Sample records for survival time psychological

  1. Psychology and survival. (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M


    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  2. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan


    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  3. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions (United States)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare


    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  4. Children with cancer with different survival perspectives: defensiveness, control strategies, and psychological adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.


    The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether children with cancer with different survival perspectives differ in their psychological adjustment, defensiveness and their use of cognitive control strategies. Furthermore, the study investigated which variables predict emotional

  5. Social Psychology in The Course of Time


    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein


    Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the behavioural interaction of individual or group of population in the general public community. The objective of current study is to analyse the trend of scientific activities in the field of social psychology during the last two decades. All publication entitled as “Social Psychology” that was indexed in the database of Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) through 1993-2012 was extracted an...

  6. Regression analysis of restricted mean survival time based on pseudo-observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Hansen, Mette Gerster; Klein, John P.

    censoring; hazard function; health economics; regression model; survival analysis; mean survival time; restricted mean survival time; pseudo-observations......censoring; hazard function; health economics; regression model; survival analysis; mean survival time; restricted mean survival time; pseudo-observations...

  7. Regression Analysis of Restricted Mean Survival Time Based on Pseudo-Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Hansen, Mette Gerster; Klein, John P.


    censoring; hazard function; health economics; mean survival time; pseudo-observations; regression model; restricted mean survival time; survival analysis......censoring; hazard function; health economics; mean survival time; pseudo-observations; regression model; restricted mean survival time; survival analysis...

  8. Surviving recurrence: psychological and quality-of-life recovery. (United States)

    Yang, Hae-Chung; Thornton, Lisa M; Shapiro, Charles L; Andersen, Barbara L


    To the authors' knowledge, data characterizing patients' psychosocial experiences after a recurrence diagnosis are limited. This report provides the physical, psychological, and quality-of-life trajectories of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In addition, patients with a well-documented trajectory -- patients with their initial diagnosis of breast cancer -- were included as a referent group, providing a metric against which to gauge the impact and course of cancer recurrence. Patients with a newly diagnosed, recurrent (n = 69) or initial (n = 113) breast cancer were accrued. The groups did not differ with regard to age, race, education, family income, or partner status (all P values > .18). All patients were assessed shortly after diagnosis (baseline) and 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months later. Mixed-effects models were used to determine health status, stress, mood, and quality-of-life trajectories. In the year after a recurrence diagnosis, patients' physical health and functioning showed no improvement, whereas quality of life and mood generally improved, and stress declined. Compared with patients who were coping with their first diagnosis, patients with recurrence had significantly lower anxiety and confusion. In contrast, physical functioning was poorer among recurrence patients, quality-of-life improvement was slower, and cancer-related distress was high as that of the initially diagnosed patient. Slower quality-of-life recovery was most apparent among younger patients (aged <54 years). Despite the physical burden, patients with recurrent breast cancer exhibit considerable resilience, with steady improvements in psychological adjustment and quality of life during the year after diagnosis. Management of patients' physical symptoms is particularly important, because patients cope with recurrent breast cancer as a chronic illness.

  9. Factors associated with psychological distress and grief resolution in surviving spouses of patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. (United States)

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Arving, Cecilia; Johansson, Birgitta; Glimelius, Bengt; Nordin, Karin


    Patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer often have a short survival time. This means that spouses only have a short time to adjust to the approaching death. The aim was to explore whether psychological distress at diagnosis, the course of the illness (anti-tumour treatment, respite period and survival time), the spouses' experience of the care and of losing a loved one were related to distress and grief resolution after the patient had deceased. Twenty-one spouses were followed prospectively from the patient's diagnosis of advanced gastrointestinal cancer to 6 months after the patient death. Spouses' experiences were measured with an interview, psychological distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and grief resolution with the Grief Resolution Index. The spouses' anxiety at the time of diagnosis was related to their anxiety and grief resolution at follow-up. Two additional factors were associated with higher levels of anxiety at follow-up; the patient having received anti-tumour treatment and the spouse having experienced stress as a caregiver. The study indicates that anti-tumour treatment, though it has the potential to prolong life, does not positively influence spouses' psychological distress and bereavement after the death of the patient.

  10. Unhealthy behaviour modification, psychological distress, and 1-year survival in cardiac rehabilitation. (United States)

    Gostoli, Sara; Roncuzzi, Renzo; Urbinati, Stefano; Morisky, Donald E; Rafanelli, Chiara


    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is considered the recommended secondary prevention treatment for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), in terms of health behaviours and, secondarily, better cardiac outcomes promotion. However, the role of psychiatric and psychosomatic distress on the efficacy of CR is unclear. This research aimed to evaluate the impact of CR on unhealthy behaviour modification and cardiac course, considering the moderating role of depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic syndromes. A longitudinal design between and within groups was employed. The assessment was repeated four times: at admission to CR (T1), at discharge (T2), 6 (T3) and 12 months following CR completion (T4). One hundred and eight patients undergoing CR versus 85 patients with CVD not referred to CR, underwent psychiatric, psychosomatic, and health behaviour assessment. The assessment included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (depression and anxiety), the interview based on Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research, GOSPEL Study questionnaire (health behaviours), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Cardiac rehabilitation was associated with maintenance of physical activity, improvement of behavioural aspects related to food consumption, stress management, and sleep quality. On the contrary, CR was not associated with weight loss, healthy diet, and medication adherence. Depression and psychosomatic syndromes seem to moderate the modification of specific health-related behaviours (physical activity, behavioural aspects of food consumption, stress management, and pharmacological adherence). In CR settings, an integrated assessment including both psychiatric and psychosomatic syndromes is needed to address psychological factors associated with unhealthy behaviour modification. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is considered a class 1A treatment recommendation and the most cost

  11. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.


    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  12. Cranial trauma and the assessment of posttraumatic survival time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, M.; de Boer, H. H. [=Hans H.; van der Merwe, A. E.


    Assessment of trauma on skeletal remains can be very difficult, especially when it comes to the estimation of posttraumatic survival time in partially healed lesions. The ability to reliably estimate the time an individual has survived after sustaining an injury is especially important in cases of

  13. Five-year survival and median survival time of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. (United States)

    Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Norsa'adah, Bachok; Naing, Nyi Nyi


    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the fourth most common cancer in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival rate and median survival time of NPC patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). One hundred and thirty four NPC cases confirmed by histopathology in Hospital USM between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2007 that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were retrospectively reviewed. Survival time of NPC patients were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare survival of cases among presenting symptoms, WHO type, TNM classification and treatment modalities. The overall five-year survival rate of NPC patients was 38.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.1, 46.9). The overall median survival time of NPC patients was 31.30 months (95%CI: 23.76, 38.84). The significant factors that altered the survival rate and time were age (p=0.041), cranial nerve involvement (p=0.012), stage (p=0.002), metastases (p=0.008) and treatment (p<0.001). The median survival of NPC patients is significantly longer for age≤50 years, no cranial nerve involvement, and early stage and is dependent on treatment modalities.

  14. The psychology of time: a view backward and forward. (United States)

    Hancock, P A; Block, Richard A


    We selectively review the progress of research on the psychology of time during the past 125 years, starting with the publication of the first English-language psychological journal, The American Journal of Psychology. A number of important articles on the psychology of time appeared in this journal, including the widely cited early article by Nichols (1891). The psychology of time is a seminal topic of psychological science, and although it entered a phase of decline and even moribund neglect, the past several decades have seen a prominent renaissance of interest. This renewed vigor represents the rebirth of the recognition of the centrality of the psychology of time in human cognition and behavior. Our selective overview highlights a number of strands of progress and how they have helped lead to the present, in which the cognitive neuroscience of time and timing in the brain is one of the most fervent and fertile modern areas of brain research. We also discuss some remaining challenges and potential lines of progress.

  15. Time series modeling of system self-assessment of survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, H.; Kolarik, W.J. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering


    Self-assessment of survival for a system, subsystem or component is implemented by assessing conditional performance reliability in real-time, which includes modeling and analysis of physical performance data. This paper proposes a time series analysis approach to system self-assessment (prediction) of survival. In the approach, physical performance data are modeled in a time series. The performance forecast is based on the model developed and is converted to the reliability of system survival. In contrast to a standard regression model, a time series model, using on-line data, is suitable for the real-time performance prediction. This paper illustrates an example of time series modeling and survival assessment, regarding an excessive tool edge wear failure mode for a twist drill operation.

  16. Red cell survival time in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, R.N.; Das, R.K.; Panda, R.K.; Mahakur, A.C.; Patnaik, S.R. (M.K.C.G. Medical College, Berhampur (India))


    The red cell survival time was estimated in 50 cases of chronic renal failure and 20 healthy subjects, using radioactive chromium /sup 51/Cr. The mean value of red cell survival half time (T1/2/sup 51/Cr) was determined to be 25.9 +- 1.1 days in control subjects. The red cell survival half time (17.9 +- 4.67 days) was found to be significantly decreased in cases of chronic renal failure, when compared to the control group. An inverse relationship was observed between T1/2/sup 51/Cr value and blood urea, serum creatinine, the magnitude of hypertension, and duration of illness, whereas, creatinine clearance showed a direct relationship. There was no increased splenic uptake of radioactive chromium, indicating that haemolysis occurred elsewhere in the circulation other than spleen. The possible mechanism for the reduction of red cell survival time and the effect of uraemic environment on it has been discussed.

  17. Piecewise exponential survival trees with time-dependent covariates. (United States)

    Huang, X; Chen, S; Soong, S J


    Survival trees methods are nonparametric alternatives to the semiparametric Cox regression in survival analysis. In this paper, a tree-based method for censored survival data with time-dependent covariates is proposed. The proposed method assumes a very general model for the hazard function and is fully nonparametric. The recursive partitioning algorithm uses the likelihood estimation procedure to grow trees under a piecewise exponential structure that handles time-dependent covariates in a parallel way to time-independent covariates. In general, the estimated hazard at a node gives the risk for a group of individuals during a specific time period. Both cross-validation and bootstrap resampling techniques are implemented in the tree selection procedure. The performance of the proposed survival trees method is shown to be good through simulation and application to real data.

  18. Survival time of direct dental restorations in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Torres Barros Dutra

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThe presence of dental caries is the main reason for the placement and replacement of restorations. Maintaining restorations to a satisfactory clinical condition is a challenge, despite the evolution of materials and surgical operative techniques.ObjectiveTo investigate the survival time and technical-operatory characteristics of dental restorations among adults in Teresina-PI.Material and methodData collection was carried out from September 2009 to January 2010 at a non-profit dental service. Data were collected at the moment of restoration replacement. The sample consisted of 262 defective restorations in 139 individuals. Survival time was calculated using the placement date that was registered on the individual’s dental form. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the survival time of the different types of restorations and the chi-square test was used to assess the association between qualitative variables, at a 5% significance level.ResultThe median survival time of the restorations was 2 years. The survival time for amalgam was higher than for composite and glass ionomer cement (p=0.004. The most replaced dental material was the composite (66.4%. The majority of the replaced restorations had been placed in anterior teeth, in proximal surfaces.ConclusionAmalgam restorations have a longer survival time than composite resin. Technical and operatory variables had no influence on the survival time of restorations. Dental restorations have a low survival time and this fact might be associated with the decion-making process that is adopted by the professionals.

  19. Investigation of survival time of some poultry mycoplasmas. (United States)

    Simon, A; Tamasi, G; Stipkovits, L


    Glucose-fermenting poultry mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma [M.] gallisepticum, M. pullorum, M. gallinaceum, M. gallopavonis) were tested in 2 experiments for their survival time at 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C on 18 different materials used on farms and in hatcheries. All mycoplasmas survived up to 16 days in egg yolk at both temperatures. On other materials, like egg shell, egg white, paper trails, feather, and others mycoplasmas generally survived 2 to 16 days at 20 degrees C. M. gallinaceum and M. gallopavonis proved more resistant to the environment than M. gallisepticum and M. pullorum.

  20. Modeling time-lagged reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships. (United States)

    Maynard, M Travis; Luciano, Margaret M; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Mathieu, John E; Dean, Matthew D


    Employee psychological empowerment is widely accepted as a means for organizations to compete in increasingly dynamic environments. Previous empirical research and meta-analyses have demonstrated that employee psychological empowerment is positively related to several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes including job performance. While this research positions psychological empowerment as an antecedent influencing such outcomes, a close examination of the literature reveals that this relationship is primarily based on cross-sectional research. Notably, evidence supporting the presumed benefits of empowerment has failed to account for potential reciprocal relationships and endogeneity effects. Accordingly, using a multiwave, time-lagged design, we model reciprocal relationships between psychological empowerment and job performance using a sample of 441 nurses from 5 hospitals. Incorporating temporal effects in a staggered research design and using structural equation modeling techniques, our findings provide support for the conventional positive correlation between empowerment and subsequent performance. Moreover, accounting for the temporal stability of variables over time, we found support for empowerment levels as positive influences on subsequent changes in performance. Finally, we also found support for the reciprocal relationship, as performance levels were shown to relate positively to changes in empowerment over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the reciprocal psychological empowerment-performance relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Graphing survival curve estimates for time-dependent covariates. (United States)

    Schultz, Lonni R; Peterson, Edward L; Breslau, Naomi


    Graphical representation of statistical results is often used to assist readers in the interpretation of the findings. This is especially true for survival analysis where there is an interest in explaining the patterns of survival over time for specific covariates. For fixed categorical covariates, such as a group membership indicator, Kaplan-Meier estimates (1958) can be used to display the curves. For time-dependent covariates this method may not be adequate. Simon and Makuch (1984) proposed a technique that evaluates the covariate status of the individuals remaining at risk at each event time. The method takes into account the change in an individual's covariate status over time. The survival computations are the same as the Kaplan-Meier method, in that the conditional survival estimates are the function of the ratio of the number of events to the number at risk at each event time. The difference between the two methods is that the individuals at risk within each level defined by the covariate is not fixed at time 0 in the Simon and Makuch method as it is with the Kaplan-Meier method. Examples of how the two methods can differ for time dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis are presented.

  2. Leisure-time physical activity and some psychological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is vital to ensure adequate physical work capacity for the demands of daily living and job performance. Due to work demand, most top and middle level (executive) managerial employees become physically inactive and experience psychological and other health problems ...

  3. effect of liquid nitrogen storage time on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Investigations were undertaken on the effect of liquid nitrogen (LN) storage time on survival and regeneration of somatic embryos of cocoa (Theobroma cacao l.). Somatic embryos from different cocoa genotypes (AMAZ 3-. 2, AMAZ 10-1, AMAZ 12, SIAL 93, and IMC 14) at 15.45% moisture content were cryopreserved in LN ...

  4. Effect of liquid nitrogen storage time on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were undertaken on the effect of liquid nitrogen (LN) storage time on survival and regeneration of somatic embryos of cocoa (Theobroma cacao l.). Somatic embryos from different cocoa genotypes (AMAZ 3-2, AMAZ 10-1, AMAZ 12, SIAL 93, and IMC 14) at 15.45% moisture content were cryopreserved in LN ...

  5. Survival-time statistics for sample space reducing stochastic processes. (United States)

    Yadav, Avinash Chand


    Stochastic processes wherein the size of the state space is changing as a function of time offer models for the emergence of scale-invariant features observed in complex systems. I consider such a sample-space reducing (SSR) stochastic process that results in a random sequence of strictly decreasing integers {x(t)},0≤t≤τ, with boundary conditions x(0)=N and x(τ) = 1. This model is shown to be exactly solvable: P_{N}(τ), the probability that the process survives for time τ is analytically evaluated. In the limit of large N, the asymptotic form of this probability distribution is Gaussian, with mean and variance both varying logarithmically with system size: 〈τ〉∼lnN and σ_{τ}^{2}∼lnN. Correspondence can be made between survival-time statistics in the SSR process and record statistics of independent and identically distributed random variables.

  6. Financial crisis and collapsed banks: psychological distress and work related factors among surviving employees--a nation-wide study. (United States)

    Snorradóttir, Ásta; Vilhjálmsson, Rúnar; Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjörg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn


    The study considered psychological distress among surviving bank employees differently entangled in downsizing and restructuring following the financial crisis of 2008. A cross-sectional, nationwide study was conducted among surviving employees (N = 1880, response rate 68%). Multivariate analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with psychological distress. In the banks, where all employees experienced rapid and unpredictable organizational changes, psychological distress was higher among employees most entangled in the downsizing and restructuring process. Being subjected to downsizing within own department, salary cut, and transfer to another department, was directly related to increased psychological distress, controlling for background factors. The associations between downsizing, restructuring, and distress were reduced somewhat by adding job demands, job control, and empowering leadership to the model, however, adding social support had little effect on these associations. Employees most entangled in organizational changes are the most vulnerable and should be prioritized in workplace interventions during organizational changes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Time, from psychology to neurophysiology: a historical view. (United States)

    Debru, Claude


    Two aspects of psychology and physiology of time are dealt with in this paper: the way time perception was increasingly studied during the 19th century by scientists, including many physicists, and the way the temporal properties of the nervous system were discovered and explored by physiologists. The neurophysiological correlation between both aspects still remains to be explained. The relationship between time consciousness and consciousness mechanisms was often guessed by philosophers and looked for by scientists. It remains a major subject of investigation in neuroscience as well as a philosophical puzzle. To cite this article: C. Debru, C. R. Biologies 329 (2006).

  8. Estimation of diver survival time in a lost bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, M.J.; Franks, C. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom); Meneilly, G.S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Medicine; Mekjavic, I.B. [Simon Fraser University, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Kinesiology


    Mathematical models of the human thermoregulatory system have been used to make predictions of the likely survival of divers in a ``lost bell`` who can be exposed to very low ambient temperatures. The circumstances considered are not the most extreme but those where, partly by shivering, the individual can re-enter thermal balance. The ability accurately to predict the level and duration of metabolic heat production is critical for the estimation of survival time under these conditions. Limitations on the accuracy of current models arise from the lack of precision in modelling the intensity and duration of the metabolic (shivering) response. A different basis for predicting shivering endurance using the time to hypogylcaemia (blood glucose level less than 2.5 mmol/1) is proposed. This leads to predicted survival times ranging from 10 to over 24 hours for those individuals able to stabilise deep body temperature. This seems to be more consistent with the limited experimental data which exists than the 8-9 hours predicted by other models. In order to help maintain blood sugar levels, and hence metabolic heat production, it is recommended that emergency rations within bells should provide 500g of carbohydrate a day. (59 figures; 221 references). (UK)

  9. Integral Time and the Varieties of Post-Mortem Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Kelly


    Full Text Available While the question of survival of bodily death is usually approached by focusing on the mind/body relation (and often with the idea of the soul as a special kind of substance, this paper explores the issue in the context of our understanding of time. The argument of the paper is woven around the central intuition of time as an “ever-living present.” The development of this intuition allows for a more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time, the soul, and the question of survival. Following the introductory matter, the first section proposes a re-interpretation of Nietzsche’s doctrine of eternal recurrence in terms of moments and lives as “eternally occurring.” The next section is a treatment of Julian Barbour’s neo-Machian model of instants of time as configurations in the n-dimensional phase-space he calls “Platonia.” While rejecting his claim to have done away with time, I do find his model suggestive of the idea of moments and lives as eternally occurring. The following section begins with Fechner’s visionary ideas of the nature of the soul and its survival of bodily death, with particular attention to the notion of holonic inclusion and the central analogy of the transition from perception to memory. I turn next to Whitehead’s equally holonic notions of prehension and the concrescence of actual occasions. From his epochal theory of time and certain ambiguities in his reflections on the “divine antinomies,” we are brought to the threshold of a potentially more integral or “complex-holistic” theory of time and survival, which is treated in the last section. This section draws from my earlier work on Hegel, Jung, and Edgar Morin, as well as from key insights of Jean Gebser, for an interpretation of Sri Aurobindo’s inspired but cryptic description of the “Supramental Time Vision.” This interpretation leads to an alternative understanding of reincarnation—and to the possibility of its reconciliation

  10. Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children. (United States)

    Domingues-Montanari, Sophie


    Over recent years, screen time has become a more complicated concept, with an ever-expanding variety of electronic media devices available throughout the world. Television remains the predominant type of screen-based activity among children. However, computer use, video games and ownership of devices, such as tablets and smart phones, are occurring from an increasingly young age. Screen time, in particular, television viewing, has been negatively associated with the development of physical and cognitive abilities, and positively associated with obesity, sleep problems, depression and anxiety. The physiological mechanisms that underlie the adverse health outcomes related to screen time and the relative contributions of different types of screen and media content to specific health outcomes are unclear. This review discusses the positive and negative effects of screen time on the physiological and psychological development of children. Furthermore, recommendations are offered to parents and clinicians. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Time dependent ethnic convergence in colorectal cancer survival in hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundahl Scott A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer death rates have been declining, this trend is not consistent across all ethnic groups. Biological, environmental, behavioral and socioeconomic explanations exist, but the reason for this discrepancy remains inconclusive. We examined the hypothesis that improved cancer screening across all ethnic groups will reduce ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods Through the Hawaii Tumor Registry 16,424 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were identified during the years 1960–2000. Cox regression analyses were performed for each of three cohorts stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese. The models included stage of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex as predictors of survival. Results Mortality rates improved significantly for all ethnic groups. Moreover, with the exception of Hawaiians, rates for all ethnic groups converged over time. Persistently lower survival for Hawaiians appeared linked with more cancer treatment. Conclusion Ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer mortality rates appear primarily the result of differential utilization of health care. If modern screening procedures can be provided equally to all ethnic groups, ethnic outcome differences can be virtually eliminated.

  12. Press coverage of the new psychology by the New York Times during the progressive era. (United States)

    Dennis, Paul M


    Press coverage of psychology by the New York Times was examined for the Progressive Era. Following a period in which psychology was associated with spiritualism, psychoanalysis, and the Emmanuel movement, the Times gave editorial preference to reports about psychology's applications. Reaching an audience that was both affluent and influential, the topics emphasized by the Times included the lie detector, psychological applications in the work place, mental tests, and child psychology. These areas reflected issues of social concern to Progressives, publicized the rise of the psychologist as expert, and aided psychology in its challenge to common sense.

  13. Time-use, personality psychology, and social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    . In this paper, I will discuss how studies of persons’ time-use and their experience of everyday life can illuminate contemporary social problems. The study of what people “actually do” in their everyday lives mirrors the theoretical debate in current Personality Psychology about the importance of “behavior......” for understanding personality – and problems in the latter debate can thus shed light on how to understand the former. I will draw on empirical material from my PhD-project, where I’ve carried out a survey study, combining time-use and diary methods. The empirical material contains information about not only...... everyday activities, but also how they were experienced and how they mattered to the participant. I’ll argue that studying persons as not just “individuals”, but as participants in structures of social practice, provides important clues to the understanding of social pathologies: That studying...

  14. Time-frequency Representations Application in Psychological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIZ Romulus


    Full Text Available A psychological test is a test that is designed to measure one aspect of human behavior. These tests are usually designed to evaluate a person’s ability to complete tasks that were individual's performance on certain tasks that have usually been requested in advance. Usually a test score is used to compare with other results to measure the individual’s performance regarding cognitive ability, aptitude, personality, etc. One such test is the so called “finger tapping” test, designed to measure the integrity of the neuromuscular system and examine motor control. There are several ways to perform such a test. The purpose of this paper isn’t to study the finger tapping test which is well documented in the literature, but to develop if possible a simple way of performing such a test. Using the method presented in the paper a nonstationary signal was obtained and it was analyzed using the Short-time Fourier time frequency representation to obtain the signals frequency and its variation in time. The results presented in the paper show that this method can be used to perform the test and the frequency and spatial amplitude of the obtained tapping signal can be determined easily.

  15. Time for paradigmatic substitution in psychology. What are the alternatives? (United States)

    Kolstad, Arnulf


    This article focuses on the "machine paradigm" in psychology and its consequences for (mis)understanding of human beings. It discusses causes of the mainstream epistemology in Western societies, referring to philosophical traditions, the prestige of some natural sciences and mathematical statistics. It emphasizes how the higher psychological functions develop dialectically from a biological basis and how the brain due to its plasticity changes with mental and physical activity. This makes a causal machine paradigm unfit to describe and explain human psychology and human development. Some concepts for an alternative paradigm are suggested.

  16. As time passes by: Observed motion-speed and psychological time during video playback. (United States)

    Nyman, Thomas Jonathan; Karlsson, Eric Per Anders; Antfolk, Jan


    Research shows that psychological time (i.e., the subjective experience and assessment of the passage of time) is malleable and that the central nervous system re-calibrates temporal information in accordance with situational factors so that psychological time flows slower or faster. Observed motion-speed (e.g., the visual perception of a rolling ball) is an important situational factor which influences the production of time estimates. The present study examines previous findings showing that observed slow and fast motion-speed during video playback respectively results in over- and underproductions of intervals of time. Here, we investigated through three separate experiments: a) the main effect of observed motion-speed during video playback on a time production task and b) the interactive effect of the frame rate (frames per second; fps) and motion-speed during video playback on a time production task. No main effect of video playback-speed or interactive effect between video playback-speed and frame rate was found on time production.

  17. Surviving early childhood trauma : effects of the holocaust on survivors' psychological and physiolocial well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridman, Ayala


    Psychological, neurobiological and genetics characteristics of Holocaust child survivors and their daughters were studied in population-wide demographic sample in comparison to matched control groups. Sixty years following the occurrence of the trauma, survivors still report more dissociative

  18. Survival (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  19. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations. (United States)

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J


    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure,, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  20. Improving lung cancer survival; time to move on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Heuvers (Marlies); J.P.J.J. Hegmans (Joost); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim)


    textabstractBackground: During the past decades, numerous efforts have been made to decrease the death rate among lung cancer patients. Nonetheless, the improvement in long-term survival has been limited and lung cancer is still a devastating disease.Discussion: With this article we would like to

  1. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts : A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  2. Wilderness and well-being: Complexity, time, and psychological growth (United States)

    Joar Vitterso


    This paper presents the argument for interdisciplinary wilderness research. The idea of interdisciplinarity is grounded in theories of emotion and psychological growth that are compatible with basic knowledge in other scientific disciplines, and in particular with concepts related to evolution. Considering humans as biological knowledge systems, designed by natural...

  3. Semiparametric Methods to Contrast Gap Time Survival Functions: Application to Repeat Kidney Transplantation


    Shu, Xu; Schaubel, Douglas E.


    Times between successive events (i.e., gap times) are of great importance in survival analysis. Although many methods exist for estimating covariate effects on gap times, very few existing methods allow for comparisons between gap times themselves. Motivated by the comparison of primary and repeat transplantation, our interest is specifically in contrasting the gap time survival functions and their integration (restricted mean gap time). Two major challenges in gap time analysis are non-ident...

  4. Survey Article: Ukraine's Industrial Enterprise: Surviving Hard Times


    Fyodor I Kushnirsky


    Ukraine's industrial organizational structure, retaining the features of a planned system, has been slow to change. The state plays a greater role in controlling industrial production there than in Russia. Along with privatization, the government encourages different types of associations and conglomerates. Industry's dismal performance could probably be worse without surviving strategies used by enterprise management, such as retaining working collectives, loyalty to suppliers and buyers, av...

  5. Psychological distress and coping in breast cancer patients and healthy women whose parents survived the Holocaust. (United States)

    Baider, Lea; Goldzweig, Gil; Ever-Hadani, Pnina; Peretz, Tamar


    Psychological distress levels of breast cancer patients whose parents were Holocaust survivors ('second-generation Holocaust' patients) were previously shown to be significantly higher than those of a matched group of patients with non-traumatized parents. In this study, we investigated whether this effect reflects only the generally higher distress levels of second-generation Holocaust women or whether breast cancer patients with traumatized parents also present lower adaptation abilities, which result in increased distress to the breast cancer diagnosis. We assessed psychological distress and measures of coping in 193 second-generation Holocaust patients diagnosed with breast cancer, 164 breast cancer patients with non-traumatized parents, 176 healthy second-generation Holocaust women, and 143 healthy women with non-traumatized parents. The main effect of cancer and the main effect of second-generation Holocaust survivor on psychological distress were found to be significant. These two factors (cancer x second generation) had a synergistic effect on the levels of depression and psychoticism. These results support the hypothesis that, at least on some psychological measures, the cumulative distressing effect of having traumatized parents and breast cancer diagnosis is higher than the effect of each factor alone.

  6. Cognitive psychology and applied linguistics a timely rapprochement


    Harris, Richard Jackson


    Abstract: This paper reviews several central theoretical cnstructs in contemporary cognitive psychology and argues that such knowledge can be useful for the applied Iinguist. An example of such a use is then discussed: the study of the way consumers draw inferences about products from advertisements and then remember those inferences as facts. A second example of the influence of the wording of a question on eyewitness memory is also examined.

  7. Can strenuous leisure time physical activity prevent psychological complaints in a working population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.M.; Jans, M.P.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Hendriksen, I.J.; Houtman, I.L.; Bongers, P.M.


    Aims: To investigate the longitudinal relation between strenuous leisure time physical activity and psychological complaints (depression and emotional exhaustion) in a Dutch working population in order to find evidence For the preventive role of physical activity in the development of psychological

  8. [Ludwik Fleck and the Gestalt psychology of his time]. (United States)

    Zittel, Claus


    The notion of 'Gestalt' plays a prominent role in Ludwik Fleck's theory of thought styles. This paper scrutinizes how Fleck adopted the concepts and even methods of Gestalt psychology that he sometimes vaguely refers to. Systematically comparing the argumentation and theoretical outlines of Fleck's social theory of perception and the principles of some Gestalt theories, this article will show and discuss their similarities and fundamental differences. According to Fleck, both science and individual perception rest on social actions and cultural traditions. In particular, Fleck emphasized the relevance of the common language and collective meanings for the shaping of objects according to the thought style of a scientific collective. In contrast to the principles of Gestalt theories, in Fleck's view not only the perception, but also the constitution of scientific objects and even the'laws' of perception depend on social and cultural constructions of reality. That leads him to a particular theory of Gestalt perception

  9. Preoperative Nutritional Risk Index to predict postoperative survival time in primary liver cancer patients. (United States)

    Bo, Yacong; Yao, Mingjie; Zhang, Ling; Bekalo, Wolde; Lu, Weiquan; Lu, Quanjun


    We designed this study to determine the predictive value of Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) for postoperative survival time of patients who had undergone hepatectomy for primary liver cancer. The 620 patients who underwent hepatectomy for primary liver cancer (PLC) in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Cancer Hospital of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, China from December 1, 2008 to December 1, 2012 were followed up. A nutritional risk index (NRI) was used to screen the patients with malnutrition (NRI100) patients had longer postoperative survival time compared with malnourished patients. NRI values>100 was sig-nificantly associated with longer postoperative survival time. Cox proportional hazards model showed that NRI was an independent predictor of postoperative survival time and that NRI varied inversely with the risk of death. The patients with NRI values>100 survived longer than those with NRI values

  10. Time-lagged relationships between leadership behaviors and psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack. (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Knardahl, Stein; Heir, Trond


    The impact of leadership practices on employee health may be especially evident after extreme events that have physical, psychological, or material consequences for the members of an organization. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the association between leadership behavior and psychological distress in employees who had experienced a workplace terror attack. Ten and 22 months after the 2011 Oslo bombing attack targeting their workplace, ministerial employees (n = 2272) responded to a questionnaire assessing fair, empowering, supportive, and laissez-faire leadership, as well as psychological distress. Cross-sectional and time-lagged associations between the constructs were tested using structural equation modeling. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of supportive leadership were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Longitudinally, negative relationships were found between psychological distress and subsequent ratings of fair and empowering leadership. Supportive leadership was associated with employees' psychological health after trauma, but seems not to have long-term effects on subsequent psychological distress. Rather, psychological distress may lead the employees to perceive their leaders as more negative across time.

  11. Surviving in a metastable de Sitter space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Mondal, Swapnamay [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Verma, Mritunjay [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); International Centre for Theoretical Sciences,Malleshwaram, Bengaluru 560 012 (India)


    In a metastable de Sitter space any object has a finite life expectancy beyond which it undergoes vacuum decay. However, by spreading into different parts of the universe which will fall out of causal contact of each other in future, a civilization can increase its collective life expectancy, defined as the average time after which the last settlement disappears due to vacuum decay. We study in detail the collective life expectancy of two comoving objects in de Sitter space as a function of the initial separation, the horizon radius and the vacuum decay rate. We find that even with a modest initial separation, the collective life expectancy can reach a value close to the maximum possible value of 1.5 times that of the individual object if the decay rate is less than 1% of the expansion rate. Our analysis can be generalized to any number of objects, general trajectories not necessarily at rest in the comoving coordinates and general FRW space-time. As part of our analysis we find that in the current state of the universe dominated by matter and cosmological constant, the vacuum decay rate is increasing as a function of time due to accelerated expansion of the volume of the past light cone. Present decay rate is about 3.7 times larger than the average decay rate in the past and the final decay rate in the cosmological constant dominated epoch will be about 56 times larger than the average decay rate in the past. This considerably weakens the lower bound on the half-life of our universe based on its current age.

  12. Improving lung cancer survival: Time to move on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Heuvers (Marlies)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1761, lung cancer was first described as a distinct disease based on autopsies by Giovanni Morgagni. In 1810, Gaspard Laurent Bayle described lung cancer in more detail in his book entitled Recherches sur la phthisie pulmonaire. At that time it was an extremely

  13. Lessons from Cacti: How to Survive the Prickles of Life during Tough Times (United States)

    Bigger, Alan S.; Bigger, Linda B.


    The saguaro cactus looked a little like humans, in different shapes and sizes. How on earth do they survive in a climate that seems so inhospitable? It is possible to learn lessons for life from a cactus, if one can only get beyond the thorns, and that these lessons will assist one to survive during tough or prickly times. These plants survive…

  14. Assessment of lead-time bias in estimates of relative survival for breast cancer. (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Rutherford, Mark J; Humphreys, Keith


    Relative survival ratios (RSRs) can be useful for evaluating the impact of changes in cancer care on the prognosis of cancer patients or for comparing the prognosis for different subgroups of patients, but their use is problematic for cancer sites where screening has been introduced due to the potential of lead-time bias. Lead-time is survival time that is added to a patient's survival time because of an earlier diagnosis irrespective of a possibly postponed time of death. In the presence of screening it is difficult to disentangle how much of an observed improvement in survival is real and how much is due to lead-time bias. Even so, RSRs are often presented for breast cancer, a site where screening has led to early diagnosis, with the assumption that the lead-time bias is small. We describe a simulation-based framework for studying the lead-time bias due to mammography screening on RSRs of breast cancer based on a natural history model developed in a Swedish setting. We have performed simulations, using this framework, under different assumptions for screening sensitivity and breast cancer survival with the aim of estimating the lead-time bias. Screening every second year among ages 40-75 was introduced assuming that screening had no effect on survival, except for lead-time bias. Relative survival was estimated both with and without screening to enable quantification of the lead-time bias. Scenarios with low, moderate and high breast cancer survival, and low, moderate and high screening sensitivity were simulated, and the lead-time bias assessed in all scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiographic response to locoregional therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma predicts patient survival times. (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Kulik, Laura; Lewandowski, Robert J; Wang, Edward; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Marshall, Karen; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Senthilnathan, Seanthan; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa L; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B; Mulcahy, Mary F; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad


    It is not clear whether survival times of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with their response to therapy. We analyzed the association between tumor response and survival times of patients with HCC who were treated with locoregional therapies (LRTs) (chemoembolization and radioembolization). Patients received LRTs over a 9-year period (n = 463). Patients with metastases, portal venous thrombosis, or who had received transplants were excluded; 159 patients with Child-Pugh B7 or lower were analyzed. Response (based on European Association for the Study of the Liver [EASL] and World Health Organization [WHO] criteria) was associated with survival times using the landmark, risk-of-death, and Mantel-Byar methodologies. In a subanalysis, survival times of responders were compared with those of patients with stable disease and progressive disease. Based on 6-month data, in landmark analysis, responders survived longer than nonresponders (based on EASL but not WHO criteria: P = .002 and .0694). The risk of death was also lower for responders (based on EASL but not WHO criteria: P = .0463 and .707). Landmark analysis of 12-month data showed that responders survived longer than nonresponders (P < .0001 and .004, based on EASL and WHO criteria, respectively). The risk of death was lower for responders (P = .0132 and .010, based on EASL and WHO criteria, respectively). By the Mantel-Byar method, responders had longer survival than nonresponders, based on EASL criteria (P < .0001; P = .596 with WHO criteria). In the subanalysis, responders lived longer than patients with stable disease or progressive disease. Radiographic response to LRTs predicts survival time. EASL criteria for response more consistently predicted survival times than WHO criteria. The goal of LRT should be to achieve a radiologic response, rather than to stabilize disease. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. What day is today? A social-psychological investigation into the process of time orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, K.J.; Huguet, P.


    Social-psychological research on time has pointed to the social construct of time rather than a mere physical entity that we reflect cognitively. Using two paradigms (day retrieval process and goal priming), the authors show that the time orientation is strongly prone to social influences and argue

  17. Survival times for canine intranasal sarcomas treated with radiation therapy: 86 cases (1996-2011). (United States)

    Sones, Evan; Smith, Annette; Schleis, Stephanie; Brawner, William; Almond, Gregory; Taylor, Kathryn; Haney, Siobhan; Wypij, Jackie; Keyerleber, Michele; Arthur, Jennifer; Hamilton, Terrance; Lawrence, Jessica; Gieger, Tracy; Sellon, Rance; Wright, Zack


    Sarcomas comprise approximately one-third of canine intranasal tumors, however few veterinary studies have described survival times of dogs with histologic subtypes of sarcomas separately from other intranasal tumors. One objective of this study was to describe median survival times for dogs treated with radiation therapy for intranasal sarcomas. A second objective was to compare survival times for dogs treated with three radiation therapy protocols: daily-fractionated radiation therapy; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday fractionated radiation therapy; and palliative radiation therapy. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for dogs that had been treated with radiation therapy for confirmed intranasal sarcoma. A total of 86 dogs met inclusion criteria. Overall median survival time for included dogs was 444 days. Median survival time for dogs with chondrosarcoma (n = 42) was 463 days, fibrosarcoma (n = 12) 379 days, osteosarcoma (n = 6) 624 days, and undifferentiated sarcoma (n = 22) 344 days. Dogs treated with daily-fractionated radiation therapy protocols; Monday, Wednesday and Friday fractionated radiation therapy protocols; and palliative radiation therapy protocols had median survival times of 641, 347, and 305 days, respectively. A significant difference in survival time was found for dogs receiving curative intent radiation therapy vs. palliative radiation therapy (P = 0.032). A significant difference in survival time was also found for dogs receiving daily-fractionated radiation therapy vs. Monday, Wednesday and Friday fractionated radiation therapy (P = 0.0134). Findings from this study support the use of curative intent radiation therapy for dogs with intranasal sarcoma. Future prospective, randomized trials are needed for confirmation of treatment benefits. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  18. Age and psychological features of the cognition time preschool


    Melekhin A. I.


    This research is devoted to features of the cognition time by preschool children. The concept temporary representations (temporal markers) and their role in mental development of the child is specified. This article presents the temporal periods of formation markers in the child's speech (L. B. Ames, S. N. Tseytlin).

  19. List and liver transplant survival according to waiting time in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Salvalaggio, P R; Felga, G; Axelrod, D A; Della Guardia, B; Almeida, M D; Rezende, M B


    The time that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can safely remain on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT) is unknown. We investigated whether waiting time on the list impacts transplant survival of HCC candidates and transplant recipients. This is a single-center retrospective study of 283 adults with HCC. Patients were divided in groups according to waiting-list time. The main endpoint was survival. The median waiting time for LT was 4.9 months. The dropout rates at 3-, 6-, and 12-months were 6.4%, 12.4%, and 17.7%, respectively. Mortality on the list was 4.8%, but varied depending of the time on the list. Patients who waited less than 3-months had an inferior overall survival when compared to the other groups (p = 0.027). Prolonged time on the list significantly reduced mortality in this analysis (p = 0.02, HR = 0.28). Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score at transplantation did also independently impact overall survival (p = 0.03, HR = 1.06). MELD was the only factor that independently impacted posttransplant survival (p = 0.048, HR = 1.05). We conclude that waiting time had no relation with posttransplant survival. It is beneficial to prolong the waiting list time for HCC candidates without having a negative impact in posttransplant survival. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Mental time travel : A conceptual overview of social psychological perspectives on a fundamental human capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstude, K.; Peetz, J.

    Humans have the unique capacity to mentally travel through time, that is, to reflect on the past, anticipate the future, and construct alternate realities in their minds. The ability to mentally travel through time affects a variety of social psychological topics. Representations of events can


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Vasyura


    Full Text Available Introduction: the article deals with human psychological time. Though there are observational studies focused on this topic, the psychological, pedagogical, and age-related aspects of this issue require more attention. The development of the human time perspective during the teenage period is in the authors’ field of view. The aim of the study is to identify main characteristics of teenagers’ time perspective depending on their generalized anxiety level and use them as a basis for working out a psychological and pedagogical support model for teenagers’ time perspective development. Materials and Methods: to study specific aspects of the time perspective formed by teenagers having various generalised anxiety levels, the psychodiagnostic methods were used: a trait anxiety scale for 10–16 years old students by A. M. Prikhozhan; anxiety research methods by C. D. Spielberger and Yu. L. Khanina; and the methods enabling diagnostics of the attitude to past, present, and future by A. M. Prikhozhan. The mathematical statistics methods were applied: Mann-Whitney U Test, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Fisher’s angular transformation φ-index. Results: the specific aspects of the time perspective have been revealed; its interrelation with the various levels of the teenage schoolchildren’s generalised anxiety levels has been established. Based on the obtained research results, a psychological and pedagogical support model of teenage schoolchildren’s time perspective development was elaborated. The main components of this model have been introduced. Discussion and Conclusions: the time perspective of the teenagers having a higher anxiety level is inconsistent. It is characterised by a negative attitude to past, present and future. The psychological and pedagogical support to teenage schoolchildren in terms of their time perspective development will provide: psychological and pedagogical support to reduce teenagers’ personal

  2. Tobit regression for modeling mean survival time using data subject to multiple sources of censoring. (United States)

    Gong, Qi; Schaubel, Douglas E


    Mean survival time is often of inherent interest in medical and epidemiologic studies. In the presence of censoring and when covariate effects are of interest, Cox regression is the strong default, but mostly due to convenience and familiarity. When survival times are uncensored, covariate effects can be estimated as differences in mean survival through linear regression. Tobit regression can validly be performed through maximum likelihood when the censoring times are fixed (ie, known for each subject, even in cases where the outcome is observed). However, Tobit regression is generally inapplicable when the response is subject to random right censoring. We propose Tobit regression methods based on weighted maximum likelihood which are applicable to survival times subject to both fixed and random censoring times. Under the proposed approach, known right censoring is handled naturally through the Tobit model, with inverse probability of censoring weighting used to overcome random censoring. Essentially, the re-weighting data are intended to represent those that would have been observed in the absence of random censoring. We develop methods for estimating the Tobit regression parameter, then the population mean survival time. A closed form large-sample variance estimator is proposed for the regression parameter estimator, with a semiparametric bootstrap standard error estimator derived for the population mean. The proposed methods are easily implementable using standard software. Finite-sample properties are assessed through simulation. The methods are applied to a large cohort of patients wait-listed for kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Taking time seriously: Changing practices and perspectives in Work/Organizational Psychology


    Navarro Cid, José; Roe, R. A. (Robert A.); Artiles, M. I.


    Although dedicated to the study of processes in people and organizations, W&O Psychology has shown little sensitivity to the fact that processes happen in time and evolve over time. This paper describes how the field has become more aware of time, after an initial neglect of time, and is now engaged in developing theories and empirically investigating when things happen and how they change. We discuss proposals from Molenaar, Van de Ven, Roe, and colleagues to make our conceptual apparatus be...

  4. Correlation between Pulmonary Function Indexes and Survival Time 
in Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui GE


    Full Text Available Background and objective To those patients with advanced lung cancer, the ultimate objective is to improve the curative effect and quality of life, lung function indexes are an important factor. We investigate the change of lung function and the relationship between pulmonary function indexs and survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods Lung function was detected in 59 cases with lung cancer and 63 normal controls. The relationship between pulmonary function indexs and survival time was analyzed. Results There was significant difference in ventilation function and diffusing capacity between in lung cancer group and control group. Vital capacity (VC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF, peak expiratory flow% (PEF%, maximal ventilatory volume (MVV were positively correlated with survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer (r=0.29, 0.28, 0.28, 0.27, 0.26, 0.28, P<0.05, residual volume/total lung capacity was negatively correlated with survival time (r=-0.31, P<0.05. Conclusion The lung function decreases in the patients with lung cancer. VC, FEV1, FVC, PEF, PEF%, MVV, residual volume/total lung capacity were correlated with survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer. The pulmonary function indexs were important marker of prognosis in patients with lung cancer.

  5. A Systematic Review of Testicle Survival Time After a Torsion Event. (United States)

    Mellick, Larry Bruce; Sinex, James E; Gibson, Robert W; Mears, Kim


    The time window for possible salvage and survival of a torsed testicle is commonly thought to be 6 to 8 hours. However, survival of torsed testicles with or without subsequent atrophy is known to occur outside that critical time window. In this article, we performed a systematic review of the English literature to provide a more accurate understanding of reported time frames of testicle survival after a torsion event. The primary research question was to determine the relationship between time to treatment and the rate of survival for testicles of male patients presenting with testicular torsion (TT). A systematic review of the literature was performed and structured according to PRISMA guidelines. An exhaustive library search was performed after search strategies were developed for multiple databases that included PubMed, Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ProQuest Theses and Dissertations. Two different searches were developed including "testicular torsion" and TT with the search term "time" added. Articles specifically reporting TT case series, testicle outcomes, and time to surgical or manual treatment were selected for review. In addition to and preceding the systematic review, an exhaustive manual search of the literature was also performed by the authors. As a result of these searches, a total of 30 studies with data considered relevant to the research question were included. The information extracted from the articles was tabulated with regard to time intervals to treatment and survival outcome. The systematic review process and protocol are reported in this article. A total of 30 studies were found that reported case series of TT patients and their outcomes as well as time to treatment reported in useful time frames. From these reports, a total of 2116 TT patients were culled, and their outcomes and time to treatment are reported. Because the time to treatment was reported variously in different case series, the 3 most common formats for

  6. Effect of first cannulation time and dialysis machine blood flows on survival of arteriovenous fistulas. (United States)

    Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Hollingworth, Lee; Stevenson, Tamasin


    To study the effect of cannulation time on arteriovenous fistula (AVF) survival. Analysis of two prospective databases of access operations and dialysis sessions from 12 January 2002 through 4 January 2015 with follow-up until 4 January 2016. First cannulation time (FCT), defined from operation to first cannulation, was categorized as machine blood flow rate (BFR) for the first 29 dialysis sessions on AVF was analysed. Altogether, 1167 AVF with functional dialysis use were analysed: 667 (57%) radial cephalic AVF, 383 (33%) brachiocephalic AVF and 117 (10%) brachiobasilic AVF. The 631 (54%) AVF created in on-dialysis patients were analysed separately from 536 (46%) AVF created in pre-dialysis patients. AVF survival was similar between cannulation categories for both pre-dialysis patients (P = 0.19) and on-dialysis patients (P = 0.83). Early cannulation was associated with similar AVF survival in both pre-dialysis patients (P = 0.82) and on-dialysis patients (P = 0.17). Six consecutive successful cannulations from the start were associated with improved AVF survival (P = 0.0002). A below-median BFR at the start of dialysis was associated with better AVF survival (P machine BFR in the first week of dialysis are associated with decreased AVF survival.

  7. The time dependent association of adrenaline administration and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Ewy, Gordon A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Chikani, Vatsal; Sanders, Arthur B; Otto, Charles W; Spaite, Daniel W; Kern, Karl B


    Recommended for decades, the therapeutic value of adrenaline (epinephrine) in the resuscitation of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is controversial. To investigate the possible time-dependent outcomes associated with adrenaline administration by Emergency Medical Services personnel (EMS). A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a near statewide cardiac resuscitation database between 1 January 2005 and 30 November 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of the time interval between EMS dispatch and the initial dose of adrenaline on survival. The primary endpoints were survival to hospital discharge and favourable neurologic outcome. Data from 3469 patients with witnessed OHCA were analyzed. Their mean age was 66.3 years and 69% were male. An initially shockable rhythm was present in 41.8% of patients. Based on a multivariable logistic regression model with initial adrenaline administration time interval (AATI) from EMS dispatch as the covariate, survival was greatest when adrenaline was administered very early but decreased rapidly with increasing (AATI); odds ratio 0.94 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.92-0.97). The AATI had no significant effect on good neurological outcome (OR=0.96, 95% CI=0.90-1.02). In patients with OHCA, survival to hospital discharge was greater in those treated early with adrenaline by EMS especially in the subset of patients with a shockable rhythm. However survival rapidly decreased with increasing adrenaline administration time intervals (AATI). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Dwell time and psychological screening outcomes among military service members with multiple combat deployments. (United States)

    MacGregor, Andrew J; Heltemes, Kevin J; Clouser, Mary C; Han, Peggy P; Galarneau, Michael R


    Recent studies have found that longer dwell times, or the period of time between deployments, may be protective against combat-related psychological outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dwell time and psychological morbidity, while accounting for combat exposure. U.S. Marines with two combat deployments between 2005 and 2008 were identified from electronic deployment records. Those who screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, and who were referred for mental health services were identified from the Post-Deployment Health Assessment. For the final study sample of 3,512 Marines, dwell time was calculated as time between deployments, and was analyzed as a ratio over length of first deployment. After adjustment for all covariates, there was an interaction (p = 0.01) between dwell time and combat exposure on mental health referral outcome. For personnel with maximum reported combat exposure, longer dwell times were associated with a 49% to 92% reduced odds of mental health referral. Longer dwell times may be protective against combat-related psychological outcomes. Because multiple deployments are likely to be the norm in future military operations, regulating dwell time, particularly for those with greater risk of combat exposure, should continue to be explored. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Examining the Influence of Campus Climate on Students' Time to Degree: A Multilevel Discrete-Time Survival Analysis (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Castellanos, Michelle


    Utilizing longitudinal data of 3477 students from 28 institutions, we examine the effects of structural diversity and quality of interracial relation on students' persistence towards graduation within six years. We utilize multilevel discrete-time survival analysis to account for the longitudinal persistence patterns as well as the nested…

  10. The effect of time until surgical intervention on survival in dogs with secondary septic peritonitis. (United States)

    Bush, Maxwell; Carno, Margaret A; St Germaine, Lindsay; Hoffmann, Daniel E


    This retrospective study examined the effect of time to intervention on outcome in cases of dogs with secondary septic peritonitis, and also searched for other potential prognostic factors. The medical records of 55 dogs were reviewed. No association was found between outcome and the time from hospital admission to surgical source control. However, several other factors were found to influence survival, including: age, needing vasopressors, lactate, pre-operative packed cell volume, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum total bilirubin, and post-operative serum albumin. These values were then used to create accurate pre- and post-operative survival prediction models.

  11. Graft pathology at the time of harvest: impact on long-term survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to present the graft pathology at the time of harvest and its impact on long-term survival. Methods: The remnants of the bypass grafts from 66 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease receiving a coronary artery bypass grafting were investigated pathologically, and pertinent predictive risk factors and survival were analyzed. Results: Medial degenerative changes with or without intimal proliferation were present in 36.8%, 37.8% and 35.6% of left internal mammary artery (IMA, radial artery and saphenous vein grafts. There were 2 (3.0% hospital deaths and 9 (14.1% late deaths. Multinomial logistic regression revealed left IMA pathological changes, dyslipidemia, history of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty/stent deployment and Y-graft were significant predictive risk factors negatively influencing the patients’ long-term survival. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the long-term survival of patients with left IMA pathological changes were significantly reduced compared with those without (74.1% vs. 91.4%, P=0.002; whereas no differences were noted in long-term survivals between patients with and without pathological changes of the radial arterial or saphenous vein grafts. Conclusion: Pathological changes may be seen in the bypass graft at the time of harvest. The subtle ultrastructural modifications and the expressions of vascular tone regulators might be responsible for late graft patency. The pathological changes of the left IMA at the time of harvest rather than those of the radial artery or saphenous vein graft affect significantly longterm survival. Non-traumatic maneuver of left IMA harvest, well-controlled dyslipidemia and avoidance of using composite grafts can be helpful in maintaining the architecture of the grafts.

  12. The relation between the experience of time and psychological distress in patients with hematological malignancies. (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Vollmer, Tanja; Schweiger, Claudia; Hiddemann, Wolfgang


    The experience of time is strongly related to our momentary mood states. Patients with a life-threatening illness experience an extreme change in mood and suffer from psychological distress that can develop into clinically relevant psychiatric disorders, like anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among the subjective perception of time, psychological distress, and quality of life in patients with hematological malignancies. Eighty-eight inpatients with hematological malignancies rated how fast time passes subjectively on a visual analog scale and prospectively estimated a time span of 13 min. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) self-report measures of health-related quality of life (FACT-G) and spiritual well-being (FACIT-Sp) were employed to assess psychological distress and quality of life. Those patients who reported a lower quality of life, less spiritual well-being, and more anxiety experienced a slower passage of subjective time and overestimated the 13-min time interval. Our interpretation of the results is that patients with a life-threatening illness who show symptoms of psychological distress draw attention away from meaningful thoughts and actions and, thus, experience time as passing more slowly. An altered sense of time can be a sign of mental suffering, which should be addressed within psycho-oncological interventions. As this is the first study to demonstrate this relation in cancer patients, further research is needed to investigate the experience of time and its relation to meaning as an issue in clinical diagnostics.

  13. Two Artificial Neural Networks for Modeling Discrete Survival Time of Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysseer Sharaf


    Full Text Available Artificial neural network (ANN theory is emerging as an alternative to conventional statistical methods in modeling nonlinear functions. The popular Cox proportional hazard model falls short in modeling survival data with nonlinear behaviors. ANN is a good alternative to the Cox PH as the proportionality of the hazard assumption and model relaxations are not required. In addition, ANN possesses a powerful capability of handling complex nonlinear relations within the risk factors associated with survival time. In this study, we present a comprehensive comparison of two different approaches of utilizing ANN in modeling smooth conditional hazard probability function. We use real melanoma cancer data to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed ANN methods. We report some significant results in comparing the survival time of male and female melanoma patients.

  14. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos


    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  15. Measurement of Survival Time in Brachionus Rotifers: Synchronization of Maternal Conditions. (United States)

    Kaneko, Gen; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David M; Ushio, Hideki


    Rotifers are microscopic cosmopolitan zooplankton used as models in ecotoxicological and aging studies due to their several advantages such as short lifespan, ease of culture, and parthenogenesis that enables clonal culture. However, caution is required when measuring their survival time as it is affected by maternal age and maternal feeding conditions. Here we provide a protocol for powerful and reproducible measurement of the survival time in Brachionus rotifers following a careful synchronization of culture conditions over several generations. Empirically, poor synchronization results in early mortality and a gradual decrease in survival rate, thus resulting in weak statistical power. Indeed, under such conditions, calorie restriction (CR) failed to significantly extend the lifespan of B. plicatilis although CR-induced longevity has been demonstrated with well-synchronized rotifer samples in past and present studies. This protocol is probably useful for other invertebrate models, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, because maternal age effects have also been reported in these species.

  16. The influence of early sexual debut and pubertal timing on psychological distress among Taiwanese adolescents. (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Ksobiech, Kate


    This study examined the relative influence of early sexual debut (ESD) and pubertal timing on psychological distress from adolescence to young adulthood in Taiwan, a non-Western society with a distinct cultural and family context. Data were from a cohort sample of 15-year-olds (N = 2595) first interviewed in 2000, with four follow-ups during a 7-year period. Psychological distress was assessed by a reduced form of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised. ESD was defined by first intercourse at age 15 or younger. Multivariate analyses via growth curve modeling found a greater increase in psychological distress over time in adolescents with ESD (β = .28, p adolescents were at greater risk for the onset of psychological distress (β = .46, p adolescents with an ESD appeared to be especially likely to be distressed (β = 3.39, p adolescents became young adults (β = -.03, p influence of both ESD and pubertal timing on distress trajectories, independent of parental and family characteristics.

  17. Random-effects regression analysis of correlated grouped-time survival data. (United States)

    Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Hu, F B


    Random-effects regression modelling is proposed for analysis of correlated grouped-time survival data. Two analysis approaches are considered. The first treats survival time as an ordinal outcome, which is either right-censored or not. The second approach treats survival time as a set of dichotomous indicators of whether the event occurred for time periods up to the period of the event or censor. For either approach both proportional hazards and proportional odds versions of the random-effects model are developed, while partial proportional hazards and odds generalizations are described for the latter approach. For estimation, a full-information maximum marginal likelihood solution is implemented using numerical quadrature to integrate over the distribution of multiple random effects. The quadrature solution allows some flexibility in the choice of distributions for the random effects; both normal and rectangular distributions are considered in this article. An analysis of a dataset where students are clustered within schools is used to illustrate features of random-effects analysis of clustered grouped-time survival data.

  18. Racial Disparities in Clinical Presentation and Survival Times Among Young-Onset Colorectal Adenocarcinoma. (United States)

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Kabir, Christopher; Tetangco, Eula; Shah, Natahsa; Raddawi, Hareth


    Recently published data indicate increasing incidence of colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) in young-onset (racial disparities in presentation and survival times among non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). A retrospective single-center cohort study was conducted from 2004 through 2014 using 96 patient medical charts with a diagnosis of young-onset CRC. Age, gender, primary site, and histological stage at the time of diagnosis were assessed for survival probabilities by racial group over a minimum follow-up period of 5 years. Among subjects with CRC diagnosis before 50 years of age, the majority of subjects were between 40 and 50 years, with CRC presentation occurring among this age group for 51 (79.7%) of NHW, 18 (81.8%) of NHB, and 5 (50.0%) of Hispanics. The majority of all patients presented with advanced stages of CRC (31.3% with stage III and 27.1% with stage IV). NHB exhibited statistically significantly worse survival compared to NHW (adjusted hazard ratio for death = 2.09; 95% confidence interval 1.14-3.84; P = 0.02). A possible trend of worse survival was identified for Hispanics compared to NHW, but this group was low in numbers and results were not statistically significant. Disparities between racial groups among young-onset CRC cases were identified in overall survival and reflect growing concern in rising incidence and differentiated care management.

  19. A Manifesto on Psychology as Idiographic Science: Bringing the Person Back into Scientific Psychology, This Time Forever (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.


    Psychology is focused on variation between cases (interindividual variation). Results thus obtained are considered to be generalizable to the understanding and explanation of variation within single cases (intraindividual variation). It is indicated, however, that the direct consequences of the classical ergodic theorems for psychology and…

  20. Looking inward: The impact of operative time on graft survival after liver transplantation. (United States)

    Lee, David D; Li, Jun; Wang, Guihua; Croome, Kristopher P; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Hopp, Wallace J; Taner, C Burcin


    Operative time often has been cited as an important factor for postoperative outcomes. Despite this belief, most efforts to improve liver transplant outcomes have largely focused on only patient and donor factors, and little attention has been paid on operative time. The primary objective of this project was to determine the impact of operative time on graft survival after liver transplant. A retrospective review of 2,877 consecutive liver transplants performed at a single institution was studied. Data regarding recipient, donor, and operative characteristics, including detailed granular operative times were collected prospectively and retrospectively reviewed. Using an instrument variable approach, Cox multivariate modeling was performed to assess the impact of operative time without the confounding of known and unknown variables. Of the 2,396 patients who met the criteria for review, the most important factors determining liver transplant graft survival included recipient history of Hepatitis C (hazard ratio 1.45, P = .02), donor age (hazard ratio 1.23, P = .03), use of liver graft from donation after cardiac death donor (hazard ratio 1.50, P operative time (hazard ratio 1.26, P = .01). In detailed analysis of stages of the liver transplant operation, the time interval from incision to anhepatic phase was associated with graft survival (hazard ratio 1.33; P = .02). Using a novel instrument variable approach, we demonstrate that operative time (in particular, the time interval from incision to anhepatic time) has a significant impact on graft survival. It also seems that some of this efficiency is under the influence of the transplant surgeon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of bifidobacteria implantation on the survival time of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Onoue, M.; Mutai, M. (Yakult Institute for Microbiological Research)


    Letahl dose (2 KR) of gamma-ray was irradiated on the whole bodies of mice. Survival time after irradiation was significantly longer in mice with administration of both Bifidobacterium breve YIT 4008 and transgalactosyl oligosaccharide than in mice with administration of either of the two or nothing.

  2. It's Deja Vu All over Again: Using Multiple-Spell Discrete-Time Survival Analysis. (United States)

    Willett, John B.; Singer, Judith D.


    The multiple-spell discrete-time survival analysis method is introduced and illustrated using longitudinal data on exit from and reentry into the teaching profession. The method is applicable to many educational problems involving the sequential occurrence of disparate events or episodes. (SLD)

  3. Recidivism and Survival Time: Racial Disparity among Jail Ex-Inmates (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Spjeldnes, Solveig; Yamatani, Hide


    Incarcerated men, most of whom are recidivists, are disproportionately black. Much literature about prison ex-inmates reports on this disparity, yet little is known about racial disparity in recidivism rates among jail ex-inmates. This study examined recidivism rates and survival time (period from release date to rearrest) among male ex-inmates…

  4. Palliative sedation in advanced cancer patients: Does it shorten survival time? - A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi


    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced cancer often suffer from multiple refractory symptoms in the terminal phase of their life. Palliative sedation is one of the few ways to relieve this refractory suffering. Objectives: This systematic review investigated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time in terminally ill cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for both prospective and retrospective studies which evaluated the effect of palliative sedation on survival time. Only those studies which had a comparison group that did not receive palliative sedation were selected for the review. Abstracts of all retrieved studies were screened to include the most relevant studies and only studies which met inclusion criteria were selected. References of all retrieved studies were also screened for relevant studies. Selected studies were assessed for quality and data extraction was done using the structured data extraction form. Results: Eleven studies including four prospective and seven retrospective studies were identified. Mean survival time (MST was measured as the time from last admission until death. A careful analysis of the results of all the 11 studies indicated that MST of sedated and non-sedated group was not statistically different in any of the studies. Conclusion: This systematic review supports the fact that palliative sedation does not shorten survival in terminally ill cancer patients. However, this conclusion needs to be taken with consideration of the methodology, study design, and the population studied of the included studies in this review.

  5. Sex-related time-dependent variations in post-stroke survival-evidence of a female stroke survival advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae


    of stroke and remained so during the first month suggesting a female survival advantage. Throughout the second month the rate reversed in favour of men suggesting that women in that period are paying a 'toll' for their initial survival advantage. Hereafter, the rate steadily decreased, and after 4 months...

  6. Survival probability and first-passage-time statistics of a Wiener process driven by an exponential time-dependent drift (United States)

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio


    The survival probability and the first-passage-time statistics are important quantities in different fields. The Wiener process is the simplest stochastic process with continuous variables, and important results can be explicitly found from it. The presence of a constant drift does not modify its simplicity; however, when the process has a time-dependent component the analysis becomes difficult. In this work we analyze the statistical properties of the Wiener process with an absorbing boundary, under the effect of an exponential time-dependent drift. Based on the backward Fokker-Planck formalism we set the time-inhomogeneous equation and conditions that rule the diffusion of the corresponding survival probability. We propose as the solution an expansion series in terms of the intensity of the exponential drift, resulting in a set of recurrence equations. We explicitly solve the expansion up to second order and comment on higher-order solutions. The first-passage-time density function arises naturally from the survival probability and preserves the proposed expansion. Explicit results, related properties, and limit behaviors are analyzed and extensively compared to numerical simulations.

  7. Survival probability and first-passage-time statistics of a Wiener process driven by an exponential time-dependent drift. (United States)

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio


    The survival probability and the first-passage-time statistics are important quantities in different fields. The Wiener process is the simplest stochastic process with continuous variables, and important results can be explicitly found from it. The presence of a constant drift does not modify its simplicity; however, when the process has a time-dependent component the analysis becomes difficult. In this work we analyze the statistical properties of the Wiener process with an absorbing boundary, under the effect of an exponential time-dependent drift. Based on the backward Fokker-Planck formalism we set the time-inhomogeneous equation and conditions that rule the diffusion of the corresponding survival probability. We propose as the solution an expansion series in terms of the intensity of the exponential drift, resulting in a set of recurrence equations. We explicitly solve the expansion up to second order and comment on higher-order solutions. The first-passage-time density function arises naturally from the survival probability and preserves the proposed expansion. Explicit results, related properties, and limit behaviors are analyzed and extensively compared to numerical simulations.

  8. The survival time of chocolates on hospital wards: covert observational study. (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Moualed, Daniel J; Nicolson, Phillip L R; Adjei, Felicia D; Cakebread, Holly E; Duehmke, Rudolf M; Martin, Claire A


    To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment. Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study. Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom. Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates. Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study containing a total of 258 individual chocolates). These boxes were kept under continuous covert surveillance, with the time recorded when each chocolate was eaten. Median survival time of a chocolate. 191 out of 258 (74%) chocolates were observed being eaten. The mean total observation period was 254 minutes (95% confidence interval 179 to 329). The median survival time of a chocolate was 51 minutes (39 to 63). The model of chocolate consumption was non-linear, with an initial rapid rate of consumption that slowed with time. An exponential decay model best fitted these findings (model R(2)=0.844, Pchocolates to be eaten) of 99 minutes. The mean time taken to open a box of chocolates from first appearance on the ward was 12 minutes (95% confidence interval 0 to 24). Quality Street chocolates survived longer than Roses chocolates (hazard ratio for survival of Roses v Quality Street 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.93, P=0.014). The highest percentages of chocolates were consumed by healthcare assistants (28%) and nurses (28%), followed by doctors (15%). From our observational study, chocolate survival in a hospital ward was relatively short, and was modelled well by an exponential decay model. Roses chocolates were preferentially consumed to Quality Street chocolates in a ward setting. Chocolates were consumed primarily by healthcare assistants and nurses, followed by doctors. Further practical studies are needed.

  9. Cancer patient survival in Estonia 1995-2009: time trends and data quality. (United States)

    Innos, K; Baburin, A; Aareleid, T


    Survival from most cancers in Estonia has been consistently below European average. The objective of this study was to examine recent survival trends in Estonia and to quantify the effect on survival estimates of the temporary disruption of the Estonian Cancer Registry (ECR) practices in 2001-2007 when death certificates could not be used for case ascertainment. ECR data on all adult cases of 16 common cancers diagnosed in Estonia during 1995-2008 and followed up for vital status until 2009 were used to estimate relative survival ratios (RSR). We used cohort analysis for patients diagnosed in 1995-1999 and 2000-2004; and period hybrid approach to obtain the most recent estimates (2005-2009). We compared five-year RSRs calculated from data sets with and without death certificate initiated (DCI) cases. A total of 64328 cancer cases were included in survival analysis. Compared with 1995-1999, five-year age-standardized RSR increased 20 percent units for prostate cancer, reaching 76% in 2005-2009. A rise of 10 percent units or more was also seen for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (five-year RSR 51% in 2005-2009), and cancers of rectum (49%), breast (73%) and ovary (37%). The effect of including/excluding DCI cases from survival analysis was small except for lung and pancreatic cancers. Relative survival continued to increase in Estonia during the first decade of the 21st century, although for many cancers, a gap between Estonia and more affluent countries still exists. Cancer control efforts should aim at the reduction of risk factors amenable to primary prevention, but also at the improvement of early diagnosis and ensuring timely and optimal care to all cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of time until surgical intervention on survival in dogs with secondary septic peritonitis


    Bush, Maxwell; Carno, Margaret A.; St. Germaine, Lindsay; Hoffmann, Daniel E.


    This retrospective study examined the effect of time to intervention on outcome in cases of dogs with secondary septic peritonitis, and also searched for other potential prognostic factors. The medical records of 55 dogs were reviewed. No association was found between outcome and the time from hospital admission to surgical source control. However, several other factors were found to influence survival, including: age, needing vasopressors, lactate, pre-operative packed cell volume, serum alk...

  11. Multiparametric analysis of magnetic resonance images for glioma grading and patient survival time prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, Benjamin (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)), email:; Emblem, Kyrre E. (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dept. of Radiology, MGH-HST AA Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)); Mouridsen, Kim (Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark)); Nedregaard, Baard; Due-Toennessen, Paulina; Nome, Terje; Hald, John K. (Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Bjoernerud, Atle (The Interventional Center, Rikshospitalet, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)); Haaberg, Asta K. (Dept. of Circulation and Medical Imaging, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Dept. of Medical Imaging, St Olav' s Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)); Kvinnsland, Yngve (NordicImagingLab, Bergen (Norway))


    Background. A systematic comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) options for glioma diagnosis is lacking. Purpose. To investigate multiple MR-derived image features with respect to diagnostic accuracy in tumor grading and survival prediction in glioma patients. Material and Methods. T1 pre- and post-contrast, T2 and dynamic susceptibility contrast scans of 74 glioma patients with histologically confirmed grade were acquired. For each patient, a set of statistical features was obtained from the parametric maps derived from the original images, in a region-of-interest encompassing the tumor volume. A forward stepwise selection procedure was used to find the best combinations of features for grade prediction with a cross-validated logistic model and survival time prediction with a cox proportional-hazards regression. Results. Presence/absence of enhancement paired with kurtosis of the FM (first moment of the first-pass curve) was the feature combination that best predicted tumor grade (grade II vs. grade III-IV; median AUC 0.96), with the main contribution being due to the first of the features. A lower predictive value (median AUC = 0.82) was obtained when grade IV tumors were excluded. Presence/absence of enhancement alone was the best predictor for survival time, and the regression was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Presence/absence of enhancement, reflecting transendothelial leakage, was the feature with highest predictive value for grade and survival time in glioma patients

  12. Functional Status, Time to Transplantation, and Survival Benefit of Kidney Transplantation Among Wait-Listed Candidates (United States)

    Reese, Peter P.; Shults, Justine; Bloom, Roy D.; Mussell, Adam; Harhay, Meera N.; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Karlawish, Jason T.; Feldman, Harold I.


    Background In the context of an aging end-stage renal disease population with multiple comorbidities, transplantation professionals face challenges in evaluating the global health of patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Functional status might be useful for identifying which patients will derive a survival benefit from transplantation versus dialysis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of wait-listed patients using data on functional status from a national dialysis provider linked to United Network for Organ Sharing registry data. Setting & Participants Adult kidney transplant candidates added to the waiting list between the years 2000 and 2006. Predictor Physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Healthy Survey, analyzed as a time-varying covariate. Outcomes Kidney transplantation; Survival benefit of transplantation versus remaining wait-listed. Measurements We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the association between physical function with study outcomes. In survival benefit analyses, transplant status was modeled as a time-varying covariate. Results The cohort comprised 19,242 kidney transplant candidates (median age, 51 years; 36% black race) receiving maintenance dialysis. Candidates in the lowest baseline physical function quartile were more likely to be inactivated (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.21-1.39) and less likely to undergo transplantation (adjusted HR vs. highest quartile, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.61-0.68). After transplantation, worse physical function was associated with shorter 3-year survival (84% vs. 92% for the lowest vs. highest function quartiles). However, compared to dialysis, transplantation was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit by 9 months for patients in every function quartile. Limitations Functional status is self-reported. Conclusions Even patients with low function appear to live longer with kidney transplantation versus dialysis. For waitlisted

  13. Does Perceived Racial Discrimination Predict Changes in Psychological Distress and Substance Use over Time? An Examination among Black Emerging Adults (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.


    We assessed whether perceived discrimination predicted changes in psychological distress and substance use over time and whether psychological distress and substance use predicted change in perceived discrimination over time. We also assessed whether associations between these constructs varied by gender. Our sample included 607 Black emerging…

  14. Perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress: Examining relationships concurrently and over time. (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Stauner, Nicholas; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Lindberg, Matthew J


    In the United States, Internet pornography use is a common behavior that has risen in popularity in recent years. The present study sought to examine potential relationships between pornography use and well-being, with a particular focus on individual perceptions of pornography use and feelings of addiction. Using a large cross-sectional sample of adults (N = 713), perceived addiction to Internet pornography predicted psychological distress above and beyond pornography use itself and other relevant variables (e.g., socially desirable responding, neuroticism). This model was replicated using a large cross-sectional sample of undergraduates (N = 1,215). Furthermore, a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up with a subset of this sample (N = 106) revealed a relationship between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress over time, even when controlling for baseline psychological distress and pornography use. Collectively, these findings suggest that perceived addiction to Internet pornography, but not pornography use itself, is uniquely related to the experience of psychological distress. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Association of the Timing of Pregnancy With Survival in Women With Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Iqbal, Javaid; Amir, Eitan; Rochon, Paula A; Giannakeas, Vasily; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A


    Increasing numbers of women experience pregnancy around the time of, or after, a diagnosis of breast cancer. Understanding the effect of pregnancy on survival in women with breast cancer will help in the counseling and treatment of these women. To compare the overall survival of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy or in the postpartum period with that of women who had breast cancer but did not become pregnant. This population-based, retrospective cohort study linked health administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, comprising 7553 women aged 20 to 45 years at the time of diagnosis with invasive breast cancer, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2014. Any pregnancy in the period from 5 years before, until 5 years after, the index date of the diagnosis of breast cancer. Women were classified into the following 4 exposure groups: no pregnancy (the referent), pregnancy before breast cancer, pregnancy-associated breast cancer, and pregnancy following breast cancer. Five-year actuarial survival rates for all exposure groups, age-adjusted and multivariable hazard ratios [HRs] of pregnancy for overall survival for all exposure groups, and time-dependent hazard ratios for women with pregnancy following breast cancer. Among the 7553 women in the study (mean age at diagnosis, 39.1 years; median, 40 years; range, 20-44 years) the 5-year actuarial survival rate was 87.5% (95% CI, 86.5%-88.4%) for women with no pregnancy, 85.3% (95% CI, 82.8%-87.8%) for women with pregnancy before breast cancer (age-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.27; P = .73), and 82.1% (95% CI, 78.3%-85.9%) for women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (age-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.91-1.53; P = .20). The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 96.7% (95% CI, 94.1%-99.3%) for women who had pregnancy 6 months or more after diagnosis of breast cancer, vs 87.5% (95% CI, 86.5%-88.4%) for women with no pregnancy) (age-adjusted HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.10-0.49; P

  16. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy. (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A


    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  17. Does prehospital time affect survival of major trauma patients where there is no prehospital care? (United States)

    Dharap, S B; Kamath, S; Kumar, V


    Survival after major trauma is considered to be time dependent. Efficient prehospital care with rapid transport is the norm in developed countries, which is not available in many lower middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prehospital time and primary treatment given on survival of major trauma patients in a setting without prehospital care. This prospective observational study was carried out in a university hospital in Mumbai, from January to December 2014. The hospital has a trauma service but no organized prehospital care or defined interhospital transfer protocols. All patients with life- and/or limb-threatening injuries were included in the study. Injury time and arrival time were noted and the interval was defined as "prehospital time" for the directly arriving patients and as "time to tertiary care" for those transferred. Primary outcome measure was in-hospital death (or discharge). Of 1181 patients, 352 were admitted directly from the trauma scene and 829 were transferred from other hospitals. In-hospital mortality was associated with age, mechanism and mode of injury, shock, Glasgow Coma Score prehospital time nor with time to tertiary care. Transferred patients had a significantly higher mortality (odds ratio = 1.869, 95% confidence interval = 1.233-2.561, P = 0.005) despite fewer patients with severe injury. Two hundred and ninety-four (35%) of these needed airway intervention while 108 (13%) needed chest tube insertion on arrival to the trauma unit suggesting inadequate care at primary facility. Mortality is not associated with prehospital time but with transfers from primary care; probably due to deficient care. To improve survival after major trauma, enhancement of resources for resuscitation and capacity building of on-duty doctors in primary centers should be a priority in countries with limited resources.

  18. Survival times with and without tube feeding in patients with dementia or psychiatric diseases in Japan. (United States)

    Takayama, Keiko; Hirayama, Keisuke; Hirao, Akihiko; Kondo, Keiko; Hayashi, Hideki; Kadota, Koichi; Asaba, Hiroyuki; Ishizu, Hideki; Nakata, Kenji; Kurisu, Kairi; Oshima, Etsuko; Yokota, Osamu; Yamada, Norihito; Terada, Seishi


    It is widely supposed that there has been no evidence of increased survival in patients with advanced dementia receiving enteral tube feeding. However, more than a few studies have reported no harmful outcome from tube feeding in dementia patients compared to in patients without dementia. This was a retrospective study. Nine psychiatric hospitals in Okayama Prefecture participated in this survey. All inpatients fulfilling the entry criteria were evaluated. All subjects suffered from difficulty with oral intake. Attending physicians thought that the patients could not live without long-term artificial nutrition. The physicians decided whether to make use of long-term artificial nutrition between January 2012 and December 2014. We evaluated 185 patients. Their mean age was 76.6 ± 11.4 years. Of all subjects, patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 78) formed the biggest group, schizophrenia patients (n = 44) the second, and those with vascular dementia (n = 30) the third. The median survival times were 711 days for patients with tube feeding and 61 days for patients without tube feeding. In a comparison different types of tube feeding, median survival times were 611 days for patients with a nasogastric tube and more than 1000 days for those with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Patients with tube feeding survived longer than those without tube feeding, even among dementia patients. This study suggests that enteral nutrition for patients with dementia prolongs survival. Additionally, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding may be safer than nasogastric tube feeding among patients in psychiatric hospitals. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Evaluation of Survival Time of Tooth Color Dental Materials in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat-Al-Molook Ajami


    Full Text Available Introduction: In restorative dentistry, selecting the proper material is an important factor for clinical success. The objective of this study was clinical evaluation of survival time of three tooth color materials in primary anterior teeth. Methods: In this interventional clinical trial study, 94 deciduous anterior teeth (36 teeth in boys, 58 teeth in girls belonging to 3-5 year old children in Pediatric Department of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry, Iran were selected. Selective dental materials included compoglass, glass-ionomer Fuji II LC, and composite resin. The data were analyzed with Kaplan–Meyer and Log rank test. Results: compoglass had the highest survival time in comparison with composite and glass-ionomer. Nine months retention rate for teeth restored with compoglass, composite resin and glass-ionomer were estimated: 95%, 21%, and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Compoglass can be a suitable material for anterior primary teeth restoration

  20. Mediation Analysis with Survival Outcomes: Accelerated Failure Time Versus Proportional Hazards Models

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    Lois A Gelfand


    Full Text Available Objective: Survival time is an important type of outcome variable in treatment research. Currently, limited guidance is available regarding performing mediation analyses with survival outcomes, which generally do not have normally distributed errors, and contain unobserved (censored events. We present considerations for choosing an approach, using a comparison of semi-parametric proportional hazards (PH and fully parametric accelerated failure time (AFT approaches for illustration.Method: We compare PH and AFT models and procedures in their integration into mediation models and review their ability to produce coefficients that estimate causal effects. Using simulation studies modeling Weibull-distributed survival times, we compare statistical properties of mediation analyses incorporating PH and AFT approaches (employing SAS procedures PHREG and LIFEREG, respectively under varied data conditions, some including censoring. A simulated data set illustrates the findings.Results: AFT models integrate more easily than PH models into mediation models. Furthermore, mediation analyses incorporating LIFEREG produce coefficients that can estimate causal effects, and demonstrate superior statistical properties. Censoring introduces bias in the coefficient estimate representing the treatment effect on outcome – underestimation in LIFEREG, and overestimation in PHREG. With LIFEREG, this bias can be addressed using an alternative estimate obtained from combining other coefficients, whereas this is not possible with PHREG.Conclusions: When Weibull assumptions are not violated, there are compelling advantages to using LIFEREG over PHREG for mediation analyses involving survival-time outcomes. Irrespective of the procedures used, the interpretation of coefficients, effects of censoring on coefficient estimates, and statistical properties should be taken into account when reporting results.

  1. Determination of the impact of melanoma surgical timing on survival using the National Cancer Database. (United States)

    Conic, Ruzica Z; Cabrera, Claudia I; Khorana, Alok A; Gastman, Brian R


    The ideal timing for melanoma treatment, predominantly surgery, remains undetermined. Patient concern for receiving immediate treatment often exceeds surgeon or hospital availability, requiring establishment of a safe window for melanoma surgery. To assess the impact of time to definitive melanoma surgery on overall survival. Patients with stage I to III cutaneous melanoma and with available time to definitive surgery and overall survival were identified by using the National Cancer Database (N = 153,218). The t test and chi-square test were used to compare variables. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis. In a multivariate analysis of patients in all stages who were treated between 90 and 119 days after biopsy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.18) and more than 119 days (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.22) had a higher risk for mortality compared with those treated within 30 days of biopsy. In a subgroup analysis of stage I, higher mortality risk was found in patients treated within 30 to 59 days (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.1), 60 to 89 days (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.25), 90 to 119 days (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.48), and more than 119 days after biopsy (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.21-1.65). Surgical timing did not affect survival in stages II and III. Melanoma-specific survival was not available. Expeditious treatment of stage I melanoma is associated with improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation between Pulmonary Function Indexes and Survival Time 
in Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer


    Ge, Hui; Jiang, Zhenghua; Huang, Qian; Muyun ZHU; Yang, Jie


    Background and objective To those patients with advanced lung cancer, the ultimate objective is to improve the curative effect and quality of life, lung function indexes are an important factor. We investigate the change of lung function and the relationship between pulmonary function indexs and survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods Lung function was detected in 59 cases with lung cancer and 63 normal controls. The relationship between pulmonary function indexs and surv...

  3. Posttraumatic stress disorder in eating disorder patients: The roles of psychological distress and timing of trauma. (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Backholm, Klas; Birgegård, Andreas


    Exposure to traumatic events may be a risk factor for subsequent development of an eating disorder (ED). In a previous study, we showed that trauma exposure impacted symptom load in ED patients. We also saw an effect of trauma on general psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and ED severity, to focus on the mediating role of psychological distress for the association, and to assess the role of timing of trauma in relation to emergence of ED. Participants were Swedish adult ED patients with a history of traumatic exposure (N=843, Mean age 27.2, 97.3% female). One fourth (24.1%) of the participants had a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD. PTSD had an impact on ED severity, but the impact was mediated by psychological distress. When stratifying the sample based on timing of trauma a significant effect was present only in those with trauma within a year of emergence of ED. The results suggest emotion regulation as a possible underlying factor of interest in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. History of psychological knowledge in Brazilian culture: Weaving threads on the loom of time. (United States)

    Massimi, Marina; Gontijo, Sandro R


    After a brief presentation of the research program on the "history of psychological knowledge in the ambit of cultural history," this article addresses 2 issues that we consider particularly important from the methodological point of view: the notion of multiple temporalities (regimes of historicity) and of complexity as characteristics of the contexture of Brazilian culture. It will be shown how both require specific attention from the researcher, because the process of incorporation of psychology in Brazil over time is complex and articulated according to various regimes of historicity that intersect and interpenetrate each other, without being exclusive. Our approach will be exemplified by the concept of memory, showing how this can be grasped in its constitution in Brazilian culture, which is composed of several sedimented layers according to different temporalities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Tumor Cells Growth and Survival Time with the Ketogenic Diet in Animal Models: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Khodadadi, Soheila; Sobhani, Nafiseh; Mirshekar, Somaye; Ghiasvand, Reza; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Miraghajani, Maryam; Dehsoukhteh, Somayeh Shahraki


    Recently, interest in targeted cancer therapies via metabolic pathways has been renewed with the discovery that many tumors become dependent on glucose uptake during anaerobic glycolysis. Also the inability of ketone bodies metabolization due to various deficiencies in mitochondrial enzymes is the major metabolic changes discovered in malignant cells. Therefore, administration of a ketogenic diet (KD) which is based on high in fat and low in carbohydrates might inhibit tumor growth and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies. So, we conducted this systematic review to assess the effects of KD on the tumor cells growth and survival time in animal studies. All databases were searched from inception to November 2015. We systematically searched the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholars, Science Direct and Cochrane Library according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. To assess the quality of included studies we used SYRCLE's RoB tool. 268 articles were obtained from databases by primary search. Only 13 studies were eligible according to inclusion criteria. From included studies, 9 articles indicate that KD had a beneficial effect on tumor growth and survival time. Tumor types were included pancreatic, prostate, gastric, colon, brain, neuroblastoma and lung cancers. In conclusions, although studies in this field are rare and inconsistence, recent findings have demonstrated that KD can potentially inhibit the malignant cell growth and increase the survival time. Because of differences physiology between animals and humans, future studies in cancer patients treated with a KD are needed.

  6. Tumor cells growth and survival time with the ketogenic diet in animal models: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Khodadadi


    Full Text Available Recently, interest in targeted cancer therapies via metabolic pathways has been renewed with the discovery that many tumors become dependent on glucose uptake during anaerobic glycolysis. Also the inability of ketone bodies metabolization due to various deficiencies in mitochondrial enzymes is the major metabolic changes discovered in malignant cells. Therefore, administration of a ketogenic diet (KD which is based on high in fat and low in carbohydrates might inhibit tumor growth and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies. So, we conducted this systematic review to assess the effects of KD on the tumor cells growth and survival time in animal studies. All databases were searched from inception to November 2015. We systematically searched the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholars, Science Direct and Cochrane Library according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. To assess the quality of included studies we used SYRCLE's RoB tool. 268 articles were obtained from databases by primary search. Only 13 studies were eligible according to inclusion criteria. From included studies, 9 articles indicate that KD had a beneficial effect on tumor growth and survival time. Tumor types were included pancreatic, prostate, gastric, colon, brain, neuroblastoma and lung cancers. In conclusions, although studies in this field are rare and inconsistence, recent findings have demonstrated that KD can potentially inhibit the malignant cell growth and increase the survival time. Because of differences physiology between animals and humans, future studies in cancer patients treated with a KD are needed.

  7. The Royal Road to Time: How Understanding of the Evolution of Time in the Brain Addresses Memory, Dreaming, Flow, and Other Psychological Phenomena. (United States)

    Hancock, Peter A


    It has been claimed that dreams are the royal road to the unconscious mind. The present work argues that dreams and associated brain states such as memory, attention, flow, and perhaps even consciousness itself arise from diverse conflicts over control of time in the brain. Dreams are the brain's offline efforts to distill projections of the future, while memory represents the vestiges of the past successes and survived failures of those and other conscious projections. Memory thus acts to inform and improve the prediction of possible future states through the use of conscious prospects (planning) and unconscious prospective memory (dreams). When successful, these prospects result in states of flow for conscious planning and déjà vu for its unconscious comparator. In consequence, and contrary to normal expectation, memory is overwhelmingly oriented to deal with the future. Consciousness is the comparable process operating in the present moment. Thus past, present, and future are homeomorphic with the parts of memory (episodic and autobiographical) that recall a personal past, consciousness, and the differing dimensions of prospective memory to plan for future circumstances, respectively. Dreaming (i.e., unconscious prospective memory), has the luxury to run multiple "what if" simulations of many possible futures, essentially offline. I explicate these propositions and their relations to allied constructs such as déjà vu and flow. More generally, I propose that what appear to us as a range of normal psychological experiences are actually manifestations of an ongoing pathological battle for control within the brain. The landscape of this conflict is time. I suggest that there are at least 3 general systems bidding for this control, and in the process of evolution, each system has individually conferred a sequentially increasing survival advantage, but only at the expense of a still incomplete functional integration. Through juxtaposition of these respective brain

  8. What day is today? A social-psychological investigation into the process of time orientation. (United States)

    Jonas, Kai J; Huguet, Pascal


    Social-psychological research on time has pointed to the social construct of time rather than a mere physical entity that we reflect cognitively. Using two paradigms (day retrieval process and goal priming), the authors show that the time orientation is strongly prone to social influences and argue that a self-regulatory process underlies these findings. The degree of social comparison orientation in Study 1 and the degree of identification with groups for which the landmark is relevant (Study 2) both moderate the functionality of the landmarks within time orientation. Consistent with these findings, Studies 3 and 4 offer evidence that the activation of a personally relevant goal activates the day of goal attainment, a process that again can be moderated by social comparison orientation and identification. Overall, these results suggest a socially regulated time orientation. The internal clock (if any) is at least partly a "social clock."

  9. The cognitive neuroscience of time perception: how psychological studies might help to dissect the timing system. (United States)

    Wearden, John H


    It is argued that the cognitive neuroscience of time perception does not make sufficient use of a range of experimental techniques and theoretical approaches which might be useful in "dissecting" the human timing system, and thus helping to uncover its neural basis. These techniques are mostly inspired by scalar expectancy theory, but do not depend on acceptance of that model. Most of the methods result in the same physical stimuli giving rise to systematically different time judgements, thus they avoid problems of control which have haunted some areas of the cognitive neuroscience of timing. Among the possibilities are (a) changing the basic duration judgement of stimuli and events, (b) manipulating working memory and reference memories for duration, and (c) changing temporal decision processes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Functional status, time to transplantation, and survival benefit of kidney transplantation among wait-listed candidates. (United States)

    Reese, Peter P; Shults, Justine; Bloom, Roy D; Mussell, Adam; Harhay, Meera N; Abt, Peter; Levine, Matthew; Johansen, Kirsten L; Karlawish, Jason T; Feldman, Harold I


    In the context of an aging end-stage renal disease population with multiple comorbid conditions, transplantation professionals face challenges in evaluating the global health of patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Functional status might be useful for identifying which patients will derive a survival benefit from transplantation versus dialysis. Retrospective cohort study of wait-listed patients using data for functional status from a national dialysis provider linked to United Network for Organ Sharing registry data. Adult kidney transplantation candidates added to the waiting list between 2000 and 2006. Physical Functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, analyzed as a time-varying covariate. Kidney transplantation; survival benefit of transplantation versus remaining wait-listed. We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the association between physical function with study outcomes. In survival benefit analyses, transplantation status was modeled as a time-varying covariate. The cohort comprised 19,242 kidney transplantation candidates (median age, 51 years; 36% black race) receiving maintenance dialysis. Candidates in the lowest baseline Physical Functioning score quartile were more likely to be inactivated (adjusted HR vs highest quartile, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.21-1.39) and less likely to undergo transplantation (adjusted HR vs highest quartile, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.61-0.68). After transplantation, worse Physical Functioning score was associated with shorter 3-year survival (84% vs 92% for the lowest vs highest function quartiles). However, compared to dialysis, transplantation was associated with a statistically significant survival benefit by 9 months for patients in every function quartile. Functional status is self-reported. Even patients with low function appear to live longer with kidney transplantation versus dialysis. For wait-listed patients, global health measures such as functional status may be more useful in

  11. Time-Dependent Tree-Structured Survival Analysis with Unbiased Variable Selection through Permutation Tests (United States)

    Wallace, M. L.


    Incorporating time-dependent covariates into tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA) may result in more accurate prognostic models than if only baseline values are used. Available time-dependent TSSA methods exhaustively test every binary split on every covariate; however, this approach may result in selection bias towards covariates with more observed values. We present a method that uses unbiased significance levels from newly proposed permutation tests to select the time-dependent or baseline covariate with the strongest relationship with the survival outcome. The specific splitting value is identified using only the selected covariate. Simulation results show that the proposed time-dependent TSSA method produces tree models of equal or greater accuracy as compared to baseline TSSA models, even with high censoring rates and large within-subject variability in the time-dependent covariate. To illustrate, the proposed method is applied to data from a cohort of bipolar youth to identify subgroups at risk for self-injurious behavior. PMID:25043382

  12. Impact of Treatment Time on the Survival of Patients Suffering from Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patorn Piromchai


    Full Text Available Background Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is an uncommon disease with high mortality rates. There is currently no consensus on the best treatment timing. We studied the impact of the treatment timing on the survival of patients experiencing invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients suffering from invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The duration of symptoms, clinical presentations, clinical signs, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes were collected. Results It was observed that more than 70% of the mortalities occurred within the subgroup of patients who exhibited symptoms of the disease within 14 days before admission. After adjusting for the confounders, the time taken to treat the patients was the most statistically significant predictor for mortality ( P = 0.045. We found no significant relationships between mortality and its significant covariates, which included the underlying diseases ( P = 0.91 or complications ( P = 0.55. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the time taken to treat the patients is an important determinant for the survival of patients who are afflicted with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The appropriate treatments should be administered within 14 days from the time the symptoms begin to manifest.

  13. Impact of treatment time on the survival of patients suffering from invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. (United States)

    Piromchai, Patorn; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak


    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is an uncommon disease with high mortality rates. There is currently no consensus on the best treatment timing. We studied the impact of the treatment timing on the survival of patients experiencing invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. We conducted a retrospective study of patients suffering from invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The duration of symptoms, clinical presentations, clinical signs, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes were collected. It was observed that more than 70% of the mortalities occurred within the subgroup of patients who exhibited symptoms of the disease within 14 days before admission. After adjusting for the confounders, the time taken to treat the patients was the most statistically significant predictor for mortality (P = 0.045). We found no significant relationships between mortality and its significant covariates, which included the underlying diseases (P = 0.91) or complications (P = 0.55). Our study demonstrates that the time taken to treat the patients is an important determinant for the survival of patients who are afflicted with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The appropriate treatments should be administered within 14 days from the time the symptoms begin to manifest.

  14. It's Time to Broaden the Replicability Conversation: Thoughts for and From Clinical Psychological Science. (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Patrick, Christopher J; Johnson, Sheri L; Krueger, Robert F; Miller, Joshua D; Oltmanns, Thomas F; Shrout, Patrick E


    Psychology is in the early stages of examining a crisis of replicability stemming from several high-profile failures to replicate studies in experimental psychology. This important conversation has largely been focused on social psychology, with some active participation from cognitive psychology. Nevertheless, several other major domains of psychological science-including clinical science-have remained insulated from this discussion. The goals of this article are to (a) examine why clinical psychology and allied fields, such as counseling and school psychology, have not been central participants in the replicability conversation; (b) review concerns and recommendations that are less (or more) applicable to or appropriate for research in clinical psychology and allied fields; and (c) generate take-home messages for scholars and consumers of the literature in clinical psychology and allied fields, as well as reviewers, editors, and colleagues from other areas of psychological science.

  15. Survival time of dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy: 208 cases (2001-2012). (United States)

    Wendelburg, Kristin M; Price, Lori Lyn; Burgess, Kristine E; Lyons, Jeremiah A; Lew, Felicia H; Berg, John


    To determine survival time for dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma treated with splenectomy alone, identify potential prognostic factors, and evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy. Retrospective case series. 208 dogs. Medical records were reviewed, long-term follow-up information was obtained, and survival data were analyzed statistically. 154 dogs were treated with surgery alone, and 54 were treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Twenty-eight dogs received conventional chemotherapy, 13 received cyclophosphamide-based metronomic chemotherapy, and 13 received both conventional and metronomic chemotherapy. Median survival time of dogs treated with splenectomy alone was 1.6 months. Clinical stage was the only prognostic factor significantly associated with survival time. When the entire follow-up period was considered, there was no significant difference in survival time between dogs treated with surgery alone and dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy. However, during the first 4 months of follow-up, after adjusting for the effects of clinical stage, survival time was significantly prolonged among dogs receiving any type of chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.6) and among dogs receiving both conventional and metronomic chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.4). Clinical stage was strongly associated with prognosis for dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma. Chemotherapy was effective in prolonging survival time during the early portion of the follow-up period. Combinations of doxorubicin-based conventional protocols and cyclophosphamide-based metronomic protocols appeared to be more effective than either type of chemotherapy alone, but prolongations in survival time resulting from current protocols were modest.

  16. Survival Times of Meter-Sized Rock Boulders on the Surface of Airless Bodies (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.; Horz, F.; Ramsley, K.


    This study considers the survival times of meter-sized rock boulders on the surfaces of several airless bodies. As the starting point, we employ estimates of the survival times of such boulders on the surface of the Moon by[1], then discuss the role of destruction due to day-night temperature cycling, consider the meteorite bombardment environment on the considered bodies in terms of projectile flux and velocities and finally estimate the survival times. Survival times of meter-sized rocks on lunar surface: The survival times of hand specimen-sized rocks exposed to the lunar surface environment were estimated based on experiments modeling the destruction of rocks by meteorite impacts, combined with measurements of the lunar surface meteorite flux, (e.g.,[2]). For estimations of the survival times of meter-sized lunar boulders, [1] suggested a different approach based on analysis of the spatial density of boulders on the rims of small lunar craters of known absolute age. It was found that for a few million years, only a small fraction of the boulders ejected by cratering process are destroyed, for several tens of million years approx.50% are destroyed, and for 200-300 Ma, 90 to 99% are destroyed. Following [2] and other works, [1] considered that the rocks are mostly destroyed by meteorite impacts. Destruction of rocks by thermal-stress. However, high diurnal temperature variations on the surface of the Moon and other airless bodies imply that thermal stresses may also be a cause of surface rock destruction. Delbo et al. [3] interpreted the observed presence of fine debris on the surface of small asteroids as due to thermal surface cycling. They stated that because of the very low gravity on the surface of these bodies, ejecta from meteorite impacts should leave the body, so formation there of fine debris has to be due to thermal cycling. Based on experiments on heating-cooling of cm-scale pieces of ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and theoretical modeling of

  17. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

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    McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roses, Robert E., E-mail: [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mamtani, Ronac [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Datta, Jashodeep [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)


    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered.

  18. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and its relation to survival among patients with stage III colon cancer. (United States)

    Bos, A C R K; van Erning, F N; van Gestel, Y R B M; Creemers, G J M; Punt, C J A; van Oijen, M G H; Lemmens, V E P P


    Currently available data suggest that delaying the start of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients has a detrimental effect on survival. We analysed which factors impact on the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and evaluated the influence on overall survival (OS). Stage III colon cancer patients who underwent resection and received adjuvant chemotherapy between 2008 and 2013 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Timing of adjuvant chemotherapy was subdivided into: ⩽ 4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13-16 weeks post-surgery. Multivariable regressions were performed to assess the influence of several factors on the probability of starting treatment within 8 weeks post-surgery and to evaluate the association of timing of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-year OS. 6620 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, 14% commenced after 8 weeks. Factors associated with starting treatment after 8 weeks were older age (Odds ratio (OR) 65-74 versus colon cancer patients within 8 weeks post-surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated survival analysis using an event-time approach in a Bayesian framework (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.; Dreitz, VJ; Heisey, Dennis M.


    Event-time or continuous-time statistical approaches have been applied throughout the biostatistical literature and have led to numerous scientific advances. However, these techniques have traditionally relied on knowing failure times. This has limited application of these analyses, particularly, within the ecological field where fates of marked animals may be unknown. To address these limitations, we developed an integrated approach within a Bayesian framework to estimate hazard rates in the face of unknown fates. We combine failure/survival times from individuals whose fates are known and times of which are interval-censored with information from those whose fates are unknown, and model the process of detecting animals with unknown fates. This provides the foundation for our integrated model and permits necessary parameter estimation. We provide the Bayesian model, its derivation, and use simulation techniques to investigate the properties and performance of our approach under several scenarios. Lastly, we apply our estimation technique using a piece-wise constant hazard function to investigate the effects of year, age, chick size and sex, sex of the tending adult, and nesting habitat on mortality hazard rates of the endangered mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) chicks. Traditional models were inappropriate for this analysis because fates of some individual chicks were unknown due to failed radio transmitters. Simulations revealed biases of posterior mean estimates were minimal (≤ 4.95%), and posterior distributions behaved as expected with RMSE of the estimates decreasing as sample sizes, detection probability, and survival increased. We determined mortality hazard rates for plover chicks were highest at weights and/or whose nest was within agricultural habitats. Based on its performance, our approach greatly expands the range of problems for which event-time analyses can be used by eliminating the need for having completely known fate data.

  20. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement? (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya


    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.

  1. Molecular clock evidence for survival of Antarctic cyanobacteria (Oscillatoriales, Phormidium autumnale) from Paleozoic times. (United States)

    Strunecký, Otakar; Elster, Josef; Komárek, Jiří


    Cyanobacteria are well adapted to freezing and desiccation; they have been proposed as possible survivors of comprehensive Antarctic glaciations. Filamentous types from the order Oscillatoriales, especially the species Phormidium autumnale Kützing ex Gomont 1892, have widely diverse morphotypes that dominate in Antarctic aquatic microbial mats, seepages, and wet soils. Currently little is known about the dispersion of cyanobacteria in Antarctica and of their population history. We tested the hypothesis that cyanobacteria survived Antarctic glaciations directly on site after the Gondwana breakup by using the relaxed and strict molecular clock in the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. We estimated that the biogeographic history of Antarctic cyanobacteria belonging to P. autumnale lineages has ancient origins. The oldest go further back in time than the breakup of Gondwana and originated somewhere on the supercontinent between 442 and 297 Ma. Enhanced speciation rate was found around the time of the opening of the Drake Passage (c. 31-45 Ma) with beginning of glaciations (c. 43 Ma). Our results, based primarily on the strains collected in maritime Antarctica, mostly around James Ross Island, support the hypothesis that long-term survival took place in glacial refuges. The high morphological diversification of P. autumnale suggested the coevolution of lineages and formation of complex associations with different morphologies, resulting in a specific endemic Antarctic cyanobacterial flora. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival according to ambulance response-times after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik


    Background: Bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but it is unknown to what degree bystander CPR remains positively associated with survival with increasing time to potential defibrillation. The main objective...... was to examine the association of bystander CPR with survival as time to advanced treatment increases. Methods: We studied 7623 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients between 2005 and 2011, identified through the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used...... out-of-hospital cardiac arrest statistics, an additional 233 patients could potentially be saved annually if response time was reduced from 10 to 5 minutes and 119 patients if response time was reduced from 7 (the median response time in this study) to 5 minutes. Conclusions: The absolute survival...

  3. Determinants of central processing order in psychological refractory period paradigms: central arrival times, detection times, or preparation? (United States)

    Leonhard, Tanja


    Three psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted to assess the effect of central arrival times at the bottleneck on task order scheduling. In Experiment 1, a visual first task (plus-minus symbol discrimination) was combined with an auditory second task (left-right tone judgement) in a standard PRP paradigm with constant task order. In Experiment 2, the order of the tasks varied unpredictably. In Experiment 3, visual-auditory dual-task trials were randomly mixed with single-task trials. To dissociate central arrival times from stimulus detection times, the perceptual stage of the visual task was extended using stimulus degradation. Most importantly, no evidence for a first-come, first-served principle at the central bottleneck was found with the employed paradigms. Instead, the results indicated that preparation (Experiment 1) and the detection times of the stimuli (Experiments 2 and 3) were the main determinants of central processing order in the present study. In the light of previous research, the results indicate that central processing order can be influenced by various factors. The interplay between these factors seems to depend highly on the conditions and requirements of the employed experimental paradigm.

  4. Psychological ill-being experienced by first-time mothers and their partners in pregnancy after abortion: a cohort study. (United States)

    Holmlund, Susanna; Kaljonen, Anne; Junttila, Niina; Räihä, Hannele; Mäkinen, Juha; Rautava, Päivi


    The psychological effects of abortion have been much discussed lately, with recently published studies indicating that induced abortion (IA) may, contrary to the general consensus, be contributing to psychological symptoms post-abortion. Using a cohort of first-time mothers, we assessed the likelihood of them experiencing psychological ill-being at the midpoint of their pregnancy, depending on their IA history. We also examined the psychological symptoms of their partners, the hypothesis being that ill-being in IA-experienced mothers might reflect onto their partners. Altogether 680 future first-time mothers (9.8% of whom had an IA history) and their partners were selected. Most mothers attended their 16 check-ups at maternity health clinics (MHC), where the family's physical and emotional well-being were checked. Several internationally validated questionnaires, which gauged psychological ill-being, were filled in at the 20th week of pregnancy. There were no significant differences between the study and the control group in terms of psychological ill-being during the pregnancy. The contribution of prior IA to psychological ill-being during the next pregnancy seems to be minimal. The availability of IA procedures, intensive MHC services in Finland, as well as this society's neutral attitude towards IA, may be among the reasons why the results are so positive for mothers who have previously undergone one or more IAs.

  5. Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for real-time interpersonal coordination. (United States)

    Keller, Peter E; Novembre, Giacomo; Hove, Michael J


    Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social-psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Islamist Suicide Terrorism and Erich Fromm’s Social Psychology of Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad El-Din Aysha


    Full Text Available Mainstream social science has struggled to explain the appeal of suicide terrorism to so many Muslim youths, relying as it does on standard socio-economic indicators and research meant to identify suicidal tendencies. The existential emphasis is missing. This commentary is inspired by the work of clinical psychologist Erich Fromm (1900-1980 and his investigation of the social psychology of modernity, as well as how this intermingles with existential fears related to mortality (death-related fears and the passage of time (the end of the world or apocalypse. Modernity, explained Fromm, makes one feel small, insignificant and isolated in the larger scheme of things. This demands a violent response, often involving self-sacrifice, to reassert the balance, which allows Islamists to take advantage of death-related anxieties and exaggerate the sense of confrontation with the world through apocalyptic prophecies. Current psychological research on death and studies of terrorism and religious extremism both confirm many of Fromm’s findings and expand on them. In this commentary I argue that the religion of Islam, far from being a source of suicide terrorism, has historically restrained both suicidal tendencies and political violence directed at civilians, but it is the slow yet sure encroachment of modernity that has eroded these theological and communitarian defences. Other problems, such as household politics, gender roles, and theological teachings concerning death likewise feed this process, as documented by Arabic researchers in contexts other than political violence.

  7. Exhaustion and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time: moderator effects of time pressure and leisure experiences. (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Arbeus, Hillevi; Mahn, Christopher; Fritz, Charlotte


    Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery-although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences.

  8. Survival analysis using S analysis of time-to-event data

    CERN Document Server

    Tableman, Mara


    Survival Analysis Using S: Analysis of Time-to-Event Data is designed as a text for a one-semester or one-quarter course in survival analysis for upper-level or graduate students in statistics, biostatistics, and epidemiology. Prerequisites are a standard pre-calculus first course in probability and statistics, and a course in applied linear regression models. No prior knowledge of S or R is assumed. A wide choice of exercises is included, some intended for more advanced students with a first course in mathematical statistics. The authors emphasize parametric log-linear models, while also detailing nonparametric procedures along with model building and data diagnostics. Medical and public health researchers will find the discussion of cut point analysis with bootstrap validation, competing risks and the cumulative incidence estimator, and the analysis of left-truncated and right-censored data invaluable. The bootstrap procedure checks robustness of cut point analysis and determines cut point(s). In a chapter ...

  9. Time trend analysis of primary tumor resection for stage IV colorectal cancer: less surgery, improved survival. (United States)

    Hu, Chung-Yuan; Bailey, Christina E; You, Y Nancy; Skibber, John M; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Feig, Barry W; Chang, George J


    With the advent of effective modern chemotherapeutic and biologic agents, primary tumor resection for patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) may not be routinely necessary. To evaluate the secular patterns of primary tumor resection use in stage IV CRC in the United States. A retrospective cohort study using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results CRC registry. Demographic and clinical factors were compared for 64,157 patients diagnosed with stage IV colon or rectal cancer from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 2010, who had undergone primary tumor resection and those who had not. Rates of primary tumor resection and median relative survival were calculated for each year. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to determine when a significant change in trend in the primary tumor resection rate had occurred. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with primary tumor resection. Difference in primary tumor resection rates over time. Of the 64,157 patients with stage IV CRC, 43,273 (67.4%) had undergone primary tumor resection. The annual rate of primary tumor resection decreased from 74.5% in 1988 to 57.4% in 2010 (Ptrend toward fewer primary tumor resections was seen. Despite the decreasing primary tumor resection rate, patient survival rates improved. However, primary tumor resection may still be overused, and current treatment practices lag behind evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  10. Assessing the monitor warm-up time required before a psychological experiment can begin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poth, Christian H.


    Full Text Available Visual experiments in psychology, psychophysics, and cognitive neuroscience require precise control over stimulus characteristics, such as luminance and contrast. In such experiments, stimuli are most often presented using computer monitors. These monitors bear an often neglected and rarely reported source of experimental confounds and uncontrolled variation: they take a warm-up time in which their luminance systematically changes until a stable level is eventually reached. Here we demonstrate this problem by measuring luminance over time for five different monitors. Results indicate that not only the warm-up time but also the course that the warm-up takes can vary greatly between different monitors. To address this problem, we propose a simple method of approximating a monitor\\IeC {\\textquoteright }s warm-up time, which takes into account theoretical considerations of the specific experiment. On this basis, we suggest a standardized experimental procedure and a standardized way of reporting its results to enable experimenters to control for monitor warm-up time.

  11. Splenectomy increases the survival time of heart allograft via developing immune tolerance (United States)


    Background The spleen is an active lymphoid organ. The effect of splenectomy on the immune response remains unclear. This study investigated whether splenectomy can induce immune tolerance and has a beneficial role in cardiac allograft. Methods Wistar rats were used for heart donors. The Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats designated as the recipients of heart transplantation (HT) were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, splenectomy, HT, splenectomy + HT. The survival of transplanted hearts was assessed by daily checking of abdominal palpation. At various time points after transplantation, the transplanted hearts were collected and histologically examined; the level of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) and rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (annexin-v+ PI+ cells) in the blood were analyzed by using flow cytometric method. Results 1) Splenectomy significantly prolonged the mean survival time of heart allografts (7 ± 1.1 days and 27 ± 1.5 days for HT and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 12-14/group, HT vs. splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy delayed pathological changes (inflammatory cell infiltration, myocardial damage) of the transplanted hearts in splenectomy + HT rats; 3) The level of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the blood of splenectomized rats was significantly increased within 7 days (2.4 ± 0.5%, 4.9 ± 1.3% and 5.3 ± 1.0% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p splenectomy surgery and gradually decreased to baseline level; 4) Splenectomy increased the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (day 7: 0.3 ± 0.05%, 3.9 ± 0.9% and 4.1 ± 0.9% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy inhibits the development of pathology and prolongs the survival time of cardiac allograft. The responsible mechanism is associated with induction of immune

  12. Time-Varying Effects of Prognostic Factors Associated With Disease-Free Survival in Breast Cancer (United States)

    Natarajan, Loki; Pu, Minya; Parker, Barbara A.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Madlensky, Lisa; Hajek, Richard A.; Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Saquib, Nazmus; Gold, Ellen B.


    Early detection and effective treatments have dramatically improved breast cancer survivorship, yet the risk of relapse persists even 15 years after the initial diagnosis. It is important to identify prognostic factors for late breast cancer events. The authors investigated time-varying effects of tumor characteristics on breast-cancer-free survival using data on 3,088 breast cancer survivors from 4 US states who participated in a randomized dietary intervention trial in 1995–2006, with maximum follow-up through 15 years (median, 9 years). A piecewise constant penalized spline approach incorporating time-varying coefficients was adopted, allowing for deviations from the proportional hazards assumption. This method is more flexible than standard approaches, provides direct estimates of hazard ratios across time intervals, and is computationally tractable. Having a stage II or III tumor was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of breast cancer than having a stage I tumor during the first 2.5 years after diagnosis; this hazard ratio decreased to 2.1 after 7.7 years, but higher tumor stage remained a significant risk factor. Similar diminishing effects were found for poorly differentiated tumors. Interestingly, having a positive estrogen receptor status was protective up to 4 years after diagnosis but detrimental after 7.7 years (hazard ratio = 1.5). These results emphasize the importance of careful statistical modeling allowing for possibly time-dependent effects in long-term survivorship studies. PMID:19403844

  13. Practical considerations when analyzing discrete survival times using the grouped relative risk model. (United States)

    Altman, Rachel MacKay; Henrey, Andrew


    The grouped relative risk model (GRRM) is a popular semi-parametric model for analyzing discrete survival time data. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) of the regression coefficients in this model are often asymptotically efficient relative to those based on a more restrictive, parametric model. However, in settings with a small number of sampling units, the usual properties of the MLEs are not assured. In this paper, we discuss computational issues that can arise when fitting a GRRM to small samples, and describe conditions under which the MLEs can be ill-behaved. We find that, overall, estimators based on a penalized score function behave substantially better than the MLEs in this setting and, in particular, can be far more efficient. We also provide methods of assessing the fit of a GRRM to small samples.

  14. Irradiation shortens the survival time of red cells deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenasee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerman, M.P. (Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL); Wald, N.; Diloy-Puray, M.


    X radiation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient red cells causes distinct shortening of their survival time. This is accompanied by significant lowering of reduced glutathione content and is not observed in similarly prepared and treated normal cells. The damage is most likely related to irradiation-induced formation of activated oxygen products and to their subsequent effects on the cells. Neither methemoglobin increases nor Heinz body formation were observed, suggesting that hemolysis occurred prior to these changes. The study provides a model for examining the effects of irradiation and activated oxygen on red cells and suggests that patients with G6PD deficiency who receive irradiation could develop severe hemolysis in certain clinical settings.

  15. Individual from the Viewpoint of Psychology and Sociology in the Context of Leisure Time-Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atmaca


    Full Text Available In today’s world, people are getting much stumbled with the changing conditions in such phenomena like rapid growth of cities, contemporary technologies and the relative growth of industry due to the latter requiring more and more information as ever before in order to recover themselves from this transition. Individuals can not reserve time for reading and thinking which is a prerequisite of knowledge due to lack of time created predominantly by the working conditions and some time-wasting traditions and customs especially they employ during their spare times. As being deprived of these activities fall individual to some certain psychological and sociological problems to some extent, the spare time option which have become the most necessary time interval for the individual to cover up his/her specific needs thereby to show progress in his characteristic components should be facilitated with the usage of libraries. Here that the libraries are for, especially outstanding as institutions to assist the individual in removing up both of the two problems mentioned above. It is a widely common fact that people who get to libraries and enhance their intellectual identity during their spare times have essentially provided a unity in their personalities from the physchological angle clenching their spiritual health as well as gaining new types of behaviors from the sociological approach also establishing permanent adaptation with others inside the community and with the nature and the giddy speed of technology

  16. Survival analysis and prognostic factors of timing of first childbirth among women in Nigeria. (United States)

    Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Idemudia, Erhabor Sunday


    First childbirth in a woman's life is one of the most important events in her life. It marks a turnaround when she might have to drop roles of career building and education, for motherhood and parenthood. The timing of the commencement of these roles affects the child bearing behavior of women as they progress in their reproductive ages. Prevalent early first childbirth in Nigeria has been reported as the main cause of high population growth and high  fertility, mortality and morbidity among women, but little has been documented on the progression into first birth as well as factors affecting it in Nigeria. This paper modelled timing of first birth among women in Nigeria and determined socio-demographic and other factors affecting its timing. We hypothesized that background characteristics of a woman will influence her progression into having first birth. We developed and fitted a survival analysis model to understand the timing of first birth among women in Nigeria using a national representative 2013 NDHS data. Women with no children were right censored as of the date of the survey. The Kaplan Meier survival function was used to estimate the probabilities of first birth not occurring until certain ages of women while Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model the timing of first births at 5 % significance level. About 75.7 % of the respondents had given birth in the Northern region of Nigerian compared with 63.8 % in the South. Half (50.1 %) of the first childbirth occurred within the 15-19 years age bracket and 38.1 % within 20-29 years. The overall median survival time to first birth was 20 years (North 19, South 22), 27 years among women with higher education and 18 years for those with no formal education. The adjusted hazard of first birth was higher in the Northern region of Nigeria than in the South (aHR = 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.20-1.27), and higher in rural areas than in urban areas (aHR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.12-1.19). Also, hazard of earlier first

  17. The effect of timing of the first kidney transplantation on survival in children initiating renal replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Anneke; Stel, Vianda S; Geskus, Ronald B


    Controversy exists concerning the timing of the first kidney transplantation for children who need to start renal replacement therapy (RRT). Our aim was to estimate the effect of timing of the first transplantation on patient survival in children, for the first time also taking into account...

  18. A mixed linear model controlling for case underascertainment across multiple cancer registries estimated time trends in survival. (United States)

    Dahm, Stefan; Bertz, Joachim; Barnes, Benjamin; Kraywinkel, Klaus


    Large temporal and geographical variation in survival rates estimated from epidemiological cancer registries coupled with heterogeneity in death certificate only (DCO) notifications makes it difficult to interpret trends in survival. The aim of our study is to introduce a method for estimating such trends while accounting for heterogeneity in DCO notifications in a cancer site-specific manner. We used the data of 4.0 million cancer cases notified in 14 German epidemiological cancer registries. Annual 5-year relative survival rates from 2002 through 2013 were estimated, and proportions of DCO notifications were recorded. "DCO-excluded" survival rates were regressed on DCO proportions and calendar years using a mixed linear model with cancer registry as a random effect. Based on this model, trends in survival rates were estimated for Germany at 0% DCO. For most cancer sites and age groups, we estimated significant positive trends in survival. Age-standardized survival for all cancers combined increased by 7.1% units for women and 10.8% units for men. The described method could be used to estimate trends in cancer survival based on the data from epidemiological cancer registries with differing DCO proportions and with changing DCO proportions over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience, and psychological research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wachs, Theodore D; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce S


    ...(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting effects (sensitive periods). In this paper, we review nutritional, neuroscientific, and psychological evidence on this issue...

  20. Psychological reality and the role of the teacher in early-education sharing time (United States)

    Alsafi, Abdullah T.


    The study of children's language development has been strongly influenced since the 1950s by linguistic research. How well, however, has the education of young children incorporated the concept of psychological reality, which interrelates the child's perceptual and cognitive development with linguistic and non-linguistic events in his/her environment? In reply to this question, the paper concentrates on"sharing time", known also as"show and tell", which has both affective and cognitive value. Although sharing time is a student-centered activity, the teacher plays a pivotal role in establishing its context, structure and norms. Feedback from the teacher and peers promotes language development, and the growth of curiosity and inquisitiveness. The article is derived from experience in teaching kindergarten teachers to conduct sharing time periods in Saudi Arabia. Practical suggestions are made for the implementation of the activity, in the interests of encouraging spontaneous and personalized language rather than focusing on evaluation of students' competence in the formal aspects of language development.

  1. Has the Association between Parental Divorce and Young Adults' Psychological Problems Changed over Time? Evidence from Sweden, 1968-2000 (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna


    A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…

  2. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians. (United States)

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K


    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone.

  3. Analysis of multilevel grouped survival data with time-varying regression coefficients. (United States)

    Wong, May C M; Lam, K F; Lo, Edward C M


    Correlated or multilevel grouped survival data are common in medical and dental research. Two common approaches to analyze such data are the marginal and the random-effects approaches. Models and methods in the literature generally assume that the treatment effect is constant over time. A researcher may be interested in studying whether the treatment effects in a clinical trial vary over time, say fade out gradually. This is of particular clinical value when studying the long-term effect of a treatment. This paper proposed to extend the random effects grouped proportional hazards models by incorporating the possibly time-varying covariate effects into the model in terms of a state-space formulation. The proposed model is very flexible and the estimation can be performed using the MCMC approach with non-informative priors in the Bayesian framework. The method is applied to a data set from a prospective clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish in arresting active dentin caries in the Chinese preschool children. It is shown that the treatment groups with caries removal prior to the topical fluoride applications are most effective in shortening the arrest times in the first 6-month interval, but their effects fade out rapidly since then. The effects of treatment groups without caries removal prior to topical fluoride application drop at a very slow rate and can be considered as more or less constant over time. The applications of SDF solution is found to be more effective than the applications of NaF vanish. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The development of psychological momentum within and across sport competitions : Evidence for interconnected time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartigh, Ruud; van Geert, Paul; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Cox, Ralf; Gernigon, Christophe


    Introduction Progressing or regressing in relation to one’s goal (e.g., victory) may elicit positive or negative dynamics in behaviors and psychological states, called positive and negative psychological momentum (PM). Research has shown that the emergence of PM within competitions can be nonlinear,

  5. Predicting time to recall in patients conditionally released from a secure forensic hospital: A survival analysis. (United States)

    Jewell, Amelia; Cocks, Christopher; Cullen, Alexis E; Fahy, Tom; Dean, Kimberlie


    The recall of conditionally discharged forensic patients in England is a formal order from the Ministry of Justice under the Mental Health Act (1983) which has the power to revoke conditional release and direct readmission to hospital. Recall has significant implications for the individual and for hospital services, but despite this, little is known about predictors of recall for forensic patients. We examined the rate of recall for 101 patients conditionally discharged from medium secure forensic inpatient services between 2007 and 2013. Demographic, clinical, and forensic factors were examined as possible predictors of time to recall using Cox regression survival techniques. Conditionally discharged patients were followed for an average of 811 days, during which 45 (44.5%) were recalled to hospital. Younger age (HR 1.89; 95% CI 1.02-3.49; p = 0.04), non-white ethnicity (HR 3.44; 95% CI 1.45-8.13), substance abuse history (HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.17-5.43), early violence (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.03-3.50), early childhood maladjustment (HR 1.92; 95% CI 1.01-3.68), treatment with a depot medication (HR 2.17; 95% CI 1.14-4.11), being known to mental health services (HR 3.44; 95% CI 1.06-11.16), and a psychiatric admission prior to the index admission (HR 2.44; 95% CI 1.08-5.52) were significantly associated with a shorter time to recall. Treatment with clozapine reduced the risk of recall to hospital (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.79). Time to recall can be predicted by a range of factors that are readily available to clinical teams. Further research is required to determine if targeted interventions can modify the likelihood or time to recall for conditionally released forensic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatiotemporal meta-analysis: reviewing health psychology phenomena over space and time. (United States)

    Johnson, Blair T; Cromley, Ellen K; Marrouch, Natasza


    Individual studies of health psychology are samples taken in particular places at particular times. The results of such studies manifest multiple processes, including those associated with individual, sample, intervention, and study design characteristics. Although extant meta-analyses of health phenomena have routinely considered these factors to explain heterogeneity, they have tended to neglect the environments where studies are conducted, which is ironic, as health phenomena cluster in space and times (e.g., epidemics). The settings in which study participants live, work, and recreate can be characterised by such environmental factors such as disease, weather, local and broad economic trends, the level of stigmatisation of minority groups, and allostatic load due to all causes. We introduce spatiotemporal meta-analysis, designed to address heterogeneity in study environments. We list potential challenges in developing spatiotemporal meta-analyses, and discuss future directions for this form of systematic reviewing methodology. Logically, to the extent that relevant spatiotemporal information on environmental conditions is available and varies widely, it can help to explain variability in study results that is not explained by individual, sample, study, or intervention features.

  7. The effect of time to defibrillation and targeted temperature management on functional survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Drennan, Ian R; Lin, Steve; Thorpe, Kevin E; Morrison, Laurie J


    Cardiac arrest physiology has been proposed to occur in three distinct phases: electrical, circulatory and metabolic. There is limited research evaluating the relationship of the 3-phase model of cardiac arrest to functional survival at hospital discharge. Furthermore, the effect of post-cardiac arrest targeted temperature management (TTM) on functional survival during each phase is unknown. To determine the effect of TTM on the relationship between the time of initial defibrillation during each phase of cardiac arrest and functional survival at hospital discharge. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive adult (≥18 years) out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with initial shockable rhythms. Included patients obtained a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and were eligible for TTM. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of functional survival at hospital discharge. There were 20,165 OHCA treated by EMS and 871 patients were eligible for TTM. Of these patients, 622 (71.4%) survived to hospital discharge and 487 (55.9%) had good functional survival. Good functional survival was associated with younger age (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.93-0.95), shorter times from collapse to initial defibrillation (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.65-0.82), and use of post-cardiac arrest TTM (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.07-2.30). Functional survival decreased during each phase of the model (65.3% vs. 61.7% vs. 50.2%, Pdefibrillation and was decreased during each successive phase of the 3-phase model. Post-cardiac arrest TTM was associated with improved functional survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Temporality and psychological debriefing of groups: a variant of logical time]. (United States)

    Doucet, C; Joubrel, D


    Group debriefing has been a topic of controversy regarding its temporal dimension. What is the opportune time for using this communication device and when is it the most effective? In practice, group debriefing is generally used after the fact, in post-event interventions. What is the rationale for delaying the debriefing process? Debriefing follows a logical progression that goes from evocation of the event to the expression of a possible future. How should one view this progression in relation to the subject's logical temporality? Finally, are the temporalities of the subjects and the group compatible? The objective of this paper is to show that one of the particularities of group debriefing is that it associates group temporality and subjective logical time. This study describes the temporal modalities of group debriefing practiced at the Emergency Medical-Psychological Unit of the Ille-et-Vilaine Department of France, based on the analysis of a clinical case. The debriefing situation presented here took place in a firm following a suicide. Four female employees of the firm saw the body of a person committing suicide as it fell from the higher floors of the building. The psychoanalytic research on subjective time, used as a basis for this study, points out two dimensions of time, prograde and retrograde. Retrograde time produces a feedback effect via which the subject reorganizes his/her past. Psychoanalysis also describes a logical time specific to each subject, which can be broken down into three time frames: seeing, understanding, and concluding. In group debriefing, the time course is group-specific. We show that the subjects' temporality is interconnected with the temporal progression of the group during debriefing. We present some elements showing how subjective and group positioning evolved in relation to the shared temporal unfolding of the debriefing. The debriefing consisted of three time frames. The first involved evoking the tragic experience of the

  9. Feedback effect of human physical and psychological adaption on time period of thermal adaption in naturally ventilated building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Huangfu, Hao; Xiong, Jing


    This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values...... indicated that the psychological adaption mode can speed up the process of thermal adaption to the variation in the outdoor climate condition. This study presented a new insight into the feedback from the thermal adaption modes to occupant thermal comfort.......This study proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption for occupants in naturally ventilated building, and analyzed the synergistic and separate feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes on the time period of thermal adaption. Using the method, the values......, under the synergistic feedback effect of the physical and psychological adaption modes. The time period of thermal adaption increased to 13 days, if only the feedback effect of the physical adaption mode was accounted for. The difference between the two values of the time period of thermal adaption...

  10. Restricted mean survival time over 15 years for patients starting renal replacement therapy. (United States)

    Couchoud, Cécile; Dantony, Emmanuelle; Elsensohn, Mad-Hélénie; Villar, Emmanuel; Vigneau, Cécile; Moranne, Olivier; Rabilloud, Muriel; Ecochard, René


    The restricted mean survival time (RMST) estimates life expectancy up to a given time horizon and can thus express the impact of a disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the 15-year RMST of a hypothetical cohort of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT), according to their age, gender and diabetes status, and to compare it with the expected RMST of the general population. Using data from 67 258 adult patients in the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, we estimated the RMST of a hypothetical patient cohort (and its subgroups) for the first 15 years after starting RRT (cRMST) and used the general population mortality tables to estimate the expected RMST (pRMST). Results were expressed in three different ways: the cRMST, which calculates the years of life gained under the hypothesis of 100% death without RRT treatment, the difference between the pRMST and the cRMST (the years lost), and a ratio expressing the percentage reduction of the expected RMST: (pRMST - cRMST)/pRMST. Over their first 15 years of RRT, the RMST of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients decreased with age, ranging from 14.3 years in patients without diabetes aged 18 years at ESRD to 1.8 years for those aged 90 years, and from 12.7 to 1.6 years, respectively, for those with diabetes; expected RMST varied from 15.0 to 4.1 years between 18 and 90 years. The number of years lost in all subgroups followed a bell curve that was highest for patients aged 70 years. After the age of 55 years in patients with and 70 years in patients without diabetes, the reduction of the expected RMST was >50%. While neither a clinician nor a survival curve can predict with absolute certainty how long a patient will live, providing estimates on years gained or lost, or percentage reduction of expected RMST, may improve the accuracy of the prognostic estimates that influence clinical decisions and information given to patients.

  11. A reminder on millisecond timing accuracy and potential replication failure in computer-based psychology experiments: An open letter. (United States)

    Plant, Richard R


    There is an ongoing 'replication crisis' across the field of psychology in which researchers, funders, and members of the public are questioning the results of some scientific studies and the validity of the data they are based upon. However, few have considered that a growing proportion of research in modern psychology is conducted using a computer. Could it simply be that the hardware and software, or experiment generator, being used to run the experiment itself be a cause of millisecond timing error and subsequent replication failure? This article serves as a reminder that millisecond timing accuracy in psychology studies remains an important issue and that care needs to be taken to ensure that studies can be replicated on current computer hardware and software.

  12. Time preference and its relationship with age, health, and survival probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Chao


    Full Text Available Although theories from economics and evolutionary biology predict that one's age, health, and survival probability should be associated with one's subjective discount rate (SDR, few studies have empirically tested for these links. Our study analyzes in detail how the SDR is related to age, health, and survival probability, by surveying a sample of individuals in townships around Durban, South Africa. In contrast to previous studies, we find that age is not significantly related to the SDR, but both physical health and survival expectations have a U-shaped relationship with the SDR. Individuals in very poor health have high discount rates, and those in very good health also have high discount rates. Similarly, those with expected survival probability on the extremes have high discount rates. Therefore, health and survival probability, and not age, seem to be predictors of one's SDR in an area of the world with high morbidity and mortality.

  13. Receiver psychology turns 20: is it time for a broader approach? (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Bee, Mark A


    Twenty years ago, a new conceptual paradigm known as 'receiver psychology' was introduced to explain the evolution of animal communication systems. This paradigm advanced the idea that psychological processes in the receiver's nervous system influence a signal's detectability, discriminability and memorability, and thereby serve as powerful sources of selection shaping signal design. While advancing our understanding of signal diversity, more recent studies make clear that receiver psychology, as a paradigm, has been structured too narrowly and does not incorporate many of the perceptual and cognitive processes of signal reception that operate between sensory transduction and a receiver's response. Consequently, the past two decades of research on receiver psychology have emphasized considerations of signal evolution but failed to ask key questions about the mechanisms of signal reception and their evolution. The primary aim of this essay is to advocate for a broader receiver psychology paradigm that more explicitly includes a research focus on receivers' psychological landscapes. We review recent experimental studies of hearing and sound communication to illustrate how considerations of several general perceptual and cognitive processes will facilitate future research on animal signalling systems. We also emphasize how a rigorous comparative approach to receiver psychology is critical to explicating the full range of perceptual and cognitive processes involved in receiving and responding to signals.

  14. Positive Psychology in Research with the Deaf Community: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. (United States)

    Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick


    The emergence of positive psychology as an approach to studying what makes life worth living has inspired a new wave of research. Studies have focused on the prevalence and degree of positive attributes, attitudes, and characteristics in the wider population. Increasingly, lessons learned from positive psychology have been applied to understanding the more diverse experiences of individuals belonging to various groups. Only recently, however, has positive psychology research incorporated a disability perspective, and very little research from a positive psychology stance has been conducted with deaf people. This article addresses the application of positive psychology constructs in the context of deaf communities and individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. We argue that utilization of a positive psychology paradigm can broaden and enrich a collective understanding of deaf people, and suggest a different set of research questions. A positive psychology mindset encourages scholars to learn how people who are deaf or hard of hearing, and those within the larger deaf community1, may define and attain "the good life." © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  15. Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce


    Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. The current report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14 – 21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths’ identity integration. PMID:19916104

  16. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease. (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D


    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain.

  17. Long-Time Survival of a Patient with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Soldić


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. It does not cause any symptoms in the early stage, and later symptoms are nonspecific, thus the disease is usually diagnosed when already advanced. In 2008, pancreatic cancer ranked eighth on the list of the 10 most common cancers among men in Croatia and tenth on the list of the most common cancers among Croatian women. Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis, with a survival time of only 6–8 months for metastatic disease. Gemcitabine is the standard chemotherapeutic option. Other chemotherapeutic agents include5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. In this paper, we present a case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, who is still alive and currently receives his fourth line of chemotherapy 5 years after the diagnosis. Following disease progression on gemcitabine chemotherapy, he was treated with chemoradiotherapy which, however, had no effect. We then applied cisplatin monochemotherapy which offered excellent disease control, was well tolerated by the patient and, although somewhat obsolete in this form, showed to be a valuable chemotherapeutic option.

  18. The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bie

    Full Text Available Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001, and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.

  19. Measuring psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity among adults. (United States)

    Burton, Nicola W; Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F; Turrell, Gavin


    Many of the self-administered scales for measuring physical activity (PA) influences were originally developed for vigorous-intensity exercise, focus on only one domain of influence, and have not been evaluated for both reliability and validity using population-based samples. This study describes the factorial validity and internal reliability of scales for measuring individual-level psychological, social, and environmental influences on leisure-time PA among adults in the general population. Constructs were identified from a literature review and formative research with a socio-economically diverse sample. Items were generated using previously developed scales and interview data. New items were pre-tested using reliability and principal components analyses, with data collected from a mail survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample. Qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample and expert panel. A second mail survey provided data for principal components and reliability analyses. Twenty-eight scales were factorially derived and 24 had acceptable or marginally acceptable levels of internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha values ranging from 0.65 to 0.91. The 24 scales are suitable for researchers and practitioners interested in measuring individual-level influences on PA that are consistent with Social Cognitive Theory. More research is required to assess predictive validity, sensitivity to change and test/re-test reliability.

  20. Probabilistic reasoning under time pressure: an assessment in Italian, Spanish and English psychology undergraduates (United States)

    Agus, M.; Hitchcott, P. K.; Penna, M. P.; Peró-Cebollero, M.; Guàrdia-Olmos, J.


    Many studies have investigated the features of probabilistic reasoning developed in relation to different formats of problem presentation, showing that it is affected by various individual and contextual factors. Incomplete understanding of the identity and role of these factors may explain the inconsistent evidence concerning the effect of problem presentation format. Thus, superior performance has sometimes been observed for graphically, rather than verbally, presented problems. The present study was undertaken to address this issue. Psychology undergraduates without any statistical expertise (N = 173 in Italy; N = 118 in Spain; N = 55 in England) were administered statistical problems in two formats (verbal-numerical and graphical-pictorial) under a condition of time pressure. Students also completed additional measures indexing several potentially relevant individual dimensions (statistical ability, statistical anxiety, attitudes towards statistics and confidence). Interestingly, a facilitatory effect of graphical presentation was observed in the Italian and Spanish samples but not in the English one. Significantly, the individual dimensions predicting statistical performance also differed between the samples, highlighting a different role of confidence. Hence, these findings confirm previous observations concerning problem presentation format while simultaneously highlighting the importance of individual dimensions.

  1. Stress and psychological factors before a migraine attack: A time-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Mariko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to examine the stress and mood changes of Japanese subjects over the 1–3 days before a migraine headache. Methods The study participants were 16 patients with migraines who consented to participate in this study. Each subject kept a headache diary four times a day for two weeks. They evaluated the number of stressful events, daily hassles, domestic and non-domestic stress, anxiety, depressive tendency and irritability by visual analog scales. The days were classified into migraine days, pre-migraine days, buffer days and control days based on the intensity of the headaches and accompanying symptoms, and a comparative study was conducted for each factor on the migraine days, pre-migraine days and control days. Results The stressful event value of pre-migraine days showed no significant difference compared to other days. The daily hassle value of pre-migraine days was the highest and was significantly higher than that of buffer days. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than on other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was no significant difference in the values of domestic stress between the categories. In non-domestic stress, values on migraine days were significantly higher than other days, and there was no significant difference between pre-migraine days and buffer days or between pre-migraine days and control days. There was little difference in sleep quality on migraine and pre-migraine days, but other psychological factors were higher on migraine days than on pre-migraine days. Conclusion Psychosocial stress preceding the onset of migraines by several days was suggested to play an important role in the occurrence of migraines. However, stress 2–3 days before a migraine attack was not so high as it has been reported to be in the United States and

  2. Time trends in population-based breast cancer survival in Estonia: analysis by age and stage. (United States)

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Padrik, Peeter; Valvere, Vahur; Innos, Kaire


    Survival from breast cancer (BC) in Estonia has been consistently among the lowest in Europe. The aim of this study was to examine most recent trends in BC survival in Estonia by age and stage. The trends in overall BC incidence and mortality are also shown in the paper. Estonian Cancer Registry data on all cases of BC, diagnosed in women in Estonia during 1995-2007 (n = 7424) and followed up for vital status through 2009, were used to estimate relative survival ratios (RSR). Period hybrid approach was used to obtain the most recent estimates (2005-2009). Stage was classified as localized, local/regional spread or distant. BC incidence continued to rise throughout the study period, but mortality has been in steady decline since 2000. The distribution of patients shifted towards older age and earlier stage at diagnosis. Overall age-standardized five-year RSR increased from 63% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2005-2009. Younger age groups experienced a more rapid improvement compared to women over 60. Significant survival increase was observed for both localized and locally/regionally spread BC with five-year RSRs reaching 96% and 70% in 2005-2009, respectively; the latest five-year RSR for distant BC was 11%. Survival for T4 tumors was poor and large age difference was seen for locally/regionally spread BC. Considerable improvement in BC survival was observed over the study period. Women under 60 benefited most from both earlier diagnosis and treatment advances of locally/regionally spread cancers. However, the survival gap with more developed countries persists. Further increase in survival, but also decline in BC mortality in Estonia could be achieved by facilitating early diagnosis in all age groups, but particularly among women over 60. Investigations should continue to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the stage-specific survival deficit in Estonia.

  3. Surviving blind decomposition: A distributional analysis of the time-course of complex word recognition. (United States)

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Kuperman, Victor


    The current study addresses a discrepancy in the psycholinguistic literature about the chronology of information processing during the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Form-then-meaning accounts of complex word recognition claim that morphemes are processed as units of form prior to any influence of their meanings, whereas form-and-meaning models posit that recognition of complex word forms involves the simultaneous access of morphological and semantic information. The study reported here addresses this theoretical discrepancy by applying a nonparametric distributional technique of survival analysis (Reingold & Sheridan, 2014) to 2 behavioral measures of complex word processing. Across 7 experiments reported here, this technique is employed to estimate the point in time at which orthographic, morphological, and semantic variables exert their earliest discernible influence on lexical decision RTs and eye movement fixation durations. Contrary to form-then-meaning predictions, Experiments 1-4 reveal that surface frequency is the earliest lexical variable to exert a demonstrable influence on lexical decision RTs for English and Dutch derived words (e.g., badness; bad + ness), English pseudoderived words (e.g., wander; wand + er) and morphologically simple control words (e.g., ballad; ball + ad). Furthermore, for derived word processing across lexical decision and eye-tracking paradigms (Experiments 1-2; 5-7), semantic effects emerge early in the time-course of word recognition, and their effects either precede or emerge simultaneously with morphological effects. These results are not consistent with the premises of the form-then-meaning view of complex word recognition, but are convergent with a form-and-meaning account of complex word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Influence of psychological symptoms on home-recorded sleep-time masticatory muscle activity in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Fabbri, A.; Peretta, R.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Lobbezoo, F.


    The present investigation attempts to describe the correlation between sleep-time masticatory muscle activity (MMA) and psychological symptoms by the use of a four-channel electromyography (EMG) home-recording device in a group of 15 healthy volunteers completing a battery of psychometric

  5. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL


    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  6. Caregiving time in sickle cell disease: psychological effects in maternal caregivers. (United States)

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Butensky, Ellen; Harmatz, Paul; Vichinsky, Elliott; Heyman, Melvin B; Acree, Michael; Wrubel, Judith; Wilson, Leslie; Folkman, Susan


    Providing home care for a child with a chronic illness can be stressful for the family. The purpose of this paper is to examine patterns of caregiving and the associated psychological impact on maternal caregivers of children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Fourteen maternal caregivers of children with SCD were interviewed as part of a larger study of maternal caregivers of children with chronic illness. Forty-four caregivers of children with HIV and 36 caregivers of healthy children were included as comparison groups. Interviews included questions regarding amount of time spent providing care for the child (technical care, non-technical care, health care management), hospitalization, emergency room visits, illness stigma, and mental health of the caregiver. Children with SCD had significantly lower functional status and significantly more hospitalizations in the previous 3 months than children with HIV. Caregivers of children with SCD were more likely to work full-time and had higher incomes than caregivers of children with HIV. The three caregiving groups did not differ significantly on amount of total care, although caregivers of children with SCD and caregivers of children with HIV both reported significantly more time spent in technical care than caregivers of healthy children. Despite lower functional status of the children in the SCD group, when group comparisons on caregiving time variables were adjusted for child's functional status, the differences between groups increased. This appeared to be due to the fact that caregivers in the HIV group spent more time in all caregiving categories except skin, crisis, and other care. In terms of caregiver mental health, caregivers of children with HIV and SCD had significantly higher depressive mood scores than caregivers of healthy children but the groups did not differ on caregiving burden. The perceived care burden of caregivers of children with SCD may be related to the unpredictable nature of the crisis care

  7. Association of serum lipid levels over time with survival in incident peritoneal dialysis patients. (United States)

    Park, Cheol Ho; Kang, Ea Wha; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Chang, Tae Ik

    The association of dyslipidemia with mortality has not been fully evaluated in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Moreover, changes in lipids levels over time and associated death risk have not yet been studied in this population. We studied the association of time-updated serum lipid concentrations with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortalities in a 10-year cohort of 749 incident PD patients. Association was assessed using time-varying Cox proportional hazard regression models with adjustment for multiple variables including statin therapy. During a median follow-up of 36 (interquartile range, 21-61) months, 273 all-cause and 107 CV deaths occurred. Compared with those with total cholesterol (TC) of 180 to <210 or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of 100 to <130 mg/dL, hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of the lowest TC (<150 mg/dL) and LDL-C (<70 mg/dL) were 2.32 (1.61-3.35) and 2.02 (1.45-2.83) for all-cause mortality and 1.87 (1.04-3.37) and 1.92 (1.13-3.26) for CV mortality, respectively. Lower triglyceride (<100 mg/dL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<30 mg/dL) levels were associated with higher all-cause mortality (1.66 [1.11-2.47] and 1.57 [1.08-2.29]) but not with CV mortality. Contrary to the general population, lower TC and LDL-C levels over time were significantly associated with both worse survival and increased CV mortality in incident PD patients. Although lower triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality, they failed to show any clear association with CV mortality. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this apparent paradox await further investigations. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Covariance between psychological and endocrine responses to pharmacological challenge and psychosocial stress: a question of timing. (United States)

    Schlotz, Wolff; Kumsta, Robert; Layes, Irmgard; Entringer, Sonja; Jones, Alexander; Wüst, Stefan


    To test if the covariance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and subjective-psychological responses to stress is dependent on different dynamics of these systems. Although stress theories typically assume substantial correlations of psychological and endocrine stress responses, studies have produced inconsistent results. One reason for this might be imperfect coupling of the different stress response systems. However, inconsistent correlations might also be a result of different on-/offsets of these stress responses, i.e., specific dynamics of the systems. HPA axis indicators and subjective-psychological states were repeatedly and synchronously measured in a pharmacological challenge test (injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone and infusion of arginine vasopressin; Study 1; n = 42) and a psychosocial stress situation (Trier Social Stress Test; Study 2; n = 219). Cross-correlation analysis was used to test for lag effects in HPA axis reactivity and psychoendocrine responses. Analyses revealed high cross-correlations of adrenocorticotropic hormone with cortisol responses (up to r = .80 in Study 1 and r = .56 in Study 2) and positive associations of psychological with endocrine stress responses (up to r = .48 in Study 1 and r = .54 in Study 2) at nonzero lags. Subjective-psychological responses preceded HPA axis responses. Moreover, high levels of cortisol were associated with lower later levels of anxiety and activation. The findings suggest that psychoendocrine stress responses are more closely coupled than previous studies suggested. Due to different dynamics of the systems, endocrine responses lag behind psychological responses.

  9. Receiver psychology turns 20: is it time for a broader approach? (United States)

    Miller, Cory T.; Bee, Mark A.


    Twenty years ago, a new conceptual paradigm known as ‘receiver psychology’ was introduced to explain the evolution of animal communication systems. This paradigm advanced the idea that psychological processes in the receiver's nervous system influence a signal's detectability, discriminability and memorability, and thereby serve as powerful sources of selection shaping signal design. While advancing our understanding of signal diversity, more recent studies make clear that receiver psychology, as a paradigm, has been structured too narrowly and does not incorporate many of the perceptual and cognitive processes of signal reception that operate between sensory transduction and a receiver's response. Consequently, the past two decades of research on receiver psychology have emphasized considerations of signal evolution but failed to ask key questions about the mechanisms of signal reception and their evolution. The primary aim of this essay is to advocate for a broader receiver psychology paradigm that more explicitly includes a research focus on receivers' psychological landscapes. We review recent experimental studies of hearing and sound communication to illustrate how considerations of several general perceptual and cognitive processes will facilitate future research on animal signalling systems. We also emphasize how a rigorous comparative approach to receiver psychology is critical to explicating the full range of perceptual and cognitive processes involved in receiving and responding to signals. PMID:24013277

  10. Entrainment and Survival Time of the Llsvps: Effects of Flow in the Thermochemical Pile Interior (United States)

    Mulyukova, E.; Steinberger, B. M.; Dabrowski, M.; Sobolev, S. V.


    One of the most robust results from tomographic studies is the existence of two antipodally located Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) at the base of the mantle, which appear to be chemically denser than the ambient mantle. Results from reconstruction studies (Torsvik et al., 2006) infer that the LLSVPs are stable, long-lived, and are sampled by deep mantle plumes that rise predominantly from their margins. The amount of the anomalous LLSVP-material that gets entrained into the rising plumes poses a constraint on the survival time of the LLSVPs, as well as on the plume buoyancy, on the lithospheric uplift associated with plume interaction and geochemical signature of the erupted lavas observed at the Earth's surface. Recent estimates for the plume responsible for the formation of the Siberian Flood Basalts give about 15% of entrained dense recycled oceanic crust, which made the hot mantle plume almost neutrally buoyant (Sobolev et al., 2011). If it wasn't for the destabilizing flow, or entrainment, by the hot rising plumes, the anomalously dense material in the Earth's deep mantle may have never made its way to the surface. In order for the entrainment to take place, the destabilizing viscous stresses acting on a volume of anomalously dense material must exceed the gravitationally stabilizing stresses associated with buoyancy. At what conditions are these criteria met in a dynamically active deep mantle? To investigate this question, we perform numerical simulations of thermal convection with presence of a chemically dense basal layer in a 2D Cartesian box. In agreement with other studies, we find that the governing parameters are the buoyancy ratio between the thermal and the chemical density anomalies, as well as the viscosity variations. We observe that for a range of these parameters, an internal convective flow in the interior of the dense layer can develop. This internal flow has an important effect on the evolution of the entire system. First of all

  11. Time to adjuvant chemotherapy following colorectal cancer resection is associated with an improved survival. (United States)

    Day, A R; Middleton, G; Smith, R V P; Jourdan, I C; Rockall, T A


    Multicentre randomized trials have demonstrated equivalent long-term outcomes for open and laparoscopic resection of colon cancer. Some studies have indicated a possible survival advantage in certain patients undergoing laparoscopic resection. Patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy in improved survival. Data were collated for patients having an elective laparoscopic or open resection for non-metastatic colorectal cancer between October 2003 and December 2010 and subsequently having adjuvant chemotherapy. Survival analysis was conducted. In all, 209 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy following open (n = 76) or laparoscopic (n = 133) surgery. Median length of stay was 3 days with laparoscopic resection and 6 days with open resection (P chemotherapy was 52 with laparoscopic resection and 58 with open resection (P = 0.008). The 5-year overall survival was 89.6% in patients receiving chemotherapy in chemotherapy chemotherapy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Breast cancer and leptomeningeal disease (LMD): hormone receptor status influences time to development of LMD and survival from LMD diagnosis. (United States)

    Yust-Katz, S; Garciarena, P; Liu, D; Yuan, Y; Ibrahim, N; Yerushalmi, R; Penas-Prado, M; Groves, M D


    Leptomeningeal disease (LMD) occurs in 5 % of breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to survival and time to development of LMD in breast cancer patients. A retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients with LMD, evaluated in MDACC between 1995 and 2011. 103 patients with diagnosis of breast cancer and LMD were identified (one male). The median age at LMD diagnosis was 49.2 years. 78.2 % had invasive ductal carcinoma. Hormone receptors (HRs) were positive in 55.3 % of patients, 47.4 % were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and 22.8 % were triple negative. 52 % of the patients were treated with WBRT, 19 % with spinal radiation, 36 % with systemic chemotherapy and 55 % with intrathecal chemotherapy. Estimated median overall survival from time of breast cancer diagnosis was 3.66 years. Median survival from time of LMD diagnosis was 4.2 months. Time from breast cancer diagnosis to LMD was 2.48 years. In multivariate analysis, HR status and stage at diagnosis were significantly associated with time to LMD diagnosis (p < 0.05). In triple negative patients, time to LMD was shorter. In patients who were HR positive, time to LMD was longer. Survival from LMD diagnosis was significantly associated with both treatment, as well as positive HR status (multivariate analysis p < 0.05). In conclusion LMD has dismal prognosis in breast cancer patients. HR status contributes to time to LMD diagnosis and survival from LMD diagnosis. The impact of treatment aimed at LMD cannot be ascertained in our retrospective study due to the inherent bias associated with the decision to treat.

  13. Patients with type 2 diabetes benefit from primary care-based disease management: a propensity score matched survival time analysis. (United States)

    Drabik, Anna; Büscher, Guido; Thomas, Karsten; Graf, Christian; Müller, Dirk; Stock, Stephanie


    This study aimed to assess the impact of a nationwide German diabetes mellitus disease management program (DMP) on survival time and costs in comparison to routine care. The authors conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using routine administration data from Germany's largest sickness fund to identify insured suffering from diabetes in 2002. A total of 95,443 insured with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were born before January 1, 1962 met the defined inclusion criteria, resulting in 19,888 pairs of DMP participants and nonparticipants matched for socioeconomic and health status using propensity score matching methods. This is the first time propensity score matching has been used to evaluate a survival benefit of DMPs. In the time frame analyzed (3 years), mean survival time for the DMP group was 1045 days vs. 985 days for the routine care group (Pdiabetes mellitus in the German Statutory Health Insurance showed a significant benefit in survival time. They also incurred lower costs compared to propensity score matched insured in routine care.

  14. Differences in the timing of cardio-respiratory development determine whether marine gastropod embryos survive or die in hypoxia. (United States)

    Rudin-Bitterli, Tabitha S; Spicer, John I; Rundle, Simon D


    Physiological plasticity of early developmental stages is a key way by which organisms can survive and adapt to environmental change. We investigated developmental plasticity of aspects of the cardio-respiratory physiology of encapsulated embryos of a marine gastropod, Littorina obtusata, surviving exposure to moderate hypoxia (PO2 =8 kPa) and compared the development of these survivors with that of individuals that died before hatching. Individuals surviving hypoxia exhibited a slower rate of development and altered ontogeny of cardio-respiratory structure and function compared with normoxic controls (PO2 >20 kPa). The onset and development of the larval and adult hearts were delayed in chronological time in hypoxia, but both organs appeared earlier in developmental time and cardiac activity rates were greater. The velum, a transient, 'larval' organ thought to play a role in gas exchange, was larger in hypoxia but developed more slowly (in chronological time), and velar cilia-driven, rotational activity was lower. Despite these effects of hypoxia, 38% of individuals survived to hatching. Compared with those embryos that died during development, these surviving embryos had advanced expression of adult structures, i.e. a significantly earlier occurrence and greater activity of their adult heart and larger shells. In contrast, embryos that died retained larval cardio-respiratory features (the velum and larval heart) for longer in chronological time. Surviving embryos came from eggs with significantly higher albumen provisioning than those that died, suggesting an energetic component for advanced development of adult traits. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

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    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.


    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  16. Analysis of individual- and time-specific covariate effects on survival of Serinus serinus in north-eastern Spain (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.


    We developed models for the analysis of recapture data for 2678 serins (Serinus serinus) ringed in north-eastern Spain since 1985. We investigated several time- and individual-specific factors as potential predictors of overall mortality and dispersal patterns, and of gender and age differences in these patterns. Time-specific covariates included minimum daily temperature, days below freezing, and abundance of a strong competitor, siskins (Carduelis spinus) during winter, and maximum temperature and rainfall during summer. Individual covariates included body mass (i.e. body condition), and wing length (i.e. flying ability), and interactions between body mass and environmental factors. We found little support of a predictive relationship between environmental factors and survival, but good evidence of relationships between body mass and survival, especially for juveniles. Juvenile survival appears to vary in a curvilinear manner with increasing mass, suggesting that there may exist an optimal mass beyond which increases are detrimental. The mass-survival relationship does seem to be influenced by at least one environmental factor, namely the abundance of wintering siskins. When siskins are abundant, increases in body mass appear to relate strongly to increasing survival. When siskin numbers are average or low the relationship is largely reversed, suggesting that the presence of strong competition mitigates the otherwise largely negative aspects of greater body mass. Wing length in juveniles also appears to be related positively to survival, perhaps largely due to the influence of a few unusually large juveniles with adult-like survival. Further work is needed to test these relationships, ideally under experimentation.

  17. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth. (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P


    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological Outcomes After a False Positive Mammogram: Preliminary Evidence for Ethnic Differences Across Time. (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Beresford, Shirley A A; Thompson, Beti


    Adverse psychological consequences of screening mammography are well-documented for women who receive a false positive result. However, little is known about ethnic differences. To address this gap, we examine distress associated with an abnormal mammogram (results-related distress) and perceived lifetime risk of breast cancer (perceived risk) among Latinas and non-Latina White (NLW) women 3 months after receipt of a false positive result. A sample of 28 Latina and 27 NLW women who received an initial abnormal mammogram result and later, a definitive non-cancer diagnosis were recruited for this descriptive, longitudinal study. Women were interviewed twice: within 30 days and 3 months after a false positive result. Questionnaires included standard sociodemographic questions, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, and two perceived breast cancer risk items. All participants experienced decreased distress 3 months after the initial results. Latinas experienced higher levels of distress, F(1,45) = 4.58, p = 0.04, and had a significant increase in perceived breast cancer risk over time, F(1,45) = 3.99, p = 0.05. Larger population-based studies are necessary to confirm ethnic differences in mental health consequences of false positive results. Given cultural emphases concerning respect for authority figures, healthcare professionals may be particularly helpful in working with Latinas to mitigate distress and clarify accurate perceptions of breast cancer risk through evidence-based practice.

  19. Survival times of patients with a first hip fracture with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures. (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin; Angthong, Wirana; Harnroongroj, Thos; Naito, Masatoshi; Harnroongroj, Thossart


    Survival rates are poorer after a second hip fracture than after a first hip fracture. Previous survival studies have included in-hospital mortality. Excluding in-hospital deaths from the analysis allows survival times to be evaluated in community-based patients. There is still a lack of data regarding the effects of subsequent fractures on survival times after hospital discharge following an initial hip fracture. This study compared the survival times of community-dwelling patients with hip fracture who had or did not have a subsequent major long-bone fracture. Hazard ratios and risk factors for subsequent fractures and mortality rates with and without subsequent fractures were calculated. Of 844 patients with hip fracture from 2000 through 2008, 71 had a subsequent major long-bone fracture and 773 did not. Patients who died of other causes, such as perioperative complications, during hospitalization were excluded. Such exclusion allowed us to determine the effect of subsequent fracture on the survival of community-dwelling individuals after hospital discharge or after the time of the fracture if they did not need hospitalization. Demographic data, causes of death, and mortality rates were recorded. Differences in mortality rates between the patient groups and hazard ratios were calculated. Mortality rates during the first year and from 1 to 5 years after the most recent fracture were 5.6% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients with subsequent fractures, and 4.7% and 1.4%, respectively, in patients without subsequent fractures. These rates did not differ significantly between the groups. Cox regression analysis and calculation of hazard ratios did not show significant differences between patients with subsequent fractures and those without. On univariate and multivariate analyses, age fracture. This study found that survival times did not differ significantly between patients with and without subsequent major long-bone fractures after hip fracture. Therefore, all

  20. Cultural Change Over Time: Why Replicability Should Not Be the Gold Standard in Psychological Science. (United States)

    Greenfield, Patricia M


    By continuing to focus on the necessity for replication, psychological science misses an important and all-pervasive psychological phenomenon: the impact of social and cultural change on behavior. Or put otherwise, our discipline misinterprets failure to replicate behavioral results if we do not consider that social and cultural change can produce systematic shifts in behavior. Data on the connection between social change and behavioral change point to a new role for "replication": not to show that results can be duplicated, but to reveal behavioral effects of sociodemographic and cultural change in the intervening years between original and replicated procedure, whether those be surveys, standardized behavioral procedures, or intelligence tests.

  1. Impact of Sodium Chloride and Heat on Survival Time of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in vitro: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hajimohammadi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite, belonging to the class Pentastomida. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sodium chloride (NaCl and heat on survival time of Linguatula serrata nymphs. Materials & Methods: Thirty nymphs (10 in triplicate were separately transferred to plastic tubes, containing different concentrations of NaCl solution (2%, 5% and 10%. Meanwhile, 30 nymphs in tubes containing Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS were separately treated by +50°C, +60°C and +72°C. As control group, thirty nymphs were stored in PBS at +4°C. The effects of different conditions on survival time of the nymphs were evaluated by observing their motility in different periods of time. Results: The survival time of the nymphs stored in 10% NaCl solution was too short and all of them were dead after 3 hours. But the other ones maintained in 2% NaCl solution were significantly more resistant (p<0.05 and were survived for 2 days. All the nymphs pertaining to each +60°C and +72°C treatments were found dead after first 5-minute storage interval; the nymphs stored at +50°C died totally after 20 minutes. The nymphs maintained in PBS at +4°C (control group showed the longest survival time (p<0.05; all of them were alive until day 4 and the last ones died on day 34. Conclusion: It is concluded that salting and heating have significant parasiticidal effects on L. serrata nymphs and could be used as disinfecting methods in processing of meat products especially liver. However, refrigeration at +4°C increases the resistance of the nymphs in meat products and therefore might endanger the food safety.

  2. Narrating survival and change in Guatemala and South Africa: the politics of representation and a liberatory community psychology. (United States)

    Lykes, M Brinton; Blanche, Martin Terre; Hamber, Brandon


    the material conditions within their sites of struggle. In both cases the group's agenda also evolved over time, so that what emerged was not so much a particular account of themselves, or even the development of a particular "voice" for speaking about themselves, but an unfolding process--for the groups and for the community psychologists who accompanied them--of becoming active players in the postmodern, mediated world of self-representational politics and social struggle.

  3. Evaluation of the Risk of Relapse in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma at Event-Free Survival Time Points and Survival Comparison With the General Population in British Columbia. (United States)

    Hapgood, Greg; Zheng, Yvonne; Sehn, Laurie H; Villa, Diego; Klasa, Richard; Gerrie, Alina S; Shenkier, Tamara; Scott, David W; Gascoyne, Randy D; Slack, Graham W; Parsons, Christina; Morris, James; Pickles, Tom; Connors, Joseph M; Savage, Kerry J


    Studies in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) typically measure the time to events from diagnosis. We evaluated the risk of relapse at event-free survival time points in cHL and compared the risk of death to expected mortality rates in British Columbia (BC). The BC Cancer Agency Lymphoid Cancer Database was screened to identify all patients age 16 to 69 years diagnosed with cHL between 1989 and 2012 treated with the chemotherapy regimen of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (or equivalent). We compared the observed mortality to the general population using age-, sex-, and calendar period-generated expected mortality rates from BC life-tables. Relative survival was calculated using a conditional approach and expressed as a standardized mortality ratio of observed-to-expected deaths. One thousand four hundred two patients were identified; 749 patients were male (53%), the median age was 32 years, and 68% had advanced-stage disease. The median follow-up time was 8.4 years. Seventy-two percent of relapses occurred within the first 2 years of diagnosis. For all patients, the 5-year risk of relapse from diagnosis was 18.1% but diminished to 5.6% for patients remaining event free at 2 years. For advanced-stage patients who were event free at 2 years, the 5-year risk of relapse was only 7.6%, and for those who were event free at 3 years, it was comparable to that of limited-stage patients (4.1% v 2.5%, respectively; P = .07). Furthermore, international prognostic score ≥ 4 and bulky disease were no longer prognostic in patients who were event free at 1 year. Although the relative survival improved as patients remained in remission, it did not normalize compared with the general population. Patients with cHL who are event free at 2 years have an excellent outcome regardless of baseline prognostic factors. All patients with cHL had an enduring increased risk of death compared with the general population. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. The Impact of Radiation Treatment Time on Survival in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Talha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Handorf, Elizabeth A. [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Murphy, Colin T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mehra, Ranee [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ridge, John A. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Galloway, Thomas J., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)


    Purpose: To assess the impact of radiation treatment time (RTT) in head and neck cancers on overall survival (OS) in the era of chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Patients with diagnoses of tongue, hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx, or tonsil cancer were identified by use of the National Cancer Database. RTT was defined as date of first radiation treatment to date of last radiation treatment. In the definitive setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >56 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <47 days, and standard RTT was defined as 47 to 56 days. In the postoperative setting, prolonged RTT was defined as >49 days, accelerated RTT was defined as <40 days, and standard RTT was defined as 40 to 49 days. We used χ{sup 2} tests to identify predictors of RTT. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare OS among groups. Cox proportional hazards model was used for OS analysis in patients with known comorbidity status. Results: 19,531 patients were included; 12,987 (67%) had a standard RTT, 4,369 (34%) had an accelerated RTT, and 2,165 (11%) had a prolonged RTT. On multivariable analysis, accelerated RTT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.97) was associated with an improved OS, and prolonged RTT (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.14-1.37) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT. When the 9,200 (47%) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation were examined, prolonged RTT (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11-1.50) was associated with a worse OS relative to standard RTT, whereas there was no significant association between accelerated RTT and OS (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57-1.01). Conclusion: Prolonged RTT is associated with worse OS in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, even in the setting of chemoradiation. Expeditious completion of radiation should continue to be a quality metric for the management of head and neck malignancies.

  5. Relationship between Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Concentration and Survival Time in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Elliott, J; Syme, H M


    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are commonly increased in cats with azotemic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Both are predictors of survival time in human patients, but these relationships have not previously been examined in the cat. To investigate the relationship between plasma FGF-23 and PTH concentrations at diagnosis of CKD in cats with survival time and with disease progression over 12 months. 214 azotemic, client-owned cats (≥9 years). Retrospective study: Biochemical and urinary variables at diagnosis of azotemic CKD, including plasma FGF-23 and PTH concentrations were assessed as predictors of survival time (all-cause mortality) using Cox regression, and as predictors of CKD progression over 12 months using logistic regression. In the final multivariable Cox regression model, survival was negatively associated with plasma creatinine (P = .002) and FGF-23 concentrations (P = .014), urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (P cats with CKD, independent of other factors including plasma creatinine and phosphate concentrations. Further work is required to assess if FGF-23 contributes directly to CKD progression, but regardless these findings may make FGF-23 a useful biomarker for predicting poorer outcomes in cats with CKD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Prognostic value of a decreased tongue strength for survival time in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander Geurts; J. Weikamp; J. Hendriks; J. Schelhaas; Bert de Swart


    Decreased tongue strength (TS) might herald bulbar involvement in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) well before dysarthria or dysphagia occur, and as such might be prognostic of short survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of a decreased TS, in

  7. Prognostic value of decreased tongue strength on survival time in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Geurts, A.C.H.


    Decreased tongue strength (TS) might herald bulbar involvement in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) well before dysarthria or dysphagia occur, and as such might be prognostic of short survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of a decreased TS, in

  8. Genomic prediction of survival time in a population of brown laying hens showing cannibalistic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, Setegn W.; Calus, Mario P.L.; Muir, William M.; Peeters, Katrijn; Vereijken, Addie; Bijma, Piter


    Background: Mortality due to cannibalism causes both economic and welfare problems in laying hens. To limit mortality due to cannibalism, laying hens are often beak-trimmed, which is undesirable for animal welfare reasons. Genetic selection is an alternative strategy to increase survival and is

  9. Survival of Patients on Hemodialysis and Predictors of Mortality: a Single-Centre Analysis of Time-Dependent Factors. (United States)

    Ossareh, Shahrzad; Farrokhi, Farhat; Zebarjadi, Marjan


    This study aimed to evaluate the outcome and predictors of survival in hemodialysis patients of Hasheminejad Kidney Center where a comprehensive dialysis care program has been placed since 2004. Data of 560 hemodialysis patients were used to evaluate 9-year survival rates and predictors of mortality. Cox regression models included comorbidities as well as averaged and 6-month-averaged time-dependent values of laboratory findings as independent factors. Survival rates were 91.9%, 66.0%, 46.3%, and 28.5%,  at 1, 3, 5, and 9 years, respectively, in all patients and 90.8%, 61.6%, 42.1%, and 28.0% in 395 incident patients starting hemodialysis after 2004. Adjusted survival models demonstrated age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and high-risk vascular access as baseline predictors of mortality, as well as averaged low hemoglobin level (hazard ratio [HR], 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 2.90) and a single-pool KT/V patients have relatively comparable survival rates with high-profile dialysis centers. Aiming to better achieve the recommended targets, especially hemoglobin and nutritional and bone metabolism factors, should be considered for optimal dialysis outcomes.

  10. Psychological Momentum During and Across Sports Matches : Evidence for Interconnected Time Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Van Geert, Paul L.C.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Cox, Ralf F.A; Gernigon, Christophe

    This study on psychological momentum (PM) in sports provides the first experimental test of an interconnection between short-term PM (during a match) and long-term PM (across a series of matches). Twenty-two competitive athletes were striving to win a prize during a rowing-ergometer tournament,

  11. The Life and Times of the National School Psychology Certification System (United States)

    Rossen, Eric; Williams, Barbara Bole


    January 2014 marked the 25th anniversary of the formal adoption of the National School Psychology Certification System (NSPCS) by NASP leadership. This article briefly traces the history of the NSPCS from the efforts that occurred in the late 1980s to develop this national credential, recent changes to renewal requirements, the development of the…

  12. Determinants of treatment waiting times for head and neck cancer in the Netherlands and their relation to survival. (United States)

    van Harten, Michel C; Hoebers, Frank J P; Kross, Kenneth W; van Werkhoven, Erik D; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; van Dijk, Boukje A C


    Waiting to start treatment has been shown to be associated with tumor progression and upstaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). This diminishes the chance of cure and might lead to unnecessary mortality. We investigated the association between waiting times and survival in the Netherlands and assessed which factors were associated to longer waiting times. Patient (age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), tumor (site, stage) and treatment (type, of institute of diagnosis/treatment) characteristics for patients with HNSCC who underwent treatment were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) for 2005-2011. Waiting time was defined as the number of days between histopathological diagnosis and start of treatment. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate survival. In total, 13,140 patients were included, who had a median waiting time of 37days. Patients who were more likely to wait longer were men, patients with a low SES, oropharynx tumors, stage IV tumors, patients to be treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiation, and patients referred for treatment to a Head and Neck Oncology Center (HNOC) from another hospital. The 5-year overall survival was 58% for all patients. Our multivariable Cox regression model showed that longer waiting time, was significantly related to a higher hazard of dying (p<0.0001). This is the first large population-based study showing that longer waiting time for surgery, radiotherapy or chemoradiation is a significant negative prognostic factor for HNSCC patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The dwell time and survival rates of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty in patient with unexpected central venous obstruction. (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Yim, Younghee


    To evaluate the dwell time and actual survival rates of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements after balloon angioplasty in patients with unexpected central venous obstructions. Data were obtained on all PICC insertions performed in a tertiary care hospital from August 2008 to December 2013. Thirty-five PICCs attempted after balloon angioplasty in 25 patients (15 male and 10 female patients; mean age, 63 years). Fisher's exact test was used to test for differences in reasons for catheter removal between the groups of patients with stenosis or obstructions. Survival curves for PICC dwell time of all patients, stenosis group, and obstruction group were generated separately using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with log-rank tests. There were a total 21 obstructions and 14 stenoses. The overall technical success rate of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty was 94% (33 of 35 procedures). The PICC dwell time was determined for 27 PICCs and ranged from 4 to 165 days (mean, 39.6 days). Among all PICCs, 16 were removed early, resulting in an actual survival rate of 40.7% (11 of 27 PICCs). There were no significant differences in reasons for catheter removal between the stenosis and obstruction groups (p = 0.24). The dwell times for both groups were not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.54). PICC placement after balloon angioplasty is a good treatment option for patients with unexpected central venous lesions, and offers high technical success rates. The actual survival rate was relatively lower (40.7%) than that from previous studies.

  14. Long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children is not associated with decreased survival or with worse neurological outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Brasme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma, one of the most frequent brain tumors in children, is the source of painful remorse and sometimes lawsuits. We analyzed its consequences for tumor stage, survival, and sequelae. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study included all cases of pediatric medulloblastoma from a region of France between 1990 and 2005. We collected the demographic, clinical, and tumor data and analyzed the relations between the interval from symptom onset until diagnosis, initial disease stage, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. RESULTS: The median interval from symptom onset until diagnosis for the 166 cases was 65 days (interquartile range 31-121, range 3-457. A long interval (defined as longer than the median was associated with a lower frequency of metastasis in the univariate and multivariate analyses and with a larger tumor volume, desmoplastic histology, and longer survival in the univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for confounding factors. The time to diagnosis was significantly associated with IQ score among survivors. No significant relation was found between the time to diagnosis and neurological disability. In the 62 patients with metastases, a long prediagnosis interval was associated with a higher T stage, infiltration of the fourth ventricle floor, and incomplete surgical resection; it nonetheless did not influence survival significantly in this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: We found complex and often inverse relations between time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children and initial severity factors, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. This interval appears due more to the nature of the tumor and its progression than to parental or medical factors. These conclusions should be taken into account in the information provided to parents and in expert assessments produced for malpractice claims.

  15. Effect of length biased sampling of unobserved sojourn times on the survival distribution when disease is screen detected. (United States)

    Kafadar, Karen; Prorok, Philip C


    Data can arise as a length-biased sample rather than as a random sample; e.g. a sample of patients in hospitals or of network cable lines (experimental units with longer stays or longer lines have greater likelihoods of being sampled). The distribution arising from a single length-biased sampling (LBS) time has been derived (e.g. (The Statistical Analysis of Discrete Time Events. Oxford Press: London, 1972)) and applies when the observed outcome relates to the random variable subjected to LBS. Zelen (Breast Cancer: Trends in Research and Treatment. Raven Press: New York, 1976; 287-301) noted that cases of disease detected from a screening program likewise form a length-biased sample among all cases, since longer sojourn times afford greater likelihoods of being screen detected. In contrast to the samples on hospital stays and cable lines, however, the length-biased sojourns (preclinical durations) cannot be observed, although their subsequent clinical durations (survival times) are. This article quantifies the effect of LBS of the sojourn times (or pre-clinical durations) on the distribution of the observed clinical durations when cases undergo periodic screening for the early detection of disease. We show that, when preclinical and clinical durations are positively correlated, the mean, median, and quartiles of the distribution of the clinical duration from screen-detected cases can be substantially inflated-even in the absence of any benefit on survival from the screening procedure. Screening studies that report mean survival time need to take account of the fact that, even in the absence of any real benefit, the mean survival among cases in the screen-detected group will be longer than that among interval cases or among cases that arise in the control arm, above and beyond lead time bias, simply by virtue of the LBS phenomenon

  16. [Relationships between Serum Albumin and Urea Level and the Clinical Pathological Characteristics and Survival Time in Patients with Lung Cancer]. (United States)

    Li, Yalun; Li, Lei; Zhang, Li; Li, Weimin


    Lung cancer is the most common malignancy and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, this disease severely threatens human health. This study aims to identify the relationships between serum albumin and urea level and the clinical pathological characteristics and survival time in patients with lung cancer. A total of 1,098 patients with lung cancer were diagnosed by pathology and tested the serum albumin and urea level in West China Hospital of Sichuan University during January 2008 to December 2013. According to the levels of albumin and urea, patients were divided into the normal level group (negative group) and abnormal level group (positive group). The differences of patients' clinical pathological characteristics and survival time in the two groups were analyzed. Differences in age, sex, histological classification, liver metastasis and pleural metastasis were statistically significant between the two groups of serum albumin (Purea. In different histological classification between the two groups of serum albumin, the median survival period of squamous cell carcinoma was 36 months and 19 monthes, adenocarcinoma was 35 months and 15 monthes, the abnormal group were all significantly lower than those in the normal group. The median survival period was no significant difference between the two groups of urea. The level of serum albumin is an important indicator for prognosis.

  17. Meta-analysis of the effects of beta blocker on survival time in cancer patients. (United States)

    Choi, Chel Hun; Song, Taejong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Jun Kuk; Park, Jin-Young; Yoon, Aera; Lee, Yoo-Young; Kim, Tae-Joong; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie


    This study was to elucidate the potential benefit of beta blockers on cancer survival. We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013. Two authors independently screened and reviewed the eligibility of each study and coded the participants, treatment, and outcome characteristics. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Twelve studies published between 1993 and 2013 were included in the final analysis. Four papers reported results from 10 independent groups, resulting in a total of 18 comparisons based on data obtained from 20,898 subjects. Effect sizes (hazard ratios, HR) were heterogeneous, and random-effects models were used in the analyses. The meta-analysis demonstrated that beta blocker use is associated with improved OS (HR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.67-0.93; p = 0.004) and DFS (HR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.53-0.91; p = 0.009). Although statistically not significant, the effect size was greater in patients with low-stage cancer or cancer treated primarily with surgery than in patients with high-stage cancer or cancer treated primarily without surgery (HR 0.60 vs. 0.78, and 0.60 vs. 0.80, respectively). Although only two study codes were analyzed, the studies using nonselective beta blockers showed that there was no overall effect on OS (HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.09-3.04). This meta-analysis provides evidence that beta blocker use can be associated with the prolonged survival of cancer patients, especially patients with early-stage cancer treated primarily with surgery.

  18. Fluid Regulation and Time Course of Erythropoietin during Multifactorial Strain of Austrian Special Forces Survival Training (United States)


    It seems that EPO production and release is diminished by nutritional factors, i.e. mainly caloric intake, during prolonged physical strain. In the...sign for a haemolytic anaemia with impaired erythropoiesis (20) which would be in line with decreased EPO values found during the survival body iron stores. The classical biochemical constellation of an haemolytic anaemia might be misleading under the described conditions. The body

  19. Bayesian Variable Selection in High Dimensional Survival Time Cancer Genomic Datasets using Nonlocal Priors


    Nikooienejad, Amir; Wang, Wenyi; Johnson, Valen E.


    Variable selection in high dimensional cancer genomic studies has become very popular in the past decade, due to the interest in discovering significant genes pertinent to a specific cancer type. Censored survival data is the main data structure in such studies and performing variable selection for such data type requires certain methodology. With recent developments in computational power, Bayesian methods have become more attractive in the context of variable selection. In this article we i...

  20. Managing hospitals in turbulent times: do organizational changes improve hospital survival? (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Alexander, J A


    To examine (1) the degree to which organizational changes affected hospital survival; (2) whether core and peripheral organizational changes affected hospital survival differently; and (3) how simultaneous organizational changes affected hospital survival. AHA Hospital Surveys, the Area Resource File, and the AHA Hospital Guides, Part B: Multihospital Systems. The study employed a longitudinal panel design. We followed changes in all community hospitals in the continental United States from 1981 through 1994. The dependent variable, hospital closure, was examined as a function of multiple changes in a hospital's core and peripheral structures as well as the hospital's organizational and environmental characteristics. Cox regression models were used to test the expectations that core changes increased closure risk while peripheral changes decreased such risk, and that simultaneous core and peripheral changes would lead to higher risk of closure. Results indicated more peripheral than core changes in community hospitals. Overall, findings contradicted our expectations. Change in specialty, a core change, was beneficial for hospitals, because it reduced closure risk. The two most frequent peripheral changes, downsizing and leadership change, were positively associated with closure. Simultaneous organizational changes displayed a similar pattern: multiple core changes reduced closure risk, while multiple peripheral changes increased the risk. These patterns held regardless of the level of uncertainty in hospital environments. Organizational changes are not all beneficial for hospitals, suggesting that hospital leaders should be both cautious and selective in their efforts to turn their hospitals around.

  1. Time Course of Leptin in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa during Inpatient Treatment: Longitudinal Relationships to BMI and Psychological Factors. (United States)

    Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Buckert, Magdalena; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Wesche, Daniela; Kopf, Stefan; Herzog, Wolfgang; Wild, Beate


    Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, appears to play a major role in the homeostasis of body weight and psychobiological processes associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is scarce data on its exact influence on this disorder, in particular data over time. The present study addresses whether leptin changes during inpatient treatment play a role for treatment outcome and psychological factors in underweight AN patients. In order to understand whether leptin's role differs in relation to AN severity, data were assessed from 11 patients with a very low BMI and a higher chronicity (high severity group; HSS; mean BMI at the beginning of the study = 13.6; mean duration of illness = 5.1 years) vs. nine with less severe symptoms (LSS; mean BMI = 16.2; mean duration of illness = 3.7 years). During the course of treatment, serum leptin concentrations were assessed weekly while weight (BMI) was assessed twice per week. Concomitantly, psychological variables were obtained by means of electronic diaries. Unconditional linear growth models were calculated to evaluate the temporal course of leptin in relation to BMI. For HSS patients, two phases of treatment (BMI < 16 and BMI ≥ 16 kg/m2) were investigated. Leptin increased significantly with BMI in both groups of patients. For HSS patients, the increase of leptin in the first treatment phase did not predict later increases in BMI. Furthermore, the relationship of leptin and psychological factors was modulated by symptom severity. In HSS patients, higher leptin levels were associated with greater feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress whereas in LSS patients a higher leptin level showed the trend to be associated with lower psychological symptom burden. Our results suggest that leptin changes are differently associated with weight gain and psychological symptoms depending on the severity of starvation.

  2. Islamist Suicide Terrorism and Erich Fromm’s Social Psychology of Modern Times


    Aysha, Emad El-Din


    Mainstream social science has struggled to explain the appeal of suicide terrorism to so many Muslim youths, relying as it does on standard socio-economic indicators and research meant to identify suicidal tendencies. The existential emphasis is missing. This commentary is inspired by the work of clinical psychologist Erich Fromm (1900-1980) and his investigation of the social psychology of modernity, as well as how this intermingles with existential fears related to mortality (death-related ...

  3. Using simulation to interpret a discrete time survival model in a complex biological system: fertility and lameness in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Hudson

    Full Text Available The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd's incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period, PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd's lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd rather than individual level.

  4. Effects of interspecific competition, predation, and their interaction on survival and development time of immature Anopheles quadrimaculatus. (United States)

    Knight, Tiffany M; Chase, Jonathan M; Goss, Charles W; Knight, Jennifer J


    We examined the effect of predation by the backswimmer (Notonecta undulata; Hemiptera: Notonectidae), competition by zooplankton and snails, and both predation and competition on the survival and development time of larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes in experimental mesocosms. We found that both predation and interspecific competition greatly reduced the survivorship of larvae and the number of larvae emerging into adulthood. Treatments with both predators and competitors had fewer larvae transitioning among instars and into adulthood but not in an additive way. In addition, mosquito larvae in the presence of predators and competitors took two days longer to emerge than where predators and competitions were absent. Our work provides evidence that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, can strongly regulate the number of mosquito larvae by reducing the number of larvae that survive through instars and to emergence and by increasing the generation time.

  5. Rat Strains Bred for Low and High Aerobic Running Capacity do not Differ in Their Survival Time to Hemorrhage (United States)


    maximal oxygen consumption ( Vo2max ) was 12% greater during normoxia and 20% greater during hypoxia in the HCR vs LCR (12). This enhanced Vo2max ...mitochondria) rather than differences in cardiac output, and also occurred in the absence of differences in oxygen delivery. By generation 15, VO2max ...survival time of HCR and LCR lines to the same controlled hemorrhage. We hypothesized that a strain with improved VO2max (i.e., HCR) would demonstrate an

  6. In times of uncertainty: predicting the survival of long-distance relationships. (United States)

    Cameron, Jessica J; Ross, Michael


    The authors examined the degree to which ratings of negative affectivity (NA) and relational security predicted the breakup of long-distance and same-city dating relationships. Couples completed initial surveys and were contacted 1 year later about the status of their relationship. In the initial surveys, both partners completed NA and relational security assessments. Overall, both the NA and relational security of men and women predicted stability. However, as predicted, structural equation modeling revealed a gender difference in the interaction between NA and long-distance status. The presence of high NA in men was associated with breakup for long-distance but not same-city couples. High NA in women was not differentially associated with relational stability on the basis of long-distance status. The authors discuss the psychological basis of this gender difference.

  7. Effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to lethal whole-body. gamma. irradiation

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    Onoue, M.; Uchida, K.; Yokokura, T.; Takahashi, T.; Mutai, M.


    The effect of intestinal microflora on the survival time of mice exposed to 2-kR whole-body ..gamma.. irradiation was studied using germfree, monoassociated, and conventionalized ICR mice. The germfree mice were monoassociated with 1 of 11 bacterial strains, which were isolated from the fresh feces of conventional mice, 2 weeks prior to irradiation. All mice died within 3 weeks after irradiation. Monoassociation with Fusobacterium sp., Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, or Pseudomonas sp. significantly reduced the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. In contrast, monoassociation with Clostridium sp., Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, or Lactobacillus acidophilus significantly prolonged the mean survival time compared to that of germfree mice. This suggests that the latter organisms may perform some activity to protect the mice from radiation injury. In this histopathological autopsy examination, the main lesions were hypocellularity in hematopoietic organs and hemorrhage in various organs. Neither karyorrhexis nor desquamation of intestinal mucosal cells was observed in any mice. From these observations, it is suggested that the death of these mice was related to hematopoietic damage. Bacterial invasion into various organs was observed in conventionalized and Pseudomonas-, E. coli-, or S. faecalis-monoassociated mice but not in Clostridium-, B. pseudolongum-, L. acidophilus-, or Fusobacterium-monoassociated mice.

  8. Preventing Protest One Person at a Time: Psychological Coercion and Relational Repression in China


    O'Brien, KJ; Yanhua Deng


    Using riot police to break up a big demonstration is a familiar occurrence in many parts of the world, including China. But all protest control does not involve the use of force, nor is repression always directed at large groups of people assembled in one location. Some repression rests on psychological rather than physical coercion and is aimed at individuals, often in their homes or nearby. This type of repression may be carried out by people with only a loose connection to the state’s coer...

  9. Now is the Time for Psychology to Support the Transformation of Academic Health Centers. (United States)

    Linton, John C


    Psychologists have made important contributions in academic health centers (AHC), but the reputation of psychology as a discipline has been mixed, by turns viewed as a superfluous soft science, or seen as an important contributor to the AHC mission. AHCs currently face exceptional challenges to the viability of AHCs, including: planned alterations from fee-for-service to value-based funding that requires high quality at lower cost; and rising demands to demonstrate competence in trainees. Now more than ever, psychologists can and must help AHCs to meet these challenges.

  10. The Association between Phase Angle of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Survival Time in Advanced Cancer Patients: Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Lee, So Yeon; Lee, Yong Joo; Yang, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Chul-Min; Choi, Whan-Seok


    A frequent manifestation of advanced cancer patients is malnutrition, which is correlated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an easy-to-use and non-invasive technique to evaluate changes in body composition and nutritional status. We investigated BIA-derived phase angle as a prognostic indicator for survival in advanced cancer patients. Twenty-eight patients treated at the hospice center of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital underwent BIA measurements from January, 2013 to May, 2013. We also evaluated palliative prognostic index (PPI) and palliative performance scale to compare with the prognostic value of phase angle. Cox's proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the prognostic effect of phase angle. The Kaplan Meier method was used to calculate survival. Using univariate Cox analysis, phase angle (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61/per degree increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.89; P = 0.010), PPI (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.47; P = 0.048) were found to be significantly associated with survival. Adjusting age, PPI, body mass index, phase angle significantly showed association with survival in multivariate analysis (HR, 0.64/per degree increase; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.95; P = 0.028). Survival time of patients with phase angle ≥ 4.4° was longer than patients with phase angle < 4.4° (log rank, 6.208; P-value = 0.013). Our data suggest BIA-derived phase angle may serve as an independent prognostic indicator in advanced cancer patients.

  11. Relationships among the cervical mucus urea and acetone, accuracy of insemination timing, and sperm survival in Holstein cows. (United States)

    Beran, J; Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Okrouhlá, M; Doležalová, M; Kadlecová, V; Ptáček, M


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships among urea and acetone content in cows' cervical mucus (CM), its crystallization type (CT) and sperm survival (SS) after timed AI. Samples of CM were collected from 192 Holstein cows treated by Ovsynch(®) protocol. Analysis of the urea and acetone content for identification of the metabolic status, the arborization test for evaluation of insemination timing and the short-term heat test of SS for assessment of its suitability as a biological matrix were performed. The data set was analyzed by the GLM procedure using SAS(®). The results documented the existence of substantial differences in individual response to the Ovsynch(®) protocol causing insemination of 55.2% cows at an inappropriate time. The urea content was found as a possible indicator of a cow's metabolism and/or of insemination timing, concentrations of less than 500 mg/L corresponded (Pacetone content on SS were determined. The greatest values of SS were detected in cows with an expected response to precisely timed oestrus documented by the corresponding CT. Greater values of urea (>260 mg/L) and acetone (>5mg/L) negatively affected SS as well (P<0.05-0.01). The results confirmed that the accuracy of insemination timing can be affected by the metabolism intensity, just as CM quality directly influences sperm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Murphey


    Full Text Available Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N=33, within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9 in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N=33 reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n=25 reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed.

  13. Anxiety and psychological stress before prenatal screening in first-time mothers who conceived through IVF/ICSI or spontaneously. (United States)

    Darwiche, Joëlle; Lawrence, Cindy; Vial, Yvan; Wunder, Dorothea; Stiefel, Friedrich; Germond, Marc; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; de Roten, Yves


    Mothers' general anxiety, anxiety about the well-being of the child and psychological stress before prenatal testing was studied by comparing women who conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with women who conceived naturally. Before the first trimester screening test for Down's syndrome, a group of 51 women who conceived through IVF/ICSI and a group of 54 women who conceived spontaneously completed the State Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S-Anxiety; Spielberger, 1983), the Fear of Bearing a Physically or Mentally Handicapped Child Subscale of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R; Huizink et al., 2004), the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM; Lemyre & Tessier, 1988), and the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP; Curry, Campbell, & Christian, 1994). Women who conceived through IVF/ICSI had more elevated levels of general anxiety and psychological stress than the women who conceived naturally; however, no difference was observed between the two groups for anxiety specifically related to the health of the child. These results underline the need to monitor women's emotional state after conception via IVF/ICSI-when counseling usually ends-and around the time of the first trimester screening. Counseling might thus be extended.

  14. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye


    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed. PMID:21246445

  15. Associations of red and processed meat with survival after colorectal cancer and differences according to timing of dietary assessment. (United States)

    Carr, Prudence R; Jansen, Lina; Walter, Viola; Kloor, Matthias; Roth, Wilfried; Bläker, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael


    Little is known about the prognostic impact of red and processed meat intake or about changes in consumption after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated associations of baseline red and processed meat with survival outcomes and explored changes in intake among CRC survivors 5 y after diagnosis. A total of 3122 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2003 and 2010 were followed for a median of 4.8 y [DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening) study]. Patients provided information on diet and other factors in standardized questionnaires at baseline and at the 5-y follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Among patients with stage I-III CRC, baseline red and processed meat intake was not associated with overall (>1 time/d compared with processed meat at the 5-y follow-up than at baseline (concordance rate: 39%; κ-value: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.13). Our findings suggest that baseline red and processed meat intake is not associated with poorer survival among patients with CRC. The potential interaction with KRAS mutation status warrants further evaluation. Major changes in consumption measured at the 5-y follow-up may have had an impact on our survival estimates. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia: prevalence over time and impact on long-term survival after liver transplantation. (United States)

    Parekh, J; Corley, D A; Feng, S


    With increasing short-term survival, the transplant community has turned its focus to delineating the impact of medical comorbidities on long-term outcomes. Unfortunately, conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are difficult to track and often managed outside of the transplant center by primary care providers. We collaborated with Kaiser Permanente Northern California to create a database of 598 liver transplant recipients, which incorporates diagnostic codes along with laboratory and pharmacy data. Specifically, we determined the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia both before and after transplant and evaluated the influence of disease duration as a time-dependent covariate on posttransplant survival. The prevalence of these comorbidities increased steadily from the time of transplant to 7 years after transplant. The estimated risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.07 per year increment, 95% CI 1.01-1.13, p hyperlipidemia. Greater attention to management of diabetes may mitigate its negative impact on long-term survival in liver transplant recipients. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Applied the additive hazard model to predict the survival time of patient with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma and determine the effective genes, using microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefa Jafarzadeh Kohneloo


    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have shown that effective genes on survival time of cancer patients play an important role as a risk factor or preventive factor. Present study was designed to determine effective genes on survival time for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients and predict the survival time using these selected genes. Materials & Methods: Present study is a cohort study was conducted on 40 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For these patients, 2042 gene expression was measured. In order to predict the survival time, the composition of the semi-parametric additive survival model with two gene selection methods elastic net and lasso were used. Two methods were evaluated by plotting area under the ROC curve over time and calculating the integral of this curve. Results: Based on our findings, the elastic net method identified 10 genes, and Lasso-Cox method identified 7 genes. GENE3325X increased the survival time (P=0.006, Whereas GENE3980X and GENE377X reduced the survival time (P=0.004. These three genes were selected as important genes in both methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the elastic net method outperformed the common Lasso method in terms of predictive power. Moreover, apply the additive model instead Cox regression and using microarray data is usable way for predict the survival time of patients.

  18. Wind speed during migration influences the survival, timing of breeding, and productivity of a neotropical migrant, Setophaga petechia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Drake

    Full Text Available Over the course of the annual cycle, migratory bird populations can be impacted by environmental conditions in regions separated by thousands of kilometers. We examine how climatic conditions during discrete periods of the annual cycle influence the demography of a nearctic-neotropical migrant population of yellow warblers (Setophaga petechia, that breed in western Canada and overwinter in Mexico. We demonstrate that wind conditions during spring migration are the best predictor of apparent annual adult survival, male arrival date, female clutch initiation date and, via these timing effects, annual productivity. We find little evidence that conditions during the wintering period influence breeding phenology and apparent annual survival. Our study emphasizes the importance of climatic conditions experienced by migrants during the migratory period and indicates that geography may play a role in which period most strongly impacts migrant populations.

  19. Relationships between Serum Albumin and Urea Level and the Clinical Pathological Characteristics and Survival Time in Patients with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalun LI


    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the most common malignancy and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, this disease severely threatens human health. This study aims to identify the relationships between serum albumin and urea level and the clinical pathological characteristics and survival time in patients with lung cancer. Methods A total of 1,098 patients with lung cancer were diagnosed by pathology and tested the serum albumin and urea level in West China Hospital of Sichuan University during January 2008 to December 2013. According to the levels of albumin and urea, patients were divided into the normal level group (negative group and abnormal level group (positive group. The differences of patients' clinical pathological characteristics and survival time in the two groups were analyzed. Results Differences in age, sex, histological classification, liver metastasis and pleural metastasis were statistically significant between the two groups of serum albumin (P<0.05. Differences in age, intrapulmonary metastasis of 312 patients of squamous cell carcinoma and differences in age, sex, stages, pleural metastasis of 612 patients of adenocarcinoma between the two groups of serum albumin (P<0.05. There were no significant differences between the two groups of urea. In different histological classification between the two groups of serum albumin, the median survival period of squamous cell carcinoma was 36 months and 19 monthes, adenocarcinoma was 35 months and 15 monthes, the abnormal group were all significantly lower than those in the normal group. The median survival period was no significant difference between the two groups of urea. Conclusion The level of serum albumin is an important indicator for prognosis.

  20. Historical time in the age of big data: Cultural psychology, historical change, and the Google Books Ngram Viewer. (United States)

    Pettit, Michael


    Launched in 2010, the Google Books Ngram Viewer offers a novel means of tracing cultural change over time. This digital tool offers exciting possibilities for cultural psychology by rendering questions about variation across historical time more quantitative. Psychologists have begun to use the viewer to bolster theories about a historical shift in the United States from a more collectivist to individualist form of selfhood and society. I raise 4 methodological cautions about the Ngram Viewer's use among psychologists: (a) the extent to which print culture can be taken to represent culture as a whole, (b) the difference between viewing the past in terms of trends versus events, (c) assumptions about the stability of a word's meaning over time, and (d) inconsistencies in the scales and ranges used to measure change over time. The aim is to foster discussion about the standards of evidence needed for incorporating historical big data into empirical research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster? (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H


    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  2. It's time to rework the blueprints: building a science for clinical psychology. (United States)

    Millon, Theodore


    The aims in this article are to connect the conceptual structure of clinical psychological science to what the author believes to be the omnipresent principles of evolution, use the evolutionary model to create a deductively derived clinical theory and taxonomy, link the theory and taxonomy to comprehensive and integrated approaches to assessment, and outline a framework for an integrative synergistic model of psychotherapy. These foundations also provide a framework for a systematic approach to the subject realms of personology and psychopathology. Exploring nature's deep principles, the model revives the personologic concept christened by Henry Murray some 65 years ago; it also parallels the interface between human social functioning and evolutionary biology proposed by Edward Wilson in his concept of sociobiology. (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Simple parametric survival analysis with anonymized register data: A cohort study with truncated and interval censored event and censoring times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To preserve patient anonymity, health register data may be provided as binned data only. Here we consider as example, how to estimate mean survival time after a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer from Norwegian register data on time to death or censoring binned into 30 day intervals. All events occurring in the first three months (90 days after diagnosis were removed to achieve comparability with a clinical trial. The aim of the paper is to develop and implement a simple, and yet flexible method for analyzing such interval censored and truncated data. Methods Considering interval censoring a missing data problem, we implement a simple multiple imputation strategy that allows flexible sensitivity analyses with respect to the shape of the censoring distribution. To allow identification of appropriate parametric models, a χ2-goodness-of-fit test--also imputation based--is derived and supplemented with diagnostic plots. Uncertainty estimates for mean survival times are obtained via a simulation strategy. The validity and statistical efficiency of the proposed method for varying interval lengths is investigated in a simulation study and compared with simpler alternatives. Results Mean survival times estimated from the register data ranged from 1.2 (SE = 0.09 to 3.2 (0.31 years depending on period of diagnosis and choice of parametric model. The shape of the censoring distribution within intervals did generally not influence results, whereas the choice of parametric model did, even when different models fit the data equally well. In simulation studies both simple midpoint imputation and multiple imputation yielded nearly unbiased analyses (relative biases of -0.6% to 9.4% and confidence intervals with near-nominal coverage probabilities (93.4% to 95.7% for censoring intervals shorter than six months. For 12 month censoring intervals, multiple imputation provided better protection against bias, and coverage probabilities

  4. Efficacy of Re-188-labelled sulphur colloid on prolongation of survival time in melanoma-bearing animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.D.; Hsieh, B.T. E-mail:; Wang, H.E.; Ou, Y.H.; Yang, W.K.; Whang-Peng, J.; Liu, R.S.; Knapp, F.F.; Ting, G.; Yen, S.H


    In this study, the effectiveness of a {sup 188}Re labeled sulfur colloid with two particle size ranges was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this agent on melanoma tumors in mice in terms of animal lifespan. Methods: Two separate group of animals were used for investigating biodistribution and survival time. A total of 188 B16F10-melanoma-bearing BDF{sub 1} mice were injected intraperitoneally with 3.7 MBq (0.1mCi)/2mL of radiolabeled sulfur colloid ten days after intraperitoneal inoculation of 5x10{sup 5} B16F10 melanoma cells/2ml. For group 1, 30 mice were sacrificed at 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours for biodistribution studies. In group 2, 158 mice were divided into 9 groups (n=16{approx}18/groups)each receiving respectively tumor alone, tumor with normal saline, cold colloid or hot colloid with 16, 23, 31, 46, 62, or 124 MBq activity. Each of these colloid groups was further divided into two groups, one receiving smaller particle sizes (<3{mu}m:80.4 {+-}7.2%, colloid 1) and the other receiving larger particle sizes (<3{mu}m:12.3{+-}1.0%, colloid 2). The animals were checked daily until death and their survival recorded. Results: Colloid 2 showed higher accumulation in almost all tissues, the highest accumulation organ was tumor ({approx} 40%), then spleen ({approx}20%), stomach ({approx}15%), diaphragm ({approx}3%), and liver ({approx}2%). There was a significant increase in survival time with increasing amount of the larger-particle-size colloid. Administered levels of 16-31 MBq/mouse were most efficacious and with higher amounts the survival times decreased significantly below that of the controls. There was a significant difference in the dose-response curves for the two preparations. Protection factors (1/Relative-risk) of nearly 5 were achieved using the larger colloid size, and nearly 30 using the smaller colloid size. An amount of 16-31 MBq of the colloid 2 was the optimal activity in these studies. On the one hand, the survival data agreed well with the

  5. Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From a Population-Based Study. (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Weinstein, Netta


    There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well-being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2- to 5-year-olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well-being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (linked screen time to attachment and positive affect. Results suggest a critical cost-benefit analysis is needed to determine whether setting firm limits constitutes a judicious use of caregiver and professional resources. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. [Temporality and trauma: Towards an articulation between the judicial, educational and psychological times in repeat teenage offenders]. (United States)

    Kermarrec, S; Mougli, K


    Within the past few years, the problem of repeat teenage offenders has raised troubling questions among the various institutions in charge of this population. The temporalities of these adolescents are marked by immediacy, urgency, and repetition that circumvent a linear view of time and the programs set up to handle them. Studies on repeat teenage aggressors (notably, sexual aggressors) have shown that these young people often have a history of an acknowledged or unacknowledged trauma. The fact of having been a victim of abuse during childhood is thought to be a factor leading to later acting out. Our objective is to inquire into these juvenile delinquents and their treatment using a temporal framework of their life pathway that will influence the ways in which they are treated by professionals. By tracing back through the lives of these young authors of violence, we can find out whether they were themselves victims. Repeated acts of violence by a youth could then be seen not as isolated acts but as expressions of ill-being, of having been a victim, whether recognized or not. The act thus represents a link between the present and the past that can be analyzed by looking at occurrences of acting out. It would be interesting, moreover, to reflect upon how continuity could be created there where disruption strikes the youth and often the institutions too. We provide a detailed description of the notion of trauma by recalling its definition and its possible immediate and deferred effects on these youths. In the immediate time frame, the subject may present a physical reaction to the trauma. The psychological reaction will determine a psychic time frame expressed in several ways, whether immediately or at a distance from the traumatic event. Posttraumatic reactions may hamper the development of the teenager's personality. Some traumatized adolescents will express their ill-being by aggressiveness, as they replay the traumatic scene by staging violent and dangerous

  7. Genetic relationship of discrete-time survival with fertility and production in dairy cattle using bivariate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenda Rafael


    Full Text Available Abstract Bivariate analyses of functional longevity in dairy cattle measured as survival to next lactation (SURV with milk yield and fertility traits were carried out. A sequential threshold-linear censored model was implemented for the analyses of SURV. Records on 96 642 lactations from 41 170 cows were used to estimate genetic parameters, using animal models, for longevity, 305 d-standardized milk production (MY305, days open (DO and number of inseminations to conception (INS in the Spanish Holstein population; 31% and 30% of lactations were censored for DO and INS, respectively. Heritability estimates for SURV and MY305 were 0.11 and 0.27 respectively; while heritability estimates for fertility traits were lower (0.07 for DO and 0.03 for INS. Antagonist genetic correlations were estimated between SURV and fertility (-0.78 and -0.54 for DO and INS, respectively or production (-0.53 for MY305, suggesting reduced functional longevity with impaired fertility and increased milk production. Longer days open seems to affect survival more than increased INS. Also, high productive cows were more problematic, less functional and more liable to being culled. The results suggest that the sequential threshold model is a method that might be considered at evaluating genetic relationship between discrete-time survival and other traits, due to its flexibility.

  8. Desiccation survival time for eggs of a widespread and invasive Australian mosquito species, Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriptus (Skuse). (United States)

    Faull, K J; Webb, C; Williams, C R


    The Australian native mosquito Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriptus (Skuse) is closely associated with natural and artificial water holding receptacles. Eggs are laid in habitats where they are exposed to drying conditions as water levels fluctuate. Withstanding desiccation enables survival in challenging environments and increases the potential for establishment in non-native habitats. Until now, the desiccation resistance of Ae. notoscriptus eggs has been unknown despite the historical invasive success of this important dog heartworm and arbovirus vector. Viability and mean survival times of eggs from two Ae. notoscriptus populations (metropolitan areas of Sydney, NSW and Adelaide, SA) were evaluated, with eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days. Our results revealed that Ae. notoscriptus eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods, under a variety of conditions, with approximately 9-13% egg viability recorded after one year. This prolonged egg survival reflects the widespread distribution of this mosquito in Australia and its history of incursions and subsequent establishment in non-native habitats. Differences in mean egg volume were recorded in addition to significantly different egg length to width ratios for the two populations, which may reflect adaptation to biotope of origin and an associated likelihood of drought and drying conditions. The results of this study suggest that the desiccation resistant eggs of Ae. notoscriptus make this species highly adaptable, increasing the risk of movement to non-endemic regions of the world. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Neurogenesis and the Spacing Effect: Learning over Time Enhances Memory and the Survival of New Neurons (United States)

    Sisti, Helene M.; Glass, Arnold L.; Shors, Tracey J.


    Information that is spaced over time is better remembered than the same amount of information massed together. This phenomenon, known as the spacing effect, was explored with respect to its effect on learning and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Because the cells are generated over time and because learning…

  10. The effect of time of planting at stake on cocoa seedling survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Tafo and its sub-station at Bunso, from 1994 to 1997 to re-appraise the success of cocoa etablishment from seeds sown at stake at specified times of the year before the onset of the dry season. The treatments consisted of four times within the year when ...

  11. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn


    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  12. Experiential Virtual Scenarios With Real-Time Monitoring (Interreality) for the Management of Psychological Stress: A Block Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Pallavicini, Federica; Morganti, Luca; Serino, Silvia; Scaratti, Chiara; Briguglio, Marilena; Crifaci, Giulia; Vetrano, Noemi; Giulintano, Annunziata; Bernava, Giuseppe; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Pioggia, Giovanni; Raspelli, Simona; Cipresso, Pietro; Vigna, Cinzia; Grassi, Alessandra; Baruffi, Margherita; Wiederhold, Brenda; Riva, Giuseppe


    Background The recent convergence between technology and medicine is offering innovative methods and tools for behavioral health care. Among these, an emerging approach is the use of virtual reality (VR) within exposure-based protocols for anxiety disorders, and in particular posttraumatic stress disorder. However, no systematically tested VR protocols are available for the management of psychological stress. Objective Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, for the management and prevention of psychological stress. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and the real world achieved through experiential virtual scenarios (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and improve self-efficacy) with real-time monitoring and support (identifying critical situations and assessing clinical change) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, wearable biosensors, and smartphones). Methods The study was designed as a block randomized controlled trial involving 121 participants recruited from two different worker populations—teachers and nurses—that are highly exposed to psychological stress. Participants were a sample of teachers recruited in Milan (Block 1: n=61) and a sample of nurses recruited in Messina, Italy (Block 2: n=60). Participants within each block were randomly assigned to the (1) Experimental Group (EG): n=40; B1=20, B2=20, which received a 5-week treatment based on the Interreality paradigm; (2) Control Group (CG): n=42; B1=22, B2=20, which received a 5-week traditional stress management training based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); and (3) the Wait-List group (WL): n=39, B1=19, B2=20, which was reassessed and compared with the two other groups 5 weeks after the initial evaluation. Results Although both treatments were able to significantly reduce perceived stress better than WL, only EG participants reported a significant reduction (EG=12% vs CG=0

  13. [Influence of evaluations and coping behavior in relationships with supervisors on the psychological stress responses of subordinates: A comparison between full-time workers and students working part-time jobs]. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tomoichiro; Kugihara, Naoki


    This research examined workers' and supervisors' evaluations of their relationships and coping behaviors as related to the workers' psychological stress responses. The participants were full-time workers and students working part-time jobs. This study focused on both informal and formal relationships. The results showed that full-time workers who evaluated their informal relationships with their supervisors as being more negative and perceived their supervisors' evaluations as being more positive had greater psychological stress responses. The psychological stress responses of students working part-time jobs were not significantly associated with their evaluations or their supervisors' evaluations. The results for full-time workers indicate that supervisors' positive evaluations of their informal relationships increased the subordinates' psychological stress responses. The proportion of variance attributed to the coping behavior of full-time workers was lower than for students working part-time jobs.

  14. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Lykkedegn

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  15. Differential presentation and survival of de novo and recurrent metastatic breast cancer over time: 1990-2010. (United States)

    Malmgren, Judith A; Mayer, Musa; Atwood, Mary K; Kaplan, Henry G


    Differences in de novo (dnMBC) and recurrent metastatic breast cancer (rMBC) presentation and survival over time have not been adequately described. A retrospective cohort study, 1990-2010, with follow up through 2015 of dnMBC patients (stage IV at diagnosis) and rMBC patients with subsequent distant metastatic recurrence (stage I-III initial diagnosis) [dnMBC = 247, rMBC = 911)]. Analysis included Chi squared tests of categorical variables, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and Cox proportional adjusted hazard ratios (HzR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Disease specific survival (DSS) was time from diagnosis or distant recurrence to BC death. Over time, 1990-1998, 1999-2004, and 2005-2010, dnMBC incidence was constant (3%) and rMBC incidence decreased [18% to 7% (p negative breast cancer (HR-negative/HER2-negative) (p = 0.049). Five-year dnMBC DSS was 44% vs. 21% for rMBC (p year dnMBC DSS improved over time [28% to 55% (p = 0.008)] and rMBC worsened [23% to 13%, p = 0.065)]. Worse DSS was associated with HR-negative status (HzR = 1.63; 1.41, 1.89), rMBC (HzR = 1.88; 1.58, 2.23), older age (70 +) (HzR = 1.88; 1.58, 2.24), > 1 distant metastases (HzR 1.39; 1.20, 1.62), and visceral dominant disease (HzR 1.22; 1.05, 1.43). After 1998, HER2-positive disease was associated with better DSS (HzR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.56, 0.93). Factors associated with the widening survival gap and non-equivalence between dnMBC and rMBC and decreased rMBC incidence warrant further study.

  16. Influence of application sequence and timing of eugenol and lauric arginate (LAE) on survival of spoilage organisms. (United States)

    Manrique, Yudith; Gibis, Monika; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen


    The effectiveness of sequential applications of the antimicrobials eugenol and lauric arginate (LAE) was investigated against Staphylococcus carnosus, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli K12, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antimicrobials were applied simultaneously at half of their minimum lethal concentrations (MLC) or sequentially at t = 0 h and t = 3, 4, 6 or 8 h. Bacterial survival was determined by direct plate counts. Survivals kinetic were fitted to a growth and mortality model to obtain characteristic parameters that described time-dependent changes from growth to mortality or vice versa. The most effective was a simultaneous exposure of both antimicrobials to the spoilage organisms at the beginning of the incubation period. Efficiency decreases depending on order and timing of the two antimicrobials were observed upon sequential treatments. These were most effective when antimicrobials where applied within a short time period (3-4 h) and when eugenol was first applied against S. carnosus and P. fluorescens. No sequence effects were observed for L. innocua, and sequential treatments proved to be ineffective against E. coli K12. These results were attributed to cells adapting to the first applied antimicrobial. In some cases, this provided protection against the second antimicrobial rendering the overall treatment less effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of the conditional inference survival forest model to random survival forests based on a simulation study as well as on two applications with time-to-event data. (United States)

    Nasejje, Justine B; Mwambi, Henry; Dheda, Keertan; Lesosky, Maia


    Random survival forest (RSF) models have been identified as alternative methods to the Cox proportional hazards model in analysing time-to-event data. These methods, however, have been criticised for the bias that results from favouring covariates with many split-points and hence conditional inference forests for time-to-event data have been suggested. Conditional inference forests (CIF) are known to correct the bias in RSF models by separating the procedure for the best covariate to split on from that of the best split point search for the selected covariate. In this study, we compare the random survival forest model to the conditional inference model (CIF) using twenty-two simulated time-to-event datasets. We also analysed two real time-to-event datasets. The first dataset is based on the survival of children under-five years of age in Uganda and it consists of categorical covariates with most of them having more than two levels (many split-points). The second dataset is based on the survival of patients with extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) which consists of mainly categorical covariates with two levels (few split-points). The study findings indicate that the conditional inference forest model is superior to random survival forest models in analysing time-to-event data that consists of covariates with many split-points based on the values of the bootstrap cross-validated estimates for integrated Brier scores. However, conditional inference forests perform comparably similar to random survival forests models in analysing time-to-event data consisting of covariates with fewer split-points. Although survival forests are promising methods in analysing time-to-event data, it is important to identify the best forest model for analysis based on the nature of covariates of the dataset in question.

  18. Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngrok [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

  19. Estimation of total genetic effects for survival time in crossbred laying hens showing cannibalism, using pedigree or genomic information. (United States)

    Brinker, T; Raymond, B; Bijma, P; Vereijken, A; Ellen, E D


    Mortality of laying hens due to cannibalism is a major problem in the egg-laying industry. Survival depends on two genetic effects: the direct genetic effect of the individual itself (DGE) and the indirect genetic effects of its group mates (IGE). For hens housed in sire-family groups, DGE and IGE cannot be estimated using pedigree information, but the combined effect of DGE and IGE is estimated in the total breeding value (TBV). Genomic information provides information on actual genetic relationships between individuals and might be a tool to improve TBV accuracy. We investigated whether genomic information of the sire increased TBV accuracy compared with pedigree information, and we estimated genetic parameters for survival time. A sire model with pedigree information (BLUP) and a sire model with genomic information (ssGBLUP) were used. We used survival time records of 7290 crossbred offspring with intact beaks from four crosses. Cross-validation was used to compare the models. Using ssGBLUP did not improve TBV accuracy compared with BLUP which is probably due to the limited number of sires available per cross (~50). Genetic parameter estimates were similar for BLUP and ssGBLUP. For both BLUP and ssGBLUP, total heritable variance (T(2) ), expressed as a proportion of phenotypic variance, ranged from 0.03 ± 0.04 to 0.25 ± 0.09. Further research is needed on breeding value estimation for socially affected traits measured on individuals kept in single-family groups. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Assessment of chronic effects of tebuconazole on survival, reproduction and growth of Daphnia magna after different exposure times. (United States)

    Sancho, E; Villarroel, M J; Ferrando, M D


    The effect of the fungicide tebuconazole (0.41, 0.52, 0.71 and 1.14mg/L) on survival, reproduction and growth of Daphnia magna organisms was monitored using 14 and 21 days exposure tests. A third experiment was performed by exposing D. magna to the fungicide for 14 days followed by 7 days of recovery (14+7). In order to test fungicide effects on D. magna, parameters as survival, mean whole body length, mean total number of neonates per female, mean number of broods per female, mean brood size per female, time to first brood/reproduction and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were used. Reproduction was seriously affected by tebuconazole. All tebuconazole concentrations tested affected the number of broods per female and day to first brood. At 14-days test, number of neonates per female and body size decreased by concentrations of tebuconazole higher than 0.52mg/L, whereas at 21-days test both parameters were affected at all the concentrations tested. Survival of the daphnids after 14 days fungicide exposure did not exhibited differences among experimental and control groups. In this experiment r value was reduced (in a 22%) when animals were exposed to concentrations of 0.71mg/L and 1.14mg/L. Survival of daphnids exposed during 21 days to 1.14mg/L declined, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) decreased in a 30 % for tebuconazole concentrations higher than 0.41mg/L. Longevity of daphnids pre-exposed to tebuconazole for 14 days and 7 days in clean water did not show differences from control values and all of them survived the 21 days of the test. However, after 7 days in fungicide free medium animals were unable to restore control values for reproductive parameters and length. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was calculated using the r values as parameter of evaluation. MATC estimations were 0.61mg/L and 0.46mg/L for 14 and 21 days, respectively. Results showed that the number of neonates per female was the highest sensitive

  1. The Role of Statistics and Research Methods in the Academic Success of Psychology Majors: Do Performance and Enrollment Timing Matter? (United States)

    Freng, Scott; Webber, David; Blatter, Jamin; Wing, Ashley; Scott, Walter D.


    Comprehension of statistics and research methods is crucial to understanding psychology as a science (APA, 2007). However, psychology majors sometimes approach methodology courses with derision or anxiety (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003; Rajecki, Appleby, Williams, Johnson, & Jeschke, 2005); consequently, students may postpone…

  2. A special case of reduced rank models for identification and modelling of time varying effects in survival analysis. (United States)

    Perperoglou, Aris


    Flexible survival models are in need when modelling data from long term follow-up studies. In many cases, the assumption of proportionality imposed by a Cox model will not be valid. Instead, a model that can identify time varying effects of fixed covariates can be used. Although there are several approaches that deal with this problem, it is not always straightforward how to choose which covariates should be modelled having time varying effects and which not. At the same time, it is up to the researcher to define appropriate time functions that describe the dynamic pattern of the effects. In this work, we suggest a model that can deal with both fixed and time varying effects and uses simple hypotheses tests to distinguish which covariates do have dynamic effects. The model is an extension of the parsimonious reduced rank model of rank 1. As such, the number of parameters is kept low, and thus, a flexible set of time functions, such as b-splines, can be used. The basic theory is illustrated along with an efficient fitting algorithm. The proposed method is applied to a dataset of breast cancer patients and compared with a multivariate fractional polynomials approach for modelling time-varying effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring. (United States)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pilecki, Bartosz; Duelund, Lars; Marcussen, Niels; Christesen, Henrik Thybo


    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, plung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002), SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002) as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, plung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  4. Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects on a time-to-event endpoint using structural cumulative survival models. (United States)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Zucker, David M


    The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate elements of randomization, either by design or by nature (e.g., random inheritance of genes). Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects is well established for continuous outcomes and to some extent for binary outcomes. It is, however, largely lacking for time-to-event outcomes because of complications due to censoring and survivorship bias. In this article, we make a novel proposal under a class of structural cumulative survival models which parameterize time-varying effects of a point exposure directly on the scale of the survival function; these models are essentially equivalent with a semi-parametric variant of the instrumental variables additive hazards model. We propose a class of recursive instrumental variable estimators for these exposure effects, and derive their large sample properties along with inferential tools. We examine the performance of the proposed method in simulation studies and illustrate it in a Mendelian randomization study to evaluate the effect of diabetes on mortality using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We further use the proposed method to investigate potential benefit from breast cancer screening on subsequent breast cancer mortality based on the HIP-study. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Incubation media affect the survival, pathway and time of embryo development in Neotropical annual fish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus (Rivulidae). (United States)

    da Fonseca, A P; Volcan, M V; Robaldo, R B


    To analyse the survival, pathway and time of embryo development in the annual fish Austrolebias nigrofasciatus eggs were monitored in four liquid media and two damp media under experimental conditions for 130 days until their development was complete. Eggs kept in the same breeding water from oviposition remained in diapause I (DI) during all experiments. In constrast, up to the stage prior to entering diapause II (DII), the other media had no influence on development. Embryos at this stage (DII), however, show longer development time when treated in medium with water and powdered coconut shell so that about 80% of embryos remained in DII at 100 days. In contrast, all other treatments had a significantly lower proportion of embryos remaining in DII. When treated with Yamamoto's solution in humid media, embryos showed the fastest development. The first fully developed embryos (DIII) were seen at 27 days after oviposition. It took an average of 46-58 days for 50% of eggs in each treatment to reach DIII. Compared with other studies, survival in all incubation media was high at between 70 and 98%. Taken together, it can be concluded that all incubation media were found to be viable for maintaining embryos. Altering developmental trajectories through the manipulation of diapauses in different media makes this species a potential model organism for laboratory studies. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. A comparative study of machine learning methods for time-to-event survival data for radiomics risk modelling. (United States)

    Leger, Stefan; Zwanenburg, Alex; Pilz, Karoline; Lohaus, Fabian; Linge, Annett; Zöphel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Jörg; Schreiber, Andreas; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Sak, Ali; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Troost, Esther G C; Löck, Steffen; Richter, Christian


    Radiomics applies machine learning algorithms to quantitative imaging data to characterise the tumour phenotype and predict clinical outcome. For the development of radiomics risk models, a variety of different algorithms is available and it is not clear which one gives optimal results. Therefore, we assessed the performance of 11 machine learning algorithms combined with 12 feature selection methods by the concordance index (C-Index), to predict loco-regional tumour control (LRC) and overall survival for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The considered algorithms are able to deal with continuous time-to-event survival data. Feature selection and model building were performed on a multicentre cohort (213 patients) and validated using an independent cohort (80 patients). We found several combinations of machine learning algorithms and feature selection methods which achieve similar results, e.g. C-Index = 0.71 and BT-COX: C-Index = 0.70 in combination with Spearman feature selection. Using the best performing models, patients were stratified into groups of low and high risk of recurrence. Significant differences in LRC were obtained between both groups on the validation cohort. Based on the presented analysis, we identified a subset of algorithms which should be considered in future radiomics studies to develop stable and clinically relevant predictive models for time-to-event endpoints.

  7. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway


    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  8. [12-Month Prevalence and Consequences of Current Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in a Sample of Patients who Entered First Time a Psychotherapeutic Outpatient Clinic]. (United States)

    Karger, André; Fetz, Katharina; Schäfer, Ralf; Schlack, Robert; Franz, Matthias; Joksimovic, Ljiljana


    Objective To examine current experiences of violence and its relationship with psychological burden in a psychotherapeutic outpatient sample. Methods 1074 patients of a psychotherapeutic outpatient-clinic of a university hospital completed a written violence screening questionnaire. Results Current experienced physical and psychological violence was two times higher compared to general population. Patients who experienced current violence reported significantly more psychological burden. Conclusion Use of violence screening in daily routine of a psychotherapeutic outpatient-clinic seems to be a promising approach to detect violence experiences. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. One-Year Follow-Up of Girls with Precocious Puberty and Their Mothers: Do Psychological Assessments Change over Time or with Treatment? (United States)

    Schoelwer, Melissa J; Donahue, Kelly L; Didrick, Paula; Eugster, Erica A


    To determine whether psychological characteristics of girls with variations of early puberty and their mothers change over time and with treatment in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP). Girls with CPP, premature adrenarche (PA), and early normal puberty (ENP) completed psychological assessments at baseline and after 1 year along with their mothers. All girls with CPP were treated with GnRH analogs. Psychological effects of group and time were examined using 2 × 3 mixed ANOVAs. Sixty-two subjects aged 7.5 ± 1.4 years (range 4.8-10.5) were enrolled, of whom 36 (15 with CPP, 8 with PA, and 13 with ENP) completed 1-year follow-up assessments. Psychological measures were normal in all girls. No significant group differences were found for any measure of girls' psychological functioning at either time point. However, across all groups there was change over time with a decrease in perceived physical competence (p puberty, and all groups were in the normal range. Our results are largely reassuring regarding concerns of adverse psychological consequences of early puberty in girls. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents: Changes between 2001 and 2009 and associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. (United States)

    Kleppang, Annette Løvheim; Thurston, Miranda; Hartz, Ingeborg; Hagquist, Curt


    The aim of this work was to examine psychological distress among Norwegian adolescents in relation to changes over time and the associations with leisure time physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviour. This cross-sectional study was based on data retrieved from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys in 2001 and 2009 in Hedmark County. Adolescents aged 15-16 years old completed a questionnaire regarding physical activity, sedentary behaviour, psychological distress and other health and lifestyle variables. The self-report Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 was used to assess psychological distress. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyse the associations between psychological distress, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Self-reported psychological distress increased significantly from 2001 to 2009 (from 19.4 to 28.2%), with the proportion of girls reporting psychological distress being twice as large as the proportion of boys. The proportion of adolescents who were physically active for ⩾11 hours per week increased significantly over the same period (from 6.0 to 10.4%). Sedentary behaviour ⩾6 hours per school day increased significantly among both sexes between 2001 and 2009. Physical activity (⩾11 hours) and sedentary behaviour (⩾6 hours) were both significantly associated with psychological distress. The association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological distress was weak; only high amounts of physical activity and high amounts of screen-based sedentary behaviour were associated with psychological distress. Longitudinal studies are needed to provide further insights into these associations and to understand the extent to which these variables might be causally related.

  11. Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of periodontal ligament cells using a real-time cell analysis method. (United States)

    Ozan, F; Özan, Ü; Oktay, E A; Toptas, O; Özdemir, H; KürÞat, Er


    Tooth avulsion is the most severe type of traumatic dental injuries and it results in the complete displacement of the tooth out of its socket in alveolar bone. Reimplantation of the tooth is considered to be a best treatment modality due to its biological and psychological advantages. Its prognosis depends on the extra alveolar time, the storage medium, and the patient's general health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells using a real-time cell analysis method. Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from healthy human third molars extracted for orthodontic purposes. The storage media tested were: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), C. spinosa, Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), and light milk. A real-time cell analyzer system was used to evaluate cell viability. After seeding cell suspensions into the wells of the E-plate 96, PDL cells were treated with each of tested media and monitored for every 5 min for 26 h. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using one-way analysis of variance complemented by the Tukey test. The level of significance was set at P spinosa groups had significantly higher cell index values compared with the HBSS and light milk (P spinosa showed better results than DMEM (control), but this difference was not found statistically significant. Capparis spinosa can be a suitable, alternative storage medium for avulsed teeth.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Oprea


    Full Text Available This paper shows the main results of a research activity conducted in the South – East region of Romania during November 2009, over 117 small and medium-sized enterprises. The results help to better explain some of the social problems that have been generated in the region as a snow ball effect, due to the economic and financial crisis. The research has revealed the following:The majority of the employees of the companies that were interviewed do not participate in training courses related to project management and personal development. However, company administrators consider that such courses are useful to increase competitiveness in times of economic and financial crises. Personnel under 40 years of age suffer from a lack of professional training and dedication to job requirements. Companies have expressed an interest in accessing European Union funding. However, they do not have complete information that would allow them to start a project and finalize it. This lack of information is mainly due to lack of access to specialists who would write the projects and submit them. The majority of entrepreneurs consider they cannot write the projects themselves but on the other hand they do not have access to consulting companies or other organizations that could help them. Their main information source is the mass-media.As a result, companies have adjusted to the effects of the economic crisis, diminishing their activity and laying off people, decreasing the running expenses and stopping investing in their development.

  13. Effect of Migration Pathway on Travel Time and Survival of Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Johnson, Gary E.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Hughes, Michael S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.


    Off-channel areas (side channels, tidal flats, sand bars, and shallow-water bays) may serve as important migration corridors through estuarine environments for salmon and steelhead smolts. Relatively large percentages (21-33%) of acoustic-tagged yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts were detected migrating through off-channel areas of the Columbia River estuary in 2008. The probability of survival for off-channel migrants (0.78-0.94) was similar to or greater than the survival probability of main channel migrants (0.67-0.93). Median travel times were similar for all species or run types and migration pathways we examined, ranging from 1-2 d. The route used by smolts to migrate through the estuary may affect their vulnerability to predation. Acoustic-tagged steelhead that migrated nearest to avian predator nesting colonies experienced higher predation rates (24%) than those that migrated farthest from the colonies (10%). The use of multiple migration pathways may be advantageous to out-migrating smolts because it helps to buffer against high rates of mortality, which may occur in localized areas, and helps to minimize inter- and intraspecific competition.

  14. Epithelial ovarian cancer mortality among Hispanic women: Sub-ethnic disparities and survival trend across time: An analysis of SEER 1992-2013. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Markossian, Talar W; Silva, Abigail; Tarasenko, Yelena N


    Over the past half century the proportion of Hispanics in the US population has been steadily increasing, and groups of Hispanic origin have diversified. Despite notable racial and ethnic disparities in ovarian cancer (OC) mortality, population-based studies on OC among Hispanic females are lacking. To examine sub-ethnic disparities in OC mortality and survival trends using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) 18 data on Hispanic women diagnosed with epithelial OC during 1992-2013. The disparities in OC 5 year survival and mortality were examined using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for sociodemographic and pathological characteristics, time of diagnosis, receipt of resection surgery and county socioeconomic status. Trends in 5-year survival rates were examined using joinpoint regression models. The 5-year survival was lowest in Puerto Ricans (median survival: 33 months; survival rate: 31.07%) and was highest in the "Other" Hispanic subgroup (median survival: 59 months; survival rate: 49.14%) (log-rank test: P survival rates: from 43.37% to 48.94% (APC = 0.41, P = 0.40) and from 48.72% to 53.46% (APC = 0.29, P = 0.50), respectively. OC mortality in Hispanic patients varied by sub-ethnicity. This heterogeneity should be considered in future cancer data collection, reports and research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones for psychological research: Reaction time measurement reliability and interdevice variability. (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil


    Mobile telephones have significant potential for use in psychological research, possessing unique characteristics-not least their ubiquity--that may make them useful tools for psychologists. We examined whether it is possible to measure reaction times (RTs) accurately using Adobe Flash Lite on mobile phones. We ran simple and choice RT experiments on two widely available mobile phones, a Nokia 6110 Navigator and a Sony Ericsson W810i, using a wireless application protocol (WAP) connection to access the Internet from the devices. RTs were compared within subjects with those obtained using a Linux-based millisecond-accurate measurement system. Results show that measured RTs were significantly longer on mobile devices, and that overall RTs and distribution of RTs varied across devices.

  16. Integrating Real-Time Antecedent Rubrics via Blackboard™ into a Community College General Psychology Class (United States)

    Goomas, David


    Numerous studies have reported on the innovative and effective delivery of online course content by community colleges, but not much has been done on how learning management systems (LMS) can deliver real-time (immediate data delivery) antecedents that inform students of performance requirements. This pilot study used Blackboard's™ interactive…

  17. The Study on the Psychological Problems and Countermeasures of the Full-Time Professional Masters (United States)

    Hui, Tang; Liang, Ma


    Mental health education is one of the most important tasks in postgraduate education. Professional master, as a graduate of an emerging group, its mental health education cannot be ignored. This paper focuses on the existence of some mental health problems of Chinese full-time professional master, explores and analyzes their causes and finally…

  18. The forecast of the postoperative survival time of patients suffered from non-small cell lung cancer based on PCA and extreme learning machine. (United States)

    Han, Fei; Huang, De-Shuang; Zhu, Zhi-Hua; Rong, Tie-Hua


    In this paper, a new effective model is proposed to forecast how long the postoperative patients suffered from non-small cell lung cancer will survive. The new effective model which is based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) and principal component analysis (PCA) can forecast successfully the postoperative patients' survival time. The new model obtains better prediction accuracy and faster convergence rate which the model using backpropagation (BP) algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to forecast the postoperative patients' survival time can not achieve. Finally, simulation results are given to verify the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed new model.

  19. Exploring relationships over time between psychological distress, perceived stress, life events and immature defense style on disordered eating pathology. (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Williams, Sarah Elizabeth


    Perceived stress, immature defense style, depression and anxiety and negative life events all are known to be associated with eating disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between these factors and their relative strength of association with eating disorder symptoms over time. This research was embedded in a longitudinal study of adult women with varying levels of eating disorder symptoms and who were initially recruited from tertiary educational institutions in two Australian states. Four years from initial recruitment, 371 participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination- Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for eating disorder symptoms. Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K-10) as a measure of depression and anxiety, a Life Events Checklist as a measure of previous exposure to potentially traumatic events, the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to determine perceived stress. One year later, in year 5, 295 (878.7%) completed follow-up assessments including the EDE-Q. The questionnaires were completed online or returned via reply paid post. All four independent factors were found to correlate significantly with the global EDE-Q score in cross-sectional analyses (all Spearman rho (rs) >0.18, p  0.15, all p stress and psychological distress scores were significantly associated with year 5 global EDE-Q scores (p = 0.046 and stress had the strongest association with eating disorder symptoms over time The findings support further investigation of interventions to reduce distress and perceived stress in adult females with disordered eating.

  20. The window of visibility: A psychological theory of fidelity in time-sampled visual motion displays (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.; Farrell, J. E.


    Many visual displays, such as movies and television, rely upon sampling in the time domain. The spatiotemporal frequency spectra for some simple moving images are derived and illustrations of how these spectra are altered by sampling in the time domain are provided. A simple model of the human perceiver which predicts the critical sample rate required to render sampled and continuous moving images indistinguishable is constructed. The rate is shown to depend upon the spatial and temporal acuity of the observer, and upon the velocity and spatial frequency content of the image. Several predictions of this model are tested and confirmed. The model is offered as an explanation of many of the phenomena known as apparent motion. Finally, the implications of the model for computer-generated imagery are discussed.

  1. Changes in physical activity and screen time related to psychological well-being in early adolescence: findings from longitudinal study ELANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S. Straatmann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological well-being influences health behaviours differently in adolescent boys and girls. We evaluated the role of psychological well-being in early adolescence in the onset and persistence of insufficient physical activity and exceeding recommended screen time, depending on gender. Methods This work derives from a cohort study called Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Nutritional Assessment conducted among elementary school students from two public and four private schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 2010–2013. We analysed data from 2010 and 2012 from 526 adolescents. Physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Those who performed less than 60 min per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA were classified as insufficiently active. Screen time was evaluated based on daily time spent in front of television, video games, and computers. Those who had 4 h or more screen time per day were classified as exceeding the recommended time. Psychological well-being was assessed using the psychological domain of the KIDSCREEN 27 questionnaire. Linear regression was used to estimate coefficient (β and r2 values for continuous variables. Relative risks (RR and confidence intervals (95 % CI for onset and persistence of insufficient activity and exceeding recommended screen time were estimated with Poisson regression models. Results Among girls, linear regression analyses showed a significant inverse association between psychological well-being and screen minutes per day at T2 (r2 = 0.049/β = −3.81 (95 % CI −7.0, −0.9, as well as an association between poor psychological well-being and onset of exceeding recommended screen time in categorical analyses (RR crude: 1.3; CI 95 % 1.1, 1.7; RR adjusted: 1.3; CI 95 % 1.0, 1.6. For boys, an association was found between psychological well-being and onset of insufficient activity 2 years later (RR crude: 1.3; CI 95

  2. Psychological factors related to physical education classes as predictors of students' intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity. (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ponce-de-León-Elizondo, Ana; Sanz-Arazuri, Eva; Valdemoros-San-Emeterio, María de Los Ángeles; Martínez-Molina, Marina


    In view of the rise in sedentary lifestyle amongst young people, knowledge regarding their intention to partake in physical activity can be decisive when it comes to instilling physical activity habits to improve the current and future health of school students. Therefore, the object of this study was to find a predictive model of the intention to partake in leisure- time physical activity based on motivation, satisfaction and competence. The sample consisted of 347 Spanish, male, high school students and 411 female students aged between 13 and 18 years old. We used a questionnaire made up of the Sport Motivation Scale, Sport Satisfaction Instrument, and the competence factor in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Intention to Partake in Leisure-Time Physical Activity, all of them adapted to school Physical Education. We carried out confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models. The intention to partake in leisure-time physical activity was predicted by competence and the latter by satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation was revealed to be the best predictor of satisfaction/fun. Intrinsic motivation should be enhanced in order to predict an intention to partake in physical activity in Physical Education students.

  3. Time course of physiological and psychological responses in humans during a 20-day severe-cold-acclimation programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brazaitis

    Full Text Available The time course of physiological and psychological markers during cold acclimation (CA was explored. The experiment included 17 controlled (i.e., until the rectal temperature reached 35.5°C or 170 min had elapsed; for the CA-17 session, the subjects (n = 14 were immersed in water for the same amount of time as that used in the CA-1 session head-out water immersions at a temperature of 14°C over 20 days. The data obtained in this study suggest that the subjects exhibited a thermoregulatory shift from peripheral-to-central to solely central input thermoregulation, as well as from shivering to non-shivering thermogenesis throughout the CA. In the first six CA sessions, a hypothermic type of acclimation was found; further CA (CA-7 to CA-16 led to a transitional shift to a hypothermic-insulative type of acclimation. Interestingly, when the subjects were immersed in water for the same time as that used in the CA-1 session (CA-17, the CA led to a hypothermic type of acclimation. The presence of a metabolic type of thermogenesis was evident only under thermoneutral conditions. Cold-water immersion decreased the concentration of cold-stress markers, reduced the activity of the innate immune system, suppressed specific immunity to a lesser degree and yielded less discomfort and cold sensation. We found a negative correlation between body mass index and Δ metabolic heat production before and after CA.

  4. You're it! How to psychologically survive an internal investigation, disciplinary proceeding, or legal action in the police, fire, medical, mental health, legal, or emergency services professions. (United States)

    Miller, Laurence


    Rightly or wrongly, law enforcement, public safety, medical, mental health, legal, and emergency services professionals may have to face internal investigation, disciplinary measures, license suspension, criminal prosecution, civil lawsuits, and/or personal life disruption related to actions taken in the course of their work. This article describes the main categories of misconduct--or simply mistakes--that can cause different types of professionals to be investigated, charged, prosecuted, and/or sued. It next discusses the kinds of psychological reactions commonly seen in workers who face these kinds of proceedings. Finally, the article offers a set of practical psychological coping strategies and procedural recommendations for dealing with the stresses of an investigation, administrative action, or litigation, and for mitigating their effects on one's life and career.

  5. Psychological distress following a motor vehicle crash: evidence from a statewide retrospective study examining settlement times and costs of compensation claims. (United States)

    Guest, Rebecca; Tran, Yvonne; Gopinath, Bamini; Cameron, Ian D; Craig, Ashley


    To determine whether psychological distress associated with musculoskeletal injuries sustained in a motor vehicle crash (MVC), regardless of time of onset, impacts compensation outcomes such as claim settlement times and costs. Second, to identify factors routinely collected by insurance companies that contribute to psychological distress during the compensation process. Statewide retrospective study. Analysis of the New South Wales statewide (Australia) injury register for MVC survivors who lodged a compensation claim from 2011 to 2013. 6341 adults who sustained a musculoskeletal injury and who settled a claim for injury after an MVC. Participants included those diagnosed with psychological distress (n=607) versus those not (n=5734). Time to settlement and total costs of claims, as well as socio-demographic and injury characteristics that may contribute to elevated psychological distress, such as socio-economic disadvantage, and injury severity. Psychological distress in those with a musculoskeletal injury was associated with significantly longer settlement times (an additional 17 weeks) and considerably higher costs (an additional $A41 575.00 or 4.3 times more expensive). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified risk factors for psychological distress including being female, social disadvantage, unemployment prior to the claim, not being at fault in the MVC, requiring ambulance transportation and rehabilitation as part of recovery. Results provide compelling evidence that psychological distress has an adverse impact on people with musculoskeletal injury as they progress through compensation. Findings suggest that additional resources should be directed toward claimants who are at risk (eg, the socially disadvantaged or those unemployed prior to the claim), the major aim being to reduce risk of psychological distress, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, and associated risk of increased settlement times and claim costs. Prospective studies are now

  6. The impact of pamidronate and chemotherapy on survival times in dogs with appendicular primary bone tumors treated with palliative radiation therapy. (United States)

    Oblak, Michelle L; Boston, Sarah E; Higginson, Geraldine; Patten, Steven G; Monteith, Gabrielle J; Woods, J Paul


    To assess survival times in dogs that received palliative radiation therapy (RT) alone, and in combination with chemotherapy, pamidronate, or both for primary appendicular bone tumors and determine whether the addition of these adjunctive therapies affects survival. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 50) with primary appendicular bone tumors. Dogs were divided into the following treatment groups: RT alone, RT + chemotherapy, RT+ pamidronate, and RT+ chemotherapy + pamidronate. Dogs were considered for analysis if they had a known euthanasia date or follow-up data were available for at least 120 days from the time of diagnosis. Survival time was defined as the time from admission to euthanasia. Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used. A P value of less than .05 was considered significant. Fifty dogs were considered for survival analysis. Median survival times (MSTs) were longest for dogs receiving RT and chemotherapy (307 days; 95% CI: 279, 831) and shortest in dogs receiving RT and pamidronate (69 days; 95% CI: 47, 112 days). The difference in MST between dogs who received pamidronate and those who did not in this population was statistically significant in a univariate (P = .039) and multivariate analysis (P = .0015). The addition of chemotherapy into any protocol improved survival (P Chemotherapy should be recommended in addition to a palliative RT protocol to improve survival of dogs with primary appendicular bone tumors. When combined with RT ± chemotherapy, pamidronate decreased MST and should not be included in a standard protocol. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY, (United States)


  8. Evaluation of clinical and histologic factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy: 30 cases (2011-2014). (United States)

    Moore, Antony S; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Frimberger, Angela E


    OBJECTIVE To determine histologic and clinical factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and a chemotherapy protocol in which an anthracycline was alternated with lomustine. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 30 dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma. PROCEDURES Medical records of 3 facilities were reviewed to identify dogs treated for stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma between June 2011 and October 2014. Information collected included signalment, disease staging data, whether anemia was present, date of splenectomy, chemotherapy protocol, adverse effects, and date of death or last follow-up. Histologic slides were reviewed and scored by pathologists. Associations between variables of interest and survival data were evaluated statistically. RESULTS Median survival time for all dogs was 158 days (range, 55 to 560 days), and the 1-year survival rate was 16%. On multivariate analysis, only the histologically determined mitotic score was significantly associated with survival time. The median survival time of 292 days for dogs with a mitotic score of 0 (hemangiosarcoma.

  9. Is Leptospira able to survive in raw milk? Study on the inactivation at different storage times and temperatures. (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Turchi, Barbara; Ferrone, Martina; Galiero, Alessia; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Torracca, Beatrice; Cerri, Domenico


    The consumption of raw milk is currently increasing due to several beneficial aspects, such as nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits. However, some authors highlight the potential risk associated with raw milk consumption. In Italy, while the absence of some pathogen microorganisms is set by the regional regulation DGR 381/2007, for other microorganisms, such as Leptospira, no recommendations are provided. Leptospira is not ascribed among classical milk pathogens; however, it can potentially be present in raw milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival in raw milk of six serovars of Leptospira after storage at different temperatures (4 °C ± 2 °C, 20 °C ± 2 °C, and 30 °C ± 2 °C) for different incubation times (20 min, 45 min, 1 h, and 1 h and 30 min), in order to determine the potential risk for consumers. Moreover, the immediate effect of bovine, goat, and donkey raw milk on tested Leptospira serovars was visually evaluated. After incubation, all samples were subcultured in EMJH and incubated aerobically at 30 °C for 3 months. All inoculated media were weekly examined by dark-field microscope in order to assess Leptospira survival. Extemporary observation of strains' behavior in milk allowed to detect an almost immediate motility loss, and no leptospires were detected by microscopic observations carried out weekly during the trial period. According to our results, it could be possible to exclude raw milk as a source of Leptospira infection for consumers.

  10. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  11. [Reaction time tests in Leipzig, Paris and Würzburg. The Franco-German history of a psychological experiment, 1890-1910]. (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline; Schmidgen, Henning


    This article diiscusses from a comparative perspective the complex history of the reaction experiment with the Hipp chronoscope, one of the central experiments of late 19th-century psychology. It focuses on Wilhelm Wundt's (1832-1920) Institute for Experimental Psychology in Leipzig and on the Paris Laboratory for Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne, which was initially directed by Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), but soon came to be dominated by the research activities of Alfred Binet (1857-1911). When the Paris psychologists founded their Laboratory in 1889, they took the Leipzig Institute as their model. In the early 1890s they adopted the reaction time experiment that had been central to Wundt's psychology. Shortly after, they modified this experiment according to their own specific interests. For Binet, it no longer served as a method for identifying the elementary components of "general" consciousness (as in Wundt), but for classifying "individual" personalities. The methodological and technological changes that Binet introduced into the experimental practice of psychology had no immediate impact on the research work in Leipzig. However, they influenced the "Wurzburg School" of psychology under Wundt's former assistant, Oswald Külpe (1862-1915). This illustrates that the comparative history of transfers of "experimental systems" (Rheinberger) across national borders is not simply a history of mere transports. Rather, it is a history of transferences that sometimes includes surprising "re-transferences".

  12. Conditional Survival: An Assessment of the Prognosis of Patients at Time Points After Initial Diagnosis and Treatment of Locoregional Melanoma Metastasis. (United States)

    Haydu, Lauren E; Scolyer, Richard A; Lo, Serigne; Quinn, Michael J; Saw, Robyn P M; Shannon, Kerwin F; Spillane, Andrew J; Stretch, Jonathan R; McCarthy, William H; Thompson, John F


    Purpose Standard cancer staging and prognostic estimates are determined at the time of the patient's initial disease presentation. Conditional survival is an alternative, dynamic assessment from follow-up time points after the initial disease diagnosis and is based on the condition of survivorship. Estimates of conditional survival can provide critical prognostic information for patients and clinicians, guide subsequent cancer follow-up schedules, and influence decisions regarding treatments. The current study presents conditional survival estimates developed from a cohort of 4,540 patients diagnosed with stage III melanoma treated at a single institution. Methods Patients with stage III disease at first melanoma diagnosis (initial; n = 2,042), or who developed locoregional metastasis as a first recurrence some time after primary diagnosis (recurrent; n = 2,498), were assessed. Conditional melanoma-specific survival (MSS) estimates up to 5 years after diagnosis were adjusted for age, sex, and 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage. Results Older age at diagnosis of stage III disease conveyed a worse prognosis at each conditional survival time point. Males had significantly worse MSS outcomes for up to 2 years of conditional survival, after which males and females had similar MSS. For patients with AJCC stage IIIB and stage IIIC disease, MSS outcomes were similar to those of patients with stage IIIA disease after 3 and 5 years of survivorship, respectively. Conclusion Adjuvant systemic treatments may have the greatest benefit when administered within the first 2 years of stage III melanoma diagnosis, during which period prognosis is significantly worse for male patients of increasing age and AJCC substage. Conditional survival estimates illustrate improved survival prospects for patients with cancer returning for follow-up and may define a finite period of increased risk after diagnosis.

  13. Psychological well-being over time among informal caregivers caring for persons with dementia living at home. (United States)

    Lethin, Connie; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Zwakhalen, Sandra; Soto-Martin, Maria; Saks, Kai; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Challis, David J; Nilsson, Christer; Karlsson, Staffan


    To investigate informal caregivers' psychological well-being and predicted increase in psychological well-being, when caring for persons with dementia (PwDs) living at home, related to caregiver, PwD and formal care (FC) factors. A cohort study at baseline and 3 months' follow-up in eight European countries. Caregivers included (n = 1223) were caring for PwDs aged ≥ 65 years at home. Data on caregivers, PwDs and FC were collected using standardized instruments. Regression analysis of factors associated with caregiver psychological well-being at baseline and 3 months later was performed. Factors associated with caregiver psychological well-being at baseline were positive experience of caregiving, low caregiver burden, high quality of life (QoL) for caregivers, male gender of PwD, high QoL of PwD, few neuropsychiatric symptoms and depressive symptoms for the PwD. At follow-up, caregivers with increased psychological well-being experienced of quality of care (QoC) higher and were more often using dementia specific service. Predicting factors for caregivers' increased psychological well-being were less caregiver burden, positive experience of caregiving, less supervision of the PwD and higher caregiver QoL, if PwD were male, had higher QoL and less neuropsychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, higher QoC predicted increased caregivers' psychological well-being. Informal caregiving for PwDs living at home is a complex task. Our study shows that caregivers' psychological well-being was associated with, among other things, less caregiver burden and higher QoL. Professionals should be aware of PwD neuropsychiatric symptoms that might affect caregivers' psychological well-being, and provide proper care and treatment for caregivers and PwDs.

  14. Understanding Resilience and Other Trajectories of Psychological Distress: a Mixed-Methods Study of Low-Income Mothers Who Survived Hurricane Katrina. (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C


    Recent longitudinal studies in the aftermath of natural disasters have shown that resilience , defined as a trajectory of consistently low symptoms, is the modal experience, although other trajectories representing adverse responses, including chronic or delayed symptom elevations, occur in a substantial minority of survivors. Although these studies have provided insight into the prototypical patterns of postdisaster mental health, the factors that account for these patterns remain unclear. In the current analysis, we aimed to fill this gap through a mixed-methods study of female participants in the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) study. Latent class growth analysis identified six trajectories of psychological distress in the quantitative sample ( n =386). Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 54 participants identified predisaster, disaster-related and postdisaster experiences that could account for the trends in the quantitative data. In particular, preexisting and gains in psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation, religiosity) and positive postdisaster impacts (e.g., greater neighborhood satisfaction, improved employment opportunities) were found to underlie resilience and other positive mental health outcomes. Conversely, experiences of childhood trauma, and pre and postdisaster stressors (e.g., difficulties in intimate partner relationships) were common among participants in trajectories representing adverse psychological responses. Illustrative case studies that exemplify each trajectory are presented. The results demonstrate the utility of mixed-methods analysis to provide a richer picture of processes underlying postdisaster mental health.

  15. A life-course and time perspective on the construct validity of psychological distress in women and men. Measurement invariance of the K6 across gender

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    Boyer Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress is a widespread indicator of mental health and mental illness in research and clinical settings. A recurrent finding from epidemiological studies and population surveys is that women report a higher mean level and a higher prevalence of psychological distress than men. These differences may reflect, to some extent, cultural norms associated with the expression of distress in women and men. Assuming that these norms differ across age groups and that they evolve over time, one would expect gender differences in psychological distress to vary over the life-course and over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a psychological distress scale, the K6, across gender in different age groups and over a twelve-year period. Methods This study is based on data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (C-NPHS. Psychological distress was assessed with the K6, a scale developed by Kessler and his colleagues. Data were examined through multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Increasing levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were assessed cross-sectionally with data from cycle 1 (n = 13019 of the C-NPHS and longitudinally with cycles 1 (1994-1995, 4 (2000-2001 and 7 (2006-2007. Results Higher levels of measurement and structural invariance across gender were reached only after the constraint of equivalence was relaxed for various parameters of a few items of the K6. Some items had a different pattern of gender non invariance across age groups and over the course of the study. Gender differences in the expression of psychological distress may vary over the lifespan and over a 12-year period without markedly affecting the construct validity of the K6. Conclusions This study confirms the cross-gender construct validity of psychological distress as assessed with the K6 despite differences in the expression of some symptoms in women and in men over

  16. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead. (United States)

    De Young, Raymond


    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage.

  17. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead (United States)

    De Young, Raymond


    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage. PMID:25404926

  18. Effects of cadmium and a one-time drought stress on survival, growth, and yield of native plant species

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    Miles, L.J.; Parker, G.R.


    Andropogon scoparius, Monarda fistulosa, and Rudbeckia hirta were grown from seed for 6 weeks in an uncontaminated rural site soil and a heavy metal-contaminated urban site soil. The rural site soil was amended with cadmium chloride. Plants grown in both soils were subjected to a one-time drought stress. Survival, shoot weight, root weight, total weight, height, and weekly growth of Andropogon and Monarda were adversely affected by cadmium (Cd) addition and drought stress. Results were similar for Rudbeckia except that shoot, root, and total weight were not significantly affected by drought stress. Root weights of Monarda and Andropogon were more severely affected by Cd addition than were shoot weights. Root-shoot ratios were not significantly affected by drought stress for any species. Drought stress and Cd addition effects were found to be additive for Monarda and Andropogon. The effect of soil Cd addition on growth was found to be primarily due to an initial delay in growth rather than a reduction in the overall rate of growth. However, on the heavy metal contamination urban site soil the growth rate was found to be reduced. This was especially true for Andropogon which was found to be most tolerant of Cd addition to the rural site soil for the species tested. The reduction in growth rate of plants on the urban site soil was probably not due to Cd alone.

  19. Comparison of survival time of Hawley and Vacuum-formed retainers in orthhodontic patients– a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Moslemzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining the results of orthodontic treatment and keeping the teeth in the corrected position is a great challenge in orthodontics. This study aimed to compare the survival time of three types of retainers including Hawley, 1-mm Vacuum-Formed (VF, and 1.5-mm VF within 6-month period. Methods: In this randomized clinical study, 152 patients were allocated into three groups to receive one type of the retainers. They were visited 1, 3, and 6 months after retainer delivery and checked for breakage, loss, local perforation, and discoloration from the patient's and clinician's point of view as indicators of failure. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used as appropriated. Result: The results revealed that breakage was among the main reasons of failure of retainers within 6 months, which was statistically significantly different between Hawley and VF retainers, as well as between 1-mm and 1.5-mm VF retainers in the three intervals (p0.05. Assessing the discoloration from the patient's point of view revealed statistically significant differences between Hawley and VF retainers within the first month; however, the difference was not significant at the third and sixth months (p0.05. By the end of the sixth month, some of the VF retainers had perforation; while, perforation was not observed in Hawley retainers. Conclusion: Considering the higher breakage rate of 1-mm VF, 1.5-mm VF seems the retainer if choice.

  20. Transgenerational effects of parental nutritional status on offspring development time, survival, fecundity, and sensitivity to zinc in Chironomus tepperi midges. (United States)

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Golding, Lisa A; Hoffmann, Ary A


    Environmental stimuli can induce plastic changes in life history traits, and stimuli experienced by parents can be transmitted to the next generation ("transgenerational") through the inheritance of factors unrelated to changes in DNA sequences. Transgenerational effects are common in species living in habitats subjected to recurrent stressful events, such as fluctuating resource availability. In a previous study, the nutritional status of the midge Chironomus tepperi has been reported to influence life history traits of the offspring. In this study we investigated whether they also alter sensitivity of offspring to zinc. Offspring of parents reared under low food conditions had a shorter development time and lower reproductive output compared to offspring of parents raised under excess food. While zinc exposure decreased the survival of offspring generally, the interaction between parental food level and zinc exposure did not influence the relative sensitivity of offspring toward zinc. Parental nutritional stress therefore triggered transgenerational effects, potentially acting as confounding factors in ecotoxicological studies, but they did not directly affect the susceptibility of offspring to zinc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mental health selection and income support dynamics: multiple spell discrete-time survival analyses of welfare receipt. (United States)

    Kiely, Kim M; Butterworth, Peter


    The higher occurrence of common psychiatric disorders among welfare recipients has been attributed to health selection, social causation and underlying vulnerability. The aims of this study were to test for the selection effects of mental health problems on entry and re-entry to working-age welfare payments in respect to single parenthood, unemployment and disability. Nationally representative longitudinal data were drawn from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. Multiple spell discrete-time survival analyses were conducted using multinomial logistic regression models to test if pre-existing mental health problems predicted transitions to welfare. Analyses were stratified by sex and multivariate adjusted for mental health problems, father's occupation, socioeconomic position, marital status, employment history, smoking status and alcohol consumption, physical function and financial hardship. All covariates were modelled as either lagged effects or when a respondent was first observed to be at risk of income support. Mental health problems were associated with increased risk of entry and re-entry to disability, unemployment and single parenting payments for women, and disability and unemployment payments for men. These associations were attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for contemporaneous risk factors. Although we do not control for reciprocal causation, our findings are consistent with a health selection hypothesis and indicate that mental illness may be a contributing factor to later receipt of different types of welfare payments. We argue that mental health warrants consideration in the design and targeting of social and economic policies.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA is associated with the kidney survival time in chronic kidney disease patients. (United States)

    Xu, Jinsheng; Guo, Zhanjun; Bai, Yaling; Zhang, Junxia; Cui, Liwen; Zhang, Huiran; Zhang, Shenglei; Ai, Xiaolu


    The mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) is known to accumulate mutations and SNPs at a higher frequency than other regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We had identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients previously. In this study, we investigated the association of SNPs in the D-loop of mtDNA with the kidney survival of CKD. The D-loop region of mtDNA was sequenced for 119 CKD patients from the inpatient of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to identify disease outcome-associated SNPs in the D-loop of CKD patients. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify risk factors for the kidney survival of CKD. In the present study, we identified 20 SNPs with a frequency higher than 5% and assessed the relationship of these SNPs with kidney survival time in CKD patients, a SNP of 146 was identified by log-rank test for statistically significant prediction of the kidney survival time. In an overall multivariate analysis, allele 146 was identified as an independent predictor of kidney survival time in CKD patients. The survival time of kidney in the CKD patients with 146C was significantly shorter than that of kidney in CKD patients with 146T (relative risk, 2.336; 95% CI, 1.319-3.923; p = 0.001). SNPs in the D-loop can predict the kidney survival of CKD patients. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop can help to identify CKD patient subgroup at high risk of a poor disease outcome.

  3. The relationship between annual survival rate and migration distance in mallards: an examination of the time-allocation hypothesis for the evolution of migration (United States)

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.


    Predictions of the time-allocation hypothesis were tested with several a posteriori analyses of banding data for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The time-allocation hypothesis states that the critical difference between resident and migrant birds is their allocation of time to reproduction on the breeding grounds and survival on the nonbreeding grounds. Residents have higher reproduction and migrants have higher survival. Survival and recovery rates were estimated by standard band-recovery methods for banding reference areas in the central United States and central Canada. A production-rate index was computed for each reference area with data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service May Breeding Population Survey and July Production Survey. An analysis of covariance was used to test for the effects of migration distance and time period (decade) on survival, recovery, and production rates. Differences in migration chronology were tested by comparing direct-recovery distributions for different populations during the fall migration. Differences in winter locations were tested by comparing distributions of direct recoveries reported during December and January. A strong positive relationship was found between survival rate, and migration distance for 3 of the 4 age and sex classes. A weak negative relationship was found between recovery rate and migration distance. No relationship was found between production rate and migration distance. During the fall migration, birds from the northern breeding populations were located north of birds from the southern breeding populations. No pattern could be found in the relative locations of breeding and wintering areas. Although our finding that survival rate increased with migration distance was consistent with the time-allocation hypothesis, our results on migration chronology and location of wintering areas were not consistent with the mechanism underlying the time-allocation hypothesis. Neither this analysis nor other recent

  4. Consequences of cold-ischemia time on primary nonfunction and patient and graft survival in liver transplantation: a meta-analysis.

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    James E Stahl


    Full Text Available The ability to preserve organs prior to transplant is essential to the organ allocation process.The purpose of this study is to describe the functional relationship between cold-ischemia time (CIT and primary nonfunction (PNF, patient and graft survival in liver transplant.To identify relevant articles Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane database, including the non-English literature identified in these databases, was searched from 1966 to April 2008. Two independent reviewers screened and extracted the data. CIT was analyzed both as a continuous variable and stratified by clinically relevant intervals. Nondichotomous variables were weighted by sample size. Percent variables were weighted by the inverse of the binomial variance.Twenty-six studies met criteria. Functionally, PNF% = -6.678281+0.9134701*CIT Mean+0.1250879*(CIT Mean-9.895352-0.0067663*(CIT Mean-9.895353, r2 = .625, , p<.0001. Mean patient survival: 93% (1 month, 88% (3 months, 83% (6 months and 83% (12 months. Mean graft survival: 85.9% (1 month, 80.5% (3 months, 78.1% (6 months and 76.8% (12 months. Maximum patient and graft survival occurred with CITs between 7.5-12.5 hrs at each survival interval. PNF was also significantly correlated with ICU time, % first time grafts and % immunologic mismatches.The results of this work imply that CIT may be the most important pre-transplant information needed in the decision to accept an organ.

  5. Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

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    Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)


    The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1–2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals (1,650 mg/m2/day). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.

  6. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology


    Crafter, Sarah


    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  7. Jointly modeling longitudinal proportional data and survival times with an application to the quality of life data in a breast cancer trial. (United States)

    Song, Hui; Peng, Yingwei; Tu, Dongsheng


    Motivated by the joint analysis of longitudinal quality of life data and recurrence free survival times from a cancer clinical trial, we present in this paper two approaches to jointly model the longitudinal proportional measurements, which are confined in a finite interval, and survival data. Both approaches assume a proportional hazards model for the survival times. For the longitudinal component, the first approach applies the classical linear mixed model to logit transformed responses, while the second approach directly models the responses using a simplex distribution. A semiparametric method based on a penalized joint likelihood generated by the Laplace approximation is derived to fit the joint model defined by the second approach. The proposed procedures are evaluated in a simulation study and applied to the analysis of breast cancer data motivated this research.

  8. Alcohol use at time of injury and survival following traumatic brain injury: results from the National Trauma Data Bank. (United States)

    Chen, Chiung M; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Yoon, Young-Hee; Dong, Chuanhui


    Premised on biological evidence from animal research, recent clinical studies have, for the most part, concluded that elevated blood alcohol concentration levels are independently associated with higher survival or decreased mortality in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aims to provide some counterevidence to this claim and to further future investigations. Incident data were drawn from the largest U.S. trauma registry, the National Trauma Data Bank, for emergency department admission years 2002-2006. TBI was identified according to the National Trauma Data Bank's definition using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), codes. To eliminate confounding, the exact matching method was used to match alcohol-positive with alcohol-negative incidents on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and facility. Logistic regression compared in-hospital mortality between 44,043 alcohol-positive and 59,817 matched alcohol-negative TBI incidents, with and without causes and intents of TBI and Injury Severity Score as covariates. A sensitivity analysis was performed within a subsample of isolated moderate to severe TBI incidents. Alcohol use at the time of injury was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for TBI. Including varied causes and intents of TBI and Injury Severity Score as potential confounders in the regression model explained away the statistical significance of the seemingly protective effect of alcohol against TBI mortality for all TBIs and for isolated moderate to severe TBIs. The null finding shows that the purported reduction in TBI mortality attributed to positive blood alcohol likely is attributable to residual confounding. Accordingly, the risk of TBI associated with alcohol use should not be overlooked.

  9. Suicide in elderly South Tyroleans in various residential settings at the time of death: a psychological autopsy study. (United States)

    Torresani, Stefano; Toffol, Elena; Scocco, Paolo; Fanolla, Antonio


    Completed suicide is more frequent among older adults than any other age group. Data on suicide in nursing homes and other residential facilities are inconsistent. This work aims to describe the characteristics of elderly suicide victims in different residential settings compared to young suicide victims. Data on people who died by suicide in the South Tyrol (Alto Adige) region of Italy between 2000 and 2009 were gathered from the local Provincial Mortality Register. Further detailed information was collected via questionnaires to mental health departments and psychological services, family physicians and relatives of the deceased. A total of 525 cases of suicide were recorded, with a linearly decreasing trend during the study period. About one-third of the suicides occurred in those aged 60 years and over. Suicide in the elderly was associated with low education level (odds ratio (OR) = 7.1, P < 0.001), living in a one-person household (OR = 2.4, P < 0.01), not having economic troubles (OR = 6.1, P < 0.01), having seen a doctor in the past month (OR = 2.4, P < 0.01) and living in a residential facility (OR = 2.6, P < 0.05). Twenty-four (17.9%) suicide victims aged 60 years and over were in a residential facility/hospital at the time of the death. They were more likely to be women, not married, and to die by jumping from a height. The suicide risk should be carefully assessed in the elderly who live alone or are institutionalized or hospitalized. Efforts are warranted to reduce seniors' access to high places in hospitals and facilities. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

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    Arthur M Kemoli


    Full Text Available Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations.

  11. Bühler revisited in times of war--Peter R. Hofstätter's The Crisis of Psychology (1941). (United States)

    Gundlach, Horst


    During World War II in 1941, the psychologist P. R. Hofstätter added an article to the debate on the crisis of psychology in a distinctly Nazi academic journal. After introducing Hofstätter and the journal, the core elements of his diagnosis and therapy recommendation beneath the National-Socialist-verbiage will be expounded. Hofstätter, a student of Karl Bühler's, ties on to his teacher's crisis well-known publication, but perceives the crisis in a broader perspective and connects it to the decline of theology and of pastoral guidance. Hofstätter's central, new aspect is the practice of psychology without which he sees it doomed. A central feature of psychological practice should be secular, non-therapeutic guidance of individuals. Various contextual facets are illuminated, Hofstätter's thwarted attempts to get a university position, the recent establishment of psychology in Germany as a discipline teaching professionals, the abolition of German military psychology, the battle for the Berlin university chair of Wolfgang Köhler. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace (United States)

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.


    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark–recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978–2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n  =  407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n  =  181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10–20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ± 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S  =  0.773 ± 0.203; yellow morph: S  =  0.531 ± 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S  =  0.411 ± 0.131; yellow morph: S  =  0.301 ± 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of lab-born snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2–4-yr-old snakes were S  =  0.845 ± 0.084 for the black morph and S  =  0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for ≥5-yr-old snakes S  =  0.958 ± 0.039 (black morph) and S  =  0.822 ± 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2–4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life

  13. The association between timing of initiation of adjuvant therapy and the survival of early stage ovarian cancer patients - An analysis of NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group trials. (United States)

    Chan, John K; Java, James J; Fuh, Katherine; Monk, Bradley J; Kapp, Daniel S; Herzog, Thomas; Bell, Jeffrey; Young, Robert


    To determine the association between timing of adjuvant therapy initiation and survival of early stage ovarian cancer patients. Data were obtained from women who underwent primary surgical staging followed by adjuvant therapy from two Gynecologic Oncology Group trials (protocols # 95 and 157). Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for covariates were used for analyses. Of 497 stage I-II epithelial ovarian cancer patients, the median time between surgery and initiation of adjuvant therapy was 23days (25th-75th%: 12-33days). The time interval from surgery to initiation of adjuvant therapy was categorized into three groups: 4weeks. The corresponding 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 72.8%, 73.9%, and 79.5% (p=0.62). The 5-year overall survival rates were 79.4%, 81.9%, and 82.8%, respectively (p=0.51; p=0.33 - global test). As compared to 4weeks. Age, stage, grade, and cytology were important prognostic factors. Timing of adjuvant therapy initiation was not associated with survival in early stage epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blockade of CD40-CD154 at the time of donor-specific blood transfusion does not lead to prolonged kidney allograft survival in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringers, J; Haanstra, KG; Kroczek, RA; Kliem, K; Kuhn, EM; Wubben, J; Ossevoort, MA; Volk, HD; Jonker, M


    Background. In rodents it has been demonstrated that blockade of the CD40-CD154 (CD40L) pathway at the time of donor-specific blood transfusion (DST) can result in indefinite graft survival. Because it has been reported in the past that DST in monkeys can have a favorable effect on graft outcome and

  15. Risk of Early Onset Substance Use among Students with and without Mild Academic Disabilities: Results of a Discrete-Time Survival Analysis (United States)

    Kepper, Annelies; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Monshouwer, Karin


    This study investigated the age of onset of substance use among 536 students with mild academic disabilities and 906 students without academic disabilities, and the extent to which emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems explain the differences between these two groups. Using discrete-time survival analysis, the results of this study showed…

  16. Surviving death-anxieties in liquid modern times: examining Zygmunt Bauman's cultural theory of death and dying. (United States)

    Higo, Masa


    Despite his prominence as a leading contemporary social theorist, Zygmunt Bauman's long-term writing on the cultural theory of death and dying has largely been overlooked in the sociological literature of death and dying, particularly in the United States. Bauman uniquely theorizes how we survive death-anxieties today: Contemporary, liquid modern culture has engaged us in ceaseless pursuit of the unattainable consumer sensation of bodily fitness as a way to suppress and thus survive our death-anxieties. Bauman also argues that the prevalence of this cultural formula to survive death-anxieties has simultaneously increased, more than ever before in social history, the volume of individual responsibility for restlessly coping with existential anxieties in the societies of consumers. While unique and insightful, his theoretical argument has a limitation; largely succeeding Freud's classic view of mortality, Bauman's contemporary theory may lead us to neglect potentially important social, cultural, and historical variations in how mortality has been understood.

  17. Impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival and its change over time between 1973 and 2012 in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a propensity score-matched analysis. (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Liu, Xu; Chen, Yu-Pei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun


    The impact of marital status at diagnosis on survival outcomes and its change over time in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are unclear. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify patients diagnosed with NPC in the United States from 1973 to 2012. A primary comparison (married vs. unmarried) was implemented with 1:1 propensity score matching. Secondary comparisons were performed individually between three unmarried subgroups (single, separated/divorced, widowed) and married group. The effect of marital status on cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using univariate/multivariate analysis. Moreover, we investigated the change over time (1973-2012) in the effect of marital status on NPC survival. Married patients had better 5-year CSS/OS than unmarried patients (61.1% vs. 52.6%, P < 0.001; 55.6% vs. 45.3%, P < 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, unmarried patients had significantly poorer CSS/OS than married patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.35, P < 0.001; aHR = 1.40, P < 0.001, respectively). The survival benefit of being married was only detected in non-Hispanic white and Chinese American patients. Single, separated/divorced, and widowed patients had significantly poorer CSS/OS than married patients (aHR = 1.37 and 1.37; 1.46 and 1.42; 1.43 and 1.48, respectively; all P < 0.001). The change over time in the effect of marital status on survival was more stable in male than female. The strength of the negative effect of separated/divorced and widowed status showed a downward and upward trend, respectively. Gender difference in the adverse effect of single status on NPC survival became smaller over time. Only non-Hispanic white and Chinese American patients with NPC obtain survival benefits from married status. Single and widowed patients are regarded as high-risk population. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.



  19. The Impact of Resource Constraints on the Psychological Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time (United States)

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.


    This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…

  20. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being over Time among African American Youth (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Upton, Rachel D.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Sellers, Robert M.


    This study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial…

  1. Application of Survival Analysis to Study Timing and Probability of Outcome Attainment by a Community College Student Cohort (United States)

    Mourad, Roger; Hong, Ji-Hee


    This study applies competing risks survival analysis to describe outcome attainment for an entire cohort of students who first attended a Midwestern community college in the Fall Semester 2001. Outcome attainment included transfer to a four-year institution, degree/ certificate attainment from the community college under study, and transfer to a…

  2. Military Psychology. (United States)


  3. Time trends in incidence rates and survival of newly diagnosed stage IV breast cancer by tumor histology: a population-based analysis. (United States)

    Di Meglio, Antonio; Freedman, Rachel A; Lin, Nancy U; Barry, William T; Metzger-Filho, Otto; Keating, Nancy L; King, Tari A; Sertoli, Mario Roberto; Boccardo, Francesco; Winer, Eric P; Vaz-Luis, Ines


    Few contemporary data are available that compare incidence and survival of metastatic breast cancer between ductal and lobular carcinomas. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 registries, we identified 10,639 patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 2011. Annual age-adjusted incidence rates and annual percent changes (APCs) were analyzed. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the impact of year of diagnosis and histology on overall survival. 9250 (86.9 %) patients had ductal and 1389 (13.1 %) had lobular carcinomas. Metastatic breast cancer incidence increased slightly over time for ductal (APC = +1.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = +1.0 to +2.4) and lobular carcinomas (APC = +3.0, 95 % CI = +1.8 to +4.3). Median overall survival was 22 months among the whole cohort. More recent year of diagnosis was associated with better overall survival only for patients with ductal carcinomas (interaction p value = 0.006), with an adjusted hazard ratio of death for every five-year increment in the date of diagnosis of 0.93 (95 % CI =  0.91-0.95) among ductal carcinomas, compared with 1.05 (95 % CI = 0.95-1.10) among lobular carcinomas. Overall survival was longer for lobular versus ductal carcinomas (28 versus 21 months, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio of death = 0.93, 95 % CI = 0.87-0.99), but the magnitude of this effect was attenuated among the cohort restricted to hormone receptor-positive tumors. In this population-based analysis, incidence rates of metastatic breast cancer at presentation increased slightly over time for both histologies, and particularly for lobular tumors. A modest improvement in metastatic breast cancer median overall survival was observed, but was apparently limited to ductal carcinomas.

  4. Retrospective epidemiological study of canine epilepsy in Japan using the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force classification 2015 (2003-2013): etiological distribution, risk factors, survival time, and lifespan. (United States)

    Hamamoto, Yuji; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Yu, Yoshihiko; Wada, Masae; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Fujita, Michio


    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the etiological distribution, survival time of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IdE) and structural epilepsy (StE), and risk factors for survival time, according to the recently published IVETF classification. We investigated canine cases with epilepsy that were referred to our teaching hospital in Japan during the past 10 years, and which encompassed a different breed population from Western countries. A total of 358 dogs with epilepsy satisfied our etiological study criteria. Of these, 172 dogs (48 %) were classified as IdE and 76 dogs (21 %) as StE. Of these dogs, 100 dogs (consisting of 65 with IdE and 35 with StE) were included in our survival study. Median survival time from the initial epileptic seizure in dogs with IdE and StE was 10.4 and 4.5 years, respectively. Median lifespan of dogs with IdE and StE was 13.5 and 10.9 years, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that risk factors for survival time in IdE were high seizure frequency (≥0.3 seizures/month) and focal epileptic seizures. Focal epileptic seizures were identified as a risk factor for survival time in IdE. Clinicians should carefully differentiate seizure type as it is difficult to identify focal epileptic seizures. With good seizure control, dogs with IdE can survive for nearly the same lifespan as the general dog population. Our results using the IVETF classification are similar to previous

  5. A preliminary randomised control trial of the effects of Dru yoga on psychological well-being in Northern Irish first time mothers. (United States)

    Timlin, Deirdre; Simpson, Ellen Elizabeth Anne


    the transition to motherhood can be stressful, especially for first time mothers. Recent research has shown that yoga can be effective for enhancing psychological well-being. the purpose of this study was to establish if a postpartum Dru yoga intervention improves psychological well-being in first time mothers. a randomised controlled study was conducted. first time mothers were recruited from a Sure Start Community Centre and included in the study if they had a baby aged between 6 weeks to one-year-old. Exclusion criteria were the presence of sciatica, bulging discs, heart disease or whiplash and if they already practiced yoga. participants were randomised into a Dru yoga group (n=16) who received a one-hour Dru yoga session each week for 4 weeks and a 20-minute DVD for practice at home. The control group (n=16) who did not receive an intervention. Baseline and follow up measures of perceived stress, mood and coping were assessed in each group. a repeated measures factorial Analysis of Variance showed that in comparison to the control group, the Dru yoga intervention group had improved psychological well-being as indicated by reductions in stress, negative affect, and dysfunctional coping and increases in problem focused coping at follow up (Pyoga is beneficial for the psychological well-being of first time mothers. Further research is needed using large scale replication studies with a longer follow up period and including multiparous women. This study extends the support for yoga with postpartum mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of fuzheng jianpi decoction combined chemotherapy on the quality of life and the survival time of children with solid tumor]. (United States)

    Shi, Xue; Zhu, Xiu-Dan; Wang, Huan-Ming


    To study the effects of Fuzheng Jianpi Decoction (FJD) combined chemotherapy on the quality of life (QOL) and the survival time of children with solid tumor. Recruited were 167 solid tumor children patients at Department of Tumor, Beijing Children's Hospital from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2008. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group (83 cases) and the control group (84 cases) according to the random digit table. All had chemotherapy. Those in the treatment group additionally took FJD, 50 -100 mL each time, twice daily. After chemotherapy those in the treatment group took modified FJD. The WBC, Hb, and PLT were detected in all patients before treatment, 6 months after treatment, and 1 year after treatment. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year QOL, 3-year survival rate, and the survival life of dead children patients were observed. Compared with the control group of the same period, the 6-month and 1-year WBC and Hb increased, the 1-year PLT increased in the treatment group, showing statistical difference (Pchildren was prolonged in the treatment group, showing statistical difference (Pchemotherapy could effectively improve the QOL of solid tumor children patients, elevate their survival rate, and prolong their life spans.

  7. Hemopathologic predisposition and survival time under continuous gamma irradiation: responses mediated by altered radiosensitivity of hemopoietic progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.


    These marked differences in radiosensitivity of individual animals within a relatively homogeneous, healthy pure bred group, as manifested by varying survival patterns and pathologic tendencies, have stimulated studies concerning the cellular bases of these responses. In previous studies, as in this one, the authors have attempted to characterize the cellular processes of hemopoietic recovery, an early occurring event characteristically observed in a select subgroup of MPD dogs exhibiting prolonged course of survival and a tendency to myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Hemopoietic recovery appears to be a broadly based process as indicated by: (a) increased concentrations of blood granulocytes; (b) expanded granulocyte reserves; and (c) increased concentration of hemopoietic progenitors in the marrow. The intent of the present study was to examine the possibility that the cellular basis of hemopoietic recovery resides in the acquisition of increased radioresistance by hemopoietic progenitors, i.e., the suspected cellular targets of the hemopathic effects of ionizing irradiation.

  8. Hans Thomae: The Individual and His/Her World in the Flux of Time: History and Biography in Psychological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Straub


    Full Text Available The interview explores the important academic experiences with mentors and intellectual impulses which have supported and guided the psychological thinking of Hans THOMAE, especially in his approach to "biographical method." Questions about motivation in human activity, consciousness and life history are impulses that—mediated and guided by NIETZSCHE, HERDER, MORITZ, SPRANGER, ROTHACKER, LERSCH and KLAGES among others—finally led THOMAE to the development and shaping of a "biographical method" in psychology; a method which propagates the inclusion of the individual's life-story, the openness and clarity of the survey, as well as a synthesis of nomological and ideographical approaches to qualitative and quantitative research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040368

  9. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: IV. Snowy egret post-fledging dispersal, timing of migration and survival, 2002–2004 (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Chelgren, Nathan; Haggerty, Patricia K.


    This telemetry study is an extension of our 1997–2006 research on historical mercury contamination on snowy egrets (Egretta thula) up to ~ 20 days of age. Findings from initial studies at the mercury-contaminated Carson River colony at Lahontan Reservoir (LR) and a similar-sized reference (REF) colony on the Humboldt River included mercury-related physiological, biochemical, histopathological and reproductive effects up to ~20 days of age; with poor water years (2000–04), i.e., reduced prey availability, exacerbating effects. Herein, we compare timing of dispersal and migration at LR vs. REF, but the primary question now addressed is “whether survival of young mercury-exposed snowy egrets from LR would be further compromised beyond ~20 days of age? ” Based upon telemetry signals until 90–110 days of age (including dead bird counts and survival rate estimates), we conclude that mercury did not further compromise survival. Dead bird counts and survival rate estimates included time in the colony when fed by adults, plus the critical period when young dispersed from the colony to forage independently. The extended drought during this 3-year study was most critical in 2002 when production of ~20 d old egrets at LR was only 0.24 young/nest. In 2002, survival rates were low at both colonies and we documented the highest counts of dead egrets for both colonies. We suggest the losses in 2002 beyond 20 days of age were more a function of prey availability influenced by drought than exposure to mercury, especially at LR, because higher mercury concentrations, higher survival rates and fewer dead birds were documented at LR in 2003 when water conditions improved. Furthermore, total mercury (THg) in blood in 2003 was more than double 2002 (geometric mean, 3.39 vs 1.47 µg/g wet weight (ww). This higher THg exposure at LR in 2003 was associated with a redistribution of parent and post-dispersal feeding activities upstream (where there was higher mercury from historic

  10. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: IV. Snowy egret post-fledging dispersal, timing of migration and survival, 2002-2004. (United States)

    Henny, Charles J; Hill, Elwood F; Grove, Robert A; Chelgren, Nathan D; Haggerty, Patricia K


    This telemetry study is an extension of our 1997-2006 research on historical mercury contamination on snowy egrets (Egretta thula) up to ~ 20 days of age. Findings from initial studies at the mercury-contaminated Carson River colony at Lahontan Reservoir (LR) and a similar-sized reference (REF) colony on the Humboldt River included mercury-related physiological, biochemical, histopathological and reproductive effects up to ~20 days of age; with poor water years (2000-04), i.e., reduced prey availability, exacerbating effects. Herein, we compare timing of dispersal and migration at LR vs. REF, but the primary question now addressed is "whether survival of young mercury-exposed snowy egrets from LR would be further compromised beyond ~20 days of age? " Based upon telemetry signals until 90-110 days of age (including dead bird counts and survival rate estimates), we conclude that mercury did not further compromise survival. Dead bird counts and survival rate estimates included time in the colony when fed by adults, plus the critical period when young dispersed from the colony to forage independently. The extended drought during this 3-year study was most critical in 2002 when production of ~20d old egrets at LR was only 0.24 young/nest. In 2002, survival rates were low at both colonies and we documented the highest counts of dead egrets for both colonies. We suggest the losses in 2002 beyond 20 days of age were more a function of prey availability influenced by drought than exposure to mercury, especially at LR, because higher mercury concentrations, higher survival rates and fewer dead birds were documented at LR in 2003 when water conditions improved. Furthermore, total mercury (THg) in blood in 2003 was more than double 2002 (geometric mean, 3.39 vs 1.47µg/g wet weight (ww). This higher THg exposure at LR in 2003 was associated with a redistribution of parent and post-dispersal feeding activities upstream (where there was higher mercury from historic mining

  11. Complex karyotype in mantle cell lymphoma is a strong prognostic factor for the time to treatment and overall survival, independent of the MCL international prognostic index. (United States)

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Terré, Christine; Jardin, Fabrice; Radford, Isabelle; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Penther, Dominique; Bastard, Christian; Rigaudeau, Sophie; Pilorge, Sylvain; Morschhauser, Franck; Bouscary, Didier; Delarue, Richard; Farhat, Hassan; Rousselot, Philippe; Hermine, Olivier; Tilly, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Castaigne, Sylvie


    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is usually an aggressive disease. However, a few patients do have an "indolent" evolution (iMCL) defined by a long survival time without intensive therapy. Many studies highlight the prognostic role of additional genetic abnormalities, but these abnormalities are not routinely tested for and do not yet influence the treatment decision. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these additional abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetic testing, as well as their relationships with the clinical characteristics and their value in identifying iMCL. All consecutive MCL cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 at four institutions were retrospectively selected on the basis of an informative karyotype with a t(11;14) translocation at the time of diagnosis. A total of 125 patients were included and followed for an actual median time of 35 months. The median overall survival (OS) and survival without treatment (TFS) were 73.7 and 1.3 months, respectively. In multivariable Cox models, a high mantle cell lymphoma international prognostic index score, a complex karyotype, and blastoid morphology were independently associated with a shortened OS. Spleen enlargement, nodal presentation, extra-hematological involvement, and complex karyotypes were associated with shorter TFS. A score based on these factors allowed for the identification of "indolent" patients (median TFS 107 months) from other patients (median TFS: 1 month). In conclusion, in this multicentric cohort of MCL patients, a complex karyotype was associated with a shorter survival time and allowed for the identification of iMCL at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gray’s Time-Varying Coefficients Model for Posttransplant Survival of Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients with a Diagnosis of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren


    Full Text Available Transplantation is often the only viable treatment for pediatric patients with end-stage liver disease. Making well-informed decisions on when to proceed with transplantation requires accurate predictors of transplant survival. The standard Cox proportional hazards (PH model assumes that covariate effects are time-invariant on right-censored failure time; however, this assumption may not always hold. Gray’s piecewise constant time-varying coefficients (PC-TVC model offers greater flexibility to capture the temporal changes of covariate effects without losing the mathematical simplicity of Cox PH model. In the present work, we examined the Cox PH and Gray PC-TVC models on the posttransplant survival analysis of 288 pediatric liver transplant patients diagnosed with cancer. We obtained potential predictors through univariable (P<0.15 and multivariable models with forward selection (P<0.05 for the Cox PH and Gray PC-TVC models, which coincide. While the Cox PH model provided reasonable average results in estimating covariate effects on posttransplant survival, the Gray model using piecewise constant penalized splines showed more details of how those effects change over time.

  13. Long-term time trends in incidence, survival and mortality of lymphomas by subtype among adults in Manitoba, Canada: a population-based study using cancer registry data. (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Mahmud, Salaheddin; Skrabek, Pamela; Lix, Lisa; Johnston, James B


    To examine 30-year time trends in incidence, survival and mortality of lymphomas by subtype in Manitoba, Canada. Lymphoma cases diagnosed between 1984 and 2013 were classified according to the 2008 WHO classification system for lymphoid neoplasms. Death data (1984-2014) were obtained from the Manitoba Vital Statistics Agency. To examine time trends in incidence and mortality, we used joinpoint regression to estimate annual percentage change and average annual percentage change. Age-period-cohort modelling was conducted to measure the effects of age, period and cohort on incidence and mortality time trends. We estimated age-specific and standardised 5-year relative survival and used Poisson regression model to test time trends in relative survival. Total Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) incidence in men and women was stable during the study period. Age-standardised total non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence increased by 4% annually until around 2000, and the trend varied by sex and NHL subtype. Total HL mortality continuously declined (by 2.5% annually in men and by 2.7% annually in women), while total NHL mortality increased (by 4.4% annually in men until 1998 and by 3.2% annually in women until 2001) and then declined (by 3.6% annually in men and by 2.5% annually in women). Age-standardised 5-year relative survival for HL improved from 72.6% in 1984-1993 to 85.8% in 2004-2013, and for NHL from 57.0% in 1984-1993 to 67.5% in 2004-2013. Survival improvement was also noted for NHL subtypes, although the extent varied, with the greatest improvement for follicular lymphoma (from 65.3% in 1984-1993 to 87.6% in 2004-2013). Time trends were generally consistent with those reported in other jurisdictions in total HL and NHL incidence, but were unique in incidence for HL and for NHL subtypes chronic/small lymphocytic leukaemia/lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Survival improvements and mortality reductions were seen for HL and NHL in both sexes.

  14. Survival time outcomes in randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses: the parallel universes of efficacy and cost-effectiveness. (United States)

    Guyot, Patricia; Welton, Nicky J; Ouwens, Mario J N M; Ades, A E


    Many regulatory agencies require that manufacturers establish both efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The statistical analysis of the randomized, controlled trial (RCT) outcomes should be the same for both purposes. The question addressed by this article is the following: for survival outcomes, what is the relationship between the statistical analyses used to support inference and the statistical model used to support decision making based on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)? We performed a review of CEAs alongside trials and CEAs based on a synthesis of RCT results, which were submitted to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal program and included survival outcomes. We recorded the summary statistics and the statistical models used in both efficacy and cost-effectiveness analyses as well as procedures for model diagnosis and selection. In no case was the statistical model for efficacy and CEA the same. For efficacy, relative risks or Cox regression was used. For CEA, the common practice was to fit a parametric model to the control arm, then to apply the hazard ratio from the efficacy analysis to predict the treatment arm. The proportional hazards assumption was seldom checked; the choice of model was seldom based on formal criteria, and uncertainty in model choice was seldom addressed and never propagated through the model. Both inference and decisions based on CEAs should be based on the same statistical model. This article shows that for survival outcomes, this is not the case. In the interests of transparency, trial protocols should specify a common procedure for model choice for both purposes. Further, the sufficient statistics and the life tables for each arm should be reported to improve transparency and to facilitate secondary analyses of results of RCTs. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiotherapy timing in the treatment of limited-stage small cell lung cancer: the impact of thoracic and brain irradiation on survival. (United States)

    Scotti, Vieri; Meattini, Icro; Franzese, Ciro; Saieva, Calogero; Bertocci, Silvia; Meacci, Fiammetta; Furfaro, Ilaria; Scartoni, Daniele; Cecchini, Sara; Desideri, Isacco; Ferrari, Katia; Bruni, Alessio; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Bastiani, Paolo; Agresti, Benedetta; Mangoni, Monica; Livi, Lorenzo; Biti, Giampaolo


    Small cell lung cancer is an aggressive histologic subtype of lung cancer in which the role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been well established in limited-stage disease. We retrospectively reviewed a series of limited-stage small cell lung cancers treated with chemotherapy and thoracic and brain radiotherapy. A total of 124 patients affected by limited-stage small cell lung cancer has been treated over 10 years in our Institute. Fifty-three patients (42.8%) had concomitant radio-chemotherapy treatment and 71 patients (57.2%) a sequential treatment. Eighty-eight patients (70.9%) underwent an association of a platinum-derived drug (cisplatinum or carboplatinum) and etoposide. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was planned in all patients with histologically proven complete response to primary radio-chemotherapy. With a mean follow-up of 2.2 years, complete response was obtained in 50.8% of cases. We found a significant difference between different radio-chemotherapy association approaches (P = 0.007): percentages of overall survival were respectively 10.0%, 12.9% and 5.6% in early, late concomitant and sequential radio-chemotherapy timing. Cranial prophylaxis did not seem to influence overall survival (P = 0.21) or disease-free survival for local relapse (P = 0.34). Concomitant radio-chemotherapy is the best approach according to our experience. Our results show a benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation in distant metastasis-free survival.

  16. A race against time: can CO-OPs and provider start-ups survive in the health insurance marketplaces? (United States)

    Eggbeer, Bill


    > The Affordable Care Act's state and federal health insurance marketplaces, designed to provide affordable insurance coverage to individuals and small groups, are proving hostile territory to new market entrants. Efforts to inject competition into the marketplaces are being challenged by the wide-scale withdrawal o consumer-operated and oriented plans (CO-OPs). Meanwhile, premiums appear likely to increase for consumers as plans seek to balance medical losses. Flaws in the "Three R's" (reinsurance, risk corridors, and risk-adjustment) program are viewed as a threat to the survival of CO-OPs and start-ups.

  17. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene


    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  18. Social familiarity reduces reaction times and enhances survival of group-living predatory mites under the risk of predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andreas Strodl

    Full Text Available Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni.We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae.In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment.

  19. Minding the body: psychotherapy and cancer survival. (United States)

    Spiegel, David


    This article reviews evidence regarding effects of psychotherapy on overall cancer survival time. Special emphasis is given to research on adverse effects of depression on cancer survival, breast cancer, and mediating psychophysiological pathways linking psychosocial support to longer survival. It reviews all published clinical trials addressing effects of psychotherapy on cancer survival, emphasizing depression, breast cancer, and psychophysiological evidence linking stress, depression, and support to cancer survival. Systematic literature review and synthesis. Eight of 15 published trials indicate that psychotherapy enhances cancer survival time. No studies show an adverse effect of psychotherapy on cancer survival. Potential psychophysiological mechanisms linking stress to shorter survival include dysregulation of diurnal cortisol, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced natural killer cell activity, shorter telomeres and lower telomerase activity, glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of p53 and BrCA1 gene expression, and sympathetic nervous system activation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Stress and support affect the course of cancer progression. What is known? Stress and support have been thought to be related to cancer risk and progression, but evidence has been mixed. Depression is a natural co-morbid condition with cancer. It has not been clear how stress and support could physiologically affect the rate of cancer progression. Immune function was not thought to have much relevance to cancer progression. Few other physiological mechanisms linking stress to cancer progression were known. What does this paper add? There is evidence from 15 RCTs indicating that effective psychosocial support improves quantity as well as quality of life with cancer. There is evidence that chronic depression predicts poorer prognosis with cancer. Dysregulated circadian cortisol patterns predict more rapid cancer progression. Inflammatory processes affect cancer

  20. Functions of reminiscence and the psychological well-being of young-old and older adults over time. (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Cappeliez, Philippe; Claxton, Amy


    Existing cross-sectional research demonstrates an association between reminiscence functions and well-being in later life. The results of this study replicate and extend previous findings in separate participant samples above and below 70 years of age. Findings suggest a link between reminiscence functions and psychological well-being, and indirectly between reminiscence and well-being 16 months thereafter. Invariance analyses reveal few differences in association between reminiscence and well-being when young-old (n = 196) and older adults (n = 215) are compared. These findings suggest a direct positive association between self-positive reminiscence functions (identity, death preparation, and problem-solving) and a direct negative association between self-negative functions (boredom reduction, bitterness revival, and intimacy maintenance) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). In contrast, prosocial reminiscence functions (conversation, teach/inform others) appear to have an indirect association with well-being (i.e., via self-positive and self-negative functions). These findings are discussed relative to evolving theory and research linking cognition and health.

  1. Eight-Year Retrospective Study of the Critical Time Lapse between Root Canal Completion and Crown Placement: Its Influence on the Survival of Endodontically Treated Teeth. (United States)

    Pratt, Isaac; Aminoshariae, Anita; Montagnese, Thomas A; Williams, Kristin A; Khalighinejad, Navid; Mickel, Andre


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of factors associated with various coronal restorative modalities after root canal treatment (RCT) on the survival of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) and to assess the effect of time lapse between RCT and crown placement after RCT to form a tooth loss hazard model. Computerized analysis was performed for all patients who received posterior RCT from 2008 to 2016 in the graduate endodontic department. Data collected included dates of RCT, type of post-endodontic restoration, and time of extraction if extracted. Teeth that received crown after RCT were also divided into 2 groups: receiving crown before 4 months and after 4 months after RCT. Data were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier log-rank test and Cox regression model (α = 0.05) by using SPPS Statistic 21. Type of restoration after RCT significantly affected the survival of ETT (P = .001). ETT that received composite/amalgam buildup restorations were 2.29 times more likely to be extracted compared with ETT that received crown (hazard ratio, 2.29; confidence interval, 1.29-4.06; P = .005). Time of crown placement after RCT was also significantly correlated with survival rate of ETT (P = .001). Teeth that received crown 4 months after RCT were almost 3 times more likely to get extracted compared with teeth that received crown within 4 months of RCT (hazard ratio, 3.38; confidence interval, 1.56-6.33; P = .002). Patients may benefit by maintaining their natural dentition by timely placement of crown after RCT, which otherwise may have been extracted and replaced by implant because of any delay in crown placement. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting treatment effect from surrogate endpoints and historical trials: an extrapolation involving probabilities of a binary outcome or survival to a specific time. (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Sargent, Daniel J; Buyse, Marc; Burzykowski, Tomasz


    Using multiple historical trials with surrogate and true endpoints, we consider various models to predict the effect of treatment on a true endpoint in a target trial in which only a surrogate endpoint is observed. This predicted result is computed using (1) a prediction model (mixture, linear, or principal stratification) estimated from historical trials and the surrogate endpoint of the target trial and (2) a random extrapolation error estimated from successively leaving out each trial among the historical trials. The method applies to either binary outcomes or survival to a particular time that is computed from censored survival data. We compute a 95% confidence interval for the predicted result and validate its coverage using simulation. To summarize the additional uncertainty from using a predicted instead of true result for the estimated treatment effect, we compute its multiplier of standard error. Software is available for download. © 2011, The International Biometric Society No claim to original US government works.

  3. Effect of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process: inverse power law and Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities. (United States)

    Pramukkul, Pensri; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo


    We study the combined effects of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process that generates intermittent events mimicking the behavior of complex systems. By varying the sensitivity level of the detector we move between two forms of complexity, from inverse power law to Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities. Here fluctuations fight against complexity, causing an exponential truncation to the survival probability. We show that fluctuations of relatively weak intensity have a strong effect on the generation of Mittag-Leffler complexity, providing a reason why stretched exponentials are frequently found in nature. Our results afford a more unified picture of complexity resting on the Mittag-Leffler function and encompassing the standard inverse power law definition.

  4. Effect of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process: Inverse power law and Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities (United States)

    Pramukkul, Pensri; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo


    We study the combined effects of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process that generates intermittent events mimicking the behavior of complex systems. By varying the sensitivity level of the detector we move between two forms of complexity, from inverse power law to Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities. Here fluctuations fight against complexity, causing an exponential truncation to the survival probability. We show that fluctuations of relatively weak intensity have a strong effect on the generation of Mittag-Leffler complexity, providing a reason why stretched exponentials are frequently found in nature. Our results afford a more unified picture of complexity resting on the Mittag-Leffler function and encompassing the standard inverse power law definition.

  5. A geographic study of West Nile virus in humans, dead corvids and mosquitoes in Ontario using spatial scan statistics with a survival time application. (United States)

    Thomas-Bachli, A L; Pearl, D L; Berke, O; Parmley, E J; Barker, I K


    Surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) in Ontario has included passive reporting of human cases and testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds found by the public. The dead bird surveillance programme was limited to testing within a public health unit (PHU) until a small number of birds test positive. These dead corvid and mosquito surveillance programmes have not been compared for their ability to provide early warning in geographic areas where human cases occur each year. Spatial scan statistics were applied to time-to-event survival data based on first cases of WNv in found dead corvids, mosquitoes and humans. Clusters identified using raw data were compared to clusters based on model-adjusted survival times to evaluate whether geographic and sociodemographic factors influenced their distribution. Statistically significant (p space-time clusters of PHUs with faster time to detection were found using each surveillance data stream. During 2002-2004, the corvid surveillance programme outperformed the mosquito programme in terms of time to WNv detection, while the clusters of first-positive mosquito pools were more spatially similar to first human cases. In 2006, a cluster of first-positive dead corvids was located in northern PHUs and preceded a cluster of early human cases that was identified after controlling for the influence of geographic region and sociodemographic profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Direct Portal Pressure Measurement Using a Digital Pressure Wire with Real-Time Remote Display: A Survival Study. (United States)

    Schulman, Allison R; Thompson, Christopher C; Ryou, Marvin


    Portal hypertension is necessary for the development of most clinical complications of cirrhosis. We recently reported a novel, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided technique for direct portal pressure measurements using a digital pressure wire. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate safety in an animal survival model and (2) compare direct portal vein (PV) versus transhepatic access of a first-order venule. Yorkshire pigs, weighing 40-55 kg. Procedures were performed under general anesthesia. PV was identified using a linear array echoendoscope and accessed with a 22-G fine needle aspiration needle preloaded with a digital pressure wire. Access was confirmed by portal venography. Mean digital pressure measurements were recorded over 30 seconds, and again after accessing a first-order portal venule in a transhepatic manner. Procedure times and video logs were maintained throughout. Animals were survived for 2 weeks. Repeat portal pressure measurements were performed before euthanasia and necropsy. EUS-guided portal pressure measurements ranged from 3 to 11 mm Hg (mean 6.1) and were performed in a mean time of 214 seconds. There was no difference in measurement between the PV and first-order venule, or between baseline and 2-week follow-up. Five of 5 animals survived without incident. On necropsy, there was no evidence of thrombus or hemorrhage. This study represents the first survival study after EUS-guided direct portal pressure measurements using a digital pressure wire. This method appears safe, straightforward, and precise. Measurements of the PV and a first-order portal venule appear equivalent, and serial measurement seems feasible.

  7. Psychological Treatment (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  8. A pre-scientific psychology. Some reflections about the introduction and the first chapter of Prolegomena for a history of the concept of time in Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Andrade Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a reflection arising from the introduction and first chapter of the text prolegomena to a history of the concept of time by Martin Heidegger. This reflection questions the epistemological status of psychology and the philosophical nature of its object of study. It Intends to question the study objects that are proposed from its scientist approach, a portions of the contributions of Heidegger about the particularity of the social sciences and the need for a pre-theoretical reflection that questions the being itself of the phenomenon, in this case, the phenomenon of mind. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.

  9. Investigative psychology


    Canter, David V.


    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  10. Positive Psychology (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher


    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  11. Timing of therapeutic intervention determines functional and survival outcomes in a mouse model of late infantile batten disease. (United States)

    Cabrera-Salazar, Mario A; Roskelley, Eric M; Bu, Jie; Hodges, Bradley L; Yew, Nelson; Dodge, James C; Shihabuddin, Lamya S; Sohar, Istvan; Sleat, David E; Scheule, Ronald K; Davidson, Beverly L; Cheng, Seng H; Lobel, Peter; Passini, Marco A


    Classical late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (cLINCL) is a monogenic disorder caused by the loss of tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1) activity as a result of mutations in CLN2. Absence of TPP1 results in lysosomal storage with an accompanying axonal degeneration throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which leads to progressive neurodegeneration and early death. In this study, we compared the efficacies of pre- and post-symptomatic injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) for treating the cellular and functional abnormalities of CLN2 mutant mice. Intracranial injection of AAV1-hCLN2 resulted in widespread human TPP1 (hTPP1) activity in the brain that was 10-100-fold above wild-type levels. Injections before disease onset prevented storage and spared neurons from axonal degeneration, reflected by the preservation of motor function. Furthermore, the majority of CLN2 mutant mice treated pre-symptomatically lived for at least 330 days, compared with a median survival of 151 days in untreated CLN2 mutant controls. In contrast, although injection after disease onset ameliorated lysosomal storage, there was evidence of axonal degeneration, motor function showed limited recovery, and the animals had a median lifespan of 216 days. These data illustrate the importance of early intervention for enhanced therapeutic benefit, which may provide guidance in designing novel treatment strategies for cLINCL patients.

  12. Gender differences in social network characteristics and psychological well-being among Hong Kong Chinese: the role of future time perspective and adherence to Renqing. (United States)

    Yeung, D Y; Fung, H H; Lang, F R


    Gender differences in social network characteristics are well documented in the literature. Socio-emotional selectivity theory emphasizes the importance of future time perception on selection of social partners whereas cultural studies stress the roles of Renqing (relationship orientation) on social interactions. This study examined the effects of future time perspective and adherence to Renqing on social network characteristics, and their associations with psychological well-being of 321 Chinese men and women, aged 28-91 years. Results showed that adherence to Renqing partially accounted for gender differences in the number of relatives, even after controlling for the effects of extraversion and structural factors. Moreover, women, but not men, with lower adherence to Renqing and more limited future time perspective were found to be happier when they had fewer close friends in their social networks.

  13. Endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation do not influence ablation success, recurrence-free survival or differentiated thyroid cancer-related mortality

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    Vrachimis, Alexis; Riemann, Burkhard [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Maeder, Uwe; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)


    Based on a single older study it is established dogma that TSH levels should be ≥30 mU/l at the time of postoperative {sup 131}I ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. We sought to determine whether endogenous TSH levels, i.e. after levothyroxine withdrawal, at the time of ablation influence ablation success rates, recurrence-free survival and DTC-related mortality. A total of 1,873 patients without distant metastases referred for postoperative adjuvant {sup 131}I therapy were retrospectively included from 1991 onwards. Successful ablation was defined as stimulated Tg <1 μg/l. Age, gender and the presence of lymph node metastases were independent determinants of TSH levels at the time of ablation. TSH levels were not significantly related to ablation success rates (p = 0.34), recurrence-free survival (p = 0.29) or DTC -elated mortality (p = 0.82), but established risk factors such as T-stage, lymph node metastases and age were. Ablation was successful in 230 of 275 patients (83.6 %) with TSH <30 mU/l and in 1,359 of 1,598 patients (85.0 %) with TSH ≥30 mU/l. The difference was not significant (p = 0.55). Of the whole group of 1,873 patients, 21 had recurrent disease. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.16). Ten of the 1,873 patients died of DTC. There were no significant differences in DTC-specific survival between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.53). The precise endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation are not related to the ablation success rates, recurrence free survival and DTC related mortality. The established dogma that TSH levels need to be ≥30 mU/l at the time of {sup 131}I ablation can be discarded. (orig.)

  14. The influence of a covariate on optimal designs in longitudinal studies with discrete-time survival endpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarkhani, Maryam; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    Longitudinal intervention studies on event occurrence can measure the timing of an event at discrete points in time. To design studies of this kind as inexpensively and efficiently as possible, researchers need to decide on the number of subjects and the number of measurements for each subject.

  15. Time-varying effects of aromatic oil constituents on the survival of aquatic species: Deviations between model estimates and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, L. de; Viaene, K.P.; Schipper, A.M.; Huijbregts, M.A.; De Laender, F.; Hendriks, A.J.


    There is a need to study the time course of toxic chemical effects on organisms because there might be a time lag between the onset of chemical exposure and the corresponding adverse effects. For aquatic organisms, crude oil and oil constituents originating from either natural seeps or human

  16. The influence of alexithymia on psychological distress with regard to the seriousness of complicated grief and the time since bereavement in the Japanese general population. (United States)

    Deno, Minako; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Nakajima, Satomi; Ito, Masaya


    The current study investigated whether the influence of alexithymia on psychological distress (PD) differed according to the seriousness of complicated grief (CG) and the time since bereavement in the Japanese general population. 1162 participants between 40 and 79 years of age (effective response rate: 58.8%) completed a cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire regarding the following factors: alexithymia (DD: Difficulty describing feeling, DI: Difficulty identifying feeling, EO: Externally oriented thinking), PD, and CG. To compare the non-bereaved (group 1) with four other groups, which were organized by CG score (high/low) and the time since bereavement (within half/two years postloss); the half year_low/high CG (group 2 and 3) and the two years_low/high CG (group 4 and 5), a simultaneous analysis of the five groups with standard maximum likelihood estimations was performed and hypothesized models were verified. The model (RMSEA=0.000, AIC=57.686) showed that the models' constructions for group 1 and 4 were significantly similar. In the other groups, the degree of correlation between alexithymia (especially EO) and psychological distress was significantly different. The study is a cross-sectional design and not with a clinical population. Our findings showed that the relationship between alexithymia and psychological distress was significantly same for group 1 and 4. In group 2, EO was less correlated with the other subscales of alexithymia, which suggests that EO is utilized as a coping style for bereavement that, in turn, influences convalescence during the half year following bereavement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas


    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  18. DCE-MRI prediction of survival time for patients with glioblastoma multiforme: using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy-based model and nested model selection technique. (United States)

    Dehkordi, Azimeh N V; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Wen, Ning; Mikkelsen, Tom; Chetty, Indrin J; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan


    This pilot study investigates the construction of an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for the prediction of the survival time of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). ANFIS is trained by the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters estimated by the model selection (MS) technique in dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data analysis, and patient age. DCE-MRI investigations of 33 treatment-naïve patients with GBM were studied. Using the modified Tofts model and MS technique, the following physiologically nested models were constructed: Model 1, no vascular leakage (normal tissue); Model 2, leakage without efflux; Model 3, leakage with bidirectional exchange (influx and efflux). For each patient, the PK parameters of the three models were estimated as follows: blood plasma volume (vp ) for Model 1; vp and volume transfer constant (K(trans) ) for Model 2; vp , K(trans) and rate constant (kep ) for Model 3. Using Cox regression analysis, the best combination of the estimated PK parameters, together with patient age, was identified for the design and training of ANFIS. A K-fold cross-validation (K = 33) technique was employed for training, testing and optimization of ANFIS. Given the survival time distribution, three classes of survival were determined and a confusion matrix for the correct classification fraction (CCF) of the trained ANFIS was estimated as an accuracy index of ANFIS's performance. Patient age, kep and ve (K(trans) /kep ) of Model 3, and K(trans) of Model 2, were found to be the most effective parameters for training ANFIS. The CCF of the trained ANFIS was 84.8%. High diagonal elements of the confusion matrix (81.8%, 90.1% and 81.8% for Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3, respectively), with low off-diagonal elements, strongly confirmed the robustness and high performance of the trained ANFIS for predicting the three survival classes. This study confirms that DCE-MRI PK analysis, combined with the MS technique and ANFIS

  19. Sotrastaurin (AEB071) alone and in combination with cyclosporine A prolongs survival times of non-human primate recipients of life-supporting kidney allografts. (United States)

    Bigaud, Marc; Wieczorek, Grazyna; Beerli, Christian; Audet, Maxime; Blancher, Antoine; Heusser, Christoph; Morris, Randall E; Wagner, Jürgen


    Sotrastaurin (STN), a novel oral protein kinase C inhibitor that inhibits early T-cell activation, was assessed in non-human primate recipients of life-supporting kidney allografts. Cynomolgus monkey recipients of life-supporting kidney allografts were treated orally with STN alone or in combination with cyclosporine A (CsA). STN monotherapy at 50 mg/kg once daily prolonged recipient survival times to the predefined endpoint of 29 days (n=2); when given at 25 mg/kg twice daily, the median survival time (MST) was 27 days (n=4). Neither once-daily monotherapy of STN 20 mg/kg nor CsA 20 mg/kg was effective (MST 6 days [n=2] and 7 days [n=5], respectively). In combination, however, STN 20 mg/kg and CsA 20 mg/kg prolonged MST to more than 100 days (n=5). By combining lower once-daily doses of STN (7 or 2 mg/kg) with CsA (20 mg/kg), MST was more than 100 (n=3) and 22 days (n=2), respectively. Neither in single-dose pharmacokinetic studies nor the transplant recipients were STN or CsA blood levels for combined treatment greater than when either drug was administered alone. STN blood levels in transplant recipients during combination therapy were dose related (20 mg/kg, 30-182 ng/mL; 7 mg/kg, 7-41 ng/mL; and 2 mg/kg, 3-5 ng/mL). STN at a daily dose of up to 20 mg/kg was relatively well tolerated. STN prolonged survival times of non-human primate kidney allograft recipients both as monotherapy and most effectively in combination with CsA. Pharmacokinetic interactions were not responsible for the potentiation of immunosuppressive efficacy by coadministering STN and CsA.

  20. A test of basic psychological needs theory in young soccer players: time-lagged design at the individual and team levels. (United States)

    González, L; Tomás, I; Castillo, I; Duda, J L; Balaguer, I


    Within the framework of basic psychological needs theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) with a time-lagged design was used to test a mediation model examining the relationship between perceptions of coaches' interpersonal styles (autonomy supportive and controlling), athletes' basic psychological needs (satisfaction and thwarting), and indicators of well-being (subjective vitality) and ill-being (burnout), estimating separately between and within effects. The participants were 597 Spanish male soccer players aged between 11 and 14 years (M = 12.57, SD = 0.54) from 40 teams who completed a questionnaire package at two time points in a competitive season. Results revealed that at the individual level, athletes' perceptions of autonomy support positively predicted athletes' need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), whereas athletes' perceptions of controlling style positively predicted athletes' need thwarting (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). In turn, all three athletes' need satisfaction dimensions predicted athletes' subjective vitality and burnout (positively and negatively, respectively), whereas competence thwarting negatively predicted subjective vitality and competence and relatedness positively predicted burnout. At the team level, team perceptions of autonomy supportive style positively predicted team autonomy and relatedness satisfaction. Mediation effects only appeared at the individual level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Internet as a Source of Long-Term and Real-Time Professional, Psychological, and Nutritional Treatment: A Qualitative Case Study Among Former Israeli Soviet Union Immigrants. (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shalayeva, Svetlana


    The Internet is considered to be an effective source of health information and consultation for immigrants. Nutritional interventions for immigrants have become increasingly common over the past few decades. However, each population of immigrants has specific needs. Understanding the factors influencing the success of nutrition programs among immigrants requires an examination of their attitudes and perceptions, as well as their cultural values. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of the Internet as a tool for long-term and "real-time" professional, psychological, and nutritional treatment for immigrants from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel (IIFSU) from 1990 to 2012. A sample of nutrition forum users (n=18) was interviewed and comments of 80 users were analyzed qualitatively in accordance with the grounded theory principles. The results show that IIFSU perceive the Internet as a platform for long-term and "real-time" dietary treatment and not just as an informative tool. IIFSU report benefits of online psychological support with professional dietary treatment. They attribute importance to cultural customization, which helps reduce barriers to intervention. In light of the results, when formulating nutritional programs, it is essential to have a specific understanding of immigrants' cultural characteristics and their patterns of Internet use concerning dietary care.

  2. Smoking onset and the time-varying effects of self-efficacy, environmental smoking, and smoking-specific parenting by using discrete-time survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    This study examined the timing of smoking onset during mid- or late adolescence and the time-varying effects of refusal self-efficacy, parental and sibling smoking behavior, smoking behavior of friends and best friend, and parental smoking-specific communication. We used data from five annual waves

  3. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Posner, Marshall R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sarlis, Nicholas J. [Sanofi-Aventis US, Bridgewater, NJ (United States); Haddad, Robert I. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Holupka, Edward J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)


    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of {>=} 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary ({<=} 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  4. N-Acetylaspartate Synthase Deficiency Corrects the Myelin Phenotype in a Canavan Disease Mouse Model But Does Not Affect Survival Time. (United States)

    Maier, Helena; Wang-Eckhardt, Lihua; Hartmann, Dieter; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Eckhardt, Matthias


    Canavan disease (CD) is a severe, lethal leukodystrophy caused by deficiency in aspartoacylase (ASPA), which hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartate (NAA). In the brains of CD patients, NAA accumulates to high millimolar concentrations. The pathology of the disease is characterized by loss of oligodendrocytes and spongy myelin degeneration in the CNS. Whether accumulating NAA, absence of NAA-derived acetate, or absence of any unknown functions of the ASPA enzyme is responsible for the pathology of the disease is not fully understood. We generated ASPA-deficient (Aspa(nur7/nur7)) mice that are also deficient for NAA synthase Nat8L (Nat8L(-/-)/Aspa(nur7/nur7)). These mice have no detectable NAA. Nevertheless, they exhibited normal myelin content, myelin sphingolipid composition, and full reversal of spongy myelin and axonal degeneration. Surprisingly, although pathology was fully reversed, the survival time of the mice was not prolonged. In contrast, Aspa(nur7/nur7) mice with only one intact Nat8L allele accumulated less NAA, developed a less severe pathology, phenotypic improvements, and, importantly, an almost normal survival time. Therefore, inhibition of NAA synthase is a promising therapeutic option for CD. The reduced survival rate of Nat8L(-/-)/Aspa(nur7/nur7) mice, however, indicates that complete inhibition of NAA synthase may bear unforeseeable risks for the patient. Furthermore, we demonstrate that acetate derived from NAA is not essential for myelin lipid synthesis and that loss of NAA-derived acetate does not cause the myelin phenotype of Aspa(nur7/nur7) mice. Our data clearly support the hypothesis that NAA accumulation is the major factor in the development of CD. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514501-16$15.00/0.

  5. Influence of tumour stage at breast cancer detection on survival in modern times: population based study in 173,797 patients. (United States)

    Saadatmand, Sepideh; Bretveld, Reini; Siesling, Sabine; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M A


    To assess the influence of stage at breast cancer diagnosis, tumour biology, and treatment on survival in contemporary times of better (neo-)adjuvant systemic therapy. Prospective nationwide population based study. Nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. Female patients with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 (n=173,797), subdivided into two time cohorts on the basis of breast cancer diagnosis: 1999-2005 (n=80,228) and 2006-12 (n=93,569). Relative survival was compared between the two cohorts. Influence of traditional prognostic factors on overall mortality was analysed with Cox regression for each cohort separately. Compared with 1999-2005, patients from 2006-12 had smaller (≤ T1 65% (n=60,570) v 60% (n=48,031); Page and tumour type, overall mortality was decreased by surgery (especially breast conserving), radiotherapy, and systemic therapies. Mortality increased with progressing tumour size in both cohorts (2006-12 T1c v T1a: hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 1.78), but without a significant difference in invasive breast cancers until 1 cm (2006-12 T1b v T1a: hazard ratio 1.04, 0.88 to 1.22), and independently with progressing number of positive lymph nodes (2006-12 N1 v N0: 1.25, 1.17 to 1.32). Tumour stage at diagnosis of breast cancer still influences overall survival significantly in the current era of effective systemic therapy. Diagnosis of breast cancer at an early tumour stage remains vital. © Saadatmand et al 2015.

  6. Understanding the mind from an evolutionary perspective: an overview of evolutionary psychology. (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Liddle, James R


    The theory of evolution by natural selection provides the only scientific explanation for the existence of complex adaptations. The design features of the brain, like any organ, are the result of selection pressures operating over deep time. Evolutionary psychology posits that the human brain comprises a multitude of evolved psychological mechanisms, adaptations to specific and recurrent problems of survival and reproduction faced over human evolutionary history. Although some mistakenly view evolutionary psychology as promoting genetic determinism, evolutionary psychologists appreciate and emphasize the interactions between genes and environments. This approach to psychology has led to a richer understanding of a variety of psychological phenomena, and has provided a powerful foundation for generating novel hypotheses. Critics argue that evolutionary psychologists resort to storytelling, but as with any branch of science, empirical testing is a vital component of the field, with hypotheses standing or falling with the weight of the evidence. Evolutionary psychology is uniquely suited to provide a unifying theoretical framework for the disparate subdisciplines of psychology. An evolutionary perspective has provided insights into several subdisciplines of psychology, while simultaneously demonstrating the arbitrary nature of dividing psychological science into such subdisciplines. Evolutionary psychologists have amassed a substantial empirical and theoretical literature, but as a relatively new approach to psychology, many questions remain, with several promising directions for future research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Pubertal development and screen time among South Korean adolescents: testing body mass index and psychological well-being as mediators. (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Spence, John C


    This study tested links between pubertal development and screen time among South Korean adolescent boys and girls. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) involving 2071 adolescents (age M = 13.14 years). Body mass index (BMI) at Grade 8 (baseline), self-esteem and depression at Grade 9 were examined as mediators of the relationship between pubertal development and screen time after adjusting for household income and academic performance. Structural equation modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at Grade 8 and screen time at Grade 9. No direct effect of pubertal development on screen time was found. But, an indirect effect existed for boys from pubertal development to screen time through BMI. Earlier pubertal development predicted higher BMI, and in turn, higher BMI predicted more time spent in screen time. Among girls, pubertal development negatively predicted BMI; however, no mediation effect of BMI between pubertal development and screen time was observed. No mediation effect of self-esteem or depression was found among boys or girls. Pubertal development appears to have an indirect influence on screen time through BMI for South Korean boys. More studies examining potential pathways between pubertal development and sedentary behavior are needed to build on these findings.

  8. Improvement of recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer in relation to the time of surgical intervention

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    E. I. Veliev


    Full Text Available Objective: to comparatively estimate the frequency of a positive surgical margin and 5-year biochemical recurrent-free survival (BRFS rates in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer in relation to the time of radical retropubic prostatectomy.Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 274 patients with prostate cancer (pT3-4N0-1M0 who were divided into 2 groups of 68 and 20 patients operated on in 1997 to 2006 and 2007 to 2012, respectively. Two surgeons made surgical interventions by the standardized procedure. The 5-year BRFS rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. A biochemical recurrence was defined as a prostatespecific antigen level of t 0.2 ng / ml in 2 consecutive measurements or as the initiation of adjuvant therapy.Results. The detection rate of a positive surgical margin decreased from 55.9 % in 1997–2006 to 37.9 % in 2007–2012 (p = 0.01; the 5-year recurrence-free survival rates were 38.8 % versus 66.2 % (p < 0.001.Conclusion. These changes would probably be a result of surgeons» better experience and improved surgical techniques in the course of time.

  9. Effect of fish oil, arginine, and doxorubicin chemotherapy on remission and survival time for dogs with lymphoma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Ogilvie, G K; Fettman, M J; Mallinckrodt, C H; Walton, J A; Hansen, R A; Davenport, D J; Gross, K L; Richardson, K L; Rogers, Q; Hand, M S


    Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids have been shown to inhibit the growth and metastasis of tumors. This double-blind, randomized study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids can improve metabolic parameters, decrease chemical indices of inflammation, enhance quality of life, and extend disease free interval and survival time for dogs treated for lymphoblastic lymphoma with doxorubicin chemotherapy. Thirty-two dogs with lymphoma were randomized to receive one of two diets supplemented with menhaden fish oil and arginine (experimental diet) or an otherwise identical diet supplemented with soybean oil (control diet). Diets were fed before and after remission was attained with up to five dosages of doxorubicin. Parameters examined included blood concentrations of glucose, lactic acid, and insulin in response to glucose and diet tolerance tests; alpha-1 acid glycoprotein; tumor necrosis factor; interleukin-6; body weight; amino acid profiles; resting energy expenditure; disease free interval (DFI); survival time (ST); and clinical performance scores. Dogs fed the experimental diet had significantly (P diet tolerance testing. Increasing C22:6 levels were significantly (P dogs with Stage III lymphoma fed the experimental diet. Fatty acids of the n-3 series normalize elevated blood lactic acid in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in DFI and ST for dogs with lymphoma. Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.

  10. Effects of Oral Administration of Fucoidan Extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus on Tumor Growth and Survival Time in a Tumor-Bearing Mouse Model

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    Yoshiharu Okamoto


    Full Text Available We evaluated the anti-tumor activities of the oral administration of fucoidan extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus using a tumor (colon 26-bearing mouse model. The materials used included low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMWF: 6.5–40 kDa, intermediate-molecular-weight fucoidan (IMWF: 110–138 kDa and high-molecular-weight fucoidan (HMWF: 300–330 kDa. The IMWF group showed significantly suppressed tumor growth. The LMWF and HMWF groups showed significantly increased survival times compared with that observed in the control group (mice fed a fucoidan-free diet. The median survival times in the control, LMWF, IMWF and HMWF groups were 23, 46, 40 and 43 days, respectively. It was also found that oral administration of fucoidan increased the population of natural killer cells in the spleen. Furthermore, from the results of the experiment using Myd-88 knockout mice, it was found that these effects are related to gut immunity. These results suggest that fucoidan is a candidate anti-tumor functional food.

  11. [Political psychology]. (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás


    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  12. Exploratory Analysis of Time from HIV Diagnosis to ART Start, Factors and effect on survival: A longitudinal follow up study at seven teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. (United States)

    Teklu, Alula M; Delele, Kesetebirhan; Abraha, Mulu; Belayhun, Bekele; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Nega, Abiy


    The HIV care in Ethiopia has reached 79% coverage. The timeliness of the care provided at the different levels in the course of the disease starting from knowing HIV positive status to ART initiation is not well known. This study intends to explore the timing of the care seeking, the care provision and associated factors. This is a longitudinal follow-up study at seven university hospitals. Patients enrolled in HIV care from September 2005 to December 2013 and aged ≥14 years were studied. Different times in the cascade of HIV care were examined including the duration from date HIV diagnosed to enrollment in HIV care, duration from enrollment to eligibility for ART and time from eligibility to initiation of ART. Ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate their determinants while the effect of these periods on survival of patients was determined using cox-proportional hazards regression. 4159 clients were studied. Time to enrollment after HIV test decreased from 39 days in 2005 to 1 day after 2008. It took longer if baseline CD4 was higher, and eligibility for ART was assessed late. Young adults, lower baseline CD4, HIV diagnosisART initiation. Male gender, advanced disease stage and lower baseline CD4 were consistent risk factors for mortality. Time to enrollment and duration of ART eligibility assessment as well as ART initiation time after eligibility is improving. Further study is required to identify why mortality is slightly increasing after 2010.

  13. The Art of Creating Attractive Consumer Experiences at the Right Time: Skills Marketers Will Need to Survive and Thrive

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    Lemon Katherine N.


    Full Text Available New technologies have made today’s marketing faster, more mobile, more location-based, more digital, more virtual, and more automatized than ever. In this new world, marketers need to be “real-time relevant” – to gain awareness, to change perceptions and to spur action. They need to have their content in the right channel, format, time and context – from a consumer’s perspective. Only then do they at least have a chance of the consumer attending to the information and being influenced by it. In such an environment new skills and competences are required. The amount of available data has virtually exploded. To gain any perspective or apparent “control” in these environments, successful managers must embrace the complexity and learn to analyze, integrate and interpret all this data. A critical skill for marketers will be to identify the metrics that best reflect the desired outcomes of the organization and that sufficiently reflect specific indicators of critical processes. Furthermore, insights from other disciplines such as architecture, design, information-processing, biology or engineering will be important for creating customer experiences. The marketer of the future will need to be supremely curious and creative and to balance and integrate different worlds. It will all come down to delivering memorable and lasting experiences in a constantly and fast changing environment.

  14. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Survival of the Composite Graft and the Proper Time of Injection in a Rabbit Ear Composite Graft Model

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    Hyun Nam Choi


    Full Text Available BackgroundAdministration of growth factors has been associated with increased viability of composite grafts greater than 1-cm in diameter. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP contains many of the growth factors studied. In this study, we evaluate the effect of PRP injection on composite graft viability and the proper time for injection.MethodsA total of 24 New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. Autologous PRP was injected into the recipient sites three days before grafting in group 1, on the day of grafting in group 2, and three days after grafting in group 3. Group 4 served as control without PRP administration. Auricular composite grafts of 3-cm diameter were harvested and grafted back into place after being rotated 180 degrees. Median graft viability and microvessel density were evaluated at day 21 of graft via macroscopic photographs and immunofluorescent staining, respectively.ResultsThe median graft survival rate was 97.8% in group 1, 69.2% in group 2, 55.7% in group 3, and 40.8% in the control group. The median vessel counts were 34 (per ×200 HPF in group 1, 24.5 in group 2, 19.5 in group 3, and 10.5 in the control group.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that PRP administration is associated with increased composite graft viability. All experimental groups showed a significantly higher survival rate and microvessel density, compared with the control group. Pre-administration of PRP was followed by the highest graft survival rate and revascularization. PRP treatments are minimally invasive, fast, easily applicable, and inexpensive, and offer a potential clinical pathway to larger composite grafts.

  15. Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects on a time-to-event response using structural cumulative survival models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, T.; Vansteelandt, S.; Tchetgen, E. J. Tchetgen


    The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate...... elements of randomization, either by design or by nature (e.g., random inheritance of genes). Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects is well established for continuous outcomes and to some extent for binary outcomes. It is, however, largely lacking for time-to-event outcomes because......-parametric variant of the instrumental variables additive hazards model. We propose a class of recursive instrumental variable estimators for these exposure effects, and derive their large sample properties along with inferential tools. We examine the performance of the proposed method in simulation studies...

  16. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the development times and survival of Synopsyllus fonquerniei and Xenopsylla cheopis, the flea vectors of plague in Madagascar. (United States)

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew


    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia, the Americas but mainly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. In the highlands of Madagascar, plague is transmitted predominantly by two flea species which coexist on the island, but differ in their distribution. The endemic flea, Synopsyllus fonquerniei, dominates flea communities on rats caught outdoors, while the cosmopolitan flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is found mostly on rats caught in houses. Additionally S. fonquerniei seems restricted to areas above 800 m. Climatic constraints on the development of the two main vectors of plague could explain the differences in their distribution and the seasonal changes in their abundance. Here we present the first study on effects of temperature and relative humidity on the immature stages of both vector species. We examined the two species' temperature and humidity requirements under experimental conditions at five different temperatures and two relative humidities. By employing multivariate and survival analysis we established the impact of temperature and relative humidity on development times and survival for both species. Using degree-day analysis we then predicted the average developmental threshold for larvae to reach pupation and for pupae to complete development under each treatment. This analysis was undertaken separately for the two relative humidities and for the two species. Development times and time to death differed significantly, with the endemic S. fonquerniei taking on average 1.79 times longer to complete development and having a shorter time to death than X. cheopis under adverse conditions with high temperature and low humidity. Temperature had a significant effect on the development times of flea larvae and pupae. While humidity did not affect the development times of either species, it did influence the time of death of S. fonquerniei. Using degree-day analysis we estimated an

  17. Perceptual inequality between two neighboring time intervals defined by sound markers: correspondence between neurophysiological and psychological data

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    Takako eMitsudo


    Full Text Available Brain activity related to time estimation processes in humans was analyzed using a perceptual phenomenon called auditory temporal assimilation. In a typical stimulus condition, two neighboring time intervals (T1 and T2 in this order are perceived as equal even when the physical lengths of these time intervals are considerably different. Our previous event-related potential (ERP study demonstrated that a slow negative component (SNCt appears in the right-frontal brain area (around the F8 electrode after T2, which is associated with judgment of the equality/inequality of T1 and T2. In the present study, we conducted two ERP experiments to further confirm the robustness of the SNCt. The stimulus patterns consisted of two neighboring time intervals marked by three successive tone bursts. Thirteen participants only listened to the patterns in the first session, and judged the equality/inequality of T1 and T2 in the next session. Behavioral data showed typical temporal assimilation. The ERP data revealed that three components (N1; contingent negative variation, CNV; and SNCt emerged related to the temporal judgment. The N1 appeared in the central area, and its peak latencies corresponded to the physical timing of each marker onset. The CNV component appeared in the frontal area during T2 presentation, and its amplitude increased as a function of T1. The SNCt appeared in the right-frontal area after the presentation of T1 and T2, and its magnitude was larger for the temporal patterns causing perceptual inequality. The SNCt was also correlated with the perceptual equality/inequality of the same stimulus pattern, and continued up to about 400 ms after the end of T2. These results suggest that the SNCt can be a signature of equality/inequality judgment, which derives from the comparison of the two neighboring time intervals.

  18. Role functioning before start of adjuvant treatment was an independent prognostic factor for survival and time to failure. A report from the Nordic adjuvant interferon trial for patients with high-risk melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandberg, Yvonne; Johansson, Hemming; Aamdal, Steinar


    To investigate the role of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at randomization as independent prognostic factors for survival and time to failure, and to explore associations between HRQoL and treatment effects....

  19. Variability over time-since- diagnosis in the protective effect of psychological resilience against depression in Australian prostate cancer patients: implications for patient treatment models. (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Wootten, Addie C; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David R H


    Although there is some evidence that psychological resilience may "buffer" against depression following major stressors, no data have been reported on the nature and variability of this buffering effect among prostate cancer patients during the 5 years following their initial diagnosis. Patients from two sites in Australia and who had received their initial diagnosis within 5 years (n = 255) were surveyed, and the results indicated that there was a significant inverse relationship between resilience and depression in the overall data, but that was mostly accounted for by a single factor of the resilience scale ("Confidence to cope with change"). Variability in that buffering effect was noted over time since diagnosis, with peaks during the first 6 months, at 24 and 60 months. These findings support the argument to develop focused psychiatric interventions at various periods following a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  20. Psychological Needs as Mediators? The Relationship between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Well Being in People Diagnosed with Osteoporosis (United States)

    Gunnell, Katie E.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Adachi, J. D.


    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in compromised bone strength, increased fracture risk, and reduced well being. With evidence attesting to the positive effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on biomedical health in people with…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mujezinović


    Full Text Available Tetanus is a disease that occurs in humans and various animal species worldwide. Tetanus toxin, after binding itself to nerve structures in the spinal cord, blocking the release of inhibitory transmitors which results in predominance of excitatory transmitors, and this manifestes itself in skeletal muscle spasm. In theory, inhibition of excitatory transmission can try to antagonize a number of ways: by stimulating inhibitory transmission with application inhibitory transmitors, inhibition of excitatory transmission by application of antagonists of excitatory transmitors and combination of antagonists of excitatory transmitors. Bearing this in mind, we attempted to normalize the disorders by tetanus toxin with the use of caroverine, an antagonist of excitatory transmitors, alone and in combination with aminooxyacetic acid (substance that increases the level of GABA. Experiments were conducted on albino mice of both sexes, weight 20-25 g. The experimental tetanus was induced by application of tetanus toxin. The application of caroverine and combination with aminooxyacetic acid was carried out 24 hours after application of tetanus toxin, once per day, until the death. Caroverine, given alone in a dose of 1,2 mg/kg significantly prolonged the LD50 period of mice with experimental tetanus, so the obtained results can be said that its application only at this dose proved to be effective. The combination with aminooxyacetic acid was gave an insignificant extension of mice’s dying time with experimental tetanus in the trial, compared to the control group. Key words: tetanus, tetanus toxin, transmitors, caroverine, aminooxyacetic acid

  2. The Life and Times of Parasites: Rhythms in Strategies for Within-host Survival and Between-host Transmission. (United States)

    Reece, Sarah E; Prior, Kimberley F; Mideo, Nicole


    Biological rhythms are thought to have evolved to enable organisms to organize their activities according to the earth's predictable cycles, but quantifying the fitness advantages of rhythms is challenging and data revealing their costs and benefits are scarce. More difficult still is explaining why parasites that live exclusively within the bodies of other organisms have biological rhythms. Rhythms exist in the development and traits of parasites, in host immune responses, and in disease susceptibility. This raises the possibility that timing matters for how hosts and parasites interact and, consequently, for the severity and transmission of diseases. Here, we take an evolutionary ecological perspective to examine why parasites exhibit biological rhythms and how their rhythms are regulated. Specifically, we examine the adaptive significance (evolutionary costs and benefits) of rhythms for parasites and explore to what extent interactions between hosts and parasites can drive rhythms in infections. That parasites with altered rhythms can evade the effects of control interventions underscores the urgent need to understand how and why parasites exhibit biological rhythms. Thus, we contend that examining the roles of biological rhythms in disease offers innovative approaches to improve health and opens up a new arena for studying host-parasite (and host-parasite-vector) coevolution.

  3. Methodology for lognormal modelling of malignant pleural mesothelioma survival time distributions: a study of 5580 case histories from Europe and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F [41 Ewhurst Avenue, South Croydon, Surrey CR2 0DH (United Kingdom); Lahanas, Michael [Klinikum Offenbach, Strahlenklinik, 66 Starkenburgring, 63069 Offenbach am Main (Germany); Asselain, Bernard [Institut Curie, Biostatistiques, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Brewster, David [Director, Scottish Cancer Registry, Information Services (NHS National Services Scotland) Area 155, Gyle Square, 1 South Gyle Crescent, Edinburgh EH12 9EB (United Kingdom); Burgers, Sjaak A [Department of Thoracic Oncology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The (Netherlands); Damhuis, Ronald A M [Rotterdam Cancer Registry, Rochussenstraat 125, PO Box 289, 3000 AG Rotterdam, The (Netherlands); Rycke, Yann De [Institut Curie, Biostatistiques, 26 rue d' Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Gennaro, Valerio [Liguria Mesothelioma Cancer Registry, Etiology and Epidemiology Department, National Cancer Research Institute, Pad. Maragliano, Largo R Benzi, 10-16132 Genoa (Italy); Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila [Department of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology, National Institute of Occupational Medicine, PO Box 199, Swietej Teresy od Dzieciatka Jezus 8, 91-348 Lodz (Poland)


    A truncated left-censored and right-censored lognormal model has been validated for representing pleural mesothelioma survival times in the range 5-200 weeks for data subsets grouped by age for males, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years and for all ages combined for females. The cases available for study were from Europe and USA and totalled 5580. This is larger than any other pleural mesothelioma cohort accrued for study. The methodology describes the computation of reference baseline probabilities, 5-200 weeks, which can be used in clinical trials to assess results of future promising treatment methods. This study is an extension of previous lognormal modelling by Mould et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3893-924) to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data where the proportion cured is denoted by C and the uncured proportion, which can be represented by a lognormal, by (1 - C). Pleural mesothelioma is a special case when C = 0.

  4. Prevalence of self-reported neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain or psychological distress: time-trends in a general population, 1990-2006. (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Wahlström, Jens; Mulder, Marie


    Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys. To investigate the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain and psychological distress in a geographical area over a 16-year period. A large number of studies have shown that nonspecific neck, shoulder, and arm pain is a very common symptom in the general population. However, few studies have followed the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain within a geographical area, in order to investigate time-trends. This study provides an analysis of questionnaire data collected every 4 years between 1990 and 2006 on the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain or psychological distress in the County of Stockholm, Sweden (response rate: 61%-69%). All individuals aged 21 to 64 years (n = 1976-26,611) were included in the study. Over the 16-year period, the prevalence of self-reported neck-shoulder-arm pain rose slightly, from 22.8% to 25.0% among females (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]: 1.10) and from 12.8% to 15.4% among males (PRR: 1.21). The prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent low back pain also rose slightly, from 8.4% to 10.8% among females (PRR: 1.28) and from 5.3% to 6.6% among males (PRR: 1.24). In contrast, the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent psychological distress rose more substantially, from 4.4% to 8.5% among females (PRR: 1.91) and from 2.0% to 4.3% among males (PRR: 2.18). All prevalence rates rose between 1990 and 2002, and decreased in 2006 compared to 2002. The gender gap in prevalence did not change over time. Although the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent symptoms decreased in 2006 compared to 2002, it is still too early to conclude that we have reached and passed the peak of the "epidemic" of neck-shoulder-arm pain.

  5. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  6. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology. (United States)

    Staats, A W


    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  7. Joint analyses of longitudinal and time-to-event data in research on aging: Implications for predicting health and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G. Arbeev


    Full Text Available Longitudinal data on aging, health and longevity provide a wealth of information to investigate different aspects of the processes of aging and development of diseases leading to death. Statistical methods aimed at analyses of time-to-event data jointly with longitudinal measurements became known as the joint models (JM. An important point to consider in analyses of such data in the context of studies on aging, health, and longevity is how to incorporate knowledge and theories about mechanisms and regularities of aging-related changes that accumulate in the research field into respective analytic approaches. In the absence of specific observations of longitudinal dynamics of relevant biomarkers manifesting such mechanisms and regularities, traditional approaches have a rather limited utility to estimate respective parameters that can be meaningfully interpreted from the biological point of view. A conceptual analytic framework for these purposes, the stochastic process model of aging (SPM, has been recently developed in the biodemographic literature. It incorporates available knowledge about mechanisms of aging-related changes which may be hidden in the individual longitudinal trajectories of physiological variables and this allows for analyzing their indirect impact on risks of diseases and death. Despite, essentially, serving similar purposes, JM and SPM developed in parallel in different disciplines with very limited cross-referencing. Although there were several publications separately reviewing these two approaches, there were no publications presenting both these approaches in some detail. Here we overview both approaches jointly and provide some new modifications of SPM. We discuss the use of stochastic processes to capture biological variation and heterogeneity in longitudinal patterns and important and promising (but still largely underused applications of JM and SPM to predictions of individual and population mortality and health

  8. German Military Psychology 1973. (United States)


  9. L-carnitine is a survival factor for chilled storage of rooster semen for a long time. (United States)

    Fattah, A; Sharafi, M; Masoudi, R; Shahverdi, A; Esmaeili, V


    Rooster sperm is sensitive to cooling, which restricts procedures to store sperms for extended periods of time for artificial insemination of commercial flocks. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of adding L-carnitine (LC) to chilled-storage of rooster sperm and its effects on sperm quality parameters and its fertility potential during storage at 5 °C. Pooled semen from roosters were divided into six equal aliquots and diluted with media supplemented with different concentrations of LC (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mM LC). Diluted semen samples were cooled to 5 °C and stored over 48 h. Motility, viability, membrane functionality, lipid peroxidation and mitochondria activity of the sperm were assessed at 0, 24 and 48 h of storage. Moreover, fertility potential of chilled stored sperm was considered at 24 h of storage. While sperm quality was not affected by LC at the beginning of storage (0 h), supplementation of extender with 1 and 2 mM of LC significantly improved the percentage of sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and mitochondria activity at 24 h and 48 h compared to other groups. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in sperm samples diluted with 1 and 2 mM LC at 24 h (2.15 ± 0.52 nmol/ml and 2.21 ± 0.52 nmol/ml) and 48 h (3.42 ± 0.49 nmol/ml and 3.38 ± 0.49 nmol/ml) compared to other groups. Furthermore, fertility rates during artificial insemination using sperms cooled for 24 h in the presence of 1 and 2 mM LC were significantly higher (78%) than in the control group (64%). These findings suggest that optimum doses of LC could protect rooster sperm against cool storage-induced functional and structural damages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear morphometry in histological specimens of canine prostate cancer: Correlation with histological subtypes, Gleason score, methods of collection and survival time. (United States)

    Di Donato, Guido; Laufer-Amorim, Renée; Palmieri, Chiara


    Ten normal prostates, 22 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 29 prostate cancer (PC) were morphometrically analyzed with regard to mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), mean nuclear diameter (MND), coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV), mean nuclear diameter maximum (MDx), mean nuclear diameter minimum (MDm), mean nuclear form ellipse (MNFe) and form factor (FF). The relationship between nuclear morphometric parameters and histological type, Gleason score, methods of sample collection, presence of metastases and survival time of canine PC were also investigated. Overall, nuclei from neoplastic cells were larger, with greater variation in nuclear size and shape compared to normal and hyperplastic cells. Significant differences were found between more (small acinar/ductal) and less (cribriform, solid) differentiated PCs with regard to FF (pnuclear morphometric analysis in combination with Gleason score can help in canine prostate cancer grading, thus contributing to the establishment of a more precise prognosis and patient's management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of initial time to prostate-specific antigen nadir on survival in prostate cancer with bone metastasis initially treated with maximum androgen blockade therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Y


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to provide certain data on clinical outcomes and their predictors of traditional maximum androgen blockade (MAB in prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Methods: Subjects were patients with prostate adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis initiated to treat with MAB as a primary treatment without any local therapy at our hospital between January 2003 and December 2010. Time to prostate specific antigen (PSA progression, overall survival (OS time, and association of clinical factors and outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: A total of 57 patients were evaluable. The median age was 70 years. The median primary PSA was 203 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists had been administered in 96.5% of the patients. Bicalutamide had been chosen in 89.4 % of the patients as the initial antiandrogen. The median time to PSA progression with MAB was 11.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.4 to 13.0. The median OS was 47.3 months (95% CI, 30.7 to 81.0. Gleason score 9 or greater, decline of PSA level equal to or higher than 1.0 ng/ml with MAB, and time to PSA nadir equal to or shorter than six months after initiation of MAB were independent risk factors for time to PSA progression (P=0.010, P=0.005, and P=0.001; respectively. Time to PSA nadir longer than six months was the only independent predictor for longer OS (HR, 0.255 [95% CI, 0.109 to 0.597]; P=0.002. Conclusions: Initial time to PSA nadir should be emphasized for clinical outcome analyses in future studies on prostate cancer with bone metastasis.

  12. Timing of Whole Brain Radiotherapy on Survival of Patients with EGFR-mutated 
Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimei LIU


    Full Text Available Background and objective There is no high-level evidence for the time of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and brain metastases. The aim of this study is to assess the appropriate timing of WBRT for patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and brain metastases (BM. Methods There were 78 patients diagnosed with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and BM in Beijing Chest Hospital between August 2009 and May 2015. 48 untreated patients who received both WBRT and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs therapy. Prognostic factors of intracranial progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were identified by Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results Intracranial objective response rate was 81.3% and disease control rate was 93.8%. Median intracranial PFS was 10 months. Median OS was 18 months. Multivariate analysis of intracranial PFS revealed that Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status (PS 0-1 (HR=30.436, 95%CI: 4.721-196.211, P<0.001 and early WBRT (HR=3.663, 95%CI: 1.657-8.098, P=0.001 had a better intracranial PFS. Multivariate analysis of OS revealed that PS 0-1 (HR=57.607, 95%CI: 6.135-540.953, P<0.001, early WBRT (HR=2.757, 95%CI: 1.140-6.669, P=0.024, and stereotactic radiosurgery (HR=5.964, 95%CI: 1.895-18.767, P=0.002 were independent prognostic factors of OS. Conclusion Early WBRT combined with EGFR-TKIs can improve outcomes of patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC and BM, but it needs to be confirmed by large-sample-size and multicenter prospective clinical trials.

  13. Exploration for unknown substances in rapeseed oil that shorten survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Effects of super critical gas extraction fractions. (United States)

    Ohara, Naoki; Naito, Yukiko; Nagata, Tomoko; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Fuma, Shin-Ya; Tachibana, Shigehiro; Okuyama, Harumi


    To identify the causative substances for the shortening of survival time by rapeseed (Canola) oil in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP), SHRSP were fed on a standard chow supplemented with 10 w/w% soybean oil (control), rapeseed oil, one of the fractions of rapeseed oil obtained by super critical gas extraction (SCE) under a pressure of 180-bar or 350-bar, at 40 degrees C, or the residue from the extraction (with 0.5% NaCl in drinking water). In another series of experiment, SHRSP were fed for 8 weeks on the above-mentioned diets without salt loading and autopsied. Fatty acid compositions in these diets were similar, except in the soybean oil diet, and phytosterol contents were: (diet containing) 180-bar fraction>residue>rapeseed oil>350-bar fraction>soybean oil. Survival times in the rapeseed oil, 350-bar fraction and residue groups were shorter than, whereas that in the 180-bar fraction was similar to in the soybean oil group. In the 8-week feeding experiment, chronic nephropathy was found frequently in the groups other than the soybean oil group. The heart weights were higher in the rapeseed oil and residue groups. Cerebral necrosis was found in the residue group. Taken together, the followings are concluded, (1) Neither the fatty acid composition, nor the amount of phytosterols in the diets appeared to be decisive in the shortening of life. (2) SCE appeared to produce a safe (180-bar) fraction, though it failed to separate clearly the causative substances into specific fractions. (3) The factors that facilitate the genetic disease of SHRSP appear to exist in rapeseed oil. However, they might not be identical to those responsible for the life-shortening, since there were no findings common across the rapeseed oil, 350-bar and residue groups, which showed similar life-shortening.

  14. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule


    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  15. Contributions of psychological needs, self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals to academic engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students. (United States)

    Babenko, Oksana; Mosewich, Amber; Abraham, Joseph; Lai, Hollis


    To investigate the contributions of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and coping strategies (self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals) to engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students. This was an observational study. Two hundred undergraduate medical students participated in the study: 60.4% were female, 95.4% were 20-29 years old, and 23.0% were in year 1, 30.0% in year 2, 21.0% in year 3, and 26.0% in year 4. Students completed an online survey with measures of engagement and exhaustion from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory-student version; autonomy, competence, and relatedness from the Basic Psychological Needs Scale; self-compassion from the Self-Compassion Scale-short form; leisure-time exercise from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; and mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals from the Achievement Goals Instrument. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. The need for competence was the strongest predictor of student engagement (β= 0.35, P= 0.000) and exhaustion (β= -0.33, P= 0.000). Students who endorsed mastery approach goals (β= 0.21, P= 0.005) and who were more self-compassionate (β= 0.13, P= 0.050) reported greater engagement with their medical studies. Students who were less self-compassionate (β= -0.32, P= 0.000), who exercised less (β= -0.12, P= 0.044), and who endorsed mastery avoidance goals (β= 0.22, P= 0.003) reported greater exhaustion from their studies. Students' gender (β= 0.18, P= 0.005) and year in medical school (β= -0.18, P= 0.004) were related to engagement, but not to exhaustion. Supporting students' need for competence and raising students' awareness of self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and mastery approach goals may help protect students from burnout-related exhaustion and enhance their engagement with their medical school studies.

  16. Psychological factors that impact on women's experiences of first-time motherhood: a qualitative study of the transition. (United States)

    Darvill, Ruth; Skirton, Heather; Farrand, Paul


    childbearing is a significant transition, especially for first-time mothers. The objectives of this study were to explore the maternal transition from womens' perspectives and to identify any unmet needs for support. grounded theory was chosen as the most appropriate method of analysis due to its ability to identify social processes in an inductive way. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from the participants, and the interview transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method. communities within one region of the UK. 13 women (aged 16 years) who had delivered their first child six to 15 weeks prior to the interview were recruited to the study. three main themes (control, support and forming a family) all contributed to the core category: 'changes in the woman's self-concept'. Women felt that they had lost some control over their lives in the early stages of pregnancy and after the birth. The early changes in their self-image and the shift in focus from themselves to the needs of the fetus indicate that the transition may begin at a very early stage in the first trimester. The unfamiliar territory of pregnancy and early motherhood created a need for a mentor or mentors to help guide them through the transition, and to 'normalise' their feelings and experiences. Finally, the women recognised that the act of childbearing fundamentally transformed them and their partners from individuals or a couple into founding members of a new family. first-time mothers start to undergo a transition at an early stage in their pregnancy. They face difficult periods both early in the pregnancy and after the birth, and have unmet needs for support in those periods, particularly the support of other new mothers. providing more information about early pregnancy before conception may enable women to form more accurate expectations of this period. Facilitating contact between pregnant mothers would help them to establish a more appropriate support network

  17. Meaning in life in chronic pain patients over time: associations with pain experience and psychological well-being. (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen; Wachholtz, Amy


    We explored the relationship between meaning in life and adjustment to chronic pain in a three-wave, 2 year, longitudinal study of 273 Belgian chronic pain patients. We examined the directionality of the relationships among the meaning in life dimensions (Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning) and indicators of adjustment (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, pain intensity, and pain medication use). We found that Presence of Meaning was an important predictor of well-being. Secondly, we used a typological methodology to distinguish meaning in life profiles, and the relationship of individual meaning in life profiles with indicators of adjustment. Five meaning in life profiles emerged: High Presence High Search, High Presence Low Search, Moderate Presence Moderate Search, Low Presence Low Search, and Low Presence High Search. Each meaning in life profile was associated with a unique adjustment outcome. Profiles that scored high on Presence of Meaning showed more optimal adjustment. The profiles showed little change over time and did not moderate the development of adjustment indicators, except for life satisfaction. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  18. Extension of the biotic ligand model of acute toxicity to a physiologically-based model of the survival time of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to silver. (United States)

    Paquin, Paul R; Zoltay, Viktoria; Winfield, Richard P; Wu, Kuen Benjamin; Mathew, Rooni; Santore, Robert C; Di Toro, Dominic M


    Chemical speciation controls the bioavailability and toxicity of metals in aquatic systems and regulatory agencies are recognizing this as they develop updated water quality criteria (WQC) for metals. The factors that affect bioavailability may be quantitatively evaluated with the biotic ligand model (BLM). Within the context of the BLM framework, the 'biotic ligand' is the site where metal binding results in the manifestation of a toxic effect. While the BLM does account for the speciation and complexation of dissolved metal in solution, and competition among the free metal ion and other cations for binding sites at the biotic ligand, it does not explicitly consider either the physiological effects of metals on aquatic organisms, or the direct effect of water chemistry parameters such as pH, Ca(2+)and Na(+) on the physiological state of the organism. Here, a physiologically-based model of survival time is described. In addition to incorporating the effects of water chemistry on metal availability to the organism, via the BLM, it also considers the interaction of water chemistry on the physiological condition of the organism, independent of its effect on metal availability. At the same time it explicitly considers the degree of interaction of these factors with the organism and how this affects the rate at which cumulative damage occurs. An example application of the model to toxicity data for rainbow trout exposed to silver is presented to illustrate how this framework may be used to predict survival time for alternative exposure durations. The sodium balance model (SBM) that is described herein, a specific application of a more generic ion balance model (IBM) framework, adds a new physiological dimension to the previously developed BLM. As such it also necessarily adds another layer of complexity to this already useful predictive framework. While the demonstrated capability of the SBM to predict effects in relation to exposure duration is a useful feature of this

  19. Estimation of the probability of bacterial population survival: Development of a probability model to describe the variability in time to inactivation of Salmonella enterica. (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu


    Despite the development of numerous predictive microbial inactivation models, a model focusing on the variability in time to inactivation for a bacterial population has not been developed. Additionally, an appropriate estimation of the risk of there being any remaining bacterial survivors in foods after the application of an inactivation treatment has not yet been established. Here, Gamma distribution, as a representative probability distribution, was used to estimate the variability in time to inactivation for a bacterial population. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium was evaluated for survival in a low relative humidity environment. We prepared bacterial cells with an initial concentration that was adjusted to 2 × 10n colony-forming units/2 μl (n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) by performing a serial 10-fold dilution, and then we placed 2 μl of the inocula into each well of 96-well microplates. The microplates were stored in a desiccated environment at 10-20% relative humidity at 5, 15, or 25 °C. The survival or death of bacterial cells for each well in the 96-well microplate was confirmed by adding tryptic soy broth as an enrichment culture. The changes in the death probability of the 96 replicated bacterial populations were described as a cumulative Gamma distribution. The variability in time to inactivation was described by transforming the cumulative Gamma distribution into a Gamma distribution. We further examined the bacterial inactivation on almond kernels and radish sprout seeds. Additionally, we described certainty levels of bacterial inactivation that ensure the death probability of a bacterial population at six decimal reduction levels, ranging from 90 to 99.9999%. Consequently, the probability model developed in the present study enables us to estimate the death probability of bacterial populations in a desiccated environment over time. This probability model may be useful for risk assessment to estimate the amount of remaining bacteria in a given

  20. Sport Psychology. (United States)

    Krotee, March L.


    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  1. Effect of growth on the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg in peanut butter, measured by a new thin-layer thermal death time device. (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A; Fleischman, Gregory J; Chirtel, Stuart J; Grove, Stephen F


    In published data the thermal destruction of Salmonella species in peanut butter deviates from pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reasons for such deviation are unknown. This study examined both the method used to measure the thermal destruction rate and the method of growth of the microorganisms to explain variations in destruction kinetics. Growth on a solid matrix results in a different physiological state that may provide greater resistance to adverse environments. In this study, Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg were grown for 24 h at 37°C under aerobic conditions in broth and agar media to represent planktonic and sessile cell growth, respectively. Peanut butter was held at 25°C and tested for Salmonella levels immediately after inoculation and at various time intervals up to 2 weeks. Thermal resistance was measured at 85°C by use of a newly developed thin-layer metal sample holder. Although thermal heat transfer through the metal device resulted in longer tau values than those obtained with plastic bags (32.5 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 1.9 s), the bags have a relative variability of about 15 % compared with about 3 % in the plates, allowing improved uniformity of sample treatment. The two serovars tested in the thin-layer device showed similar overall thermal resistance levels in peanut butter regardless of growth in sessile or planktonic states. However, thermal destruction curves from sessile cultures exhibited greater linearity than those obtained from planktonic cells (P = 0.0198 and 0.0047 for Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Tennessee, respectively). In addition, both Salmonella serovars showed significantly higher survival in peanut butter at 25°C when originally grown on solid media (P = 0.001) with a survival of Salmonella at different temperatures in a low-water-activity environment such as peanut butter.

  2. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  3. Examining the temporal relationship between psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D


    Relative to the broader industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology field, research on the turnover of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment staff is in its infancy. Despite its long and rich history, recent reviews of the turnover literature within I-O psychology have noted that there remains considerable room for improvement. In particular, recommendations have been made for research that considers time in the turnover process and explores more distal causes of staff turnover. Addressing these gaps, this article examined the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate, work attitude, and staff turnover. Using data from 95 SUD treatment staff clustered within 29 treatment organizations, multilevel discrete-time survival analyses revealed that a latent measure of work attitude (e.g., job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, turnover intentions) fully mediated the temporal relationship between latent measures of psychological climate (e.g., supervisor support, coworker support, role conflict) and subsequent staff turnover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-course of occupational psychological and social factors as predictors of new-onset and persistent neck pain: a three-wave prospective study over 4 years. (United States)

    Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein


    The current study estimated the impact of psychological and social work factors over time on neck pain. A sample of Norwegian employees (n=1250) was surveyed on 3 occasions spanning 4 years. Five exposures were studied: quantitative demands, decision control, social climate, empowering leadership, and role conflict. Group-based trajectory models suggested factors changed little over time-employees could be classified by mean levels of exposure into groups exhibiting stable "high", "middle", and "low" levels. The exception was decision control, for which a 4-level classification was derived: "high", "high-middle", "low-middle", and "low". Pain prevalence at the end of the study period was compared across groups. Risk and prognosis were also assessed separately by dividing the sample according to pain status at baseline. For all factors, distinct differences in risk were observed between exposure groups, controlled for pain at baseline, skill level, sex, and age. Statistically significant effects ranged from 0.38 (CI 0.20-0.73, Ppain was predicted by all factors. ORs ranged from 0.32 (CI 0.16-0.67, PPain persistence was predicted by high role conflict (OR 3.26, CI 1.30-8.18, Ppain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Whither Psychology. (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F


    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  6. The Transcriptional Response of Neurotrophins and Their Tyrosine Kinase Receptors in Lumbar Sensorimotor Circuits to Spinal Cord Contusion is Affected by Injury Severity and Survival Time (United States)

    Hougland, M. Tyler; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.


    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in changes to the anatomical, neurochemical, and physiological properties of cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neurotrophins, acting by binding to their cognate Trk receptors on target cell membranes, contribute to modulation of anatomical, neurochemical, and physiological properties of neurons in sensorimotor circuits in both the intact and injured spinal cord. Neurotrophin signaling is associated with many post-SCI changes including maladaptive plasticity leading to pain and autonomic dysreflexia, but also therapeutic approaches such as training-induced locomotor improvement. Here we characterize expression of mRNA for neurotrophins and Trk receptors in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord after two different severities of mid-thoracic injury and at 6 and 12 weeks post-SCI. There was complex regulation that differed with tissue, injury severity, and survival time, including reversals of regulation between 6 and 12 weeks, and the data suggest that natural regulation of neurotrophins in the spinal cord may continue for months after birth. Our assessments determined that a coordination of gene expression emerged at the 12-week post-SCI time point and bioinformatic analyses address possible mechanisms. These data can inform studies meant to determine the role of the neurotrophin signaling system in post-SCI function and plasticity, and studies using this signaling system as a therapeutic approach. PMID:23316162

  7. Modeling association between times to recurrence of the different polarities in bipolar disorder among service seekers in urban Nigeria: a survival analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagbamigbe AF


    Full Text Available Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe,1 Victor Adesola Makanjuola2 1Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BD remains both a clinical and public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. Many studies have focused on prevalence and recurrences among BD service seekers but little has been documented on the nature, strength, direction, existence, and estimation of association between times to recurrence of the two possible polarities or mood episodes in BD. In this study, we explored the association between durations before recurrence of depression and manic episodes among people seeking treatment for BD.Methods: This analytical study used retrospective data of 467 persons who sought treatment for BD at the psychiatric clinic of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between 2005 and 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the data. We right-censored the data and obtained Kaplan–Meier estimates of the time to recurrence of the outcomes and transformed the estimates to standardized binormal data using quantile-quantile transformation. The likelihood was maximized to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate of the association parameter at 5% significance level.Results: The mean (± standard deviation age of the respondents was 32.9±12.9 years, this was lower among service seekers who were initially diagnosed with mania than among those initially diagnosed with depression (31.3±11.6, 33.2±11.9, respectively. The median survival time to recurrence of mania and depression among the patients was 1,120 and 745 days, respectively, whereas association between times to recurrence of mania and depression was maximized at 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.62–0.71.Conclusion: There exists a strong and positive

  8. Job Insecurity and Innovative Work Behaviour: A Psychological Contract Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Niesen


    Full Text Available Innovation is considered to be of crucial importance for organisational survival and growth, and in this respect employees play a leading role, as they are the ones who develop innovative ideas. At the same time, the struggle for organisational survival and growth gives rise to perceptions of job insecurity. To date, few studies have explored how employees’ innovative work behaviour (IWB is influenced by the perceived threat of job loss (i.e. job insecurity. As both job insecurity and IWB are increasingly salient in light of organisational change and competition, the present study examines the relationship between job insecurity and IWB, as well as the role of psychological contract breach in explaining this relationship. We hypothesized a negative relation between job insecurity and innovative work behaviour, with psychological contract breach as a mediator in this relationship. Participants were 190 employees from an industrial organisation that had faced restructuring and downsizing for several years. Contrary to our predictions, no direct association was found between job insecurity and the two sub-dimensions of innovative work behaviour (i.e., idea generation and idea implementation. Indirect relationships, however, were found between job insecurity and the two types of IWB through psychological contract breach. Surprisingly, psychological contract breach was positively related to idea generation and idea implementation. These findings shed new light on the relationship between job insecurity and IWB.

  9. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma. (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G


    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. “I Can Only Work So Hard Before I Burn Out.” A Time Sensitive Conceptual Integration of Ideological Psychological Contract Breach, Work Effort, and Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K. Jones


    Full Text Available Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee’s well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this “double edged” role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs, which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential “dark side” of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees’ reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes.

  11. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo


    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Salanova


    Full Text Available The objective of the current paper is to summarize the main evidence-based practical contributions that the Universitat Jaume I’s WoNT team has carried out on Occupational Health Psychology and Positive Organizational Psychology in crisis settings. Specifically, we show the RED (Resources-Experiences-Demands methodology that allows us to assess risks and psychosocial damages, as well as positive emotional states. Furthermore, we also propose a heuristic methodology that, focused on Positive Psychology, facilitates the evaluation and intervention of HEROs (HEalthy & Resilient Organizations as a way to adapt to the occupational and social reality of the crisis.

  13. Political psychology. (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse


    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Altered states of consciousness and short-term psychological after-effects induced by the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in an urban context in Brazil. (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Giglio, Joel Sales; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo


    This report describes psychological assessments of the first time ritual use of ayahuasca in the religious groups União do Vegetal and Santo Daime. Nineteen subjects who tried the beverage in Santo Daime rituals and nine subjects who tried it in União do Vegetal rituals were evaluated one to four days before their first ayahuasca experience in life and one to two weeks after this experience. Semistructured interviews and a structured psychiatric scale were used in the first evaluation to elicit set variables concerning attitudes towards the ayahuasca experience and to elicit mental health status. Mental health status was reassessed in the second evaluation, which also included a semistructured interview concerning the phenomenology of altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Predominantly positive expectancies concerning the ayahuasca experience were the most prominent findings concerning set variables. Visual phenomena, numinousness, peacefulness, insights and a distressing reaction were the most salient ASC experiences. A significant reduction of the intensity of minor psychiatric symptoms occurred in the Santo Daime group after the hallucinogen experience. Subjects in both groups reported behavioral changes towards assertiveness, serenity and vivacity/joy. The set and setting hypothesis, suggestibility processes, as well as the supposed unique effects of ayahuasca are used in discussing these findings.

  15. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.


    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  16. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum


    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  17. Variations of motility and survival with storage time at 4°C of epididymal spermatozoa Ouled-Djellal breed rams in Eastern Algeria. (United States)

    Safsaf, B; Belkadi, S; Belkacem, L; Mamache, B; Tlidjane, M


    The aim of this study was to evaluate some reproduction performances in Ouled-Djellal rams. This study involved genital organs removed after slaughter from 54 rams at the municipal slaughterhouse of Batna (East Algeria). The measurements of survival and mobility of epididymal sperm followed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after collection, revealed significant (p0.001) according to time. Thus, concerning the sperm motility the values were 91.00±2.40%, 89.20±2.40%, 77.00±6.20% and 62.60±1.20% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Indeed, in live sperm, the viability rates were 82.15±1.48%, 77.67±1.74%, 66.56±1.95% and 52.30±1.46% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. This study revealed that epididymal spermatozoa stored at 04°C for 72 h kept their mobility and vitality at nearly a half of their the original parameters.

  18. Variations of motility and survival with storage time at 4°C of epididymal spermatozoa Ouled-Djellal breed rams in Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Safsaf


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate some reproduction performances in Ouled-Djellal rams. Materials and Methods: This study involved genital organs removed after slaughter from 54 rams at the municipal slaughterhouse of Batna (East Algeria. Results: The measurements of survival and mobility of epididymal sperm followed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after collection, revealed significant (p0.001 according to time. Thus, concerning the sperm motility the values were 91.00±2.40%, 89.20±2.40%, 77.00±6.20% and 62.60±1.20% at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Indeed, in live sperm, the viability rates were 82.15±1.48%, 77.67±1.74%, 66.56±1.95% and 52.30±1.46 at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Conclusion: This study revealed that epididymal spermatozoa stored at 04°C for 72 h kept their mobility and vitality at nearly a half of their the original parameters.

  19. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F


    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...



    Marisa Salanova; Isabel M. Martínez; Susana Llorens


    The objective of the current paper is to summarize the main evidence-based practical contributions that the Universitat Jaume I’s WoNT team has carried out on Occupational Health Psychology and Positive Organizational Psychology in crisis settings. Specifically, we show the RED (Resources-Experiences-Demands) methodology that allows us to assess risks and psychosocial damages, as well as positive emotional states. Furthermore, we also propose a heuristic methodology that, focused on Positive ...

  1. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G


    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  2. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight


    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  3. Personality psychology: lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts reveal only half of the story--why it is time for a paradigm shift. (United States)

    Uher, Jana


    This article develops a comprehensive philosophy-of-science for personality psychology that goes far beyond the scope of the lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts that currently prevail. One of the field's most important guiding scientific assumptions, the lexical hypothesis, is analysed from meta-theoretical viewpoints to reveal that it explicitly describes two sets of phenomena that must be clearly differentiated: 1) lexical repertoires and the representations that they encode and 2) the kinds of phenomena that are represented. Thus far, personality psychologists largely explored only the former, but have seriously neglected studying the latter. Meta-theoretical analyses of these different kinds of phenomena and their distinct natures, commonalities, differences, and interrelations reveal that personality psychology's focus on lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts entails a) erroneous meta-theoretical assumptions about what the phenomena being studied actually are, and thus how they can be analysed and interpreted, b) that contemporary personality psychology is largely based on everyday psychological knowledge, and c) a fundamental circularity in the scientific explanations used in trait psychology. These findings seriously challenge the widespread assumptions about the causal and universal status of the phenomena described by prominent personality models. The current state of knowledge about the lexical hypothesis is reviewed, and implications for personality psychology are discussed. Ten desiderata for future research are outlined to overcome the current paradigmatic fixations that are substantially hampering intellectual innovation and progress in the field.

  4. Space psychology (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.


    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  5. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...

  6. Educational Psychology: A Future Retrospective (United States)

    Harris, Karen R.


    In my response to Alexander's (2018) paper marking the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association and the field of educational psychology, I have taken the perspective of a member of our discipline from some time in the future who is contributing to a larger work looking back at the history and development of our field (thus, a…

  7. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.


    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  8. A Psychology of Teaching. (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  9. Journal Article Citation Classics in School Psychology: Analysis of the Most Cited Articles in Five School Psychology Journals (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fagan, Thomas K.; Smithson, Kelly


    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the top 100 most highly cited articles of all time as well as the 25 most highly cited articles of the last decade from within 5 school psychology journals: "Journal of School Psychology," "Psychology in the Schools," "School Psychology International," "School Psychology Quarterly," and "School…

  10. Psychological Detachment from Work during Off-job Time: Predictive Role of Work and Non-work Factors in Japanese Employees (United States)

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; DE JONGE, Jan; KUBOTA, Kazumi; KAWAKAMI, Norito


    Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of “switching off” mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee’s well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it. PMID:24492761



  12. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady


    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  13. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Maisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Methods Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids. Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship, which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. Results The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Conclusions Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly

  14. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.


    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  15. General regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype, temperature and time for use in risk assessment (United States)

    A general regression neural network and Monte Carlo simulation model for predicting survival and growth of Salmonella on raw chicken skin as a function of serotype (Typhimurium, Kentucky, Hadar), temperature (5 to 50C) and time (0 to 8 h) was developed. Poultry isolates of Salmonella with natural r...

  16. Attenuation caused by infrequently updated covariates in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Liestøl, Knut


    Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates......Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates...

  17. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon


    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  18. Potential factors affecting survival differ by run-timing and location: linear mixed-effects models of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. in the Klamath River, California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Quiñones

    Full Text Available Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980-2007 of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow. Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids.

  19. Surviving downsizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, A.C. [Colorado Public Service Co., Platteville, CO (United States); Schulz, J.W. [Applied Behavioral Sciences, Englewood, CO (United States); Holmes, M.H. [Colorado Public Service Co., Platteville, CO (United States)


    Utilities along with other companies are under increasing pressure to operate in a leaner, more efficient way. Companies with excess personnel costs consider downsizing as one solution. Developments in communication and technology along with more team-oriented management approaches further fuel the move to downsize as these developments permit smaller, flatter organizations. Downsizing is often, however, a difficult and even hazardous path. Reducing the size of a workforce does not automatically translate into lower costs or improved operations. The hidden costs of downsizing, i.e., the psychological impacts on the entire organization, may, in fact, overwhelm the anticipated gains. Yet, utilities facing deregulation and increasing competition ma be forced to follow this difficult course.

  20. The influence of behavioural and psychological factors on medication adherence over time in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a study in the biologics era. (United States)

    Morgan, Catharine; McBeth, John; Cordingley, Lis; Watson, Kath; Hyrich, Kimme L; Symmons, Deborah P M; Bruce, Ian N


    To investigate levels of self-reported adherence to biologic treatment and establish the contribution of demographic, physical and psychological factors to biologic medication adherence in an RA cohort. Adalimumab-treated patients were recruited through the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA between May 2007 and April 2009. Demographic and baseline psychological measures including illness and medication beliefs were collected. Disease activity (28-item DAS), physical function (HAQ) and quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey) were also measured at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months. Adherence was assessed at each follow-up using the patient self-completed Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR). Multilevel mixed effects modelling analysis was performed to investigate predictors of adherence. Of the 329 Adalimumab-treated patients included, low adherence (CQR score psychological factors, particularly medication beliefs, in driving medication adherence could have substantial clinical and health economic benefits in RA. The psychological factors we have identified are putative targets for strategies to improve adherence in RA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  1. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben


    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  2. The birth of experimental psychology in Germany between psychophysical methods and physiological theories. (United States)

    Sinatra, Maria


    In 1879 Wundt's laboratory of psychology was opened in Leipzig, and it has been the landmark ever since for the beginning of modern experimental psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt, was the first to successfully demarcate the areas of scientific psychology as being distinct from either physiology or philosophy, thus guaranteeing the survival of psychology, which was regarded as an autonomous discipline set upon a secure institutional framework. This paper attempts to clarify the basic facts and concepts related to the roots of scientific psychology in Germany, i.e., the context in which the "Founding Father" worked, as well as of those predecessors who proposed the topics and apparatus of his laboratory. Attention will be paid in particular to the psychophysical methods of Weber and Fechner, especially in regard to colour perception. In this context, an outline is presented of the history of reaction time experiments in astronomy, physiology, and psychology, and of the role played by the scientific instruments. It is shown how the methodology of physics and physiology contributed to the emancipation of scientific psychology and to the formation of its orientation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mujezinović


    Full Text Available Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a very dangerous infectious acute, usually afebrile disease characterized by muscle spasms, affecting humans and various animal species. The causative agent of the disease is bacteria Clostridium tetani. This bacteria produces a specific neurotoxin known as Tetanus toxin, which consists of two components: tetanospasmin and tetanolysin. Light (L chains of tetanospamin cleavage synaptobrevin, an integral membrane component of the synaptic vesicles, which in turn prevent release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA into the synaptic cleft. The α- motor neurons are, therefore, under no inhibitory control as a result of which they undergo sustained excitatory discharge causing the characteristic motor spasms of tetanus. In this research, we attempted to normalize the disorders caused by tetanus toxin by using ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of aspartate (at doses of 5, 10, 44 and 100 mg/kg of body weight – b.w., alone and in combination with indol-2-carboxylic acid, a competitive antagonist of aspartate (at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. and caroverine, a non-competitive antagonist of glutamate (at a dose of 1.2 mg/kg b.w.. Experiments were conducted on the albino mice of both sexes, weighing around 20-25 g. Experimental tetanus was induced by application of tetanus toxin. The administration of ketamine, alone and in combination with indol-2-carboxylic acid and caroverine was carried out 24 hours after administration of tetanus toxin once per day, until the mice died. It was found that ketamine had an effect only at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w., which slightly prolonged the LD50 periodin experimental group of mice, compared to the control group of mice with experimental tetanus. Thus, it can be concluded that administration of ketamine in this dose proved to be only slightly effective. On the other hand, combination of ketamine with indol-2-carboxylic acid slightly extended the survival time

  4. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion. (United States)

    Charles, Eric P


    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  5. Correlation of [11C]choline PET-CT with time to treatment and disease-specific survival in men with recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwsma, A.J.; Rybalov, M; Leliveld, AM; Pruim, J; de Jong, Igle Jan


    Aim: Radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy should be considered in men with high risk features who have a life expectancy of more than 10 years. So far no effect on prostate cancer specific survival has been proven by 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on adjuvant radiotherapy. At present

  6. Long-Term Survival of Dental Implants with Different Prosthetic Loading Times in Healthy Patients: A 5-Year Retrospective Clinical Study. (United States)

    Muelas-Jiménez, M Isabel; Olmedo-Gaya, Maria Victoria; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco J; Reyes-Botella, Candela; Vallecillo-Capilla, Manuel


    To compare survival rates among dental implants restored with immediate, early, and conventional loading protocols, also comparing between maxillary and mandibular implants, and to evaluate the influence of implant length and diameter and the type of prosthesis on treatment outcomes. This retrospective cohort study initially included all 52 patients receiving dental implants between July 2006 and February 2008 at a private oral surgery clinic in Granada (Southern Spain). Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed, including periapical or panoramic radiographs, and incidences during completion of the restoration were recorded at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. After a 5-year follow-up, 1 patient had died, 3 were lost to follow-up, and 6 required grafting before implant placement; therefore, the final study sample comprised 42 patients with 164 implants. Variables associated with the survival/failure of the restoration were: number of implants (higher failure rate with fewer implants), bone type (higher failure rate in type III or IV bone), and type of prosthesis (higher failure rate with single crowns). No significant association was found in univariate or multivariate analyses between survival rate and the loading protocol, implant length or diameter, or maxillary/mandibular location. Immediate occlusal loading, immediate provisionalization without occlusal loading, and early loading are viable treatment options with similar survival rates to those obtained with conventional loading. Bone quality and number of implants per patient were the most influential factors. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary


    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  8. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.


    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  9. Contextualizing Floyd Allports's Social Psychology. (United States)

    Parkovnick, S


    This paper looks at the program for social psychology presented by Floyd Allport in his Social Psychology of 1924. It contextualizes Allport's program in terms of intellectual currents of the time and the views of his teachers at Harvard University, specifically the philosopher Ralph Barton Perry and the psychologists Edwin B. Holt and Hugo Münsterberg. Finally, the paper analyzes responses to Allport's program at the time and later, retrospective responses. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. [Adolescent psychology]. (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie


    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  11. Academic psychology or the lost meaning of psychology as praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad V.


    Full Text Available Academic psychology has interpreted the development of neuro-biological sciences, especially neurobiological psychology, as the death of the soul and the disappearance of its hermeneutic dimension. One could ask maliciously why the need to look so deeply for the meaning sought by the Soul and "speech-being", at a time when the secrets of neurons are successfully decoded, as well as their chemical and electrical activity. It would be a huge mistake to think, by following the achievements of the so-called empirical research in psychology and works that can be published only in Serbian journal Psihologija, that the same cognitive schemes can equally well explaine the behavior of individual cells and individual behavior. Fortunately, the subject’s soul, which is believed to have been banished from the "real", "true" science, and biological theories, returns even under the banner of cognitivism. Academic psychology would still have to ask what has always been its primary objective: what constitutes the soul; what types of ideas, what kind of logical diversity constitutes the soul. Psychology does not have to know the answer, but it must be noted that only dynamic psychology seeks one. So, for the sake of psychology as praxis, dynamic psychology should be a syllabus in the education of future psychologists, who would not imitate otorhinolaryngologists or ophthalmologists.

  12. Premenstrual syndrome: a psychological overview. (United States)

    Riven, L


    This paper reviews the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) from a historical and psychological perspective. The physician must recognize that the premenstruum-the four days before the onset of the menses-is a `high risk' phase for women. They may demonstrate somatic and psychological complaints such as irritability, aggression, tension, anxiety, depression, lethargy, insomnia, poor coordination and concentration. Psychological disturbances can range from self-deprecation and the feeling that `everything is too much' to pronounced feelings of oppression and depression. Psychiatric patients may become even more disturbed at this time. Recent reviews on PMS have studied its etiology and its possible connection to hormone imbalance, but to date there is no complete explanation for the syndrome's psychological symptoms. The most promising treatments for the psychological symptoms of PMS are pyridoxine (although there are conflicting reports about it), antidepressants, benzodiazepines if anxiety and tension dominate, and ongoing psychotherapy for severe cases.

  13. The psychological science of addiction. (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith


    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  14. Beyond Positive Psychology? (United States)

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.


    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  15. Usage of social media and smartphone application in assessment of physical and psychological well-being of individuals in times of a major air pollution crisis. (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger Cm


    Crisis situations bring about many challenges to researchers, public institutions, and governments in collecting data and conducting research in affected individuals. Recent developments in Web-based and smartphone technologies have offered government and nongovernment organizations a new system to disseminate and acquire information. However, research into this area is still lacking. The current study focuses largely on how new social networking websites and, in particular, smartphone technologies could have helped in the acquisition of crucial research data from the general population during the recent 2013 Southeast Asian Haze. This crisis lasted only for 1 week, and is unlike other crisis where there are large-scale consequential after-effects. To determine whether respondents will make use of Internet, social media, and smartphone technologies to provide feedback regarding their physical and psychological wellbeing during a crisis, and if so, will these new mechanisms be as effective as conventional, technological, Internet-based website technologies. A Web-based database and a smartphone application were developed. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. The participants were recruited either via a self-sponsored Facebook post featuring a direct link to the questionnaire on physical and psychological wellbeing and also a smartphone Web-based application; or via dissemination of the questionnaire link by emails, directed to the same group of participants. Information pertaining to physical and psychological wellbeing was collated. A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey. Most of them were between the ages of 20 to 29 years and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis showed that demographic variables like age, gender, and educational levels did not influence

  16. Timing of changes from a primitive reflex to a voluntary behavior in infancy as a potential predictor of socio-psychological and physical development during juvenile stages among common marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Karino


    Consequently, we found that both subjects expressed climbing-up behavior in the initial early period, but only the female who developed typically later, switched to jumping-down behavior with pre-facing to ‘down’ direction. Meanwhile, the male who would have developmental delay later, clearly did not show the switching pattern. The results suggest that the switch timing from involuntary to voluntary movement may be a possible predictor of juvenile and adolescent physiological and psychological retardation. The results also suggest that the primate model allows more methods to be developed for early detection of developmental disabilities that could be utilized in humans to pave the way for interventions and possible psychological or psychiatric treatment.

  17. Polycultural psychology. (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi


    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.



  19. [Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders]. (United States)

    Cerić, I; Mehić-Basara, N


    Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him.

  20. Artillery Survivability Model (United States)


    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  1. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives


    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  2. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.


    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  3. Psychology's Renaissance. (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri


    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  4. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F


    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  5. Psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors in Iran: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garmaroudi Gholamreza


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale struck the city of Bam in Iran on the 26th of December 2003 at 5.26 A.M. It was devastating, and left over 40,000 dead and around 30,000 injured. The profound tragedy of thousands killed has caused emotional and psychological trauma for tens of thousands of people who have survived. A study was carried out to assess psychological distress among Bam earthquake survivors and factors associated with severe mental health in those who survived the tragedy. Methods This was a population-based study measuring psychological distress among the survivors of Bam earthquake in Iran. Using a multi-stage stratified sampling method a random sample of individuals aged 15 years and over living in Bam were interviewed. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Results In all 916 survivors were interviewed. The mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years (SD = 12.4, mostly were males (53%, married (66% and had secondary school education (50%. Forty-one percent reported they lost 3 to 5 members of their family in the earthquake. In addition the findings showed that 58% of the respondents suffered from severe mental health as measured by the GHQ-12 and this was three times higher than reported psychological distress among the general population. There were significant differences between sub-groups of the study sample with regard to their psychological distress. The results of the logistic regression analysis also indicated that female gender; lower education, unemployment, and loss of family members were associated with severe psychological distress among earthquake victims. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the amount of psychological distress among earthquake survivors was high and there is an urgent need to deliver mental health care to disaster victims in local medical settings and to reduce negative health impacts of the earthquake

  6. Psychological aid in crisis and emergency situations: Psychological follow-up by emergency-related professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoygu J.S.


    Full Text Available The development of contemporary society, the mass media, and new technologies improves living standards on the one hand and, on the other, enhances the risk of large-scale catastrophes, accidents, and natural disasters (Yanitsky, 2004. From year to year the number of people who survive natural disasters and human-caused accidents and catastrophes is growing, as is the number of professionals involved in disaster-relief operations, such as rescuers, medical professionals, and psychologists. The 1990s saw the intensive development of new work for psychologists: rendering psychological aid to people affected by emergencies. During that time, because of a shift in the political system and the democratization of society, these issues gained a public dimension.

  7. Reducing Uncertainty: Predictors of Stopping Chemotherapy Early and Shortened Survival Time in Platinum Resistant/Refractory Ovarian Cancer-The GCIG Symptom Benefit Study. (United States)

    Roncolato, Felicia T; Joly, Florence; O'Connell, Rachel; Lanceley, Anne; Hilpert, Felix; Buizen, Luke; Okamoto, Aikou; Aotani, Eriko; Pignata, Sandro; Donnellan, Paul; Oza, Amit; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Berek, Jonathan S; Heitz, Florian; Feeney, Amanda; Berton-Rigaud, Dominique; Stockler, Martin R; King, Madeleine; Friedlander, Michael


    Clinicians and patients often overestimate the benefits of chemotherapy, and overall survival (OS), in platinum resistant/refractory ovarian cancer (PRROC). This study sought to determine aspects of health-related quality of life and clinicopathological characteristics before starting chemotherapy that were associated with stopping chemotherapy early, shortened survival, and death within 30 days of chemotherapy. This study enrolled women with PRROC before starting palliative chemotherapy. Health-related quality of life was measured with EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-OV28. Chemotherapy stopped within 8 weeks of starting was defined as stopping early. Logistic regression was used to assess univariable and multivariable associations with stopping chemotherapy early and death within 30 days of chemotherapy; Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess associations with progression-free and OS. Low baseline global health status (GHS), role function (RF), physical function (PF), and high abdominal/gastrointestinal symptom (AGIS) were associated with stopping chemotherapy early (all p Women with low GHS, RF, or PF before starting chemotherapy were more likely to stop chemotherapy early, with short OS. Self-ratings of GHS, RF, and PF could improve patient-clinician communication regarding prognosis and help decision-making in women considering chemotherapy for PRROC. Measuring aspects of health-related quality of life when considering further chemotherapy in platinum resistant/refractory ovarian cancer (PRROC) could help identify women with a particularly poor prognosis who are unlikely to benefit from chemotherapy and could therefore be spared unnecessary treatment and toxicity in their last months of life. Self-ratings of global health status, role function, and physical function could improve patient-clinician communication regarding prognosis and help decision-making in women considering chemotherapy for PRROC. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  8. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi


    We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...... with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time...

  9. Psychology students from Leiden University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi


    with the study director Hans Sønderstrup Hansen and Rashmi Singla. It was an enriching experience for the RUC organizing group. International coordinator for Psychology Dieuwerke de Groot in Leiden reciprocated by writing: “A very enthusiastic mail from our students telling me they had such a wonderful time......We are glad to share with our department that a group of 41 Psychology students from Leiden university, Holland were on a three hours visit to RUC Psychology department on Friday , 10.3.2017. The department is a valuable partner for students’ exchange , almost every semester there are RUC students...... travelling to Leiden. The trip was planned by Study Association Labyrint Leiden, and consisted of students at all levels from the bachelor as well as masters programs. A group of RUC psychology students Wiebke Sandermann; Emma Stinne Engstrøm; Mikkel Brilner Lund were in the organising group along...

  10. Psychological strain between nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obročníková


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to identify differences in perception of work (mental workload among nurses providing acute and chronic nursing care. Design: Study design is cross-sectional and descriptive. Methods: The sample of respondents consisted of 97 nurses working in departments Neurology, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of the hospital St. James in Bardejov, University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice and University Hospital J. A. Reiman in Prešov. To measure psychological strain, Meister's questionnaire for neuropsychological strain was used. Results: Increased psychological strain was observed in nurses providing acute care versus nurses providing chronic care, particularly in job satisfaction, long-term tolerance, time constraints, high responsibility, nervousness, fatigue and satiety. In comparison with the population norm, nurses in acute care achieved significantly higher indicators of factor I (strain and gross score as nurses in neurological care. A statistically significant relationship between psychological stress and age of nurses working in anesthesiology and intensive care departments was confirmed. Nurses with long term practical experience are exposed to intense mental stress (especially in the areas of strain and monotony. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest the reality that variable qualities of work related strain among nurses can lead to physical and emotional exhaustion.

  11. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution


    Martin Žužek-Kres


    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  12. Survival After Relapse of Medulloblastoma. (United States)

    Koschmann, Carl; Bloom, Karina; Upadhyaya, Santhosh; Geyer, J Russell; Leary, Sarah E S


    Survival after recurrence of medulloblastoma has not been reported in an unselected cohort of patients in the contemporary era. We reviewed 55 patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma between 2000 and 2010, and treated at Seattle Children's Hospital to evaluate patterns of relapse treatment and survival. Fourteen of 47 patients (30%) over the age of 3 experienced recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma after standard therapy. The median time from diagnosis to recurrence was 18.0 months (range, 3.6 to 62.6 mo), and site of recurrence was metastatic in 86%. The median survival after relapse was 10.3 months (range, 1.3 to 80.5 mo); 3-year survival after relapse was 18%. There were trend associations between longer survival and having received additional chemotherapy (median survival 12.8 vs. 1.3 mo, P=0.16) and radiation therapy (15.4 vs. 5.9 mo, P=0.20). Isolated local relapse was significantly associated with shorter survival (1.3 vs. 12.8 mo, P=0.009). Recurrence of medulloblastoma is more likely to be metastatic than reported in previous eras. Within the limits of our small sample, our data suggest a potential survival benefit from retreatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation even in heavily pretreated patients. This report serves as a baseline against which to evaluate novel therapy combinations.

  13. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.


    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry...

  14. Perfectionism, Procrastination, and Psychological Distress (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Clark, Dustin


    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students ( N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also…

  15. Introduction to Psychology. (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  16. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.


    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  17. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström


    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  18. Minor regression and long-time survival (56 months) in a patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma under Viscum album and Helleborus niger extracts-a case report. (United States)

    Werthmann, Paul G; Saltzwedel, Gerhard; Kienle, Gunver S


    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a dismal prognosis. Viscum album extracts (VAE) have strong immune stimulatory properties, cytotoxic effects, can downregulate cancer genes and inhibit angiogenesis. VAE are often used as an adjunct treatment in cancer patients but have rarely been investigated in MPM. Helleborus niger extracts (HNE) have been used in anticancer therapy since antiquity, and also show tumor specific cytotoxic effects. We present a case of a 64-year old woman with epithelioid MPM of the right chest with node involvement (T2N1M0, stage III). Deciding against the recommended radio-chemotherapy, surgery and pleurodesis, she opted for an integrative treatment approach and was treated with VAE and HNE. After 6 weeks' treatment, the pleural and nodal MPM manifestations were reduced by about 15%. Subsequent tumor growth was slow, and the patient remained in good health, enabling her to remain physically active until shortly before her death 56 months after the initial diagnosis. This is a rare case of an MPM patient not receiving any standard anticancer treatment; it still shows an extraordinary long survival and good performance status. We presume that VAE and HNE might had an impact on this clinically relevant outcome and therefore should be further investigated in MPM.

  19. Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M


    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. "I felt for a long time like everything beautiful in me had been taken out": Women's suffering, remembering, and survival following the loss of child custody. (United States)

    Kenny, Kathleen S; Barrington, Clare; Green, Sherri L


    Child Protective Services' (CPS) placements of children in out-of-home care disproportionately impact families marginalized by poverty, racism and criminalization. CPS' mandate to protect children from neglect and abuse is frequently criticized as failing to address the multiple social and structural domains shaping parents' lives, especially mothers. We conducted a thematic narrative analysis of in-depth interviews to explore the impact of child custody loss on 19 women who use drugs residing in Toronto, Canada. We also assessed the potential roles of intersectional forms of violence and inequities in power that can both give rise to child custody loss and mediate its consequences. Trauma was identified as a key impact of separation, further exacerbated by women's cumulative trauma histories and ongoing mother-child apartness. Women described this trauma as unbearable and reported persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental health conditions. Practices of dissociation through increased use of drugs and alcohol were central in tending to the pain of separation, and were often synergistically reinforced by heightened structural vulnerability observed in increased exposure to housing instability, intimate partner violence, and initiation of injection drug use and sex work. Women's survival hinged largely on hopefulness of reuniting with children, a goal pivotal to their sense of future and day-to-day intentions toward ameliorated life circumstances. Findings highlight needs for strategies addressing women's health and structural vulnerability following custody loss and also direct attention to altering institutional processes to support community-based alternatives to parent-child separation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential inequality trends over time in survival among U.S. children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia by race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, and sex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Linwei; Bhatia, Smita; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Yasui, Yutaka


    ...) have changed over time in different race/ethnicity groups. Children diagnosed with a first primary malignant ALL at ages 0 to 19 years in 1975-2010 in the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries were included...

  2. Identifying Some Risk Factors for the Time to Death of the Elderly Using the Semi-Parametric Blended Model of Survival Analysis With Competing Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Hajiabbasi


    Conclusion In single-variable fitting, age, history of myocardial infarction, history of stroke, and kidney problems were identified to have significant effects on the time to death of the elderly. Based on one-variable semi-parametric competing risk mixture fitted models, more significant risk factors for the time to death of elderly was identified when compared with a fitted multivariate mode to the data. This implies that the role of some independent variables can be explained by other independent variables.

  3. Using a topological model in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mammen, Jens Skaun


    the gap between psychology as part of Naturwissenschaft and of Geisteswissenschaft, and at the same time establish a common frame for understanding cognition and affection, and our practical and cultural life (Mammen and Mironenko 2015). The duality of sense and choice categories can be described formally...... are bridging psychology and mathematics and not only enriching psychology but also opening for a new interpretation of parts of the foundation of mathematics and logic....

  4. A Guide to Discursive Organizational Psychology



    This lively guide showcasing original and carefully curated research illustrates the dynamic relationship between discourse and organizational psychology. It maps the origins and development of discursive approaches in the field of organizational psychology and provides a timely review of the challenges that may confront researchers in the years to come, thereby charting the current and future boundaries of the field. A Guide to Discursive Organizational Psychology delineates a potential rese...

  5. Sport psychology: psychologic issues and applications. (United States)

    Carr, Christopher M


    This article has briefly highlighted the area of sport psychology as it relates to performance psychology skills (mental training), including a historical overview and current topics overview. The use of mental training skills may be of interest to the practicing physical medicine and rehabilitation professional in the treatment of his or her patients. It is important that the physical medicine professional recognize what sport or performance psychology represents within the paradigm of psychologic interventions. Referring to an individual based on his or her training (licensed psychologist versus mental training consultant) is essential for the appropriate management of psychologic issues related to performance. The issues related to the psychologic rehabilitation of the injured athlete are of importance to the medical staff; the overview of affective responses can assist in understanding the normal and adaptive responses of the injured athlete. Finally, a brief description of a psychologist's role within a sports medicine and rehabilitation practice is presented. The psychologic issues that are present in the world of sport and elite performance are numerous, and not all are mentioned in this article. Issues of eating disorders, substance abuse, and psychologic health with athletes should be further explored within the physical medicine and rehabilitation discipline as well as in the sports medicine discipline. The ever-evolving psychologic dynamics of individuals involved in sport and elite performance are intriguing and unique. A specialized knowledge base, training, and experience in providing psychologic services are required to treat this unique population. Counseling and clinical issues of the athlete and elite performer require further attention in the realm of psychologic interventions, including further exploration of the efficacy of interventions for performance enhancement. The field of applied sport psychology may offer the physical medicine

  6. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology


    Mirjana Nastran Ule


    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  7. Historizing epistemology in psychology. (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana


    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  8. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus


    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  9. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild


    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  10. Adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer: timing of wild-type p53 gene expression in vivo and effect of tumor transduction on survival in a rat glioma brachytherapy model. (United States)

    Bampoe, J; Glen, J; Hubbard, S L; Salhia, B; Shannon, P; Rutka, J; Bernstein, M


    This study sought to investigate modification of the radiation response in a rat 9L brain tumor model in vivo by the wild-type p53 gene (wtp53). Determination of the timing and dose of radiation therapy required the assessment of the duration of the effect of wtp53 expression on 9L tumors after in vivo transfection. Anesthetized male F-344 rats each were stereotactically inoculated with 4 x 10(4) 9L gliosarcoma cells through a skull screw into the cerebrum in the right frontal region. Twelve-day-old tumors were inoculated through the screw with recombinant adenoviral vectors under isoflurane anaesthesia: control rats with Ad5/RSV/GL2 (carrying the luciferase gene), and study rats with Ad5CMV-p53 (carrying the wtp53 gene). Brain tumors removed at specific times after transfection were measured, homogenized, and lysed and wtp53 expression determined by Western blot analysis. Four groups of nine rats were, subsequently, implanted with iodine-125 seeds 15 days post-tumor inoculation to give a minimum tumor dose of 40 or 60 Gy. We demonstrated transfer of wtp53 into rat 9L tumors in vivo using the Ad5CMV-p53 vector. The expression of wtp53 was demonstrated to be maximum between days 1 and 3 post-vector inoculation. Tumors expressing wtp53 were smaller than controls transfected with Ad5/RSV/GL2 but this difference was not statistically significant. Radiation made a significant difference to the survival of tumor-bearing rats. Moreover, wtp53 expression conferred a significant additional survival advantage. The expression of wtp53 significantly improves the survival of irradiated tumor-bearing rats in our model.

  11. Risk of early onset substance use among students with and without mild academic disabilities : Results of a discrete-time survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepper, Annelies; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Monshouwer, Karin


    This study investigated the age of onset of substance use among 536 students with mild academic disabilities and 906 students without academic disabilities, and the extent to which emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems explain the differences between these two groups. Using discrete-time

  12. Percutaneous coronary intervention-related time delay, patient's risk profile, and survival benefits of primary angioplasty vs lytic therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. (United States)

    De Luca, Giuseppe; Cassetti, Ettore; Marino, Paolo


    Previous reports have suggested an impact of patient's risk profile and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related time delay on the benefits of primary angioplasty as compared with fibrinolysis. However, several factors, such as inappropriate interpretation and definition of delays, missing currently available trials, and arguable risk-benefit analysis, limit the value of these reports. Thus, the aim of the current review is to assess whether the prognostic impact of PCI-related time delay may vary according to patient's risk profile, presentation delay, and type of lytic therapy. We obtained results from all randomized trials comparing fibrinolysis and primary angioplasty in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The literature was scanned by formal searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE and CENTRAL) for papers published from January 1990 to April 2007. The following key words were used: randomized trial, myocardial infarction, reperfusion, primary angioplasty, rescue angioplasty, fibrinolysis, thrombolysis, duteplase, reteplase, tenecteplase, and alteplase. Major clinical end point assessed was mortality at 30-day follow-up. The relationship between mortality benefits from primary angioplasty, patient's risk profile, and PCI-related time delay was evaluated by using a weighted least-square regression in which results from each trial were weighted by the square root of the number of patients of each trial. A total of 27 trials were finally included, with 4399 patients randomized to primary angioplasty and 4474 patients randomized to fibrinolysis. The relationship between the benefits from primary angioplasty and PCI-related time changed according to risk profile. The higher the risk profile, the larger the reduction in mortality benefits from primary angioplasty as compared with fibrinolysis per each 10 minutes of PCI-related time delay (0.75%, 0.45%, and 0%, in high-, medium-, and low-risk patients, respectively). Furthermore, the impact was

  13. Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress. (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G; Richardson, Clarissa M E; Clark, Dustin


    Using a cross-panel design and data from 2 successive cohorts of college students (N = 357), we examined the stability of maladaptive perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress across 3 time points within a college semester. Each construct was substantially stable over time, with procrastination being especially stable. We also tested, but failed to support, a mediational model with Time 2 (mid-semester) procrastination as a hypothesized mechanism through which Time 1 (early-semester) perfectionism would affect Time 3 (end-semester) psychological distress. An alternative model with Time 2 perfectionism as a mediator of the procrastination-distress association also was not supported. Within-time analyses revealed generally consistent strength of effects in the correlations between the 3 constructs over the course of the semester. A significant interaction effect also emerged. Time 1 procrastination had no effect on otherwise high levels of psychological distress at the end of the semester for highly perfectionistic students, but at low levels of Time 1 perfectionism, the most distressed students by the end of the term were those who were more likely to have procrastinated earlier in the semester. Implications of the stability of the constructs and their association over time, as well as the moderating effects of procrastination, are discussed in the context of maladaptive perfectionism and problematic procrastination.

  14. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji


    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  15. Undisciplined beginnings, academic success, and discursive psychology. (United States)

    Billig, Michael


    This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The Road Not Taken: A False Start for Cognitive Psychology. (United States)

    Schonpflug, Wolfgang


    The conception of psychology, presented by Hugo Munsterberg in his address, as a unitary science of the human mind was an idea whose time came much later. This address marks a stage in the transition from philosophy to psychology. (SLD)

  17. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR in sentinel lymph nodes from melanoma patients. Detection of melanocytic mRNA predicts disease-free survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Abrahamsen, Helene Nortvig; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl


    Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for specific melanoma markers is more sensitive than histology for detecting cells of melanocytic origin in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in cutaneous melanoma. The clinical significance of a positive qRT-PCR analysis...... is unclear. We performed qRT-PCR for the presence of MART-1 and tyrosinase in SLNs from 93 melanoma patients, and then followed these patients clinically (median follow-up time 43.5 months). We found a significant correlation between disease progression and presence of MART-1 mRNA in SLNs (p=0.......02), but no correlation with the amount of MART-1 mRNA as measured by qRT-PCR. No correlation between histology and recurrence was detected, recurrence rates being low in both histology-negative (12%) and -positive (15%) patients. We found a significant difference in disease recurrence between patients positive by both...

  18. Effect of the radiation intensity, water turbidity and exposure time on the survival of Cryptosporidium during simulated solar disinfection of drinking water. (United States)

    Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Fontán-Sainz, María; McGuigan, Kevin G; Ares-Mazás, Elvira


    The solar disinfection (SODIS) technique is a highly effective process that makes use of solar energy to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms in drinking water in developing countries. The pathogenic protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is often found in surface waters and is associated with waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. In the present study, a complete multi-factorial mathematical model was used to investigate the combined effects of the intensity of solar radiation (200, 600 and 900W/m(2) in the 320nm to 10microm range), water turbidity (5, 100 and 300 NTU) and exposure time (4, 8 and 12h) on the viability and infectivity of C. parvum oocysts during simulated SODIS procedures at a constant temperature of 30 degrees C. All three factors had significant effects (p or =600W/m(2) and times of exposure between 8 and 12h were required to reduce the oocyst infectivity in water samples with different degrees of turbidity.

  19. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola


    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  20. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist? (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E


    Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only "temporary winners" and no "final truths" in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. "deliberate practice" vs. "talent" in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  1. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan


    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  2. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.


    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  3. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology (United States)

    Oleg, Yavoruk


    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  4. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen


    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  5. Survival of time-evolved quantum correlations depending on whether quenching is across a critical point in an X Y spin chain (United States)

    Mishra, Utkarsh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.


    The time dynamics of quantum correlations in the quantum transverse anisotropic X Y spin chain of infinite length is studied at zero and finite temperatures. The evolution occurs due to the instantaneous quenching of the coupling constant between the nearest-neighbor spins of the model, which is performed either within the same phase or across the quantum phase-transition point connecting the order-disorder phases of the model. We characterize the time-evolved quantum correlations, viz., entanglement and quantum discord, which exhibit varying behavior depending on the initial state and the quenching scheme. We show that the system is endowed with enhanced nearest-neighbor bipartite quantum correlations compared to that of the initial state, when quenched from the ordered to the deep disordered phase. However, nearest-neighbor quantum correlations are almost washed out when the system is quenched from the disordered to the ordered phase with the initial state being at the zero temperature. We also identify the condition for the occurrence of enhanced bipartite correlations when the system is quenched within the same phase. Moreover, we investigate the bipartite quantum correlations when the initial state is a thermal equilibrium state with finite temperature, which reveals the effects of thermal fluctuation on the phenomena observed at zero temperature. Finally, an analogous analysis is carried out for zero-temperature next-nearest-neighbor quantum correlations.

  6. Psychology of family business


    Taylyakova, Feruzahon


    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  7. Professional psychology in Portugal. (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H


    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  8. Psychological Stress and Cancer (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the ...

  9. What is the mechanism effect that links social support to coping and psychological outcome within individuals affected by prostate cancer? Real time data collection using mobile technology. (United States)

    Paterson, Catherine; Jones, Martyn; Rattray, Janice; Lauder, William; Nabi, Ghulam


    Unmet support needs are prevalent in men affected by prostate cancer. Moreover, little is known about the optimal type of social support, or its mechanism effect between coping and emotional outcome in men affected by this disease to identify areas for clinical intervention. This study aimed to empirically test the propositions of social support theory in "real time" within individual men living with and beyond prostate cancer. Purposeful sub-sample from a larger prospective longitudinal study of prostate cancer survivors, took part in real time data collection using mobile technology. Self-reports were collected for 31 days prompted by an audio alarm 3 times per day (a total of 93 data entries) for each of the 12 case studies. Electronic data were analysed using time series analysis. Majority of response rates were >90%. Men reported a lack of satisfaction with their support over time. Testing the propositions of social support theory "within individuals" over time demonstrated different results for main effect, moderation and mediation pathways that linked coping and social support to emotional outcome. For two men, negative effects of social support were identified. For six men the propositions of social support theory did not hold considering their within-person data. This innovative study is one of the first, to demonstrate the acceptability of e-health technology in an ageing population of men affected by prostate cancer. Collectively, the case series provided mixed support for the propositions of social support theory, and demonstrates that "one size does not fit all". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychology in its Place


    Radford, John


    In 1996 Graham Richards published Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective. Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the ‘place’ of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which Psychology finds itself. In the Higher Education context itself, Psychology continues to be in demand. But what is offered in first degrees is largely dictat...

  11. Immortal time bias in pharmacoepidemiological studies on cancer patient survival: empirical illustration for beta-blocker use in four cancers with different prognosis. (United States)

    Weberpals, Janick; Jansen, Lina; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Kuiper, Josephina G; Aarts, Mieke J; Vissers, Pauline A J; Brenner, Hermann


    Immortal time bias (ITB) is still seen frequently in medical literature. However, not much is known about this bias in the field of cancer (pharmaco-)epidemiology. In context of a hypothetical beneficial beta-blocker use among cancer patients, we aimed to demonstrate the magnitude of ITB among 9876 prostate, colorectal, lung and pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2011, which were selected from a database linkage of the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the PHARMO Database Network. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals from three ITB scenarios, defining exposure at a defined point after diagnosis (model 1), at any point after diagnosis (model 2) and as multiple exposures after diagnosis (model 3), were calculated to investigate the association between beta-blockers and cancer prognosis using Cox proportional hazards regression. Resul