in adjuvant clinical trials and as the basis for approval of new adjuvant therapies are discussed.

  15. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  16. Real time analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.A.; Reyes L, P.; Yepez, E. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work, we present an electronic apparatus that facilitates the monitoring and analysis of electromagnetic radiation in a very wide frequency range. The device is a combination of real and virtual instruments, taking advantage of new hardware and software; the measurable range of frequencies depends on the speed of an analog/digital converter, reaching tens of Megahertz. The device has been successfully used to monitor the environmental electromagnetic radiation at very low frequency, a very useful parameter in the research of electromagnetic precursors of earthquakes. The apparatus is a new configuration and has advantages with respect to those previously used: when the attached computer is fast, Fourier analysis can be done in real time, can display simultaneously several bands, the digitized data allow a variety of methods of analysis, and the apparatus is very cheap. (Author)

  17. Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madler, P.

    1982-01-01

    A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated

  18. Real-time image processing of TOF range images using a reconfigurable processor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, S.; Knoll, F.; Edeler, T.

    2011-07-01

    During the last years, Time-of-Flight sensors achieved a significant impact onto research fields in machine vision. In comparison to stereo vision system and laser range scanners they combine the advantages of active sensors providing accurate distance measurements and camera-based systems recording a 2D matrix at a high frame rate. Moreover low cost 3D imaging has the potential to open a wide field of additional applications and solutions in markets like consumer electronics, multimedia, digital photography, robotics and medical technologies. This paper focuses on the currently implemented 4-phase-shift algorithm in this type of sensors. The most time critical operation of the phase-shift algorithm is the arctangent function. In this paper a novel hardware implementation of the arctangent function using a reconfigurable processor system is presented and benchmarked against the state-of-the-art CORDIC arctangent algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is well suited for real-time processing of the range images of TOF cameras.

  19. Smothering in UK free-range flocks. Part 1: incidence, location, timing and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J; Rayner, A C; Gill, R; Willings, T H; Bright, A

    2014-07-05

    Smothering in poultry is an economic and welfare-related concern. This study presents the first results from a questionnaire addressing the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering of free-range farm managers from two commercial egg companies (representing 35 per cent of the UK free-range egg supply). Overall, nearly 60 per cent of farm mangers experienced smothering in their last flock, with an average of 25.5 birds lost per incidence, although per cent mortality due to smothering was low (x̄=1.6 per cent). The majority of farm managers also reported that over 50 per cent of all their flocks placed had been affected by smothering. The location and timing of smothering (excluding smothering in nest boxes) tended to be unpredictable and varied between farms. Blocking off corners/nest boxes and walking birds more frequently were identified as popular smothering reduction measures, although there was a wide variety of reduction measures reported overall. The motivation to implement reduction measures was related to a farm manager's previous experience of smothering. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a representative industry estimate on the incidence, location, timing and management of smothering. The results suggest that smothering is a common problem, unpredictable between flocks with no clear, effective reduction strategies. A follow-up study will investigate the correlations among smothering, disease and other welfare problems and may shed further light on management solutions. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Effect of 153Sm-EDTMP on survival time in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and multiple bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wei; Zheng Zongyuan; Xu Guangpu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect on survival of Samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and multiple bone metastases. Methods: From 1993 to 1999, 160 patients (127 men, 33 women; median age 35 years) presented with NPC and multiple bone metastases. Of these, 40 patients had undergone chemotherapy, and 72 palliative radiotherapy. Patients were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (N = 20) received analgesics (control); Groups 2, 3 and 4 (N = 80, 40, and 20, respectively) received one, two or three courses, respectively, of 153Sm-EDTMP (77.7 MBq/kg/course; course interval, 4 wk). Results: Eight patients died of non-cancer-related causes, and 24 were lost to follow-up. The median survival time for Group 1 (7.8 months) was significantly less (p < 0.05) than that of Groups 2, 3 and 4 (11.6, 13.4 and 12.8 months, respectively). Patients given 153Sm-EDTMP who had had revious external radiation survived longer (p < 0.05) than those in the other treatment groups. Conclusions: Internal radiotherapy with 153Sm-EDTMP can extend survival time in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and multiple bone metastases; when combined with external radiotherapy in appropriate patients, its effect on survival time is enhanced.. (authors)

  1. Unattended real-time re-establishment of visibility in high dynamic range video and stills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, B.

    2014-05-01

    We describe a portable unattended persistent surveillance system that corrects for harsh illumination conditions, where bright sun light creates mixed contrast effects, i.e., heavy shadows and washouts. These effects result in high dynamic range scenes, where illuminance can vary from few luxes to a 6 figure value. When using regular monitors and cameras, such wide span of illuminations can only be visualized if the actual range of values is compressed, leading to the creation of saturated and/or dark noisy areas and a loss of information in these areas. Images containing extreme mixed contrast cannot be fully enhanced from a single exposure, simply because all information is not present in the original data. The active intervention in the acquisition process is required. A software package, capable of integrating multiple types of COTS and custom cameras, ranging from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) data links to digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR), is described. Hardware and software are integrated via a novel smart data acquisition algorithm, which communicates to the camera the parameters that would maximize information content in the final processed scene. A fusion mechanism is then applied to the smartly acquired data, resulting in an enhanced scene where information in both dark and bright areas is revealed. Multi-threading and parallel processing are exploited to produce automatic real time full motion corrected video. A novel enhancement algorithm was also devised to process data from legacy and non-controllable cameras. The software accepts and processes pre-recorded sequences and stills, enhances visible, night vision, and Infrared data, and successfully applies to night time and dark scenes. Various user options are available, integrating custom functionalities of the application into intuitive and easy to use graphical interfaces. The ensuing increase in visibility in surveillance video and intelligence imagery will expand the performance and

  2. Correlation between the CT manifestations and post-operative survival time in patients with thymic epithelial tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Juan; Tan Ye; Wang Xiangyang; Du Jun; Pan Jishu; Wei Jiahu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the CT manifestations of thymic epithelial tumor and explore the correlation between CT findings and post-operative tumor-related survival time. Methods: Ninety-one patients who underwent CT scan before operation were reviewed retrospectively. All cases had operation and were classified according to the WHO classification. The size, contour, shape, density and enhancement of the tumors on CT were assessed. Presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, great vessel invasion, metastasis to the lung or plural, myasthenia gravis (MG) were also analyzed. The survival rate was obtained using, the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox model was applied to determine the factors affecting the tumor-related survivals. Chi square test was used to analyze the relationship between CT findings and WHO classification. Results: Two patients were excluded because of dying of myocardial infarction and colon cancer. The total 5-year survival rate was 84.3% (n=75). Eighty-nine patients had total 91 tumors. Tumors with diameter larger than 5 cm, lobular contour, heterogenous density, and presence of great vessel invasion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and metastasis were adverse factors which could significantly affect the survival time. Five-year survival rates of these factors were 72.7%, 77.3%, 76.7%, 73.8%, 30.0%, and 68.8%, respectively. Presence of MG was a favorable factor which also significantly affected the survival time (P 0.05). The result of the Cox multivariate analysis was consistent with that of the Log-rank test. For different WHO classification, there were significant different among the size or contour of the tumors, presence of great vessel invasion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and metastasis (χ 2 value were 6.598, 5.737, 18.307, 8.465, and 15.608, respectively P<0.05). Conclusions: CT findings may be served as predictors of clinical prognosis of the thymic epithelial tumors. Adverse factors for survival time are the size of the tumors and presence of

  3. Improved measurement linearity and precision for AMCW time-of-flight range imaging cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D; Dorrington, Adrian A; Cree, Michael J; Carnegie, Dale A

    2010-08-10

    Time-of-flight range imaging systems utilizing the amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) technique often suffer from measurement nonlinearity due to the presence of aliased harmonics within the amplitude modulation signals. Typically a calibration is performed to correct these errors. We demonstrate an alternative phase encoding approach that attenuates the harmonics during the sampling process, thereby improving measurement linearity in the raw measurements. This mitigates the need to measure the system's response or calibrate for environmental changes. In conjunction with improved linearity, we demonstrate that measurement precision can also be increased by reducing the duty cycle of the amplitude modulated illumination source (while maintaining overall illumination power).

  4. Differences in compliance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommendations according to hospital entrance time: day versus night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mónica; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Cardoso, Teresa

    2013-04-23

    Higher compliance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) recommendations has been associated with lower mortality. The authors evaluate differences in compliance with SSC 6-hour bundle according to hospital entrance time (day versus night) and its impact on hospital mortality. Prospective cohort study of all patients with community-acquired severe sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit of a large university tertiary care hospital, over 3.5 years with a follow-up until hospital discharge. Time to compliance with each recommendation of the SSC 6-hour bundle was calculated according to hospital entrance period: day (08:30 to 20:30) versus night (20:30 to 08:30). For the same periods, clinical staff composition and the number of patients attending the emergency department (ED) was also recorded. In this period 300 consecutive patients were included. Compliance rate was (night vs. day): serum lactate measurement 57% vs. 49% (P = 0.171), blood cultures drawn 59% vs. 37% (P 8 mmHg 45% vs. 29% (P = 0.021), and central venous oxygen saturation (SvcO₂) >70%, 7% vs. 2% (P = 0.082); fluids were administered in all patients with hypotension in both periods and vasopressors were administered in patients with hypotension not responsive to fluids in 100% vs. 99%. Time to get specific actions done was also different (night vs. day): serum lactate measurement (4.5 vs. 7 h, P = 0.018), blood cultures drawn (4 vs. 8 h, P night with a higher proportion of less differentiated doctors. The number of patients attending the Emergency Department was lower overnight. Hospital mortality rate was 34% in patients entering in the night period vs. 40% in those entering during the day (P = 0.281). Compliance with SSC recommendations was higher at night. A possible explanation might be the increased nurse to patient ratio in that period. Adjustment of the clinical team composition to the patients' demand is needed to increase compliance and improve prognosis.

  5. The Impact of Radiation Treatment Time on Survival in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Talha; Handorf, Elizabeth A.; Murphy, Colin T.; Mehra, Ranee; Ridge, John A.; Galloway, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of radiation treatment time (RTT) in head and neck cancers on overall survival (OS) in the era of chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with diagnoses of tongue, hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx, or tonsil cancer were identified by use of the National Cancer Database. RTT was defined as date of first radiation treatment to date of last radiation treatment. In the definitive setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >56 days, accelerated RTT was defined as 49 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <40 days, and standard RTT was defined as 40 to 49 days. We used χ"2 tests to identify predictors of RTT. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare OS among groups. Cox proportional hazards model was used for OS analysis in patients with known comorbidity status. Results: 19,531 patients were included; 12,987 (67%) had a standard RTT, 4,369 (34%) had an accelerated RTT, and 2,165 (11%) had a prolonged RTT. On multivariable analysis, accelerated RTT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.97) was associated with an improved OS, and prolonged RTT (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.37) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT. When the 9,200 (47%) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation were examined, prolonged RTT (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11-1.50) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT, whereas there was no significant association between accelerated RTT and OS (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57-1.01). Conclusion: Prolonged RTT is associated with worse OS in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, even in the setting of chemoradiation. Expeditious completion of radiation should continue to be a quality metric for the management of head and neck malignancies.

  6. Flow cytometric and radioisotopic determinations of platelet survival time in normal cats and feline leukemia virus-infected cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, R.M.; Boyce, J.T.; Kociba, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of a flow cytometric technique to measure platelet survival time in cats utilizing autologous platelets labeled in vitro with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). When compared with a 51Cr method, no significant differences in estimated survival times were found. Both the 51Cr and FITC-labeling procedures induced similar changes in platelet shape and collagen-induced aggregation. Platelets labeled with FITC had significantly greater volumes compared with those of glutaraldehyde-fixed platelets. These changes were primarily related to the platelet centrifugation and washing procedures rather than the labels themselves. This novel technique potentially has wide applicability to cell circulation time studies as flow cytometry equipment becomes more readily available. Problems with the technique are discussed. In a preliminary study of the platelet survival time in feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats, two of three cats had significantly reduced survival times using both flow cytometric and radioisotopic methods. These data suggest increased platelet turnover in FeLV-infected cats.

  7. Flow cytometric and radioisotopic determinations of platelet survival time in normal cats and feline leukemia virus-infected cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.M.; Boyce, J.T.; Kociba, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of a flow cytometric technique to measure platelet survival time in cats utilizing autologous platelets labeled in vitro with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). When compared with a 51Cr method, no significant differences in estimated survival times were found. Both the 51Cr and FITC-labeling procedures induced similar changes in platelet shape and collagen-induced aggregation. Platelets labeled with FITC had significantly greater volumes compared with those of glutaraldehyde-fixed platelets. These changes were primarily related to the platelet centrifugation and washing procedures rather than the labels themselves. This novel technique potentially has wide applicability to cell circulation time studies as flow cytometry equipment becomes more readily available. Problems with the technique are discussed. In a preliminary study of the platelet survival time in feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats, two of three cats had significantly reduced survival times using both flow cytometric and radioisotopic methods. These data suggest increased platelet turnover in FeLV-infected cats

  8. Progression-free survival/time to progression as a potential surrogate for overall survival in HR+, HER2– metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna Forsythe,1 David Chandiwana,2 Janina Barth,3 Marroon Thabane,4 Johan Baeck,2 Gabriel Tremblay1 1Purple Squirrel Economics, New York, NY, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany; 4Novartis Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, Dorval, QC, Canada Background: Several recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs in hormone receptor-positive (HR+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2– metastatic breast cancer (MBC have demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free survival (PFS; however, few have reported improvement in overall survival (OS. The surrogacy of PFS or time to progression (TTP for OS has not been formally investigated in HR+, HER2– MBC.Methods: A systematic literature review of RCTs in HR+, HER2– MBC was conducted to identify studies that reported both median PFS/TTP and OS. The correlation between PFS/TTP and OS was evaluated using Pearson’s product–moment correlation and Spearman’s rank correlation. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore possible reasons for heterogeneity. Errors-in-variables weighted least squares regression (LSR was used to model incremental OS months as a function of incremental PFS/TTP months. An exploratory analysis investigated the impact of three covariates (chemotherapy vs hormonal/targeted therapy, PFS vs TTP, and first-line therapy vs second-line therapy or greater on OS prediction. The lower 95% prediction band was used to determine the minimum incremental PFS/TTP months required to predict OS benefit (surrogate threshold effect [STE].Results: Forty studies were identified. There was a statistically significant correlation between median PFS/TTP and OS (Pearson =0.741, P=0.000; Spearman =0.650, P=0.000. These results proved consistent for chemotherapy and hormonal/targeted therapy. Univariate LSR analysis yielded an R2 of 0.354 with 1 incremental PFS/TTP month corresponding to 1.13 incremental OS months

  9. Efficacy of Re-188-labelled sulphur colloid on prolongation of survival time in melanoma-bearing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.D.; Hsieh, B.T.; Wang, H.E.; Ou, Y.H.; Yang, W.K.; Whang-Peng, J.; Liu, R.S.; Knapp, F.F.; Ting, G.; Yen, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of a 188 Re labeled sulfur colloid with two particle size ranges was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this agent on melanoma tumors in mice in terms of animal lifespan. Methods: Two separate group of animals were used for investigating biodistribution and survival time. A total of 188 B16F10-melanoma-bearing BDF 1 mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3.7 MBq (0.1mCi)/2mL of radiolabeled sulfur colloid ten days after intraperitoneal inoculation of 5x10 5 B16F10 melanoma cells/2ml. For group 1, 30 mice were sacrificed at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours for biodistribution studies. In group 2, 158 mice were divided into 9 groups (n=16∼18/groups)each receiving respectively tumor alone, tumor with normal saline, cold colloid or hot colloid with 16, 23, 31, 46, 62, or 124 MBq activity. Each of these colloid groups was further divided into two groups, one receiving smaller particle sizes ( 188 Re-sulfur colloid is an effective agent in controlling tumor cells in the abdominal cavity in animals

  10. The impact of chemotherapy and its timing on survival in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma treated with complete debulking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouje, Samer A; Tulla, Kiara A; Salti, George I

    2018-04-12

    The current standard of treatment for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is cytoreductive surgery when the disease distribution is favorable. The role of chemotherapy, as an adjunct to surgery, remains unclear. The national database of mesothelioma was used to identify MPM patients who were treated with curative intent. Patients were divided into treatment groups: (1) chemotherapy only, (2) surgery only, (3) neoadjuvant chemotherapy + surgery, and (4) surgery + adjuvant chemotherapy. A negative control group of patients who did not receive any treatment was added (group 0). Totally, 1740 patients were included. Mean age was 63.04 ± 14.58 and 60.7% were males. The patients' distribution into the treatment groups was 604, 684, 169, 55, and 228 patients in groups 0-4, respectively, with a median survival of 3.61 ± 0.37, 11.10 ± 0.73, 57.41 ± 11.91, 52.30 ± 7.20, and 55.00 ± 9.19 months. The addition of chemotherapy, in any setting, to surgery provided an improved survival at 1 year (p = 0.006). This survival benefit ceased at the 2-, 3-, and 5-year checkpoints. The multivariate analysis identified age, sarcomatoid/biphasic histologies, nodal and distant metastasis, and offering no treatment or chemotherapy only as poor prognostic factors for overall survival. No difference in overall survival was noted with the addition of chemotherapy to complete debulking regardless of the timing. Complete debulking remains the standard treatment for MPM. The addition of systemic chemotherapy provides a short-term survival improvement at 1 year only and was similar whether given in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. Nevertheless, it did not add a survival benefit beyond the 1-year time point.

  11. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  12. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  13. Time to Thrive, Not Just Survive: Accumulating Advantage for Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Debra

    2005-04-01

    Our departments of science, technology, mathematics, and engineering (STEM) need more women as faculty, and not only to show their undergraduates that a career in academia is a viable path. Their absence warns us that an unhealthy environment exists: unhealthy to those scientists who want fulfilling lives beyond academe and unhealthy to those women, who once they demonstrate productivity, scholarship, and mentorship, still reap less respect, space, salary, funding, and awards than their male colleagues. The recalcitrance of too many of our research universities toward diversifying their faculty is a national disgrace in that these universities covet a diversified student body, but do not reflect that pool of talent onto their faculty. Similar difficulties are apparent among the staff of National and Federal laboratories. Self-reform is not getting it done, and is especially frustrating in light of the historic opportunity to change the demographics as scientists and engineers hired in the 1960s retire. Is it time to apply the logic of Title IX--the loss of Federal funds--for the entrenched inability to increase the number of women represented on STEM faculties? Such a threat may be the impetus necessary for university administrators to create departmental environments that women are willing to call home. The July 2004 release of the GAO report on Women's Participation in the Sciences (which also surveyed DOE facilities) reminded those Federal agencies that fund scientific research that Title IX is the law and that these agencies must begin Title IX assessments of compliance in the STEM departments and institutions they fund. It is past time that women thrive, not just survive in their career homes. Using the mechanistic philosophy of Title IX--denial of resources to recalacitrant departments and laboratories--may be the start of a truly inclusive scientific enterprise in the United States. We must accept this opportunity to redirect the nature of the research

  14. Survival times of patients with a first hip fracture with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Angthong, Wirana; Harnroongroj, Thos; Naito, Masatoshi; Harnroongroj, Thossart

    2013-01-01

    Survival rates are poorer after a second hip fracture than after a first hip fracture. Previous survival studies have included in-hospital mortality. Excluding in-hospital deaths from the analysis allows survival times to be evaluated in community-based patients. There is still a lack of data regarding the effects of subsequent fractures on survival times after hospital discharge following an initial hip fracture. This study compared the survival times of community-dwelling patients with hip fracture who had or did not have a subsequent major long-bone fracture. Hazard ratios and risk factors for subsequent fractures and mortality rates with and without subsequent fractures were calculated. Of 844 patients with hip fracture from 2000 through 2008, 71 had a subsequent major long-bone fracture and 773 did not. Patients who died of other causes, such as perioperative complications, during hospitalization were excluded. Such exclusion allowed us to determine the effect of subsequent fracture on the survival of community-dwelling individuals after hospital discharge or after the time of the fracture if they did not need hospitalization. Demographic data, causes of death, and mortality rates were recorded. Differences in mortality rates between the patient groups and hazard ratios were calculated. Mortality rates during the first year and from 1 to 5 years after the most recent fracture were 5.6% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients with subsequent fractures, and 4.7% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients without subsequent fractures. These rates did not differ significantly between the groups. Cox regression analysis and calculation of hazard ratios did not show significant differences between patients with subsequent fractures and those without. On univariate and multivariate analyses, age fracture. This study found that survival times did not differ significantly between patients with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures after hip fracture. Therefore, all

  15. Analysis of short time-space range seismicity patterns in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imotof

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we analyze the data base obtained from the observations of the Italian Seismological Network from 1975 to 1994 by using a simple algotithm to determine the rate of occurrence of seismic events condi- tioned by the occurrence of previous events after a period of quiescence. The number of observed pairs of earthquakes depends on several parameters: the magnitude threshold of the two events, the spatial and tempo- ral ranges of the quiescence period preceding the first (non aftershock event, the time elapsed between the first and the second events and the spatial dimension of the alarm area. The Akaike information criterion was adopted to assess the optimal set of space-time parameters used in the definition of non-aftershock (events not related to a stronger previous one. In Central Italy, the rate of M ³3.8 earthquakes preceded by at least one M ~ 3.3 foreshock within 14.1 km and 2 days is 30%, while the rate of M ~ 3.3 earthquakes followed by a M ~ 3.8 mainshock in the same space time range is 7%. We observed that the probability that an earthquake of magnitude MI will be followed by an earthquake of magnitude M2 (success rate fits the law log À = a+b (Mi -M2 with b approximately equal to l. By computing the success rate for given values of magnitude threshold of the first and the second events over a dense grid of spatial coordinates, we obtained maps of this feature over the investigated area. The results of this process document variations larger than a factor of five in the success rate over the Italian territory.

  16. Auroral radar measurements at 16-cm wavelength with high range and time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.; Turunen, T.; Moorcroft, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Auroral radar measurements performed with the EISCAT facility are presented. Backscatter cross sections of the irregularities produced by the two-stream (Farley-Buneman) or gradient drift plasma instabilities have been recorded with a range separation of 1.5 km, corresponding to a spacing of successive values in height of about 0.4 km. The apparent height profiles of the backscatter have a width of about 5-6 km and occur between 95 and 112 km altitude, with a mean at 104 km. Very often, fast motions of the backscatter layers are observed which can be explained as fast moving ionospheric structures controlled by magnetospheric convection. The maximal time resolution of the measurements is 12.5 ms. The statistics of the backscatter amplitudes at this time resolution is close to a Rice distribution with a Rice parameter a ∼ 3.7. The observed backscatter spectra do not change significantly in shape when the integration time is reduced from 5 s to 100 ms

  17. Earthquake simulations with time-dependent nucleation and long-range interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Dieterich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for rapid simulation of earthquake sequences is introduced which incorporates long-range elastic interactions among fault elements and time-dependent earthquake nucleation inferred from experimentally derived rate- and state-dependent fault constitutive properties. The model consists of a planar two-dimensional fault surface which is periodic in both the x- and y-directions. Elastic interactions among fault elements are represented by an array of elastic dislocations. Approximate solutions for earthquake nucleation and dynamics of earthquake slip are introduced which permit computations to proceed in steps that are determined by the transitions from one sliding state to the next. The transition-driven time stepping and avoidance of systems of simultaneous equations permit rapid simulation of large sequences of earthquake events on computers of modest capacity, while preserving characteristics of the nucleation and rupture propagation processes evident in more detailed models. Earthquakes simulated with this model reproduce many of the observed spatial and temporal characteristics of clustering phenomena including foreshock and aftershock sequences. Clustering arises because the time dependence of the nucleation process is highly sensitive to stress perturbations caused by nearby earthquakes. Rate of earthquake activity following a prior earthquake decays according to Omori's aftershock decay law and falls off with distance.

  18. Processor for Real-Time Atmospheric Compensation in Long-Range Imaging, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range imaging is a critical component to many NASA applications including range surveillance, launch tracking, and astronomical observation. However,...

  19. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  20. KMWin – A Convenient Tool for Graphical Presentation of Results from Kaplan-Meier Survival Time Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. Results On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. Conclusions We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups. PMID:22723912

  1. Impact of Sodium Chloride and Heat on Survival Time of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in vitro: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hajimohammadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite, belonging to the class Pentastomida. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl and heat on survival time of Linguatula serrata nymphs. Materials & Methods: Thirty nymphs (10 in triplicate were separately transferred to plastic tubes, containing different concentrations of NaCl solution (2%, 5% and 10%. Meanwhile, 30 nymphs in tubes containing Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS were separately treated by +50°C, +60°C and +72°C. As control group, thirty nymphs were stored in PBS at +4°C. The effects of different conditions on survival time of the nymphs were evaluated by observing their motility in different periods of time. Results: The survival time of the nymphs stored in 10% NaCl solution was too short and all of them were dead after 3 hours. But the other ones maintained in 2% NaCl solution were significantly more resistant (p<0.05 and were survived for 2 days. All the nymphs pertaining to each +60°C and +72°C treatments were found dead after first 5-minute storage interval; the nymphs stored at +50°C died totally after 20 minutes. The nymphs maintained in PBS at +4°C (control group showed the longest survival time (p<0.05; all of them were alive until day 4 and the last ones died on day 34. Conclusion: It is concluded that salting and heating have significant parasiticidal effects on L. serrata nymphs and could be used as disinfecting methods in processing of meat products especially liver. However, refrigeration at +4°C increases the resistance of the nymphs in meat products and therefore might endanger the food safety.

  2. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnd Gross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav, SAS export (xpt or text file (dat, which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. RESULTS: On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  3. Correlation between the genetic diversity of nosocomial pathogens and their survival time in intensive care units.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastmeier, P; Schwab, F; Bärwolff, S; Rüden, H; Grundmann, Hajo

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria differ in their ability to survive in the hospital environment outside the human host. Species remaining viable and infectious have a higher chance of being transmitted, giving them a fitness advantage in hospitals. This differential fitness could be expected to alter the genetic population

  4. Clinical Prediction Model for Time in Therapeutic Range While on Warfarin in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent A; Evans, Michael A; Honushefsky, Ashley M; Berger, Peter B

    2017-10-12

    Though warfarin has historically been the primary oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF), several new direct oral anticoagulants may be preferred when anticoagulation control with warfarin is expected to be poor. This study developed a prediction model for time in therapeutic range (TTR) among newly diagnosed AF patients on newly initiated warfarin as a tool to assist decision making between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants. This electronic medical record-based, retrospective study included newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF patients with no recent warfarin exposure receiving primary care services through a large healthcare system in rural Pennsylvania. TTR was estimated as the percentage of time international normalized ratio measurements were between 2.0 and 3.0 during the first year following warfarin initiation. Candidate predictors of TTR were chosen from data elements collected during usual clinical care. A TTR prediction model was developed and temporally validated and its predictive performance was compared with the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score (sex, age, medical history, treatment, tobacco, race) using R 2 and c-statistics. A total of 7877 newly diagnosed AF patients met study inclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) TTR within the first year of starting warfarin was 51% (32, 67). Of 85 candidate predictors evaluated, 15 were included in the final validated model with an R 2 of 15.4%. The proposed model showed better predictive performance than the SAMe-TT 2 R 2 score ( R 2 =3.0%). The proposed prediction model may assist decision making on the proper mode of oral anticoagulant among newly diagnosed AF patients. However, predicting TTR on warfarin remains challenging. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. The Impact of Radiation Treatment Time on Survival in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Talha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Handorf, Elizabeth A. [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Murphy, Colin T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mehra, Ranee [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ridge, John A. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galloway, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Galloway@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of radiation treatment time (RTT) in head and neck cancers on overall survival (OS) in the era of chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with diagnoses of tongue, hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx, or tonsil cancer were identified by use of the National Cancer Database. RTT was defined as date of first radiation treatment to date of last radiation treatment. In the definitive setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >56 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <47 days, and standard RTT was defined as 47 to 56 days. In the postoperative setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >49 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <40 days, and standard RTT was defined as 40 to 49 days. We used χ{sup 2} tests to identify predictors of RTT. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare OS among groups. Cox proportional hazards model was used for OS analysis in patients with known comorbidity status. Results: 19,531 patients were included; 12,987 (67%) had a standard RTT, 4,369 (34%) had an accelerated RTT, and 2,165 (11%) had a prolonged RTT. On multivariable analysis, accelerated RTT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.97) was associated with an improved OS, and prolonged RTT (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.37) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT. When the 9,200 (47%) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation were examined, prolonged RTT (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11-1.50) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT, whereas there was no significant association between accelerated RTT and OS (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57-1.01). Conclusion: Prolonged RTT is associated with worse OS in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, even in the setting of chemoradiation. Expeditious completion of radiation should continue to be a quality metric for the management of head and neck malignancies.

  6. Determining timing of Alaska Range exhumation and glaciation through cosmogenic nuclide burial dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortor, R. N.; Goehring, B. M.; Bemis, S. P.; Ruleman, C.; Nichols, K. A.; Ward, D. J.; Frothingham, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Range is a transpressional orogen with modern exhumation initiating 6 Ma. The stratigraphic record of unroofing and uplift of the foreland basin is largely preserved along the northern flank of the Alaska Range in the Pliocene-Pleistocene aged Nenana Gravel, an extensive alluvial fan and braidplain deposit. Chronometric control on the Nenana Gravel is largely lacking, with the limited available age control based on a single Ar-Ar tephra date in an underlying unit and via stratigraphic inferences for the upper portions. Higher-resolution dating of the Nenana Gravel unit is imperative in order to quantify deposition rates and the timing of uplift and deformation of the foreland basin. Furthermore, a glacial unit has been found to lie unconformably on top of the unit at Suntrana Creek and may represent the initiation of glacial advances in the Alaska Range. We present a suite of 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide burial ages collected from the lower, middle, and upper sections of the Nenana Gravel at Suntrana Creek, as well as the overlying glacial unit. Three samples from the lower Nenana Gravel yield an isochron burial age of 4.42+0.67/-0.13 Ma, which represents initiation of Nenana Gravel deposition and may equate to early unroofing of the Alaska Range. Two samples collected from the middle of the Nenana Gravel unit produced an average simple burial age of 2.25+/-0.45 Ma, with a single sample stratigraphically above dating to 0.99 +/-1.60. Two samples from the upper-most portion of the Nenana Gravel yielded an average simple burial age of 1.27+/-0.22 Ma, and one sample from the glacial unit overlying the Nenana Gravel was dated to 0.97+/-0.06 Ma, representing one of the earliest glacial advances in the region. In addition, the age of the glacial unit provides a minimum age for inception of foreland basin uplift and abandonment of the Nenana Gravel in this region.

  7. Matching-range-constrained real-time loop closure detection with CNNs features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongdong; Wang, Chaoqun; Zhang, Bo; Yi, Xiaodong; Tang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    The loop closure detection (LCD) is an essential part of visual simultaneous localization and mapping systems (SLAM). LCD is capable of identifying and compensating the accumulation drift of localization algorithms to produce an consistent map if the loops are checked correctly. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have outperformed state-of-the-art solutions that use traditional hand-crafted features in many computer vision and pattern recognition applications. After the great success of CNNs, there has been much interest in applying CNNs features to robotic fields such as visual LCD. Some researchers focus on using a pre-trained CNNs model as a method of generating an image representation appropriate for visual loop closure detection in SLAM. However, there are many fundamental differences and challenges involved in character between simple computer vision applications and robotic applications. Firstly, the adjacent images in the dataset of loop closure detection might have more resemblance than the images that form the loop closure. Secondly, real-time performance is one of the most critical demands for robots. In this paper, we focus on making use of the feature generated by CNNs layers to implement LCD in real environment. In order to address the above challenges, we explicitly provide a value to limit the matching range of images to solve the first problem; meanwhile we get better results than state-of-the-art methods and improve the real-time performance using an efficient feature compression method.

  8. Mean transit times in headwater catchments: insights from the Otway Ranges, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Howcroft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the timescales of water flow through catchments and the sources of stream water at different flow conditions is critical for understanding catchment behaviour and managing water resources. Here, tritium (3H activities, major ion geochemistry and streamflow data were used in conjunction with lumped parameter models (LPMs to investigate mean transit times (MTTs and the stores of water in six headwater catchments in the Otway Ranges of southeastern Australia. 3H activities of stream water ranged from 0.20 to 2.14 TU, which are significantly lower than the annual average 3H activity of modern local rainfall, which is between 2.4 and 3.2 TU. The 3H activities of the stream water are lowest during low summer flows and increase with increasing streamflow. The concentrations of most major ions vary little with streamflow, which together with the low 3H activities imply that there is no significant direct input of recent rainfall at the streamflows sampled in this study. Instead, shallow younger water stores in the soils and regolith are most likely mobilised during the wetter months. MTTs vary from approximately 7 to 230 years. Despite uncertainties of several years in the MTTs that arise from having to assume an appropriate LPM, macroscopic mixing, and uncertainties in the 3H activities of rainfall, the conclusion that they range from years to decades is robust. Additionally, the relative differences in MTTs at different streamflows in the same catchment are estimated with more certainty. The MTTs in these and similar headwater catchments in southeastern Australia are longer than in many catchments globally. These differences may reflect the relatively low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates in southeastern Australia compared with headwater catchments elsewhere. The long MTTs imply that there is a long-lived store of water in these catchments that can sustain the streams over drought periods lasting several years. However, the

  9. Mean transit times in headwater catchments: insights from the Otway Ranges, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcroft, William; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the timescales of water flow through catchments and the sources of stream water at different flow conditions is critical for understanding catchment behaviour and managing water resources. Here, tritium (3H) activities, major ion geochemistry and streamflow data were used in conjunction with lumped parameter models (LPMs) to investigate mean transit times (MTTs) and the stores of water in six headwater catchments in the Otway Ranges of southeastern Australia. 3H activities of stream water ranged from 0.20 to 2.14 TU, which are significantly lower than the annual average 3H activity of modern local rainfall, which is between 2.4 and 3.2 TU. The 3H activities of the stream water are lowest during low summer flows and increase with increasing streamflow. The concentrations of most major ions vary little with streamflow, which together with the low 3H activities imply that there is no significant direct input of recent rainfall at the streamflows sampled in this study. Instead, shallow younger water stores in the soils and regolith are most likely mobilised during the wetter months. MTTs vary from approximately 7 to 230 years. Despite uncertainties of several years in the MTTs that arise from having to assume an appropriate LPM, macroscopic mixing, and uncertainties in the 3H activities of rainfall, the conclusion that they range from years to decades is robust. Additionally, the relative differences in MTTs at different streamflows in the same catchment are estimated with more certainty. The MTTs in these and similar headwater catchments in southeastern Australia are longer than in many catchments globally. These differences may reflect the relatively low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates in southeastern Australia compared with headwater catchments elsewhere. The long MTTs imply that there is a long-lived store of water in these catchments that can sustain the streams over drought periods lasting several years. However, the catchments are likely

  10. Hyperthermic survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of cellular population density at the time of plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, E.V.; Holahan, P.K.; Dewey, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The survival of synchronous G 1 or asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro to heat treatment may depend on the cellular population density at the time of heating and/or as the cells are cultured after heating. The addition of lethally irradiated feeder cells may increase survival at 10 -3 by as much as 10- to 100-fold for a variety of conditions when cells are heated either in suspension culture or as monolayers with or without trypsinization. The protective effect associated with feeder cells appears to be associated with close cell-to-cell proximity. However, when cells are heated without trypsinization about 24 hr or later after plating, when adaptation to monolayer has occurred, the protective effect is reduced; i.e., addition of feeder cells enhances survival much less, for example, about 2- to 3-fold at 10 -2 -10 -3 survival. Also, the survival of a cell to heat is independent of whether the neighboring cell in a microcolony is destined to live or die. Finally, if protective effects associated with cell density do occur and are not controlled, serious artifacts can result as the interaction of heat and radiation is studied; for example, survival curves can be moved upward, and thus changed in shape as the number of cells plated is increased with an increase in the hyperthermic treatment or radiation dose following hyperthermia. Therefore, to understand mechanisms and to obtain information relevant to populations of cells in close proximity, such as those in vivo, these cellular population density effects should be considered and understood

  11. Using simulation to interpret a discrete time survival model in a complex biological system: fertility and lameness in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Hudson

    Full Text Available The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd's incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period, PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd's lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd rather than individual level.

  12. Reduced Time in Therapeutic Range and Higher Mortality in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Taking Acenocoumarol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Roldán, Vanessa; Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Marín, Francisco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) depends on the quality of anticoagulant control, reflected by the mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio 2.0 to 3.0. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between TTR and change in TTR (ΔTTR) with the risk of mortality and clinically significant events in a consecutive cohort of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. We included 1361 AF patients stable on VKAs (international normalized ratio 2.0-3.0) during at least the previous 6 months. After 6 months of follow-up we recalculated TTR, calculated ΔTTR (ie, the difference between baseline and 6-month TTRs) and investigated the association of both with the risk of mortality and "clinically significant events" (defined as the composite of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, and all-cause deaths). The median ΔTTR at 6 months of entry was 20% (interquartile range 0-34%), 796 (58.5%) patients had a TTR reduction of at least 20%, while 330 (24.2%) had a TTR <65%. During follow-up, 34 (2.5% [4.16% per year]) patients died and 61 (4.5% [7.47% per year]) had a clinically significant event. Median ΔTTR was significantly higher in patients who died (35.5% vs 20%; P = 0.002) or sustained clinically significant events (28% vs 20%; P = 0.022). Based on Cox regression analyses, the overall risk of mortality at 6 months for each decrease point in TTR was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = 0.003), and the risk of clinically significant events was 1.01 (95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = 0.028). Patients with TTR <65% at 6 months had higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 2.96; 95% CI, 1.51-5.81; P = 0.002) and clinically significant events (hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01-2.88; P = 0.046). Our findings suggest that in AF patients anticoagulated with VKAs, a change in TTR over 6 months (ie, ΔTTR) is an independent risk factor for mortality and clinically significant events

  13. Rigorous bounds on survival times in circular accelerators and efficient computation of fringe-field transfer maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstaetter, G.H.

    1994-12-01

    Analyzing stability of particle motion in storage rings contributes to the general field of stability analysis in weakly nonlinear motion. A method which we call pseudo invariant estimation (PIE) is used to compute lower bounds on the survival time in circular accelerators. The pseudeo invariants needed for this approach are computed via nonlinear perturbative normal form theory and the required global maxima of the highly complicated multivariate functions could only be rigorously bound with an extension of interval arithmetic. The bounds on the survival times are large enough to the relevant; the same is true for the lower bounds on dynamical aperatures, which can be computed. The PIE method can lead to novel design criteria with the objective of maximizing the survival time. A major effort in the direction of rigourous predictions only makes sense if accurate models of accelerators are available. Fringe fields often have a significant influence on optical properties, but the computation of fringe-field maps by DA based integration is slower by several orders of magnitude than DA evaluation of the propagator for main-field maps. A novel computation of fringe-field effects called symplectic scaling (SYSCA) is introduced. It exploits the advantages of Lie transformations, generating functions, and scaling properties and is extremely accurate. The computation of fringe-field maps is typically made nearly two orders of magnitude faster. (orig.)

  14. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  15. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body γ irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice

  16. Sequences and timing of dental eruption in semi-free-ranging mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Wickings, E Jean

    2004-01-01

    The chronology of tooth emergence is often used to examine the growth and development of individuals and to compare life histories across species. Emergence patterns are also used to age animals and to infer life history influences for extinct species. However, comparative studies of primates are hindered by a lack of dental development data for many species. Here we describe the sequences and timing of tooth emergence for a large sample of semi-free-ranging mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and compare this with other life history variables for this species. Deciduous dentition emerged in the sequence i1 i2 c p3 p4. The augmented sequence (including information about variability in emergence sequence) was i1 i2 [c p3] p4 for the female maxilla and the male mandible, and i1 i2 c p3 p4 for the female mandible and the male maxilla. Deciduous dentition was complete by 5.0 months in females and 6.4 months in males. The permanent dentition began to emerge at 26 months, and complete adult dentition had emerged by 68 months for males and 85 months for females. Sex differences occurred in the augmented eruption sequences: females M1 I1 I2 [M2 C] P3 P4 M3, males M1 I1 [I2 M2] [P4 = P3 = C] M3. The order of tooth eruption and the occurrence of sequence polymorphisms were very similar to those observed for baboons and macaques. Comparison with life history variables showed that mandrills have complete deciduous dentition at weaning, females possess both adult incisors and M1 when they first reproduce, but still have deciduous canines and premolars, and that both sexes have full adult dentition before they attain their full adult stature and mass.

  17. The comparison of proportional hazards and accelerated failure time models in analyzing the first birth interval survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Alfensi

    2018-03-01

    Survival analysis is a branch of statistics, which is focussed on the analysis of time- to-event data. In multivariate survival analysis, the proportional hazards (PH) is the most popular model in order to analyze the effects of several covariates on the survival time. However, the assumption of constant hazards in PH model is not always satisfied by the data. The violation of the PH assumption leads to the misinterpretation of the estimation results and decreasing the power of the related statistical tests. On the other hand, the accelerated failure time (AFT) models do not assume the constant hazards in the survival data as in PH model. The AFT models, moreover, can be used as the alternative to PH model if the constant hazards assumption is violated. The objective of this research was to compare the performance of PH model and the AFT models in analyzing the significant factors affecting the first birth interval (FBI) data in Indonesia. In this work, the discussion was limited to three AFT models which were based on Weibull, exponential, and log-normal distribution. The analysis by using graphical approach and a statistical test showed that the non-proportional hazards exist in the FBI data set. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), the log-normal AFT model was the most appropriate model among the other considered models. Results of the best fitted model (log-normal AFT model) showed that the covariates such as women’s educational level, husband’s educational level, contraceptive knowledge, access to mass media, wealth index, and employment status were among factors affecting the FBI in Indonesia.

  18. Unique protein expression signatures of survival time in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma through a pan-cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangchun; Zhao, Wei; Song, Xiaofeng; Kwok-Shing Ng, Patrick; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Zhongming; Ding, Zhiyong; Jia, Peilin

    2017-10-03

    In 2016, it is estimated that there will be 62,700 new cases of kidney cancer in the United States, and 14,240 patients will die from the disease. Because the incidence of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), the most common type of kidney cancer, is expected to continue to increase in the US, there is an urgent need to find effective diagnostic biomarkers for KIRC that could help earlier detection of and customized treatment strategies for the disease. Accordingly, in this study we systematically investigated KIRC's prognostic biomarkers for survival using the reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and the high throughput sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). With comprehensive data available in TCGA, we systematically screened protein expression based survival biomarkers in 10 major cancer types, among which KIRC presented many protein prognostic biomarkers of survival time. This is in agreement with a previous report that expression level changes (mRNAs, microRNA and protein) may have a better performance for prognosis of KIRC. In this study, we also identified 52 prognostic genes for KIRC, many of which are involved in cell-cycle and cancer signaling, as well as 15 tumor-stage-specific prognostic biomarkers. Notably, we found fewer prognostic biomarkers for early-stage than for late-stage KIRC. Four biomarkers (the RPPA protein IDs: FASN, ACC1, Cyclin_B1 and Rad51) were found to be prognostic for survival based on both protein and mRNA expression data. Through pan-cancer screening, we found that many protein biomarkers were prognostic for patients' survival in KIRC. Stage-specific survival biomarkers in KIRC were also identified. Our study indicated that these protein biomarkers might have potential clinical value in terms of predicting survival in KIRC patients and developing individualized treatment strategies. Importantly, we found many biomarkers in KIRC at both the mRNA expression level and the protein expression level. These

  19. Relationships among the cervical mucus urea and acetone, accuracy of insemination timing, and sperm survival in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, J; Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Okrouhlá, M; Doležalová, M; Kadlecová, V; Ptáček, M

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships among urea and acetone content in cows' cervical mucus (CM), its crystallization type (CT) and sperm survival (SS) after timed AI. Samples of CM were collected from 192 Holstein cows treated by Ovsynch(®) protocol. Analysis of the urea and acetone content for identification of the metabolic status, the arborization test for evaluation of insemination timing and the short-term heat test of SS for assessment of its suitability as a biological matrix were performed. The data set was analyzed by the GLM procedure using SAS(®). The results documented the existence of substantial differences in individual response to the Ovsynch(®) protocol causing insemination of 55.2% cows at an inappropriate time. The urea content was found as a possible indicator of a cow's metabolism and/or of insemination timing, concentrations of less than 500 mg/L corresponded (Pacetone content on SS were determined. The greatest values of SS were detected in cows with an expected response to precisely timed oestrus documented by the corresponding CT. Greater values of urea (>260 mg/L) and acetone (>5mg/L) negatively affected SS as well (P<0.05-0.01). The results confirmed that the accuracy of insemination timing can be affected by the metabolism intensity, just as CM quality directly influences sperm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative analysis of short-range travel time prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisken, Giovanni; van Berkum, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Increasing car mobility has lead to an increasing demand for traffic information. This contribution deals with information about travel times. When car drivers are provided with this type of information, the travel times should ideally be the times that they will encounter. As a result travel times

  1. Wide-range time-to-digital converters with a high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aul'chenko, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    A combined time-number converter in which measurements of time intervals to within a period of clock frequency are made directly and those within a period are by a time-amplitude-code conversion is described. It allows time intervals up to 4 mcsec with a resolution of 100 psec to be measured. The differential nonlinearity of conversion is not greater than +-1.5%, and the integral error from measurements of time intervals is not greater than +-100 psec

  2. Disparities in breast cancer tumor characteristics, treatment, time to treatment, and survival probability among African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Fisher, James L; Lustberg, Maryam B; Gray, Darrell M; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Paskett, Electra D

    2018-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a 42% higher breast cancer death rate compared to white women despite recent advancements in management of the disease. We examined racial differences in clinical and tumor characteristics, treatment and survival in patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution, the James Cancer Hospital, and who were included in the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute Cancer Registry in Columbus OH. Statistical analyses included likelihood ratio chi-square tests for differences in proportions, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions to examine associations between race and overall and progression-free survival probabilities. AA women made up 10.2% (469 of 4593) the sample. Average time to onset of treatment after diagnosis was almost two times longer in AA women compared to white women (62.0 days vs 35.5 days, p  triple negative and late stage breast cancer, and were less likely to receive surgery, especially mastectomy and reconstruction following mastectomy. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, grade, and surgery), overall survival probability was significantly associated with race (HR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.72). These findings highlight the need for efforts focused on screening and receipt of prompt treatment among AA women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  3. Nutrition management methods effective in increasing weight, survival time and functional status in ALS patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Jaylin; Bottman, Lindsey; Arra, Erin J; Selkirk, Stephen M; Kozlowski, Frances

    2018-02-01

    Poor prognosis and decreased survival time correlate with the nutritional status of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Various studies were reviewed which assessed weight, body mass index (BMI), survival time and ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R) in order to determine the best nutrition management methods for this patient population. A systematic review was conducted using CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed, and various search terms in order to determine the most recent clinical trials and observational studies that have been conducted concerning nutrition and ALS. Four articles met criteria to be included in the review. Data were extracted from these articles and were inputted into the Data Extraction Tool (DET) provided by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Results showed that nutrition supplementation does promote weight stabilisation or weight gain in individuals with ALS. Given the low risk and low cost associated with intervention, early and aggressive nutrition intervention is recommended. This systematic review shows that there is a lack of high quality evidence regarding the efficacy of any dietary interventions for promoting survival in ALS or slowing disease progression; therefore more research is necessary related to effects of nutrition interventions.

  4. First recovery in anorexia nervosa patients in the long-term course: a discrete-time survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, W; Schellberg, D; Deter, H C

    1997-02-01

    The results of a 12-year follow-up study of occurrence and timing of first recovery in 69 hospitalized patients with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) are presented. For the first time discrete-time survival analysis methods were used to determine the likelihood of recovery in AN patients. Furthermore, predictors gleaned from pretreatment-posttreatment studies of long-term outcome in AN could be evaluated as to their effect on a change in the time course structure of the likelihood of first recovery. Results show that AN condition did not improve until after 6 years after the first inpatient treatment in 50% of patients. However, a restricter-type AN and low serum creatinine levels were predictors for earlier recovery. One specific effect was that AN patients who show purging behavior in combination with additional social disturbances have a lower chance of recovering. The use of discrete-time survival analysis methodology in further prospective studies will contribute to the development of more tailored treatment of AN, which also takes the individual phase of illness and specific aspects of the symptomatology into account.

  5. Time profile of type 3 bursts in decameter and hectometer range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, T.; Naito, Y.; Ohki, K.

    1973-01-01

    The following new hypothesis is proposed. The decay time of plasma waves is much shorter than the time scale of type 3 bursts especially at low frequencies. Accordingly, the time variation of radio flux at a given frequency merely corresponds to the flux of fast electrons passing through the corresponding plasma layer.

  6. Assessing behavior in Aseel pullets under free-range, part-time free-range, and cage system during growing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, M S; Mahmud, A; Mehmood, S; Pasha, T N; Khan, M T; Hussain, J

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of free-range (FR), part-time free-range (PTFR), and cage system (CS) on behavioral repertoire in Lakha (LK), Mushki (MS), Peshawari (PW), and Sindhi (SN) varieties of Aseel chicken during the growing phase (9 to 18 wk of age). In total, 144 Aseel pullets were allotted to 12 treatment groups in a 3 × 4 (rearing system × Aseel variety) factorial arrangement, according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Each treatment group was replicated 3 times with 4 birds in each replicate (12 birds per treatment group). The pullets were randomly marked weekly for identification, and their behavior was observed through the focal animal sampling method. Time spent on different behavioral activities was recorded and converted to a percentage. The data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA under a factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1, and the behavioral parameters were evaluated. The results indicated greater (P < 0.05) sitting, standing, drinking, preening, and aggressiveness in CS; walking, running, and jumping in PTFR; and foraging and dustbathing in both FR and PTFR, whereas feather pecking was found to be reduced in FR compared with PTFR and CS. Among varieties, PW showed the least feeding/foraging and feather pecking behavior, and greater standing, running, and jumping behavior (P < 0.05). However, SN spent less time in walking and preening, and more time in sitting, drinking, and aggressiveness. Dustbathing was found to be similar in all Aseel varieties (P = 0.135). In conclusion, the PTFR system could be suggested as a substitute for conventional housing systems because it better accommodates normal behavior in Aseel pullets.

  7. Evaluation of the appropriate time range for estimating the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) in a transcellular transport study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Kazuhisa; Kato, Motohiro; Sakurai, Yuuji; Ishigai, Masaki; Kudo, Toshiyuki; Ito, Kiyomi

    2015-11-30

    In a transcellular transport study, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of a compound is evaluated using the range by which the amount of compound accumulated on the receiver side is assumed to be proportional to time. However, the time profile of the concentration of the compound in receiver (C3) often shows a lag time before reaching the linear range and later changes from linear to steady state. In this study, the linear range needed to calculate Papp in the C3-time profile was evaluated by a 3-compartment model. C3 was described by an equation with two steady states (C3=A3(1-e(-αt))+B3(1-e(-βt)), α>β), and by a simple approximate line (C3=A3-A3×αt) in the time range of 3/αtime, defined as the interception of the x axis, was described as 1/α. The rate constant α was affected by the membrane permeability clearance and intracellular unbound fraction, while β was affected only by the former. The linear range that was approximated in the present study was not uniformly defined within the time interval in which C3 remains at time range to evaluate Papp was 3/α

  8. Real-Time Online Monitoring of the Ion Range by Means of Prompt Secondary Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D.; De Rydt, M.; Dedes, G.; Della Negra, R.; Deng, S.M.; Ley, J.L.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Ray, C.; Richard, M.H.; Reithinger, V.; Roellinghoff, F.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y.; Baudot, J.; Winter, M.; Brons, S.; Chabot, M.; Force, P.; Joly, B.; Insa, C.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L.; Magne, M.; Montarou, G.; Freud, N.; Letang, J.M.; Lojacono, X.; Maxim, V.; Prostk, R.; Herault, J.; La Tessa, C.; Pleskac, R.; Vanstalle, M.; Parodi, K.; Prieels, D.; Smeets, J.; Rinaldi, I.

    2013-06-01

    Prompt secondary radiations such as gamma rays and protons can be used for ion-range monitoring during ion therapy either on an energy-slice basis or on a pencil-beam basis. We present a review of the ongoing activities in terms of detector developments, imaging, experimental and theoretical physics issues concerning the correlation between the physical dose and hadronic processes. (authors)

  9. Creating historical range of variation (HRV) time series using landscape modeling: Overview and issues [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2012-01-01

    Simulation modeling can be a powerful tool for generating information about historical range of variation (HRV) in landscape conditions. In this chapter, I will discuss several aspects of the use of simulation modeling to generate landscape HRV data, including (1) the advantages and disadvantages of using simulation, (2) a brief review of possible landscape models. and...

  10. Real-time monitoring of Salmonella enterica in free-range geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Free-range geese were sampled longitudinally and Salmonella isolates characterized to reveal highly diverging colonization dynamics. One flock was intermittently colonized with one strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from 2 weeks of age, while in another, S. enterica serovar Mbandaka...

  11. Waiting Time from Diagnosis to Treatment has no Impact on Survival in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.; Leeftink, Anne Greetje; van Rossum, P.S.N.; Siesling, Sabine; van Hillegersberg, R.; Ruurda, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Waiting time from diagnosis to treatment has emerged as an important quality indicator in cancer care. This study was designed to determine the impact of waiting time on long-term outcome of patients with esophageal cancer who are treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery or

  12. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  13. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Lykkedegn

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  14. A comparison of the conditional inference survival forest model to random survival forests based on a simulation study as well as on two applications with time-to-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasejje, Justine B; Mwambi, Henry; Dheda, Keertan; Lesosky, Maia

    2017-07-28

    Random survival forest (RSF) models have been identified as alternative methods to the Cox proportional hazards model in analysing time-to-event data. These methods, however, have been criticised for the bias that results from favouring covariates with many split-points and hence conditional inference forests for time-to-event data have been suggested. Conditional inference forests (CIF) are known to correct the bias in RSF models by separating the procedure for the best covariate to split on from that of the best split point search for the selected covariate. In this study, we compare the random survival forest model to the conditional inference model (CIF) using twenty-two simulated time-to-event datasets. We also analysed two real time-to-event datasets. The first dataset is based on the survival of children under-five years of age in Uganda and it consists of categorical covariates with most of them having more than two levels (many split-points). The second dataset is based on the survival of patients with extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) which consists of mainly categorical covariates with two levels (few split-points). The study findings indicate that the conditional inference forest model is superior to random survival forest models in analysing time-to-event data that consists of covariates with many split-points based on the values of the bootstrap cross-validated estimates for integrated Brier scores. However, conditional inference forests perform comparably similar to random survival forests models in analysing time-to-event data consisting of covariates with fewer split-points. Although survival forests are promising methods in analysing time-to-event data, it is important to identify the best forest model for analysis based on the nature of covariates of the dataset in question.

  15. A comparison of the conditional inference survival forest model to random survival forests based on a simulation study as well as on two applications with time-to-event data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine B. Nasejje

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random survival forest (RSF models have been identified as alternative methods to the Cox proportional hazards model in analysing time-to-event data. These methods, however, have been criticised for the bias that results from favouring covariates with many split-points and hence conditional inference forests for time-to-event data have been suggested. Conditional inference forests (CIF are known to correct the bias in RSF models by separating the procedure for the best covariate to split on from that of the best split point search for the selected covariate. Methods In this study, we compare the random survival forest model to the conditional inference model (CIF using twenty-two simulated time-to-event datasets. We also analysed two real time-to-event datasets. The first dataset is based on the survival of children under-five years of age in Uganda and it consists of categorical covariates with most of them having more than two levels (many split-points. The second dataset is based on the survival of patients with extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB which consists of mainly categorical covariates with two levels (few split-points. Results The study findings indicate that the conditional inference forest model is superior to random survival forest models in analysing time-to-event data that consists of covariates with many split-points based on the values of the bootstrap cross-validated estimates for integrated Brier scores. However, conditional inference forests perform comparably similar to random survival forests models in analysing time-to-event data consisting of covariates with fewer split-points. Conclusion Although survival forests are promising methods in analysing time-to-event data, it is important to identify the best forest model for analysis based on the nature of covariates of the dataset in question.

  16. Extending the range of real time density matrix renormalization group simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, D. M.; Karrasch, C.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a few simple modifications to time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithms which allow to access larger time scales. We specifically aim at beginners and present practical aspects of how to implement these modifications within any standard matrix product state (MPS) based formulation of the method. Most importantly, we show how to 'combine' the Schrödinger and Heisenberg time evolutions of arbitrary pure states | ψ 〉 and operators A in the evaluation of 〈A〉ψ(t) = 〈 ψ | A(t) | ψ 〉 . This includes quantum quenches. The generalization to (non-)thermal mixed state dynamics 〈A〉ρ(t) =Tr [ ρA(t) ] induced by an initial density matrix ρ is straightforward. In the context of linear response (ground state or finite temperature T > 0) correlation functions, one can extend the simulation time by a factor of two by 'exploiting time translation invariance', which is efficiently implementable within MPS DMRG. We present a simple analytic argument for why a recently-introduced disentangler succeeds in reducing the effort of time-dependent simulations at T > 0. Finally, we advocate the python programming language as an elegant option for beginners to set up a DMRG code.

  17. Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngrok [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

  18. Population genomic scans suggest novel genes underlie convergent flowering time evolution in the introduced range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie A; Stinchcombe, John R

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology is whether the evolution of convergent phenotypes results from selection on the same heritable genetic components. Using whole-genome sequencing and genome scans, we tested whether the evolution of parallel longitudinal flowering time clines in the native and introduced ranges of Arabidopsis thaliana has a similar genetic basis. We found that common variants of large effect on flowering time in the native range do not appear to have been under recent strong selection in the introduced range. We identified a set of 38 new candidate genes that are putatively linked to the evolution of flowering time. A high degree of conditional neutrality of flowering time variants between the native and introduced range may preclude parallel evolution at the level of genes. Overall, neither gene pleiotropy nor available standing genetic variation appears to have restricted the evolution of flowering time to high-frequency variants from the native range or to known flowering time pathway genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.

  20. Nonlinearity, Breaks, and Long-Range Dependence in Time-Series Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Medeiros, Marcelo C.

    We study the simultaneous occurrence of long memory and nonlinear effects, such as parameter changes and threshold effects, in ARMA time series models and apply our modeling framework to daily realized volatility. Asymptotic theory for parameter estimation is developed and two model building...

  1. Look closer: Time sequence photography of Roosters Comb in the Sheep Creek Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of understanding natural landscape changes is key in properly determining rangeland ecology. Time sequence photography allows a snapshot of a landscape to be documented and enables the ability to compare natural changes overtime. Photographs of Roosters Comb were taken from the same v...

  2. Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects on a time-to-event endpoint using structural cumulative survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Zucker, David M

    2017-12-01

    The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate elements of randomization, either by design or by nature (e.g., random inheritance of genes). Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects is well established for continuous outcomes and to some extent for binary outcomes. It is, however, largely lacking for time-to-event outcomes because of complications due to censoring and survivorship bias. In this article, we make a novel proposal under a class of structural cumulative survival models which parameterize time-varying effects of a point exposure directly on the scale of the survival function; these models are essentially equivalent with a semi-parametric variant of the instrumental variables additive hazards model. We propose a class of recursive instrumental variable estimators for these exposure effects, and derive their large sample properties along with inferential tools. We examine the performance of the proposed method in simulation studies and illustrate it in a Mendelian randomization study to evaluate the effect of diabetes on mortality using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We further use the proposed method to investigate potential benefit from breast cancer screening on subsequent breast cancer mortality based on the HIP-study. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  3. A comparative study of machine learning methods for time-to-event survival data for radiomics risk modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Stefan; Zwanenburg, Alex; Pilz, Karoline; Lohaus, Fabian; Linge, Annett; Zöphel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Jörg; Schreiber, Andreas; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Troost, Esther G C; Löck, Steffen; Richter, Christian

    2017-10-16

    Radiomics applies machine learning algorithms to quantitative imaging data to characterise the tumour phenotype and predict clinical outcome. For the development of radiomics risk models, a variety of different algorithms is available and it is not clear which one gives optimal results. Therefore, we assessed the performance of 11 machine learning algorithms combined with 12 feature selection methods by the concordance index (C-Index), to predict loco-regional tumour control (LRC) and overall survival for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The considered algorithms are able to deal with continuous time-to-event survival data. Feature selection and model building were performed on a multicentre cohort (213 patients) and validated using an independent cohort (80 patients). We found several combinations of machine learning algorithms and feature selection methods which achieve similar results, e.g. C-Index = 0.71 and BT-COX: C-Index = 0.70 in combination with Spearman feature selection. Using the best performing models, patients were stratified into groups of low and high risk of recurrence. Significant differences in LRC were obtained between both groups on the validation cohort. Based on the presented analysis, we identified a subset of algorithms which should be considered in future radiomics studies to develop stable and clinically relevant predictive models for time-to-event endpoints.

  4. Human umbilical-cord-blood mononucleated cells enhance the survival of lethally irradiated mice. Dosage and the window of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Olga A.; Ende, Norman; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the window of time and dose of human umbilical-cord-blood (HUCB) mononucleated cells necessary for successful treatment of radiation injury in mice. Female A/J mice (27-30 weeks old) were exposed to an absorbed dose of 9-10 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays delivered acutely to the whole body. They were treated either with 1 × 10 8 or 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells at 24-52 h after the irradiation. The antibiotic Levaquin was applied 4 h postirradiation. The increased dose of cord-blood cells resulted in enhanced survival. The enhancement of survival in animals that received 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells relative to irradiated but untreated animals was highly significant (P < 0.01). Compared with earlier studies, the increased dose of HUCB mononucleated cells, coupled with early use of an antibiotic, extended the window of time for effective treatment of severe radiation injury from 4 to 24-52 h after exposure. (author)

  5. Survival of Lactobacillus plantarumU40 on the in vitro rumen fermentation quantified with real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Astuti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of L. plantarumU40 quantified with real-time PCR during in vitro rumen fermentation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. Treatments were control, rumen fermentation inoculated with L. plantarumU40and L. plantarumU40 + glucose solution. Population of L. plantarum U40 was higher at inoculation treatment. After 8 hours incubation, glucose addition tended to decrease L. plantarum U40 population. Control treatment showed lowest population of L. plantarum U40 along in vitro fermentation compared with other treatment. Inoculation of L. plantarumU40 significantly (p<0.05 increased population of LAB until 12 hours incubation compared with control. Control treatment had highest pH at all incubation time. Glucose addition significantly (P<0.05 decreased final rumen pH (24 hours (6.30, compared with control treatment (6.85. Inoculation of L. plantarum U40 with glucose addition significantly (P<0.05increased propionic acid, decreased acetic acid and A/P ratio compared with other treatments. Lactobacillus plantarum U40 without glucose addition did not affect propionic acid production significantly. As conclusion, Lactobacillus plantarum U40 can survive in rumen fluid and changes rumen fermentation when glucose is added as carbon source.

  6. A special case of reduced rank models for identification and modelling of time varying effects in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perperoglou, Aris

    2016-12-10

    Flexible survival models are in need when modelling data from long term follow-up studies. In many cases, the assumption of proportionality imposed by a Cox model will not be valid. Instead, a model that can identify time varying effects of fixed covariates can be used. Although there are several approaches that deal with this problem, it is not always straightforward how to choose which covariates should be modelled having time varying effects and which not. At the same time, it is up to the researcher to define appropriate time functions that describe the dynamic pattern of the effects. In this work, we suggest a model that can deal with both fixed and time varying effects and uses simple hypotheses tests to distinguish which covariates do have dynamic effects. The model is an extension of the parsimonious reduced rank model of rank 1. As such, the number of parameters is kept low, and thus, a flexible set of time functions, such as b-splines, can be used. The basic theory is illustrated along with an efficient fitting algorithm. The proposed method is applied to a dataset of breast cancer patients and compared with a multivariate fractional polynomials approach for modelling time-varying effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The M1 form of tumor-associated macrophages in non-small cell lung cancer is positively associated with survival time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Junliang; Liu, Lunxu; Che, Guowei; Yu, Nanbin; Dai, Fuqiang; You, Zongbing

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in growth, progression and metastasis of tumors. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), TAMs' anti-tumor or pro-tumor role is not determined. Macrophages are polarized into M1 (with anti-tumor function) and M2 (with pro-tumor function) forms. This study was conducted to determine whether the M1 and M2 macrophage densities in NSCLC are associated with patient's survival time. Fifty patients with an average of 1-year survival (short survival group) and 50 patients with an average of 5-year survival (long survival group) were included in this retrospective study. Paraffin-embedded NSCLC specimens and their clinicopathological data including up to 8-year follow-up information were used. Immunohistochemical double-staining of CD68/HLA-DR (markers for M1 macrophages) and CD68/CD163 (markers for M2 macrophages) was performed and evaluated in a blinded fashion. The M1 and M2 macrophage densities in the tumor islets, stroma, or islets and stroma were determined using computer-aided microscopy. Correlation of the macrophage densities and patient's survival time was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Approximately 70% of TAMs were M2 macrophages and the remaining 30% were M1 macrophages in NSCLC. The M2 macrophage densities (approximately 78 to 113 per mm 2 ) in the tumor islets, stroma, or islets and stroma were not significantly different between the long survival and short survival groups. The M1 macrophage densities in the tumor islets (approximately 70/mm 2 ) and stroma (approximately 34/mm 2 ) of the long survival group were significantly higher than the M1 macrophage densities in the tumor islets (approximately 7/mm 2 ) and stroma (13/mm 2 ) of the short survival group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). The M2 macrophage densities were not associated with patient's survival time. The M1 macrophage densities in the tumor islets, stroma, or islets and stroma

  8. Physical processes affecting turbidity in a tidal marsh across a range of time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Poindexter, C.

    2016-12-01

    The direction of net suspended sediment flux, whether into or out of a tidal marsh, can determine whether a marsh is aggrading or eroding. Measuring net suspended sediment fluxes or attributing trends in these fluxes to a particular physical processes is challenging because suspended sediment concentrations are highly variable in time. We used singular spectrum analysis for time series with missing data (SSAM) to observe the relative effects on turbidity of physical processes occurring on different time scales at the Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve. This Preserve covers the largest contiguous area of full-tidal marsh remaining within Suisun Bay, the eastern most subembayment of San Francisco Bay. A long-term monitoring station at First Mallard Slough within the Preserve measures turbidity. Our analysis of of this turbidity record isolated the contribution to total variance from different tides and from annual cycles of San Francisco Bay freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and wind-driven sediment resuspension. Surprisingly, the contribution from diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents (30%) was smaller than the contribution from annual cycles of freshwater inflow, sediment deposition and resuspension (38%). This result contrasts with the original implementation of SSAM to suspended sediment concentration, which was conducted in the central San Francisco Bay. This previous work indicated a significant yet smaller contribution (13%) to total suspended sediment concentration variance from annual cycles (Schoellhamer, D. H., 2002, Continental Shelf Research., 22, 1857-1866). The reason for the contrast relates in part to the location of the First Mallard Slough more than 10 km along the tidal channel network from Suisun Bay. At this location, the lowest frequency variation in suspended sediment is accentuated. Annual peaks in turbidity at First Mallard depend not only on spring and summer wind-driven resuspension of sediment in San Pablo Bay but also its co

  9. The Impact of Timing and Graft Dysfunction on Survival and Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in Antibody Mediated Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J.; Restaino, Susan W.; Zorn, Emmanuel; Vasilescu, Elena R.; Marboe, Charles C.; Mancini, Donna M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with increased mortality and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Early studies suggested that late AMR was rarely associated with graft dysfunction while recent reports have demonstrated an association with increased mortality. We sought to investigate the timing of AMR and its association with graft dysfunction, mortality, and CAV. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified all adult heart transplant recipients at Columbia University Medical Center from 2004–2013 (689 patients). There were 68 primary cases of AMR, which were stratified by early (1-year post-OHT) AMR. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and modeling was performed with multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results From January 1, 2004 through October 1, 2015 43 patients had early AMR (median 23 days post-OHT) and 25 had late AMR (median 1084 days post-OHT). Graft dysfunction was less common with early compared with late AMR (25.6% vs. 56%, p=0.01). Patients with late AMR had decreased post-AMR survival compared with early AMR (1-year 80% vs. 93%, 5-year 51% vs. 73%, p<0.05). When stratified by graft dysfunction, only those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had worse survival (30-day 79%, 1-year 64%, and 5-year 36%, p<0.006). The association remained irrespective of age, sex, DSA, LVAD use, reason for OHT, and recovery of graft function. Similarly, those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had accelerated development of de-novo CAV (50% at 1 year, HR 5.42, p=0.009), while all other groups were all similar to the general transplant population. Conclusion Late AMR is frequently associated with graft dysfunction. When graft dysfunction is present in late AMR there is an early and sustained increased risk of mortality and rapid development of de-novo CAV despite aggressive treatment. PMID:27423693

  10. Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer: No difference in relative survival over time despite more aggressive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnson, Staffan; Hosseini Aliabad, Abolfazl; Holmäng, Sten; Jancke, Georg; Liedberg, Fredrik; Ljungberg, Börje; Malmström, Per-Uno; Rosell, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Swedish National Registry of Urinary Bladder Cancer (SNRUBC) to investigate changes in patient and tumour characteristics, management and survival in bladder cancer cases over a period of 15 years. All patients with newly detected bladder cancer reported to the SNRUBC during 1997-2011 were included in the study. The cohort was divided into three groups, each representing 5 years of the 15 year study period. The study included 31,266 patients (74% men, 26% women) with a mean age of 72 years. Mean age was 71.7 years in the first subperiod (1997-2001) and 72.5 years in the last subperiod (2007-2011). Clinical T categorization changed from the first to the last subperiod: Ta from 45% to 48%, T1 from 21.6% to 22.4%, and T2-T4 from 27% to 25%. Also from the first to the last subperiod, intravesical treatment after transurethral resection for T1G2 and T1G3 tumours increased from 15% to 40% and from 30% to 50%, respectively, and cystectomy for T2-T4 tumours increased from 30% to 40%. No differences between the analysed subperiods were found regarding relative survival in patients with T1 or T2-T4 tumours, or in the whole cohort. This investigation based on a national bladder cancer registry showed that the age of the patients at diagnosis increased, and the proportion of muscle-invasive tumours decreased. The treatment of all tumour stages became more aggressive but relative survival showed no statistically significant change over time.

  11. Evidence for a time-dependent association between FOLR1 expression and survival from ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köbel, M; Madore, J; Ramus, S J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) is expressed in the majority of ovarian carcinomas (OvCa), making it an attractive target for therapy. However, clinical trials testing anti-FOLR1 therapies in OvCa show mixed results and require better understanding of the prognostic relevance of FOLR1...... stage I/II tumours, patients with FOLR1-positive HGSC showed increased OS during the first 2 years only (hazard ratio=0.44, 95% confidence interval=0.20-0.96) and patients with FOLR1-positive clear cell carcinomas (CCC) showed decreased PFS independent of follow-up time (HR=1.89, 95% CI=1.10-3.25, N=259...

  12. Methodology for lognormal modelling of malignant pleural mesothelioma survival time distributions: a study of 5580 case histories from Europe and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F [41 Ewhurst Avenue, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 0DH (United Kingdom); Lahanas, Michael [Klinikum Offenbach, Strahlenklinik, 66 Starkenburgring, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Asselain, Bernard [Institut Curie, Biostatistiques, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Brewster, David [Director, Scottish Cancer Registry, Information Services (NHS National Services Scotland) Area 155, Gyle Square, 1 South Gyle Crescent, Edinburgh EH12 9EB (United Kingdom); Burgers, Sjaak A [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The (Netherlands); Damhuis, Ronald A M [Rotterdam Cancer Registry, Rochussenstraat 125, PO Box 289, 3000 AG Rotterdam, The (Netherlands); Rycke, Yann De [Institut Curie, Biostatistiques, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Gennaro, Valerio [Liguria Mesothelioma Cancer Registry, Etiology and Epidemiology Department, National Cancer Research Institute, Pad. Maragliano, Largo R Benzi, 10-16132 Genoa (Italy); Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila [Department of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology, National Institute of Occupational Medicine, PO Box 199, Swietej Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 Lodz (Poland)

    2004-09-07

    A truncated left-censored and right-censored lognormal model has been validated for representing pleural mesothelioma survival times in the range 5-200 weeks for data subsets grouped by age for males, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years and for all ages combined for females. The cases available for study were from Europe and USA and totalled 5580. This is larger than any other pleural mesothelioma cohort accrued for study. The methodology describes the computation of reference baseline probabilities, 5-200 weeks, which can be used in clinical trials to assess results of future promising treatment methods. This study is an extension of previous lognormal modelling by Mould et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3893-924) to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data where the proportion cured is denoted by C and the uncured proportion, which can be represented by a lognormal, by (1 - C). Pleural mesothelioma is a special case when C = 0.

  13. Methodology for lognormal modelling of malignant pleural mesothelioma survival time distributions: a study of 5580 case histories from Europe and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F; Lahanas, Michael; Asselain, Bernard; Brewster, David; Burgers, Sjaak A; Damhuis, Ronald A M; Rycke, Yann De; Gennaro, Valerio; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2004-01-01

    A truncated left-censored and right-censored lognormal model has been validated for representing pleural mesothelioma survival times in the range 5-200 weeks for data subsets grouped by age for males, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years and for all ages combined for females. The cases available for study were from Europe and USA and totalled 5580. This is larger than any other pleural mesothelioma cohort accrued for study. The methodology describes the computation of reference baseline probabilities, 5-200 weeks, which can be used in clinical trials to assess results of future promising treatment methods. This study is an extension of previous lognormal modelling by Mould et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3893-924) to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data where the proportion cured is denoted by C and the uncured proportion, which can be represented by a lognormal, by (1 - C). Pleural mesothelioma is a special case when C = 0

  14. Renal function, time in therapeutic range and outcomes in warfarin-treated atrial fibrillation patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders Nissen; Lip, Gregory Y H; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severely reduced renal function have been excluded from randomized controlled trials of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF). Warfarin treatment in this population is controversial and data on anticoagulation control and the impact on adverse outcomes are needed. By indi......Patients with severely reduced renal function have been excluded from randomized controlled trials of oral anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation (AF). Warfarin treatment in this population is controversial and data on anticoagulation control and the impact on adverse outcomes are needed......) was calculated using the Rosendaal method. The risk of stroke and bleeding was estimated using multivariable Cox regression analyses with eGFR and TTR estimated time dependently throughout follow-up. We identified 10,423 warfarin-treated AF patients with available international normalized ratio and creatinine...

  15. Short-time dynamics of lysozyme solutions with competing short-range attraction and long-range repulsion: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Jonas; Nägele, Gerhard; Liu, Yun; Wagner, Norman J.; Godfrin, P. Douglas

    2018-02-01

    Recently, atypical static features of microstructural ordering in low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions have been extensively explored experimentally and explained theoretically based on a short-range attractive plus long-range repulsive (SALR) interaction potential. However, the protein dynamics and the relationship to the atypical SALR structure remain to be demonstrated. Here, the applicability of semi-analytic theoretical methods predicting diffusion properties and viscosity in isotropic particle suspensions to low-salinity lysozyme protein solutions is tested. Using the interaction potential parameters previously obtained from static structure factor measurements, our results of Monte Carlo simulations representing seven experimental lysoyzme samples indicate that they exist either in dispersed fluid or random percolated states. The self-consistent Zerah-Hansen scheme is used to describe the static structure factor, S(q), which is the input to our calculation schemes for the short-time hydrodynamic function, H(q), and the zero-frequency viscosity η. The schemes account for hydrodynamic interactions included on an approximate level. Theoretical predictions for H(q) as a function of the wavenumber q quantitatively agree with experimental results at small protein concentrations obtained using neutron spin echo measurements. At higher concentrations, qualitative agreement is preserved although the calculated hydrodynamic functions are overestimated. We attribute the differences for higher concentrations and lower temperatures to translational-rotational diffusion coupling induced by the shape and interaction anisotropy of particles and clusters, patchiness of the lysozyme particle surfaces, and the intra-cluster dynamics, features not included in our simple globular particle model. The theoretical results for the solution viscosity, η, are in qualitative agreement with our experimental data even at higher concentrations. We demonstrate that semi

  16. Long-Range Untethered Real-Time Live Gas Main Robotic Inspection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf; Daphne D' Zurko

    2004-10-31

    Under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) developed an untethered, wireless remote controlled inspection robot dubbed Explorer. The project entailed the design and prototyping of a wireless self-powered video-inspection robot capable of accessing live 6- and 8-inch diameter cast-iron and steel mains, while traversing turns and Ts and elbows under real-time control with live video feedback to an operator. The design is that of a segmented actively articulated and wheel-leg powered robot design, with fisheye imaging capability and self-powered battery storage and wireless real-time communication link. The prototype was functionally tested in an above ground pipe-network, in order to debug all mechanical, electrical and software subsystems, and develop the necessary deployment and retrieval, as well as obstacle-handling scripts. A pressurized natural gas test-section was used to certify it for operation in natural gas at up to 60 psig. Two subsequent live-main field-trials in both cast-iron and steel pipe, demonstrated its ability to be safely launched, operated and retrieved under real-world conditions. The system's ability to safely and repeatably exidrecover from angled and vertical launchers, traverse multi-thousand foot long pipe-sections, make T and varied-angle elbow-turns while wirelessly sending live video and handling command and control messages, was clearly demonstrated. Video-inspection was clearly shown to be a viable tool to understand the state of this critical buried infrastructure, irrespective of low- (cast-iron) or high-pressure (steel) conditions. This report covers the different aspects of specifications, requirements, design, prototyping, integration and testing and field-trialing of the Explorer platform.

  17. Comparison of linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of Orbitrap and ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan

    2017-11-30

    The linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of mass spectrometers are important in metabolome and residue analysis. A large linear dynamic range is mandatory if both low- and high-abundance ions have to be detected and quantitated in heavy matrix samples. These performance criteria, as provided by modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), were systematically investigated. The comparison included two generations of Orbitraps, and an ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system In addition, different scan modes, as provided by the utilized instruments, were investigated. Calibration curves of different compounds covering a concentration range of five orders of magnitude were measured to evaluate the linear interscan dynamic range. The linear intrascan dynamic range and the resulting mass accuracy were evaluated by repeating these measurements in the presence of a very intense background. Modern HRMS instruments can show linear dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude. Often, however, the linear dynamic range is limited by the detection capability (sensitivity and selectivity) and by the electrospray ionization. Orbitraps, as opposed to TOF instruments, show a reduced intrascan dynamic range. This is due to the limited C-trap and Orbitrap capacity. The tested TOF instrument shows poorer mass accuracies than the Orbitraps. In contrast, hyphenation with an ion-mobility device seems not to affect the linear dynamic range. The linear dynamic range of modern HRMS instrumentation has been significantly improved. This also refers to the virtual absence of systematic mass shifts at high ion abundances. The intrascan dynamic range of the current Orbitrap technology may still be a limitation when analyzing complex matrix extracts. On the other hand, the linear dynamic range is not only limited by the detector technology, but can also be shortened by peripheral devices, where the ionization and transfer of ions take place. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  18. A flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival times for censored time-to-event data in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Miki; Cronin, Angel M; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Hajime

    2018-04-22

    In randomized clinical trials where time-to-event is the primary outcome, almost routinely, the logrank test is prespecified as the primary test and the hazard ratio is used to quantify treatment effect. If the ratio of 2 hazard functions is not constant, the logrank test is not optimal and the interpretation of hazard ratio is not obvious. When such a nonproportional hazards case is expected at the design stage, the conventional practice is to prespecify another member of weighted logrank tests, eg, Peto-Prentice-Wilcoxon test. Alternatively, one may specify a robust test as the primary test, which can capture various patterns of difference between 2 event time distributions. However, most of those tests do not have companion procedures to quantify the treatment difference, and investigators have fallen back on reporting treatment effect estimates not associated with the primary test. Such incoherence in the "test/estimation" procedure may potentially mislead clinicians/patients who have to balance risk-benefit for treatment decision. To address this, we propose a flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival time, where the truncation time τ is selected data dependently. The proposed procedure is composed of a prespecified test and an estimation of corresponding robust and interpretable quantitative treatment effect. The utility of the new procedure is demonstrated by numerical studies based on 2 randomized cancer clinical trials; the test is dramatically more powerful than the logrank, Wilcoxon tests, and the restricted mean survival time-based test with a fixed τ, for the patterns of difference seen in these cancer clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  20. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TIMES OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISES, METHODS OF ADAPTATION AND SURVIVAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Oprea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the main results of a research activity conducted in the South – East region of Romania during November 2009, over 117 small and medium-sized enterprises. The results help to better explain some of the social problems that have been generated in the region as a snow ball effect, due to the economic and financial crisis. The research has revealed the following:The majority of the employees of the companies that were interviewed do not participate in training courses related to project management and personal development. However, company administrators consider that such courses are useful to increase competitiveness in times of economic and financial crises. Personnel under 40 years of age suffer from a lack of professional training and dedication to job requirements. Companies have expressed an interest in accessing European Union funding. However, they do not have complete information that would allow them to start a project and finalize it. This lack of information is mainly due to lack of access to specialists who would write the projects and submit them. The majority of entrepreneurs consider they cannot write the projects themselves but on the other hand they do not have access to consulting companies or other organizations that could help them. Their main information source is the mass-media.As a result, companies have adjusted to the effects of the economic crisis, diminishing their activity and laying off people, decreasing the running expenses and stopping investing in their development.

  1. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after single-lung transplantation: impact of time to onset on functional pattern and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugière, Olivier; Pessione, Fabienne; Thabut, Gabriel; Mal, Hervé; Jebrak, Gilles; Lesèche, Guy; Fournier, Michel

    2002-06-01

    Among risk factors for the progression of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation (LT), the influence of time to BOS onset is not known. The aim of the study was to assess if BOS occurring earlier after LT is associated with worse functional prognosis and worse graft survival. We retrospectively compared functional outcome and survival of all single-LT (SLT) recipients who had BOS develop during follow-up in our center according to time to onset of BOS ( or = 3 years after transplantation). Among the 29 SLT recipients with BOS identified during the study period, 20 patients had early-onset BOS and 9 patients had late-onset BOS. The mean decline of FEV(1) over time during the first 9 months in patients with early-onset BOS was significantly greater than in patients with of late-onset BOS (p = 0.04). At last follow-up, patients with early-onset BOS had a lower mean FEV(1) value (25% vs 39% of predicted, p = 0.004), a lower mean PaO(2) value (54 mm Hg vs 73 mm Hg, p = 0.0005), a lower 6-min walk test distance (241 m vs 414 m, p = 0.001), a higher Medical Research Council index value (3.6 vs 1.6, p = 0.0001), and a higher percentage of oxygen dependency (90% vs 11%, p = 0.001) compared with patients with late-onset BOS. In addition, graft survival of patients with early-onset BOS was significantly lower than that of patients with late-onset BOS (log-rank test, p = 0.04). There were 18 of 20 graft failures (90%) in the early-onset BOS group, directly attributable to BOS in all cases (deaths [n = 10] or retransplantation [n = 8]). In the late-onset BOS group, graft failure occurred in four of nine patients due to death from extrapulmonary causes in three of four cases. The median duration of follow-up after occurrence of BOS was not statistically different between patients with early-onset BOS and patients with late-onset BOS (31 +/- 28 months and 37 +/- 26 months, respectively; p = not significant). The subgroup of patients who had BOS develop

  2. New tube fitting range can slash assembly time, reduce tube material costs and eliminate hot work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    Parker Instrumentation has developed a permanent tube connection technology known as Phastite for use in high pressure applications such as in the offshore oil and gas sector. The Phastite push-fit connector offers major savings over traditional permanent and higher pressure connection techniques such as welded or cone-and-thread tube fittings. It also reduces assembly times by 20-fold or more and eliminates the need for hot work permits. The fittings are designed to withstand working pressures up to 1,379 bar. Phastite tube fittings can be used on offshore platforms, as well as on support vessels,, subsea equipment and ROVs such as hydraulic systems for wellhead control, emergency shut down, chemical injection, pumping packages, gas booster systems and test equipment. The connectors offer considerable savings in material cost and weight because they do not need to be used with more expensive tubing with extra thickness to accommodate a thread. Phastite is also resistant to vibration and does not need any anti-vibration accessories. A joint can be made in a matter of seconds with a simple handheld hydraulic tool that makes the push-fit connection. A sealing mechanism based on a series of defined internal ridges creates a secure seal by radial compression. The ridges grip in a way that retains all of the tubing's strength. An additional characteristic is the maintenance free nature of the Phastite connection. 1 fig.

  3. Holovideo: Real-time 3D range video encoding and decoding on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinsky, Nikolaus; Zhang, Song

    2012-02-01

    We present a 3D video-encoding technique called Holovideo that is capable of encoding high-resolution 3D videos into standard 2D videos, and then decoding the 2D videos back into 3D rapidly without significant loss of quality. Due to the nature of the algorithm, 2D video compression such as JPEG encoding with QuickTime Run Length Encoding (QTRLE) can be applied with little quality loss, resulting in an effective way to store 3D video at very small file sizes. We found that under a compression ratio of 134:1, Holovideo to OBJ file format, the 3D geometry quality drops at a negligible level. Several sets of 3D videos were captured using a structured light scanner, compressed using the Holovideo codec, and then uncompressed and displayed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the codec. With the use of OpenGL Shaders (GLSL), the 3D video codec can encode and decode in realtime. We demonstrated that for a video size of 512×512, the decoding speed is 28 frames per second (FPS) with a laptop computer using an embedded NVIDIA GeForce 9400 m graphics processing unit (GPU). Encoding can be done with this same setup at 18 FPS, making this technology suitable for applications such as interactive 3D video games and 3D video conferencing.

  4. Development and characterization of real-time wide-energy range personal neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tsujimura, Norio (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center); Yamano, Toshiya; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Okamoto, Eisuke

    1994-04-01

    The authors developed a real-time personal neutron dosimeter which could give neutron dose equivalent over wide energy region from thermal to 10 odd MeV by using 2 silicon detectors, fast neutron sensor and slow neutron sensor. The energy response of this dosimeter was evaluated under thermal neutron field, monoenergetic neutron field between 200 keV and 15 MeV, and moderated [sup 252]Cf neutron field. The neutron dose equivalent was estimated by adding neutron dose equivalent below 1 MeV given by slow neutron sensor and that above 1 MeV by fast neutron sensor. It was verified from various field tests that this dosimeter is able to give neutron dose equivalent within a factor of 2 margin of accuracy in reactor, accelerator, fusion research and nuclear fuel handling facilities. This dosimeter has more than one order higher sensitivity than conventional personal neutron dosimeters and is insensitive to [gamma]-rays up to about 500 mSv/h. This dosimeter will soon be commercially available as a personal dosimeter which gives neutron and [gamma]-ray dose equivalents simultaneously by installing [gamma]-ray silicon sensor. (author).

  5. Changes of the fluid regime behaviour through time in fault zones (Catalan Coastal Ranges, NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Irene; Lanari, Pierre; Alías, Gemma; Travé, Anna; Vidal, Olivier; Baqués, Vinyet

    2013-04-01

    Most Neogene normal faults of the central Catalan Coastal Ranges are the reactivation of previous normal Mesozoic faults and Paleogene thrust faults. These faults, such as the Vallès and the Hospital faults, are characterised by developing polyphasic fault-fluid systems. These systems have been inferred from regional to thin section scale observations combined with geochemical analyses. Moreover, the neoformation of chlorite and K-white mica in fault rocks has allowed us to constrain the P-T conditions during fault evolution using thermodynamic modelling. In these two faults, deformation is mainly localized in the basement granodiorite from the footwall. As a whole, four tectonic events have been distinguished. The first event corresponds to the Hercynian compression, which is characterised by mylonite bands in the Hospital fault. After this first compressional event and during the exhumation of the pluton, crystallization of M1 and M2 muscovite and microcline occurred in the Vallès fault as result of deuteric alteration, at temperatures between 330°C and 370°C. The second event, attributed to the Mesozoic rifting, is characterized by precipitation of M3 and M4 phengite together with chlorite and calcite C1 at temperatures between 190 and 310°C. These minerals precipitated from a fluid resulting from the mixing between marine waters and meteoric waters, which had been warmed at depth, upflowing along the faults. The third event, corresponding to the Paleogene compression, is characterised by low-temperature meteoric fluids, responsible of precipitation of calcite C2, in the Hospital fault. In the Vallès fault, the Paleogene compression generated a shortcut that produced a blue gouge and the uplift of the Mesozoic structures, avoiding the formation of new minerals within them. Finally, the fourth event, related to the Neogene extension, was responsible of syn-rift cements such as chlorite, calcite C4 and laumontite in the Vallès fault and calcite C3 in the

  6. TOPLAR: Time of Flight with Larmor Precessions - or - How to extend the dynamic range of NSE spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Well, A.A.; Bleuel, M.; Pappas, C.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) spectrometers typically cover a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude at a given wavelength. At long Fourier times the limits are given by the homogeneity of precession fields. At short Fourier times, the quasi-elastic approximation and the NSE formalism mark a methodological limit. We propose to overcome this limitation and by combining Time Of Flight with Larmor precession to extend the capabilities of Neutron Spin Echo spectrometers towards short Fourier times. TOFLAR should be easily implemented on NSE spectrometers equipped with a chopper system such as IN15 or the planned WASP. (authors)

  7. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of semiconductors for optical applications beyond the visible spectral range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernikov, Alexey A.

    2011-07-01

    The work discussed in this thesis is focused on the experimental studies regarding these three steps: (1) investigation of the fundamental effects, (2) characterization of new material systems, and (3) optimization of the semiconductor devices. In all three cases, the experimental technique of choice is photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 2 gives a summary of the PL properties of semiconductors relevant for this work. The first section deals with the intrinsic processes in an ideal direct band gap material, starting with a brief summary of the theoretical background followed by the overview of a typical PL scenario. In the second part of the chapter, the role of the lattice-vibrations, the internal electric fields as well as the influence of the band-structure and the dielectric environment are discussed. Finally, extrinsic PL properties are presented in the third section, focusing on defects and disorder in real materials. In chapter 3, the experimental realization of the spectroscopic studies is discussed. The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) setup is presented, focusing on the applied excitation source, non-linear frequency mixing, and the operation of the streak camera used for the detection. In addition, linear spectroscopy setup for continous-wave (CW) PL and absorption measurements is illustrated. Chapter 4 aims at the study of the interactions between electrons and lattice-vibrations in semiconductor crystals relevant for the proper description of carrier dynamics as well as the heat-transfer processes. The presented discussion covers the experimental studies of many-body effects in phonon-assisted emission of semiconductors due to the carriercarrier Coulomb-interaction. The corresponding theoretical background is discussed in detail in chapter 2. The investigations are focused on the two main questions regarding electron-hole plasma contributions to the phonon-assisted light-matter interaction as well as

  8. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung...... surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown......-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p

  9. High dynamic range adaptive real-time smart camera: an overview of the HDR-ARTiST project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Heyrman, Barthélémy; Ginhac, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Standard cameras capture only a fraction of the information that is visible to the human visual system. This is specifically true for natural scenes including areas of low and high illumination due to transitions between sunlit and shaded areas. When capturing such a scene, many cameras are unable to store the full Dynamic Range (DR) resulting in low quality video where details are concealed in shadows or washed out by sunlight. The imaging technique that can overcome this problem is called HDR (High Dynamic Range) imaging. This paper describes a complete smart camera built around a standard off-the-shelf LDR (Low Dynamic Range) sensor and a Virtex-6 FPGA board. This smart camera called HDR-ARtiSt (High Dynamic Range Adaptive Real-time Smart camera) is able to produce a real-time HDR live video color stream by recording and combining multiple acquisitions of the same scene while varying the exposure time. This technique appears as one of the most appropriate and cheapest solution to enhance the dynamic range of real-life environments. HDR-ARtiSt embeds real-time multiple captures, HDR processing, data display and transfer of a HDR color video for a full sensor resolution (1280 1024 pixels) at 60 frames per second. The main contributions of this work are: (1) Multiple Exposure Control (MEC) dedicated to the smart image capture with alternating three exposure times that are dynamically evaluated from frame to frame, (2) Multi-streaming Memory Management Unit (MMMU) dedicated to the memory read/write operations of the three parallel video streams, corresponding to the different exposure times, (3) HRD creating by combining the video streams using a specific hardware version of the Devebecs technique, and (4) Global Tone Mapping (GTM) of the HDR scene for display on a standard LCD monitor.

  10. Abundance of early functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells does not predict AIDS-free survival time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M M Schellens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T-cell immunity is thought to play an important role in controlling HIV infection, and is a main target for HIV vaccine development. HIV-specific central memory CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 have been associated with control of viremia and are therefore hypothesized to be truly protective and determine subsequent clinical outcome. However, the cause-effect relationship between HIV-specific cellular immunity and disease progression is unknown. We investigated in a large prospective cohort study involving 96 individuals of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies with a known date of seroconversion whether the presence of cytokine-producing HIV-specific CD8(+ T cells early in infection was associated with AIDS-free survival time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The number and percentage of IFNgamma and IL-2 producing CD8(+ T cells was measured after in vitro stimulation with an overlapping Gag-peptide pool in T cells sampled approximately one year after seroconversion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models showed that frequencies of cytokine-producing Gag-specific CD8(+ T cells (IFNgamma, IL-2 or both shortly after seroconversion were neither associated with time to AIDS nor with the rate of CD4(+ T-cell decline. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that high numbers of functional HIV-specific CD8(+ T cells can be found early in HIV infection, irrespective of subsequent clinical outcome. The fact that both progressors and long-term non-progressors have abundant T cell immunity of the specificity associated with low viral load shortly after seroconversion suggests that the more rapid loss of T cell immunity observed in progressors may be a consequence rather than a cause of disease progression.

  11. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  12. Nonlinear optical response of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors in the IR and THz ranges studied with the femtosecond resolution in time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanova, E.; Guizard, S.; Wang, Tianwu

    2017-01-01

    Two time-resolved experimental methods have been used for characterization of the non-linear optical response of chalcogenide glasses of the system As-S-Se-Te in IR and THz ranges upon excitation by femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. Photoinduced conductivity and refractivity were stu...

  13. Communication: Orbital instabilities and triplet states from time-dependent density functional theory and long-range corrected functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, John S.; Koerzdoerfer, Thomas; Zhang, Cai-Rong; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    Long-range corrected hybrids represent an increasingly popular class of functionals for density functional theory (DFT) that have proven to be very successful for a wide range of chemical applications. In this Communication, we examine the performance of these functionals for time-dependent (TD)DFT descriptions of triplet excited states. Our results reveal that the triplet energies are particularly sensitive to the range-separation parameter; this sensitivity can be traced back to triplet instabilities in the ground state coming from the large effective amounts of Hartree-Fock exchange included in these functionals. As such, the use of standard long-range corrected functionals for the description of triplet states at the TDDFT level is not recommended.

  14. Polygenic Score × Intervention Moderation: an Application of Discrete-Time Survival Analysis to Model the Timing of First Marijuana Use Among Urban Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Rashelle J; Fairman, Brian; Masyn, Katherine E; Uhl, George; Maher, Brion; Sisto, Danielle Y; Kellam, Sheppard G; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2018-01-01

    The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial and its effects on a discrete-time survival analysis of time to first smoking marijuana. Research has suggested that initiation of substances is both genetically and environmentally driven (Rhee et al., Archives of general psychiatry 60:1256-1264, 2003; Verweij et al., Addiction 105:417-430, 2010). A previous work has found a significant interaction between the polygenic score and the same elementary school-based intervention with tobacco smoking (Musci et al., in press). The polygenic score reflects the contribution of multiple genes and has been shown in prior research to be predictive of smoking cessation, tobacco use, and marijuana use (Uhl et al., Molecular Psychiatry 19:50-54, 2014). Using data from a longitudinal preventive intervention study (N = 678), we examined age of first marijuana use from sixth grade to age 18. Genetic data were collected during emerging adulthood and were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray (N = 545). The polygenic score was computed using these data. Discrete-time survival analysis was employed to test for intervention main and interaction effects with the polygenic score. We found main effect of the polygenic score approaching significance, with the participants with higher polygenic scores reporting their first smoking marijuana at an age significantly later than controls (p = .050). We also found a significant intervention × polygenic score interaction effect at p = .003, with participants at the higher end of the polygenic score benefiting the most from the intervention in terms of delayed age of first use. These results suggest that genetics may play an important role in the age of first use of marijuana and that differences in genetics may account for the differential effectiveness of classroom-based interventions in delaying substance use experimentation.

  15. Photonics-based real-time ultra-high-range-resolution radar with broadband signal generation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong

    2017-10-23

    Real-time and high-resolution target detection is highly desirable in modern radar applications. Electronic techniques have encountered grave difficulties in the development of such radars, which strictly rely on a large instantaneous bandwidth. In this article, a photonics-based real-time high-range-resolution radar is proposed with optical generation and processing of broadband linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. A broadband LFM signal is generated in the transmitter by photonic frequency quadrupling, and the received echo is de-chirped to a low frequency signal by photonic frequency mixing. The system can operate at a high frequency and a large bandwidth while enabling real-time processing by low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. A conceptual radar is established. Real-time processing of an 8-GHz LFM signal is achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MSa/s. Accurate distance measurement is implemented with a maximum error of 4 mm within a range of ~3.5 meters. Detection of two targets is demonstrated with a range-resolution as high as 1.875 cm. We believe the proposed radar architecture is a reliable solution to overcome the limitations of current radar on operation bandwidth and processing speed, and it is hopefully to be used in future radars for real-time and high-resolution target detection and imaging.

  16. Explaining variation in life history timing across a species range: Effects of climate on spawning time in an exploited marine fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuheimer, Anna; MacKenzie, Brian

    . Combined, these results shed light on the adaptive capacity of the species in the face of changing climate. We use our results to estimate expected spawning time under future climate regimes, and discuss the implications for codecology and management across the species’ range, and in the greater ecosystem......The capacity of a species to tolerate and/or adapt to environmental conditions will shape its response to future climate change including climate extremes. Of the many life-history processes affected by climate change, timing of reproduction greatly influences offspring success and resulting...... population production. Here we explore temporal and spatial changes in spawning time for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) across the species’ range (4 to 80°N). We estimate spawning time using a physiologically relevant metric that includes information on fish thermal history (degree days, DD). First, we estimate...

  17. A methodology for direct quantification of over-ranging length in helical computed tomography with real-time dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Christopher J; Winslow, James F; Hintenlang, David E

    2011-01-31

    In helical computed tomography (CT), reconstruction information from volumes adjacent to the clinical volume of interest (VOI) is required for proper reconstruction. Previous studies have relied upon either operator console readings or indirect extrapolation of measurements in order to determine the over-ranging length of a scan. This paper presents a methodology for the direct quantification of over-ranging dose contributions using real-time dosimetry. A Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 multislice helical CT scanner is used with a novel real-time "point" fiber-optic dosimeter system with 10 ms temporal resolution to measure over-ranging length, which is also expressed in dose-length-product (DLP). Film was used to benchmark the exact length of over-ranging. Over-ranging length varied from 4.38 cm at pitch of 0.5 to 6.72 cm at a pitch of 1.5, which corresponds to DLP of 131 to 202 mGy-cm. The dose-extrapolation method of Van der Molen et al. yielded results within 3%, while the console reading method of Tzedakis et al. yielded consistently larger over-ranging lengths. From film measurements, it was determined that Tzedakis et al. overestimated over-ranging lengths by one-half of beam collimation width. Over-ranging length measured as a function of reconstruction slice thicknesses produced two linear regions similar to previous publications. Over-ranging is quantified with both absolute length and DLP, which contributes about 60 mGy-cm or about 10% of DLP for a routine abdominal scan. This paper presents a direct physical measurement of over-ranging length within 10% of previous methodologies. Current uncertainties are less than 1%, in comparison with 5% in other methodologies. Clinical implantation can be increased by using only one dosimeter if codependence with console readings is acceptable, with an uncertainty of 1.1% This methodology will be applied to different vendors, models, and postprocessing methods--which have been shown to produce over-ranging lengths

  18. The effect of timing and graft dysfunction on survival and cardiac allograft vasculopathy in antibody-mediated rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; Restaino, Susan W; Zorn, Emmanuel; Vasilescu, Elena R; Marboe, Charles C; Mancini, Donna M

    2016-09-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with increased death and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Early studies suggested that late AMR was rarely associated with graft dysfunction, whereas recent reports have demonstrated an association with increased mortality. We investigated the timing of AMR and its association with graft dysfunction, death, and CAV. This retrospective cohort study identified all adult orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) recipients (N = 689) at Columbia University Medical Center from 2004 to 2013. There were 68 primary cases of AMR, which were stratified by early ( 1 year post-OHT) AMR. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and modeling was performed with multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression. From January 1, 2004, through October 1, 2015, early AMR (median 23 days post-OHT) occurred in 43 patients and late AMR (median 1,084 days post-OHT) occurred in 25. Graft dysfunction was less common with early compared with late AMR (25.6% vs 56%, p = 0.01). Patients with late AMR had decreased post-AMR survival compared with early AMR (1 year: 80% vs 93%, 5 years: 51% vs 73%, p < 0.05). When stratified by graft dysfunction, only those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had worse survival (30 days: 79%, 1 year: 64%, 5 years: 36%; p < 0.006). The association remained irrespective of age, sex, donor-specific antibodies, left ventricular assist device use, reason for OHT, and recovery of graft function. Similarly, those with late AMR and graft dysfunction had accelerated development of de novo CAV (50% at 1 year; hazard ratio, 5.42; p = 0.009), whereas all other groups were all similar to the general transplant population. Late AMR is frequently associated with graft dysfunction. When graft dysfunction is present in late AMR, there is an early and sustained increased risk of death and rapid development of de novo CAV despite aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung

  19. Coupling between feedback loops in autoregulatory networks affects bistability range, open-loop gain and switching times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Abhinav; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical regulatory networks governing diverse cellular processes such as stress-response, differentiation and cell cycle often contain coupled feedback loops. We aim at understanding how features of feedback architecture, such as the number of loops, the sign of the loops and the type of their coupling, affect network dynamical performance. Specifically, we investigate how bistability range, maximum open-loop gain and switching times of a network with transcriptional positive feedback are affected by additive or multiplicative coupling with another positive- or negative-feedback loop. We show that a network's bistability range is positively correlated with its maximum open-loop gain and that both quantities depend on the sign of the feedback loops and the type of feedback coupling. Moreover, we find that the addition of positive feedback could decrease the bistability range if we control the basal level in the signal-response curves of the two systems. Furthermore, the addition of negative feedback has the capacity to increase the bistability range if its dissociation constant is much lower than that of the positive feedback. We also find that the addition of a positive feedback to a bistable network increases the robustness of its bistability range, whereas the addition of a negative feedback decreases it. Finally, we show that the switching time for a transition from a high to a low steady state increases with the effective fold change in gene regulation. In summary, we show that the effect of coupled feedback loops on the bistability range and switching times depends on the underlying mechanistic details. (paper)

  20. Studying DDT Susceptibility at Discriminating Time Intervals Focusing on Maximum Limit of Exposure Time Survived by DDT Resistant Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae): an Investigative Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Aarti; Kesari, Shreekant; Das, Pradeep; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-24

    Extensive application of routine insecticide i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India, had evoked the problem of resistance/tolerance against DDT, eventually nullifying the DDT dependent strategies to control this vector. Because tolerating an hour-long exposure to DDT is not challenging enough for the resistant P. argentipes, estimating susceptibility by exposing sand flies to insecticide for just an hour becomes a trivial and futile task.Therefore, this bioassay study was carried out to investigate the maximum limit of exposure time to which DDT resistant P. argentipes can endure the effect of DDT for their survival. The mortality rate of laboratory-reared DDT resistant strain P. argentipes exposed to DDT was studied at discriminating time intervals of 60 min and it was concluded that highly resistant sand flies could withstand up to 420 min of exposure to this insecticide. Additionally, the lethal time for female P. argentipes was observed to be higher than for males suggesting that they are highly resistant to DDT's toxicity. Our results support the monitoring of tolerance limit with respect to time and hence points towards an urgent need to change the World Health Organization's protocol for susceptibility identification in resistant P. argentipes.

  1. Is Leptospira able to survive in raw milk? Study on the inactivation at different storage times and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Turchi, Barbara; Ferrone, Martina; Galiero, Alessia; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Torracca, Beatrice; Cerri, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    The consumption of raw milk is currently increasing due to several beneficial aspects, such as nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits. However, some authors highlight the potential risk associated with raw milk consumption. In Italy, while the absence of some pathogen microorganisms is set by the regional regulation DGR 381/2007, for other microorganisms, such as Leptospira, no recommendations are provided. Leptospira is not ascribed among classical milk pathogens; however, it can potentially be present in raw milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival in raw milk of six serovars of Leptospira after storage at different temperatures (4 °C ± 2 °C, 20 °C ± 2 °C, and 30 °C ± 2 °C) for different incubation times (20 min, 45 min, 1 h, and 1 h and 30 min), in order to determine the potential risk for consumers. Moreover, the immediate effect of bovine, goat, and donkey raw milk on tested Leptospira serovars was visually evaluated. After incubation, all samples were subcultured in EMJH and incubated aerobically at 30 °C for 3 months. All inoculated media were weekly examined by dark-field microscope in order to assess Leptospira survival. Extemporary observation of strains' behavior in milk allowed to detect an almost immediate motility loss, and no leptospires were detected by microscopic observations carried out weekly during the trial period. According to our results, it could be possible to exclude raw milk as a source of Leptospira infection for consumers.

  2. Three explanations for biodiversity hotspots: small range size, geographical overlap and time for species accumulation. An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lyn G; Hardy, Nate B; Crisp, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    To understand the generation and maintenance of biodiversity hotspots, we tested three major hypotheses: rates of diversification, ecological limits to diversity, and time for species accumulation. Using dated molecular phylogenies, measures of species' range size and geographical clade overlap, niche modelling, and lineages-through-time plots of Australian Fabaceae, we compared the southwest Australia Floristic Region (SWAFR; a global biodiversity hotspot) with a latitudinally equivalent non-hotspot, southeast Australia (SEA). Ranges of species (real and simulated) were smaller in the SWAFR than in SEA. Geographical overlap of clades was significantly greater for Daviesia in the SWAFR than in SEA, but the inverse for Bossiaea. Lineage diversification rates over the past 10 Myr did not differ between the SWAFR and SEA in either genus. Interaction of multiple factors probably explains the differences in measured diversity between the two regions. Steeper climatic gradients in the SWAFR probably explain the smaller geographical ranges of both genera there. Greater geographical overlap of clades in the SWAFR, combined with a longer time in the region, can explain why Daviesia is far more species-rich there than in SEA. Our results indicate that the time for speciation and ecological limits hypotheses, in concert, can explain the differences in biodiversity. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Evaluation of Real-Time Hand Motion Tracking Using a Range Camera and the Mean-Shift Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, H.; Lichti, D.

    2011-09-01

    Several sensors have been tested for improving the interaction between humans and machines including traditional web cameras, special gloves, haptic devices, cameras providing stereo pairs of images and range cameras. Meanwhile, several methods are described in the literature for tracking hand motion: the Kalman filter, the mean-shift algorithm and the condensation algorithm. In this research, the combination of a range camera and the simple version of the mean-shift algorithm has been evaluated for its capability for hand motion tracking. The evaluation was assessed in terms of position accuracy of the tracking trajectory in x, y and z directions in the camera space and the time difference between image acquisition and image display. Three parameters have been analyzed regarding their influence on the tracking process: the speed of the hand movement, the distance between the camera and the hand and finally the integration time of the camera. Prior to the evaluation, the required warm-up time of the camera has been measured. This study has demonstrated the suitability of the range camera used in combination with the mean-shift algorithm for real-time hand motion tracking but for very high speed hand movement in the traverse plane with respect to the camera, the tracking accuracy is low and requires improvement.

  4. Suspected survivor bias in case-control studies: stratify on survival time and use a negative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, Nienke; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Rosendaal, Frits R; Reitsma, Pieter H; Lijfering, Willem M

    2014-02-01

    Selection bias in case-control studies occurs when control selection is inappropriate. However, selection bias due to improper case sampling is less well recognized. We describe how to recognize survivor bias (i.e., selection on exposed cases) and illustrate this with an example study. A case-control study was used to analyze the effect of statins on major bleedings during treatment with vitamin K antagonists. A total of 110 patients who experienced such bleedings were included 18-1,018 days after the bleeding complication and matched to 220 controls. A protective association of major bleeding for exposure to statins (odds ratio [OR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.29-1.08) was found, which did not become stronger after adjustment for confounding factors. These observations lead us to suspect survivor bias. To identify this bias, results were stratified on time between bleeding event and inclusion, and repeated for a negative control (an exposure not related to survival): blood group non-O. The ORs for exposure to statins increased gradually to 1.37 with shorter time between outcome and inclusion, whereas ORs for the negative control remained constant, confirming our hypothesis. We recommend the presented method to check for overoptimistic results, that is, survivor bias in case-control studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The European tracer experiment ETEX: a real-time long range atmospheric dispersion model exercise in different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; )

    1998-01-01

    Two long-range tracer experiments were conducted. An inert, non-depositing tracer was being released at Rennes in France for 12 hours. The 168 sampling ground stations were run by the National Meteorological Services. Twenty-four institutions took part in the real-time forecasting of the cloud evolution using 28 long-range dispersion models. The horizontal projection of the cloud evolution over Europe was combined with real-time aerial chemical analysis. The results of the comparison indicate that a limited group of models (7-8) were capable of obtaining a good reproduction of the cloud movement throughout Europe for the first release. Large differences were, however, found in the predicted tracer concentration at a particular location. For the second release, there were large differences between the measured and calculated cloud, particularly after a front passage, which indicates that some efforts have still to be spent before consensus on the model reliability is achieved. (P.A.)

  6. Long-range correlation properties in timing of skilled piano performance: the influence of auditory feedback and deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eHerrojo Ruiz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback.As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS.Overall, the present investigations are the first to demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN

  7. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sissay, Adonay [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lopata, Kenneth, E-mail: klopata@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  8. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  9. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  10. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  11. Patients' time in therapeutic range on warfarin among US patients with atrial fibrillation: Results from ORBIT-AF registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Sean D; Simon, DaJuanicia N; Thomas, Laine; Fonarow, Gregg C; Kowey, Peter R; Chang, Paul; Singer, Daniel E; Ansell, Jack; Blanco, Rosalia G; Gersh, Bernard; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Hylek, Elaine M; Go, Alan S; Piccini, Jonathan P; Peterson, Eric D

    2015-07-01

    Time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 3.0 is important for the safety and effectiveness of warfarin anticoagulation. There are few data on TTR among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in community-based clinical practice. Using the US Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), we examined TTR (using a modified Rosendaal method) among 5,210 patients with AF on warfarin and treated at 155 sites. Patients were grouped into quartiles based on TTR data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling with generalized estimating equations was used to determine patient and provider factors associated with the lowest (worst) TTR. Overall, 59% of the measured INR values were between 2.0 and 3.0, with an overall mean and median TTR of 65% ± 20% and 68% (interquartile range [IQR] 53%-79%). The median times below and above the therapeutic range were 17% (IQR 8%-29%) and 10% (IQR 3%-19%), respectively. Patients with renal dysfunction, advanced heart failure, frailty, prior valve surgery, and higher risk for bleeding (ATRIA score) or stroke (CHA2DS2-VASc score) had significantly lower TTR (P range. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Parkinson's Disease on Time Estimation as a Function of Stimulus Duration Range and Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jared G.; Harper, David N.; Gittings, David; Abernethy, David

    2007-01-01

    The present research sought to investigate the role of the basal ganglia in timing of sub- and supra-second intervals via an examination of the ability of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) to make temporal judgments in two ranges, 100-500 ms, and 1-5 s. Eighteen non-demented medicated patients with PD were compared with 14 matched controls on a…

  13. A re-evaluation of the initial yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Yusa; Lin Mingzhang; Wu, Guozhong; Iijima, Hokuto; Yoshii, Koji; Ueda, Toru; Kudo, Hisaaki; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    The yield of the hydrated electron in the picosecond time range has been re-evaluated with an ultrafast pulse radiolysis system using a laser photocathode RF-gun in combination with a conventional one, and a value of 4.1±0.2 per 100 eV of absorbed energy at 20 ps was derived. This is consistent with recent experimental results using a time correlation method [Bartels et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 1686-1691 (2000)] and with Monte-Carlo calculations [Muroya et al., Can. J. Chem. 80 1367-1374 (2002)

  14. Time Delay and Long-Range Connection Induced Synchronization Transitions in Newman-Watts Small-World Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The synchronization transitions in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks (SWNNs) induced by time delay and long-range connection (LRC) probability have been investigated by synchronization parameter and space-time plots. Four distinct parameter regions, that is, asynchronous region, transition region, synchronous region, and oscillatory region have been discovered at certain LRC probability as time delay is increased. Interestingly, desynchronization is observed in oscillatory region. More importantly, we consider the spatiotemporal patterns obtained in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs are the competition results between long-range drivings (LRDs) and neighboring interactions. In addition, for moderate time delay, the synchronization of neuronal network can be enhanced remarkably by increasing LRC probability. Furthermore, lag synchronization has been found between weak synchronization and complete synchronization as LRC probability is a little less than 1.0. Finally, the two necessary conditions, moderate time delay and large numbers of LRCs, are exposed explicitly for synchronization in delayed Newman-Watts SWNNs. PMID:24810595

  15. The number and microlocalization of tumor-associated immune cells are associated with patient's survival time in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Fuqiang; Liu, Lunxu; Che, Guowei; Yu, Nanbin; Pu, Qiang; Zhang, Shangfu; Ma, Junliang; Ma, Lin; You, Zongbing

    2010-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is composed of tumor cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and infiltrating immune cells. Tumor-associated immune cells may inhibit or promote tumor growth and progression. This study was conducted to determine whether the number and microlocalization of macrophages, mature dendritic cells and cytotoxic T cells in non-small cell lung cancer are associated with patient's survival time. Ninety-nine patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were included in this retrospective study. Paraffin-embedded NSCLC specimens and their clinicopathological data including up to 8-year follow-up information were used. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 (marker for macrophages), CD83 (marker for mature dendritic cells), and CD8 (marker for cytotoxic T cells) was performed and evaluated in a blinded fashion. The numbers of immune cells in tumor islets and stroma, tumor islets, or tumor stroma were counted under a microscope. Correlation of the cell numbers and patient's survival time was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 13.0). The numbers of macrophages, mature dendritic cells and cytotoxic T cells were significantly more in the tumor stroma than in the tumor islets. The number of macrophages in the tumor islets was positively associated with patient's survival time, whereas the number of macrophages in the tumor stroma was negatively associated with patient's survival time in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The number of mature dendritic cells in the tumor islets and stroma, tumor islets only, or tumor stroma only was positively associated with patient's survival time in a univariate analysis but not in a multivariate analysis. The number of cytotoxic T cells in the tumor islets and stroma was positively associated with patient's survival time in a univariate analysis but not in a multivariate analysis. The number of cytotoxic T cells in the tumor islets only or stroma

  16. Real-time multi-target ranging based on chaotic polarization laser radars in the drive-response VCSELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Xu, Geliang; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Zhenzhen

    2017-09-04

    According to the principle of complete chaos synchronization and the theory of Hilbert phase transformation, we propose a novel real-time multi-target ranging scheme by using chaotic polarization laser radar in the drive-response vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). In the scheme, to ensure each polarization component (PC) of the master VCSEL (MVCSEL) to be synchronized steadily with that of the slave VCSEL, the output x-PC and y-PC from the MVCSEL in the drive system and those in the response system are modulated by the linear electro-optic effect simultaneously. Under this condition, by simulating the influences of some key parameters of the system on the synchronization quality and the relative errors of the two-target ranging, related operating parameters can be optimized. The x-PC and the y-PC, as two chaotic radar sources, are used to implement the real-time ranging for two targets. It is found that the measured distances of the two targets at arbitrary position exhibit strong real-time stability and only slight jitter. Their resolutions are up to millimeters, and their relative errors are very small and less than 2.7%.

  17. An exploratory discrete-time multilevel analysis of the effect of social support on the survival of elderly people in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixin; Jones, Kelvyn; Wang, Wenfei Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This study undertakes a survival analysis of elderly persons in China using Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 2002–2008. Employing discrete-time multilevel models, we explored the effect of social support on the survival of elderly people in China. This study focuses on objective (living arrangements and received support) and subjective activities (perceived support) of social support, finding that the effect of different activities of social support on the survival of elderly people varies according to the availability of different support resources. Specifically, living with a spouse, financial independence, perceiving care support from any resource is associated with higher survival rates for elderly people. Separate analysis focusing on urban elderly and rural elderly revealed broadly similar results. There is a larger difference between those perceiving care support from family or social service and not perceiving care support in urban areas comparing to those in rural areas. Those who cannot pay medical expenses are the least likely to survive. The higher level of economic development in province has no significant effect on the survival of elderly people for the whole sample model and the elderly people in urban areas; however, there is a negative influence on the survival of the rural elderly people. PMID:25703671

  18. Results of surgical excision and evaluation of factors associated with survival time in dogs with lingual neoplasia: 97 cases (1995-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William T N; Ehrhart, Nicole; Withrow, Stephen J; Rebhun, Robert B; Boston, Sarah; Buracco, Paolo; Reiter, Alexander M; Schallberger, Sandra P; Aldridge, Charles F; Kent, Michael S; Mayhew, Philipp D; Brown, Dorothy C

    2013-05-15

    To describe the clinical characteristics, treatments, outcomes, and factors associated with survival time in a cohort of dogs with lingual neoplasia that underwent surgical excision. Retrospective case series. Animals-97 client-owned dogs. Medical records of dogs with a lingual tumor examined between 1995 and 2008 were reviewed. Records were included if a lingual tumor was confirmed by histologic examination and surgical excision of the mass was attempted. Data were recorded and analyzed to identify prognostic factors. Clinical signs were mostly related to the oral cavity. For 93 dogs, marginal excision, subtotal glossectomy, and near-total glossectomy were performed in 35 (38%), 55 (59%), and 3 (3%), respectively. Surgery-related complications were rare, but 27 (28%) dogs had tumor recurrence. The most common histopathologic diagnoses for the 97 dogs were squamous cell carcinoma (31 [32%]) and malignant melanoma (29 [30%]). Eighteen (19%) dogs developed metastatic disease, and the overall median survival time was 483 days. Median survival time was 216 days for dogs with squamous cell carcinoma and 241 days for dogs with malignant melanoma. Dogs with lingual tumors ≥ 2 cm in diameter at diagnosis had a significantly shorter survival time than did dogs with tumors melanoma predominate. A thorough physical examination to identify lingual tumors at an early stage and surgical treatment after tumor identification are recommended because tumor size significantly affected survival time.

  19. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA is associated with the kidney survival time in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsheng; Guo, Zhanjun; Bai, Yaling; Zhang, Junxia; Cui, Liwen; Zhang, Huiran; Zhang, Shenglei; Ai, Xiaolu

    2015-02-01

    The mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) is known to accumulate mutations and SNPs at a higher frequency than other regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We had identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients previously. In this study, we investigated the association of SNPs in the D-loop of mtDNA with the kidney survival of CKD. The D-loop region of mtDNA was sequenced for 119 CKD patients from the inpatient of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to identify disease outcome-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify risk factors for the kidney survival of CKD. In the present study, we identified 20 SNPs with a frequency higher than 5% and assessed the relationship of these SNPs with kidney survival time in CKD patients, a SNP of 146 was identified by log-rank test for statistically significant prediction of the kidney survival time. In an overall multivariate analysis, allele 146 was identified as an independent predictor of kidney survival time in CKD patients. The survival time of kidney in the CKD patients with 146C was significantly shorter than that of kidney in CKD patients with 146T (relative risk, 2.336; 95% CI, 1.319-3.923; p = 0.001). SNPs in the D-loop can predict the kidney survival of CKD patients. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop can help to identify CKD patient subgroup at high risk of a poor disease outcome.

  1. Improving long-range dispersion predictions with ETEX real-time and a-posteriori model evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiato, F.

    1997-01-01

    The Italian environmental Protection Agency (ANPA), which is responsible for the evaluation of the consequences of accidental releases into the atmosphere, has participated to both the real-time (phase-1) and a-posteriori (phase-2) ETEX model evaluations. The double benchmark actually constituted an invaluable experience for better understanding the skill and limits of the present long-range dispersion modelling capabilities. In particular, the strong difference between phase-1 and phase-2 model performance emphasised the opportunity to modify, improve or tune a number of specific aspects of the overall simulation. ETEX model runs were carried out with the Lagrangian particle model APOLLO. The meteorological input was constituted by ECMWF fields. Three-hourly average concentrations paired in space and time and time-integrated concentrations were used in the evaluation of the results, based on a set of statistical indexes and concentration contour lines and scatter diagrams

  2. Expression of S1P metabolizing enzymes and receptors correlate with survival time and regulate cell migration in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien-Möller, Sandra; Lange, Sandra; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Paland, Heiko; Küpper, Johannes; Herzog, Susann; Weitmann, Kerstin; Havemann, Christoph; Vogelgesang, Silke; Marx, Sascha; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W S; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2016-03-15

    A signaling molecule which is involved in proliferation and migration of malignant cells is the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). There are hints for a potential role of S1P signaling in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is characterized by a poor prognosis. Therefore, a comprehensive expression analysis of S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P5) and S1P metabolizing enzymes in human GBM (n = 117) compared to healthy brain (n = 10) was performed to evaluate their role for patient´s survival. Furthermore, influence of S1P receptor inhibition on proliferation and migration were studied in LN18 GBM cells. Compared to control brain, mRNA levels of S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P generating sphingosine kinase-1 were elevated in GBM. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated an association between S1P1 and S1P2 with patient´s survival times. In vitro, an inhibitory effect of the SphK inhibitor SKI-II on viability of LN18 cells was shown. S1P itself had no effect on viability but stimulated LN18 migration which was blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P2. The participation of S1P1 and S1P2 in LN18 migration was further supported by siRNA-mediated silencing of these receptors. Immunoblots and inhibition experiments suggest an involvement of the PI3-kinase/AKT1 pathway in the chemotactic effect of S1P in LN18 cells.In summary, our data argue for a role of S1P signaling in proliferation and migration of GBM cells. Individual components of the S1P pathway represent prognostic factors for patients with GBM. Perspectively, a selective modulation of S1P receptor subtypes could represent a therapeutic approach for GBM patients and requires further evaluation.

  3. Correlated continuous time random walks: combining scale-invariance with long-range memory for spatial and temporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Johannes H P; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Standard continuous time random walk (CTRW) models are renewal processes in the sense that at each jump a new, independent pair of jump length and waiting time are chosen. Globally, anomalous diffusion emerges through scale-free forms of the jump length and/or waiting time distributions by virtue of the generalized central limit theorem. Here we present a modified version of recently proposed correlated CTRW processes, where we incorporate a power-law correlated noise on the level of both jump length and waiting time dynamics. We obtain a very general stochastic model, that encompasses key features of several paradigmatic models of anomalous diffusion: discontinuous, scale-free displacements as in Lévy flights, scale-free waiting times as in subdiffusive CTRWs, and the long-range temporal correlations of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We derive the exact solutions for the single-time probability density functions and extract the scaling behaviours. Interestingly, we find that different combinations of the model parameters lead to indistinguishable shapes of the emerging probability density functions and identical scaling laws. Our model will be useful for describing recent experimental single particle tracking data that feature a combination of CTRW and FBM properties. (paper)

  4. First off-time treatment prostate-specific antigen kinetics predicts survival in intermittent androgen deprivation for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Olivier, Fabien; Prapotnich, Dominique; Dancausa, José; Fhima, Mehdi; David, Stéphane; Secin, Fernando P; Ingels, Alexandre; Barret, Eric; Galiano, Marc; Rozet, François; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time is relying on an exponential kinetic pattern. This pattern has never been validated in the setting of intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD). Objective is to analyze the prognostic significance for PCa of recurrent patterns in PSA kinetics in patients undergoing IAD. A retrospective study was conducted on 377 patients treated with IAD. On-treatment period (ONTP) consisted of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist injections combined with oral androgen receptor antagonist. Off-treatment period (OFTP) began when PSA was lower than 4 ng/ml. ONTP resumed when PSA was higher than 20 ng/ml. PSA values of each OFTP were fitted with three basic patterns: exponential (PSA(t) = λ.e(αt)), linear (PSA(t) = a.t), and power law (PSA(t) = a.t(c)). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression model analyzed predictive factors for oncologic outcomes. Only 45% of the analyzed OFTPs were exponential. Linear and power law PSA kinetics represented 7.5% and 7.7%, respectively. Remaining fraction of analyzed OFTPs (40%) exhibited complex kinetics. Exponential PSA kinetics during the first OFTP was significantly associated with worse oncologic outcome. The estimated 10-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) was 46% for exponential versus 80% for nonexponential PSA kinetics patterns. The corresponding 10-year probability of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) was 69% and 31% for the two patterns, respectively. Limitations include retrospective design and mixed indications for IAD. PSA kinetic fitted with exponential pattern in approximately half of the OFTPs. First OFTP exponential PSA kinetic was associated with a shorter time to CRPC and worse CSS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modular 125 ps resolution time interval digitizer for 10 MHz stop burst rates and 33 ms range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.

    1978-01-01

    A high resolution multiple stop time interval digitizer is described. It is capable of resolving stop burst rates of up to 10 MHz with an incremental resolution of 125 ps within a range of 33 ms. The digitizer consists of five CAMAC modules and uses a standard CAMAC crate and controller. All the functions and ranges are completely computer controlled. Any two subsequent stop pulses in a burst can be resolved within 100 ns due to a new dual interpolation technique employed. The accuracy is maintained by a high stability 125 MHz reference clock. Up to 131 stop events can be stored in a 48-bit, 10 MHz derandomizing storage register before the digitizer overflows. The experimental data are also given

  6. Delay-Range-Dependent H∞ Control for Automatic Mooring Positioning System with Time-Varying Input Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the economy and security of the positioning system in semi-submersible platform, the paper presents a new scheme based on the mooring line switching strategy. Considering the input delay in switching process, H∞ control with time-varying input delay is designed to calculate the control forces to resist disturbing forces. In order to reduce the conservativeness, the information of the lower bound of delay is taken into account, and a Lyapunov function which contains the range of delay is constructed. Besides, the input constraint is considered to avoid breakage of mooring lines. The sufficient conditions for delay-range-dependent stabilization are derived in terms of LMI, and the controller is also obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by a realistic design example.

  7. Consequences of cold-ischemia time on primary nonfunction and patient and graft survival in liver transplantation: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Stahl

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to preserve organs prior to transplant is essential to the organ allocation process.The purpose of this study is to describe the functional relationship between cold-ischemia time (CIT and primary nonfunction (PNF, patient and graft survival in liver transplant.To identify relevant articles Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane database, including the non-English literature identified in these databases, was searched from 1966 to April 2008. Two independent reviewers screened and extracted the data. CIT was analyzed both as a continuous variable and stratified by clinically relevant intervals. Nondichotomous variables were weighted by sample size. Percent variables were weighted by the inverse of the binomial variance.Twenty-six studies met criteria. Functionally, PNF% = -6.678281+0.9134701*CIT Mean+0.1250879*(CIT Mean-9.895352-0.0067663*(CIT Mean-9.895353, r2 = .625, , p<.0001. Mean patient survival: 93% (1 month, 88% (3 months, 83% (6 months and 83% (12 months. Mean graft survival: 85.9% (1 month, 80.5% (3 months, 78.1% (6 months and 76.8% (12 months. Maximum patient and graft survival occurred with CITs between 7.5-12.5 hrs at each survival interval. PNF was also significantly correlated with ICU time, % first time grafts and % immunologic mismatches.The results of this work imply that CIT may be the most important pre-transplant information needed in the decision to accept an organ.

  8. Some remarks on the time of flight and range of a projectile in a linear resisting medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the recent work by Karkantzakos [Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 2 (2009 76–81], anumber of remarks highlighting the connection between the Lambert W function and the time of flight and range of a projectilemoving in a resisting medium where the retarding force acting on the projectile is proportional to its velocity are made.In particular, we show how each of these quantities can be expressed in closed form in terms of the Lambert W function andindicate how the analysis of the motion becomes greatly simplified by its introduction.

  9. Substitution time of natural food by artificial diet on survival rate and growth of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae during rearing in low salinity media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine natural food substitution time by artificial diet   after salinity acclimatization from 20 ppt until 2 ppt, which can increase survival and growth of (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae during rearing period. Design experiment was completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications of natural food Chironomus sp.  (60% of crude protein substitution time by artificial diet (40% of crude protein at day: 1 (A, 7 (B, 14 (C, 21 (D and full natural food without artificial diet (E during 28 days rearing period. White shrimp postlarvae and rearing media in this experiment based from best result of earlier research that is PL25 from acclimatization in media 2 ppt with addition of potassium 25 ppm to freshwater media.  The densities of PL25 white shrimp were 20 PLs/50 liters of 2 ppt media. The result of this experiment showed that the use of artificial diet as soon as after salinity acclimatization (PL25 gave best performance production compared to which only that was given natural food Chironomus sp. during experiment or with treatment by artificial diet substitution at day-7, day-14 or day-21, shown with the highest value of food consumption level, protein retention, energy retention, daily growth rate and food efficiency. Survival rate of PL54 was above 80% and not significant different between treatment. That is supported by chemical-physical value of water quality still in range appropriate to survival rate of white shrimp post larvae during a rearing period. The result of this experiment indicated that requirement nutrient of PL25 in low salinity did not fulfilled if only rely on natural food, so that require artificial diet with nutrition content to support growth and survival rate of white shrimp post larvae more maximal. Key words: salinity, natural food, artificial diet, Pacific white shrimp   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan waktu penggantian pakan alami oleh

  10. Climatic associations of British species distributions show good transferability in time but low predictive accuracy for range change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rapacciuolo

    Full Text Available Conservation planners often wish to predict how species distributions will change in response to environmental changes. Species distribution models (SDMs are the primary tool for making such predictions. Many methods are widely used; however, they all make simplifying assumptions, and predictions can therefore be subject to high uncertainty. With global change well underway, field records of observed range shifts are increasingly being used for testing SDM transferability. We used an unprecedented distribution dataset documenting recent range changes of British vascular plants, birds, and butterflies to test whether correlative SDMs based on climate change provide useful approximations of potential distribution shifts. We modelled past species distributions from climate using nine single techniques and a consensus approach, and projected the geographical extent of these models to a more recent time period based on climate change; we then compared model predictions with recent observed distributions in order to estimate the temporal transferability and prediction accuracy of our models. We also evaluated the relative effect of methodological and taxonomic variation on the performance of SDMs. Models showed good transferability in time when assessed using widespread metrics of accuracy. However, models had low accuracy to predict where occupancy status changed between time periods, especially for declining species. Model performance varied greatly among species within major taxa, but there was also considerable variation among modelling frameworks. Past climatic associations of British species distributions retain a high explanatory power when transferred to recent time--due to their accuracy to predict large areas retained by species--but fail to capture relevant predictors of change. We strongly emphasize the need for caution when using SDMs to predict shifts in species distributions: high explanatory power on temporally-independent records

  11. Real-Time Adaptive Control of a Magnetic Levitation System with a Large Range of Load Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhou; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-05-11

    In an idle light-load or a full-load condition, the change of the load mass of a suspension system is very significant. If the control parameters of conventional control methods remain unchanged, the suspension performance of the control system deteriorates rapidly or even loses stability when the load mass changes in a large range. In this paper, a real-time adaptive control method for a magnetic levitation system with large range of mass changes is proposed. First, the suspension control system model of the maglev train is built up, and the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed. Then, a fast inner current-loop is used to simplify the design of the suspension control system, and an adaptive control method is put forward to ensure that the system is still in a stable state when the load mass varies in a wide range. Simulations and experiments show that when the load mass of the maglev system varies greatly, the adaptive control method is effective to suspend the system stably with a given displacement.

  12. A retrospective analysis of survival outcomes for two different radiotherapy fractionation schedules given in the same overall time for limited stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettington, Catherine S.; Bryant, Guy; Hickey, Brigid; Tripcony, Lee; Pratt, Gary; Fay, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To compare survival outcomes for two fractionation schedules of thoracic radiotherapy, both given over 3 weeks, in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). At Radiation Oncology Mater Centre (ROMC) and the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH), patients with LS-SCLC treated with curative intent are given radiotherapy (with concurrent chemotherapy) to a dose of either 40Gy in 15 fractions ('the 40Gy/15⧣group') or 45Gy in 30 fractions ('the 45Gy/30⧣group'). The choice largely depends on institutional preference. Both these schedules are given over 3 weeks, using daily and twice-daily fractionation respectively. The records of all such patients treated from January 2000 to July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and survival outcomes between the two groups compared. Of 118 eligible patients, there were 38 patients in the 40Gy/15⧣ group and 41 patients in the 45Gy/30⧣ group. The median relapse-free survival time was 12 months in both groups. Median overall survival was 21 months (95% CI 2–37 months) in the 40Gy/15⧣ group and 26 months (95% CI 1–48 months) in the 45Gy/30⧣ group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 20% and 25%, respectively (P=0.24). On multivariate analysis, factors influencing overall survival were: whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was given (P=0.01) and whether salvage chemotherapy was given at the time of relapse (P=0.057). Given the small sample size, the potential for selection bias and the retrospective nature of our study it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of hypofractionated thoracic radiotherapy compared with hyperfractionated accelerated thoracic radiotherapy however hypofractionated radiotherapy may result in equivalent relapse-free survival.

  13. Direct Observation of Long-Range Transport Using Continuously Sounding Balloons and Near-Real-Time Trajectory Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.; Berkowitz, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Controlled Meteorological (CMET) balloons have been used in several recent studies to measure long-range transport over periods as long as 30 hours and distances up to 1000 kilometers. By repeatedly performing shallow soundings as they drift, CMET balloons can quantify evolving atmospheric structure, mixing events, shear advection, and dispersion during transport. In addition, the quasi-Lagrangian wind profiles can be used to drive a multi-layer trajectory model in which the advected air parcels follow the underlying terrain, or are constrained by altitude, potential temperature, or tracer concentration. Data from a coordinated balloon-aircraft study of long range transport over Texas (SETTS 2005) show that the reconstructed trajectories accurately track residual-layer urban outflow (and at times even its fine-scale structure) over distances of many hundreds of kilometers. The reconstructed trajectories and evolving profile visualizations are increasingly being made available in near-real time during balloon flights, supporting data-driven flight planning and sophisticated process studies relevant to atmospheric chemistry and climate. Multilayer trajectories (black grids) derived from CMET balloon flight paths (grey lines) for a transport event across Texas in 2005.

  14. Poster - 16: Time-resolved diode dosimetry for in vivo proton therapy range verification: calibration through numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toltz, Allison; Hoesl, Michaela; Schuemann, Jan; Seuntjens, Jan; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald [McGill University, Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital, McGill University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: A method to refine the implementation of an in vivo, adaptive proton therapy range verification methodology was investigated. Simulation experiments and in-phantom measurements were compared to validate the calibration procedure of a time-resolved diode dosimetry technique. Methods: A silicon diode array system has been developed and experimentally tested in phantom for passively scattered proton beam range verification by correlating properties of the detector signal to the water equivalent path length (WEPL). The implementation of this system requires a set of calibration measurements to establish a beam-specific diode response to WEPL fit for the selected ‘scout’ beam in a solid water phantom. This process is both tedious, as it necessitates a separate set of measurements for every ‘scout’ beam that may be appropriate to the clinical case, as well as inconvenient due to limited access to the clinical beamline. The diode response to WEPL relationship for a given ‘scout’ beam may be determined within a simulation environment, facilitating the applicability of this dosimetry technique. Measurements for three ‘scout’ beams were compared against simulated detector response with Monte Carlo methods using the Tool for Particle Simulation (TOPAS). Results: Detector response in water equivalent plastic was successfully validated against simulation for spread out Bragg peaks of range 10 cm, 15 cm, and 21 cm (168 MeV, 177 MeV, and 210 MeV) with adjusted R{sup 2} of 0.998. Conclusion: Feasibility has been shown for performing calibration of detector response for a given ‘scout’ beam through simulation for the time resolved diode dosimetry technique.

  15. Patient-Specific Tailored Intervention Improves INR Time in Therapeutic Range and INR Variability in Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsman, Israel; Ezra, Orly; Hirsh Raccah, Bruria; Admon, Dan; Lotan, Chaim; Dekeyser Ganz, Freda

    2017-08-01

    Many patients with heart failure need anticoagulants, including warfarin. Good control is particularly challenging in heart failure patients, with range, thereby increasing the risk of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a patient-specific tailored intervention on anticoagulation control in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure taking warfarin therapy (n = 145) were randomized to either standard care or a 1-time intervention assessing potential risk factors for lability of INR, in which they received patient-specific instructions. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) using Rosendaal's linear model was assessed 3 months before and after the intervention. The patient-tailored intervention significantly increased anticoagulation control. The median TTR levels before intervention were suboptimal in the interventional and control groups (53% vs 45%, P = .14). After intervention the median TTR increased significantly in the interventional group compared with the control group (80% [interquartile range, 62%-93%] vs 44% [29%-61%], P <.0001). The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in the interventional group before versus after intervention (53% vs 80%, P <.0001) but not in the control group (45% vs 44%, P = .95). The percentage of patients with a TTR ≥60%, considered therapeutic, was substantially higher in the interventional group: 79% versus 25% (P <.0001). The INR variability (standard deviation of each patient's INR measurements) decreased significantly in the interventional group, from 0.53 to 0.32 (P <.0001) after intervention but not in the control group. Patient-specific tailored intervention significantly improves anticoagulation therapy in patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart; Jugo chart jo deno kyokuchi gensho jikan contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T

    1997-05-27

    Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart is examined for further improvement on the result of the ultimate interpretation in the seismic reflection survey. The policy is made clear from the beginning that local phenomena are to be discussed, and data prior CMP stacking is interpreted in detail. For this purpose, it is effective to make use of the time contour expression in the midpoint-offset plane simultaneously with the CMP and COP panels. For the review of data prior to CMP stacking, it is convenient to use the CMP (CDP) stacking chart in which the data is arranged methodically. In this chart, all the channels which are crude data prior to stacking are plotted on midpoint-offset coordinates, which plane is called the MOD (Midpoint Offset Domain) panel. Various panels can be chosen unrestrictedly, and their mutual relations can be easily grasped. When data points are given a time axis, they can be expressed in a time contour. Studies are conducted about the underground structure, multiple reflection paths divided by it, and characteristics of detour reflection attributable to faults. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Investigation of Growth and Survival of Transplanted Plane and Pine Trees According to IBA Application, Tree Age, Transplanting Time and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Etemadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The major problems in transplanting the landscape trees are high level of mortality and low establishment rate of transplanted trees, especially in the first year. In order to achieve the best condition for successful transplanting of pine and plane trees in Isfahan landscape, the present study was carried out based on a completely randomized block design with four replicates and three treatments including transplanting method (balled and burlapped and bare root, tree age (immature and mature and IBA application (0 and 150 mg/L. Trees were transplanted during 2009 and 2010 in three times (dormant season, early and late growing season. Survival rate and Relative Growth Rate index based on tree height (RGRH and trunk diameter (RGRD were measured during the first and second years. Trees transplanted early in the growing season showed the most survival percentage during the two years, as compared to other transplanting dates. Survival of Balled and burlapped and immature transplanted trees was significantly greater than bare root or mature trees. The significant effect of age treatment was continued in the second year. IBA treatment had no effect on survival rate of the studied species. Balled and burlapped and immature transplanted pine trees also had higher RGRH and RGRD compared to bare root or mature trees. According to the results of this study, early growing season is the best time for transplanting pine and plane trees. Also, transplanting of immature trees using balled and burlapped method is recommended to increase the survival and establishment rate.

  18. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  19. Congruence between distribution modelling and phylogeographical analyses reveals Quaternary survival of a toadflax species (Linaria elegans) in oceanic climate areas of a mountain ring range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    · The role of Quaternary climatic shifts in shaping the distribution of Linaria elegans, an Iberian annual plant, was investigated using species distribution modelling and molecular phylogeographical analyses. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain the Quaternary history of its mountain ring range. · The distribution of L. elegans was modelled using the maximum entropy method and projected to the last interglacial and to the last glacial maximum (LGM) using two different paleoclimatic models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC). Two nuclear and three plastid DNA regions were sequenced for 24 populations (119 individuals sampled). Bayesian phylogenetic, phylogeographical, dating and coalescent-based population genetic analyses were conducted. · Molecular analyses indicated the existence of northern and southern glacial refugia and supported two routes of post-glacial recolonization. These results were consistent with the LGM distribution as inferred under the CCSM paleoclimatic model (but not under the MIROC model). Isolation between two major refugia was dated back to the Riss or Mindel glaciations, > 100 kyr before present (bp). · The Atlantic distribution of inferred refugia suggests that the oceanic (buffered)-continental (harsh) gradient may have played a key and previously unrecognized role in determining Quaternary distribution shifts of Mediterranean plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. The effect of the time interval between diagnosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer and radical cystectomy on staging and survival: A Netherlands Cancer Registry analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Arends, T.J.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Data from single-center series suggest that a delay in time to radical cystectomy (RC) more than 3 months after diagnosis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is associated with pathological upstaging and decreased survival. However, limited data is available from population-based

  1. PSA response to cabazitaxel is associated with improved progression-free survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: the non-interventional QoLiTime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerer, Peter; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Keller, Martin; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the association between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and progression-free and overall survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with cabazitaxel. Men with mCRPC receiving cabazitaxel (25 mg/m 2 , every 3 weeks) plus oral prednis(ol)one (10 mg/day) were enrolled in the non-interventional, prospective QoLiTime study. Main outcome measures were progression-free survival and overall survival, in all patients and in those who showed a ≥ 50 or a ≥ 30% decrease in PSA relative to baseline after four cycles of cabazitaxel, as well as quality-of-life parameters. Of the 527 men (median age 72 years), 266 received ≥ 4 cycles of cabazitaxel and had PSA response data. After four cycles, 34.6% of men achieved a PSA decrease ≥ 50% and 49.6% a decrease ≥ 30%. Median progression-free survival was 7.7 (95% CI 6.2, 9.5) months, and overall survival was 19.5 (95% CI 16.0, 30.9) months, corresponding to 1-year event rates of 39.4 and 78.8%, respectively. Median progression-free survival was longer in PSA responders versus non-responders (15.7 vs 5.5 months at 50% cut-off; 15.7 vs 5.3 months for 30% cut-off; both P PSA response after four cycles of cabazitaxel is associated with improved progression-free survival in men with mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel plus prednis(ol)one.

  2. Effect of packaging and storage time on survival of Listeria monocytogenes on kippered beef steak and turkey tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Barry, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine effect of packaging method and storage time on reducing Listeria monocytogenes in shelf-stable meat snacks. Commercially available kippered beef steak strips and turkey tenders were dipped into a 5-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, and dried at 23 °C until a water activity of 0.80 was achieved. Inoculated samples were packaged with 4 treatments: (1) vacuum, (2) nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger, (3) heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, and (4) heat sealed without oxygen scavenger. Samples were stored at 23 °C and evaluated for L. monocytogenes levels at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial levels (time 0) of L. monocytogenes were approximately 5.7 log CFU/cm² for steak and tenders. After 24 h of storage time, a 1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed for turkey tenders for all packaging treatments. After 48 h, turkey tenders showed >1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes for all packaging treatments except for vacuum, where only 0.9 log CFU/cm² reduction was observed. After 72 h, reductions for all packaging treatments for turkey tenders ranged from 1.5 to 2.4 log CFU/cm². For kippered beef steak, there was no interaction between the packaging treatments and all storage times (P > 0.05) whereas, time was different (P packaging treatments and a 2.1 log CFU/ cm² L. monocytogenes reduction at 72 h of storage time. Processors of kippered beef steak and turkey tenders could use a combination of vacuum or nitrogen-flushing or heat sealed with an oxygen scavenger packaging methods and a holding time of 24 h prior to shipping to reduce potential L. monocytogenes numbers by ≥1 log. However, processors should be encouraged to hold packaged product a minimum of 72 h to enhance the margin of safety for L. monocytogenes control. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. FonaDyn - A system for real-time analysis of the electroglottogram, over the voice range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternström, Sten; Johansson, Dennis; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    From soft to loud and low to high, the mechanisms of human voice have many degrees of freedom, making it difficult to assess phonation from the acoustic signal alone. FonaDyn is a research tool that combines acoustics with electroglottography (EGG). It characterizes and visualizes in real time the dynamics of EGG waveforms, using statistical clustering of the cycle-synchronous EGG Fourier components, and their sample entropy. The prevalence and stability of different EGG waveshapes are mapped as colored regions into a so-called voice range profile, without needing pre-defined thresholds or categories. With appropriately 'trained' clusters, FonaDyn can classify and map voice regimes. This is of potential scientific, clinical and pedagogical interest.

  4. Two-color pump-probe laser spectroscopy instrument with picosecond time-resolved electronic delay and extended scan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anchi; Ye, Xiong; Ionascu, Dan; Cao, Wenxiang; Champion, Paul M.

    2005-11-01

    An electronically delayed two-color pump-probe instrument was developed using two synchronized laser systems. The instrument has picosecond time resolution and can perform scans over hundreds of nanoseconds without the beam divergence and walk-off effects that occur using standard spatial delay systems. A unique picosecond Ti :sapphire regenerative amplifier was also constructed without the need for pulse stretching and compressing optics. The picosecond regenerative amplifier has a broad wavelength tuning range, which suggests that it will make a significant contribution to two-color pump-probe experiments. To test this instrument we studied the rotational correlation relaxation of myoglobin (τr=8.2±0.5ns) in water as well as the geminate rebinding kinetics of oxygen to myoglobin (kg1=1.7×1011s-1, kg2=3.4×107s-1). The results are consistent with, and improve upon, previous studies.

  5. Analyses of kinetic glass transition in short-range attractive colloids based on time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Takayuki; Tokuyama, Michio

    2017-03-01

    For short-range attractive colloids, the phase diagram of the kinetic glass transition is studied by time-convolutionless mode-coupling theory (TMCT). Using numerical calculations, TMCT is shown to recover all the remarkable features predicted by the mode-coupling theory for attractive colloids: the glass-liquid-glass reentrant, the glass-glass transition, and the higher-order singularities. It is also demonstrated through the comparisons with the results of molecular dynamics for the binary attractive colloids that TMCT improves the critical values of the volume fraction. In addition, a schematic model of three control parameters is investigated analytically. It is thus confirmed that TMCT can describe the glass-glass transition and higher-order singularities even in such a schematic model.

  6. Diagnosis of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis by broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Susanna; Dahlberg, Daniel; Hedegaard, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic strategy with culture to evaluate additional effects on the etiological diagnosis and the quantification of the bacterial load during the course of ventricular drainage-related bacterial meningitis (VR......-BM). METHODS: We applied a PCR that targeted conserved regions of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with external ventricular drainage or a ventriculoperitoneal shunt during the course of VR-BM. We compared the PCR results with CSF cultures. A total...... of 350 routine CSF samples were consecutively collected from 86 patients. The CSF deoxyribonucleic acid was automatically purified and subjected to PCR. Amplicons from the PCR samples that were positive for VR-BM were subsequently deoxyribonucleic acid sequenced for final identification. Clinical data...

  7. Phylogenetic fields through time: temporal dynamics of geographical co-occurrence and phylogenetic structure within species ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Fabricio; Carotenuto, Francesco; Raia, Pasquale; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F

    2016-04-05

    Species co-occur with different sets of other species across their geographical distribution, which can be either closely or distantly related. Such co-occurrence patterns and their phylogenetic structure within individual species ranges represent what we call the species phylogenetic fields (PFs). These PFs allow investigation of the role of historical processes--speciation, extinction and dispersal--in shaping species co-occurrence patterns, in both extinct and extant species. Here, we investigate PFs of large mammalian species during the last 3 Myr, and how these correlate with trends in diversification rates. Using the fossil record, we evaluate species' distributional and co-occurrence patterns along with their phylogenetic structure. We apply a novel Bayesian framework on fossil occurrences to estimate diversification rates through time. Our findings highlight the effect of evolutionary processes and past climatic changes on species' distributions and co-occurrences. From the Late Pliocene to the Recent, mammal species seem to have responded in an individualistic manner to climate changes and diversification dynamics, co-occurring with different sets of species from different lineages across their geographical ranges. These findings stress the difficulty of forecasting potential effects of future climate changes on biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. A new capacitive long-range displacement nanometer sensor with differential sensing structure based on time-grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhicheng; Peng, Kai; Liu, Xiaokang; Pu, Hongji; Chen, Ziran

    2018-05-01

    High-precision displacement sensors, which can measure large displacements with nanometer resolution, are key components in many ultra-precision fabrication machines. In this paper, a new capacitive nanometer displacement sensor with differential sensing structure is proposed for long-range linear displacement measurements based on an approach denoted time grating. Analytical models established using electric field coupling theory and an area integral method indicate that common-mode interference will result in a first-harmonic error in the measurement results. To reduce the common-mode interference, the proposed sensor design employs a differential sensing structure, which adopts a second group of induction electrodes spatially separated from the first group of induction electrodes by a half-pitch length. Experimental results based on a prototype sensor demonstrate that the measurement accuracy and the stability of the sensor are substantially improved after adopting the differential sensing structure. Finally, a prototype sensor achieves a measurement accuracy of  ±200 nm over the full 200 mm measurement range of the sensor.

  9. Estimation of total genetic effects for survival time in crossbred laying hens showing cannibalism, using pedigree or genomic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, T.; Raymond, B.; Bijma, P.; Vereijken, A.; Ellen, E.D.

    2017-01-01

    Mortality of laying hens due to cannibalism is a major problem in the egg-laying industry. Survival depends on two genetic effects: the direct genetic effect of the individual itself (DGE) and the indirect genetic effects of its group mates (IGE). For hens housed in sire-family groups, DGE and

  10. Time-of-Day Dependent Neuronal Injury After Ischemic Stroke: Implication of Circadian Clock Transcriptional Factor Bmal1 and Survival Kinase AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker, Mustafa Caglar; Caglayan, Berrak; Yalcin, Esra; Caglayan, Ahmet Burak; Turkseven, Seyma; Gurel, Busra; Kelestemur, Taha; Sertel, Elif; Sahin, Zafer; Kutlu, Selim; Kilic, Ulkan; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Kilic, Ertugrul

    2018-03-01

    Occurrence of stroke cases displays a time-of-day variation in human. However, the mechanism linking circadian rhythm to the internal response mechanisms against pathophysiological events after ischemic stroke remained largely unknown. To this end, temporal changes in the susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury were investigated in mice in which the ischemic stroke induced at four different Zeitgeber time points with 6-h intervals (ZT0, ZT6, ZT12, and ZT18). Besides infarct volume and brain swelling, neuronal survival, apoptosis, ischemia, and circadian rhythm related proteins were examined using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, planar surface immune assay, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry tools. Here, we present evidence that midnight (ZT18; 24:00) I/R injury in mice resulted in significantly improved infarct volume, brain swelling, neurological deficit score, neuronal survival, and decreased apoptotic cell death compared with ischemia induced at other time points, which were associated with increased expressions of circadian proteins Bmal1, PerI, and Clock proteins and survival kinases AKT and Erk-1/2. Moreover, ribosomal protein S6, mTOR, and Bad were also significantly increased, while the levels of PRAS40, negative regulator of AKT and mTOR, and phosphorylated p53 were decreased at this time point compared to ZT0 (06:00). Furthermore, detailed proteomic analysis revealed significantly decreased CSKP, HBB-1/2, and HBA levels, while increased GNAZ, NEGR1, IMPCT, and PDE1B at midnight as compared with early morning. Our results indicate that nighttime I/R injury results in less severe neuronal damage, with increased neuronal survival, increased levels of survival kinases and circadian clock proteins, and also alters the circadian-related proteins.

  11. The use of simple reparameterizations to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation for multilevel models with applications to discrete time survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, William J; Steele, Fiona; Golalizadeh, Mousa; Green, Martin J

    2009-06-01

    We consider the application of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation methods to random-effects models and in particular the family of discrete time survival models. Survival models can be used in many situations in the medical and social sciences and we illustrate their use through two examples that differ in terms of both substantive area and data structure. A multilevel discrete time survival analysis involves expanding the data set so that the model can be cast as a standard multilevel binary response model. For such models it has been shown that MCMC methods have advantages in terms of reducing estimate bias. However, the data expansion results in very large data sets for which MCMC estimation is often slow and can produce chains that exhibit poor mixing. Any way of improving the mixing will result in both speeding up the methods and more confidence in the estimates that are produced. The MCMC methodological literature is full of alternative algorithms designed to improve mixing of chains and we describe three reparameterization techniques that are easy to implement in available software. We consider two examples of multilevel survival analysis: incidence of mastitis in dairy cattle and contraceptive use dynamics in Indonesia. For each application we show where the reparameterization techniques can be used and assess their performance.

  12. Impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival and its change over time between 1973 and 2012 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Xu; Chen, Yu-Pei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2017-12-01

    The impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival outcomes and its change over time in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are unclear. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify patients diagnosed with NPC in the United States from 1973 to 2012. A primary comparison (married vs. unmarried) was implemented with 1:1 propensity score matching. Secondary comparisons were performed individually between three unmarried subgroups (single, separated/divorced, widowed) and married group. The effect of marital status on cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using univariate/multivariate analysis. Moreover, we investigated the change over time (1973-2012) in the effect of marital status on NPC survival. Married patients had better 5-year CSS/OS than unmarried patients (61.1% vs. 52.6%, P vs. 45.3%, P unmarried patients had significantly poorer CSS/OS than married patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.35, P married was only detected in non-Hispanic white and Chinese American patients. Single, separated/divorced, and widowed patients had significantly poorer CSS/OS than married patients (aHR = 1.37 and 1.37; 1.46 and 1.42; 1.43 and 1.48, respectively; all P married status. Single and widowed patients are regarded as high-risk population. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of timing and duration of a single chest compression pause on short-term survival following prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P; Melnick, Sharon B; Walker, Robert G; Banville, Isabelle; Chapman, Fred W; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2009-04-01

    Pauses during chest compressions are thought to have a detrimental effect on resuscitation outcome. The Guidelines 2005 have recently eliminated the post-defibrillation pause. Previous animal studies have shown that multiple pauses of increasing duration decrease resuscitation success. We investigated the effect of varying the characteristics of a single pause near defibrillation on resuscitation outcome. Part A: 48 swine were anesthetized, fibrillated for 7min and randomized. Chest compressions were initiated for 90s followed by defibrillation and then resumption of chest compressions. Four groups were studied-G2000: 40s pause beginning 20s before, and ending 20s after defibrillation, A1: a 20s pause just before defibrillation, A2: a 20s pause ending 30s prior to defibrillation, and group A3: a 10s pause ending 30s prior to defibrillation. Part B: 12 swine (Group B) were studied with a protocol identical to Part A but with no pause in chest compressions. Primary endpoint was survival to 4h. The survival rate was significantly higher for groups A1, A2, A3, and B (5/12, 7/12, 5/12, and 5/12 survived) than for the G2000 group (0/12, p<0.05). Survival did not differ significantly among groups A1, A2, A3, and B. These results suggest that the Guidelines 2005 recommendation to omit the post-shock pulse check and immediately resume chest compressions may be an important resuscitation protocol change. However, these results also suggest that clinical maneuvers further altering a single pre-shock chest compression pause provide no additional benefit.

  14. Effect of timing and duration of a single chest compression pause on short-term survival following prolonged ventricular fibrillation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Gregory P.; Melnick, Sharon B.; Walker, Robert G.; Banville, Isabelle; Chapman, Fred W.; Killingsworth, Cheryl R.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pauses during chest compressions are thought to have a detrimental effect on resuscitation outcome. The Guidelines 2005 have recently eliminated the post-defibrillation pause. Previous animal studies have shown that multiple pauses of increasing duration decrease resuscitation success. We investigated the effect of varying the characteristics of a single pause near defibrillation on resuscitation outcome. Methods Part A: 48 swine were anesthetized, fibrillated for 7 min and randomized. Chest compressions were initiated for 90 s followed by defibrillation and then resumption of chest compressions. Four groups were studied—G2000: 40 s pause beginning 20 s before, and ending 20 s after defibrillation, A1: a 20 s pause just before defibrillation, A2: a 20 s pause ending 30 s prior to defibrillation, and group A3: a 10 s pause ending 30 s prior to defibrillation. Part B: 12 swine (Group B) were studied with a protocol identical to Part A but with no pause in chest compressions. Primary endpoint was survival to 4 h. Results The survival rate was significantly higher for groups A1, A2, A3, and B (5/12, 7/12, 5/12, and 5/12 survived) than for the G2000 group (0/12, p < 0.05). Survival did not differ significantly among groups A1, A2, A3, and B. Conclusions These results suggest that the Guidelines 2005 recommendation to omit the post-shock pulse check and immediately resume chest compressions may be an important resuscitation protocol change. However, these results also suggest that clinical maneuvers further altering a single pre-shock chest compression pause provide no additional benefit. PMID:19185411

  15. Epstein-Barr virus ensures B cell survival by uniquely modulating apoptosis at early and late times after infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander M; Dai, Joanne; Bazot, Quentin; Patel, Luv; Nikitin, Pavel A; Djavadian, Reza; Winter, Peter S; Salinas, Cristina A; Barry, Ashley Perkins; Wood, Kris C; Johannsen, Eric C; Letai, Anthony; Allday, Martin J; Luftig, Micah A

    2017-04-20

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFκB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFκB early after infection. We used BH3 profiling to query mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis and defined a transition from uninfected B cells (BCL-2) to early-infected (MCL-1/BCL-2) and immortalized cells (BFL-1). This dynamic change in B cell survival mechanisms is unique to virus-infected cells and relies on regulation of MCL-1 mitochondrial localization and BFL-1 transcription by the viral EBNA3A protein. This study defines a new role for EBNA3A in the suppression of apoptosis with implications for EBV lymphomagenesis.

  16. Time range for accumulation of shell middens from Higashimyo (western Japan) and Kimhae (southern Korea) by AMS radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: nakamura@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsui, Akira [National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara, Nijyo-cho, Nara 630-8577 (Japan); Nishida, Iwao; Nakano, Mitsuru [Saga-City Board of Education, Sakae-machi, Saga 840-8501 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Numerous large and small shell middens have been reported throughout the world. An interesting question is when the huge and thick shell middens were formed, and how many years were required to build up the whole midden. Shell middens contain not only shell fragments but also organic substances such as bones, nuts, acorn, and plant residues, which are suitable substances with which to establish {sup 14}C chronology of the middens. We have conducted {sup 14}C dating on terrestrial and marine materials collected from two lowland shell middens, the Higashimyo site in Japan (the Earliest Jomon period) and the Kimhae site in Korea (the Proto-Three Kingdom period), to establish high precision {sup 14}C chronologies and determine the time required for shell accumulation. According to Bayesian analysis of {sup 14}C ages from terrestrial samples, accumulation of Midden No. 1 at Higashimyo (altitude from -1.1 to -2.3 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.2 m) started at around 8050-7950 cal BP and ended at 7950-7750 cal BP, lasting for ca. 100 cal yr, while accumulation of Midden No. 2 (altitude from -0.5 to -2.0 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 1.5 m) started at around 8050-7800 cal BP and ended at 7800-7650 cal BP, lasting for ca. 200 cal yr. Thus the Midden No. 1 was abandoned a bit earlier than Midden No. 2, but the time range for sediment accumulation overlaps each other. Accumulation at the Kimhae shell midden (altitude from 5 to 14 m a.s.l., {Delta}d = 9 m) started at around the middle of the 1st C cal BC and ended at around the middle of the 3rd C cal AD, lasting for ca. 250 to 300 cal yr.

  17. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  18. An Improved Continuous-Time Model Predictive Control of Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Motors for a Wide-Speed Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved continuous-time model predictive control (CTMPC of permanent magnetic synchronous motors (PMSMs for a wide-speed range, including the constant torque region and the flux-weakening (FW region. In the constant torque region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are decoupled without the limitation of DC-link voltage. However, in the FW region, the mathematic models of PMSMs in dq-axes are cross-coupled together with the limitation of DC-link voltage. A nonlinear PMSMs mathematic model in the FW region is presented based on the voltage angle. The solving of the nonlinear mathematic model of PMSMs in FW region will lead to heavy computation load for digital signal processing (DSP. To overcome such a problem, a linearization method of the voltage angle is also proposed to reduce the computation load. The selection of transiting points between the constant torque region and FW regions is researched to improve the performance of the driven system. Compared with the proportional integral (PI controller, the proposed CTMPC has obvious advantages in dealing with systems’ nonlinear constraints and improving system performance by restraining overshoot current under step torque changing. Both simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method in achieving good steady-state performance and smooth switching between the constant torque and FW regions.

  19. Long-Term Statin Administration Does Not Affect Warfarin Time in Therapeutic Range in Australia or Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijole Bernaitis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Warfarin requires ongoing monitoring of the International Normalised Ratio (INR. This is because numerous factors influence the response, including drug interactions with commonly-prescribed medications, such as statins. The administration of statins with warfarin may change INR; however, there is limited information regarding the effects on warfarin control as measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR. Statins may also alter bleeds with warfarin, but there are conflicting reports demonstrating both increased and decreased bleeds, and limited data on diverse ethnic populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of statin administration on warfarin control and bleeds in patients in Australia and Singapore. Methods: Retrospective data were collected for patients on warfarin between January and June 2014 in Australia and Singapore. Patient data were used to calculate TTR and bleed events. Concurrent statin therapy was assessed and comparisons of TTR and bleed incidence were made across patient subgroups. Results: Warfarin control in Australia and Singapore was not significantly affected by statins, as measured by TTR (83% and 58%, respectively, frequency of testing, and warfarin doses. In Australia, statin use did not significantly affect bleeds, whilst in Singapore the bleed incidence was significantly lower for patients on statins. Conclusions: Chronic concurrent administration of statins with warfarin does not adversely affect warfarin TTR in Australia or Singapore. In Singapore, patients on statins, compared to no statins, had a lower bleed incidence and this requires further investigation, especially given the potential genetic influences of ethnicity on both statin and warfarin metabolism.

  20. A race against time: can CO-OPs and provider start-ups survive in the health insurance marketplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggbeer, Bill

    2015-12-01

    > The Affordable Care Act's state and federal health insurance marketplaces, designed to provide affordable insurance coverage to individuals and small groups, are proving hostile territory to new market entrants. Efforts to inject competition into the marketplaces are being challenged by the wide-scale withdrawal o consumer-operated and oriented plans (CO-OPs). Meanwhile, premiums appear likely to increase for consumers as plans seek to balance medical losses. Flaws in the "Three R's" (reinsurance, risk corridors, and risk-adjustment) program are viewed as a threat to the survival of CO-OPs and start-ups.

  1. The LDsub(50/30) and the survival time in whole-body gamma-irradiated conventional and germfree Minnesota miniature piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, L.; Travnicek, J.; Talafantova, M.; Zahradnickova, M.

    1980-01-01

    The median lethal exposure causing the death in 30 days after single whole-body gamma-irradiation (the LD 50/30) was found to be 2731 MBq (73.8 mC/kg) for conventional piglets, but 3226 MBq (87.2 mC/kg) for germ-free piglets both irradiated 14 days after birth. After lethal exposures, the survival time in germ-free piglets was prolonged for 7 days in comparison with conventional piglets. (author)

  2. Randomized, placebo controlled study of the effect of propentofylline on survival time and quality of life of cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Y; Ritz, S; Weber, K; Sauter-Louis, C; Hartmann, K

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is no drug proven to effectively treat cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Propentofylline (PPF) can decrease vasculitis, and therefore prolong survival time in cats with FIP, and increase their quality of life. Twenty-three privately owned cats with FIP. Placebo-controlled double-blind trial. FIP was confirmed by histology or immunostaining of feline coronavirus (FCoV) antigen in effusion or tissue macrophages or both. The cats were randomly selected for treatment with either PPF or placebo. All cats received additional treatment with glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and low molecular weight heparin according to methods. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival time of cats treated with PPF (8 days, 95% CI 5.4-10.6) versus placebo (7.5 days, 95% CI 4.4-9.6). The median survival time of all cats was 8 days (4-36 days). There was neither a difference in quality of life (day 7, P = .892), in the amount of effusion (day 7, P = .710), the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration (day 7, P = .355), nor in any other variable investigated in this study, including a complete blood count, and a small animal biochemistry profile. This study did not detect an effect of PPF on the survival time, the quality of life, or any clinical or laboratory parameter in cats with FIP. Therefore, PPF does not appear to be an effective treatment option in cats with a late stage of the disease FIP. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival and its change over time between 1973 and 2012 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a propensity score‐matched analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Xu; Chen, Yu‐Pei; Mao, Yan‐Ping; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Guan‐Qun; Tang, Ling‐Long; Lin, Ai‐Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival outcomes and its change over time in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are unclear. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify patients diagnosed with NPC in the United States from 1973 to 2012. A primary comparison (married vs. unmarried) was implemented with 1:1 propensity score matching. Secondary comparisons were performed individually between three unmarried subgroups (sing...

  4. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells suppress MHC class II expression on rat vascular endothelium and prolong survival time of cardiac allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Yun, Mark M; Han, Xia; Zhao, Ruidong; Zhou, Erxia; Yun, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have low immunogenicity and immune regulation. To investigate immunomodulatory effects of human UC-MSCs on MHC class II expression and allograft, we transplanted heart of transgenic rats with MHC class II expression on vascular endothelium. Methods: UC-MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cords and confirmed with flow cytometry analysis. Transgenic rat line was established using the construct of human MHC class II transactivator gene (CIITA) under mouse ICAM-2 promoter control. The induced MHC class II expression on transgenic rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs) was assessed with immunohistological staining. And the survival time of cardiac allograft was compared between the recipients with and without UC-MSC transfusion. Results: Flow cytometry confirmed that the human UC-MSCs were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD271, and negative for CD34 and HLA-DR. Repeated infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia of transplanted hearts, and increased survival time of allograft. The UC-MSCs increased regulatory cytokines IL10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines IL2 and IFN-γ in vivo. The UC-MSC culture supernatant had similar effects on cytokine expression, and decreased lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Repeated transfusion of the human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia and prolonged the survival time of rat cardiac allograft. PMID:25126177

  5. Ensemble survival tree models to reveal pairwise interactions of variables with time-to-events outcomes in low-dimensional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Ishwaran, Hemant; Mehlotra, Rajeev; Weinberg, Aaron; Zimmerman, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Unraveling interactions among variables such as genetic, clinical, demographic and environmental factors is essential to understand the development of common and complex diseases. To increase the power to detect such variables interactions associated with clinical time-to-events outcomes, we borrowed established concepts from random survival forest (RSF) models. We introduce a novel RSF-based pairwise interaction estimator and derive a randomization method with bootstrap confidence intervals for inferring interaction significance. Using various linear and nonlinear time-to-events survival models in simulation studies, we first show the efficiency of our approach: true pairwise interaction-effects between variables are uncovered, while they may not be accompanied with their corresponding main-effects, and may not be detected by standard semi-parametric regression modeling and test statistics used in survival analysis. Moreover, using a RSF-based cross-validation scheme for generating prediction estimators, we show that informative predictors may be inferred. We applied our approach to an HIV cohort study recording key host gene polymorphisms and their association with HIV change of tropism or AIDS progression. Altogether, this shows how linear or nonlinear pairwise statistical interactions of variables may be efficiently detected with a predictive value in observational studies with time-to-event outcomes. PMID:29453930

  6. Minimally invasive surgical approaches offer earlier time to adjuvant chemotherapy but not improved survival in resected pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Katelin A; Greenleaf, Erin K; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Wong, Joyce

    2018-05-01

    Pancreatic surgery encompasses complex operations with significant potential morbidity. Greater experience in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has allowed resections to be performed laparoscopically and robotically. This study evaluates the impact of surgical approach in resected pancreatic cancer. The National Cancer Data Base (2010-2012) was reviewed for patients with stages 1-3 resected pancreatic carcinoma. Open approaches were compared to MIS. A sub-analysis was then performed comparing robotic and laparoscopic approaches. Of the 9047 patients evaluated, surgical approach was open in 7511 (83%), laparoscopic in 992 (11%), and robotic in 131 (1%). The laparoscopic and robotic conversion rate to open was 28% (n = 387) and 17% (n = 26), respectively. Compared to open, MIS was associated with more distal resections (13.5, 24.3%, respectively, p offered significantly shorter LOS in all types. Multivariate analysis demonstrated no survival benefit for any MIS approach relative to open (all, p > 0.05). When adjusted for patient, disease, and treatment characteristics, TTC was not an independent prognostic factor (HR 1.09, p = 0.084). MIS appears to offer comparable surgical oncologic benefit with improved LOS and shorter TTC. This effect, however, was not associated with improved survival.

  7. Social Familiarity Reduces Reaction Times and Enhances Survival of Group-Living Predatory Mites under the Risk of Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strodl, Markus Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni. Methodology/Principal Findings We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae. Significance In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment. PMID:22927997

  8. Social familiarity reduces reaction times and enhances survival of group-living predatory mites under the risk of predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andreas Strodl

    Full Text Available Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni.We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae.In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment.

  9. A single-shot nonlinear autocorrelation approach for time-resolved physics in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompotis, Dimitrios

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a single-shot temporal metrology scheme operating in the vacuum-extreme ultraviolet spectral range has been designed and experimentally implemented. Utilizing an anti-collinear geometry, a second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement of a vacuum ultraviolet pulse can be performed by encoding temporal delay information on the beam propagation coordinate. An ion-imaging time-of-flight spectrometer, offering micrometer resolution has been set-up for this purpose. This instrument enables the detection of a magnified image of the spatial distribution of ions exclusively generated by direct two-photon absorption in the combined counter-propagating pulse focus and thus obtain the second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement on a single-shot basis. Additionally, an intense VUV light source based on high-harmonic generation has been experimentally realized. It delivers intense sub-20 fs Ti:Sa fifth-harmonic pulses utilizing a loose-focusing geometry in a long Ar gas cell. The VUV pulses centered at 161.8 nm reach pulse energies of 1.1 μJ per pulse, while the corresponding pulse duration is measured with a second-order, fringe-resolved autocorrelation scheme to be 18 ± 1 fs on average. Non-resonant, two-photon ionization of Kr and Xe and three-photon ionization of Ne verify the fifth-harmonic pulse intensity and indicate the feasibility of multi-photon VUV pump/VUV probe studies of ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Finally, the extended functionally of the counter-propagating pulse metrology approach is demonstrated by a single-shot VUV pump/VUV probe experiment aiming at the investigation of ultrafast dissociation dynamics of O 2 excited in the Schumann-Runge continuum at 162 nm.

  10. Impact of diurnal temperature range on mortality in a high plateau area in southwest China: A time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zan; Guo, Pi; Xie, Fang; Chu, Huifang; Li, Kun; Pu, Jingbo; Pang, Shaojie; Dong, Hongli; Liu, Yahui; Pi, Fuhua; Zhang, Qingying

    2015-09-01

    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator that reflects weather stability and is associated with global climate change and urbanization. Previous studies have explored the effect of DTR on human health in coastal cities with small daily temperature variations, but we have little evidence for high plateau regions where large DTRs usually occur. Using daily mortality data (2007-2013), we conducted a time-series analysis to assess the effect of DTR on daily mortality in Yuxi, a high plateau city in southwest China. Poisson regression with distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate DTR effects on daily mortality, controlling for daily mean temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, day of the week, and seasonal and long-term trends. The cumulative effects of DTR were J-shaped curves for non-accidental, cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular mortality, with a U-shaped curve for respiratory mortality. Risk assessments showed strong monotonic increases in mortality starting at a DTR of approximately 16 °C. The relative risk of non-accidental morality with extreme high DTR at lag 0 and 0-21 days was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.11) and 1.33 (0.94-1.89), respectively. The risk of mortality with extreme high DTR was greater for males and age <75 years than females and age ≥75 years. The effect of DTR on mortality was non-linear, with high DTR associated with increased mortality. A DTR of 16 °C may be a cut-off point for mortality prognosis and has implications for developing intervention strategies to address high DTR exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deep structure of Pyrenees range (SW Europe) imaged by joint inversion of gravity and teleseismic delay time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufréchou, G.; Tiberi, C.; Martin, R.; Bonvalot, S.; Chevrot, S.; Seoane, L.

    2018-04-01

    We present a new model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere structure down to 300 km depth beneath the Pyrenees from the joint inversion of recent gravity and teleseismic data. Unlike previous studies, crustal correction were not applied on teleseismic data in order (i) to preserve the consistency between gravity data, which are mainly sensitive to the density structure of the crust.lithosphere, and travel time data, and (ii) to avoid the introduction of biases resulting from crustal reductions. The density model down to 100 km depth is preferentially used here to discuss the lithospheric structure of the Pyrenees, whereas the asthenospheric structure from 100 km to 300 km depth is discussed from our velocity model. The absence of a high density anomaly in our model between 30-100 km depth (except the Labourd density anomaly) in the northern part of the Pyrenees seems to preclude eclogitization of the subducted Iberian crust at the scale of the entire Pyrenean range. Local eclogitization of the deep Pyrenean crust beneath the western part of the Axial Zone (West of Andorra) associated with the positive Central density anomaly is proposed. The Pyrenean lithosphere in density and velocity models appears segmented from East to West. No clear relation between the along-strike segmentation and mapped major faults is visible in our models. The Pyrenees' lithosphere segments are associated to different seismicity pattern in the Pyrenees suggesting a possible relation between the deep structure of the Pyrenees and its seismicity in the upper crust. The concentration of earthquakes localized just straight up the Central density anomaly can result of the subsidence and/or delamination of an eclogitized Pyrenean deep root. The velocity model in the asthenosphere is similar to previous studies. The absence of a high-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle and transition zone (i.e. 125 to 225 km depth) seems to preclude the presence of a detached oceanic lithosphere beneath the

  12. The Glasgow Prognostic Score at the Time of Palliative Esophageal Stent Insertion is a Predictive Factor of 30-Day Mortality and Overall Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Robert J; Handforth, Catherine; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Bennett, Michael I; Ford, Alexander C; Everett, Simon M

    2018-03-01

    Optimizing the timing of esophageal stent insertion is a challenge, partly due to difficulty predicting survival in advanced malignancy. The Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) is a validated tool for predicting survival in a number of cancers. To assess the utility of the GPS in predicting 30-day mortality and overall survival postesophageal stent insertion. Patients at a tertiary referral center who had received an esophageal stent for palliation of dysphagia were included if they had a measurement of albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the week preceding the procedure (n=209). Patients with both an elevated CRP (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) were given a GPS score of 2 (GPS2). Patients with only one of these abnormalities were assigned as GPS1 and those with normal CRP and albumin were assigned as GPS0. Clinical and pathologic parameters were also collected to assess for potential confounding factors in the survival analysis. Increasing GPS was associated with 30-day mortality; for patients with GPS0, 30-day mortality was 5% (2/43), for GPS1 it was 23% (26/114), and for GPS2 it was 33% (17/52). The adjusted hazard ratio for overall poststent mortality was 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4; P=0.02) for GPS1 and 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8; PGPS2 patients compared with GPS0. GPS is an independent prognostic factor of 30-day mortality and overall survival after esophageal stent insertion. It is a potential adjunct to clinical assessment in identifying those patients at high-risk of short-term mortality poststent.

  13. Risk-adjusted survival for adults following in-hospital cardiac arrest by day of week and time of day: observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily J; Power, Geraldine S; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Spearpoint, Ken; Gwinnutt, Carl; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Background Internationally, hospital survival is lower for patients admitted at weekends and at night. Data from the UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) indicate that crude hospital survival was worse after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at night versus day, and at weekends versus weekdays, despite similar frequency of events. Objective To describe IHCA demographics during three day/time periods—weekday daytime (Monday to Friday, 08:00 to 19:59), weekend daytime (Saturday and Sunday, 08:00 to 19:59) and night-time (Monday to Sunday, 20:00 to 07:59)—and to compare the associated rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for >20 min (ROSC>20 min) and survival to hospital discharge, adjusted for risk using previously developed NCAA risk models. To consider whether any observed difference could be attributed to differences in the case mix of patients resident in hospital and/or the administered care. Methods We performed a prospectively defined analysis of NCAA data from 27 700 patients aged ≥16 years receiving chest compressions and/or defibrillation and attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team in response to a resuscitation (2222) call in 146 UK acute hospitals. Results Risk-adjusted outcomes (OR (95% CI)) were worse (p20 min 0.88 (0.81 to 0.95); hospital survival 0.72 (0.64 to 0.80)), and night-time (ROSC>20 min 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76); hospital survival 0.58 (0.54 to 0.63)) compared with weekday daytime. The effects were stronger for non-shockable than shockable rhythms, but there was no significant interaction between day/time of arrest and age, or day/time of arrest and arrest location. While many daytime IHCAs involved procedures, restricting the analyses to IHCAs in medical admissions with an arrest location of ward produced results that are broadly in line with the primary analyses. Conclusions IHCAs attended by the hospital-based resuscitation team during nights and weekends have substantially worse outcomes than during

  14. Risk-adjusted survival for adults following in-hospital cardiac arrest by day of week and time of day: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily J; Smith, Gary B; Power, Geraldine S; Harrison, David A; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Spearpoint, Ken; Gwinnutt, Carl; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2016-11-01

    Internationally, hospital survival is lower for patients admitted at weekends and at night. Data from the UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) indicate that crude hospital survival was worse after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at night versus day, and at weekends versus weekdays, despite similar frequency of events. To describe IHCA demographics during three day/time periods-weekday daytime (Monday to Friday, 08:00 to 19:59), weekend daytime (Saturday and Sunday, 08:00 to 19:59) and night-time (Monday to Sunday, 20:00 to 07:59)-and to compare the associated rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for >20 min (ROSC>20 min) and survival to hospital discharge, adjusted for risk using previously developed NCAA risk models. To consider whether any observed difference could be attributed to differences in the case mix of patients resident in hospital and/or the administered care. We performed a prospectively defined analysis of NCAA data from 27 700 patients aged ≥16 years receiving chest compressions and/or defibrillation and attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team in response to a resuscitation (2222) call in 146 UK acute hospitals. Risk-adjusted outcomes (OR (95% CI)) were worse (p20 min 0.88 (0.81 to 0.95); hospital survival 0.72 (0.64 to 0.80)), and night-time (ROSC>20 min 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76); hospital survival 0.58 (0.54 to 0.63)) compared with weekday daytime. The effects were stronger for non-shockable than shockable rhythms, but there was no significant interaction between day/time of arrest and age, or day/time of arrest and arrest location. While many daytime IHCAs involved procedures, restricting the analyses to IHCAs in medical admissions with an arrest location of ward produced results that are broadly in line with the primary analyses. IHCAs attended by the hospital-based resuscitation team during nights and weekends have substantially worse outcomes than during weekday daytimes. Organisational or care differences at

  15. The impact of time between staging PET/CT and definitive chemo-radiation on target volumes and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, Sarah; Plumridge, Nikki; Herschtal, Alan; Bressel, Mathias; Ball, David; Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To investigate the impact of treatment delays on radiation therapy (RT) target volumes and overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent two baseline FDG PET/CT scans. Material and methods: Patients underwent a staging (PET1) and RT planning (PET2) FDG PET/CT scan. At PET1 all patients were eligible for radical chemo-RT. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT and those treated palliatively because PET2 showed progression. RT target volumes were contoured using PET1 and PET2. Normal tissue doses were compared for patients remaining eligible for radical RT. Results: Eighty-two patients underwent PET2 scans between October 2004 and February 2007. Of these, 21 had a prior PET1 scan, median 23 days apart (range 8–176 days). Six patients (29%) were unsuitable for radical RT after PET2; five received palliative treatment and one received no treatment. Patients treated palliatively had significantly worse OS and PFS than patients treated radically p < 0.001. Mean RT tumour volume increased from 105cc to 198cc (p < 0.005) between scans. Conclusions: Disease progression while awaiting initiation of curative RT in NSCLC is associated with larger treatment volumes and worse survival

  16. Times of analgesic efficacy of two drugs in the treatment of patients with renal-ureteral colic compared by survival models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Reyes Velázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renourethral colic is a very painful clinical situation that requires a quick diagnosis and treatment. A study was done with patients who were administered two types of analgesics, and whose pain was measured through a visual analogue scale. Censored data results were obtained, considering the time when the pain disappeared as the random variable. Maximum likelihood and survival analysis give useful methods to estimate the distribution and parametric functions for this variable. This study will allow a more effective, timely, lower cost and suitable medical treatment for patients.

  17. Predicting treatment effect from surrogate endpoints and historical trials: an extrapolation involving probabilities of a binary outcome or survival to a specific time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Sargent, Daniel J; Buyse, Marc; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2012-03-01

    Using multiple historical trials with surrogate and true endpoints, we consider various models to predict the effect of treatment on a true endpoint in a target trial in which only a surrogate endpoint is observed. This predicted result is computed using (1) a prediction model (mixture, linear, or principal stratification) estimated from historical trials and the surrogate endpoint of the target trial and (2) a random extrapolation error estimated from successively leaving out each trial among the historical trials. The method applies to either binary outcomes or survival to a particular time that is computed from censored survival data. We compute a 95% confidence interval for the predicted result and validate its coverage using simulation. To summarize the additional uncertainty from using a predicted instead of true result for the estimated treatment effect, we compute its multiplier of standard error. Software is available for download. © 2011, The International Biometric Society No claim to original US government works.

  18. Interaction of defibrillation waveform with the time to defibrillation or the number of defibrillation attempts on survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ono, Junko; Nagata, Takashi; Hasegawa, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    Early biphasic defibrillation is effective in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases. In the resuscitation of patients with OHCA, it is not clear how the defibrillation waveform interacts with the time to defibrillation to influence patient survival. The second, and any subsequent, shocks need to be administered by an on-line physician in Japan. Thus, we investigated the interaction between the defibrillation waveform and time to or the number of defibrillation on resuscitation outcomes. This prospective observational study used data for all OHCAs that occurred between 2005 and 2014 in Japan. To investigate the interaction effect between the defibrillation waveform and the time to defibrillation or the number of defibrillations on the return to spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1-month survival, and cerebral performance category (CPC) (1, 2), we assessed the modifying effects of the defibrillation waveform and the time to or the number of defibrillation on additive scale (i.e., the relative excessive risk due to interaction, RERI) and multiplicative scale (i.e., ratio of odds ratios (ORs)). In total, 71,566 cases met the inclusion criteria. For the measure of interaction between the defibrillation waveform and the time to defibrillation, ratio of ORs for ROSC was 0.84 (0.75-0.94), implying that the effect of time to first defibrillation on ROSC was negatively modified by defibrillation waveform. For the interaction between the defibrillation waveform and the number of defibrillations, RERI and ratio of ORs for CPC (1, 2) was -0.25 (-0.47 to -0.06) and 0.79 (0.67-0.93), respectively. It is implied that the effect of number of defibrillation on CPC (1, 2) was negatively modified by defibrillation waveform. An increased number of defibrillations was associated with a decreased ROSC in the case of biphasic and monophasic defibrillation, while an increased number of defibrillations was related to an increased 1-month survival rate and CPC (1, 2) only in the case of

  19. Longer dialysis session length is associated with better intermediate outcomes and survival among patients on in-center three times per week hemodialysis: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Francesca; Zhang, Jinyao; Li, Yun; Karaboyas, Angelo; Kerr, Peter; Saran, Rajiv; Bommer, Juergen; Port, Friedrich; Akiba, Takashi; Pisoni, Ronald; Robinson, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    Longer dialysis session length (treatment time, TT) has been associated with better survival among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The impact of TT on clinical markers that may contribute to this survival advantage is not well known. Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, we assessed the association of TT with clinical outcomes using both standard regression analyses and instrumental variable approaches. The study included 37,414 patients on in-center HD three times per week with prescribed TT from 120 to 420 min. Facility mean TT ranged from 214 min in the USA to 256 min in Australia-New Zealand. Accounting for country effects, mortality risk was lower for patients with longer TT {hazard ratio for every 30 min: all-cause mortality: 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-0.97], cardiovascular mortality: 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91-0.98) and sudden death: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88-0.98)}. Patients with longer TT had lower pre- and post-dialysis systolic blood pressure, greater intradialytic weight loss, higher hemoglobin (for the same erythropoietin dose), serum albumin and potassium and lower serum phosphorus and white blood cell counts. Similar associations were found using the instrumental variable approach, although the positive associations of TT with weight loss and potassium were lost. Favorable levels of a variety of clinical markers may contribute to the better survival of patients receiving longer TT. These findings support longer TT prescription in the setting of in-center, three times per week HD.

  20. HLA-A, -B, and -DR zero-mismatched kidneys shipped to the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1993-2006: superior graft survival despite longer preservation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingham, William J; Muñoz del Rio, Alejandro; Lorentzen, David; Sollinger, Hans W; Pirsch, John D; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; D'Alessandro, Anthony

    2010-08-15

    To determine the impact at a single center of the United Network for Organ Sharing-mandated sharing program for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A/-B/-DR 0-mismatched (0MM) kidneys, we analyzed the results of 264 kidney transplants from 0MM distant donors between 1993 and 2006, with a follow-up through January 31, 2007. We compared these results with that of concurrent kidneys transplanted from HLA more than 0MM local donors and with shipped more than 0MM kidneys from "payback" donors. Despite a significantly longer preservation time, we found an 11% increase in 8-year graft survival (63% vs. 52%; P0MM donor kidneys. Graft survival of 0MM shipped kidneys at 8 years was significantly better in nonsensitized (or=20% panel reactive antibodies) recipients, who showed an early (2 years) but short-lived benefit. The benefit of receiving a HLA-A, -B, and -DR 0MM shipped kidney remained strong and statistically significant (0.71 relative risk of graft loss vs. local; POrgan Sharing policy restricting mandated sharing of 0MM kidneys to sensitized and pediatric recipients will give greater flexibility to the local organ procurement organization in allocating organs. However, the survival benefit to nonsensitized patients is real and long lasting and will be lost.

  1. Endogenous TSH levels at the time of 131I ablation do not influence ablation success, recurrence-free survival or differentiated thyroid cancer-related mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrachimis, Alexis; Riemann, Burkhard; Maeder, Uwe; Reiners, Christoph; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a single older study it is established dogma that TSH levels should be ≥30 mU/l at the time of postoperative 131 I ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. We sought to determine whether endogenous TSH levels, i.e. after levothyroxine withdrawal, at the time of ablation influence ablation success rates, recurrence-free survival and DTC-related mortality. A total of 1,873 patients without distant metastases referred for postoperative adjuvant 131 I therapy were retrospectively included from 1991 onwards. Successful ablation was defined as stimulated Tg <1 μg/l. Age, gender and the presence of lymph node metastases were independent determinants of TSH levels at the time of ablation. TSH levels were not significantly related to ablation success rates (p = 0.34), recurrence-free survival (p = 0.29) or DTC -elated mortality (p = 0.82), but established risk factors such as T-stage, lymph node metastases and age were. Ablation was successful in 230 of 275 patients (83.6 %) with TSH <30 mU/l and in 1,359 of 1,598 patients (85.0 %) with TSH ≥30 mU/l. The difference was not significant (p = 0.55). Of the whole group of 1,873 patients, 21 had recurrent disease. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.16). Ten of the 1,873 patients died of DTC. There were no significant differences in DTC-specific survival between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.53). The precise endogenous TSH levels at the time of 131 I ablation are not related to the ablation success rates, recurrence free survival and DTC related mortality. The established dogma that TSH levels need to be ≥30 mU/l at the time of 131 I ablation can be discarded. (orig.)

  2. Endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation do not influence ablation success, recurrence-free survival or differentiated thyroid cancer-related mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrachimis, Alexis; Riemann, Burkhard [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Maeder, Uwe; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Based on a single older study it is established dogma that TSH levels should be ≥30 mU/l at the time of postoperative {sup 131}I ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. We sought to determine whether endogenous TSH levels, i.e. after levothyroxine withdrawal, at the time of ablation influence ablation success rates, recurrence-free survival and DTC-related mortality. A total of 1,873 patients without distant metastases referred for postoperative adjuvant {sup 131}I therapy were retrospectively included from 1991 onwards. Successful ablation was defined as stimulated Tg <1 μg/l. Age, gender and the presence of lymph node metastases were independent determinants of TSH levels at the time of ablation. TSH levels were not significantly related to ablation success rates (p = 0.34), recurrence-free survival (p = 0.29) or DTC -elated mortality (p = 0.82), but established risk factors such as T-stage, lymph node metastases and age were. Ablation was successful in 230 of 275 patients (83.6 %) with TSH <30 mU/l and in 1,359 of 1,598 patients (85.0 %) with TSH ≥30 mU/l. The difference was not significant (p = 0.55). Of the whole group of 1,873 patients, 21 had recurrent disease. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.16). Ten of the 1,873 patients died of DTC. There were no significant differences in DTC-specific survival between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.53). The precise endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation are not related to the ablation success rates, recurrence free survival and DTC related mortality. The established dogma that TSH levels need to be ≥30 mU/l at the time of {sup 131}I ablation can be discarded. (orig.)

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells increase skin graft survival time and up-regulate PD-L1 expression in splenocytes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravej, Ali; Geramizadeh, Bita; Azarpira, Negar; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Yaghobi, Ramin; Kalani, Mehdi; Khosravi, Maryam; Kouhpayeh, Amin; Karimi, Mohammad-Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained considerable interests as hopeful therapeutic cells in transplantation due to their immunoregulatory functions. But exact mechanisms underlying MSCs immunoregulatory function is not fully understood. Herein, in addition to investigate the ability of MSCs to prolong graft survival time, the effects of them on the expression of PD-L1 and IDO immunomodulatory molecules in splenocytes of skin graft recipient mice was clarified. To achieve this goal, full-thickness skins were transplanted from C57BL/6 to BALB/c mice. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of BALB/c mice and injected to the recipient mice. Skin graft survival was monitored daily to determine graft rejection time. On days 2, 5 and 10 post skin transplantation, serum cytokine levels and expression of PD-L1 and IDO mRNA and protein in the splenocytes of recipient mice were evaluated. The results showed that administration of MSCs prolonged skin graft survival time from 11 to 14 days. On days 2 and 5 post transplantation, splenocytes PD-L1 expression and IL-10 serum level in MSCs treated mice were higher than those in the controls, while IL-2 and IFN-γ levels were lower. Rejection in MSCs treated mice was accompanied by an increase in IL-2 and IFN-γ, and decrease in PD-L1 expression and IL-10 level. No difference in the expression of IDO between MSCs treated mice and controls was observed. In conclusion, we found that one of the mechanisms underlying MSCs immunomodulatory function could be up-regulating PD-L1 expression. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TH-E-BRF-05: Comparison of Survival-Time Prediction Models After Radiotherapy for High-Grade Glioma Patients Based On Clinical and DVH Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, T; Haga, A; Igaki, H; Sekiya, N; Masutani, Y; Sakumi, A; Mukasa, A; Nakagawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although many outcome prediction models based on dose-volume information have been proposed, it is well known that the prognosis may be affected also by multiple clinical factors. The purpose of this study is to predict the survival time after radiotherapy for high-grade glioma patients based on features including clinical and dose-volume histogram (DVH) information. Methods: A total of 35 patients with high-grade glioma (oligodendroglioma: 2, anaplastic astrocytoma: 3, glioblastoma: 30) were selected in this study. All patients were treated with prescribed dose of 30–80 Gy after surgical resection or biopsy from 2006 to 2013 at The University of Tokyo Hospital. All cases were randomly separated into training dataset (30 cases) and test dataset (5 cases). The survival time after radiotherapy was predicted based on a multiple linear regression analysis and artificial neural network (ANN) by using 204 candidate features. The candidate features included the 12 clinical features (tumor location, extent of surgical resection, treatment duration of radiotherapy, etc.), and the 192 DVH features (maximum dose, minimum dose, D95, V60, etc.). The effective features for the prediction were selected according to a step-wise method by using 30 training cases. The prediction accuracy was evaluated by a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) between the predicted and actual survival time for the training and test dataset. Results: In the multiple regression analysis, the value of R 2 between the predicted and actual survival time was 0.460 for the training dataset and 0.375 for the test dataset. On the other hand, in the ANN analysis, the value of R 2 was 0.806 for the training dataset and 0.811 for the test dataset. Conclusion: Although a large number of patients would be needed for more accurate and robust prediction, our preliminary Result showed the potential to predict the outcome in the patients with high-grade glioma. This work was partly supported by the JSPS Core

  5. Investigation of survival time and disability characteristics in 5 subjects with bilateral thalamus infarction near median line%双侧中线旁丘脑梗死5例致残特点及生存期调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟明; 刘江; 钟静玫; 林岚

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Bilateral thalamus infarction near median line is uncommon in clinic.Reports concerned with this conditions were more less.It is characterized by conscious disorder and Korsakoff syndrome.The main caused may be the injury of intralaminar nuclei,dorsomedial nuclei,and injury of cortical matter,mammalillary bodies,fasciculus thalamicus around cerebral chamer III.Comprehensing the disability characteristics in pateints with bilateral thalamus infarction near median line is important for direction of rehabilitation.While study of survival time will improve evaluation of prognosis. Design:Patients recruited from June 1997~ October 2000 were analyzed. Unit:Intraneural Department of First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province. Subjects:55 subjects with MRI proved bilateral thalamus infarction near median line entered study.These patients included 3 women,2 men(age ranging from 50 to 77 years old,mean age:68.6 years).The period from onset to admission ranged from 5 hours to 2 days.All subejcts experienced acute bilateral thalamus infarction near median line.All had hypertension previously,1 had diabetes,2 had auricular fibrillation. Intervention:All patients received management which was conducted according to protocol for treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Patients clinical characteristics were summari-zed and analyzed.Follow up was conducted to determine the survival period. Main evaluation indexes:Survival time and conscious disorder were evaluated. Result:All patients showed different level of conscious disorder.3 cases developed thalamic dementia,2 developed vision numb,In 1 case,condition progressively deteriorated manifesting as moderate coma progressed to deep coma,and bilateral mydriasis.Finally,this patients died of central respiratory and circulatory failure after 8 days.4 cases with favorable prognosis discharged,3 out of them died within 1 year after discharge.Survival subject suffered from reduced memory was followed up till now

  6. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  7. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Posner, Marshall R.; Tishler, Roy B.; Sarlis, Nicholas J.; Haddad, Robert I.; Holupka, Edward J.; Devlin, Phillip M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of ≥ 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary (≤ 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  8. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Posner, Marshall R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sarlis, Nicholas J. [Sanofi-Aventis US, Bridgewater, NJ (United States); Haddad, Robert I. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Holupka, Edward J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of {>=} 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary ({<=} 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  9. Relationship between radiation treatment time and overall survival after induction chemotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma: a subset analysis of TAX 324.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, David J; Posner, Marshall R; Tishler, Roy B; Sarlis, Nicholas J; Haddad, Robert I; Holupka, Edward J; Devlin, Phillip M

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of ≥70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary (≤8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p=0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p=0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential for optimizing OS in LAHNC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  10. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Technique for Real-Time Ionospheric Ranging Error Correction Based On Radar Dual-Frequency Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric refraction is one of the principal error sources for limiting the accuracy of radar systems for space target detection. High-accuracy measurement of the ionospheric electron density along the propagation path of radar wave is the most important procedure for the ionospheric refraction correction. Traditionally, the ionospheric model and the ionospheric detection instruments, like ionosonde or GPS receivers, are employed for obtaining the electron density. However, both methods are not capable of satisfying the requirements of correction accuracy for the advanced space target radar system. In this study, we propose a novel technique for ionospheric refraction correction based on radar dual-frequency detection. Radar target range measurements at two adjacent frequencies are utilized for calculating the electron density integral exactly along the propagation path of the radar wave, which can generate accurate ionospheric range correction. The implementation of radar dual-frequency detection is validated by a P band radar located in midlatitude China. The experimental results present that the accuracy of this novel technique is more accurate than the traditional ionospheric model correction. The technique proposed in this study is very promising for the high-accuracy radar detection and tracking of objects in geospace.

  12. Survival analysis with covariates in combination with multinomial analysis to parametrize time to event for multi-state models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, T.L.; Postmus, D.; Quik, E.H.; Langendijk, H.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    Objectives: Recent ISPOR Good practice guidelines as well as literature encourage to use a single distribution rather than the latent failure approach to model time to event for patient level simulation models with multiple competing outcomes. Aim was to apply the preferred method of a single

  13. Survival analysis with covariates in combination with multinomial analysis to parametrize time to event for multi-state models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, T.L.; Postmus, D.; Quik, E.H.; Langendijk, H.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Recent ISPOR Good practice guidelines as well as literature encourage to use a single distribution rather than the latent failure approach to model time to event for patient level simulation models with multiple competing outcomes. Aim was to apply the preferred method of a single

  14. Evaluation of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for extended spectral range of photon time-of-flight spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Anderson-Engels, Stefan

    This paper describe the performance of the ID220 single photon avalanche diode for single photon counting, and investigates its performance for photon time-of-flight (PToF) spectroscopy. At first this report will serve as a summary to the group for PToF spectroscopy at the Department of Physics...

  15. Condensed tannins reduce browsing and increase grazing time of free-ranging goats in semi-arid savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkhize, N.R.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Scogings, P.F.; Dziba, L.E.; Prins, H.H.T.; Boer, de W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Tannin concentrations fluctuate spatially and temporally within and among plant species, with consequences for forage quality of herbivores. The extent to which these fluctuations influence foraging activities of goats is not fully understood. While accounting for the effects of the time of the day

  16. Survival period after tube feeding in bedridden older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Yoichi; Nakagawa-Satoh, Takuma; Ohrui, Takashi; Fujii, Masahiko; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2012-04-01

    We prospectively studied survival periods after tube feeding. Participants were 163 bedridden older patients suffering from dysphagia. A wide range of survival periods after tube feeding were observed within half a year without tube feeding after being bedridden. After this initial period, survival periods after tube feeding were limited to approximately half a year. Survival periods after tube feeding were positively proportional to the length of time patients were free from pneumonia after tube feeding. After tube feeding, patients died from pneumonia within half a year, and the frequency of pneumonia was 3.1 ± 2.7 times (mean ± SD) before death. Survival periods after tube feeding for less than 1 year were primarily determined by being bedridden for more than half a year without tube feeding and once pneumonia occurred; patients who were tube fed did not survive for more than half a year. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Noninvariance of Space and Time Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Numerical Study of Relativistic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under the Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived for example cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beam interacting with electron clouds. Implications for experimental, theoretical and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems

  18. Intermedin A, a New Labdane Diterpene Isolated from Alpinia intermedia, Prolonged the Survival Time of P-388D1 Tumor-Bearing CDF1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Geeng; Su, Pei-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-01

    Eight ethanolic extracts of indigenous Taiwanese plants of the genus Alpinia were tested for tumor cytotoxicity against AGS, Hep G2, HeLa, KB, and HL-60 cells. Among the 50 % and 95 % EtOH extracts of eight Alpinia species, the cytotoxic effects of Alpinia intermedia leaves were the strongest. When the leaf extract of A. intermedia was partitioned using n -hexane and aqueous solvents, the n -hexane layer showed a greater cytotoxic effect and could prolong the survival time of P-388D 1 tumor-bearing CDF1 mice. Two new labdane diterpene derivatives, intermedin A ( 1 ) and intermedin B ( 2 ), and coronarin E ( 3 ) were isolated from the n -hexane layer of A. intermedia . Intermedin A induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells at 30 µg/mL and significantly prolonged the survival time of P-388D 1 tumor-bearing CDF 1 mice by 48.7 % at 20 mg/kg of body weight. We suggest that intermedin A is a major compound of A. intermedia and has a cytotoxic effect on HL-60 and P-388D 1 cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Effects of Oral Administration of Fucoidan Extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus on Tumor Growth and Survival Time in a Tumor-Bearing Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Okamoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the anti-tumor activities of the oral administration of fucoidan extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus using a tumor (colon 26-bearing mouse model. The materials used included low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF: 6.5–40 kDa, intermediate-molecular-weight fucoidan (IMWF: 110–138 kDa and high-molecular-weight fucoidan (HMWF: 300–330 kDa. The IMWF group showed significantly suppressed tumor growth. The LMWF and HMWF groups showed significantly increased survival times compared with that observed in the control group (mice fed a fucoidan-free diet. The median survival times in the control, LMWF, IMWF and HMWF groups were 23, 46, 40 and 43 days, respectively. It was also found that oral administration of fucoidan increased the population of natural killer cells in the spleen. Furthermore, from the results of the experiment using Myd-88 knockout mice, it was found that these effects are related to gut immunity. These results suggest that fucoidan is a candidate anti-tumor functional food.

  20. Time evolution of some quantum-mechanical systems. Wavefunction cloning in evolving rotating systems. Finite range boundary conditions for time dependent Schroedinger Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieu, R.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Rozmej, P.

    1997-01-01

    The time evolution of coherent rotational wave packets associated to a diatomic molecule or to a deformed nucleus has been studied. Assuming a rigid body dynamics the J(J+1) law leads to a mechanism of cloning: the way function is divided into wave packets identical to the initial one at specific time. Applications are studied for a nuclear wave packed formed by Coulomb excitation. Exact boundary conditions at finite distance for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are derived. A numerical scheme based on Crank-Nicholson method is proposed to illustrate its applicability in several examples. (authors)

  1. Impact of Glucose Meter Error on Glycemic Variability and Time in Target Range During Glycemic Control After Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Bryant, Sandra C

    2015-08-25

    We retrospectively studied the impact of glucose meter error on the efficacy of glycemic control after cardiovascular surgery. Adult patients undergoing intravenous insulin glycemic control therapy after cardiovascular surgery, with 12-24 consecutive glucose meter measurements used to make insulin dosing decisions, had glucose values analyzed to determine glycemic variability by both standard deviation (SD) and continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA), and percentage glucose values in target glucose range (110-150 mg/dL). Information was recorded for 70 patients during each of 2 periods, with different glucose meters used to measure glucose and dose insulin during each period but no other changes to the glycemic control protocol. Accuracy and precision of each meter were also compared using whole blood specimens from ICU patients. Glucose meter 1 (GM1) had median bias of 11 mg/dL compared to a laboratory reference method, while glucose meter 2 (GM2) had a median bias of 1 mg/dL. GM1 and GM2 differed little in precision (CV = 2.0% and 2.7%, respectively). Compared to the period when GM1 was used to make insulin dosing decisions, patients whose insulin dose was managed by GM2 demonstrated reduced glycemic variability as measured by both SD (13.7 vs 21.6 mg/dL, P meter error (bias) was associated with decreased glycemic variability and increased percentage of values in target glucose range for patients placed on intravenous insulin therapy following cardiovascular surgery. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Experimental time resolved measurement of fluence and energy spectra of photons emitted by a pulsed X-ray generator in the range 5-300 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed: - A sensor to measure locally X ray fluence rate amplitude and variation versus time during X ray pulses, - A spectrometer based on ROSS method to measure absolute X ray spectrum versus time during X ray pulses. This metrology is used to characterise single shot X ray pulsed sources emitting photons in the range of 5 to 300 keV. Fluence domain is between 10 -9 and 5 10 -4 J. cm -2 with a few nanoseconds time resolution [fr

  3. Anemia in chronic renal failure. Ferrokinetic, erythrocytes-survival time and enzymes of erythrocytes on chronic dialysed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkers, K; Jontofson, R; Meuret, G; Blume, K G; Heinze, V [Freie Univ. Berlin (F.R. Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.; Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.; Freiburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Medizinische Poliklinik)

    1975-12-01

    Radio-iron utilization was nearly normal in these patients, only bilateral nephrectomized patients showed a reduced radio-iron utilization. Red blood half-life span was shortened in all patients, well corresponding to the degree of anemia. Parameters of erythropoesis like plasma iron clearance, bone marrow transit time, erythron iron turnover, non-erythron iron turnover and hemolysis iron turnover failed to quantitate disorders of red blood cell regeneration in these patients. No defect in red blood cell enzyme activity could be demonstrated. Enzymes of glycolysis were increased corresponding to the reduced erythrocyte half-life span.

  4. Use of real-time PCR to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Almberg, Emily S; Smith, Douglas; Goyal, Sagar; Singer, Randall S

    2012-04-01

    Using real-time PCR, we tested 15 wolf (Canis lupus) feces from the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota, USA, and 191 from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 DNA. We also tested 20 dog feces for CPV-2 DNA. The PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific with a minimum detection threshold of 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective dose. Virus was detected in two winter specimens but none of the summer specimens. We suggest applying the technique more broadly especially with winter feces.

  5. Use of real-time PCR to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Almberg, Emily S.; Smith, Douglas; Goyal, Sagar; Singer, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    Using real-time PCR, we tested 15 wolf (Canis lupus) feces from the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota, USA, and 191 from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 DNA. We also tested 20 dog feces for CPV-2 DNA. The PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific with a minimum detection threshold of 104 50% tissue culture infective dose. Virus was detected in two winter specimens but none of the summer specimens. We suggest applying the technique more broadly especially with winter feces.

  6. The Art of Creating Attractive Consumer Experiences at the Right Time: Skills Marketers Will Need to Survive and Thrive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemon Katherine N.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available New technologies have made today’s marketing faster, more mobile, more location-based, more digital, more virtual, and more automatized than ever. In this new world, marketers need to be “real-time relevant” – to gain awareness, to change perceptions and to spur action. They need to have their content in the right channel, format, time and context – from a consumer’s perspective. Only then do they at least have a chance of the consumer attending to the information and being influenced by it. In such an environment new skills and competences are required. The amount of available data has virtually exploded. To gain any perspective or apparent “control” in these environments, successful managers must embrace the complexity and learn to analyze, integrate and interpret all this data. A critical skill for marketers will be to identify the metrics that best reflect the desired outcomes of the organization and that sufficiently reflect specific indicators of critical processes. Furthermore, insights from other disciplines such as architecture, design, information-processing, biology or engineering will be important for creating customer experiences. The marketer of the future will need to be supremely curious and creative and to balance and integrate different worlds. It will all come down to delivering memorable and lasting experiences in a constantly and fast changing environment.

  7. Exploratory Analysis of Time from HIV Diagnosis to ART Start, Factors and effect on survival: A longitudinal follow up study at seven teaching hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Alula M; Delele, Kesetebirhan; Abraha, Mulu; Belayhun, Bekele; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Nega, Abiy

    2017-02-01

    The HIV care in Ethiopia has reached 79% coverage. The timeliness of the care provided at the different levels in the course of the disease starting from knowing HIV positive status to ART initiation is not well known. This study intends to explore the timing of the care seeking, the care provision and associated factors. This is a longitudinal follow-up study at seven university hospitals. Patients enrolled in HIV care from September 2005 to December 2013 and aged ≥14 years were studied. Different times in the cascade of HIV care were examined including the duration from date HIV diagnosed to enrollment in HIV care, duration from enrollment to eligibility for ART and time from eligibility to initiation of ART. Ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate their determinants while the effect of these periods on survival of patients was determined using cox-proportional hazards regression. 4159 clients were studied. Time to enrollment after HIV test decreased from 39 days in 2005 to 1 day after 2008. It took longer if baseline CD4 was higher, and eligibility for ART was assessed late. Young adults, lower baseline CD4, HIV diagnosisART initiation. Male gender, advanced disease stage and lower baseline CD4 were consistent risk factors for mortality. Time to enrollment and duration of ART eligibility assessment as well as ART initiation time after eligibility is improving. Further study is required to identify why mortality is slightly increasing after 2010.

  8. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Survival of the Composite Graft and the Proper Time of Injection in a Rabbit Ear Composite Graft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Nam Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdministration of growth factors has been associated with increased viability of composite grafts greater than 1-cm in diameter. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP contains many of the growth factors studied. In this study, we evaluate the effect of PRP injection on composite graft viability and the proper time for injection.MethodsA total of 24 New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. Autologous PRP was injected into the recipient sites three days before grafting in group 1, on the day of grafting in group 2, and three days after grafting in group 3. Group 4 served as control without PRP administration. Auricular composite grafts of 3-cm diameter were harvested and grafted back into place after being rotated 180 degrees. Median graft viability and microvessel density were evaluated at day 21 of graft via macroscopic photographs and immunofluorescent staining, respectively.ResultsThe median graft survival rate was 97.8% in group 1, 69.2% in group 2, 55.7% in group 3, and 40.8% in the control group. The median vessel counts were 34 (per ×200 HPF in group 1, 24.5 in group 2, 19.5 in group 3, and 10.5 in the control group.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that PRP administration is associated with increased composite graft viability. All experimental groups showed a significantly higher survival rate and microvessel density, compared with the control group. Pre-administration of PRP was followed by the highest graft survival rate and revascularization. PRP treatments are minimally invasive, fast, easily applicable, and inexpensive, and offer a potential clinical pathway to larger composite grafts.

  9. Survival after Abdominoperineal and Sphincter-Preserving Resection in Nonmetastatic Rectal Cancer: A Population-Based Time-Trend and Propensity Score-Matched SEER Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Warschkow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominoperineal resection (APR has been associated with impaired survival in nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients. It is unclear whether this adverse outcome is due to the surgical procedure itself or is a consequence of tumor-related characteristics. Study Design. Patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The impact of APR compared to coloanal anastomosis (CAA on survival was assessed by Cox regression and propensity-score matching. Results. In 36,488 patients with rectal cancer resection, the APR rate declined from 31.8% in 1998 to 19.2% in 2011, with a significant trend change in 2004 at 21.6% (P<0.001. To minimize a potential time-trend bias, survival analysis was limited to patients diagnosed after 2004. APR was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality after unadjusted analysis (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.28–2.03, P<0.01 and multivariable adjustment (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10–1.76, P<0.01. After optimal adjustment of highly biased patient characteristics by propensity-score matching, APR was not identified as a risk factor for cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.56–1.29, P=0.456. Conclusions. The current propensity score-adjusted analysis provides evidence that worse oncological outcomes in patients undergoing APR compared to CAA are caused by different patient characteristics and not by the surgical procedure itself.

  10. Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among US young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2015-07-01

    To measure changes over time in cigarette smoking uptake prevalence and timing during young adulthood (ages 19-26 years), and associations between time-invariant/-varying characteristics and uptake prevalence/timing. Discrete-time survival modeling of data collected from United States high school seniors (modal age 17/18) enrolled in successive graduating classes from 1976 to 2005 and participating in four follow-up surveys (to modal age 25/26). The longitudinal component of the Monitoring the Future study. A total of 10 758 individuals reporting no life-time smoking when first surveyed as high school seniors. Smoking uptake (any, experimental, occasional and regular); socio-demographic variables; marital, college and work status; time spent socializing. The percentage of young adults moving from non-smoker to experimental smoking [slope estimate 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.04, P = 0.005] or occasional smoking (slope estimate 0.17, SE = 0.03, P age 19/20, but uptake prevalence at older ages increased over time [e.g. cohort year predicting occasional uptake at modal age 25/26 adjusted hazard odds ratio (AHOR) = 1.05, P = 0.002]. Time-invariant/-varying characteristics had unique associations with the timing of various forms of smoking uptake (e.g. at modal age 21/22, currently attending college increased occasional uptake risk (AHOR = 2.11, P age 19/20, but prevalence of uptake at older ages increased. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Accounting for Uncertainty in Decision Analytic Models Using Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time Modeling: Application to Parametric Survival Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Iain; Paracha, Noman; Abrams, Keith; Ray, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time models are one of the most commonly used statistical methods to adjust for treatment switching in oncology clinical trials. The method is often applied in a decision analytic model without appropriately accounting for additional uncertainty when determining the allocation of health care resources. The aim of the study is to describe novel approaches to adequately account for uncertainty when using a Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time model in a decision analytic model. Using two examples, we tested and compared the performance of the novel Test-based method with the resampling bootstrap method and with the conventional approach of no adjustment. In the first example, we simulated life expectancy using a simple decision analytic model based on a hypothetical oncology trial with treatment switching. In the second example, we applied the adjustment method on published data when no individual patient data were available. Mean estimates of overall and incremental life expectancy were similar across methods. However, the bootstrapped and test-based estimates consistently produced greater estimates of uncertainty compared with the estimate without any adjustment applied. Similar results were observed when using the test based approach on a published data showing that failing to adjust for uncertainty led to smaller confidence intervals. Both the bootstrapping and test-based approaches provide a solution to appropriately incorporate uncertainty, with the benefit that the latter can implemented by researchers in the absence of individual patient data. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibre-tree network for water-surface ranging using an optical time-domain reflectometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamabayashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To monitor water level at long distance, a fibre-based time-domain reflectometry network is proposed. A collimator at each fibre end of a tree-type network retrieves 1.55 μm wavelength pulses that are reflected back from remote surfaces. Since this enables a power-supply-free sensor network with non-metal media, this system is expected to be less susceptible to lightning strikes and power cuts than conventional systems that use electrically powered sensors and metal cables. In the present Letter, a successful simultaneous monitoring experiment of two water levels in the laboratory, as well as a trial for detecting a disturbed surface by beam-expanding is reported.

  13. How many times again will we examine the energy-income nexus using a limited range of traditional econometric tools?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    During the last three decades, following closely the developments in econometric theory, energy and environmental economists have empirically examined the energy-income nexus for different countries and time periods. However, today, in spite of the growing interest in this area, the state of knowledge is still controversial and unsettled. This viewpoint paper attempts to highlight some of the issues related to the existing literature on the long-run relationship and causality between energy consumption and economic growth. In particular, it discusses how it is difficult to make policy recommendations on the basis of inconsistent and conflicting results in the published literature on the subject. In order to do so, the paper first illustrates the increasing trend in the number of studies published in this area providing also a brief comparison of the conventional methods used to estimate the energy-income nexus. It then deals with new directions and different viewpoints on the same issue

  14. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development times and survival of Synopsyllus fonquerniei and Xenopsylla cheopis, the flea vectors of plague in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2016-02-11

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia, the Americas but mainly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague is transmitted predominantly by two flea species which coexist on the island, but differ in their distribution. The endemic flea, Synopsyllus fonquerniei, dominates flea communities on rats caught outdoors, while the cosmopolitan flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is found mostly on rats caught in houses. Additionally S. fonquerniei seems restricted to areas above 800 m. Climatic constraints on the development of the two main vectors of plague could explain the differences in their distribution and the seasonal changes in their abundance. Here we present the first study on effects of temperature and relative humidity on the immature stages of both vector species. We examined the two species' temperature and humidity requirements under experimental conditions at five different temperatures and two relative humidities. By employing multivariate and survival analysis we established the impact of temperature and relative humidity on development times and survival for both species. Using degree-day analysis we then predicted the average developmental threshold for larvae to reach pupation and for pupae to complete development under each treatment. This analysis was undertaken separately for the two relative humidities and for the two species. Development times and time to death differed significantly, with the endemic S. fonquerniei taking on average 1.79 times longer to complete development and having a shorter time to death than X. cheopis under adverse conditions with high temperature and low humidity. Temperature had a significant effect on the development times of flea larvae and pupae. While humidity did not affect the development times of either species, it did influence the time of death of S. fonquerniei. Using degree-day analysis we estimated an

  15. Lymphadenectomy extent and survival of patients with gastric carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of time-to-event data from randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato

    2015-05-01

    The extent of lymph node dissection in patients with resectable non-metastatic primary carcinoma of the stomach is still a controversial matter of debate, with special regard to its effect on survival. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of time-to-event data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the three main types of lymphadenectomy (D1, D2, and D3) for gastric cancer. Hazard ratio (HR) was considered the effect measure for both overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The quality of the available evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Eight RCTs enrolling 2515 patients were eligible. The meta-analysis of four RCTs (n=1599) showed a significant impact of D2 versus D1 lymphadenectomy on DSS (summary HR=0.807, CI: 0.705-0.924, P=0.002), the corresponding number-to-treat being equal to ten. This effect remained clinically valuable even after adjustment for postoperative mortality. However, the quality of evidence was graded as moderate due to inconsistency issues. When OS and DFS were considered, the meta-analysis of respectively five (n=1653) and three RCTs (n=1332) found no significant difference between D2 and D1 lymph node dissection (summary HR=0.911, CI: 0.708-1.172, P=0.471, and summary HR=0.946, CI: 0.840-1.066, P=0.366, respectively). However, at subgroup analysis D2 type resulted superior to D1 type lymphadenectomy in terms of OS considering the two RCTs carried out in Eastern countries (summary HR=0.627, CI: 0.396-0.994, P=0.047). As regards the D3 vs D2 comparison, the meta-analysis of the three available RCTs (n=862) showed no significant impact of more extended lymphadenectomy on OS (summary HR=0.990, CI: 0.814-1.205, P=0.924). Our findings support the superiority of D2 versus D1 lymphadenectomy in terms of survival benefit. However, this advantage is mainly limited to DSS, the level of evidence is moderate, and the interaction with other factors affecting patient survival (such as

  16. The influence of age at time of exposure to 239Pu or 226Ra on retention, distribution, survival and tumor induction in Beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Miller, S.C.; Lloyd, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of age at injection of 226 Ra or 239 Pu on skeletal deposition and local distribution, the pattern of bone tumor formation and post-injection survival were studied in parallel short-term mechanistic and lifetime toxicity experiments. Beagles received a single intravenous injection of 226 Ra or 239 Pu at age 3 months (juveniles), 17-19 months (young adults) or 60 months (mature). Data from short-term mechanistic-dosimetric studies and from one dosage level (41 kBq 226 Ra/kg or 11 kBq 239 Pu/kg body mass) of each of the toxicity experiments were compared. Skeletal growth and turnover produced differential initial deposition and distribution patterns typical for each age group. The highest bone tumor incidence was seen in the young adult groups. Differences were observed in bone tumor location between dogs in the same age group given radium or plutonium and among age groups injected with either radionuclide, and some of these could be explained by differences in local dose distributions (e.g., trabecular vs. cortical bone). Cox regression indicated no significant differences in post-injection survivals (uncorrected for the different pre-injection periods) of Ra-injected groups, but there was a statistically significant difference among the Pu-injected groups. Neutron-induced autoradiography showed that differences in the effects of Pu in the three age groups were due primarily to the age- and time-dependent local distribution of the nuclide

  17. THE EFFECT OF CAROVERINE AND ITS COMBINATION WITH AMINOOXYACETIC ACID ON SURVIVAL TIME OF MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL TETANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mujezinović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a disease that occurs in humans and various animal species worldwide. Tetanus toxin, after binding itself to nerve structures in the spinal cord, blocking the release of inhibitory transmitors which results in predominance of excitatory transmitors, and this manifestes itself in skeletal muscle spasm. In theory, inhibition of excitatory transmission can try to antagonize a number of ways: by stimulating inhibitory transmission with application inhibitory transmitors, inhibition of excitatory transmission by application of antagonists of excitatory transmitors and combination of antagonists of excitatory transmitors. Bearing this in mind, we attempted to normalize the disorders by tetanus toxin with the use of caroverine, an antagonist of excitatory transmitors, alone and in combination with aminooxyacetic acid (substance that increases the level of GABA. Experiments were conducted on albino mice of both sexes, weight 20-25 g. The experimental tetanus was induced by application of tetanus toxin. The application of caroverine and combination with aminooxyacetic acid was carried out 24 hours after application of tetanus toxin, once per day, until the death. Caroverine, given alone in a dose of 1,2 mg/kg significantly prolonged the LD50 period of mice with experimental tetanus, so the obtained results can be said that its application only at this dose proved to be effective. The combination with aminooxyacetic acid was gave an insignificant extension of mice’s dying time with experimental tetanus in the trial, compared to the control group. Key words: tetanus, tetanus toxin, transmitors, caroverine, aminooxyacetic acid

  18. Denosumab and Bone Metastasis–Free Survival in Men With Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Exploratory Analyses by Baseline Prostate-Specific Antigen Doubling Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R.; Saad, Fred; Oudard, Stephane; Shore, Neal; Fizazi, Karim; Sieber, Paul; Tombal, Bertrand; Damiao, Ronaldo; Marx, Gavin; Miller, Kurt; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Morote, Juan; Ye, Zhishen; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Denosumab, an anti–RANK ligand monoclonal antibody, significantly increases bone metastasis–free survival (BMFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .028) and delays time to first bone metastasis in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time (PSADT) ≤ 10.0 months. To identify men at greatest risk for bone metastasis or death, we evaluated relationships between PSA and PSADT with BMFS in the placebo group and the efficacy and safety of denosumab in men with PSADT ≤ 10, ≤ 6, and ≤ 4 months. Patients and Methods A total of 1,432 men with nonmetastatic CRPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. Enrollment began February 2006; primary analysis cutoff was July 2010, when approximately 660 men were anticipated to have developed bone metastases or died. Results In the placebo group, shorter BMFS was observed as PSADT decreased below 8 months. In analyses by shorter baseline PSADT, denosumab consistently increased BMFS by a median of 6.0, 7.2, and 7.5 months among men with PSADT ≤ 10 (HR, 0.84; P = .042), ≤ 6 (HR, 0.77; P = .006), and ≤ 4 months (HR, 0.71; P = .004), respectively. Denosumab also consistently increased time to bone metastasis by PSADT subset. No difference in survival was observed between treatment groups for the overall study population or PSADT subsets. Conclusion Patients with shorter PSADT are at greater risk for bone metastasis or death. Denosumab consistently improves BMFS in men with shorter PSADT and seems to have the greatest treatment effects in men at high risk for progression. PMID:24043751

  19. Denosumab and bone metastasis-free survival in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: exploratory analyses by baseline prostate-specific antigen doubling time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R; Saad, Fred; Oudard, Stephane; Shore, Neal; Fizazi, Karim; Sieber, Paul; Tombal, Bertrand; Damiao, Ronaldo; Marx, Gavin; Miller, Kurt; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Morote, Juan; Ye, Zhishen; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2013-10-20

    Denosumab, an anti-RANK ligand monoclonal antibody, significantly increases bone metastasis-free survival (BMFS; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; P = .028) and delays time to first bone metastasis in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 8.0 ng/mL and/or PSA doubling time (PSADT) ≤ 10.0 months. To identify men at greatest risk for bone metastasis or death, we evaluated relationships between PSA and PSADT with BMFS in the placebo group and the efficacy and safety of denosumab in men with PSADT ≤ 10, ≤ 6, and ≤ 4 months. A total of 1,432 men with nonmetastatic CRPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to monthly subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg or placebo. Enrollment began February 2006; primary analysis cutoff was July 2010, when approximately 660 men were anticipated to have developed bone metastases or died. In the placebo group, shorter BMFS was observed as PSADT decreased below 8 months. In analyses by shorter baseline PSADT, denosumab consistently increased BMFS by a median of 6.0, 7.2, and 7.5 months among men with PSADT ≤ 10 (HR, 0.84; P = .042), ≤ 6 (HR, 0.77; P = .006), and ≤ 4 months (HR, 0.71; P = .004), respectively. Denosumab also consistently increased time to bone metastasis by PSADT subset. No difference in survival was observed between treatment groups for the overall study population or PSADT subsets. Patients with shorter PSADT are at greater risk for bone metastasis or death. Denosumab consistently improves BMFS in men with shorter PSADT and seems to have the greatest treatment effects in men at high risk for progression.

  20. L-carnitine is a survival factor for chilled storage of rooster semen for a long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, A; Sharafi, M; Masoudi, R; Shahverdi, A; Esmaeili, V

    2017-02-01

    Rooster sperm is sensitive to cooling, which restricts procedures to store sperms for extended periods of time for artificial insemination of commercial flocks. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of adding L-carnitine (LC) to chilled-storage of rooster sperm and its effects on sperm quality parameters and its fertility potential during storage at 5 °C. Pooled semen from roosters were divided into six equal aliquots and diluted with media supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mM LC). Diluted semen samples were cooled to 5 °C and stored over 48 h. Motility, viability, membrane functionality, lipid peroxidation and mitochondria activity of the sperm were assessed at 0, 24 and 48 h of storage. Moreover, fertility potential of chilled stored sperm was considered at 24 h of storage. While sperm quality was not affected by LC at the beginning of storage (0 h), supplementation of extender with 1 and 2 mM of LC significantly improved the percentage of sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and mitochondria activity at 24 h and 48 h compared to other groups. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in sperm samples diluted with 1 and 2 mM LC at 24 h (2.15 ± 0.52 nmol/ml and 2.21 ± 0.52 nmol/ml) and 48 h (3.42 ± 0.49 nmol/ml and 3.38 ± 0.49 nmol/ml) compared to other groups. Furthermore, fertility rates during artificial insemination using sperms cooled for 24 h in the presence of 1 and 2 mM LC were significantly higher (78%) than in the control group (64%). These findings suggest that optimum doses of LC could protect rooster sperm against cool storage-induced functional and structural damages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear morphometry in histological specimens of canine prostate cancer: Correlation with histological subtypes, Gleason score, methods of collection and survival time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Guido; Laufer-Amorim, Renée; Palmieri, Chiara

    2017-10-01

    Ten normal prostates, 22 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 29 prostate cancer (PC) were morphometrically analyzed with regard to mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean nuclear diameter (MND), coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV), mean nuclear diameter maximum (MDx), mean nuclear diameter minimum (MDm), mean nuclear form ellipse (MNFe) and form factor (FF). The relationship between nuclear morphometric parameters and histological type, Gleason score, methods of sample collection, presence of metastases and survival time of canine PC were also investigated. Overall, nuclei from neoplastic cells were larger, with greater variation in nuclear size and shape compared to normal and hyperplastic cells. Significant differences were found between more (small acinar/ductal) and less (cribriform, solid) differentiated PCs with regard to FF (pnuclear morphometric analysis in combination with Gleason score can help in canine prostate cancer grading, thus contributing to the establishment of a more precise prognosis and patient's management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Timing of Relapse and Overall Survival for Children Treated on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocols (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Kira; Blonquist, Traci M; Neuberg, Donna S; Silverman, Lewis B; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Population-based evidence suggests that lower socioeconomic status (SES) negatively impacts the overall survival (OS) of children with leukemia; however, the relationships between SES and treatment-related mortality, relapse, and timing of relapse remain unclear. We examined OS, event-free survival (EFS) and cumulative incidence (CI) and timing of relapse by community-level poverty for 575 children aged 1-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated on consecutive phase III multicenter Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocols between 2000 and 2010. Children were categorized into high- and low-poverty areas for the analysis using aggregate U.S. Census data linked to zip code. Children living in high-poverty areas experienced a 5-year OS of 85% as compared with 92% for those in low-poverty areas (P = 0.02); poverty remained marginally significant (P = 0.07) after adjustment for immunophenotype, age, and white blood cell count. There were no differences detected in EFS or CI relapse by poverty area. However, 92% of the relapses observed in children from high-poverty areas occurred <36 months from complete remission, compared to 48% of those in children from low-poverty areas (P = 0.008). U.S. children with ALL living in high-poverty areas have a higher risk of early relapse when compared with those living in low-poverty areas despite uniform treatment. This may in part explain decreased OS observed in these children. This finding highlights disparities in childhood cancer outcomes by SES despite uniform treatment. Further investigations of the mechanistic pathways underlying this finding are needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Bias and precision of methods for estimating the difference in restricted mean survival time from an individual patient data meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béranger Lueza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The difference in restricted mean survival time ( rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , the area between two survival curves up to time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , is often used in cost-effectiveness analyses to estimate the treatment effect in randomized controlled trials. A challenge in individual patient data (IPD meta-analyses is to account for the trial effect. We aimed at comparing different methods to estimate the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ from an IPD meta-analysis. Methods We compared four methods: the area between Kaplan-Meier curves (experimental vs. control arm ignoring the trial effect (Naïve Kaplan-Meier; the area between Peto curves computed at quintiles of event times (Peto-quintile; the weighted average of the areas between either trial-specific Kaplan-Meier curves (Pooled Kaplan-Meier or trial-specific exponential curves (Pooled Exponential. In a simulation study, we varied the between-trial heterogeneity for the baseline hazard and for the treatment effect (possibly correlated, the overall treatment effect, the time horizon t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ , the number of trials and of patients, the use of fixed or DerSimonian-Laird random effects model, and the proportionality of hazards. We compared the methods in terms of bias, empirical and average standard errors. We used IPD from the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Nasopharynx Carcinoma (MAC-NPC and its updated version MAC-NPC2 for illustration that included respectively 1,975 and 5,028 patients in 11 and 23 comparisons. Results The Naïve Kaplan-Meier method was unbiased, whereas the Pooled Exponential and, to a much lesser extent, the Pooled Kaplan-Meier methods showed a bias with non-proportional hazards. The Peto-quintile method underestimated the rmstD t ∗ $$ rmstD\\left({t}^{\\ast}\\right $$ , except with non-proportional hazards at t ∗ $$ {t}^{\\ast } $$ = 5 years. In the presence of treatment effect

  4. Triple antithrombotic therapy is the independent predictor for the occurrence of major bleeding complications: analysis of percent time in therapeutic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Yoshihisa; Sato, Akira; Hoshi, Tomoya; Takeyasu, Noriyuki; Kakefuda, Yuki; Ishibashi, Mayu; Misaki, Masako; Abe, Daisuke; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2013-08-01

    Triple antithrombotic therapy increases the risk of bleeding events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, it remains unclear whether good control of percent time in therapeutic range is associated with reduced occurrence of bleeding complications in patients undergoing triple antithrombotic therapy. This study included 2648 patients (70 ± 11 years; 2037 men) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent in the Ibaraki Cardiovascular Assessment Study registry and received dual antiplatelet therapy with or without warfarin. Clinical end points were defined as the occurrence of major bleeding complications (MBC), major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event, and all-cause death. Among these 2648 patients, 182 (7%) patients received warfarin. After a median follow-up period of 25 months (interquartile range, 15-35 months), MBC had occurred in 48 (2%) patients, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event in 484 (18%) patients, and all-cause death in 206 (8%) patients. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that triple antithrombotic therapy was the independent predictor for the occurrence of MBC (hazard ratio, 7.25; 95% confidence interval, 3.05-17.21; Prange value did not differ between the patients with and without MBC occurrence (83% [interquartile range, 50%-90%] versus 75% [interquartile range, 58%-87%]; P=0.7). However, the mean international normalized ratio of prothrombin time at the time of MBC occurrence was 3.3 ± 2.1. Triple antithrombotic therapy did not have a predictive value for the occurrence of all-cause death (P=0.1) and stroke (P=0.2). Triple antithrombotic therapy predisposes patients to an increased risk of MBC regardless of the time in therapeutic range.

  5. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborini, D.; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A.; Tisa, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link

  6. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborini, D., E-mail: davide.tamborini@polimi.it; Portaluppi, D.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Tisa, S. [Micro Photon Devices, via Stradivari 4, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  7. Multichannel low power time-to-digital converter card with 21 ps precision and full scale range up to 10 μs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, D; Portaluppi, D; Villa, F; Tisa, S; Tosi, A

    2014-11-01

    We present a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) card with a compact form factor, suitable for multichannel timing instruments or for integration into more complex systems. The TDC Card provides 10 ps timing resolution over the whole measurement range, which is selectable from 160 ns up to 10 μs, reaching 21 ps rms precision, 1.25% LSB rms differential nonlinearity, up to 3 Mconversion/s with 400 mW power consumption. The I/O edge card connector provides timing data readout through either a parallel bus or a 100 MHz serial interface and further measurement information like input signal rate and valid conversion rate (typically useful for time-correlated single-photon counting application) through an independent serial link.

  8. The influence of scenario-based training and real-time audiovisual feedback on out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Bentley J; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F; Stolz, Uwe; Silver, Annemarie E; Tobin, John M; Crawford, Scott A; Mason, Terence K; Schirmer, Jerome; Smith, Gary A; Spaite, Daniel W

    2013-07-01

    We assess whether an initiative to optimize out-of-hospital provider cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality is associated with improved CPR quality and increased survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This was a before-after study of consecutive adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Data were obtained from out-of-hospital forms and defibrillators. Phase 1 included 18 months with real-time audiovisual feedback disabled (October 2008 to March 2010). Phase 2 included 16 months (May 2010 to September 2011) after scenario-based training of 373 professional rescuers and real-time audiovisual feedback enabled. The effect of interventions on survival to hospital discharge was assessed with multivariable logistic regression. Multiple imputation of missing data was used to analyze the effect of interventions on CPR quality. Analysis included 484 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients (phase 1 232; phase 2 252). Median age was 68 years (interquartile range 56-79); 66.5% were men. CPR quality measures improved significantly from phase 1 to phase 2: Mean chest compression rate decreased from 128 to 106 chest compressions per minute (difference -23 chest compressions; 95% confidence interval [CI] -26 to -19 chest compressions); mean chest compression depth increased from 1.78 to 2.15 inches (difference 0.38 inches; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.47 inches); median chest compression fraction increased from 66.2% to 83.7% (difference 17.6%; 95% CI 15.0% to 20.1%); median preshock pause decreased from 26.9 to 15.5 seconds (difference -11.4 seconds; 95% CI -15.7 to -7.2 seconds), and mean ventilation rate decreased from 11.7 to 9.5/minute (difference -2.2/minute; 95% CI -3.9 to -0.5/minute). All-rhythms survival increased from phase 1 to phase 2 (20/231, 8.7% versus 35/252, 13.9%; difference 5.2%; 95% CI -0.4% to 10.8%), with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.72 (95% CI 1.15 to 6.41), controlling for initial rhythm, witnessed arrest, age, minimally interrupted cardiac resuscitation

  9. Estimating background denudation rates and delivery of landslide sediment from a time series of 10Be concentrations in landslide dominated basins in the southern Central Range of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Willett, S.; West, A. J.; Dadson, S. J.; Hovius, N.; Christl, M.; Shyu, J. B. H.

    2017-12-01

    The southern Central Range of Taiwan is located at a tectonic transition zone between an oceanic subduction zone and the arc-continent collision forming the Taiwan orogen. The rapidly evolving tectonic setting, tropical climate and frequent typhoons result in a complex uplift pattern, transient landscapes and extensive landslides. For this study, we obtained a series of 10Be concentrations over the last decade for 13 major drainage basins in the southern Central Range, bracketing the occurrence of a major typhoon, Morakot, which hit Taiwan in 2009 and triggered thousands of landslides. This time series allows us to simultaneously estimate the background erosion rate and assess the impact of Morakot-triggered landslides on 10Be concentrations. The time series of 10Be concentrations shows temporally lower concentrations of 10Be indicating dilution following the Morakot event in most basins. The diluted 10Be concentrations imply erosion rates up to three times higher than the lowest measured rates in the same basins. We constructed a simple sediment-mixing model parameterized by a sudden input of sediment supplied from landslides superimposed on a background denudation rate. This model was calibrated to measured landslide inventories and the series of 10Be data. We obtain a range of permissible background erosion rate and fraction of landslide sediments over time for each basin. The inferred background erosion rate reveals a northward increasing trend, reflecting the initial stage of the mountain building and indicating tectonic forcing is the main driver of the landscape evolution in the southern Central Range. The temporal changes in fraction of landslide sediments show that the available landslide material generated by the Morakot event is decreasing over time with a timescale of several years.

  10. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  11. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A two-level model of rise time in quantum cascade laser materials applied to 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2014-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulation of a two-level rate equation model for quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials is used to study the turn on delay and rise time for three QCLs with 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths. In order to do this it is necessary that the model can deal with large signal responses and not be restricted to small signal responses; the model used here is capable of this. The effect of varying some of the characteristic times in the model is also investigated. The comparison of the terahertz wave QCL with the others is particularly important given the increased interest in terahertz sources which have a large range of important applications, such as in medical imaging

  13. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  14. Monte Carlo steps per spin vs. time in the master equation II: Glauber kinetics for the infinite-range ising model in a static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Suhk Kun [Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    As an extension of our previous work on the relationship between time in Monte Carlo simulation and time in the continuous master equation in the infinit-range Glauber kinetic Ising model in the absence of any magnetic field, we explored the same model in the presence of a static magnetic field. Monte Carlo steps per spin as time in the MC simulations again turns out to be proportional to time in the master equation for the model in relatively larger static magnetic fields at any temperature. At and near the critical point in a relatively smaller magnetic field, the model exhibits a significant finite-size dependence, and the solution to the Suzuki-Kubo differential equation stemming from the master equation needs to be re-scaled to fit the Monte Carlo steps per spin for the system with different numbers of spins.

  15. Range-separated time-dependent density-functional theory with a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebolini, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.rebolini@kjemi.uio.no; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-07

    We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of the He and Be atoms and small molecules (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.

  16. Time to Let Go of the Illusion that Psychotherapy Extends the Survival of Cancer Patients: Reply to Kraemer, Kuchler, and Spiegel (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.; Stefanek, Michael; Palmer, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Replies to comments from Kraemer, Kuchler, and Spiegel on the authors original article Psychotherapy and survival in cancer: The conflict between hope and evidence. The authors recently reviewed evidence related to the notion that psychotherapy extends survival in cancer patients (J. C. Coyne, M. Stefanek, & S. C. Palmer, 2007). The authors found…

  17. Migration depth and residence time of juvenile salmonids in the forebays of hydropower dams prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems: implications for turbine-passage survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun D; Brown, Richard S; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J; McMichael, Geoffrey A; Skalski, John R; Townsend, Richard L; Trumbo, Bradly A; Ahmann, Martin L; Renholds, Jon F

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the three-dimensional depth distributions in rivers of individually marked fish that are in close proximity to hydropower facilities. Knowledge of the depth distributions of fish approaching dams can be used to understand how vulnerable fish are to injuries such as barotrauma as they pass through dams. To predict the possibility of barotrauma injury caused by pressure changes during turbine passage, it is necessary to understand fish behaviour relative to acclimation depth in dam forebays as they approach turbines. A guiding study was conducted using high-resolution three-dimensional tracking results of salmonids implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System transmitters to investigate the depth distributions of subyearling and yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) passing two dams on the Snake River in Washington State. Multiple approaches were evaluated to describe the depth at which fish were acclimated, and statistical analyses were performed on large data sets extracted from ∼28 000 individually tagged fish during 2012 and 2013. Our study identified patterns of depth distributions of juvenile salmonids in forebays prior to passage through turbines or juvenile bypass systems. This research indicates that the median depth at which juvenile salmonids approached turbines ranged from 2.8 to 12.2 m, with the depths varying by species/life history, year, location (which dam) and diel period (between day and night). One of the most enlightening findings was the difference in dam passage associated with the diel period. The amount of time that turbine-passed fish spent in the immediate forebay prior to entering the powerhouse was much lower during the night than during the day. This research will allow scientists to understand turbine-passage survival better and enable them to assess more accurately the effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival.

  18. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  19. The influence of environment, sex, and innate timing mechanisms on body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Van Horne, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms that influence body temperature patterns in black-tailed prairie dogs are not well understood. Previous research on both free-ranging and laboratory populations of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) has suggested that reductions in ambient temperature and food and water deprivation are the primary factors that stimulate torpor in this species. In other species, however, torpor has been shown to be influenced by a multitude of factors, including innate circadian and circannual timing mechanisms, energy status, and reproductive behaviors. Our objective was to clarify the influence of weather, sex, and intrinsic timing mechanisms on the body temperature patterns of free-ranging black-tailed prairie dogs. We monitored body temperatures of eight adult (>1 yr) prairie dogs from November 1999 to June 2000. Prairie dogs showed distinct daily and seasonal body temperature patterns, which reflected changes in ambient temperatures that occurred during these periods. These patterns of daily and seasonal heterothermy suggest that body temperature patterns of black-tailed prairie dogs may be driven by an innate timing mechanism. All prairie dogs entered torpor intermittently throughout winter and spring. Torpor bouts appeared to be influenced by precipitation and reductions in ambient temperature. Our results also suggest that reproductive behaviors and circadian timing may influence torpor in this species.

  20. Pixel multiplexing technique for real-time three-dimensional-imaging laser detection and ranging system using four linear-mode avalanche photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing, E-mail: yqwang@nju.edu.cn; Li, Fenfang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The avalanche-photodiode-array (APD-array) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) system has been continually developed owing to its superiority of nonscanning, large field of view, high sensitivity, and high precision. However, how to achieve higher-efficient detection and better integration of the LADAR system for real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging continues to be a problem. In this study, a novel LADAR system using four linear mode APDs (LmAPDs) is developed for high-efficient detection by adopting a modulation and multiplexing technique. Furthermore, an automatic control system for the array LADAR system is proposed and designed by applying the virtual instrumentation technique. The control system aims to achieve four functions: synchronization of laser emission and rotating platform, multi-channel synchronous data acquisition, real-time Ethernet upper monitoring, and real-time signal processing and 3D visualization. The structure and principle of the complete system are described in the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that the LADAR system is capable of achieving real-time 3D imaging on an omnidirectional rotating platform under the control of the virtual instrumentation system. The automatic imaging LADAR system utilized only 4 LmAPDs to achieve 256-pixel-per-frame detection with by employing 64-bit demodulator. Moreover, the lateral resolution is ∼15 cm and range accuracy is ∼4 cm root-mean-square error at a distance of ∼40 m.

  1. Variations of motility and survival with storage time at 4°C of epididymal spermatozoa Ouled-Djellal breed rams in Eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safsaf, B; Belkadi, S; Belkacem, L; Mamache, B; Tlidjane, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some reproduction performances in Ouled-Djellal rams. This study involved genital organs removed after slaughter from 54 rams at the municipal slaughterhouse of Batna (East Algeria). The measurements of survival and mobility of epididymal sperm followed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after collection, revealed significant (p0.001) according to time. Thus, concerning the sperm motility the values were 91.00±2.40%, 89.20±2.40%, 77.00±6.20% and 62.60±1.20% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Indeed, in live sperm, the viability rates were 82.15±1.48%, 77.67±1.74%, 66.56±1.95% and 52.30±1.46% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. This study revealed that epididymal spermatozoa stored at 04°C for 72 h kept their mobility and vitality at nearly a half of their the original parameters.

  2. Variations of motility and survival with storage time at 4°C of epididymal spermatozoa Ouled-Djellal breed rams in Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Safsaf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate some reproduction performances in Ouled-Djellal rams. Materials and Methods: This study involved genital organs removed after slaughter from 54 rams at the municipal slaughterhouse of Batna (East Algeria. Results: The measurements of survival and mobility of epididymal sperm followed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after collection, revealed significant (p0.001 according to time. Thus, concerning the sperm motility the values were 91.00±2.40%, 89.20±2.40%, 77.00±6.20% and 62.60±1.20% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Indeed, in live sperm, the viability rates were 82.15±1.48%, 77.67±1.74%, 66.56±1.95% and 52.30±1.46 at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that epididymal spermatozoa stored at 04°C for 72 h kept their mobility and vitality at nearly a half of their the original parameters.

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R11 consumed in a food supplement survived human digestive transit without modifying microbiota equilibrium as assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmesse, Olivier; Mogenet, Agnès; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Corthier, Gérard; Furet, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus R11 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R52 in the human digestive tract and their effects on the microbiota homeostasis. We designed an open human trial including 14 healthy volunteers. A 3-week exclusion period of fermented products was followed by a 12-day consumption period of 4 capsules daily containing 2 x 10(9)L. rhamnosus R11 and 1 x 10(8)L. acidophilus R52, and a 12-day wash-out period. The 2 strains and dominant bacterial groups of the microbiota were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of the capsule consumption period, high levels of L. rhamnosus R11 were detected in faecal samples from all volunteers, reaching a mean value of 7.1 log(10) colony-forming unit (CFU) equivalents/g of stool. L. acidophilus R52 was detected in the stools of only 1 volunteer, reaching a maximum level of 6.1 log(10) CFU equivalents/g of stool. Dilution plating enumerations performed in parallel provided less consistent and generally lower levels. No significant effect of capsule consumption was observed on microbiota homeostasis for the dominant faecal populations. Mean values of 8.8, 9.2, 9.9 and 10.6 log(10) CFU equivalents/g of stool were obtained for the Clostridium coccoides, Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp. and Clostridium leptum groups, respectively.

  4. Time-related improvement of survival in resectable gastric cancer: the role of Japanese-style gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Oscar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the change of prognosis in resected gastric cancer (RGC patients and the role of radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods We retrospectively analyze the outcome of 426 consecutive patients from 1975 to 2002, divided into 2 time-periods (TP cohort: Before 1990 (TP1, n = 207 and 1990 or after (TP2; n= 219. Partial gastrectomy and D1-lymphadenetomy was predominant in TP1 and total gastrectomy with D2-lymphadenectomy it was in TP2. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of mitomycin C (MMC, 10–20 mg/m2 iv 4 courses or MMC plus Tegafur 500 mg/m2 for 6 months. Results Positive nodes were similar in TP2/TP1 patients with 56%/59% respectively. Total gastrectomy was done in 56%/45% of TP2/TP1 respectively. Two-drug adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 65%/18% of TP2/TP1 respectively. Survival at 5 years was 66% for TP2 versus 42% for TP1 patients (p Conclusion The global prognosis and that of some stages have improved in recent years with case RGC patients treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.

  5. Contribution to time resolved X-ray fluence and differential spectra measurement method improvement in 5-200 KeV range. Application to pulsed emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.

    1983-09-01

    Two types of sensors have been developed to measure locally the time-resolved fluence and differential energetic spectrum of pulsed X-ray in the energy range 5 to 200 keV. Rise time of these sensors is very short (10 ns) in order to permit time-resolved measurements. Fluence sensors have been developed by putting filters in front of detector in order to make sensor response independent of X-ray energy and proportional to X-ray fluence. The energetic differential spectrum was calculated by way of a method similar to the ROSS method but using filters separated within a pair defining adjacent spectral width. A detailed analysis of uncertainties affecting calculated fluence and spectrum has been done [fr

  6. 10 ps resolution, 160 ns full scale range and less than 1.5% differential non-linearity time-to-digital converter module for high performance timing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, B.; Tamborini, D.; Villa, F.; Tisa, S.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    We present a compact high performance time-to-digital converter (TDC) module that provides 10 ps timing resolution, 160 ns dynamic range and a differential non-linearity better than 1.5% LSB{sub rms}. The TDC can be operated either as a general-purpose time-interval measurement device, when receiving external START and STOP pulses, or in photon-timing mode, when employing the on-chip SPAD (single photon avalanche diode) detector for detecting photons and time-tagging them. The instrument precision is 15 ps{sub rms} (i.e., 36 ps{sub FWHM}) and in photon timing mode it is still better than 70 ps{sub FWHM}. The USB link to the remote PC allows the easy setting of measurement parameters, the fast download of acquired data, and their visualization and storing via an user-friendly software interface. The module proves to be the best candidate for a wide variety of applications such as: fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight ranging measurements, time-resolved positron emission tomography, single-molecule spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, diffuse optical tomography, optical time-domain reflectometry, quantum optics, etc.

  7. Predictors of nutritional recovery time and survival status among children with severe acute malnutrition who have been managed in therapeutic feeding centers, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma

    2015-12-21

    Malnutrition remains to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. The prevalence of wasting in Ethiopia remained about 10 % for the past ten years. Mortality rate of children with severe acute malnutrition treated in inpatient set ups has remained unacceptably high. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia. The study population were children with severe acute malnutrition aged from 6 to 59 months who have been managed at Karat and Fasha stabilization centers between September 30, 2013, and Sep. 29, 2014. The total sample size was 420 and pretested questionnaire was used. Kaplan Meier analysis was used to estimate time to nutritional recovery and Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine independent predictors. Nutritional recovery rate was 3.61 per 100 person day observations. Median nutritional recovery time was 22 and 29 days for edematous malnourished and severely wasted children respectively. The independent predictors of nutritional recovery rate were: stabilization center (AHR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.1-1.7), malnutrition status (AHR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4), weight (AHR = 1.5, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.9), mid- upper arm circumference (AHR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9), inpatient complications (AHR = 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.4-3.5) and did not lose edema within four days of inpatient treatment (AHR = 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.1-4.8). The findings of this study confirm the probability of surviving gets slimmer with inpatient complications and staying longer in stabilization centers. So, to prevent complications and enhance recovery rate due emphasis should be given in improving early detection and treatment of severely malnourished children in Ethiopia.

  8. Procedure times, complication rates, and survival times associated with single-chamber versus dual-chamber pacemaker implantation in dogs with clinical signs of bradyarrhythmia: 54 cases (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, David W; Estrada, Amara H; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Heatwole, Bonnie A; Powell, Melanie A

    2013-01-15

    To compare procedure times and major and minor complication rates associated with single-chamber versus dual-chamber pacemaker implantation and with 1-lead, 2-lead, and 3-lead pacemaker implantation in dogs with clinical signs of bradyarrhythmia. Retrospective case series. 54 dogs that underwent pacemaker implantation because of clinical signs of bradyarrhythmia. Medical records of dogs that received pacemakers between July 2004 and December 2009 were reviewed for information regarding signalment, diagnosis, pacemaker implantation, pacemaker type, complications, and survival time. Analyses were performed to determine significant differences in anesthesia time, procedure time, and outcome for dogs on the basis of pacing mode and number of pacing leads. 28 of 54 (51.9%) dogs received single-chamber pacemakers and 26 (48.1%) received dual-chamber pacemakers. Mean ± SD procedural time was significantly longer for patients with dual-chamber pacemakers (133.5 ± 51.3 minutes) than for patients with single-chamber pacemakers (94.9 ± 37.0 minutes), and procedure time increased significantly as the number of leads increased (1 lead, 102.3 ± 51.1 minutes; 2 leads, 114.9 ± 24.8 minutes; 3 leads, 158.2 ± 8.5 minutes). Rates of major and minor complications were not significantly different between dogs that received single-chamber pacemakers and those that received dual-chamber pacemakers or among dogs grouped on the basis of the number of pacing leads placed. Although dual-chamber pacemaker implantation did result in increased procedural and anesthesia times, compared with single-chamber pacemaker implantation, this did not result in a higher complication rate.

  9. Low temperature and dust favour in vitro survival of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: time to revisit indirect transmission in pig housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, C; Loeffler, A; Holt, H R; Chang, Y M; Lloyd, D H; Nevel, A

    2017-01-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae adversely affects pig welfare and is associated with major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Transmission is predominantly by direct contact, but the role of indirect transmission remains poorly understood. This study examined survival of six M. hyopneumoniae isolates dried onto five different surfaces encountered in pig units and exposed to temperatures of 4, 25 and 37°C for up to 12 days. Survival of the organisms was determined by recovering the organism from the surface material and culturing in Friis broth. Data were analysed by logistic regression to identify factors influencing survival of M. hyopneumoniae. Maximum survival was 8 days for all isolates on at least one surface (except stainless steel) at 4°C and was limited to 2 days at 25 and 37°C. Overall, dust and polypropylene copolymer supported M. hyopneumoniae survival the longest when compared with other surface materials. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that M. hyopneumoniae can survive outside the host for at least 8 days. Understanding the transmission of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and optimizing biosecurity practices are keys to reducing the use of antimicrobial agents to control this pathogen. Direct transmission of the pathogen between pigs is the main route of spread and its lack of cell wall may compromise its resilience outside the host. The results from our study show that M. hyopneumoniae can survive for up to several days on dry surfaces and therefore may have the potential to infect pigs by indirect transmission. Factors influencing the survival of M. hyopneumoniae outside the host are further elucidated. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Real-time processing for full-range Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography with zero-filling interpolation using multiple graphic processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki; Maeno, Seiya; Aoshima, Kenji; Hasegawa, Haruyuki; Koseki, Hitoshi

    2010-09-01

    The real-time display of full-range, 2048?axial pixelx1024?lateral pixel, Fourier-domain optical-coherence tomography (FD-OCT) images is demonstrated. The required speed was achieved by using dual graphic processing units (GPUs) with many stream processors to realize highly parallel processing. We used a zero-filling technique, including a forward Fourier transform, a zero padding to increase the axial data-array size to 8192, an inverse-Fourier transform back to the spectral domain, a linear interpolation from wavelength to wavenumber, a lateral Hilbert transform to obtain the complex spectrum, a Fourier transform to obtain the axial profiles, and a log scaling. The data-transfer time of the frame grabber was 15.73?ms, and the processing time, which includes the data transfer between the GPU memory and the host computer, was 14.75?ms, for a total time shorter than the 36.70?ms frame-interval time using a line-scan CCD camera operated at 27.9?kHz. That is, our OCT system achieved a processed-image display rate of 27.23 frames/s.

  11. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  12. Updating long-range transport model predictions using real-time monitoring data in case of nuclear accidents with release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, Frank; Tassone, Caterina; Grippa, Gianni; Zarimpas, Nicolas; Graziani, Giovanni

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is developed to reduce the uncertainties of long-range transport model predictions, in case of a large scale nuclear accident. It is based on the availability in 'real time' of the concentrations of airborne radioactive aerosols from automatic on-line monitors, which are presently being installed throughout Europe. Essentially, the procedure consists of: (1) constructing new (area) source terms from the measured field data as they become available; and (2) restart the prediction with these sources, rather than with the original (point) source. The procedure is applied to the Chernobyl accident. It is shown that the procedure is feasible and might result in an improvement of the prediction of the location of the cloud by several hundreds of kilometers and the actual levels with an order of magnitude. The weak point is the treatment of the vertical structure and transport of the cloud, which can only be solved when 'real-time' upper air observations are also available. (author)

  13. Assessment of long-range correlation in animal behavior time series: The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembro, Jackelyn M.; Flesia, Ana Georgina; Gleiser, Raquel M.; Perillo, María A.; Marin, Raul H.

    2013-12-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a method that has been frequently used to determine the presence of long-range correlations in human and animal behaviors. However, according to previous authors using statistical model systems, in order to correctly use DFA different aspects should be taken into account such as: (1) the establishment by hypothesis testing of the absence of short term correlation, (2) an accurate estimation of a straight line in the log-log plot of the fluctuation function, (3) the elimination of artificial crossovers in the fluctuation function, and (4) the length of the time series. Taking into consideration these factors, herein we evaluated the presence of long-range correlation in the temporal pattern of locomotor activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and mosquito larva (Culex quinquefasciatus). In our study, modeling the data with the general autoregressive integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model, we rejected the hypothesis of short-range correlations (d=0) in all cases. We also observed that DFA was able to distinguish between the artificial crossover observed in the temporal pattern of locomotion of Japanese quail and the crossovers in the correlation behavior observed in mosquito larvae locomotion. Although the test duration can slightly influence the parameter estimation, no qualitative differences were observed between different test durations.

  14. The influence of age at time of exposure to 226Ra or 239Pu on distribution, retention, postinjection survival, and tumor induction in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of age at injection of 226Ra or 239Pu on skeletal deposition and local distribution, the pattern of bone tumor formation, and postinjection survival was assessed in parallel short-term studies of mechanisms and lifetime toxicity. Beagles received a single intravenous injection of 226Ra or 239Pu at 3 months (juveniles), 17-19 months (young adults) or 60 months (mature). Data from short-term studies of mechanisms and dosimetry and from one dosage level of each of the toxicity experiments were compared. Skeletal growth and turnover produced differential initial deposition and distribution patterns typical for each age group. At 1 week after injection, skeletal retention of 226Ra or 239Pu was 68 and 68%, respectively, in the juveniles, 32 and 46% in the young adults, and 31 and 43% in the mature dogs. Comparing individual bones in the juveniles, gradients in the concentration of 239Pu were small since all bones were actively growing, but substantial gradients, corresponding to centers of ossification, were present within individual bones. In other age groups, local concentration gradients were less pronounced, but much larger differences were present among the various bones. In the toxicity study all animals injected with either 41 kBq 226Ra/kg or 11 kBq 239Pu/kg have died. The cumulative average skeletal doses to the presumed time of start of tumor growth (1 year before death) were 25 and 4 Gy, respectively, for the juveniles, 22 and 5 Gy for the young adults, and 15 and 4 Gy for the mature dogs. The highest bone tumor incidence was seen in the young adult groups. Differences were observed in location of bone tumors between dogs in the same age group given radium or plutonium and among age groups injected with either radionuclide, some of which could be explained by differences in local dose distributions

  15. Adjusting survival time estimates to account for treatment switching in randomized controlled trials--an economic evaluation context: methods, limitations, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Abrams, Keith R; Lambert, Paul C; Crowther, Michael J; Wailoo, Allan J; Morden, James P; Akehurst, Ron L; Campbell, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Treatment switching commonly occurs in clinical trials of novel interventions in the advanced or metastatic cancer setting. However, methods to adjust for switching have been used inconsistently and potentially inappropriately in health technology assessments (HTAs). We present recommendations on the use of methods to adjust survival estimates in the presence of treatment switching in the context of economic evaluations. We provide background on the treatment switching issue and summarize methods used to adjust for it in HTAs. We discuss the assumptions and limitations associated with adjustment methods and draw on results of a simulation study to make recommendations on their use. We demonstrate that methods used to adjust for treatment switching have important limitations and often produce bias in realistic scenarios. We present an analysis framework that aims to increase the probability that suitable adjustment methods can be identified on a case-by-case basis. We recommend that the characteristics of clinical trials, and the treatment switching mechanism observed within them, should be considered alongside the key assumptions of the adjustment methods. Key assumptions include the "no unmeasured confounders" assumption associated with the inverse probability of censoring weights (IPCW) method and the "common treatment effect" assumption associated with the rank preserving structural failure time model (RPSFTM). The limitations associated with switching adjustment methods such as the RPSFTM and IPCW mean that they are appropriate in different scenarios. In some scenarios, both methods may be prone to bias; "2-stage" methods should be considered, and intention-to-treat analyses may sometimes produce the least bias. The data requirements of adjustment methods also have important implications for clinical trialists.

  16. High Numbers of Stromal Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Are Associated With a Shorter Survival Time in Cats With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobukowska, H J; Munday, J S

    2016-11-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are fibroblastic cells that express α-smooth muscle actin and have been identified in the stroma of numerous epithelial tumors. The presence of CAFs within the tumor stroma has been associated with a poorer prognosis in some human cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Cats frequently develop oral SCCs, and although these are generally highly aggressive neoplasms, there is currently a lack of prognostic markers for these tumors. The authors investigated the prognostic value of the presence of CAFs within the stroma of oral SCC biopsy specimens from 47 cats. In addition, several epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic variables were also assessed for prognostic significance. A CAF-positive stroma was identified in 35 of 47 SCCs (74.5%), and the median survival time (ST) of cats with CAF-positive SCCs (35 days) was significantly shorter than that of cats with CAF-negative SCCs (48.5 days) (P = .031). ST was also associated with the location of the primary tumor (P = .0018): the median ST for oropharyngeal SCCs (179 days) was significantly longer than for maxillary (43.5 days; P = .047), mandibular (42 days; P = .022), and sublingual SCCs (22.5 days; P = .0005). The median ST of sublingual SCCs was also shorter compared with maxillary SCCs (P = .0017). Furthermore, a significant association was identified between site and the presence of stromal CAFs (P = .025). On the basis of this retrospective study, evaluating the tumor stroma for CAFs in feline oral SCC biopsy specimens may be of potential prognostic value. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Survivability of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in bovine plasma submitted to spray drying processing and held at different time by temperature storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Joan; Segalés, Joaquim

    2014-12-05

    Bovine plasma was inoculated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at an average final titer of 4.2 log10 TCID50/mL to determine the effect of spray drying on viral inactivation. Using a laboratory scale drier, inoculated plasma was spray dried at 200 °C inlet temperature and either 70 or 80 °C throughout substance. Both liquid and dried samples were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. Results indicated liquid samples contained infective virus, but none of the spray dried samples were infectious. Also, survivability of PEDV inoculated on spray dried bovine plasma (SDBP) and stored at 4, 12 or 22 °C was determined for 7, 14 and 21 days. Commercial SDBP powder was inoculated with PEDV to an average final titer of 2.8 log10 TCID50/g. Five samples per time and temperature conditions were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. The virus was non-infectious for all samples stored at 22 °C at 7, 14 and 21 days. PEDV was infective in 1 out of 5 samples stored at 12 °C at 7 days, but none of the samples stored for 14 and 21 days were infectious in cell culture. For samples stored at 4 °C, 4 out of 5 samples were infectious at 7 days, 1 out of 5 samples were infectious at 14 days, but none were infectious at 21 days. In summary, PEDV was not infectious on cell culture within 7 days when stored at room temperature and within 21 days when stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement and uncertainties of energy loss in silicon over a wide Z sub 1 range using time of flight detector telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Whitlow, H J; Elliman, R G; Weijers, T D M; Zhang Yan Wen; O'connor, D J

    2002-01-01

    The energy loss of projectiles with Z sub 1 in the range 3-26 has been experimentally measured in the 0.1-0.7 MeV per nucleon energy range in the same Si stopping foil of 105.5 mu g cm sup - sup 2 thickness using a time of flight-energy (ToF-E) elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) setup. A detailed study of the experimental uncertainties for ToF-E and ToF-ToF-E configuration has been made. For ERDA configurations where the energy calibration is taken against the edge positions small uncertainties in the angle at which recoils are detected can introduce significant absolute uncertainty. The relative uncertainty contribution is dominated by the energy calibration of the Si E detector for the ToF-E configuration and the position of the second ToF detector in ToF-ToF-E measurements. The much smaller calibration uncertainty for ToF-ToF-E configuration implies this technique is superior to ToF-E measurements with Si E detectors. At low energies the effect of charge changing in the time detector foils can become...

  19. Time-resolved diode dosimetry calibration through Monte Carlo modeling for in vivo passive scattered proton therapy range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toltz, Allison; Hoesl, Michaela; Schuemann, Jan; Seuntjens, Jan; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald

    2017-11-01

    Our group previously introduced an in vivo proton range verification methodology in which a silicon diode array system is used to correlate the dose rate profile per range modulation wheel cycle of the detector signal to the water-equivalent path length (WEPL) for passively scattered proton beam delivery. The implementation of this system requires a set of calibration data to establish a beam-specific response to WEPL fit for the selected 'scout' beam (a 1 cm overshoot of the predicted detector depth with a dose of 4 cGy) in water-equivalent plastic. This necessitates a separate set of measurements for every 'scout' beam that may be appropriate to the clinical case. The current study demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo simulations for calibration of the time-resolved diode dosimetry technique. Measurements for three 'scout' beams were compared against simulated detector response with Monte Carlo methods using the Tool for Particle Simulation (TOPAS). The 'scout' beams were then applied in the simulation environment to simulated water-equivalent plastic, a CT of water-equivalent plastic, and a patient CT data set to assess uncertainty. Simulated detector response in water-equivalent plastic was validated against measurements for 'scout' spread out Bragg peaks of range 10 cm, 15 cm, and 21 cm (168 MeV, 177 MeV, and 210 MeV) to within 3.4 mm for all beams, and to within 1 mm in the region where the detector is expected to lie. Feasibility has been shown for performing the calibration of the detector response for three 'scout' beams through simulation for the time-resolved diode dosimetry technique in passive scattered proton delivery. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maisa da-Silva; Gil, Luiz Herman S; e-Silva, Alexandre de-Almeida

    2012-08-02

    The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids). Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship), which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly affected by larval food availability. Greater larval food supply

  1. Timing of mid-crustal ductile extension in the northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada: Evidence from U/Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Blackburn, T.; Johnston, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (Mccs) within the western U.S. record a history of Cenozoic ductile and brittle extensional deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism, and exhumation within the footwall of high-angle Basin and Range normal faults. Documenting these histories within Mccs have been topics of research for over 40 years, yet there remains disagreement about: 1) whether the detachment fault formed and moved at low angles or initiated at high angles and rotated to a low angle; 2) whether brittle and ductile extensional deformation were linked in space and time; and 3) the temporal relationship of both modes of extension to the development of the detachment fault. The northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex (NSR), Nevada has been central to this debate. To address these issues, we report new U/Pb dates from zircon in deformed and undeformed rhyolite dikes emplaced into ductilely thinned and horizontally stretched lower plate rocks that provide tight bounds on the timing of ductile extension at between 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma and 22.50 ± 0.36 Ma. The maximum age constraint is from the Northern dike swarm (NDS), which was emplaced in the northwest part of the range pre- to syn-tectonic with ductile extension. The minimum age constraint is from the Silver Creek dike swarm (SDS) that was emplaced in the southern part of the range post ductile extensional deformation. Our field observations, petrography, and U/Pb zircon ages on the dikes combined with published data on the geology and kinematics of extension, moderate and low temperature thermochronology on lower plate rocks, and age and faulting histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins adjacent to the NSR are interpreted as recording an episode of localized upper crustal brittle extension during the Eocene that drove upward ductile extensional flow of hot middle crustal rocks from beneath the NSR detachment soon after, or simultaneous with, emplacement of the NDS. Exhumation of the lower plate continued in a rolling

  2. Prospective study of serial 18F-FDG PET and 18F-fluoride (18F-NaF) PET to predict time to skeletal related events, time-to-progression, and survival in patients with bone-dominant metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lanell M; O'Sullivan, Janet; Wu, Qian Vicky; Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; Jenkins, Isaac; Lee, Jean H; Shields, Andrew; Montgomery, Susan; Linden, Hannah M; Gralow, Julie R; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Muzi, Mark; Kinahan, Paul E; Mankoff, David A; Specht, Jennifer M

    2018-05-10

    Assessing therapy response of breast cancer bone metastases is challenging. In retrospective studies, serial 18 F-FDG PET was predictive of time to skeletal related events (tSRE) and time-to-progression (TTP). 18 F-NaF PET improves bone metastasis detection compared to bone scans. We prospectively tested 18 F-FDG PET and 18 F-NaF PET to predict tSRE, TTP, and overall survival (OS) in patients with bone-dominant metastatic breast cancer (BD MBC). Methods: Patients with BD MBC were imaged with 18 F-FDG PET and 18 F-NaF PET prior to starting new therapy (scan1) and again at a range of times centered around approximately 4 months later (scan2). SUV max and SULpeak were recorded for a single index lesion and up to 5 most dominant lesions for each scan. tSRE, TTP, and OS were assessed exclusive of the PET images. Univariate Cox regression was performed to test the association between clinical endpoints and 18 F-FDG PET and 18 F-NaF PET measures. mPERCIST (Modified PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria were also applied. Survival curves for mPERCIST compared response categories of Complete Response+Partial Response+Stable Disease versus Progressive Disease (CR+PR+SD vs PD) for tSRE, TTP, and OS. Results: Twenty-eight patients were evaluated. Higher FDG SULpeak at scan2 predicted shorter time to tSRE ( P = PET mPERCIST, tSRE and TTP were longer in responders (CR, PR, or stable) compared to non-responders (PD) ( P = 0.007, 0.028 respectively), with a trend toward improved survival ( P = 0.1). An increase in the uptake between scans of up to 5 lesions by 18 F-NaF PET was associated with longer OS ( P = 0.027). Conclusion: Changes in 18 F-FDG PET parameters during therapy are predictive of tSRE and TTP, but not OS. mPERCIST evaluation in bone lesions may be useful in assessing response to therapy and is worthy of evaluation in multicenter, prospective trials. Serial 18 F-NaF PET was associated with OS, but was not useful for predicting TTP or tSRE in BD MBC

  3. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  4. A 1-V 60-μW 85-dB dynamic range continuous-time third-order sigma-delta modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanwen; Qi Da; Dong Yifeng; Xu Jun; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    A 1-V third order one-bit continuous-time (CT) EA modulator is presented. Designed in the SMIC mixed-signal 0.13-μm CMOS process, the modulator utilizes active RC integrators to implement the loop filter. An efficient circuit design methodology for the CT ΣΔ modulator is proposed and verified. Low power dissipation is achieved through the use of two-stage class A/AB amplifiers. The presented modulator achieves 81.4-dB SNDR and 85-dB dynamic range in a 20-kHz bandwidth with an over sampling ratio of 128. The total power consumption of the modulator is only 60 μW from a 1-V power supply and the prototype occupies an active area of 0.12 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Climate change and Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris: shifts in distribution and advancement in spring departure times at Wexford versus elsewhere in the winter range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Merne, Oscar J; Walsh, Alyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Count data have shown that numbers of Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at their numerically most important site (Wexford Slobs in south east Ireland) have remained more or less constant over 30 years, in contrast to recent declines at their second most important...... site (Islay further north in south west Scotland), and declines in the population as a whole. There was no evidence to suggest a northwards shift in wintering geese as might be predicted under global climate change. Although Greenland White-fronted Geese now depart from Wexford in spring on average 22...... in migration timing. The more rapid advancement of spring migration at Wexford compared to elsewhere in the range and the retention of wintering geese there in contrast to declining trends amongst the population as a whole suggest that local management of the food resource at Wexford may be responsible...

  6. Local and distant residence times of contaminants in multi-compartment models. Part II: Application to assessing environmental mobility and long-range atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, the concepts of inherent, local and distant residence times (DRTs) were reviewed as metrics of the extent to which chemical discharges or emissions in one region or box are transported to distant regions. In this second part, the concepts are applied to geographically relevant systems to illustrate their applicability to the assessment of chemicals for long-range transport potential (LRTP). It is shown that the relative ranking of chemicals as characterized by the DRT method is similar to that of the characteristic travel distance concept. A DRT source-receptor matrix is developed that can express the chemical-specific potential of source regions to contaminate a specific receptor region of concern such as the Arctic. The matrix can be modified to identify for a specific source region the likely destinations of emissions as well as to assess the relative vulnerability of regions in the global environment to contaminants of concern. - The DRT concept is applied to multi-box and geographically explicit models to assess the long-range transport potential of 10 chemicals

  7. Effects of sample injection amount and time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection dynamic range on metabolome analysis by high-performance chemical isotope labeling LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Li, Liang

    2015-04-06

    The effect of sample injection amount on metabolome analysis in a chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform was investigated. The performance of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers with and without a high-dynamic-range (HD) detection system was compared in the analysis of (12)C2/(13)C2-dansyl labeled human urine samples. An average of 1635 ± 21 (n = 3) peak pairs or putative metabolites was detected using the HD-TOF-MS, compared to 1429 ± 37 peak pairs from a conventional or non-HD TOF-MS. In both instruments, signal saturation was observed. However, in the HD-TOF-MS, signal saturation was mainly caused by the ionization process, while in the non-HD TOF-MS, it was caused by the detection process. To extend the MS detection range in the non-HD TOF-MS, an automated switching from using (12)C to (13)C-natural abundance peaks for peak ratio calculation when the (12)C peaks are saturated has been implemented in IsoMS, a software tool for processing CIL LC-MS data. This work illustrates that injecting an optimal sample amount is important to maximize the metabolome coverage while avoiding the sample carryover problem often associated with over-injection. A TOF mass spectrometer with an enhanced detection dynamic range can also significantly increase the number of peak pairs detected. In chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS, relative metabolite quantification is done by measuring the peak ratio of a (13)C2-/(12)C2-labeled peak pair for a given metabolite present in two comparative samples. The dynamic range of peak ratio measurement does not need to be very large, as only subtle changes of metabolite concentrations are encountered in most metabolomic studies where relative metabolome quantification of different groups of samples is performed. However, the absolute concentrations of different metabolites can be very different, requiring a technique to provide a wide detection dynamic range to allow the detection of as

  8. The timing and cause of glacial activity during the last glacial in central Tibet based on 10Be surface exposure dating east of Mount Jaggang, the Xainza range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guocheng; Zhou, Weijian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Yunchong; Zhang, Li; Li, Ming

    2018-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and can provide valuable information for inferring former climates on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The increasing glacial chronologies indicate that the timing of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) recorded across the TP is asynchronous, implying different local influences of the mid-latitude westerlies and Asian Summer Monsoon in triggering glacier advances. However, the well-dated sites are still too few, especially in the transition zone between regions controlled by the two climate systems. Here we present detailed last glacial chronologies for the Mount Jaggang area, in the Xainza range, central Tibet, with forty-three apparent 10Be exposure-ages ranging from 12.4 ± 0.8 ka to 61.9 ± 3.8 ka. These exposure-ages indicate that at least seven glacial episodes occurred during the last glacial cycle east of Mount Jaggang. These include: a local LGM that occurred at ∼61.9 ± 3.8 ka, possibly corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); subsequent glacial advances at ∼43.2 ± 2.6 ka and ∼35.1 ± 2.1 ka during MIS 3; one glacial re-advance/standstill at MIS3/2 transition (∼29.8 ± 1.8 ka); and three glacial re-advances/standstills that occurred following MIS 3 at ∼27.9 ± 1.7 ka, ∼21.8 ± 1.3 ka, and ∼15.1 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these glacial activities is roughly in agreement with North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations (Heinrich events), suggesting the potential correlations between these abrupt climate changes and glacial fluctuations in the Mount Jaggang area. The successively reduced glacial extent might have resulted from an overall decrease in Asian Summer Monsoon intensity over this timeframe.

  9. Time-resolved imaging of prompt-gamma rays for proton range verification using a knife-edge slit camera based on digital photon counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambraia Lopes, Patricia; Clementel, Enrico; Crespo, Paulo; Henrotin, Sebastien; Huizenga, Jan; Janssens, Guillaume; Parodi, Katia; Prieels, Damien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Smeets, Julien; Stichelbaut, Frederic; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2015-08-01

    Proton range monitoring may facilitate online adaptive proton therapy and improve treatment outcomes. Imaging of proton-induced prompt gamma (PG) rays using a knife-edge slit collimator is currently under investigation as a potential tool for real-time proton range monitoring. A major challenge in collimated PG imaging is the suppression of neutron-induced background counts. In this work, we present an initial performance test of two knife-edge slit camera prototypes based on arrays of digital photon counters (DPCs). PG profiles emitted from a PMMA target upon irradiation with a 160 MeV proton pencil beams (about 6.5   ×   109 protons delivered in total) were measured using detector modules equipped with four DPC arrays coupled to BGO or LYSO : Ce crystal matrices. The knife-edge slit collimator and detector module were placed at 15 cm and 30 cm from the beam axis, respectively, in all cases. The use of LYSO : Ce enabled time-of-flight (TOF) rejection of background events, by synchronizing the DPC readout electronics with the 106 MHz radiofrequency signal of the cyclotron. The signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 1.6 obtained with a 1.5 ns TOF window and a 3 MeV-7 MeV energy window was about 3 times higher than that obtained with the same detector module without TOF discrimination and 2 times higher than the S/B ratio obtained with the BGO module. Even 1 mm shifts of the Bragg peak position translated into clear and consistent shifts of the PG profile if TOF discrimination was applied, for a total number of protons as low as about 6.5   ×   108 and a detector surface of 6.6 cm  ×  6.6 cm.

  10. Long-Term Survival of Dental Implants with Different Prosthetic Loading Times in Healthy Patients: A 5-Year Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelas-Jiménez, M Isabel; Olmedo-Gaya, Maria Victoria; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco J; Reyes-Botella, Candela; Vallecillo-Capilla, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    To compare survival rates among dental implants restored with immediate, early, and conventional loading protocols, also comparing between maxillary and mandibular implants, and to evaluate the influence of implant length and diameter and the type of prosthesis on treatment outcomes. This retrospective cohort study initially included all 52 patients receiving dental implants between July 2006 and February 2008 at a private oral surgery clinic in Granada (Southern Spain). Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed, including periapical or panoramic radiographs, and incidences during completion of the restoration were recorded at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. After a 5-year follow-up