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Sample records for survival short-term 1-year

  1. Short-term cessation of sex work and injection drug use: evidence from a recurrent event survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Urada, Lianne A; Martinez, Gustavo; Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Reed, Elizabeth; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-06-01

    This study quantitatively examined the prevalence and correlates of short-term sex work cessation among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and determined whether injection drug use was independently associated with cessation. We used data from FSW-IDUs (n=467) enrolled into an intervention designed to increase condom use and decrease sharing of injection equipment but was not designed to promote sex work cessation. We applied a survival analysis that accounted for quit-re-entry patterns of sex work over 1-year stratified by city, Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Overall, 55% of participants stopped sex work at least once during follow-up. Controlling for other characteristics and intervention assignment, injection drug use was inversely associated with short-term sex work cessation in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, women receiving drug treatment during follow-up had a 2-fold increase in the hazard of stopping sex work. In both cities, income from sources other than sex work, police interactions and healthcare access were independently and significantly associated with shorter-term cessation. Short-term sex work cessation was significantly affected by injection drug use. Expanded drug treatment and counseling coupled with supportive services such as relapse prevention, job training, and provision of alternate employment opportunities may promote longer-term cessation among women motivated to leave the sex industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-term starvation of immune deficient Drosophila improves survival to gram-negative bacterial infections.

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    Anthony E Brown

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are inborn errors of immunity that lead to life threatening conditions. These predispositions describe human immunity in natura and highlight the important function of components of the Toll-IL-1- receptor-nuclear factor kappa B (TIR-NF-kappaB pathway. Since the TIR-NF-kappaB circuit is a conserved component of the host defence in higher animals, genetically tractable models may contribute ideas for clinical interventions.We used immunodeficient fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster to address questions pertaining to survival following bacterial infection. We describe here that flies lacking the NF-kappaB protein Relish, indispensable for countering Gram-negative bacteria, had a greatly improved survival to such infections when subject to dietary short-term starvation (STS prior to immune challenge. STS induced the release of Nitric Oxide (NO, a potent molecule against pathogens in flies, mice and humans. Administering the NO Synthase-inhibitory arginine analog N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl-Ester (L-NAME but not its inactive enantiomer D-NAME increased once again sensitivity to infection to levels expected for relish mutants. Surprisingly, NO signalling required the NF-kappaB protein Dif, usually needed for responses against Gram-positive bacteria.Our results show that NO release through STS may reflect an evolutionary conserved process. Moreover, STS could be explored to address immune phenotypes related to infection and may offer ways to boost natural immunity.

  3. Endoscopic treatment for gastric perforation using T-tag and a plastic protection chamber: a short-term survival study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyoshi Hashiba; Siqueira, Pablo R.; Brasil, Horus A.; Marco Aurélio D'Assunção; Daniel Moribe; Jorge Carim Cassab

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: The endoscopic gastric perforation is a consequence of some endoscopic procedures and now a way to manage abdominal organs. This is the reason why endoscopists are studying a safe endoscopic repair. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an endoscopic closure method for the gastric opening in natural orifice transenteric surgery DESIGN: Short-term survival animal study. METHODS: Ten White Landrace pigs underwent a gastric perforation of 1.8 cm in diameter under general anesthesia. The opening was re...

  4. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2...... or were euthanized (CI: 19 – 32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68 – 81%). Conclusions: The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  5. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

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    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  6. Copeptin in acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis: relationship with acute-on-chronic liver failure and short-term survival.

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    Kerbert, Annarein J C; Verspaget, Hein W; Navarro, Àlex Amorós; Jalan, Rajiv; Solà, Elsa; Benten, Daniel; Durand, François; Ginès, Pere; van der Reijden, Johan J; van Hoek, Bart; Coenraad, Minneke J

    2017-12-21

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterized by the presence of acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis, organ failure, and high short-term mortality rates. Hemodynamic dysfunction and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of ACLF. We explored whether copeptin, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin, is a potential marker of outcome in patients admitted for AD or ACLF and whether it might be of additional value to conventional prognostic scoring systems in these patients. All 779 patients hospitalized for AD of cirrhosis from the CANONIC database with at least one serum sample available for copeptin measurement were included. Presence of ACLF was defined according to the CLIF-consortium organ failure (CLIF-C OF) score. Serum copeptin was measured in samples collected at days 0-2, 3-7, 8-14, 15-21, and 22-28 when available. Competing-risk regression analysis was applied to evaluate the impact of serum copeptin and laboratory and clinical data on short-term survival. Serum copeptin concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with ACLF compared with those without ACLF at days 0-2 (33 (14-64) vs. 11 (4-26) pmol/L; p copeptin at admission was shown to be a predictor of mortality independently of MELD and CLIF-C OF scores. Moreover, baseline serum copeptin was found to be predictive of ACLF development within 28 days of follow-up. ACLF is associated with significantly higher serum copeptin concentrations at hospital admission compared with those with traditional AD. Copeptin is independently associated with short-term survival and ACLF development in patients admitted for AD or ACLF.

  7. Brown Trout removal effects on short-term survival and movement of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout

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    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Schisler, George J.; Davies, K.

    2015-01-01

    Following establishment of Myxobolus cerebralis (the parasite responsible for salmonid whirling disease) in Colorado, populations of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykissexperienced significant declines, whereas Brown Trout Salmo trutta densities increased in many locations across the state, potentially influencing the success of M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout reintroductions. We examined the effects of Brown Trout removal on the short-term (3-month) survival and movement of two crosses of reintroduced, M. cerebralis-resistant Rainbow Trout in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Radio frequency identification passive integrated transponder tags and antennas were used to track movements of wild Brown Trout and stocked Rainbow Trout in reaches where Brown Trout had or had not been removed. Multistate mark–recapture models were used to estimate tagged fish apparent survival and movement in these sections 3 months following Brown Trout removal. A cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Colorado River Rainbow Trout strains exhibited similar survival and movement probabilities in the reaches, suggesting that the presence of Brown Trout did not affect its survival or movement. However, a cross between the German Rainbow Trout and Harrison Lake Rainbow Trout exhibited less movement from the reach in which Brown Trout had been removed. Despite this, the overall short-term benefits of the removal were equivocal, suggesting that Brown Trout removal may not be beneficial for the reintroduction of Rainbow Trout. Additionally, the logistical constraints of conducting removals in large river systems are substantial and may not be a viable management option in many rivers.

  8. Endoscopic treatment for gastric perforation using T-tag and a plastic protection chamber: a short-term survival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Kiyoshi; Siqueira, Pablo R; Brasil, Horus A; D'Assunção, Marco Aurélio; Moribe, Daniel; Cassab, Jorge Carim

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic gastric perforation is a consequence of some endoscopic procedures and now a way to manage abdominal organs. This is the reason why endoscopists are studying a safe endoscopic repair. To evaluate an endoscopic closure method for the gastric opening in natural orifice transenteric surgery Short-term survival animal study. Ten White Landrace pigs underwent a gastric perforation of 1.8 cm in diameter under general anesthesia. The opening was repaired with stitch assembled in a T-tag anchor placed through the gastric wall with a needle. A plastic transparent chamber, adapted to the endoscope tip protected the abdominal organs from the needle puncture outside the stomach. Six T-tags were placed in most cases and the stitches were tied with a metallic tie-knot, forming three sutures. The animals received liquids in the same operative day. One shoot antibiotic was used. The leakage test was performed with a forceps and by air distention. No complication was detected in the postoperative course. One month later the endoscopy revealed a scar and some suture material was observed in all animals. The antral anterior gastric wall was clear with few adhesions in the laparotomy performed in the same time. The adhesions were intense in an animal in which a cholecystectomy was performed before the repair. The endoscopic repair using T-tag and a protector chamber is feasible, easy to perform and safe. Further studies are needed to show the real value of this kind of procedure.

  9. FBLN4 as candidate gene associated with long-term and short-term survival with primary glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li F

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fubin Li,1,* Yiping Li,1,* Kewei Zhang,1,* Ye Li,1,* Ping He,1,* Yujia Liu,1,* Hongyan Yuan,2,* Honghua Lu,1,* Jinxiang Liu,1,* Songtian Che,3,* Zhenju Li,4,* Li Bie1,5 1Department of Neurosurgery of the First Clinical Hospital, 2Department of Immunology, Norman Bethune College of Medicine, 3Department of Neurosurgery of the Second Clinical Hospital, 4Department of Neurosurgery of the Fourth Clinical Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California – Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common malignant and lethal type of primary central nervous system tumor in humans. In spite of its high lethality, a small percentage of patients have a relatively good prognosis, with median survival times of 36 months or longer. The identification of clinical subsets of GBM associated with distinct molecular genetic profiles has made it possible to design therapies tailored to treat individual patients. Methods: We compared microarray data sets from long-term survivors (LTSs and short-term survivors (STSs to screen for prognostic biomarkers in GBM patients using the WebArrayDB platform. We focused on FBLN4, IGFBP-2, and CHI3L1, all members of a group of 10 of the most promising, differentially regulated gene candidates. Using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded GBM samples, we corroborated the relationship between these genes and patient outcomes using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR for MGMT methylation status and quantitative reverse transcription PCR for expression of these genes. Results: Expression levels of the mRNAs of these 3 genes were higher in the GBM samples than in normal brain samples and these 3 genes were significantly upregulated in STSs compared to the levels in LTS samples (P<0.01. Furthermore, Kaplan–Meier analysis

  10. Endoscopic treatment for gastric perforation using T-tag and a plastic protection chamber: a short-term survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Hashiba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The endoscopic gastric perforation is a consequence of some endoscopic procedures and now a way to manage abdominal organs. This is the reason why endoscopists are studying a safe endoscopic repair. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an endoscopic closure method for the gastric opening in natural orifice transenteric surgery DESIGN: Short-term survival animal study. METHODS: Ten White Landrace pigs underwent a gastric perforation of 1.8 cm in diameter under general anesthesia. The opening was repaired with stitch assembled in a T-tag anchor placed through the gastric wall with a needle. A plastic transparent chamber, adapted to the endoscope tip protected the abdominal organs from the needle puncture outside the stomach. Six T-tags were placed in most cases and the stitches were tied with a metallic tie-knot, forming three sutures. The animals received liquids in the same operative day. One shoot antibiotic was used. The leakage test was performed with a forceps and by air distention. RESULTS: No complication was detected in the postoperative course. One month later the endoscopy revealed a scar and some suture material was observed in all animals. The antral anterior gastric wall was clear with few adhesions in the laparotomy performed in the same time. The adhesions were intense in an animal in which a cholecystectomy was performed before the repair. CONCLUSION: The endoscopic repair using T-tag and a protector chamber is feasible, easy to perform and safe. Further studies are needed to show the real value of this kind of procedure.

  11. Radiomic features from the peritumoral brain parenchyma on treatment-naive multi-parametric MR imaging predict long versus short-term survival in glioblastoma multiforme: Preliminary findings

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    Prasanna, Prateek; Patel, Jay; Madabhushi, Anant; Tiwari, Pallavi [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland, OH (United States); Partovi, Sasan [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Despite 90 % of glioblastoma (GBM) recurrences occurring in the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ), its contribution in patient survival is poorly understood. The current study leverages computerized texture (i.e. radiomic) analysis to evaluate the efficacy of PBZ features from pre-operative MRI in predicting long- (>18 months) versus short-term (<7 months) survival in GBM. Sixty-five patient examinations (29 short-term, 36 long-term) with gadolinium-contrast T{sub 1w}, FLAIR and T{sub 2w} sequences from the Cancer Imaging Archive were employed. An expert manually segmented each study as: enhancing lesion, PBZ and tumour necrosis. 402 radiomic features (capturing co-occurrence, grey-level dependence and directional gradients) were obtained for each region. Evaluation was performed using threefold cross-validation, such that a subset of studies was used to select the most predictive features, and the remaining subset was used to evaluate their efficacy in predicting survival. A subset of ten radiomic 'peritumoral' MRI features, suggestive of intensity heterogeneity and textural patterns, was found to be predictive of survival (p = 1.47 x 10{sup -5}) as compared to features from enhancing tumour, necrotic regions and known clinical factors. Our preliminary analysis suggests that radiomic features from the PBZ on routine pre-operative MRI may be predictive of long- versus short-term survival in GBM. (orig.)

  12. Molecular profiling of short-term and long-term surviving patients identifies CD34 mRNA level as prognostic for glioblastoma survival.

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    Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Urup, Thomas; Olsen, Lars Rønn; Broholm, Helle; Lassen, Ulrik; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2018-01-05

    Despite extensive treatment, overall survival (OS) for glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. A small proportion of patients present long survival over 3 years, but the underlying molecular background separating these long-term survivors (LTS) from short-term survivors (STS) are insufficiently understood. Accordingly, study aim was to identify independent prognostic biomarkers for survival. Study cohort consisted of 93 primary GBM patients treated with radiation-, chemo- and bevacizumab therapy, among which 14 STS (OS ≤ 12 months) and 6 LTS (OS ≥ 36 months) were identified, all confirmed being IDH wild-type. RNA expression levels in diagnostic tumor specimen for 792 genes were analyzed by NanoString technology. While no differences were found with regard to GBM subtype between LTS versus STS, comparative analysis of individual genes identified 14 significantly differently expressed candidate genes. Univariate analysis in the whole patient cohort found that 12 of these were significantly associated with OS, of which increased IFNG, CXCL9, LGALS4, CD34 and decreased MGMT levels remained significant associated with prolonged OS in multivariate analysis correcting for known prognostic variables. Validation analyses in an independent dataset from the AVAglio study confirmed CD34 as significant in comparative analysis between STS and LTS patients and as an independent prognostic factor. Analysis of this dataset further supported CD34 expression to be associated with improved bevacizumab efficacy, while CD34 immunohistochemistry indicated variation in CD34 expression to result primarily from varying tumor vascularization. Collectively, CD34 expression candidates as a prognostic biomarker in GBM able to identify survival outliers and could also be predictive for efficacy of bevacizumab.

  13. Inbreeding load and purging: implications for the short-term survival and the conservation management of small populations.

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    Caballero, A; Bravo, I; Wang, J

    2017-02-01

    Using computer simulations, we evaluate the effects of genetic purging of inbreeding load in small populations, assuming genetic models of deleterious mutations which account for the typical amount of load empirically observed. Our results show that genetic purging efficiently removes the inbreeding load of both lethal and non-lethal mutations, reducing the amount of inbreeding depression relative to that expected without selection. We find that the minimum effective population size to avoid severe inbreeding depression in the short term is of the order of Ne≈70 for a wide range of species' reproductive rates. We also carried out simulations of captive breeding populations where two contrasting management methods are performed, one avoiding inbreeding (equalisation of parental contributions (EC)) and the other forcing it (circular sib mating (CM)). We show that, for the inbreeding loads considered, CM leads to unacceptably high extinction risks and, as a result, to lower genetic diversity than EC. Thus we conclude that methods aimed at enhancing purging by intentional inbreeding should not be generally advised in captive breeding conservation programmes.

  14. The 5-minute Apgar score: survival and short-term outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

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    Phalen, Ann Gibbons; Kirkby, Sharon; Dysart, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Apgar score is a standardized tool for evaluating newborns in the delivery room. Despite its long history and widespread use, debate remains over its reliability of predicting neonatal outcomes, especially in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the 5-minute Apgar score of extremely low-birth-weight infants, as it relates to survival and morbidities associated with prematurity and length of hospital stay. A retrospective query of the Alere neonatal database from 2001 to 2011 examined all infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and less than 1000-g birth weight. The 5-minute Apgar score was divided into 2 groups, score of 4 or greater or less than 4. The study compared results of the 5-minute Apgar score and associated morbidities in surviving infants. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Fisher exact test, t test, and multivariate regression. The sample consisted of 3898 infants with an 86.4% (n = 3366) survival rate. Controlling for gestational age and birth weight, surviving infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 4 were more likely to demonstrate nonintact survival. Infants with a low 5-minute Apgar score have greater risk for mortality and morbidities associated with prematurity.

  15. Short-term exposure to predation affects body elemental composition, climbing speed and survival ability in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Indrikis Krams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as temperature, habitat, larval density, food availability and food quality substantially affect organismal development. In addition, risk of predation has a complex impact on the behavioural and morphological life history responses of prey. Responses to predation risk seem to be mediated by physiological stress, which is an adaptation for maintaining homeostasis and improving survivorship during life-threatening situations. We tested whether predator exposure during the larval phase of development has any influence on body elemental composition, energy reserves, body size, climbing speed and survival ability of adult Drosophila melanogaster. Fruit fly larvae were exposed to predation by jumping spiders (Phidippus apacheanus, and the percentage of carbon (C and nitrogen (N content, extracted lipids, escape response and survival were measured from predator-exposed and control adult flies. The results revealed predation as an important determinant of adult phenotype formation and survival ability. D. melanogaster reared together with spiders had a higher concentration of body N (but equal body C, a lower body mass and lipid reserves, a higher climbing speed and improved adult survival ability. The results suggest that the potential of predators to affect the development and the adult phenotype of D. melanogaster is high enough to use predators as a more natural stimulus in laboratory experiments when testing, for example, fruit fly memory and learning ability, or when comparing natural populations living under different predation pressures.

  16. Riluzole and Prognostic Factors in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Long-term and Short-term Survival: A Population-Based Study of 1149 Cases in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles Tzu-Chi; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Wang, Kai-Chen; Hwang, Chi-Shin; Lin, Kuan-Hsiang; Lee, I-Ta; Tsai, Ching-Piao

    2013-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare disease in Taiwan; thus, estimation of ALS mortality is difficult. We evaluated factors associated with ALS survival in Taiwan. Methods The study enrolled 1149 Taiwanese with a primary diagnosis of ALS during 1999–2008. Follow-up information was available for all patients; mean (SD) duration of follow-up was 2.91 (2.62) years. Medical interventions, including noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), tracheotomy, gastrostomy, and riluzole, were included in time-dependent survival analysis. Results Of the 1149 ALS patients, 438 (38.12%) died during follow-up. Mortality in the first year was 16%, which was 13 times (95% CI 11.1–15.2) the age- and sex-standardized rate of the general population in Taiwan. The average annual crude mortality rate was 13.1% (person-years). Factors significantly associated with increased mortality were male sex, advanced age, rural residence, lower economic status, no tracheotomy, and no riluzole treatment. Significant predictors of long-term versus average survival were younger age at diagnosis, being a dependent or receiving social welfare, and NIPPV support. Significant predictors of short-term versus average survival were older age, being employed, no tracheotomy, and no riluzole use. Conclusions The results support the use of riluzole to improve ALS survival. Patients who received riluzole and underwent tracheotomy had the best survival. PMID:23117224

  17. Short-Term and Long-Term Survival and Virulence of Legionella pneumophila in the Defined Freshwater Medium Fraquil.

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    Nilmini Mendis

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila (Lp is the etiological agent responsible for Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal pulmonary infection. Lp lives and multiplies inside protozoa in a variety of natural and man-made water systems prior to human infection. Fraquil, a defined freshwater medium, was used as a highly reproducible medium to study the behaviour of Lp in water. Adopting a reductionist approach, Fraquil was used to study the impact of temperature, pH and trace metal levels on the survival and subsequent intracellular multiplication of Lp in Acanthamoeba castellanii, a freshwater protozoan and a natural host of Legionella. We show that temperature has a significant impact on the short- and long-term survival of Lp, but that the bacterium retains intracellular multiplication potential for over six months in Fraquil. Moreover, incubation in Fraquil at pH 4.0 resulted in a rapid decline in colony forming units, but was not detrimental to intracellular multiplication. In contrast, variations in trace metal concentrations had no impact on either survival or intracellular multiplication in amoeba. Our data show that Lp is a resilient bacterium in the water environment, remaining infectious to host cells after six months under the nutrient-deprived conditions of Fraquil.

  18. Short-Term Diet and Moderate Exercise in Young Overweight Men Modulate Cardiocyte and Hepatocarcinoma Survival by Oxidative Stress

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    Marcellino Monda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of diet lifestyle on extending lifespan and reducing liver cancer risk. Young overweight men (n=20, without metabolic syndrome, were placed in a 3-week residential program on a low-fat diet and moderate aerobic exercise. In each subject, pre- and postintervention fasting blood were collected for evaluating levels of serum lipids, and oxidative stress markers. Using subject sera and cardiomyocyte (H9C2 culture systems, we measured heat shock protein 27 and 90 expression, lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress marker levels. After 3-weeks of diet, significant reductions (P<0.05 in body mass index, serum lipids and lipid ratios, and oxidative markers were recorded. In vitro, we observed that the addition of postintervention sera increased H9C2 cell number and reduced HSP27 and 90 expression, mitochondrial superoxide anion, and lipid accumulation with a parallel increase in nitric oxide (NO production (all P<0.01. At the same time, postintervention sera decreased human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG-2 proliferation, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2 activity. Lifestyle modification in young overweight men, without metabolic syndrome, could ameliorate cardiocyte survival and reduce hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.

  19. Can a Bayesian Belief Network Be Used to Estimate 1-year Survival in Patients With Bone Sarcomas?

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    Nandra, Rajpal; Parry, Michael; Forsberg, Jonathan; Grimer, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Extremity sarcoma has a preponderance to present late with advanced stage at diagnosis. It is important to know why these patients die early from sarcoma and to predict those at high risk. Currently we have mid- to long-term outcome data on which to counsel patients and support treatment decisions, but in contrast to other cancer groups, very little on short-term mortality. Bayesian belief network modeling has been used to develop decision-support tools in various oncologic diagnoses, but to our knowledge, this approach has not been applied to patients with extremity sarcoma. We sought to (1) determine whether a Bayesian belief network could be used to estimate the likelihood of 1-year mortality using receiver operator characteristic analysis; (2) describe the hierarchal relationships between prognostic and outcome variables; and (3) determine whether the model was suitable for clinical use using decision curve analysis. We considered all patients treated for primary bone sarcoma between 1970 and 2012, and excluded secondary metastasis, presentation with local recurrence, and benign tumors. The institution's database yielded 3499 patients, of which six (0.2%) were excluded. Data extracted for analysis focused on patient demographics (age, sex), tumor characteristics at diagnosis (size, metastasis, pathologic fracture), survival, and cause of death. A Bayesian belief network generated conditional probabilities of variables and survival outcome at 1 year. A lift analysis determined the hierarchal relationship of variables. Internal validation of 699 test patients (20% dataset) determined model accuracy. Decision curve analysis was performed comparing net benefit (capped at 85.5%) for all threshold probabilities (survival output from model). We successfully generated a Bayesian belief network with five first-degree associates and describe their conditional relationship with survival after the diagnosis of primary bone sarcoma. On internal validation, the resultant

  20. Molecular profiling of short-term and long-term surviving patients identifies CD34 mRNA level as prognostic for glioblastoma survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Urup, Thomas; Olsen, Lars Rønn

    2018-01-01

    . Accordingly, study aim was to identify independent prognostic biomarkers for survival. Study cohort consisted of 93 primary GBM patients treated with radiation-, chemo- and bevacizumab therapy, among which 14 STS (OS ≤ 12 months) and 6 LTS (OS ≥ 36 months) were identified, all confirmed being IDH wild...

  1. Emergency Presentation and Short-Term Survival Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer Enrolled in the Government Health Plan of Puerto Rico.

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    Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos-Motta, Ruth; Marín-Centeno, Heriberto; Cruz-Correa, Marcia R; Ortiz, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine factors associated with the use of the emergency room (ER) as an entry point into the health-care system to initiate a cancer diagnosis among Puerto Rico's Government Health Plan (GHP) patients and compare the 1-year survival of GHP patients that initiated cancer diagnosis in the emergency room (ER) presentation with those that initiated the diagnosis in a physician's office. Data for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) aged 50 to 64 years and diagnosed in 2012 were obtained from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry and linked to the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Administration database (n = 190). Crude odds ratio, adjusted odds ratio, and their 95% confidence intervals were reported. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to generate survival curves. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between ER presentation and 1-year cause-specific survival. We found that 37.37% of the study population had an ER presentation. Male patients had a higher occurrence of having an ER presentation (66.20%), while 76.06% of the patients with an ER presentation were diagnosed in late stage. Emergency room presentation was a highly predictive factor for cancer mortality in the year following the diagnosis. These patients had between 3.99 to 4.24 times higher mortality risk than non-ER presentation patients ( P < .05). Late presentation for CRC diagnosis through an ER visit is a significant concern that influences negatively on the patient's outcome. Efforts at increasing primary care visits and routine screening tests among GHP beneficiaries could improve survival.

  2. Emergency Presentation and Short-Term Survival Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer Enrolled in the Government Health Plan of Puerto Rico

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    Karen J. Ortiz-Ortiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we examine factors associated with the use of the emergency room (ER as an entry point into the health-care system to initiate a cancer diagnosis among Puerto Rico’s Government Health Plan (GHP patients and compare the 1-year survival of GHP patients that initiated cancer diagnosis in the emergency room (ER presentation with those that initiated the diagnosis in a physician’s office. Methods: Data for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC aged 50 to 64 years and diagnosed in 2012 were obtained from the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry and linked to the Puerto Rico Health Insurance Administration database (n = 190. Crude odds ratio, adjusted odds ratio, and their 95% confidence intervals were reported. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to generate survival curves. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between ER presentation and 1-year cause-specific survival. Results: We found that 37.37% of the study population had an ER presentation. Male patients had a higher occurrence of having an ER presentation (66.20%, while 76.06% of the patients with an ER presentation were diagnosed in late stage. Emergency room presentation was a highly predictive factor for cancer mortality in the year following the diagnosis. These patients had between 3.99 to 4.24 times higher mortality risk than non-ER presentation patients ( P < .05. Conclusion: Late presentation for CRC diagnosis through an ER visit is a significant concern that influences negatively on the patient’s outcome. Efforts at increasing primary care visits and routine screening tests among GHP beneficiaries could improve survival.

  3. Proteinuria 1 year after renal transplantation is associated with impaired graft survival in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosík, Tomáš; Chadimová, Mária; Dušek, Jiří; Háček, Jaromír; Šimánková, Naděžda; Vondrák, Karel; Zieg, Jakub; Seeman, Tomáš

    2015-10-01

    Proteinuria is a common manifestation of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and there is a high incidence of CDK and its complications following renal transplantation. However, little data are available on the association between proteinuria and graft/patient survival in the paediatric transplant population. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations between posttransplant proteinuria and graft/patient survival in children after renal transplantation. In this retrospective study, we screened all 91 children receiving renal allografts at a single institution between 1997 and 2007. The inclusion criteria were a functioning graft at 1 year posttransplant, data availability and no recurrence of focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis. The final cohort included 75 patients. Proteinuria was considered to be pathologic if the urinary protein/creatinine ratio was >30 mg/mmol. Donor and recipient characteristics, data on proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and rejection episodes were analysed. The most recent of the biopsies performed during the follow-up after 1 year posttransplant were analysed separately in the proteinuric group and the non-proteinuric group. Proteinuria at 1-year posttransplant was pathologic in 35 % of patients. The 5-year graft survival rate was significantly lower in the proteinuric group than in the non-proteinuric group (77 vs. 100 %; p Proteinuria at 1 year posttransplant was associated with reduced long-term graft survival independent of other risk factors, including decreased eGFR or episodes of acute corticosensitive and corticoresistant rejection. The most frequent histologic finding in the proteinuric group was chronic rejection. There was no significant difference in the 5-year patient survival rate between the proteinuric group and the non-proteinuric group. This study emphasizes the importance of proteinuria as a prognostic factor of renal allograft survival in children.

  4. How hot is too hot? Live-trapped gray wolf rectal temperatures and 1-year survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    The ability of physically restrained and anesthetized wolves to thermoregulate is lessened and could lead to reduced survival, yet no information is available about this subject. Therefore, we analyzed rectal temperatures related to survival 1 year post-capture from 173 adult (non-pup) gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in modified foot-hold traps for radiocollaring during June–August, 1988–2011, in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota, USA. The maximum observed rectal temperature (“maxtemp,” ° F, ° C) in each wolf during capture (x = 104.0, 40.0; SD = 2.0, 1.1; min. = 95.9, 35.5; max. = 108, 42.2) was not a significant predictor of survival to 1 year post-capture. Although no weather or morphometric variable was a significant predictor of maxtemps, wolves initially anesthetized with ketamine–xylazine rather than telazol®–xylazine averaged higher maxtemps. This information does not fully address possible effects of high body temperatures related to live-capture and handling of wolves, but it does provide a useful waypoint for future assessments of this relationship and a reassurance to wildlife practitioners that the maxtemps observed in our study did not appear to affect 1-year survival.

  5. Home tracheotomy mechanical ventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: causes, complications and 1-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Jesús; Servera, Emilio; Díaz, José Luis; Bañuls, Pilar; Marín, Julio

    2011-11-01

    Home tracheotomy mechanical ventilation (HTMV) can prolong survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) when non-invasive ventilation (NIV) fails, but knowledge about HTMV is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of tracheotomy and the main issues of 1-year HTMV in a cohort of patients with ALS. A prospective study of all patients needing HTMV was performed in a referral respiratory care unit (RCU) from April 2001 to January 2010. Patients' informed decisions about HTMV were fully respected. Caregivers were trained and could telephone the RCU. Hospital staff made home visits. All patients (n=116) agreed to participate and a tracheotomy was needed for 76, mainly due to bulbar dysfunction. Of the 38 who had a tracheotomy, in 21 it was performed in an acute setting and in 17 as a non-emergency procedure. In 19 patients the tracheotomy was related to the inadequacy of mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to maintain normal oxygen saturation. During HTMV, 19 patients required hospitalisation, 12 with respiratory problems. The 1-year survival rate was 78.9%, with a mean survival of 10.39 months (95% CI 9.36 to 11.43). Sudden death was the main cause of death (n=9) and only one patient died from respiratory causes. No predictive factors for survival were found. Besides NIV inadequacy, the ineffectiveness of mechanically assisted coughing appears to be a relevant cause of tracheotomy for patients with ALS with severe bulbar dysfunction. Patients choosing HTMV provided by a referral RCU could have a good 1-year survival rate, respiratory problems being the main cause of hospitalisation but not of death.

  6. Key determinants of short-term and long-term glioblastoma survival: a 14-year retrospective study of patients from the Hermelin Brain Tumor Center at Henry Ford Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaris, Paul; Hong, Xin; Altshuler, David; Schultz, Lonni; Poisson, Laila M; Jain, Rajan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Rosenblum, Mark; Kalkanis, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a heterogeneous neoplasm with a small percentage of long-term survivors. Despite aggressive surgical resection and advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for patients with GBM is 12-14 months. Factors associated with a favorable prognosis include young age, high performance status, gross resection >98%, non-eloquent tumor location and O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship of clinical, epidemiologic, genetic and molecular characteristics with survival in patients with GBM. This retrospective analysis of overall survival looked at the outcomes of 480 patients diagnosed with GBM over 14 years at a single institution. Multivariate analysis was performed examining multiple patient characteristics. Median survival time improved from 11.8 months in patients diagnosed from 1995 to 1999 to 15.9 months in those diagnosed from 2005 to 2008. Factors associated with survivor groups were age, KPS, tumor resection, treatment received and early progression. 18 cancer-related genes were upregulated in short-term survivors and five genes were downregulated in short-term survivors. Epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular characteristics all contribute to GBM prognosis. Identifying factors associated with survival is important for treatment strategies as well as research for novel therapeutics and technologies. This study demonstrated improved survival for patients over time as well as significant differences among survivor groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hospital variation in mortality after first acute myocardial infarction in Denmark from 1995 to 2002: lower short-term and 1-year mortality in high-volume and specialized hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O; Abildstrom, Steen Z

    2005-01-01

    with their first admission for AMI between 1995 and 2002 and surviving the day of admission. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine the relationships between regional and hospital characteristics and 28-day and 365-day mortality after adjusting for individual characteristics, period, and medical......BACKGROUND: This study used linked data from the National Hospital Registry to determine the factors that contribute to differences between hospitals in all-cause mortality after first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1995 and 2002. METHODS: The study included 64,321 patients...... history. RESULTS: Tertiary cardiac care centers (odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.96) and main regional hospitals (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99) had improved 28-day mortality compared with local hospitals. A 2-fold increase in annual total MI volume decreased 28-day mortality (OR...

  8. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    that the placement of perches increased local hunting activity of at least the Black Shouldered Kite but there were no obvious effects on rodent population size or survival. In a single field where avian predation was prevented by covering the field with a net, an increase in survival was observed. The opposite...... was not true but this might be due to the small size of the experimental fields. Analysis of weekly collected raptor pellets, over a 15 month period, showed an overrepresentation of M. natalensis as prey and a strong positive correlation between the density of M. natalensis and the avian predation intensity....

  9. Aerosolized KL4 surfactant improves short-term survival and gas exchange in spontaneously breathing newborn pigs with hydrochloric acid-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampland, Andrea L; Wolfson, Marla R; Mazela, Jan; Henderson, Christopher; Gregory, Timothy J; Meyers, Patricia; Plumm, Brenda; Worwa, Cathy; Mammel, Mark C

    2014-05-01

    Surfactant therapy may be beneficial in acute lung injury (ALI). In spontaneously breathing newborn pigs with ALI supported with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), we evaluated the hypothesis that aerosolized KL4 surfactant (AERO KL4 S) would provide a similar therapeutic effect as intratracheal KL4 surfactant (ETT KL4 S) when compared to controls. We randomized pigs with HCl-induced ALI to: (1) 175 mg/kg KL4 surfactant via endotracheal tube (ETT); (2) AERO KL4 S (22.5 mg/min phospholipid) for 60 min via continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); or (3) sham procedure on CPAP. We obtained physiologic data and arterial blood gases throughout the 3-hr study. At study end, lungs were excised for analysis of interleukin-8 (IL-8), myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels and histomorphometric data. Pigs treated with ETT KL4 S and AERO KL4 S had improved survival and sustained pO2 compared to controls. The AERO KL4 S group had higher pH compared to controls. Lung IL-8 levels were lower in the AERO KL4 S group compared to controls. Histomorphometric analysis showed less hemorrhage in the ETT and AERO KL4 S groups compared to controls. The AERO KL4 S group had more open lung units per fixed-field than the ETT KL4 S or controls. AERO KL4 S produced similar improvements in survival, physiology, inflammatory markers, and morphology as ETT KL4 S in an ALI model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Earlier nephrology consultation may not be associated with improved short-term survival of acute kidney injury in very elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglin; Zhao, Meng; Du, Jing; Wang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    A delayed nephrology consultation (NC) may be associated with a poor prognosis in acute kidney injury (AKI) patients. The aims of this study were to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of elderly AKI patients evaluated and not evaluated by nephrologists and to generate a hypothesis regarding the relationship between the timing of the NC and 90-day outcomes. From 2007 to 2015, this study explored associations among the presence and timing of NC with the non-intensive care unit stay and 90-day mortality in elderly AKI patients at the Geriatric Department of the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. Early NC and delayed NC were defined as NCs performed before and 2 days after the day of AKI diagnosis, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. In total, 623 patients were included for the final analysis, of whom 162 (26%) were evaluated by nephrologists. The 90-day mortality rate was 33.2%, and dialysis was required in 1.4% of patients (9/623). Multivariable analysis showed that a higher prevalence of preexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AKI diagnosis time, peak serum creatinine level, blood urea nitrogen level, AKI stage, and mortality was associated with the NC. The NC was delayed (>48 h) in 59 patients (36.4%) (median time to consultation, 4 days). The median AKI diagnosis time, presence of oliguria, uric acid level, and a more severe AKI stage were associated with delayed consultation. Moreover, delayed consultation presented a similar 90-day mortality rate to that of an early NC (50.8% vs 44.7%, respectively, P =0.448). In very elderly AKI patients, those evaluated by nephrologists have more severe AKI and a higher mortality rate than those not evaluated by nephrologists. An earlier NC may not be associated with improved 90-day survival.

  11. Earlier nephrology consultation may not be associated with improved short-term survival of acute kidney injury in very elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Q

    2016-12-01

    mortality rate than those not evaluated by nephrologists. An earlier NC may not be associated with improved 90-day survival. Keywords: acute kidney injury, very elderly, mortality, nephrology consultation, risk factors, outcomes

  12. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  13. Short-term energy outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents future scenarios of quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and prices for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous estimate errors, compares recent scenarios with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The scenario period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1991. Some data for the third quarter of 1990 are preliminary EIA estimates of actual data (for example, some petroleum estimates are based on statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are derived from internal model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, some electricity demand estimates are based on recent weather data). 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Unhealthy behaviour modification, psychological distress, and 1-year survival in cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostoli, Sara; Roncuzzi, Renzo; Urbinati, Stefano; Morisky, Donald E; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    -effective model of secondary prevention to reduce cardiovascular events. There is evidence about the association between psychological distress and both unhealthy behaviour and cardiac course. Depression and psychosomatic distress, such as type A behaviour and demoralization, are frequently associated with CVD course. However, the role of psychiatric and psychosomatic distress in CR is not well known. What does this study add? CR exerted a protective effect on physical activity and a positive effect on eating behaviour, stress management, and quality of sleep. CR did not show any particular effect on smoking, overweight/obesity, dietary habits, medication adherence, and patients' 1-year survival. Findings from this study suggest the importance to consider specific psychological and psychosomatic aspects in affecting lifestyle. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Whole-Body Exposure to (28)Si-Radiation Dose-Dependently Disrupts Dentate Gyrus Neurogenesis and Proliferation in the Short Term and New Neuron Survival and Contextual Fear Conditioning in the Long Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whoolery, Cody W; Walker, Angela K; Richardson, Devon R; Lucero, Melanie J; Reynolds, Ryan P; Beddow, David H; Clark, K Lyles; Shih, Hung-Ying; LeBlanc, Junie A; Cole, Mara G; Amaral, Wellington Z; Mukherjee, Shibani; Zhang, Shichuan; Ahn, Francisca; Bulin, Sarah E; DeCarolis, Nathan A; Rivera, Phillip D; Chen, Benjamin P C; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2017-11-01

    Astronauts traveling to Mars will be exposed to chronic low doses of galactic cosmic space radiation, which contains highly charged, high-energy (HZE) particles. (56)Fe-HZE-particle exposure decreases hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and disrupts hippocampal function in young adult rodents, raising the possibility of impaired astronaut cognition and risk of mission failure. However, far less is known about how exposure to other HZE particles, such as (28)Si, influences hippocampal neurogenesis and function. To compare the influence of (28)Si exposure on indices of neurogenesis and hippocampal function with previous studies on (56)Fe exposure, 9-week-old C57BL/6J and Nestin-GFP mice (NGFP; made and maintained for 10 or more generations on a C57BL/6J background) received whole-body (28)Si-particle-radiation exposure (0, 0.2 and 1 Gy, 300 MeV/n, LET 67 KeV/μ, dose rate 1 Gy/min). For neurogenesis assessment, the NGFP mice were injected with the mitotic marker BrdU at 22 h postirradiation and brains were examined for indices of hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis, including Ki67(+), BrdU(+), BrdU(+)NeuN(+) and DCX(+) cell numbers at short- and long-term time points (24 h and 3 months postirradiation, respectively). In the short-term group, stereology revealed fewer Ki67(+), BrdU(+) and DCX(+) cells in 1-Gy-irradiated group relative to nonirradiated control mice, fewer Ki67(+) and DCX(+) cells in 0.2 Gy group relative to control group and fewer BrdU(+) and DCX(+) cells in 1 Gy group relative to 0.2 Gy group. In contrast to the clearly observed radiation-induced, dose-dependent reductions in the short-term group across all markers, only a few neurogenesis indices were changed in the long-term irradiated groups. Notably, there were fewer surviving BrdU(+) cells in the 1 Gy group relative to 0- and 0.2-Gy-irradiated mice in the long-term group. When the short- and long-term groups were analyzed by sex, exposure to radiation had a similar effect on

  16. Impacts of clinicopathologic and operative factors on short-term and long-term survival in renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus extension: a multi-institutional retrospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Masanori; Kobayashi, Mikio; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Obara, Wataru; Shinohara, Nobuo; Ito, Keiichi; Eto, Masatoshi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Nishikido, Masaharu; Kimura, Go; Kishida, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Miyao, Noriomi; Naya, Yukio; Abe, Takashige; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Ito, Kazuto; Naito, Seiji

    2013-10-02

    -up duration, but surgical category could be universal and independent predictive factors. The most universal factors affecting improvement both in short-term and long-term survivals could be cytoreductive surgery and absence of venous wall invasion. It may mean that feasible aggressive cytoreductive operation following more reliable preoperative imaging for predicting venous wall invasion status would improve OS for patients with RCC extending into venous systems.

  17. Short-term exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax fry to high concentrations of the pesticide Dimilin® (diflubenzuron; effects on survival and histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELIDIS Panagiotis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of Dimilin® on the survival and histology of two commercially important marine fish species, sea bream and sea bass, after a short-term exposure, were examined. Sea bream and sea bass fry of similar mean weight (0.25±0.05g SD were exposed to three concentrations of the pesticide (diflubenzuron, 1500, 1000 and 500 ppm, for 96 h. For each species, three groups of ten fish (replicates were exposed to each concentration,while three groups were not exposed and kept as controls. The mortality was recorded daily and tissue samples from fish of allgroups were collected for histological examination, after 24 and 96 h exposure. During the first 24 h of exposure, almost all seabream exposed to 1500 and 1000 ppm died. Similarly, almost all sea bass fry exposed to 1500 ppm also died but few fishexposed to 1000 ppm survived. Throughout the exposure period, sea bream fry exposed to 500 ppm exhibited similar survivalwith this of the control groups (percentage of alive fish after 96 h: 73.3±25.1% SD and 70±17.3% SD respectively, while seabass fry exposed to the same concentration exhibited significantly lower survival rate compared to that of the control groups(percentage of alive fish after 96 h: 26.6±20.8% SD and 86.6±5.7% SD respectively. The histological examination indicatedsimilar findings for both species. As the fish exposed to 1500 and 1000 ppm died in the first 24 h of exposure, before collectingthe tissue samples, the gills exhibited severe lesions of autolysis.The tissue samples of the fish exposed to 500 ppm werecollected from live fish and these revealed severe extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the gill respiratory epithelium.These lesions became more pronounced after 96 h exposure. Only areas of mild hyperplasia / hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium were observed in fish from the control groups, after 24 and 96 h exposure. No lesions in the internal organs of the fish exposed to Dimilin® were

  18. A short term prospective comparative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.A. Gadelkareem

    2016-12-26

    Dec 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: Preemptive (P) living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) provides better survival rates, quality of life and economic saving. However, the extent of these advantages over those with a short period of pre-LDKT dialysis is not known. Objectives: Evaluation of the patients' characteristics ...

  19. Short-term outcomes following laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection for colon cancer has been proven to have a similar oncological efficacy compared to open resection. Despite this, it is performed by a minority of colorectal surgeons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the short-term clinical, oncological and survival outcomes in all patients undergoing laparoscopic resection for colon cancer.

  20. Models of Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Flores, Janet; Herrera-Valdez, Marco A; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2017-01-01

    We focus on dynamical descriptions of short-term synaptic plasticity. Instead of focusing on the molecular machinery that has been reviewed recently by several authors, we concentrate on the dynamics and functional significance of synaptic plasticity, and review some mathematical models that reproduce different properties of the dynamics of short term synaptic plasticity that have been observed experimentally. The complexity and shortcomings of these models point to the need of simple, yet physiologically meaningful models. We propose a simplified model to be tested in synapses displaying different types of short-term plasticity.

  1. Acute pulmonary embolism: prediction of cor pulmonale and short-term patient survival from assessment of cardiac dimensions in routine multidetector-row CT; Mehrschicht-Spiral-CT bei vermuteter und inzidenteller akuter Lungenembolie: prognostischer Wert morpholoqischer Herzparameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeike, C. [Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Rummeny, E.; Marten, K. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: evaluation of the prognostic value of morphological cardiac parameters in patients with suspected and incidental acute pulmonary embolism (PE) using multidetector-row chest CT (MSCT). Materials and methods: 2335 consecutive MSCT scans were evaluated for the presence of PE. The arterial enhancement and analysability of pulmonary arteries and the heart were assessed as parameters of the scan quality. The diastolic right and left ventricular short axes (RV{sub D}, LV{sub D}) and the interventricular septal deviation (ISD) were measured in all PE-positive patients and the echocardiography reports were reviewed. The clinical data assessment included cardio-respiratory and other co-morbidities, systemic anticoagulant therapy (ACT), and the 30-day outcome. Predictors of acute cor pulmonale and the short-term outcome were calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions including odds ratios (OR) and ROC analyses using positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Results: 90 patients with acute PE were included (36 with clinically suspected PE, 54 with incidental PE). 26 patients had cardio-respiratory co-morbidities. Four patients underwent systemic thrombolysis, 43 underwent anticoagulation in therapeutic doses, 19 underwent anticoagulation in prophylactic doses, and 24 patients did not undergo ACT. 15 of 41 patients had echocardiographic evidence of acute cor pulmonale. 8 patients died within 30 days. The RV{sub D} was the best independent predictor of acute cor pulmonale (p = 0,002, OR = 9.16, PPV = 0.68, NPV=1 at 4.49 cm cut off) and short-term outcome (p= 0,0005, OR = 2.82, PPV = 0.23, NPV = 0.98 at 4.75 cm cut off). The RV{sub D}/LV{sub D} ratio had a PPV of 0.85 for cor pulmonale. (orig.)

  2. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  3. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  4. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  5. EAMJ Short term June 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-06

    Jun 6, 2010 ... SHORT TERM CLINICAL OUTCOME OF CHILDREN WITH ROTAVIRUS INFECTION AT KENYATTA NATIONAL. HOSPITAL ... Background:Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five ..... due to reduced immunity as may be the case in malnourished ...

  6. Non extraction short-term arch changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, F; Perillo, L; Ferro, A

    2004-01-01

    to examine the Cetlin protocol for short-term dentoalveolar changes in the sagittal and transversal planes in non-extraction treatment. eighty patients with Class II, div.1 malocclusion treated with the Cetlin protocol, comprising upper distalizing plate, extraoral traction, and lower lip bumper. Dental study models were examined before treatment and after molar Class II correction during which upper molars were mechanically distalized, distobuccally rotated and expanded. the upper arch perimeter increased significantly. The lip bumper produced functional expansion of the lower arch, especially in the transverse plane, with an important increase in the arch perimeter. in the short-term, the Cetlin protocol made the following improvements: 1) molar correction, 2) resolution or improvement of crowding, 3) space recovery in both arches for leveling the curve of Spee and final adjustments. Further improvements in intercuspation can be made, if necessary, by fixed appliance therapy.

  7. The economics of short-term leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flath, D

    1980-04-01

    Short-term leasing is an everyday occurrence. Tax savings cannot account for the ubiquity of leasing by temporary users. Monopoly explanations are inconsistent with concurrent leasing and selling markets for perfect substitutes. Leasing economizes upon the costs of detecting, assuring, and maintaining quality, costs of search, and costs of risk-bearing. This view is based on standard economic reasoning and has numerous specific implications.

  8. The breeding of programs for short-term ionospheric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, C. R.

    The Darwinian 'survival of the fittest' principle is presently embodied in a process for computer-program definition and applied to the development of a code for short-term forecasting of the ionospheric parameter foF2. The code, in a manner analogous to biological populations, is structured according to 'beasts' and 'herds' whose genealogies and 'genetic variability' (mutation rate) are of central importance. The investigation, which draws on the three disciplines of computation, telecommunications, and biological evolution, has relevance for each.

  9. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Joensen, A.; Giebel, G. [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  10. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Development of a validated model to predict 30-day stroke and 1-year survival after carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis using the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Randall R; Brooke, Benjamin S; Neal, Dan; Beck, Adam W; Conrad, Mark F; Arya, Shipra; Desai, Sapan; Aziz, Faisal; Ryan, Patrick; Cronenwett, Jack L; Kraiss, Larry W

    2017-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been shown to be an effective treatment for patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis when perioperative stroke rates are low and patients survive long enough to benefit from the intervention. Our objective was to develop and to validate a simple risk prediction model for 30-day stroke and 1-year mortality to guide optimal selection of patients for CEA. Asymptomatic patients undergoing first-time elective CEA within the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) from 2010 to 2015 were selected. Outcome measures included any 30-day postoperative stroke and 1-year mortality. Patient demographics, comorbidities, carotid artery disease burden, and provider characteristics were evaluated to select a parsimonious clinical model for risk prediction using multivariable logistic regression. Internal validation was performed for stroke and split sample validation was done for 1-year survival to ensure generalizability. We identified 31,939 patients for inclusion in the stroke analysis (2010-2015) and 24,086 patients for the mortality analysis (2010-2014). Both the 30-day stroke rate (0.9%) and 1-year mortality rate (3.4%) varied substantially across 265 VQI centers (range, 0%-8.3% and 0%-20%, respectively). Eleven significant factors were selected for the 30-day stroke risk prediction model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.67). Internal validation demonstrated good discrimination (bias corrected AUC = 0.652; calibration intercept and slope of 0.03 and 1.01, respectively). Similarly, 10 significant factors were selected for the 1-year mortality risk prediction model (AUC, 0.764). External validation demonstrated excellent discrimination and calibration (AUC, 0.764; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.80). Stroke and 1-year mortality rates after CEA for asymptomatic stenosis vary across VQI centers. We have developed a preoperative risk model that can be used to accurately estimate risk of perioperative stroke and 1

  13. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...... and Cavanagh (2004) have raised the question that the capacity of VSTM is dependent on visual complexity rather than the number of objects. We hypothesise that VSTM capacity is dependent on both the objective and subjective complexity of visual stimuli. Contrary to Alvarez and Cavanagh, who argue for the role...... of objective complexity, it seems that subjective complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of the stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In two studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM. 1) In children learning...

  14. Short-term wind power prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Alfred K.

    2003-01-01

    The present thesis consists of 10 research papers published during the period 1997-2002 together with a summary report. The objective of the work described in the thesis is to develop models and methods for calculation of high accuracy predictions of wind power generated electricity......, and to implement these models and methods in an on-line software application. The economical value of having predictions available is also briefly considered. The summary report outlines the background and motivation for developing wind power prediction models. The meteorological theory which is relevant...... where the Department of Informatics and Mathematical Modelling and the Department of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics have been two major participants. The first project entitled Implementing Short-term Prediction at Utilities , founded by the European Commission under the JOULE programme. The second...

  15. One week ahead short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baharudin, Z.; Kamel, N. [Petronas Technology Univ., Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics

    2007-07-01

    Autoregressive (AR) Burg techniques were used to optimize week-ahead short-term load forecasting for Malaysia's electricity grid. The digital signal processing method used historical data signals to predict performance over future intervals. The predicted value was hourly to a maximum of 168 hours. The AR model provided an improved mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values for short term load forecasts (STLF). The model was then compared with other models of the electricity grids of both Malaysia and New South Wales (NSW). A time series model was used to simulate discrete-time stochastic progresses using linear difference equations of complex coefficients. An autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was generated by filtering unit variance white noise with a causal linear shift-invariant filter. The Burg's spectrum estimation method computed reflection coefficients sequentially by minimizing mean-squares of the forward and backward prediction errors. The performance of the different parametric techniques on week-ahead forecasts were investigated using both the ARMA and AR models. Results of the evaluation demonstrated that the average value of MAPE over a 7-day period was 54 per cent less for the AR models than for the ARMA model. Fourteen weeks of data were used to develop the 1-week forecasts. It was concluded that removing periods of load variation and weekends from the data improve the accuracy of the ARMA model by 50 per cent, while the accuracy of the AR model was improved by only 40 per cent. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Survival and quality of life of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer at 1-year follow-up of tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the survival and life quality evolution of patients subjected to surgical excision of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients treated at a Brazilian healthcare unit specialized in head and neck surgery between 2006 and 2007 were enrolled in the study. The gathering of data comprised reviewing hospital files and applying the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL questionnaire previously and 1 year after the surgery. Comparative analysis used Poisson regression to assess factors associated with survival and a paired t-test to compare preoperative and 1-year postoperative QOL ratings. RESULTS: 1 year after surgery, 7 patients were not found (dropout of the cohort; 15 had died and 25 fulfilled the UW-QOL again. The risk of death was associated with having regional metastasis previously to surgery (relative risk=2.18; 95% confidence interval=1.09-5.17 and tumor size T3 or T4 (RR=2.30; 95%CI=1.05-5.04. Survivors presented significantly (p<0.05 poorer overall and domain-specific ratings of quality of life. Chewing presented the largest reduction: from 74.0 before surgery to 34.0 one year later. Anxiety was the only domain whose average rating increased (from 36.0 to 70.7. CONCLUSIONS: The prospective assessment of survival and quality of life may contribute to anticipate interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of functional limitations in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

  17. The Role of Short-term Consolidation in Memory Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Ricker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into short-term memory has uncovered a dissociation between encoding processes, those that register information into short-term memory, and consolidation processes, those that solidify the representation within short-term memory. Here I describe the key differences between short-term encoding and consolidation and briefly review what is known about the short-term consolidation process itself. Cognitive function, plausible neural instantiation, and open questions are addressed.

  18. Short Term Survival after Admission for Heart Failure in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghith, Nermin; Wagner, Philippe; Frølich, Anne

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: We analyzed 36,943 patients aged 45-80 treated in 565 wards at 71 hospitals during 2007-2009. We applied single and multilevel logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratios and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUC). We evaluated general hospital and ward effects...... by quantifying the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the increment in the AUC obtained by adding random effects in a multilevel regression analysis (MLRA). Finally, the Odds Ratios (ORs) for specific ward and hospital characteristics were interpreted jointly with the proportional change in variance...... (PCV) and the proportion of ORs in the opposite direction (POOR). FINDINGS: Overall, the average 30-day mortality was 9%. Using only patient information on age and previous hospitalizations for different diseases we obtained an AUC = 0.727. This value was almost unchanged when adding sex, country...

  19. Long-term versus short-term hearing aid benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, R K; Cord, M T; Walden, B E

    1998-06-01

    This study compared hearing aid benefit obtained 6 weeks and a minimum of 1 year after fitting to determine if changes occurred over time. Fifteen individuals with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing losses, who were successful users of linear amplification, were fitted binaurally with the Resound BT2 Personal Hearing System. These hearing aids are programmable in two frequency bands that provide wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) amplification. The manufacturer's recommended loudness growth in octave bands (LGOB) and audiogram programming algorithm and fitting procedures were used. Following an initial 6-week period and again following a minimum of 1 year of use, the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (PHAB) was administered. Similarly, speech recognition performance was tested using the Connected Speech Test (CST) in a six-talker speech babble at 50 dBA, +10 signal-to-noise (S/N); 60 dBA, +5 SNR; and 70 dBA, +2 SNR; and in quiet with a reverberation time of 0.78 seconds. Significant aided benefit was shown. These short-term benefit scores for the PHAB and CST were compared with those obtained after 1 year of full-time use. Results revealed no significant change in hearing aid benefit with long-term use, suggesting that a 6-week acclimatization period is sufficiently long for clinical trials of this type of WDRC amplification.

  20. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  1. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  2. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  3. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Short-Term Criminal Pathways: Type and Seriousness of Offense and Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wientjes, Jacqueline A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors investigated short-term criminal pathways of children and early adolescents starting under the age of 14 years and the extent to which characteristics of the 1st crime influenced criminal pathways. Participants were 387 juvenile offenders with a mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 2.05 years). The authors followed…

  5. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. PMID:28201834

  6. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  7. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. 77 FR 21057 - Short-Term Investment Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 9 RIN 1557-AD37 Short-Term Investment Funds AGENCY... pursuant to 12 CFR 9.18(b)(4)(ii)(B), the short-term investment fund (STIF) rule (STIF Rule). The proposal... governing the nature of a STIF's investments, ongoing monitoring of its mark-to-market value and forecasting...

  9. 77 FR 61229 - Short-Term Investment Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 9 RIN 1557-AD37 Short-Term Investment Funds AGENCY... revises the requirements imposed on national banks pursuant to the OCC's short-term investment fund (STIF... principal, including measures governing the nature of a STIF's investments, ongoing monitoring of its mark...

  10. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of

  11. The stability of short-term hearing outcome after stapedotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Öhman, Malin Charlotta; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Current guidelines recommend reporting short-term results of > 12 months after treatment of conductive hearing loss. This study suggests that short-term hearing results after stapedotomy recorded at the 3-month follow-up are without loss of vital information compared with data from th...

  12. Short-Term Family Based Care for Children in Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marie; Aldgate, Jane

    1994-01-01

    Notes that short-term foster care is intensive, complex, and demanding work that is underestimated by other social workers but is important to families in need. Describes short-term care providers, their motivation and what sustains them in their work; presents their attitudes about training, children, and families in need; and compares them with…

  13. Intercultural Competence in Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Annie

    2017-01-01

    Assessment is growing for short-term study abroad as the majority of students (63.1%) continue to choose this option (Institute of International Education, 2016). This study uses the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) to examine the impact of short-term study abroad programs on students' overall intercultural competency and the connections…

  14. Measures of short-term memory: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T E

    2007-07-01

    Following Ebbinghaus (1885/1964), a number of procedures have been devised to measure short-term memory using immediate serial recall: digit span, Knox's (1913) cube imitation test and Corsi's (1972) blocks task. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in these tasks was obstructed initially by the lack of a coherent concept of short-term memory and later by the mistaken assumption that short-term and long-term memory reflected distinct processes as well as different kinds of experimental task. Despite its apparent conceptual simplicity, a variety of cognitive mechanisms are responsible for short-term memory, and contemporary theories of working memory have helped to clarify these. Contrary to the earliest writings on the subject, measures of short-term memory do not provide a simple measure of mental capacity, but they do provide a way of understanding some of the key mechanisms underlying human cognition.

  15. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    , 2.4% lung cancer. Short-term survivors: 21% lung cancer, 7.2% breast cancer. Chemotherapy was provided to 15% of all patients, and to 10% of the 60 + year olds. Discussion. The epidemiology of long- and short-term survivors shows significant differences with regard to age at TOCD, cancer types......' difference in age at TOCD was seen between long- and short-term survivors, with median ages of 60 versus 72 years, respectively. Females comprised 64% of long-term, and 46% of short-term survivors. The proportion of breast and lung cancers differed between the groups: Long-term survivors: 31% breast cancer......Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry...

  16. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERGÜL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.

  17. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...... to employment showed a 20% higher risk of early termination of employment than those never hospitalized (rate ratio (RR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.16-1.29), and the risk increased with number of hospitalizations. For workers with two or more preemployment hospitalizations related to alcohol abuse...

  18. The short-term impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus based immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Guleria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. Eighty-three live-related transplant recipients were randomly allocated to protocol biopsy group (Group I, n = 40 and a control group (Group II, n = 43. Other immunosuppressants in these groups consisted of either mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine and steroids. Protocol biopsies were conducted in biopsy group at 1, 6, and 12 months post-transplant. The non-biopsy group was followed by serial serum creatinine and biopsies in them were conducted as and when clinically indicated. Both groups were analyzed at 12 months with respect to graft function and survival. The two groups were similar with respect to age, number of dialysis pre-operatively, tacrolimus levels, induction therapy, donor age, and donor glomerular filtration rate. Forty protocol biopsies were conducted at 1 month, 31 at 6 months, and 26 at 12 months. The prevalence of sub-clinical rejection at 1, 6, and 12 months in these biopsies was 17.5%, 11.2%, and 10.3%, respectively. The prevalence of calcineurin inhibitor toxicity during same period was 15%, 15.5%, and 14.4%, respectively. The cumulative rejection rate in Group I and Group II at 12-month follow-up was 10.3% and 11.3% ( P = 0.78, respectively, and cumulative calcineurin inhibitor toxicity at 12 months was 14.4% and 9.3% ( P = 0.59, respectively, were not statistically significant. There was no difference in graft survival and function at 1 year. Protocol biopsies have a limited role in a well-matched renal transplant program with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. However, the long-term impact of protocol biopsies needs further evaluation.

  19. The short-term impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus based immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, S; Jain, S; Dinda, A K; Mahajan, S; Gupta, S; Mehra, N K

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of protocol biopsies in a live-related renal transplant program using tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. Eighty-three live-related transplant recipients were randomly allocated to protocol biopsy group (Group I, n = 40) and a control group (Group II, n = 43). Other immunosuppressants in these groups consisted of either mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine and steroids. Protocol biopsies were conducted in biopsy group at 1, 6, and 12 months post-transplant. The non-biopsy group was followed by serial serum creatinine and biopsies in them were conducted as and when clinically indicated. Both groups were analyzed at 12 months with respect to graft function and survival. The two groups were similar with respect to age, number of dialysis pre-operatively, tacrolimus levels, induction therapy, donor age, and donor glomerular filtration rate. Forty protocol biopsies were conducted at 1 month, 31 at 6 months, and 26 at 12 months. The prevalence of sub-clinical rejection at 1, 6, and 12 months in these biopsies was 17.5%, 11.2%, and 10.3%, respectively. The prevalence of calcineurin inhibitor toxicity during same period was 15%, 15.5%, and 14.4%, respectively. The cumulative rejection rate in Group I and Group II at 12-month follow-up was 10.3% and 11.3% (P = 0.78), respectively, and cumulative calcineurin inhibitor toxicity at 12 months was 14.4% and 9.3% (P = 0.59), respectively, were not statistically significant. There was no difference in graft survival and function at 1 year. Protocol biopsies have a limited role in a well-matched renal transplant program with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in the short term. However, the long-term impact of protocol biopsies needs further evaluation.

  20. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Visscher

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches; the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples. Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1 the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity, and (2 the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity. A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  1. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  2. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  3. Facilitation and Distraction in Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John W.; Kail, Robert V., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short-term memory in 7- and 11-year-old children was studied under two conditions: study period and distraction. Older children did better than younger children on study conditions and about the same on distraction condition. (ST)

  4. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  5. Short-term effects of simultaneous cardiovascular workout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMD), has become a growing public health concern, as it may potentially result in the development of hearing difficulties. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the differential impact and short-term effects of simultaneous ...

  6. AR-based Algorithms for Short Term Load Forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhairi Baharudin; Mohd. Azman Zakariya; Mohd. HarisMdKhir; Perumal Nallagownden; Muhammad Qamar Raza

    2014-01-01

    Short-term load forecast plays an important role in planning and operation of power systems. The accuracy of the forecast value is necessary for economically efficient operation and effective control of the plant. This study describes the methods of Autoregressive (AR) Burg’s and Modified Covariance (MCOV) in solving the short term load forecast. Both algorithms are tested with power load data from Malaysian grid and New South Wales, Australia. The forecast accuracy is assessed in terms of th...

  7. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  8. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...

  9. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  10. A simple risk score predicts poor quality of life and non-survival at 1 year follow-up in dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Ruinemans, GMF; Huyse, FJ; ter Wee, PM

    2003-01-01

    Background. Quality of life (QoL) in end-stage renal disease patients has become an important focus of attention in evaluating dialysis. We studied risk factors of poor QoL at 1 year follow-up. Methods. Of a baseline sample of 80 dialysis patients, we contacted 60 patients who were alive at 1 year

  11. Short-term toxicity of polystryrene microplastics on mysid shrimps Neomysis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Plastic debris especially microplastics (MPs) have become a global concern for the aggravating pollution in the oceans. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) beads and the effects of PS-MPs on the survival of mysid shrimps (Neomysis japonica) were investigated. PS-MPs were identified to have spherical shape, uniform size and stable green fluorescence. The results showed that PS beads had little effects on the mortality of shrimps under a short-term (72 h) exposure with concentrations of 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1. However, PS-MPs had severe short-term toxicity on the survival of mysid shrimps, resulting in 30% mortality especially in a 72 h exposure with the higher concentration of 1000 μg L-1. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on marine invertebrates.

  12. Early complications and short-term failures of zirconia single crowns and partial fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Juha; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Raustia, Aune

    2014-10-01

    Ceramic single crowns fabricated from newer materials, especially zirconia, have shown relatively high survival rates. However, early reversible complications may increase the risk of an irreversible failure later. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the early complications and short-term failures of zirconia single crowns and partial fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) made by predoctoral dental students. Data were collected from the patient records. Altogether, 264 zirconia single crowns and 120 FDPs (342 abutments and 190 pontics) were fabricated for 173 patients between 2007 and 2010. Early complications were recorded during the prosthetic treatment phase, and short-term failures were recorded during the first year in use. The most frequent early complications were localized gingival irritation (1.9% of single crowns and 2.5% of FDP) and postoperative tooth sensitivity (0.4% of single crowns and 3.3% of FDPs). Pulp exposure during preparation was recorded in 3 abutment teeth of the FDPs. The most frequent short-term failure was chipping of the veneering porcelain (0.8% for single crowns, 0.8% for FDPs). One crown lost cementation because of poor retention (0.4%), and 2 FDPs failed because of framework fractures (1.7%). The most frequent early complications were localized gingival irritation and postoperative tooth sensitivity, and the most frequent short-term failure was chipping of the veneering porcelain. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789

  15. Brain oscillatory substrates of visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauseng, Paul; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Heise, Kirstin F; Gruber, Walter R; Holz, Elisa; Karim, Ahmed A; Glennon, Mark; Gerloff, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2009-11-17

    The amount of information that can be stored in visual short-term memory is strictly limited to about four items. Therefore, memory capacity relies not only on the successful retention of relevant information but also on efficient suppression of distracting information, visual attention, and executive functions. However, completely separable neural signatures for these memory capacity-limiting factors remain to be identified. Because of its functional diversity, oscillatory brain activity may offer a utile solution. In the present study, we show that capacity-determining mechanisms, namely retention of relevant information and suppression of distracting information, are based on neural substrates independent of each other: the successful maintenance of relevant material in short-term memory is associated with cross-frequency phase synchronization between theta (rhythmical neural activity around 5 Hz) and gamma (> 50 Hz) oscillations at posterior parietal recording sites. On the other hand, electroencephalographic alpha activity (around 10 Hz) predicts memory capacity based on efficient suppression of irrelevant information in short-term memory. Moreover, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at alpha frequency can modulate short-term memory capacity by influencing the ability to suppress distracting information. Taken together, the current study provides evidence for a double dissociation of brain oscillatory correlates of visual short-term memory capacity.

  16. Short-term cortical plasticity induced by conditioning pain modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Buchgreitz, Line; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical stimulat......To investigate the effects of homotopic and heterotopic conditioning pain modulation (CPM) on short-term cortical plasticity. Glutamate (tonic pain) or isotonic saline (sham) was injected in the upper trapezius (homotopic) and in the thenar (heterotopic) muscles. Intramuscular electrical...... CPM caused short-term cortical plasticity within the cingulate that was correlated to subjective pain ratings. The degree of long-term depressive effect to homotopic CPM was correlated to the change in location of the P200 dipole....

  17. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  18. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  19. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery – current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas DM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available David M Haas, Tara Benjamin, Renata Sawyer, Sara K QuinneyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics.Keywords: tocolytics, short-term, preterm delivery

  20. Should We be More Worried When Our Fathers or Our Mothers Get Admitted to Hospital? Sex Differences in 1-Year Survival After the First Admission to Hospital at Age 50+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, Andreas; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland

    Women have lower mortality at all ages and a survival advantage with respect to most causes of death, including acute life-threatening events. We assume the sex differences in survival to be larger after the onset of an acute health condition. Using a 5% random sample of the Danish population, we...... compare the absolute sex differences in 1-year survival after the first hospital admission at age 50+ with the differentials in the corresponding general and never-hospitalized population at age 50—69 during the years 1977—2011 in Denmark. We find the male excess mortality after an admission to hospital...

  1. Nonverbal Visual Short-Term Memory as a Function of Age and Dimensionality in Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lee

    Evaluated with two age groups (mean age 8.1 years or 10.6 years) totaling 22 learning disabled children was whether there is an age related increase in recognition for visual nonverbal short term memory (STM) and the effects on STM of stimulus dimensionality, primacy, recency, and second choice responses. A serial recognition task was used to…

  2. Short-term effects of radiation in gliolalstoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate the short-term effects of radiation of spheroids containing tumor-initiating stem-like cells. We used a patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell enriched culture (T76) and the standard glioblastoma cell line U87. Primary spheroids were irradiated with doses between 2 and 50 Gy and assessed after two...... capacity. Gene expression analysis of nine stem cell- and two hypoxia-related genes did not reveal any upregulation after radiation. In conclusion, this study suggests that a major short-term effect of radiation is pronounced reduction of tumor cell proliferation. We found no upregulation of stem cell...

  3. [Impulsiveness Among Short-Term Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Relative value of clinical variables, bicycle ergometry, rest radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring at discharge to predict 1 year survival after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); R.W. Brower (Ronald); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); H.J. ten Katen (Harald); A. Beelen (Anita); T. Baardman (Taco); J. Lubsen (Jacob); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe relative value of predischarge clinical variables, bicycle ergometry, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring for predicting survival during the first year in 351 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction was assessed. Discriminant

  5. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  6. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra-Luques Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h, diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h, proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7. Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy.

  7. Real-time energy resources scheduling considering short-term and very short-term wind forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita [Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). GECAD - Knowledge Engineering and Decision Support Research Center

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes an energy resources management methodology based on three distinct time horizons: day-ahead scheduling, hour-ahead scheduling, and real-time scheduling. In each scheduling process the update of generation and consumption operation and of the storage and electric vehicles storage status are used. Besides the new operation conditions, the most accurate forecast values of wind generation and of consumption using results of short-term and very short-term methods are used. A case study considering a distribution network with intensive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles is presented. (orig.)

  8. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoqian; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2014-03-19

    One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation.

  9. Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short...

  10. Patterns and Short Term Outcomes of Chest Injuries at Mbarara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was conducted to establish the causes, injury patterns and short-term outcomes of chest injuries at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. Methods: This was a prospective study involving chest injury patients admitted to Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) for a period of one year from April ...

  11. Combining forecasts in short term load forecasting: Empirical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present an empirical analysis to show that combination of short term load forecasts leads to better accuracy. We also discuss other aspects of combination, i.e.,distribution of weights, effect of variation in the historical window and distribution of forecast errors. The distribution of forecast errors is analyzed in order to get a ...

  12. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  13. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  14. Insulin Resistance Induced by Short term Fructose Feeding may not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fructose feeding causes insulin resistance and invariably Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in rats and genetically predisposed humans. The effect of insulin resistance induced by short term fructose feeding on fertility in female rats was investigated using the following parameters: oestrous phase and ...

  15. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Orienting attention to objects in visual short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Sessa, Paola; Toffanin, Paolo; Luria, Roy; Joliccoeur, Pierre

    We measured electroencephalographic activity during visual search of a target object among objects available to perception or among objects held in visual short-term memory (VSTM). For perceptual search, a single shape was shown first (pre-cue) followed by a search-array and the task was to decide

  17. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM) suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps

  18. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  19. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  20. A Short-term Comparative Analysis of Enhanced Biodegradation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short term comparative ecological study of the use of two agro-forestry species, Leucaena leucocephala, Lam De. Wit and Bauhinia monandra, Kurz, in bioremediation of oil polluted environment was carried out, focusing on the evaluation and enhancing potential of the macrophytic species for degradation of hydrocarbon ...

  1. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...

  2. Selenium deficiency, reversible cardiomyopathy and short-term intravenous feeding.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, J. B.; Jones, H. W.; Gordon, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Crohn's disease receiving short-term postoperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with trace elements who nevertheless became selenium deficient with evidence of a cardiomyopathy. This was fully reversible with oral selenium supplementation. Current parenteral feeding regimes may not contain enough selenium for malnourished patients.

  3. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  4. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  5. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  6. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Controls on short-term variations in Greenland glacier dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundal, A.V.; Shepherd, A.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; Gourmelen, N.; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term ice-dynamical processes at Greenland’s Jakobshavn and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers were studied using a 3 day time series of synthetic aperture radar data acquired during the 2011 European Remote-sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2) 3 day repeat campaign together with modelled meteorological

  8. Short term results of pterygium surgery with adjunctive amniotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-30

    Nov 30, 2012 ... Short term results of pterygium surgery with adjunctive amniotic membrane graft. O Okoye, NC Oguego, CM Chuka Okosa, M Ghanta1. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu Nigeria,. 1Goutani Eye Institute, Rajahmundry, Andra Pradesh, India.

  9. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant changes in blood lactate or cortisol concentrations in any group. CRF showed significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) in fatigue index, muscle pain, and creatine kinase concentration. However, no significant differences were found between groups. Conclusion. Short-term creatine supplementation with or ...

  10. Short term climate trend and variability around Woliso, Oromia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the meteorological data of Woliso for the last decade (2004-2013), short-term climate variability was assessed. ... dry (low RC <0.6), whereas May and September received big rains with moderate concentration (rainfall coefficient =1.0-1.9) and the summer (JJA) received big rainfall with high concentration (rainfall ...

  11. Short-term residential psychotherapy: psychotherapy in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, M P

    1984-01-01

    Psychotherapy in a psychotherapeutic community often is characterized by absence of time limits and by long duration. In this article an account is given of the adaptions that are necessary when short-term treatment is carried out in such a residential setting. Implications for focus, therapy program, and treatment style are presented.

  12. Short Term Treatment: An Annotated Bibliography (1945-1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Richard A.

    Short-term treatment has been steadily gaining in popularity in the past five years although its historical antecedents are of much longer standing. This annotated bibliography is the result of a literature search covering the major journals in psychology, psychiatry, and social work during the period from 1945 to 1974. A total of 243 articles…

  13. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  14. On short-term traffic flow forecasting and its reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Abouaïssa, Hassane; Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Recent advances in time series, where deterministic and stochastic modelings as well as the storage and analysis of big data are useless, permit a new approach to short-term traffic flow forecasting and to its reliability, i.e., to the traffic volatility. Several convincing computer simulations, which utilize concrete data, are presented and discussed.

  15. Student Opportunity: Short-Term Exposure to International Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Ronald L; Magor, Noel P; Shires, David; Leung, Hei; McCouch, Susan R; Macintosh, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    .... A short-term student exchange program between a US university and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and a special course on rice (research to production) offered at IRRI provide students with unique insights for averting food riots in the future. Details of these educational efforts are described in this paper.

  16. Physical approach to short-term wind power prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Offers an approach to the ultimate goal of the short-term prediction of the power output of winds farms. This book addresses scientists and engineers working in wind energy related R and D and industry, as well as graduate students and nonspecialists researchers in the fields of atmospheric physics and meteorology.

  17. Phytoremediation innovative technology (series 1): a short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short-term ecological study was conducted on the use of Agro-Forestry Species (Leucaena leucocephala, Lam de. Wit and Bauhinia monandra,Kurz) in enhancing water infiltration of a crude oil polluted terrestrial habitat. B. monandra treated soil had no significant effect on water infiltration. Water infiltration was retarded, ...

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  19. A new wide-diameter bone-anchored hearing implant-prospective 1-year data on complications, implant stability, and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Søren; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a new wide bone-anchored hearing implant considering initial stability, stability over time, implant loss, and skin reaction. STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive, prospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty adult patients were enrolled. All......, and 1 year after surgery. Skin and soft tissue reactions according to Holgers grading system. RESULTS: Implant stability quotient measurements revealed a significant increase in ISQ during the first 10 days after operation, and the ISQ values continued to rise throughout the 1-year observation period....... No implants were lost. Skin and soft tissue reactions were rare and minor, as no reaction was seen in 93% of the follow-up examinations and no grade 4 reactions occurred. CONCLUSION: The new wide implant showed good stability at surgery. Osseointegration was fast, and implant stability increased throughout...

  20. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... in combination with temperatures of 10, 14 and 18 degrees C. A parametric survival model found a significant correlation between survival of pike fry and temperature and salinity, respectively. L(C)50 values after 72 h were between 11.2 and 12.2 ppt, being lowest at 10 degrees C. Pike fry did not survive more...

  1. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ørtenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effect of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile...... properties of single muscle fibres (n=378) from vastus lateralis of 9 young (24 ± 1 years) and 8 old (67 ± 2 years) healthy men with comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to immobilisation, MHC IIa fibres produced higher maximum Ca2+-activated force (approx. 32%) and specific force (approx. 33......%) and had lower Ca2+ sensitivity than MHC I fibres (p...

  2. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  3. Multiple effects of pentyl-4-yn-VPA enantiomers: from toxicity to short-term memory enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfryd, Kamil; Owczarek, Sylwia; Hoffmann, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    and migration, neuronal differentiation and survival, intracellular signal transduction, synaptic plasticity and maturation, and short-term memory as determined by the social recognition test. The results show that the enantiomers of PE-4-yn-VPA largely had similar effects in vitro. However, in all in vitro...

  4. Impact of compliance to oral hypoglycemic agents on short-term disability costs in an employer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Susan E; Wright, Douglas W; Finch, Ron; Talamonti, Walter J; Edington, Dee W

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationships between compliance with oral hypoglycemic agents and health care/short-term disability costs in a large manufacturing company. The retrospective analysis used an observational cohort drawn from active employees of Ford Motor Company. The study population consisted of 4978 individuals who were continuously eligible for 3 years (between 2001-2007) and who received a prescription for an oral hypoglycemic agent during that time. Medical, pharmacy, and short-term disability claims data were obtained from the University of Michigan Health Management Research Center data warehouse. Pharmacy claims/refill data were used to calculate the proportion of days covered (PDC); an individual was classified as compliant if his/her PDC was ≥80%. Model covariates included age, sex, work type, and Charlson comorbidity scores. The impact of compliance on disability and health care costs was measured by comparing the costs of the compliant with those of the noncompliant during a 1-year follow-up. Among these employees, compliant patients had lower medical, higher pharmacy, and lower short-term disability costs than did the noncompliant. After adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, noncompliance was associated with statistically higher short-term disability costs ($1840 vs. $1161, P<0.0001), longer short-term disability duration, and an increase in short-term disability incidence (21.5% of the noncompliant had a claim compared to 16.0% of the compliant, P<0.0001). These results suggest that medication compliance may be important in curtailing the rise of health care/disability costs in the workplace. Employers concerned with the total costs associated with diabetes should not overlook the impact of compliance on short-term disability.

  5. Short-term dietary restriction and fasting precondition against ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James R; Verweij, Mariëlle; Brand, Karl; van de Ven, Marieke; Goemaere, Natascha; van den Engel, Sandra; Chu, Timothy; Forrer, Flavio; Müller, Cristina; de Jong, Marion; van IJcken, Wilfred; IJzermans, Jan N M; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; de Bruin, Ron W F

    2010-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and increases resistance to multiple forms of stress, including ischemia reperfusion injury to the brain and heart in rodents. While maximal effects on lifespan require long-term restriction, the kinetics of onset of benefits against acute stress is not known. Here, we show that 2-4 weeks of 30% DR improved survival and kidney function following renal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice. Brief periods of water-only fasting were similarly effective at protecting against ischemic damage. Significant protection occurred within 1 day, persisted for several days beyond the fasting period and extended to another organ, the liver. Protection by both short-term DR and fasting correlated with improved insulin sensitivity, increased expression of markers of antioxidant defense and reduced expression of markers of inflammation and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling. Unbiased transcriptional profiling of kidneys from mice subject to short-term DR or fasting revealed a significant enrichment of signature genes of long-term DR. These data demonstrate that brief periods of reduced food intake, including short-term daily restriction and fasting, can increase resistance to ischemia reperfusion injury in rodents and suggest a rapid onset of benefits of DR in mammals.

  6. Short-term memory, parsing, and the primate frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribram, K H; Tubbs, W E

    1967-06-30

    Removal of the frontal cortex of primates resulted earlier in a psychological deficit usually classified in terms of short-term memory. This classification is based on impairment in performance of delayed-response or alternation-type tasks. We report an experiment in which the classical 5-seconddelay right-left-right-left (R-L-R-L) altenation task was modified by placing a 15-seconid interval between each R-L couplet: R-L . . . R-L . . . R-L . . . . This mnodification made it possible for monkeys with frontal lesions, which had failed the classical task, to perform with very few errors. The result suggests that proper division, parsing of the stream of stimuli to which the organism is subjected, is a more important variable in the mechanism of short-term memory than is the maintenance of a neural trace per se.

  7. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2012-04-01

    The emphasis on renewable energy and concerns about the environment have led to large-scale wind energy penetration worldwide. However, there are also significant challenges associated with the use of wind energy due to the intermittent and unstable nature of wind. High-quality short-term wind speed forecasting is critical to reliable and secure power system operations. This article begins with an overview of the current status of worldwide wind power developments and future trends. It then reviews some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss functions. New challenges in wind speed forecasting regarding ramp events and offshore wind farms are also presented. © 2012 The Authors. International Statistical Review © 2012 International Statistical Institute.

  8. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  9. Obligatory and adaptive averaging in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Chad; Sekuler, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Visual memory can draw upon averaged perceptual representations, a dependence that could be both adaptive and obligatory. In support of this idea, we review a wide range of evidence, including findings from our own lab. This evidence shows that time- and space-averaged memory representations influence detection and recognition responses, and do so without instruction to compute or report an average. Some of the work reviewed exploits fine-grained measures of retrieval from visual short-term memory to closely track the influence of stored averages on recall and recognition of briefly presented visual textures. Results show that reliance on perceptual averages is greatest when memory resources are taxed or when subjects are uncertain about the fidelity of their memory representation. We relate these findings to models of how summary statistics impact visual short-term memory, and discuss a neural signature for contexts in which perceptual averaging exerts maximal influence.

  10. Short-term memory in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Marie; Martin, Jonathan S; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M

    2011-02-01

    Three experiments examined verbal short-term memory in comparison and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Experiment 1 involved forward and backward digit recall. Experiment 2 used a standard immediate serial recall task where, contrary to the digit-span task, items (words) were not repeated from list to list. Hence, this task called more heavily on item memory. Experiment 3 tested short-term order memory with an order recognition test: Each word list was repeated with or without the position of 2 adjacent items swapped. The ASD group showed poorer performance in all 3 experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that group differences were due to memory for the order of the items, not to memory for the items themselves. Confirming these findings, the results of Experiment 3 showed that the ASD group had more difficulty detecting a change in the temporal sequence of the items. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Terrestrial short-term ecotoxicity of a green formicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiepo, Erasmo N; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Resgalla, Charrid; Cotelle, Sylvie; Férard, Jean-François; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2010-07-01

    When ants become annoying, large quantities of formicide are applied to terrestrial ecosystems in tropical regions, but awareness of the health and environmental impacts related to the use of synthetic pesticides has been increasing. The use of green pesticides to combat target organisms could reduce these impacts. In this regard, terrestrial ecotoxicity tests with higher plants (Brassica olaracea, Lactuca sativa and Mucuna aterrima), annelids (Eisenia foetida), Collembola (Folsomia candida) and soil enzyme activity analysis (diacetate fluorescein hydrolysis) were used to evaluate short-term terrestrial ecotoxicity of a green pesticide prepared from naturally-occurring organic compounds. At the highest formicide concentration tested in these experiments (i.e., 50 g kg(-1) soil) no toxicity toward terrestrial organisms was observed. The lack of short-term terrestrial ecotoxicity suggest that this green formicide can be classed as an environmentally friendly product as compared to the ecotoxicity of the most commonly used commercialized formicides. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic Hybrid Model for Short-Term Electricity Price Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Cerjan; Marin Matijaš; Marko Delimar

    2014-01-01

    Accurate forecasting tools are essential in the operation of electric power systems, especially in deregulated electricity markets. Electricity price forecasting is necessary for all market participants to optimize their portfolios. In this paper we propose a hybrid method approach for short-term hourly electricity price forecasting. The paper combines statistical techniques for pre-processing of data and a multi-layer (MLP) neural network for forecasting electricity price and price spike det...

  13. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  14. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle L Simoens

    Full Text Available Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  15. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  16. Monitoring Short-Term Economic Developments in Foreign Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Russell Barnett; Pierre Guérin

    2013-01-01

    The Bank of Canada uses several short-term forecasting models for the monitoring of key foreign economies—the United States, the euro area, Japan and China. The design of the forecasting models used for each region is influenced by the level of detail required, as well as the timeliness and volatility of data. Forecasts from different models are typically combined to mitigate model uncertainty, and judgment is applied to the model forecasts to incorporate information that is not directly refl...

  17. Adult neurogenesis supports short-term olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2010-06-01

    Adult neurogenesis has captivated neuroscientists for decades, with hopes that understanding the programs underlying this phenomenon may provide unique insight toward avenues for brain repair. Interestingly, however, despite intense molecular and cellular investigation, the evolutionary roles and biological functions for ongoing neurogenesis have remained elusive. Here I review recent work published in the Journal of Neuroscience that reveals a functional role for continued neurogenesis toward forming short-term olfactory memories.

  18. Biomimetic treatment on dental implants for short -term bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Mur, Francisco Javier; Manzanares, Norberto; Badet de Mena, Armando; Aparicio Bádenas, Conrado José; Ginebra Molins, Maria Pau

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of this work was to assess the short-term bone regenerative potential of new osteoconductive implants. The novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the effectiveness of a novel two-step treatment which combines shot-blasting with a thermo-chemical treatment, at very short times after implant placement in a minipig model. Materials and methods Three hundred twenty implants with four different surface treatments, namely bioactivated sur...

  19. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-02-14

    Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, "Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training." The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad.

  20. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  1. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-06

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-term indicators. Intensities as a proxy for savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This work contributes to the growing need for quantitative monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of energy policies and measures, both at the EU and national level, e.g. due to the Energy Services Directive and the proposed Energy Efficiency Directive. Because the underlying data become available only after some time, the savings figures are not always timely available. This is especially true for the ODEX efficiency indices per sector that rely on a number of indicators. Therefore, there is a need for so-called short-term indicators that become available shortly after the year has passed for which data are needed. The short term indicators do not replace the savings indicators but function as a proxy for the savings in the most recent year. This proxy value is faster available, but will be less accurate than the saving indicators themselves. The short term indicators have to be checked regularly with the ODEX indicators in order to see whether they can function still as a proxy.

  3. Short-term cardiovascular effects of methylphenidate and adderall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, R L; Short, E J; Manos, M J

    2001-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the cardiovascular effects of Adderall (ADL) in a clinic-based group of youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ranging in age from 4 to 17 years. One hundred thirty-seven patients were treated with either methylphenidate (MPH) or ADL. Youths prescribed MPH were given medication twice daily, and youths treated with ADL received medication once daily. Patients were evaluated under five conditions: baseline, placebo, 5 mg/dose, 10 mg/dose, or 15 mg/dose. Resting pulse, diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure were examined after 1 week at each treatment condition. Changes from baseline on these parameters were examined. The short-term cardiovascular effects of both ADL and MPH were modest. No patients experienced any clinically significant change in these cardiovascular measures during the course of this brief trial. Since the short-term cardiovascular effects of ADL appear minimal, specific cardiovascular monitoring during short-term ADL treatment at doses of 15 mg/day or less does not appear to be indicated. In addition, under similar conditions, using similar methods, both medication treatments led to changes in blood pressure and pulse that were clinically insignificant.

  4. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    The digit span is one of the most widely used memory tests in clinical and experimental neuropsychology for reliably measuring short-term memory capacity. In the forward version, sequences of digits of increasing length have to be reproduced in the order in which they are presented, whereas in the backward version items must be reproduced in the reversed order. Here, we assessed whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) increases the memory span for digits of young and midlife adults. Imperceptibly weak electrical currents in the alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), theta (5 Hz), and gamma (40 Hz) range, as well as a sham stimulation, were delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex, a cortical region thought to sustain maintenance processes in short-term memory through oscillatory brain activity in the beta range. We showed a frequency-specific effect of beta-tACS that robustly increased the forward memory span of young, but not middle-aged, healthy individuals. The effect correlated with age: the younger the subjects, the greater the benefit arising from parietal beta stimulation. Our results provide evidence of a short-term memory capacity improvement in young adults by online frequency-specific tACS application. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Surgical hip dislocation versus hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: clinical and morphological short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Patrick O; Ulbrich, Erika J; Buehler, Tobias C; Kalberer, Fabian; Poutawera, Vaughan R; Dora, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Surgical hip dislocation (SHD) is an accepted standard to treat femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, arthroscopic techniques have gained widespread popularity and comparable results are reported. The purpose of this prospective comparative study was to test the hypothesis that, when compared to SHD, hip arthroscopy (HA) results in faster recovery, better short-term outcome, and equivalent morphological corrections. 38 patients presenting with clinically and morphologically verified isolated FAI were allocated to either HA or SHD. Morphological evaluation consisted of pre- and postoperative X-rays, and arthro-MRI. Demographic data, sport activities, hospital stay, complications, and the time off work were recorded. The subjective hip value, WOMAC, HHS, and hip abductor strength were measured up to 1 year. Shorter hospital stay and time off work, less pain at 3 months and 1 year, higher subjective hip values at 6 weeks and 3 months, and better WOMAC at 3 months were seen after HA. The HHS and the hip abductor strengths were higher in the HA group. However, morphological corrections at the head-neck-junction achieved by HA showed some overcorrection when compared to SHD. Labral refixation was performed less frequent in the HA group. When compared to SHD, HA results in faster recovery and better short-term outcome. However, some overcorrection of the cam deformity and limited frequency of labrum refixation with HA in this study may have a negative impact on long-term outcome.

  6. Short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer: A multi-center retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Min; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xia; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guang Hui; Wei, Zhigang [Dept. of Oncology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated with Shandong University, Jinan (China); Fan, Wei Jun [Imaging and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Kaixian [Dept. of Oncology, Teng Zhou Central People' s Hospital Affiliated with Jining Medical College, Tengzhou (China); Bi, Jing Wang [Dept. of Oncology, Jinan Military General Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Jinan (China)

    2016-11-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) of solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer. From May 2010 to April 2014, 31 patients with unilateral adrenal metastasis from lung cancer who were treated with CT-guided percutaneous MWA were enrolled. This study was conducted with approval from local Institutional Review Board. Clinical outcomes and complications of MWA were assessed. Their tumors ranged from 1.5 to 5.4 cm in diameter. After a median follow-up period of 11.1 months, primary efficacy rate was 90.3% (28/31). Local tumor progression was detected in 7 (22.6%) of 31 cases. Their median overall survival time was 12 months. The 1-year overall survival rate was 44.3%. Median local tumor progression-free survival time was 9 months. Local tumor progression-free survival rate was 77.4%. Of 36 MWA sessions, two (5.6%) had major complications (hypertensive crisis). CT-guided percutaneous MWA may be fairly safe and effective for treating solitary adrenal metastasis from lung cancer.

  7. Ordered short-term memory differs in signers and speakers: Implications for models of short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers (Boutla, Supalla, Newport, & Bavelier, 2004). Here, we test the hypothesis that this population difference reflects differences in the way speakers and signers maintain temporal order information in short-te...

  8. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term geomorphological evolution of proglacial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Heckmann, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Proglacial systems are amongst the most rapidly changing landscapes on Earth, as glacier mass loss, permafrost degradation and more episodes of intense rainfall progress with climate change. This review addresses the urgent need to quantitatively define proglacial systems not only in terms of spatial extent but also in terms of functional processes. It firstly provides a critical appraisal of prevailing conceptual models of proglacial systems, and uses this to justify compiling data on rates of landform change in terms of planform, horizontal motion, elevation changes and sediment budgets. These data permit us to produce novel summary conceptual diagrams that consider proglacial landscape evolution in terms of a balance of longitudinal and lateral water and sediment fluxes. Throughout, we give examples of newly emerging datasets and data processing methods because these have the potential to assist with the issues of: (i) a lack of knowledge of proglacial systems within high-mountain, arctic and polar regions, (ii) considerable inter- and intra-catchment variability in the geomorphology and functioning of proglacial systems, (iii) problems with the magnitude of short-term geomorphological changes being at the threshold of detection, (iv) separating short-term variability from longer-term trends, and (v) of the representativeness of plot-scale field measurements for regionalisation and for upscaling. We consider that understanding of future climate change effects on proglacial systems requires holistic process-based modelling to explicitly consider feedbacks and linkages, especially between hillslope and valley-floor components. Such modelling must be informed by a new generation of repeated distributed topographic surveys to detect and quantify short-term geomorphological changes.

  10. A semiparametric approach to short-term oil price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morana, C. [University of Piemonte Orientale, Facolta di Economia, Via Lanino 1, 28100 Novara (Italy)

    2001-05-01

    In this paper it is shown how the GARCH properties of oil price changes can be employed to forecast the oil price distribution over short-term horizons. The forecasting methodology is semiparametric and it is based on the bootstrap approach. The results of an out-of-sample forecasting exercise, carried out using the Brent oil price series, suggest that the forecasting approach can be used to obtain a performance measure for the forward price, in addition to compute interval forecasts for the oil price.

  11. Short-term muscle power during growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Doré, Eric

    2002-01-01

    During growth and maturation, the study of very brief high-intensity exercise has not received the same attention from researchers as, for instance, aerobic function. In anaerobic tasks or sports events such as sprint cycling, jumping or running, the children's performance is distinctly lower than that of adults. This partly reflects children's lesser ability to generate mechanical energy from chemical energy sources during short-term intensive activity. For many years, various attempts have been made to quantify the anaerobic energy yield in maximal-intensity exercise, but many assumptions have had to be made with respect to mechanical efficiency, lactate turnover, dilution space for lactate, and so on. During childhood and adolescence, direct measurements of the rate or capacity of anaerobic pathways for energy turnover presents several ethical and methodological difficulties. Thus, rather than measure energy supply, paediatric exercise scientists have concentrated on measuring short-term muscle power (STMP) by means of standardised tests. Previously, investigators have used various protocols such as short-term cycling power tests, vertical jump tests or running tests. Cycling ergometer tests are the most common. There is, however, no ideal test, and so it is important to acknowledge the limitations of each test. Progress has been made in assessing instantaneous cycling STMP from a single exercise bout. Several investigators have reported STMP increases with age and have suggested that late pubertal period may accentuate anaerobic glycolysis. Mass-related STMP was shown to increase dramatically during childhood and adolescence, whereas the corresponding increase in peak blood lactate was considerably lower. The latter results support the hypothesis that the difference observed between children and adolescents during STMP testing is more related to neuromuscular factors, hormonal factors and improved motor coordination, rather than being an indicator of reduced

  12. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  13. Overwriting and intrusion in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Jones, Jeffery A; Ensor, Tyler M; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Studies of interference in working and short-term memory suggest that irrelevant information may overwrite the contents of memory or intrude into memory. While some previous studies have reported greater interference when irrelevant information is similar to the contents of memory than when it is dissimilar, other studies have reported greater interference for dissimilar distractors than for similar distractors. In the present study, we find the latter effect in a paradigm that uses auditory tones as stimuli. We suggest that the effects of distractor similarity to memory contents are mediated by the type of information held in memory, particularly the complexity or simplicity of information.

  14. Short-Term Market Risks Implied by Weekly Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We study short-term market risks implied by weekly S&P 500 index options. The introduction of weekly options has dramatically shifted the maturity profile of traded options over the last five years, with a substantial proportion now having expiry within one week. Such short-dated options provide...... a direct way to study volatility and jump risks. Unlike longer-dated options, they are largely insensitive to the risk of intertemporal shifts in the economic environment. Adopting a novel semi-nonparametric approach, we uncover variation in the negative jump tail risk which is not spanned by market......" by the level of market volatility and elude standard asset pricing models....

  15. Short-term optical variability of high-redshift QSO's

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, R.; Strigachev, A.; Semkov, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of a search for short-term variability in the optical band of selected high-luminosity, high-redshift radio-quiet quasars. Each quasar has been monitored typically for 2 - 4 hours with a time resolution of 2 - 5 minutes and a photometric accuracy of about 0.01 - 0.02 mag. Due to the significant redshift (z>2), the covered wavelength range falls into the UV region (typically 1500 - 2500A). We found no statistical evidence for any continuum variations larger than 0.0...

  16. A Simple Hybrid Model for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suseelatha Annamareddi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple hybrid model to forecast the electrical load data based on the wavelet transform technique and double exponential smoothing. The historical noisy load series data is decomposed into deterministic and fluctuation components using suitable wavelet coefficient thresholds and wavelet reconstruction method. The variation characteristics of the resulting series are analyzed to arrive at reasonable thresholds that yield good denoising results. The constitutive series are then forecasted using appropriate exponential adaptive smoothing models. A case study performed on California energy market data demonstrates that the proposed method can offer high forecasting precision for very short-term forecasts, considering a time horizon of two weeks.

  17. Final overall survival results and effect of prolonged (≥ 1 year) first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy for metastatic breast cancer in the ATHENA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Biganzoli, Laura; Cortes-Funes, Hernan; Thomssen, Christoph; Saracchini, Silvana; Nisenbaum, Bella; Pelaez, Ignacio; Duenne, Anja-Alexandra; Pritchard, Kathleen I

    2011-11-01

    The ATHENA study expanded on the safety and efficacy data derived from first-line trials of bevacizumab combined with standard chemotherapy for locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC). In ATHENA, 2,264 patients received first-line bevacizumab-containing therapy in routine oncology practice. Overall survival (OS) data are now mature; additional analyses from this large data set can provide insights into treatment duration and the effect of prolonged bevacizumab exposure, where data are currently limited. Patients with HER2-negative LR/mBC received first-line bevacizumab with standard chemotherapy until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or physician/patient decision. We performed subgroup analyses on data from patients treated for ≥12 months and those who continued single-agent bevacizumab after stopping chemotherapy. After median follow-up of 20.1 months, median OS was 25.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 24.0-26.3 months) in the entire population. Median OS was 30.0 months (95% CI 28.5-32.7 months) in 1,205 patients who continued bevacizumab after discontinuation of chemotherapy and 18.4 months (95% CI 17.2-19.7 months) in 1,058 patients who discontinued bevacizumab before or at the same time as stopping chemotherapy. Bevacizumab treatment was continued for ≥12 months in 473 patients (21%). In most, bevacizumab was administered as monotherapy for extended periods after stopping chemotherapy. In the subgroup of patients treated for ≥12 months, the median time to onset of grade 3-5 adverse events was 5.0 months. There was no evidence that first onset of adverse events of special interest, except for proteinuria, was more common in later than earlier cycles. No relationship was detected between development of hypertension and OS. Findings from these analyses suggest that patients with LR/mBC can receive bevacizumab for prolonged periods without major toxicity or progression of disease. In the absence of progression, continuation of

  18. Female Survival Advantage Relates to Male Inferiority Rather Than Female Superiority: A Hypothesis Based on the Impact of Age and Stroke Severity on 1-Week to 1-Year Case Fatality in 40,155 Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T.S.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is generally believed that differences in age, stroke characteristics, and cardiovascular risk factors account for observed sex-specific differences in stroke survival. Objectives: We aimed to study female stroke survival advantage before and after the average age of menopause, and...... hormones (testosterone), beginning in men in middle age, is the underlying cause of the gap in survival rates between men and women. Accordingly, the female survival advantage is rooted in male inferiority rather than innate female superiority. (Gend Med. 2010;7:284-295)......, and whether female survival advantage applies only to patients for whom stroke is the most likely cause of death. Methods: The Danish National Indicator Project, a registry designed to list all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark beginning in March 2001, had 40,155 registered patients as of February 2007...... until death or censoring. Case fatality (stratified by 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year) in men and women was correlated with age and stroke severity. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors was performed by means of multivariate regression analysis. Results: A total of 20,854 (51.9%) men and 19...

  19. Chlorella sorokiniana Extract Improves Short-Term Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Morgese

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that eukaryotic microalgae and, in particular, the green microalga Chlorella, can be used as natural sources to obtain a whole variety of compounds, such as omega (ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs. Although either beneficial or toxic effects of Chlorella sorokiniana have been mainly attributed to its specific ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs content, the underlying molecular pathways remain to be elucidated yet. Here, we investigate the effects of an acute oral administration of a lipid extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, containing mainly ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs, on cognitive, emotional and social behaviour in rats, analysing possible underlying neurochemical alterations. Our results showed improved short-term memory in Chlorella sorokiniana-treated rats compared to controls, without any differences in exploratory performance, locomotor activity, anxiety profile and depressive-like behaviour. On the other hand, while the social behaviour of Chlorella sorokiniana-treated animals was significantly decreased, no effects on aggressivity were observed. Neurochemical investigations showed region-specific effects, consisting in an elevation of noradrenaline (NA and serotonin (5-HT content in hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In conclusion, our results point towards a beneficial effect of Chlorella sorokiniana extract on short-term memory, but also highlight the need of caution in the use of this natural supplement due to its possible masked toxic effects.

  20. Litter evenness influences short-term peatland decomposition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nick J; McNamara, Niall P; Bardgett, Richard D

    2010-10-01

    There is concern that changes in climate and land use could increase rates of decomposition in peatlands, leading to release of stored C to the atmosphere. Rates of decomposition are driven by abiotic factors such as temperature and moisture, but also by biotic factors such as changes in litter quality resulting from vegetation change. While effects of litter species identity and diversity on decomposition processes are well studied, the impact of changes in relative abundance (evenness) of species has received less attention. In this study we investigated effects of changes in short-term peatland plant species evenness on decomposition in mixed litter assemblages, measured as litter weight loss, respired CO(2) and leachate C and N. We found that over the 307-day incubation period, higher levels of species evenness increased rates of decomposition in mixed litters, measured as weight loss and leachate dissolved organic N. We also found that the identity of the dominant species influenced rates of decomposition, measured as weight loss, CO(2) flux and leachate N. Greatest rates of decomposition were when the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris dominated litter mixtures, and lowest rates when the bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi dominated. Interactions between evenness and dominant species identity were also detected for litter weight loss and leachate N. In addition, positive non-additive effects of mixing litter were observed for litter weight loss. Our findings highlight the importance of changes in the evenness of plant community composition for short-term decomposition processes in UK peatlands.

  1. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Tobinaga, Welcy Cassiano; Abelenda, Vera Lucia Barros; de Sá, Paula Morisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2 ± 1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3 ± 437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p = 0.004), heart rate (p = 0.003), and respiratory rate (p = 0.004) and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.002). However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p > 0.05). Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731. PMID:27672453

  2. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welcy Cassiano de Oliveira Tobinaga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS, and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2±1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3±437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p=0.004, heart rate (p=0.003, and respiratory rate (p=0.004 and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p=0.002. However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p>0.05. Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731.

  3. The IEA Model of Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Working Paper is intended for readers who wish to explore the MOSES methodology in depth; there is also a brochure which provides an overview of the analysis and results.

  4. Short-term variations of Mercury's cusps Na emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, S.; Mangano, V.; Milillo, A.; Mura, A.; Orsini, S.; Plainaki, C.

    2017-09-01

    We illustrate the analysis of short-term ground-based observations of the exospheric Na emission (D1 and D2 lines) from Mercury, which was characterized by two high-latitude peaks confined near the magnetospheric cusp footprints. During a series of scheduled observations from THEMIS solar telescope, achieved by scanning the whole planet, we implemented a series of extra measurements by recording the Na emission from a narrow north-south strip only, centered above the two emission peaks. Our aim was to inspect the existence of short-term variations, which were never analyzed before from ground-based observations, and their possible correlation with interplanetary magnetic field variations. Though Mercury possesses a miniature magnetosphere, characterized by fast reconnection events that develop on a timescale of few minutes, ground-based observations show that the exospheric Na emission pattern can be globally stable for a prolonged period (some days) and can exhibits fluctuations in the time range of tens of minutes.

  5. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  7. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on fecundability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bottagisi, Sébastien; Solansky, Ivo; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sram, Radim

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between air pollution levels and semen characteristics, which might in turn affect a couple's ability to achieve a live birth. Our aim was to characterize short-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on fecundability (the month-specific probability of pregnancy among noncontracepting couples). For a cohort of births between 1994 and 1999 in Teplice (Czech Republic), we averaged fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide levels estimated from a central measurement site over the 60-day period before the end of the first month of unprotected intercourse. We estimated changes in the probability of occurrence of a pregnancy during the first month of unprotected intercourse associated with exposure, using binomial regression and adjusting for maternal behaviors and time trends. Among the 1,916 recruited couples, 486 (25%) conceived during the first month of unprotected intercourse. Each increase of 10 µg/m in PM2.5 levels was associated with an adjusted decrease in fecundability of 22% (95% confidence interval = 6%-35%). NO2 levels were also associated with decreased fecundability. There was no evidence of adverse effects with the other pollutants considered. Biases related to pregnancy planning or temporal trends in air pollution were unlikely to explain the observed associations. In this polluted area, we highlighted short-term decreases in a couple's ability to conceive in association with PM2.5 and NO2 levels assessed in a central monitoring station.

  8. Robust short-term memory without synaptic learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Johnson

    Full Text Available Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can--as a gradual modification of synaptic weights--since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds. The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings.

  9. Short-term effects of playing computer games on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-05-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour. The TBAG form of the Stroop task was administered to all participants twice, before playing and immediately after playing the game. Participants with improved posttest scores, compared to their pretest scores, used the computer on average 0.67 +/- 1.1 hr/day, while the average administered was measured at 1.6 +/- 1.4 hr/day and 1.3 +/- 0.9 hr/day computer use for participants with worse or unaltered scores, respectively. According to the regression model, male gender, younger ages, duration of daily computer use, and ADHD inattention type were found to be independent risk factors for worsened posttest scores. Time spent playing computer games can exert a short-term effect on attention as measured by the Stroop test.

  10. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  11. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Binda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements, slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry. This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  12. Short-Term Prognostic Index for Breast Cancer: NPI or Lpi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Van Belle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary lymph node involvement is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer survival but is confounded by the number of nodes examined. We compare the performance of the log odds prognostic index (Lpi, using a ratio of the positive versus negative lymph nodes, with the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI for short-term breast cancer specific disease free survival. A total of 1818 operable breast cancer patients treated in the University Hospital of Leuven between 2000 and 2005 were included. The performance of the NPI and Lpi were compared on two levels: calibration and discrimination. The latter was evaluated using the concordance index (cindex, the number of patients in the extreme groups, and difference in event rates between these. The NPI had a significant higher cindex, but a significant lower percentage of patients in the extreme risk groups. After updating both indices, no significant differences between NPI and Lpi were noted.

  13. Prospective testing of Coulomb short-term earthquake forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Schorlemmer, D.; Zechar, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Wong, K.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake induced Coulomb stresses, whether static or dynamic, suddenly change the probability of future earthquakes. Models to estimate stress and the resulting seismicity changes could help to illuminate earthquake physics and guide appropriate precautionary response. But do these models have improved forecasting power compared to empirical statistical models? The best answer lies in prospective testing in which a fully specified model, with no subsequent parameter adjustments, is evaluated against future earthquakes. The Center of Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) facilitates such prospective testing of earthquake forecasts, including several short term forecasts. Formulating Coulomb stress models for formal testing involves several practical problems, mostly shared with other short-term models. First, earthquake probabilities must be calculated after each “perpetrator” earthquake but before the triggered earthquakes, or “victims”. The time interval between a perpetrator and its victims may be very short, as characterized by the Omori law for aftershocks. CSEP evaluates short term models daily, and allows daily updates of the models. However, lots can happen in a day. An alternative is to test and update models on the occurrence of each earthquake over a certain magnitude. To make such updates rapidly enough and to qualify as prospective, earthquake focal mechanisms, slip distributions, stress patterns, and earthquake probabilities would have to be made by computer without human intervention. This scheme would be more appropriate for evaluating scientific ideas, but it may be less useful for practical applications than daily updates. Second, triggered earthquakes are imperfectly recorded following larger events because their seismic waves are buried in the coda of the earlier event. To solve this problem, testing methods need to allow for “censoring” of early aftershock data, and a quantitative model for detection threshold as a function of

  14. [Changes in peripheral hemogram among workers with short-term lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-na; Tan, Xia-you; Wu, Lin; Chen, Pei-xian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of short-term occupational lead exposure on the inflammatory response system in blood among workers. A total of 255 lead-exposed workers (length of service ≤1 year) at an electronics factory in Dongguan, China (exposure group), as well as 205 managers without any occupational exposure at another factory (control group), were included in the study. Occupational physical examination was done to get peripheral blood counts. The blood lead levels of workers were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The relationship between blood lead and peripheral hemogram was analyzed using SPSS software. The exposure group had blood lead levels of 0.07∼1.70 µmol/L, falling within the normal range. The leukocyte count, percentage of granulocytes, and absolute value of granulocytes were significantly higher in the exposure group than in the control group, and the results remained unchanged after adjustment for age and sex (P 0.05). Short-term occupational lead exposure may increase the counts of inflammatory cells in blood, but it has little effect on red blood cells and hemoglobin.

  15. Use of Short-term Circulatory Support as a Bridge in Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Canêo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart transplantation is considered the gold standard therapy for the advanced heart failure, but donor shortage, especially in pediatric patients, is the main limitation for this procedure, so most sick patients die while waiting for the procedure. Objective: To evaluate the use of short-term circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in end-stage cardiomyopathy. Methods: Retrospective clinical study. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 40 patients with cardiomyopathy were admitted in our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, with a mean age of 4.5 years. Twenty patients evolved during hospitalization with clinical deterioration and were classified as Intermacs 1 and 2. One patient died within 24 hours and 19 could be stabilized and were listed. They were divided into 2 groups: A, clinical support alone and B, implantation of short-term circulatory support as bridge to transplantation additionally to clinical therapy. Results: We used short-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in 9. In group A (n=10, eight died waiting and 2 patients (20% were transplanted, but none was discharged. In group B (n=9, 6 patients (66.7% were transplanted and three were discharged.The mean support time was 21,8 days (6 to 984h. The mean transplant waiting list time was 33,8 days. Renal failure and sepsis were the main complication and causeof death in group A while neurologic complications were more prevalent en group B. Conclusion: Mechanical circulatory support increases survival on the pediatric heart transplantation waiting list in patients classified as Intermacs 1 and 2.

  16. The Delicate Analysis of Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changwei; Zheng, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new method for short-term load forecasting based on the similar day method, correlation coefficient and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to achieve the precision analysis of load variation from three aspects (typical day, correlation coefficient, spectral analysis) and three dimensions (time dimension, industry dimensions, the main factors influencing the load characteristic such as national policies, regional economic, holidays, electricity and so on). First, the branch algorithm one-class-SVM is adopted to selection the typical day. Second, correlation coefficient method is used to obtain the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, which can reflect the influence caused by the customer macro policy and the scale of production to the electricity price. Third, Fourier transform residual error correction model is proposed to reflect the nature of load extracting from the residual error. Finally, simulation result indicates the validity and engineering practicability of the proposed method.

  17. Short-term effects of prolonged fasting on multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Fatehi, Farzad; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Maghzi, Amir Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Fasting during Ramadan is mandatory for all healthy Muslim adults. During the fasting month, many physiological and biochemical changes occur that may be due to alterations in eating and sleeping patterns. A concern for Muslim multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is whether prolonged fasting might have an unfavorable impact on the course of their disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effects of prolonged intermittent fasting on the course of MS in a cohort of patients who reside in Isfahan, Iran. The cohort consisted of 40 adult MS patients who fasted during Ramadan and 40 MS patients who did not fast. Only patients with mild disability (expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score 0.05). Fasting had no short-term unfavorable effects on the disease course in MS patients with mild disability. However, larger multi-center prospective studies of longer duration are needed to validate the results of this study. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  19. Alpha rhythm parameters and short-term memory span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, I V; Masloboev, Y P

    1997-06-01

    The study examined a statement from the neurophysiological model of A.N. Lebedev as to whether short-term memory span is related to a ratio of the alpha-rhythm frequency and parameters of step-type behaviour of wave processes in the EEG alpha range. Forty young healthy subjects performed a digit memory test. EEG signals were recorded from the occipital area during a resting period with eyes closed. As one of the parameters of step-type behaviour of alpha oscillations a mean value of the difference between periods of neighbouring peaks in the alpha spectra was calculated. A second parameter--the duration of alpha spindles, considered to be a superposition of alpha oscillations--was also measured. It was shown that the ratio of the alpha-rhythm frequency to parameters of the step-type behaviour of alpha oscillations positively correlated with memory performance.

  20. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  1. Short-term facilitation may stabilize parametric working memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eItskov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks with continuous set of attractors are considered to be a paradigmatic model for parametric working memory, but require fine-tuning of connections and are thus structurally unstable. Here we analyzed the network with ring attractor, where connections are not perfectly tuned and the activity state therefore drifts in the absence of the stabilizing stimulus. We derive an analytical expression for the drift dynamics and conclude that the network cannot function as working memory for a period of several seconds, a typical delay time in monkey memory experiments. We propose that short-term synaptic facilitation in recurrent connections significantly improves the robustness of the model by slowing down the drift of activity bump. Extending the calculation of the drift velocity to network with synaptic facilitation, we conclude that facilitation can slow down the drift by a large factor, rendering the network suitable as a model of working memory.

  2. Attentional priorities and access to short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2012-01-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance...... imaging. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a change detection task in which we manipulated both target and distracter set size. We directly compared the IPS response as a function of the number of targets and distracters in the display and in VSTM. When distracters were not present, the posterior......, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and distracter set size in IPS could not be accounted for by a simple explanation in terms of number of items accessing VSTM. Instead, it led us to a model where items accessing VSTM receive differential...

  3. Effective Short-term Forecasting of Wind Farms Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogalecka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting a specific wind farm’s (WF generation capacity within a 24 hour perspective requires both a reliable forecast of wind, as well as supporting tools. This tool is a dedicated model of wind farm power. This model should include not only general rules of wind to mechanical energy conversion, but also the farm’s specific features. There are many factors that influence a farm’s generation capacity, and any forecast of it, even with an accurate weather forecast, carries error. This paper presents analytical, statistical, and neuron models of wind farm power. The study is based on data from a real wind farm. Most attention is paid to the neuron models, due to a neuron network’s capability to restore farm-specific details. The research aims to answer the headline question: whether and to what extent a wind farm’s power can be forecast short-term?

  4. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  5. SHORT-TERM CHANGES OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINIKA CIARANEK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available he paper presents an analysis of short-term changes in maximum air temperature values, understood as interdiurnal (T2-T1 temperature changes in Poland. It was calculated as the differences of the daily maximum air temperature from the multi-year period (1961 - 2010, from 8 stations (Leba, Suwałki, Szczecin, Poznan, Warsaw, Włodawa, Wrocław and Krakow, which are representative of Polish regions. In most cases, these changes amount were no more than 2.0-3.0oC. However It was found that in extreme cases, day-to-day changes may have exceeded even 20.0oC. Accordingly in this paper, special attention was paid to the number of days with the abrupt increases and decreases in temperature, understood as the differences greater than or equal 8.0 oC.

  6. Human short-term spatial memory: precision predicts capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Boujon, Valérie; Ndarugendamwo, Angélique; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Here, we aimed to determine the capacity of human short-term memory for allocentric spatial information in a real-world setting. Young adults were tested on their ability to learn, on a trial-unique basis, and remember over a 1-min interval the location(s) of 1, 3, 5, or 7 illuminating pads, among 23 pads distributed in a 4m×4m arena surrounded by curtains on three sides. Participants had to walk to and touch the pads with their foot to illuminate the goal locations. In contrast to the predictions from classical slot models of working memory capacity limited to a fixed number of items, i.e., Miller's magical number 7 or Cowan's magical number 4, we found that the number of visited locations to find the goals was consistently about 1.6 times the number of goals, whereas the number of correct choices before erring and the number of errorless trials varied with memory load even when memory load was below the hypothetical memory capacity. In contrast to resource models of visual working memory, we found no evidence that memory resources were evenly distributed among unlimited numbers of items to be remembered. Instead, we found that memory for even one individual location was imprecise, and that memory performance for one location could be used to predict memory performance for multiple locations. Our findings are consistent with a theoretical model suggesting that the precision of the memory for individual locations might determine the capacity of human short-term memory for spatial information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting Short-term Performance of Multifocal Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diec, Jennie; Tilia, Daniel; Naduvilath, Thomas; Bakaraju, Ravi C

    2017-11-01

    To investigate if initial multifocal contact lens (MFCL) performance predicts short-term dispensing performance. A retrospective analysis of 55 participants (Px) in a masked, crossover, clinical trial, using ACUVUE OASYS for Presbyopia and AIR OPTIX AQUA Multifocal. Subjective questionnaires were administered at the following instances: initial fitting, two take home questionnaires (THQ) completed between days 2 and 4 and at assessment, ≥5 days after fitting. Questionnaires included vision clarity and lack of ghosting at distance, intermediate and near at day/night time points rated on a 1 to 10 (1-step, 10 most favorable) rating scale. Vision stability, vision while driving, overall vision satisfaction, willingness to purchase and comfort, as well as acuity-based measures were also collected. There were no statistical differences in comfort and vision at all distances, in vision stability or driving at either time points between THQ and assessment (P>0.05). However, there was a statistical decline in subjective overall vision satisfaction and comfort between fitting and assessment visits (P<0.001). Willingness to purchase remained the same at fitting and assessment in 68% of Px, whereas only 4% of Px converted to a positive willingness to purchase at assessment. The majority of acuity-based measures remained constant between fitting and assessment visits. Initial performance at fitting was not able to predict short-term performance of MFCL. Subjective measures peaked at fitting and declined thereafter whereas acuity-based measures remained constant. Utility of subjective rating tools may aid practitioners to gauge success of MFCL.

  8. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Drinking high amounts of alcohol as a short-term mating strategy : the impact of short-term mating motivations on young adults’ drinking behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Eveline Vincke

    2017-01-01

    Previous research indicates that drinking large quantities of alcohol could function as a short-term mating strategy for young adults in mating situations. However, no study investigated whether this is actually the case. Therefore, in this article, the link between short-term mating motivations and drinking high amounts of alcohol is tested. First, a survey study (N = 345) confirmed that young adults who engage in binge drinking are more short-term oriented in their mating strategy than youn...

  10. Effects of ageing on single muscle fibre contractile function following short-term immobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Ortenblad, Niels; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Very little attention has been given to the combined effects of healthy ageing and short-term disuse on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of 2 weeks of lower limb cast immobilisation (i.e. disuse) on selected contractile.......05), respectively. In conclusion, 2 weeks of lower limb immobilisation caused greater impairments in single muscle fibre force and specific force in MHC IIa than MHC I fibres independently of age. In contrast, immobilisation-induced changes in Ca(2+) sensitivity that were dependent on age and MHC isoform....... properties of single muscle fibres (n = 378) from vastus lateralis of nine young (24 ± 1 years) and eight old (67 ± 2 years) healthy men with comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to immobilisation, MHC IIa fibres produced higher maximum Ca(2+)-activated force (approx. 32%) and specific force (approx...

  11. Resource Redistribution Method for Short-Term Recovery of Society after Large Scale Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevskiy, Vasily; Furuta, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of society after a large scale disaster generally consists of two phases, short- and long-term recoveries. The main goal of the short-term recovery is to bounce the damaged system back to the operating standards enabling residents in damaged cities to survive, and fast supply with vital resources to them is one of its important elements. We propose a general principle by which the required redistribution of vital resources between the affected and neighbouring cities can be efficiently implemented. The short-term recovery is a rescuer operation where uncertainty in evaluating the state of damaged region is highly probable. To allow for such an operation the developed principle involves two basic components. The first one of ethic nature is the triage concept determining the current city priority in the resource delivery. The second one is the minimization of the delivery time subjected to this priority. Finally a certain plan of the resource redistribution is generated according to this principle. Se...

  12. Can Metabolic Factors be used Prognostically for Short-Term Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N; Tripathi, Ak; Vaish, Ak; Verma, Sp; Himanshu, D; Gutch, M

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic abnormalities are common throughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may occur either due to HIV infection or as a result of side effects of antiretroviral therapy. It has been established that dyslipidemia and dysglycemia associated with HIV disease reduce the long-term survival of the patients, but their role for predicting prognosis of short-term mortality in HIV patients is unknown. To study dyslipidemia and dysglycemia as a prognostic indicator for short-term mortality (<3 months) in HIV patients. An observational, prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care center over a period of 6 months. Consecutive HIV-positive patients hospitalized (both, HIV status known prior to hospitalization and the diagnosis made for the first time at admission) in medical wards from March to May 2010 were studied. All patients had their random blood sugars, fasting blood sugars (if possible), fasting lipid profile, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts tested at the time of enrollment. The patients were followed for a period of 3 months, at the end of which they were categorized as survivors and non-survivors, and the demographic, clinical, and investigational parameters were compared between the above groups. Data was analyzed by applying Mann-Whitney U test, two sample t-test, Fisher-Exact test, and stepwise logistic regression analysis of significance, using the computer-based program, Stata, version 11.1. A total of 82 patients were enrolled for the study of which 64 (78.05%) were males and 18 (21.95%) were females, with a mean (SD) age of 34.00 (7.0) years. The mean CD4 count was 206.23 (129.5) cells/mm(3). The overall mortality within 3 months was 20.7% (17/82). Mycobacterium tuberculosis as opportunistic infection was found in 42 patients, out of which 13 expired (P=0.02). Patients with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR = 22.92, P value = 0.03, adjusted OR = 3.4, P value = 0

  13. Health-related quality of life and utility scores in short-term survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Litsenburg, Raphaële R L; Huisman, Jaap; Raat, Hein; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2013-04-01

    Increase of survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has made outcomes such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) and economic burden more important. To make informed decisions on the use of healthcare resources, costs as well as utilities need to be taken into account. Among the preference-based HRQL instruments, the Health Utilities Index (HUI) is the most employed in pediatric cancer. Information on utility scores during ALL treatment and in long-term survivors is available, but utility scores in short-term survivors are lacking. This study assesses utility scores, health state, and HRQL in short-term (6 months to 4 years) ALL survivors. Cross-sectional single-center cohort study of short-term ALL survivors using HUI3 proxy assessments. Thirty-three survivors (median 1.5 years off treatment) reported 14 unique health states. The majority of survivors (61 %) enjoyed a perfect health, but 21 % had three affected attributes. Overall, HRQL was nonsignificantly lower compared to the norm, although the difference was large and may be clinically relevant. Cognition was significantly impaired (p = 0.03). Although 61 % of short-term survivors of ALL report no impairment, the health status of the other patients lead to a clinically important impaired HRQL compared to norms. Prospective studies assessing utility scores associated with pediatric ALL should be performed, enabling valid and reliable cost-utility analyses for policy makers to make informed decisions.

  14. Can short-term residential care for stroke rehabilitation help to reduce the institutionalization of stroke survivors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau PH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pui Hing Chau,1 Maria WS Tang,2 Fannie Yeung,2 Tsz Wai Chan,1 Joanna OY Cheng,1 Jean Woo2 1School of Nursing, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China Background: Stroke survivors may not be receiving optimal rehabilitation as a result of a shortage of hospital resources, and many of them are institutionalized. A rehabilitation program provided in a short-term residential care setting may help to fill the service gap. Objectives: The primary objectives of this study were, first, to examine whether there were significant differences in terms of rehabilitation outcomes at 1 year after admission to the rehabilitation program (defined as baseline between those using short-term residential care (intervention group and those using usual geriatric day hospital care (control group, and, second, to investigate whether lower 1-year institutionalization rates were observed in the intervention group than in the control group. Participants: 155 stroke survivors who completed at least the first follow-up at 4 months after baseline. Intervention: The intervention group was stroke survivors using self-financed short-term residential care for stroke rehabilitation. The control group was stroke survivors using the usual care at a public geriatric day hospital. Measurements: Assessments were conducted by trained research assistants using structured questionnaires at baseline, 4 months, and 1 year after baseline. The primary outcome measures included Modified Barthel Index score, Mini-Mental Status Examination score, and the institutionalization rate. Results: Cognitive status (as measured by Mini-Mental Status Examination score of patients in both groups could be maintained from 4 months to 1 year, whereas functional status (as measured by Modified Barthel

  15. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Laureen A.; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M.; van Nierop, F. Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug

  16. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  17. Drinking High Amounts of Alcohol as a Short-Term Mating Strategy: The Impact of Short-Term Mating Motivations on Young Adults' Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincke, Eveline

    2017-01-01

    Previous research indicates that drinking large quantities of alcohol could function as a short-term mating strategy for young adults in mating situations. However, no study investigated whether this is actually the case. Therefore, in this article, the link between short-term mating motivations and drinking high amounts of alcohol is tested. First, a survey study ( N = 345) confirmed that young adults who engage in binge drinking are more short-term oriented in their mating strategy than young adults who never engage in binge drinking. Also, the more short-term-oriented young adults were in their mating strategy, the more often binge drinking behavior was conducted. In addition, an experimental study ( N = 229) empirically verified that short-term mating motivations increase young adults' drinking behavior, more so than long-term mating motivations. Results of the experiment clearly showed that young men and young women are triggered to drink more alcoholic beverages in a short-term mating situation compared to a long-term mating situation. Furthermore, the mating situation also affected young adults' perception of drinking behavior. Young adults in a short-term mating context perceived a higher amount of alcoholic beverages as heavy drinking compared to peers in a long-term mating context. These findings confirm that a high alcohol consumption functions as a short-term mating strategy for both young men and young women. Insights gained from this article might be of interest to institutions aimed at targeting youth alcohol (ab)use.

  18. Drinking High Amounts of Alcohol as a Short-Term Mating Strategy: The Impact of Short-Term Mating Motivations on Young Adults’ Drinking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Vincke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that drinking large quantities of alcohol could function as a short-term mating strategy for young adults in mating situations. However, no study investigated whether this is actually the case. Therefore, in this article, the link between short-term mating motivations and drinking high amounts of alcohol is tested. First, a survey study (N = 345 confirmed that young adults who engage in binge drinking are more short-term oriented in their mating strategy than young adults who never engage in binge drinking. Also, the more short-term-oriented young adults were in their mating strategy, the more often binge drinking behavior was conducted. In addition, an experimental study (N = 229 empirically verified that short-term mating motivations increase young adults’ drinking behavior, more so than long-term mating motivations. Results of the experiment clearly showed that young men and young women are triggered to drink more alcoholic beverages in a short-term mating situation compared to a long-term mating situation. Furthermore, the mating situation also affected young adults’ perception of drinking behavior. Young adults in a short-term mating context perceived a higher amount of alcoholic beverages as heavy drinking compared to peers in a long-term mating context. These findings confirm that a high alcohol consumption functions as a short-term mating strategy for both young men and young women. Insights gained from this article might be of interest to institutions aimed at targeting youth alcohol (abuse.

  19. Photosynthesis Control: An underrated short-term regulatory mechanism essential for plant viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Suorsa, Marjaana; Rossi, Fabio; Ferrari, Roberto; Tadini, Luca; Barbato, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of photosynthetic electron transport provides efficient performance of oxygenic photosynthesis in plants. During the last 15 years, the molecular bases of various photosynthesis short-term regulatory processes have been elucidated, however the wild type-like phenotypes of mutants lacking of State Transitions, Non Photochemical Quenching, or Cyclic Electron Transport, when grown under constant light conditions, have also raised doubts about the acclimatory significance of these short-regulatory mechanisms on plant performance. Interestingly, recent studies performed by growing wild type and mutant plants under field conditions revealed a prominent role of State Transitions and Non Photochemical Quenching on plant fitness, with almost no effect on vegetative plant growth. Conversely, the analysis of plants lacking the regulation of electron transport by the cytochrome b6f complex, also known as Photosynthesis Control, revealed the fundamental role of this regulatory mechanism in the survival of young, developing seedlings under fluctuating light conditions.

  20. Short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Valentino Raimondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast synaptic inhibition in the brain is mediated by the pre-synaptic release of the neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA and the post-synaptic activation of GABA-sensitive ionotropic receptors. As with excitatory synapses, it is being increasinly appreciated that a variety of plastic processes occur at inhibitory synapses, which operate over a range of timescales. Here we examine a form of activity-dependent plasticity that is somewhat unique to GABAergic transmission. This involves short-lasting changes to the ionic driving force for the postsynaptic receptors, a process referred to as short-term ionic plasticity. These changes are directly related to the history of activity at inhibitory synapses and are influenced by a variety of factors including the location of the synapse and the post-synaptic cell’s ion regulation mechanisms. We explore the processes underlying this form of plasticity, when and where it can occur, and how it is likely to impact network activity.

  1. Short-term ensemble radar rainfall forecasts for hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo de Oliveira, M.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is a very common natural disaster around the world, putting local population and economy at risk. Forecasting floods several hours ahead and issuing warnings are of main importance to permit proper response in emergency situations. However, it is important to know the uncertainties related to the rainfall forecasting in order to produce more reliable forecasts. Nowcasting models (short-term rainfall forecasts) are able to produce high spatial and temporal resolution predictions that are useful in hydrological applications. Nonetheless, they are subject to uncertainties mainly due to the nowcasting model used, errors in radar rainfall estimation, temporal development of the velocity field and to the fact that precipitation processes such as growth and decay are not taken into account. In this study an ensemble generation scheme using rain gauge data as a reference to estimate radars errors is used to produce forecasts with up to 3h lead-time. The ensembles try to assess in a realistic way the residual uncertainties that remain even after correction algorithms are applied in the radar data. The ensembles produced are compered to a stochastic ensemble generator. Furthermore, the rainfall forecast output was used as an input in a hydrodynamic sewer network model and also in hydrological model for catchments of different sizes in north England. A comparative analysis was carried of how was carried out to assess how the radar uncertainties propagate into these models. The first named author is grateful to CAPES - Ciencia sem Fronteiras for funding this PhD research.

  2. Dynamic Hybrid Model for Short-Term Electricity Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Cerjan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting tools are essential in the operation of electric power systems, especially in deregulated electricity markets. Electricity price forecasting is necessary for all market participants to optimize their portfolios. In this paper we propose a hybrid method approach for short-term hourly electricity price forecasting. The paper combines statistical techniques for pre-processing of data and a multi-layer (MLP neural network for forecasting electricity price and price spike detection. Based on statistical analysis, days are arranged into several categories. Similar days are examined by correlation significance of the historical data. Factors impacting the electricity price forecasting, including historical price factors, load factors and wind production factors are discussed. A price spike index (CWI is defined for spike detection and forecasting. Using proposed approach we created several forecasting models of diverse model complexity. The method is validated using the European Energy Exchange (EEX electricity price data records. Finally, results are discussed with respect to price volatility, with emphasis on the price forecasting accuracy.

  3. Local short-term variability in solar irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Lohmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing spatiotemporal irradiance variability is important for the successful grid integration of increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV power systems. Using 1 Hz data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers during the HD(CP2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE, we analyze field variability of clear-sky index k* (i.e., irradiance normalized to clear-sky conditions and sub-minute k* increments (i.e., changes over specified intervals of time for distances between tens of meters and about 10 km. By means of a simple classification scheme based on k* statistics, we identify overcast, clear, and mixed sky conditions, and demonstrate that the last of these is the most potentially problematic in terms of short-term PV power fluctuations. Under mixed conditions, the probability of relatively strong k* increments of ±0.5 is approximately twice as high compared to increment statistics computed without conditioning by sky type. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation structures of k* increment fields differ considerably between sky types. While the profiles for overcast and clear skies mostly resemble the predictions of a simple model published by Hoff and Perez (2012, this is not the case for mixed conditions. As a proxy for the smoothing effects of distributed PV, we finally show that spatial averaging mitigates variability in k* less effectively than variability in k* increments, for a spatial sensor density of 2 km−2.

  4. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A; Burke, Louise M; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-11-25

    "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention-one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p sleep-low" strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  5. Short-term Aerosol Trends: Reality or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Zubko, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The main questions addressed in this slide presentation involve short-term trends of MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over 6 years: (1) Why are the trends different in different regions? (2) How are these trends so high? (3) Why are they "coherent" in many areas? (4) Are these changes in aerosol concentrations real, i.e., are they monotonic changes in emissions? Several views of the Spatial Distribution of AOT from Terra are shown. In conclusion there are several trends: (1) There is a broad spatial inhomogenueity in AOT trends over 6 years of MODIS Terra and Aqua (2) Some of the areas demonstrate clear positive trends related to increase of emission (e.g., Eastern China) (3) Strong trends in some other areas are superficial and might be attributed, in part, to: (3a) Least squares linear trend sensitivity to outliers (need to use more robust linear fitting method) (3b) Spatial and temporal shifts or trends in meteorological conditions, especially in wind patterns responsible for aerosol transport (6) Aerosol trends should be studied together with changes in meteorology patterns as they might closely linked together

  6. Short-term tamoxifen treatment in benign breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupceancu, B

    1985-01-01

    Fifty woman patients with adenoma or fibroadenoma, cystic, simple or complex dysplasias were treated with tamoxifen in daily doses of 20 mg. (2 tbs.) for 10 or 20 days during one or two menstrual cycles (in most cases 2 successive treatments) and uninterrupted for 30 or 90 days in menopaused women. A response was recorded in the main and associated lesions as well as in several similar lesions in the same case, and therefore, the results are analysed according to the lesion surface reduction in percentage. The different responses recorded can explain why the classification into responders and non-responders is difficult to make sometimes. 64% of the cases responded to the treatment. The results are most relevant if lesions are summed up and considered by type of lesion. Subjective symptoms disappeared or improved in 97% for mastodynia and 100% for dysmenorrhoea with a general decrease in menstrual bleeding. Short-term treatment of two tamoxifen cycles can be a means to select the responsive cases. They may be a preliminary stage before further endocrine treatment or before further surgery. This medicating pattern can solve some cases otherwise fit for surgery only.

  7. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  8. Short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of Casearia sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide A.S. Tirloni

    Full Text Available Abstract Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in Brazil for the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. This species was included as of interest by Brazilian Unified Health System. Although preclinical studies described cardiovascular protective effects and apparent absence of toxicity, no studies have evaluated its carcinogenic potential. In this study, we proposed a short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of C. sylvestris in Wistar rats, aiming to check the safety of this species to use it as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System. C. sylvestris leaves were obtained and the crude extract was prepared by maceration from methanol/water. Wistar rats were orally treated for 12 weeks with 50, 250 or 500 mg kg−1 of crude extract or vehicle. Body weight, daily morbidity and mortality were monitored. Blood and bone marrow samples were collect for micronucleus test, comet assay and tumor markers evaluation. Vital organs were removed to macro and histopathological analyses. The crude extract did not induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects and no alterations were observed in important tumor markers. Finally, no detectable signs of injury through gross pathology or histopathological examinations were observed. Our results certify the absence of the crude extract toxicity, indicating its safety, even at prolonged exposure as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System.

  9. Short-Term Stock Price Reversals May Be Reversed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kudryavtsev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study, I explore intraday behavior of stock prices. In particular, I try to shed light onthe dynamics of stock price reversals and namely, on the short-term character the latter maypossess. For each of the stocks currently making up the Dow Jones Industrial Index, I calculateintraday upside and downside volatility measures, following Becker et al. (2008 and Klossner etal. (2012, as a proxy for reversed overreactions to good and bad news, respectively. I documentthat for all the stocks in the sample, mean daily returns following the days when a stock’supside volatility measure was higher or equal to its downside volatility measure are higher thanfollowing the days when the opposite relationship held, indicating that stock prices display ashort-run ‘reversals of reversals’ behavior following corrected, or reversed, overreactions tonews. Furthermore, I construct seven different portfolios built upon the idea of daily adjustinga long position in the stocks that according to ‘reversals of reversals’ behavior are expectedto yield high daily returns, and a short position in the stocks, whose daily returns are expectedto be low. All the portfolios yield significantly positive returns, providing an evidence for thepractical applicability of the ‘reversals of reversals’ pattern in stock prices.

  10. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009).

  11. Sequential dynamics in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; Conway, Andrew R A; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2014-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to help bridge across changes in visual input, and yet many studies of VSTM employ static displays. Here we investigate how VSTM copes with sequential input. In particular, we characterize the temporal dynamics of several different components of VSTM performance, including: storage probability, precision, variability in precision, guessing, and swapping. We used a variant of the continuous-report VSTM task developed for static displays, quantifying the contribution of each component with statistical likelihood estimation, as a function of serial position and set size. In Experiments 1 and 2, storage probability did not vary by serial position for small set sizes, but showed a small primacy effect and a robust recency effect for larger set sizes; precision did not vary by serial position or set size. In Experiment 3, the recency effect was shown to reflect an increased likelihood of swapping out items from earlier serial positions and swapping in later items, rather than an increased rate of guessing for earlier items. Indeed, a model that incorporated responding to non-targets provided a better fit to these data than alternative models that did not allow for swapping or that tried to account for variable precision. These findings suggest that VSTM is updated in a first-in-first-out manner, and they bring VSTM research into closer alignment with classical working memory research that focuses on sequential behavior and interference effects.

  12. Attentional bias, distractibility and short-term memory in anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Marie-Laure B; Blanchette, Isabelle; Duclos, Mélanie; Langlois, Frédéric; Provencher, Martin D; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive effects of anxiety have been amply documented. Anxiety has been linked with an attentional bias toward threat, distractibility, and reductions in short-term memory (STM) capacity. These three functions have rarely been investigated jointly and permeability may account for some of the effects documented. In this experiment, we examine these three cognitive functions using one verbal and one visuospatial task. In the irrelevant speech paradigm, participants had to remember strings of letters while irrelevant neutral or threatening speech was presented. In the visuospatial sandwich paradigm, participants were asked to remember sequences of visuospatial targets sometimes presented within irrelevant distracters. We examined the links between state anxiety, worry, and indices of attentional bias toward threat, distractibility from neutral stimuli, and STM capacity. Results show that state anxiety was uniquely linked with impairments in STM while worry was more particularly related to distractibility, independently from permeability between the different cognitive functions. Attentional bias toward threat was linked with variance common to both anxiety and worry. An examination of clinical and non-clinical subgroups suggests that subjective threat perception and attentional bias toward threat are features that are particularly characteristic of clinical levels of anxiety. Our findings confirm the important links between anxiety and basic cognitive functions.

  13. Short-term stress: the case of transport and slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nanni Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term stressors such as transport and slaughter include psychological and physical stimuli that might be aversive for the animals. Restraint, manipulation and sudden change lead to fear, or psychological stress, while hunger, thirst, fatigue, injury and extreme thermal conditions are considered as physical stresses. Animal responses to these stimuli include behavioural and physiological changes devoted to coping with adverse situations. If the recovery or the adaptation fails, the consequences can be extremely serious, ranging from weight loss and death to impaired carcass and meat quality. As the stress during transport and slaughter is unavoidable, only the knowledge of the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals during all procedures from pre-transport handling to stunning, together with the correct use of the facilities for handling and transportation, can minimize the intensity and the duration of stress. The final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, animal welfare and meat quality.

  14. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  16. Short-term effects of radiation in glioblastoma spheroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petterson, Stine Asferg; Jakobsen, Ida Pind; Jensen, Stine Skov

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumor. The standard treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. The limited efficacy of the current treatment has been explained by the existence of treatment-resistant stem-like tumor cells. The aim of this study was to in......Glioblastoma is the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumor. The standard treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. The limited efficacy of the current treatment has been explained by the existence of treatment-resistant stem-like tumor cells. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the short-term effects of radiation of spheroids containing tumor-initiating stem-like cells. We used a patient-derived glioblastoma stem cell enriched culture (T76) and the standard glioblastoma cell line U87. Primary spheroids were irradiated with doses between 2 and 50 Gy and assessed after two...... and five days. We found a small reduction in primary spheroid size after radiation and an associated small increase in uptake of the cell death marker propidium iodide. Using immunohistochemistry, P53 expression was found to be significantly increased, whereas the Ki-67 proliferation index...

  17. Multisensory integration in short-term memory: Musicians do rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenman, Avigael M; Gold, Jason M; Sekuler, Robert

    2017-04-29

    Demonstrated interactions between seeing and hearing led us to assess the link between music training and short-term memory for auditory, visual and audiovisual sequences of rapidly presented, quasi-random components. Visual sequences' components varied in luminance; auditory sequences' components varied in frequency. Concurrent components in audiovisual sequences were either congruent (the frequency of an auditory item increased monotonically with the luminance of the visual item it accompanied), or incongruent (an item's frequency was uncorrelated with luminance of the item it accompanied). Subjects judged whether the last four items in a sequence replicated its first four items. With audiovisual sequences, subjects were instructed to ignore the sequence's auditory components, basing their judgments solely on the visual input. Subjects with prior instrumental training significantly outperformed their untrained counterparts, with both auditory and visual sequences, and with sequences of correlated auditory and visual items. Reverse correlation showed that the presence of a correlated, concurrent auditory stream altered subjects' reliance on particular visual items in a sequence. Moreover, congruence between auditory and visual items produced performance above what would be predicted from simple summation of information from the two modalities, a result that might reflect a contribution from special-purpose, multimodal neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, A-L; Sibai, A; Mahfoud, L; Oubari, D; Ashkar, J; Fuleihan, N

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice. Prospective study. Eighteen non-dysphonic subjects (seven men and 11 women) with a history of hubble-bubble smoking and no history of cigarette smoking underwent acoustic analysis and laryngeal video-stroboscopic examination before and 30 minutes after hubble-bubble smoking. On laryngeal video-stroboscopy, none of the subjects had vocal fold erythema either before or after smoking. Five patients had mild vocal fold oedema both before and after smoking. After smoking, there was a slight increase in the number of subjects with thick mucus between the vocal folds (six, vs four before smoking) and with vocal fold vessel dilation (two, vs one before smoking). Acoustic analysis indicated a drop in habitual pitch, fundamental frequency and voice turbulence index after smoking, and an increase in noise-to-harmonics ratio. Even 30 minutes of hubble-bubble smoking can cause a drop in vocal pitch and an increase in laryngeal secretions and vocal fold vasodilation.

  19. Clinical, functional and neurohormonal aspects to implement the concept to prevent subclinical atherosclerosis in a short-term and long-term prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hinhuliak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the prevention of subclinical atherosclerosis in a short-term (3 months) and long-term (1 year) prognosis according to functional and neurohormonal markers of atherogenesis 164 patients have been examined with clinical signs of subclinical atherosclerosis and atypical clinical.

  20. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  1. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  2. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Panda

    Full Text Available From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002. At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016. Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04. The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  3. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, Lubomir; Zaekov, Nikolay; Bozhkov, Borislav; Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    2017-03-01

    The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1), 22 days later (2) and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement), in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3).The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and short-term complications after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Gallagher, Michael J; Dejong, Adam T; Sandberg, Keisha R; Trivax, Justin E; Alexander, Daniel; Kasturi, Gopi; Jafri, Syed M A; Krause, Kevin R; Chengelis, David L; Moy, Jason; Franklin, Barry A

    2006-08-01

    Morbid obesity is associated with reduced functional capacity, multiple comorbidities, and higher overall mortality. The relationship between complications after bariatric surgery and preoperative cardiorespiratory fitness has not been previously studied. We evaluated cardiorespiratory fitness in 109 patients with morbid obesity prior to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Charts were abstracted using a case report form by reviewers blinded to the cardiorespiratory evaluation results. The mean age (+/- SD) was 46.0 +/- 10.4 years, and 82 patients (75.2%) were female. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 48.7 +/- 7.2 (range, 36.0 to 90.0 kg/m(2)). The composite complication rate, defined as death, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, renal failure, or stroke, occurred in 6 of 37 patients (16.6%) and 2 of 72 patients (2.8%) with peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) levels 15.8 mL/kg/min (lowest tertile), respectively (p = 0.02). Hospital lengths of stay and 30-day readmission rates were highest in the lowest tertile of peak Vo(2) (p = 0.005). There were no complications in those with BMI or= 15.8 mL/kg/min. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender found peak Vo(2) was a significant predictor of complications: odds ratio, 1.61 (per unit decrease); 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 2.18 (p = 0.002). Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness levels were associated with increased, short-term complications after bariatric surgery. Cardiorespiratory fitness should be optimized prior to bariatric surgery to potentially reduce postoperative complications.

  5. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Albena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1, 22 days later (2 and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement, in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3.The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  6. Short-term Physical Inactivity Impairs Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosova, Emily V.; Yen, Priscilla; Chong, Karen C.; Alley, Hugh F.; Stock, Eveline O.; Quinn, Alex; Hellmann, Jason; Conte, Michael S.; Owens, Christopher D.; Spite, Matthew; Grenon, S. Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sedentarism, also termed physical inactivity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mechanisms thought to be involved include insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and increased inflammation. It is unknown whether changes in vascular and endothelial function also contribute to this excess risk. We hypothesized that short-term exposure to inactivity would lead to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening and increased vascular inflammation. Methods Five healthy subjects (4 males and 1 female) underwent 5 days of bed rest (BR) to simulate inactivity. Measurements of vascular function [flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) to evaluate endothelial function; applanation tonometry to assess arterial resistance], inflammation and metabolism were made before BR, daily during BR and after 2 recovery days. Subjects maintained an isocaloric diet throughout. Results Bed rest led to significant decreases in brachial artery and femoral artery FMD [Brachial: 11 ± 3% pre-BR vs. 9 ± 2% end-BR, P=0.04; Femoral: 4 ± 1% vs. 2 ± 1%, P=0.04]. The central augmentation index increased with BR [−4 ± 9% vs. 5 ± 11%, P=0.03]. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased [58 ± 7 mmHg vs. 62 ± 7 mmHg, P=0.02], while neither systolic blood pressure nor heart rate changed. 15-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite, increased but the other inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers were unchanged. Conclusions Our findings show that acute exposure to sedentarism results in decreased endothelial function, arterial stiffening, increased DBP, and an increase in 15-HETE. We speculate that inactivity promotes a vascular “deconditioning” state characterized by impaired endothelial function, leading to arterial stiffness and increased arterial tone. Although physiologically significant, the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance of these findings need to be further explored. PMID:24630521

  7. Understanding Coral's Short-term Adaptive Ability to Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisthammer, K.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Corals in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii are under chronic pressures from sedimentation and terrestrial runoffs containing multiple pollutants as a result of large scale urbanization that has taken place in the last 100 years. However, some individual corals thrive despite the prolonged exposure to these environmental stressors, which suggests that these individuals may have adapted to withstand such stressors. A recent survey showed that the lobe coral Porites lobata from the `high-stress' nearshore site had an elevated level of stress ixnduced proteins, compared to those from the `low-stress,' less polluted offshore site. To understand the genetic basis for the observed differential stress responses between the nearshore and offshore P. lobata populations, an analysis of the lineage-scale population genetic structure, as well as a reciprocal transplant experiment were conducted. The result of the genetic analysis revealed a clear genetic differentiation between P. lobata from the nearshore site and the offshore site. Following the 30- day reciprocal transplant experiment, protein expression profiles and other stress-related physiological characteristics were compared between the two populations. The experimental results suggest that the nearshore genotype can cope better with sedimentation/pollutants than the offshore genotype. This indicates that the observed genetic differentiation is due to selection for tolerance to these environmental stressors. Understanding the little-known, linage-scale genetic variation in corals offers a critical insight into their short-term adaptive ability, which is indispensable for protecting corals from impending environmental and climate change. The results of this study also offer a valuable tool for resource managers to make effective decisions on coral reef conservation, such as designing marine protected areas that incorporate and maintain such genetic diversity, and establishing acceptable pollution run-off levels.

  8. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  9. Short-term landfill methane emissions dependency on wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkash, Madjid; Zhou, Bowen; Han, Byunghyun; Chow, Fotini K; Rella, Chris W; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Short-term (2-10h) variations of whole-landfill methane emissions have been observed in recent field studies using the tracer dilution method for emissions measurement. To investigate the cause of these variations, the tracer dilution method is applied using 1-min emissions measurements at Sandtown Landfill (Delaware, USA) for a 2-h measurement period. An atmospheric dispersion model is developed for this field test site, which is the first application of such modeling to evaluate atmospheric effects on gas plume transport from landfills. The model is used to examine three possible causes of observed temporal emissions variability: temporal variability of surface wind speed affecting whole landfill emissions, spatial variability of emissions due to local wind speed variations, and misaligned tracer gas release and methane emissions locations. At this site, atmospheric modeling indicates that variation in tracer dilution method emissions measurements may be caused by whole-landfill emissions variation with wind speed. Field data collected over the time period of the atmospheric model simulations corroborate this result: methane emissions are correlated with wind speed on the landfill surface with R(2)=0.51 for data 2.5m above ground, or R(2)=0.55 using data 85m above ground, with emissions increasing by up to a factor of 2 for an approximately 30% increase in wind speed. Although the atmospheric modeling and field test are conducted at a single landfill, the results suggest that wind-induced emissions may affect tracer dilution method emissions measurements at other landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  11. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  12. Short-term load forecasting of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    In order to ensure the scientific nature of optimization about power system, it is necessary to improve the load forecasting accuracy. Power system load forecasting is based on accurate statistical data and survey data, starting from the history and current situation of electricity consumption, with a scientific method to predict the future development trend of power load and change the law of science. Short-term load forecasting is the basis of power system operation and analysis, which is of great significance to unit combination, economic dispatch and safety check. Therefore, the load forecasting of the power system is explained in detail in this paper. First, we use the data from 2012 to 2014 to establish the partial least squares model to regression analysis the relationship between daily maximum load, daily minimum load, daily average load and each meteorological factor, and select the highest peak by observing the regression coefficient histogram Day maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and daily average temperature as the meteorological factors to improve the accuracy of load forecasting indicators. Secondly, in the case of uncertain climate impact, we use the time series model to predict the load data for 2015, respectively, the 2009-2014 load data were sorted out, through the previous six years of the data to forecast the data for this time in 2015. The criterion for the accuracy of the prediction is the average of the standard deviations for the prediction results and average load for the previous six years. Finally, considering the climate effect, we use the BP neural network model to predict the data in 2015, and optimize the forecast results on the basis of the time series model.

  13. Short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koual, Meriem; Abbou, Hind; Carbonnel, Marie; Picone, Olivier; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia constitutes a cause of increased mortality in mothers and fetuses. Screening for promoting factors is essential for adequate prevention in the event of any subsequent pregnancy, and for the adequate follow-up of concerned patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia and to identify possible new factors predisposing them to the disease. One hundred fifty-five patients having experienced preeclampsia between 2005 and 2010 from the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of the Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France) were included in the study. All patients had undergone close clinical and standard biological follow-up immediately postpartum and then 3 months later with a reference practitioner. In severe cases, further investigation was carried out by full etiological examination with an assessment of both autoimmune and thrombophilic status. Obesity and gestational diabetes were observed to be major risk factors for preeclampsia, which were found in 46% and 15% of the cases, respectively. The etiological assessment showed abnormalities in 11% of the patients. Impaired thrombophilia was found in 3% of the patients, impaired autoimmune status in 4%, a combination of both abnormalities in only 1% of the patients, and detection of renal abnormalities in 3% of the patients were observed. In the immediate postpartum period, 66% of patients had maintained elevated blood pressure levels, and 66% had proteinuria > 0.3 g/24 hours. At the 3-month postpartum assessment, persisting arterial hypertension was found in 16% of the patients, requiring continuation of antihypertensive therapy, and 22% of the patients had proteinuria over the accepted threshold (0.15 g/24 hours). Patients with preeclampsia have increased cardiovascular risk, necessitating lifestyle measures and long-term follow-up. Etiological assessment must be carried out, systematically aiming at the detection of promoting underlying diseases and

  14. Short-term perceptual learning in visual conjunction search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuling; Lai, Yunpeng; Huang, Wanyi; Tan, Wei; Qu, Zhe; Ding, Yulong

    2014-08-01

    Although some studies showed that training can improve the ability of cross-dimension conjunction search, less is known about the underlying mechanism. Specifically, it remains unclear whether training of visual conjunction search can successfully bind different features of separated dimensions into a new function unit at early stages of visual processing. In the present study, we utilized stimulus specificity and generalization to provide a new approach to investigate the mechanisms underlying perceptual learning (PL) in visual conjunction search. Five experiments consistently showed that after 40 to 50 min of training of color-shape/orientation conjunction search, the ability to search for a certain conjunction target improved significantly and the learning effects did not transfer to a new target that differed from the trained target in both color and shape/orientation features. However, the learning effects were not strictly specific. In color-shape conjunction search, although the learning effect could not transfer to a same-shape different-color target, it almost completely transferred to a same-color different-shape target. In color-orientation conjunction search, the learning effect partly transferred to a new target that shared same color or same orientation with the trained target. Moreover, the sum of transfer effects for the same color target and the same orientation target in color-orientation conjunction search was algebraically equivalent to the learning effect for trained target, showing an additive transfer effect. The different transfer patterns in color-shape and color-orientation conjunction search learning might reflect the different complexity and discriminability between feature dimensions. These results suggested a feature-based attention enhancement mechanism rather than a unitization mechanism underlying the short-term PL of color-shape/orientation conjunction search.

  15. European eel sperm diluent for short-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda, D S; Pérez, L; Gallego, V; Barrera, R; Jover, M; Asturiano, J F

    2010-06-01

    The sperm of European eel shows a high density and the time of spermatozoa motility is very short after activation with sea water. These characteristics make difficult the sperm handling and its quality assessment. Several diluents were previously described for the Japanese eel obtaining over 3 weeks' conservation times under refrigeration, but they rendered bad results in the European species. In the present study, several diluents were developed taking as basis the P1 medium, and using different dilution ratios (1 : 50, 1 : 100) and two pH (6.5, 8.5). The effect of the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA, 2% w/v) was also evaluated. At 24 h, undiluted samples already showed significant lower motility and viability than sperm samples diluted in the different media. The results for diluents with pH 6.5 and 8.5 were different. Spermatozoa diluted in media at pH 6.5 cannot be activated at 24 h, while samples diluted in the diluents with pH 8.5 and added with BSA did not show significant differences with respect to the fresh sperm motility until 48 h. The viability (percentage of alive cells) did not show differences until 1 week, independent of the dilution ratio. After 1 week, the motility was approximately 30% in the media containing BSA, which presented no differences for head size of the spermatozoa (perimeter and area) until 72 h and 1 week, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of one medium having similar physico-chemical characteristics to the seminal plasma, including pH 8.5, and supplemented with BSA can be used in different dilution ratios for the sperm's short-term storage, preserving its motility capacity.

  16. The contrasting effects of short-term climate change on the early recruitment of tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Inés; Katz, Daniel S W; Lee, Benjamin R

    2017-07-01

    Predictions of plant responses to climate change are frequently based on organisms' presence in warmer locations, which are then assumed to reflect future performance in cooler areas. However, as plant life stages may be affected differently by environmental changes, there is little empirical evidence that this approach provides reliable estimates of short-term responses to global warming. Under this premise, we analyzed 8 years of early recruitment data, seed production and seedling establishment and survival, collected for two tree species at two latitudes. We quantified recruitment to a wide range of environmental conditions, temperature, soil moisture and light, and simulated recruitment under two forecasted climatic scenarios. Annual demographic transitions were affected by the particular conditions taking place during their onset, but the effects of similar environmental shifts differed among the recruitment stages; seed production was higher in warmer years, while seedling establishment and survival peaked during cold years. Within a species, these effects also varied between latitudes; increasing temperatures at the southern location will have stronger detrimental effects on recruitment than similar changes at the northern locations. Our simulations illustrate that warmer temperatures may increase seed production, but they will have a negative effect on establishment and survival. When the three early recruitment processes were simultaneously considered, simulations showed little change in recruitment dynamics at the northern site and a slight decrease at the southern site. It is only when we considered these three stages that we were able to assess likely changes in early recruitment under the predicted conditions.

  17. Short-term corrosion probe testing; Korrosionsprovning med korttidsexponerade sondprovet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Jan [Vattenfall utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    A novel method for corrosion testing with short-term exposure of corrosion samples has been evaluated by trials in boilers fired fully or partly with biofuels. Sample rings of steels SS2216 and X20 were exposed in varying flue gas environments in the superheater region at the Idbaecken plant (Nykoeping) and the Sandvik 2 plant (Vaexjoe) under varying exposure times (12, 48 and 336 hours) and at three different material temperatures (400, 500 and 600 deg C). A longer trial was also performed at Idbaecken with one constant regulating temperature (500 deg C) and exposure times from 2 weeks up till 9 weeks. The thickness was measured before and after exposure in fixed positions. The rings were weighed and deposits were analysed in order to record the environment next to the corrosion samples. The method was able to detect differences in materials loss between the different samples. Increasing temperature and time gave as expected increasing materials loss. Because of widely varying weather conditions during the firing season the variations in load has from time to time had a larger effect on the flue gas composition than the additives that were injected to make the flue gas less aggressive. This has made the results from the exposures with and without additive more difficult to interpret but the dependence of the boiler load is clear. At exposure times shorter than two weeks (and at 400 deg C also at two weeks) the response in materials loss is less clear, negative values of materials loss occur, indicating that the limit of resolution is reached. The measured metal losses should be 15-20 gm or larger. The Vaexjoe samples show higher materials loss for the shorter exposure times than the ldbaecken samples, in spite of the less aggressive fuel in Vaexjoe. This is explained by a higher flue gas temperature at the testing position in the Vaexjoe plant. A higher temperature means a higher corrosion rate, but also higher vapour pressure for alkali chlorides. The highest

  18. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  19. Are there multiple visual short-term memory stores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja G Sligte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Classic work on visual short-term memory (VSTM suggests that people store a limited amount of items for subsequent report. However, when human observers are cued to shift attention to one item in VSTM during retention, it seems as if there is a much larger representation, which keeps additional items in a more fragile VSTM store. Thus far, it is not clear whether the capacity of this fragile VSTM store indeed exceeds the traditional capacity limits of VSTM. The current experiments address this issue and explore the capacity, stability, and duration of fragile VSTM representations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented cues in a change-detection task either just after off-set of the memory array (iconic-cue, 1,000 ms after off-set of the memory array (retro-cue or after on-set of the probe array (post-cue. We observed three stages in visual information processing 1 iconic memory with unlimited capacity, 2 a four seconds lasting fragile VSTM store with a capacity that is at least a factor of two higher than 3 the robust and capacity-limited form of VSTM. Iconic memory seemed to depend on the strength of the positive after-image resulting from the memory display and was virtually absent under conditions of isoluminance or when intervening light masks were presented. This suggests that iconic memory is driven by prolonged retinal activation beyond stimulus duration. Fragile VSTM representations were not affected by light masks, but were completely overwritten by irrelevant pattern masks that spatially overlapped the memory array. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We find that immediately after a stimulus has disappeared from view, subjects can still access information from iconic memory because they can see an after-image of the display. After that period, human observers can still access a substantial, but somewhat more limited amount of information from a high-capacity, but fragile VSTM that is overwritten when new items are presented

  20. [Intrapartum asphyxia: Risk factors and short-term consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiller, J-P; Dreyfus, M; Mortamet, G; Guillois, B; Benoist, G

    2016-06-01

    Intrapartum asphyxia is a rare yet serious complication during labor with immediate consequences and possible long-term neurological impairment. The international Cerebral Palsy Task Force established criteria that attribute a cerebral palsy to intrapartum asphyxia: metabolic acidemia measured at birth with pHconsequences. Our retrospective study included all births between 2002 and 2010 in a level 3 maternity of a university hospital center. Inclusion criteria were those of the Cerebral Palsy Task Force associated with a gestational age≥34weeks of gestation. We studied the conventional markers of intrapartum asphyxia: Apgar score at 5minutes, abnormal cardiotogographic recordings whether they occurred after a sentinel hypoxic event or not before and during labor. The duration of expulsive efforts, the amniotic fluid aspects, the delivery mode as well as the preexisting pregnancy pathologies were also evaluated. On the other hand, we studied the short-term consequences at the newborns: death, multiorgan failure and especially the occurring of a neonatal encephalopathy using Sarnat and Sarnat staging. One hundred and twenty-nine newborns (0.43%) out of 29,416 live births had a pHpregnancy pathology was found in 22% of the women. Hypoxic events were noted in only 9/82 of the cases. Abnormal cardiotocographic recordings were present in 97.6% of the cases. The duration of expulsive efforts as well as the amniotic fluid aspects did not interfere with the occurring of a metabolic acidemia. Caesarean rate was at 46.3% and instrumental extraction rate was at 34.1%. Thity-eight newborns (46.3%) were admitted in neonatal intensive care in which we noted 3 deaths (3.65%), 2 multiorgan failures (2.4%) and 17 neonatal encephalopathy (20.7%). The pH value seemed to influence the occurring of an encephalopathy: 50% when pH6 (Pearly neonatal encephalopathy. This study should be continued with the evaluation of hypoxia long-term consequences on the psychomotor development

  1. Short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koual M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Meriem Koual, Hind Abbou, Marie Carbonnel, Olivier Picone, Jean-Marc Ayoubi Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, France Introduction: Preeclampsia constitutes a cause of increased mortality in mothers and fetuses. Screening for promoting factors is essential for adequate prevention in the event of any subsequent pregnancy, and for the adequate follow-up of concerned patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia and to identify possible new factors predisposing them to the disease. Methods: One hundred fifty-five patients having experienced preeclampsia between 2005 and 2010 from the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of the Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France were included in the study. All patients had undergone close clinical and standard biological follow-up immediately postpartum and then 3 months later with a reference practitioner. In severe cases, further investigation was carried out by full etiological examination with an assessment of both autoimmune and thrombophilic status. Results: Obesity and gestational diabetes were observed to be major risk factors for preeclampsia, which were found in 46% and 15% of the cases, respectively. The etiological assessment showed abnormalities in 11% of the patients. Impaired thrombophilia was found in 3% of the patients, impaired autoimmune status in 4%, a combination of both abnormalities in only 1% of the patients, and detection of renal abnormalities in 3% of the patients were observed. In the immediate postpartum period, 66% of patients had maintained elevated blood pressure levels, and 66% had proteinuria > 0.3 g/24 hours. At the 3-month postpartum assessment, persisting arterial hypertension was found in 16% of the patients, requiring continuation of antihypertensive therapy, and 22% of the patients had proteinuria over the accepted threshold (0.15 g/24 hours. Conclusion: Patients with preeclampsia have

  2. Response to short term ultraviolet stress in the reef-building coral Pocillopora capitata (Anthozoa: Scleractinia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñán-Cabello, Marco A; Flores-Ramírez, Laura A; Cobo-Díaz, José Francisco; Zenteno-Savin, Tania; Olguín-Monroy, Norma O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramís; Tintos-Gómez, Adrián

    2010-03-01

    Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32 h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in

  3. A bilateral advantage for maintaining objects in visual short term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jessica L; Delvenne, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that attentional pre-cues can subsequently influence the transfer of information into visual short term memory (VSTM) (Schmidt, B., Vogel, E., Woodman, G., & Luck, S. (2002). Voluntary and automatic attentional control of visual working memory. Perception & Psychophysics, 64(5), 754-763). However, studies also suggest that those effects are constrained by the hemifield alignment of the pre-cues (Holt, J. L., & Delvenne, J.-F. (2014). A bilateral advantage in controlling access to visual short-term memory. Experimental Psychology, 61(2), 127-133), revealing better recall when distributed across hemifields relative to within a single hemifield (otherwise known as a bilateral field advantage). By manipulating the duration of the retention interval in a colour change detection task (1s, 3s), we investigated whether selective pre-cues can also influence how information is later maintained in VSTM. The results revealed that the pre-cues influenced the maintenance of the colours in VSTM, promoting consistent performance across retention intervals (Experiments 1 & 4). However, those effects were only shown when the pre-cues were directed to stimuli displayed across hemifields relative to stimuli within a single hemifield. Importantly, the results were not replicated when participants were required to memorise colours (Experiment 2) or locations (Experiment 3) in the absence of spatial pre-cues. Those findings strongly suggest that attentional pre-cues have a strong influence on both the transfer of information in VSTM and its subsequent maintenance, allowing bilateral items to better survive decay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Schmitt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.

  5. Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Draper, E.S.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Milligan, D.; Boerch, K.; Agostino, R.; Gortner, L.; Reempts, P. van; Chabernaud, J.L.; Gadzinowski, J.; Breart, G.; Papiernik, E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Advances in perinatal medicine increased survival after very preterm birth in all countries, but comparative population-based data on these births are not readily available. This analysis contrasts the rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in 10

  6. Accounting ethics – an empirical investigation of managing short-term earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Leonie Jooste

    2011-01-01

    Short-term earnings are managed in most, if not all, companies. The management of short-term earnings is vulnerable to misinterpretation, manipulation or deliberate deception even if these misleading accounting practices are prohibited by accounting regulations. Hence, the problem with managing short-term earnings is that it becomes an ethical practice, regardless of who is or may be affected by the practice or the information that flows from it. As a result of the publicity received by Enron...

  7. Cardiac Donor Risk Factors Predictive of Short-Term Heart Transplant Recipient Mortality: An Analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorabella, R A; Guglielmetti, L; Kantor, A; Castillero, E; Takayama, H; Schulze, P C; Mancini, D; Naka, Y; George, I

    2015-12-01

    To address the shortage of donor hearts for transplantation, there is significant interest in liberalizing donor acceptance criteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac donor characteristics from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database to determine their impact on posttransplantation recipient outcomes. Adult (≥18 years) patients undergoing heart transplantation from July 1, 2004, to December 31, 2012, in the UNOS Standard Transplant Analysis and Research (STAR) database were reviewed. Patients were stratified by 1-year posttransplantation status; survivors (group S, n = 13,643) and patients who died or underwent cardiac retransplantation at 1-year follow-up (group NS/R = 1785). Thirty-three specific donor variables were collected for each recipient, and independent donor predictors of recipient death or retransplantation at 1 year were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Overall 1-year survival for the entire cohort was 88.4%. Mean donor age was 31.5 ± 11.9 years, and 72% were male. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, donor age >40 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27 to 1.64), graft ischemic time >3 hours (OR 1.32, 1.16 to 1.51), and the use of cardioplegia (OR 1.17, 1.01 to 1.35) or Celsior (OR 1.21, 1.06 to 1.38) preservative solution were significant predictors of recipient death or retransplantation at 1 year posttransplantation. Male donor sex (OR 0.83, 0.74 to 0.93) and the use of antihypertensive agents (OR 0.88, 0.77 to 1.00) or insulin (OR 0.84, 0.76 to 0.94) were protective from adverse outcomes at 1 year. These data suggest that donors who are older, female, or have a long projected ischemic time pose greater risk to heart transplant recipients in the short term. Additionally, certain components of donor management protocols, including antihypertensive and insulin administration, may be protective to recipients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. DYNAMICS OF THE ANXIETY DISORDERS IN THE COURSE OF SHORT-TERM PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Hmylova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of psychotherapy modern concepts referring to the short-term forms having been taken into account, we carried out the research aimed at the study of short-term form personality-oriented psychotherapy effect on the anxiety disorder dynamics. 103 patients with neurotic disorders were examined in the neurosis and psychotherapy department of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Research Institute. The findings revealed the situational and personal anxiety level to be objectively decreased in the short-term group psychotherapy course. The short-term group psychotherapy was proved to bean effective method in anxiety disorders treatment considering indications and limitations.

  9. An Artificial Neural Network Based Short-term Dynamic Prediction of Algae Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Junyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of short-term prediction of algae bloom based on artificial neural network. Firstly, principal component analysis is applied to water environmental factors in algae bloom raceway ponds to get main factors that influence the formation of algae blooms. Then, a model of short-term dynamic prediction based on neural network is built with the current chlorophyll_a values as input and the chlorophyll_a values in the next moment as output to realize short-term dynamic prediction of algae bloom. Simulation results show that the model can realize short-term prediction of algae bloom effectively.

  10. Cortical plasticity induced by short-term multimodal musical rhythm training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lappe, Claudia; Trainor, Laurel J; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2011-01-01

    .... Therefore, musical training is an excellent model to study multimodal brain plasticity. Indeed, we have previously shown that short-term piano practice increase the magnetoencephalographic (MEG...

  11. Influence of bone augmentation procedures on the short-term prognosis of simultaneously placed implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammelsberg, Peter; Schmitter, Marc; Gabbert, Olaf; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Eiffler, Constantin; Schwarz, Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of simultaneous bone-augmentation procedures, and their combination, on the survival of dental implants and on the incidence of complications. Within a retrospective analysis, 958 implants placed in 404 patients (mean age 58.18) were selected from a prospective clinical study. In 304 cases of reduced bone width, bone spreading (n = 217) with hand osteotomes, or bone splitting (n = 15), or guided bone regeneration (n = 72) combined with autogenous bone grafts were also performed. Eighty-eight implants were placed in combination with simultaneous internal sinus floor elevation without using graft material. For 194 additional implants, several augmentation procedures were combined because of extensive bone deficits. Three-hundred and seventy-two conventionally placed implants served as controls. Implant failures and complications were recorded after a mean observation period of 2.1 years (maximum 6.9 years). Seventeen failures and nine additional implant-related complications were observed. After 4 years, Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a probability of survival without complication of 97.5% for conventionally placed implants, and 95.8% for implants placed in combination with a single augmentation technique. If several augmentation techniques were combined, success decreased to 94.1%. Complication-free survival differences between combined augmentation techniques and conventionally placed implants were significant (P = 0.004). Age, gender, and location showed no effect on implant survival. It can be concluded that simultaneous bone-augmentation techniques slightly reduce short-term prognosis for dental implants. This effect was more pronounced when advanced defects required the combination of several augmentation procedures. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Safety and feasibility of minimally invasive gastrectomy during the early introduction in the Netherlands: short-term oncological outcomes comparable to open gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, H J F; Ruurda, J P; Verhoeven, R H A; van Hillegersberg, R

    2017-02-09

    Minimally invasive techniques for gastric cancer surgery have recently been introduced in the Netherlands, based on a proctoring program. The aim of this population-based cohort study was to evaluate the short-term oncological outcomes of minimally invasive gastrectomy (MIG) during its introduction in the Netherlands. The Netherlands Cancer Registry identified all patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent gastrectomy with curative intent between 2010 and 2014. Multivariable analysis was performed to compare MIG and open gastrectomy (OG) on lymph node yield (≥15), R0 resection rate, and 1-year overall survival. The pooled learning curve per center of MIG was evaluated by groups of five subsequent procedures. Between 2010 and 2014, a total of 277 (14%) patients underwent MIG and 1633 (86%) patients underwent OG. During this period, the use of MIG and neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased from 4% to 39% (p proctoring program, the introduction of minimally invasive gastrectomy in Western countries is feasible and can be performed safely.

  13. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  14. Short-term after-effect of forearm cast removal in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Kalman; Weigl, Daniel; Becker, Tal; Attias, Joseph; Bar-On, Elhanan

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the sensation in the hand after forearm cast removal in children. The study group included 33 consecutive children who were treated nonoperatively for a forearm fracture at our center over a 1-year period. The children were asked to report any sensation in the ipsilateral hand after cast removal, and the findings were analyzed against background and fracture-related data. The patients ranged in age from 6 to 14 years (median 10.00 years). Seventeen had been immobilized in an above-elbow cast and the remainder in a below-elbow cast. All children treated with an above-elbow cast complained that after cast removal, the hand on that side felt limp, and they had to hold it with the contralateral hand. By contrast, only one child treated with a below-elbow cast reported this sensation (p = 0.0001, Fisher exact test). Orthopedic surgeons and rehabilitation unit staff should be aware of the possibility of a very short-term sensation of drooping and weakness of the hand after removal of an above-elbow cast in children and prepare the child and parents accordingly in order to lessen unnecessary anxiety.

  15. Transfibular ankle arthrodesis: A novel method for ankle fusion - A short term retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muthukumar Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ankle arthrodesis has long been the traditional operative treatment for posttraumatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, infection, neuromuscular conditions, and salvage of failed ankle arthroplasty. It remains the treatment of choice for patients in whom heavy and prolonged activity is anticipated. We present our short term followup study of functional outcome of patients who underwent transfibular ankle arthrodesis for arthritis of ankle due to various indications. Materials and Methods: 29 transfibular ankle arthrodesis in 29 patients performed between April 2009 and April 2014 were included in this study. The mean age was 50 years (range 22-75 years. The outcome analysis with a minimum of 1-year postoperative followup were included. All the patients were assessed with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS Hindfoot scale. Results: All cases of ankle fusions (100% progressed to solid union in a mean postoperative duration of 3.8 months (range 3-6 months. All patients had sound arthrodesis. The mean followup period was 32.52 months (standard deviation ± 10.34. The mean AOFAS score was 74 (pain score = 32, functional score = 42. We found that twenty patients (68.96% out of 29, had excellent results, 7 (24.13% had good, and 2 (6.89% showed fair results. Conclusion: Transfibular ankle arthrodesis is a simple and effective procedure for ankle arthritis. It achieves a high rate of union and good functional outcome on midterm followup.

  16. Short-Term Faculty-Led Study Abroad Programs Enhance Cultural Exchange and Self-Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, A. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Though many experts argue that semester or year abroad study is the optimal path, short-term programs meet the needs of students who would not otherwise study abroad and can be effective at increasing intercultural competency. The present study describes one type of short-term program--the embedded faculty-led model--and provides evidence that…

  17. Predicting Short-Term Subway Ridership and Prioritizing Its Influential Factors Using Gradient Boosting Decision Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between short-term subway ridership and its influential factors is crucial to improving the accuracy of short-term subway ridership prediction. Although there has been a growing body of studies on short-term ridership prediction approaches, limited effort is made to investigate the short-term subway ridership prediction considering bus transfer activities and temporal features. To fill this gap, a relatively recent data mining approach called gradient boosting decision trees (GBDT is applied to short-term subway ridership prediction and used to capture the associations with the independent variables. Taking three subway stations in Beijing as the cases, the short-term subway ridership and alighting passengers from its adjacent bus stops are obtained based on transit smart card data. To optimize the model performance with different combinations of regularization parameters, a series of GBDT models are built with various learning rates and tree complexities by fitting a maximum of trees. The optimal model performance confirms that the gradient boosting approach can incorporate different types of predictors, fit complex nonlinear relationships, and automatically handle the multicollinearity effect with high accuracy. In contrast to other machine learning methods—or “black-box” procedures—the GBDT model can identify and rank the relative influences of bus transfer activities and temporal features on short-term subway ridership. These findings suggest that the GBDT model has considerable advantages in improving short-term subway ridership prediction in a multimodal public transportation system.

  18. Evaluation of short-term weather forecasts in South Africa | Banitz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a brief overview will be given for the reasons for doing evaluations of short-term weather forecasts as well as the methodology thereof. Short-term weather forecasts are defined as a forecast valid for the current day as well as the next day. In other words up to 48 h ahead. Results are given for South African ...

  19. The Development of Short-Term and Incidental Memory: A Cross-cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    1974-01-01

    Subjects from urban and rural Yucatan were tested on a short-term and incidental memory task. Urban subjects were in school, whereas most rural subjects were not. Results indicated that formal schooling is an important factor in the development of mnemonic skills in short-term memory. (ST)

  20. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  1. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71..., including private funding from family or friends; and (3) If the funds exceed an amount to be established by... sources such as family or friends; (4) Because funds expended by the Department to cover the short-term...

  2. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program...-TERM TRAINING General § 390.1 What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program? This program is... technical matters relating to the vocational, medical, social, and psychological rehabilitation programs...

  3. Fragile visual short-term memory is an object-based and location-specific store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, Y.; Sligte, I.G.; Shapiro, K.L.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile visual short-term memory (FM) is a recently discovered form of visual short-term memory. Evidence suggests that it provides rich and high-capacity storage, like iconic memory, yet it exists, without interference, almost as long as visual working memory. In the present study, we sought to

  4. "Leaving the comfort of the familiar": fostering workplace cultural awareness through short-term global experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Miller, Cherie A; Leak, Ashley; Harlan, Christina A; Dieckmann, Janna; Sherwood, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating the development of student nurses' cultural competence and translating these experiences into the clinical setting. Qualitative methods. A short-term global immersion experience informs student nurses' cultural awareness, education, and future clinical practice. Participation in a short-term global health experience contributes to students' personal growth and broadens their insight into multicultural care.

  5. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  6. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  7. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  8. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anvari, M; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Lorenz, E; Heinemann, D; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of {\\it seconds} and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-li...

  9. Effect of short-term ε-aminocaproic acid treatment on patients undergoing endovascular coil embolization following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Kulwin, Charles; Bohnstedt, Bradley N; Radmand, Golnar; Sethia, Rishabh; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hendricks, Benjamin K; Leipzig, Thomas; Payner, Troy D; Shah, Mitesh V; Scott, John; DeNardo, Andrew; Sahlein, Daniel; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Aneurysmal rebleeding before definitive obliteration of the aneurysm is a cause of mortality and morbidity. There are limited data on the role of short-term antifibrinolytic therapy among patients undergoing endovascular intervention. METHODS All consecutive patients receiving endovascular therapy for their ruptured saccular aneurysm at the authors' institution between 2000 and 2011 were included in this study. These patients underwent endovascular coiling of their aneurysm within 72 hours of admission. In patients receiving ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA), the EACA administration was continued until the time of the endovascular procedure. Complications and clinical outcomes of endovascular treatment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were compared between EACA-treated and untreated patients. RESULTS During the 12-year study period, 341 patients underwent endovascular coiling. Short-term EACA treatment was administered in 146 patients and was withheld in the other 195 patients. EACA treatment did not change the risk of preinterventional rebleeding in this study (OR 0.782, 95% CI 0.176-3.480; p = 0.747). Moreover, EACA treatment did not increase the rate of thromboembolic events. On the other hand, patients who received EACA treatment had a significantly longer duration of hospital stay compared with their counterparts who were not treated with EACA (median 19 days, interquartile range [IQR] 12.5-30 days vs median 14 days, IQR 10-23 days; p < 0.001). EACA treatment was associated with increased odds of shunt requirement (OR 2.047, 95% CI 1.043-4.018; p = 0.037) and decreased odds of developing cardiac complications (OR 0.138, 95% CI 0.031-0.604; p = 0.009) and respiratory insufficiency (OR 0.471, 95% CI 0.239-0.926; p = 0.029). Short-term EACA treatment did not affect the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge, 6 months, or 1 year following discharge. CONCLUSIONS In this study, short-term EACA treatment in patients who suffered from aSAH and

  10. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term exposure to warm microhabitats could explain amphibian persistence with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Daskin

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions can alter the outcomes of symbiotic interactions. Many amphibian species have declined due to chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, but many others persist despite high Bd infection prevalence. This indicates that Bd's virulence is lower, or it may even be a commensal, in some hosts. In the Australian Wet Tropics, chytridiomycosis extirpated Litoria nannotis from high-elevation rain forests in the early 1990 s. Although the species is recolonizing many sites, no population has fully recovered. Litoria lorica disappeared from all known sites in the early 1990 s and was thought globally extinct, but a new population was discovered in 2008, in an upland dry forest habitat it shares with L. nannotis. All frogs of both species observed during three population censuses were apparently healthy, but most carried Bd. Frogs perch on sun-warmed rocks in dry forest streams, possibly keeping Bd infections below the lethal threshold attained in cooler rain forests. We tested whether short-term elevated temperatures can hamper Bd growth in vitro over one generation (four days. Simulating the temperatures available to frogs on strongly and moderately warmed rocks in dry forests, by incubating cultures at 33°C for one hour daily, reduced Bd growth below that of Bd held at 15°C constantly (representing rain forest habitats. Even small decreases in the exponential growth rate of Bd on hosts may contribute to the survival of frogs in dry forests.

  12. Short-term adaptations of the dynamic disparity vergence and phoria systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun H; Vicci, Vincent R; Granger-Donetti, Bérangère; Alvarez, Tara L

    2011-07-01

    The ability to adapt is critical to survival and varies between individuals. Adaptation of one motor system may be related to the ability to adapt another. This study sought to determine whether phoria adaptation was correlated with the ability to modify the dynamics of disparity vergence. Eye movements from ten subjects were recorded during dynamic disparity vergence modification and phoria adaptation experiments. Two different convergent stimuli were presented during the dynamic vergence modification experiment: a test stimulus (4° step) and a conditioning stimulus (4° double step). Dynamic disparity vergence responses were quantified by measuring the peak velocity (°/s). Phoria adaptation experiments measured the changes in phoria over a 5-min period of sustained fixation. The maximum velocity of phoria adaptation was determined from an exponential fit of the phoria data points. Phoria and dynamic disparity vergence peak velocity were both significantly modified (P  0.89; P vergence, and other oculomotor parameters can yield insights into the plasticity of short-term adaptation mechanisms.

  13. [Coronary artery bypass graft surgery with bilateral internal mammary artery. Short-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Ortega, Josías Caleb; Castañeda Castillo, Paul; Talledo Paredes, Luisa; Soplopuco Palacios, Franz; Aranda Pretell, Necemio; Pérez Valverde, Yemmy; Morón Castro, Julio; Reyes Torres, Andrés

    2017-01-05

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains the reference standard in the treatment of multivessel coronary disease. Several studies have shown that CABG with bilateral internal mammary arteries (BIMA) has better results in long-term survival. A retrospective study was conducted on CABG surgeries with BIMA from January 2012 to December 2015 in the National Cardiovascular Institute, INCOR, EsSalud, Peru. The objectives were to determine the mortality and major cardiovascular events at 30 days follow-up. Of the 36 patients subjected to CABG surgery with BIMA, the 30-day mortality was 0%, with major cardiovascular events occurring in 5.56% of patients (Stroke 0%, postoperative myocardial infarction 5.56%, need of new coronary intervention 0%). The incidence of mediastinitis and/or sternal reconstruction was 0%. Superficial wound infection was observed in 7 patients, with there being no significant difference between diabetics and non-diabetics (25% vs. 16.66%, OR=3.3, P=.88), or between patients with or without overweight (19.23% vs. 20%, respectively, OR=.95; 95% CI, P=.68). CABG surgery with BIMA is a safe procedure, with low rates of mortality and major cardiovascular events in the short-term. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term test for predicting the potential of xenobiotics to impair reproductive success in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landner, L.; Neilson, A.H.; Soerensen, L.T.; Taernholm, A.V.; Viktor, T.

    1985-06-01

    Short-term screening tests with the zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) have been developed for predicting the potential of xenobiotics to impair reproductive success in fish. The aim was to find simple and sensitive test parameters and to simulate exposure situations typical for anadromous fish species (salmonids), which generally cross heavily polluted coastal areas or estuaries before they reach uncontaminated upstream spawning areas. Therefore, particular attention was directed to tests designed to assess adverse effects induced during gametogenesis in adult fish. The test protocol involves exposure of adults prior to, but not during, spawning and the effects are measured in the offspring as alterations in hatching frequency and hatching rate of eggs, and survival and stress tolerance of embryos and larvae. Some representative examples of the application of these tests are given, and it is shown that impairment of reproductive success can be induced by exposure of parent fish prior to spawning at concentrations of xenobiotics at least five times lower than those yielding effects during direct exposure of embryos and larvae. It is suggested that, in hazard assessment programs, tests of the effect of xenobiotics on the offspring of preexposed adults be routinely incorporated.

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance.

  16. Preoperative cancer cachexia and short-term outcomes following surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Meredith C; Garcia, Jose M; Sansgiry, Shubhada; Walder, Annette; Berger, David H; Anaya, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Cancer cachexia is an important measure of physiologic reserve associated with worse survival and represents an actionable factor for the cancer population. However, the incidence of cachexia in surgical cancer patients and its impact on postoperative outcomes are currently unknown. A prospective cohort study enrolling patients having elective cancer surgery (2012-2014) at a Veterans Affairs tertiary referral center. Preoperative cancer cachexia (weight loss ≥5% over 6-mo period before surgery) was the predictor of interest. The primary outcome was 60-d postoperative complications (VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program). Patients were grouped by body mass index (BMI) category (cachexia and BMI was tested for the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between preoperative cachexia and postoperative complications. Of 253 patients, 16.6% had preoperative cachexia, and 51.8% developed ≥ 1 postoperative complications. Complications were more common in cachectic patients (64.3% versus 49.3%, P = 0.07). This association varied by BMI category, and interaction analysis was significant for those with normal or underweight BMI (BMI cachexia was associated with higher odds of postoperative complications (odds ratios, 5.08 [95% confidence intervals, 1.18-21.88]; P = 0.029). Additional predictors of complications included major surgery (3.19 [1.24-8.21], P = 0.01), ostomy (4.43 [1.68-11.72], P = 0.003), and poor baseline performance status (2.31 [1.05-5.08], P = 0.03). Cancer cachexia is common in surgical patients, and is an important predictor of postoperative complications, though its effect varies by BMI. As a modifiable predictor of worse outcomes, future studies should examine the role of cachexia treatment before cancer surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Water quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exposed to short term reductions in pH and increased aluminum simulating episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroglund, F.; Rosseland, B. O.; Teien, H.-C.; Salbu, B.; Kristensen, T.; Finstad, B.

    2008-03-01

    Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea salt episodes can still cause short term drops in pH and elevated concentrations of bioavailable aluminum. Technical malfunction in lime dozers will cause short termed episodic spates in the limed rivers. The current situation has prompted a need for dose-response relationships based on short term exposures of Atlantic salmon to assess the potential population effects of episodic acidification. Water quality guidelines for salmon have been lacking, despite a large number of experiments, all demonstrating dose-response relationships between water chemistry and fish health. We have summarized results from 347 short-term (10 days) at an Al dose resulting in a gill Al concentration of up to 300 µg Alg-1 dw, a 3 day exposure resulting in a gill Al accumulation in the range of 25 to 60 µg Alg-1 dw reduces smolt to adult survival in a dose related manner by 20 to 50%. For smolt to adult survival, the biological significant response is delayed relative to the dose and occurs first after the fish enters the marine environment. In addition to exposure intensity and timing, exposure duration is important for the setting of critical limits.

  18. Dissociating Contents of Consciousness from Contents of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch

    2014-01-01

    The contents of consciousness and of short-term memory are hard to disentangle. As it seems intuitive that we represent attended objects in short-term memory and in experience, to many, it also seems intuitive to equate this content. Here we investigated memory resolution for orientation......” to a “clear experience” of a probed target. To assess memory resolution we used a Landolt-variation on the visual short-term memory (VSTM) resolution paradigm (e.g. Wilken & Ma, 2004). Set-sizes in the memory display were varied between 1, 2, or 4 elements. With increasing set-size we found that both...

  19. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  20. Short-term and Long-term Clinical Results of the Surgical Correction of Thumb-in-Palm Deformity in Patients With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewijnse, Juul V; Smeulders, Mark J C; Kreulen, Mick

    2015-12-01

    Thumb-in-palm deformity disturbs a functional grip of the hand in patients with cerebral palsy. Reported recurrence rates after surgical correction are contradicting and earlier studies are limited to short-term follow-up. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective clinical outcome study is to evaluate the success rate of surgical correction of thumb-in-palm deformity around 1 year and at a minimum of 5 years follow-up. In addition, long-term patient satisfaction of the treatment is evaluated. Patients with cerebral palsy who underwent a surgical correction for their thumb-in-palm deformity between April 2003 and April 2008 at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam were included. All patients were classified into 4 categories according to the assessment system of the Committee on Spastic Hand Evaluation. The result of surgery was considered "short-term successful" and "long-term successful" when, respectively, short-term and long-term classification was better compared with preoperative. The association between the patient satisfaction outcomes and the long-term clinical outcomes were statistically analyzed. Data were collected from 39 patients and their charts. The success rate was 87% at short-term follow-up, which in the long term decreased to 80%. Interestingly, thumb position deteriorated in 29% of the patients between short-term and long-term follow-up. In the long term, 74% of the patients were satisfied with the position of their thumb and 87% would undergo the surgery again. Both these outcomes were statistically significant associated with the long-term success rate (Pthumb-in-palm deformity has a high clinical success rate and patient satisfaction in the long term. However, it should be taken into account that the clinical result around 1 year postoperative cannot be considered final.

  1. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  2. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Organization of Long-Term Memory: Further Evidence from Short-Term Memory for Emotional Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…

  3. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  5. Stochastic Optimal Wind Power Bidding Strategy in Short-Term Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    market in order to deal with the uncertainty of the regulation price, the activated regulation of the power system and the forecasted wind power generation. The Danish short-term electricity market and a wind farm in western Denmark are chosen as study cases due to the high wind power penetration here......Due to the fluctuating nature and non-perfect forecast of the wind power, the wind power owners are penalized for the imbalance costs of the regulation, when they trade wind power in the short-term liberalized electricity market. Therefore, in this paper a formulation of an imbalance cost...... minimization problem for trading wind power in the short-term electricity market is described, to help the wind power owners optimize their bidding strategy. Stochastic optimization and a Monte Carlo method are adopted to find the optimal bidding strategy for trading wind power in the short-term electricity...

  6. Radiology, histology and short-term outcome of asymptomatic congenital thoracic malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Thomas; Buchvald, Frederik; Brenøe, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcome of our management of asymptomatic children with antenatally diagnosed congenital thoracic malformations (CTM), compared with recommendations from a recent review and meta-analysis....

  7. Tactical Urbanism: Short-term Action for Long-term Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lydon, Mike; Garcia, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    .... Short-term, community-based projects-from pop-up parks to open streets initiatives-have become a powerful and adaptable new tool of urban activists, planners, and policy-makers seeking to drive...

  8. Impact of medication adherence on absenteeism and short-term disability for five chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carls, Ginger S; Roebuck, M Christopher; Brennan, Troyen A; Slezak, Julie A; Matlin, Olga S; Gibson, Teresa B

    2012-07-01

    To estimate the impact of medication adherence on absenteeism and short-term disability among employees with chronic disease. Cross-sectional analysis of administrative health care claims, absenteeism, and short-term disability data using multivariate regression and instrumental variable models for five cohorts of employees: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, dyslipidemia, and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Adherence was defined as possessing medication on at least 80% of days during follow-up. Adherent employees with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease realized between 1.7 and 7.1 fewer days absent from work and between 1.1 and 5.0 fewer days on short-term disability. Absenteeism and short-term disability days by adherent employees with congestive heart failure were not significantly different from nonadherent employees with the condition in most specifications. Appropriate management of chronic conditions can help employers minimize losses due to missed work.

  9. Stress steroid levels and the short-term impact of routine dehorning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress steroid levels and the short-term impact of routine dehorning in female southern white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum). Marcha Badenhorst, Michelle Otto, Annemieke C. van der Goot, André Ganswindt ...

  10. Verbal Short-Term Memory and Motor Speech Processes in Broca’s Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goerlich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between verbal short-term memory and motor speech processes in healthy control subjects and five patients suffering from Broca's aphasia. Control subjects showed a phonological similarity effect, a word length effect and an articulatory suppression effect, supporting the hypothesis of a phonological store and an articulatory loop component of short-term memory. A similar effect of phonological similarity was observed in the aphasic patients, while the effects of word length and articulatory suppression were reduced. In control subjects, measures of short-term memory were correlated to measures of motor speech rate only if speech rate was assessed in more complex conditions (such as sentence rather than syllable repetition. There was also evidence of an association of speech impairment and short-term memory deficits in the aphasic patients.

  11. Short-term memory recall of visual patterns under static and dynamic visual noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic visual noise (DVN) has been shown to interfere with short-term memory (STM) based on visual imagery, but DVN interference has been difficult to observe in STM tasks that are based on visual stimuli...

  12. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military Traffic... General Services Administration IFMS fleet management center. ...

  13. On the Relationships Between Short-Term Learning and Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, P. S.; Horn, John L.

    1977-01-01

    Results indicated two broad factors of intelligence, interpreted as fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence, coordinated with two broad factors of short-term learning, interpreted as indicating primary memory and secondary acquisition. (Author/RC)

  14. Audiovisual classification of vocal outbursts in human conversation using long-short-term memory networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyben, Florian; Petridis, Stavros; Schuller, Björn; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    We investigate classification of non-linguistic vocalisations with a novel audiovisual approach and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks as highly successful dynamic sequence classifiers. As database of evaluation serves this year's Paralinguistic Challenge's Audiovisual Interest

  15. Short-term antioxidative responses of 15 microalgae exposed to excessive irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Paul J.; De Graaff, C. Marco; Van De Poll, Willem H.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Rijstenbil, Jan W.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term photosensitivity and oxidative stress responses were compared for three groups of marine microalgae: Antarctic microalgae, temperate diatoms and temperate flagellates. In total, 15 low-light-acclimated species were exposed to simulated surface irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

  16. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus on Short-Term Outcomes of Patients with Bleeding Peptic Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Atsuhiko; Matsuda, Shinya; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Ichimiya, Yukako; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Tatsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Little information is available on the influence of diabetes mellitus on the short-term clinical outcomes of patients with bleeding peptic ulcers. The aim of this study is to investigate whether diabetes mellitus influences the short-term clinical outcomes of patients with bleeding peptic ulcers using a Japanese national administrative database. Materials and Methods A total of 4863 patients treated by endoscopic hemostasis on admission for bleeding peptic ulcers were referred to 586 ...

  17. Energy-allocation in avian nestlings facing short-term food shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Børge

    2004-01-01

    This thesis investigates effects of short-term food shortage on growth, body composition and metabolic development of Pekin ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) and European shag nestlings (Phalacrocorax aristotelis), two species representing extremes within the altricial-precocial spectrum. The aims of the thesis were to 1) characterise patterns of growth and development in response to short-term food shortage during early development, 2) examine aspects of energy allocation during thes...

  18. Measurement and multifractal properties of short-term international capital flows in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Yang, Zhenyu; Geng, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks. The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks.

  19. estimating the short-term impact of fire on productivity in a semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landbou

    It was the objective of this study to estimate the short-term (one year) impact of fire over 10 growing seasons (1995/96. – 2004/05) on the ... managers to determine short-term production loss due to unplanned fires in a semi-arid grassland. This information can ..... PhD thesis, University of Western Australia. 280 pp. Meissner ...

  20. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have hypothesised that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996a). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of ...

  1. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  2. Management of the short-term assets in a Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Loštická, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focus on short-term assets and their management. The theoretical part contains basic informations about the company's assets, short -- term assets, its characteristics and it describes in details the options valuation methods of assets and inventory management. Practical part contains analyzes of current assets management system in selected company, compare findings with the competition, it identifies potential deficiencies and recommends changes for improvement.

  3. Short-Term Wind Power Interval Forecasting Based on an EEMD-RT-RVM Model

    OpenAIRE

    Haixiang Zang; Lei Fan; Mian Guo; Zhinong Wei; Guoqiang Sun; Li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate short-term wind power forecasting is important for improving the security and economic success of power grids. Existing wind power forecasting methods are mostly types of deterministic point forecasting. Deterministic point forecasting is vulnerable to forecasting errors and cannot effectively deal with the random nature of wind power. In order to solve the above problems, we propose a short-term wind power interval forecasting model based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EE...

  4. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Naess H; Romi,

    2011-01-01

    Halvor Naess, Fredrik RomiDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayBackground: To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction.Methods: Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland Universi...

  5. The predictive value of malnutrition - inflammation score on 1-year mortality in Turkish maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) on short-term mortality and to identify the best cut-off point in the Turkish maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) population. A total of 100 patients on MHD were included in this prospective single-center study. Demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were obtained from all patients. The study population was followed up as a 12-month prospective cohort to evaluate mortality as the primary outcome. Median (IQR) age and HD vintage of 100 patients (M/F: 52/48) were 53 (39.5 - 67) years and 53.5 (11 - 104.7) months, respectively. Deceased patients (n = 7) had significantly older age (years) (50 (38.5 - 63.5) vs. 70 (62 - 82), respectively, p = 0.001), lower spKt/V (1.60 (1.40 - 1.79) vs. 1.35 (0.90 - 1.50), respectively, p = 0.002), lower triceps skinfold thickness (14 (10 - 19) vs. 9 (7 - 11), respectively, p = 0.021) and higher MIS (5 (4 - 7) vs. 10 (7 - 11), respectively, p = 0.013). In the ROC analysis, we found that the optimal cut-off value of MIS for predicting death was 6.5 with 85.7% sensitivity and 62.4% specificity (positive and negative predictive values were 0.6951 and 0.8136, respectively). Advanced age, low spKt/V, and high MIS were found to be predictors of mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The 1-year mortality rate was significantly higher in MIS > 6.5 group compared to the MIS ≤ 6.5 group (14,3% (6/41) vs. 1.6% (1/59), respectively). Compared to MIS ≤ 6.5 group, 1 year survival time of the patients with MIS > 6.5 was found to be significantly lower (47.8 ± 0.16 vs. 43.6 ± 1.63 weeks, respectively, p (log-rank) = 0.012). MIS is a robust and independent predictor of short-term mortality in MHD patients. Patients with MIS > 6.5 had a significant risk, and additional risk factors associated with short-term mortality were advanced age and low spKt/V.

  6. Extending food deprivation reverses the short-term lipolytic response to fasting: role of the triacylglycerol/fatty acid cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean-Michel; Reidy, Shannon P

    2012-05-01

    The effects of short-term food deprivation on lipid metabolism are well documented, but little is known about prolonged fasting. This study monitored the kinetics of glycerol (rate of appearance, R(a) glycerol) and non-esterified fatty acids (R(a) NEFA) in fasting rabbits. Our goals were to determine whether lipolysis is stimulated beyond values seen for short-term fasting, and to characterize the roles of primary (intracellular) and secondary (with transit through the circulation) triacylglycerol/fatty acid cycling (TAG/FA cycling) in regulating fatty acid allocation to oxidation or re-esterification. R(a) glycerol (9.62±0.72 to 15.29±0.96 μmol kg(-1) min(-1)) and R(a) NEFA (18.05±2.55 to 31.25±1.93 μmol kg(-1) min(-1)) were stimulated during the first 2 days of fasting, but returned to baseline after 4 days. An initial increase in TAG/FA cycling was followed by a reduction below baseline after 6 days without food, with primary and secondary cycling contributing to these responses. We conclude that the classic activation of lipolysis caused by short-term fasting is abolished when food deprivation is prolonged. High rates of re-esterification may become impossible to sustain, and TAG/FA cycling could decrease to reduce its cost to 3% of total energy expenditure. Throughout prolonged fasting, fatty acid metabolism gradually shifts towards increased oxidation and reduced re-esterification. Survival is achieved by pressing fuel selection towards the fatty acid dominance of energy metabolism and by slowing substrate cycles to assist metabolic suppression. However, TAG/FA cycling remains active even after prolonged fasting, suggesting that re-esterification is a crucial mechanism that cannot be stopped without harmful consequences.

  7. Visual short-term memory binding in Alzheimer's disease and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Logie, Robert H; Della Sala, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    The differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and major depression (MD) in the elderly can be problematic because the cognitive profile of the two conditions overlaps. Associative learning tasks seem to separate AD from MD. However, they are sensitive to the effects of normal ageing. Short-term memory-binding tasks have proved insensitive to the effects of normal ageing and highly sensitive to AD. However, they have not been used to differentiate AD from MD. The present study was aimed at investigating visual short-term memory binding in AD and MD. Fourteen AD patients, 14 patients with MD, and 14 healthy older adults were asked to perform a visual short-term memory binding task that investigated the retention of shapes, colors, or combinations of shapes and colors. Participants were to recognize changes occurring between two consecutive displays either in a single dimension (i.e., shape or color only) or in two dimensions (i.e., shape-color binding). Short-term memory performance for shape or color only was equivalent across groups. The only significant effect found was in short-term memory for shape-color binding and this was due to AD patients performing poorly in this condition only. The results extend previous findings in AD to visual short-term memory and suggest that the specific impairment in binding information in memory differentiates between the performance of AD and patients with MD.

  8. Assessment of short-term memory in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, F A; Shoeib, R M; Mahmoud, H E

    2010-12-15

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) may have some kind of memory disorder that could increase their linguistic impairment. This study assessed the short-term memory skills in Arabic speaking children with either Expressive Language Impairment (ELI) or Receptive/Expressive Language Impairment (R/ELI) in comparison to controls in order to estimate the nature and extent of any specific deficits in these children that could explain the different prognostic results of language intervention. Eighteen children were included in each group. Receptive, expressive and total language quotients were calculated using the Arabic language test. Assessment of auditory and visual short-term memory was done using the Arabic version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Both groups of SLI performed significantly lower linguistic abilities and poorer auditory and visual short-term memory in comparison to normal children. The R/ELI group presented an inferior performance than the ELI group in all measured parameters. Strong association was found between most tasks of auditory and visual short-term memory and linguistic abilities. The results of this study highlighted a specific degree of deficit of auditory and visual short-term memories in both groups of SLI. These deficits were more prominent in R/ELI group. Moreover, the strong association between the different auditory and visual short-term memories and language abilities in children with SLI must be taken into account when planning an intervention program for these children.

  9. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-10-02

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  10. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  11. Effects of metformin on inflammation and short-term memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Wilma Helena; Nunes, Ana Karolina; França, Maria Eduarda Rocha; Santos, Laise Aline; Lós, Deniele Bezerra; Rocha, Sura Wanessa; Barbosa, Karla Patrícia; Rodrigues, Gabriel Barros; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the action of metformin on short-term memory, glial cell activation and neuroinflammation caused by experimental diabetic encephalopathy in C57BL/6 mice. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of a dose of 90mg/kg of streptozotocin on two successive days. Mice with blood glucose levels ≥200dl/ml were considered diabetic and were given metformin hydrochloride at doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg (by gavage, twice daily) for 21 days. On the final day of treatment, the mice underwent a T-maze test. On the 22nd day of treatment all the animals were anesthetized and euthanized. Diabetic animals treated with metformin had a higher spatial memory score. The hippocampus of the diabetic animals presented reactive gliosis, neuronal loss, NF-kB signaling activation, and high levels of IL-1 and VEGF. In addition, the T-maze test scores of these animals were low. Treatment with metformin reduced the expression of GFAP, Iba-1 (astrocyte and microglial markers) and the inflammation markers (p-IKB, IL-1 and VEGF), while enhancing p-AMPK and eNOS levels and increasing neuronal survival (Fox-1 and NeuN). Treatment with metformin also improved the spatial memory scores of diabetic animals. In conclusion, the present study showed that metformin can significantly reduce neuroinflammation and can decrease the loss of neurons in the hippocampus of diabetic animals, which can subsequently promote improvements in spatial memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of anastomotic strength and drug safety after short-term sunitinib administration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Erica M; Nehra, Deepika; Carlson, Sarah J; Brown, David W; Nedder, Arthur P; Rueda, Bo R; Puder, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Sunitinib (Sutent) is a Food and Drug Administration-approved receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor found to reduce postoperative adhesion formation in animal models. The objective of the present study was to evaluate anastomotic healing and potential drug-related toxicities after short-term sunitinib administration in New Zealand White rabbits. Under an approved study protocol, 40 rabbits underwent a laparotomy followed by colonic transection and anastomosis. Animals were randomly assigned to treatment with oral sunitinib (10 mg/kg/d) or placebo, received one preoperative dose followed by 10 postoperative doses, and were divided into two groups following the procedure: group I animals were euthanized on completion of drug treatment and group II animals were euthanized 30 d after completion of treatment. Prior to study completion, animals underwent an echocardiogram and laboratory test results were obtained. At necropsy, intestinal bursting strength (in mmHg) was evaluated. All animals survived until designated euthanasia. There was no evidence of intra-abdominal sepsis or intestinal obstruction. Sunitinib-treated animals were found to have lower intestinal anastomotic strength compared with placebo-treated animals, as measured by bursting pressure at euthanasia, and a greater percentage of bursting at the anastomosis. On echocardiography, all ejection and shortening fractions were within established normal reference values. There were no significant differences in liver enzymes between animals. There were no wound infections, dehiscence, or delayed wound healing in any animal. These results caution against the administration of sunitinib in cases involving intestinal anastomoses because of the elevated risk of anastomotic leak. No evidence of cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, or detrimental effect on wound healing was found in any animal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-term effects of proximal femoral derotation osteotomy on kinematics in ambulatory patients with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dae Gyu; Lee, Seung Yeol; Kim, Tae Won; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Akhmedov, Bekhzad; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the short-term effects of proximal femoral derotation osteotomy (FDO) on gait in 53 ambulatory patients with spastic diplegia controlling all confounding procedures. All patients showed a jump gait pattern and had undergone bilateral rectus femoris transfer, distal hamstring lengthening, and tendo-Achilles lengthening as a single-event multilevel surgery. Of these, additional bilateral proximal FDOs were included in 25 patients, defined as the FDO group; the other 28 patients were defined as the no-FDO group. Kinematic variables, such as pelvic tilt, minimal hip flexion in stance, hip rotation, and foot progression angle, were compared between the two groups at postoperative 1 year. Hip extension, hip rotation, and hip adduction improved significantly after surgery in the FDO group (Pdiplegia showing a jump gait.

  14. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  15. The effect of chilling and cryoprotectants on hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes during short-term low temperature preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Tsai, S

    2012-04-01

    Understanding chilling sensitivity and chilling injury of coral oocytes, in the presence and absence of a cryoprotectant, is important in developing cryopreservation protocols, as well as for short-term storage and transport (e.g., for species conservation). The objective of this study was to investigate the chilling sensitivity of hard coral (Echinopora spp.) oocytes and the effectiveness of methanol (as a cryoprotectant) in protecting these oocytes during short-term, low temperature preservation. Oocytes were exposed to 0.5, 1, or 2 m methanol at 5, 0, or -5 °C for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, or 32 h, and their quality determined based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. Methanol at 0.5 m was the most effective means to reduce chilling-induced reduction in ATP concentrations. Coral oocytes can be stored at room temperature for 4 h in filtered nature seawater with no detrimental effect on oocyte quality; however, in the present study, oocyte survival was extended for 8 h by addition of methanol in low concentrations (0.5 or 1 m) at low temperatures (5 and 0 °C). These findings should enhance conservation efforts and facilitate low-temperature transport of endangered and threatened coral species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis with use of Brom's technique: short-term results in 9 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castañeda, Brenda Fabiola; Carrillo-Llamas, Fernando; Ramos-Higuera, Saúl; López-Taylor, Jaime Gilberto; Buen, Eliseo Portilla-de

    2009-01-01

    There are few published reports of the results of supravalvular aortic stenosis correction with the use of Brom's 3-patch technique. Herein, we report our use of this procedure and the short-term results therefrom.From 2002 through 2007, 9 children underwent surgical correction of localized supravalvular aortic stenosis at our hospital. The patients ranged in age from 5 to 14 years, and 8 had Williams syndrome. All operations were performed by the same surgical team.No clinically significant associated cardiac anomalies were encountered. Each aortic repair involved the use of pericardium, Dacron, or both. One patient had an uncorrected right coronary artery obstruction and died postoperatively of refractory supraventricular tachycardia. In all 8 patients who survived, postoperative transaortic blood pressure gradients were improved (range, 0-16 mmHg), and no repeat operations were needed after 6 to 55 months' follow-up.We consider Brom's technique to be safe in the repair of supravalvular aortic stenosis. In our limited series, it produced effective anatomic restoration, with good short-term and potentially good long-term results.

  17. Short-term physiological responses to a severe acid stress in three macroinvertebrate species: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, V; Guérold, F

    2006-06-01

    The present study focuses on the sensitivity among freshwater invertebrate species to acidic stress. Three common macroinvertebrate species in the Vosges Mountains (North-Eastern France), Gammarus fossarum (Amphipoda), Hydropsyche pellucidula (Trichoptera) and Dinocras cephalotes (Plecoptera) were exposed for 24, 72 and 120 h to natural acidified water (pH=4.73+/-0.08, [Ca2+]=39.1+/-0.6 micromol l(-1), [Al(tot)]=28.4+/-1 micromol l(-1)). Short-term exposure to acid stress caused significant decreases both in survival rate and haemolymph ions ([Cl-] and [Na+]). The relative sensitivity to a natural acidic stress slightly differed among the species and was in the following order: G. fossarum, as the most sensitive, then H. pellucidula and D. cephalotes. Results of this study confirm the interest of in situ tests to assess the toxicity of short-term acid exposure. Finally, our results reinforce the hypothesis that transient acidification can offset the recovery of sensitive species of macroinvertebrates in streams chemically recovering from acidification either through liming or declining deposition.

  18. Human Brainstem Exhibits higher Sensitivity and Specificity than Auditory-Related Cortex to Short-Term Phonetic Discrimination Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stefan Elmer; Marcela Hausheer; Joëlle Albrecht; Jürg Kühnis

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we evaluated whether these two computational entities are prone to short-term functional changes, whether there is a chronological difference in malleability, and whether short-term training...

  19. Absolute lymphocyte count and risk of short-term infection in patients with immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Hung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Huang, Yu-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Chen, Ming-Huang; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) may be at increased risk of infection because of the steroids and other immunosuppressive agents used in its treatment. This study aimed to identify events that are associated with infection within 6 months of diagnosis and the impact that infection has on survival. We retrospectively evaluated 239 patients (107 men, 132 women; median age 61 years) diagnosed between January 1997 and August 2011. Every patient received steroid treatment according to the platelet count and the extent of bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with the development of infection within 6 months of ITP being diagnosed. Sixty-two patients (25.9 %) developed an infection within 6 months of diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that a lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at diagnosis (lymphocyte count at diagnosis have an increased risk of infection, and those who develop infections have lower 1-year survival.

  20. Harm and benefits of short-term pre-operative radiotherapy in patients with resectable rectal carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakx, R.; Emous, M.; Legemate, D. A.; Zoetmulder, F. A. N.; van Tienhoven, G.; Bemelman, W. A.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To weigh the harms and benefits of short-term pre-operative radiotherapy in the treatment of resectable rectal cancer. METHODS: The benefits (reduction of local recurrence) and harm (increase of short-term complications) of short-term pre-operative radiotherapy are balanced using a model which

  1. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  2. [Short-term curative effects of Tantalum rod treatment in early avascular necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fu-Sheng; Ni, Zhe-Ji; Chu, Xiao-Bing; He, Bang-Jian; Li, Ju; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2013-08-01

    To explore the recent clinical curative effect of Tantalum rod in treating the early avascular necrosis. From January 2008 to November 2008, the 25 patients (39 hips) with early avascular necrosis accepted tantalum rod placement and included 9 males (11 hips) and 16 females (28 hips) with an average age of 37 years old ranging from 18 to 74 years old. Four patients (6 hips) caused by Alcoholic, 6 patients (8 hips) by hormone, 2 cases (2 hips) by traumatic, 13 cases (23 hips) by idiopathic. Steinberg preoperative stage involved 7 hips in period I, 24 hips in period II, 8 hips in period III. Curative effect analysis included preoperative and postoperative Harris score, radiographic changes and hip replacement for follow-up to accept the end of the femoral head survival rate. All patients were followed up for 6 to 47 months (averaged 37.4 months). All 12 hips imaging appeard progress,including tantalum rod exit in 1 hip, hip hemiarthroplasty collapse in 3 hips, the area increased to avascular necrosis in 8 hips. Six hips accepted total hip replacement, including imaging progress in 5 hips (41.7%, 5/12), no imaging progress in 1 hip (3.7%,1/27). All hips' Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed 6-month survival rate was (97.4 +/- 2.5)% after tantalum stick insertion, 1-year survival rate was (94.7 +/- 3.6), and 2-year survival rate was (88.6 +/- 5.4)%, 3-year survival rate was (72.5 +/- 11.2). It is effective for treatment of avascular necrosis of femoral head in Steinberg I and II by Tantalum rod, and it can effectively relieve femoral head replacement time.

  3. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scandlyn Jean

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the

  4. Job satisfaction and short-term sickness absence among Dutch workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; Groothoff, Johan W

    2006-06-01

    Sickness absence is a considerable economic and social problem. Short-term sickness absence is known to be associated with behavioural attitudes. The correlation between sickness absence and job satisfaction has been studied infrequently and with contradictory results. This study investigated the correlation between short-term sickness absence and both global and specific job satisfaction. We defined short-term sickness absence as spells of up to 42 days. A random sample of 898 Dutch workers from a variety of economic sectors and companies received a self-report questionnaire on their first day of sick leave. The questionnaire measured global and specific job satisfaction. In our regression analysis, we controlled for the confounding factors of age, gender, educational level, perceived workload, job autonomy and decision latitude. The duration of an absence spell was defined as the amount of calendar days between sick leave and return to work. Global job satisfaction did not correlate significantly with the duration of short-term sickness absence. While increasing physical job demands predicted longer absence, increasing job autonomy and educational level predicted shorter absence. Satisfaction with colleagues predicted longer duration absence. Global job satisfaction did not correlate with the duration of short-term absence spells, but specific satisfaction with colleagues was associated with longer sickness spells.

  5. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Quan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  6. Short-term memory predictions across the lifespan: monitoring span before and after conducting a task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julie Marilyne; Moulin, Chris John Anthony; Souchay, Céline

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to explore metamemory in short-term memory across the lifespan. Five age groups participated in this study: 3 groups of children (4-13 years old), and younger and older adults. We used a three-phase task: prediction-span-postdiction. For prediction and postdiction phases, participants reported with a Yes/No response if they could recall in order a series of images. For the span task, they had to actually recall such series. From 4 years old, children have some ability to monitor their short-term memory and are able to adjust their prediction after experiencing the task. However, accuracy still improves significantly until adolescence. Although the older adults had a lower span, they were as accurate as young adults in their evaluation, suggesting that metamemory is unimpaired for short-term memory tasks in older adults. •We investigate metamemory for short-term memory tasks across the lifespan. •We find younger children cannot accurately predict their span length. •Older adults are accurate in predicting their span length. •People's metamemory accuracy was related to their short-term memory span.

  7. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  8. Short-term memory in the service of executive control functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Alizadeh Mansouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory is a crucial cognitive function for supporting on-going and upcoming behaviours, allowing storage of information across delay periods. The content of this memory may typically include tangible information about features such as the shape, colour or texture of an object, its location and motion relative to the body, or phonological information. The neural correlate of these short-term memories has been found in different brain areas involved in organizing perceptual or motor functions. In particular, neuronal activity in different prefrontal areas encodes task-related information corresponding to short-term memory across delay periods, and lesions in the prefrontal cortex severely affect the ability to hold this type of memory. Recent studies have further expanded the scope and possible role of short-term memory by showing that information of abstract entities such as a behaviour-guiding rule, or the occurrence of a conflict in information processing; can also be maintained in short-term memory and used for adjusting the allocation of executive control in dynamic environments. It has also been shown that neuronal activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices encodes information about such abstract entities. These findings suggest that the prefrontal cortex plays crucial roles in organizing goal-directed behaviour by supporting various mnemonic processes that maintain a wide range of information in the service of executive control of on-going or upcoming behaviour.

  9. Short-term and long-term effects of transient exogenous cortisol manipulation on oxidative stress in juvenile brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, Kathryn S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    available for physiological functions like defence against oxidative stress. Using brown trout (Salmo trutta), we evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (4 months over winter) effects of exogenous cortisol manipulations (versus relevant shams and controls) on the oxidative status of wild juveniles....... Cortisol caused an increase in glutathione over a 2 week period and appeared to reduce glutathione over winter. Cortisol treatment did not affect oxidative stress levels or low molecular weight antioxidants. Cortisol caused a significant decrease in growth rates but did not affect predation risk. Over......-winter survival in the stream was associated with low levels of oxidative stress and glutathione. Thus, oxidative stress may be a mechanism by which elevated cortisol causes negative physiological effects....

  10. Jump Diffusion Modelling for the Brazilian Short-Term Interest Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Nogueira Cavalcante Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to capture the informational effect of the Brazilian short-term interest rate (SELIC rate by Poisson jumps, we build on the tests condu cted by Das (2002 and Johannes (2004, which show the significance of such structures for U.S. Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC announcements. As in the above researches, w e have found evidence that a relevant amount of the short-term volatility in the fixed in come market is captured by introducing jumps on the stochastic process of the short-term r ate. This structure also allows the verification of the information content of specific events, such as Brazilian monetary policy authority (COPOM meetings and public bond auctions.

  11. Synapses with short-term plasticity are optimal estimators of presynaptic membrane potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Jean-Pascal; Dayan, Peter; Lengyel, Máté

    2013-01-01

    The trajectory of the somatic membrane potential of a cortical neuron exactly reflects the computations performed on its afferent inputs. However, the spikes of such a neuron are a very low-dimensional and discrete projection of this continually evolving signal. We explored the possibility that the neuron’s efferent synapses perform the critical computational step of estimating the membrane potential trajectory from the spikes. We found that short-term changes in synaptic efficacy can be interpreted as implementing an optimal estimator of this trajectory. Short-term depression arose when presynaptic spiking was sufficiently intense as to reduce the uncertainty associated with the estimate; short-term facilitation reflected structural features of the statistics of the presynaptic neuron such as up and down states. Our analysis provides a unifying account of a powerful, but puzzling, form of plasticity. PMID:20852625

  12. A long-term/short-term model for daily electricity prices with dynamic volatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Stephan

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we introduce a new stochastic long-term/short-term model for short-term electricity prices, and apply it to four major European indices, namely to the German, Dutch, UK and Nordic one. We give evidence that all time series contain certain periodic (mostly annual) patterns, and show how to use the wavelet transform, a tool of multiresolution analysis, for filtering purpose. The wavelet transform is also applied to separate the long-term trend from the short-term oscillation in the seasonal-adjusted log-prices. In all time series we find evidence for dynamic volatility, which we incorporate by using a bivariate GARCH model with constant correlation. Eventually we fit various models from the existing literature to the data, and come to the conclusion that our approach performs best. For the error distribution, the Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution shows the best fit. (author)

  13. Category Specific Knowledge Modulate Capacity Limitations of Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2016-01-01

    We explore whether expertise can modulate the capacity of visual short-term memory, as some seem to argue that training affects capacity of short-term memory [13] while others are not able to find this modulation [12]. We extend on a previous study [3] demonstrating expertise effects...... are in line with the theoretical interpretation that visual short-term memory reflects the sum of the reverberating feedback loops to representations in long-term memory.......), and expert observers (Japanese university students). For both the picture and the letter condition we find no performance difference in memory capacity, however, in the critical hiragana condition we demonstrate a systematic difference relating expertise differences between the groups. These results...

  14. Arousal modulates activity in the medial temporal lobe during a short-term relational memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eThoresen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to measure the BOLD signal relative to task. Subjects’ own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  15. Arousal Modulates Activity in the Medial Temporal Lobe during a Short-Term Relational Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Christian; Jensen, Jimmy; Sigvartsen, Niels Petter B; Bolstad, Ingeborg; Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal relative to task. Subjects' own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  16. Do nonlinearities play a significant role in short term, beat-to-beat variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H. G.; Mukkamala, R.; Moody, G. B.; Mark, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies of short-term beat-to-beat variability in cardiovascular signals have not resolved the debate about the completeness of linear analysis techniques. This aim of this paper is to evaluate further the role of nonlinearities in short-term, beat-to-beat variability. We compared linear autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and nonlinear neural network (NN) models for predicting instantaneous heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (BP) from past HR and BP. To evaluate these models, we used HR and BP time series from the MIMIC database. Experimental results indicate that NN-based nonlinearities do not play a significant role and suggest that ARMA linear analysis techniques provide adequate characterization of the system dynamics responsible for generating short-term, beat-to-beat variability.

  17. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  18. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  19. Dissociating Measures of Consciousness from Measures of Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Staugaard, Camilla Funch

    conscious experience of the stimulus in every trial (Ramsøy & Overgaard, 2004; Overgaard & Sørensen, 2004). We trained observers to report their experience of a visual target stimulus on the four-point PAS scale; ranging from “no experience” to “clear experience”. To measure short-term memory we used...... other. Previously, we have demonstrated that introspective access and conscious content can affect ERP’s and behaviour in observers during a visual task (Overgaard, Koivisto, Sørensen, Vangkilde, & Revonsuo, 2006). If introspective access to content can modulate performance, one may question...... if conscious content simply can be reduced to a cognitive process like short-term memory. In two experiments, we combined two different measures of short-term memory capacity to investigate how manipulations of set-size affect performance in observers with the Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS) to measure...

  20. Historical peat loss explains limited short-term response of drained blanket bogs to rewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jennifer; Rowe, Edwin; Reed, David; Ruffino, Lucia; Jones, Peter; Dolan, Rachel; Buckingham, Helen; Norris, David; Astbury, Shaun; Evans, Chris D

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the short-term impacts of ditch blocking on water table depth and vegetation community structure in a historically drained blanket bog. A chronosequence approach was used to compare vegetation near ditches blocked 5 years, 4 years and 1 year prior to the study with vegetation near unblocked ditches. Plots adjacent to and 3 m away from 70 ditches within an area of blanket bog were assessed for floristic composition, aeration depth using steel bars, and topography using LiDAR data. No changes in aeration depth or vegetation parameters were detected as a function of ditch-blocking, time since blocking, or distance from the ditch, with the exception of non-Sphagnum bryophytes which had lower cover in quadrats adjacent to ditches that had been blocked for 5 years. Analysis of LiDAR data and the observed proximity of the water table to the peat surface led us to conclude that the subdued ecosystem responses to ditch-blocking were the result of historical peat subsidence within a 4-5 m zone either side of each ditch, which had effectively lowered the peat surface to the new, ditch-influenced water table. We estimate that this process led to the loss of around 500,000 m3 peat within the 38 km2 study area following drainage, due to a combination of oxidation and compaction. Assuming that 50% of the volume loss was due to oxidation, this amounts to a carbon loss of 11,000 Mg C over this area, i.e. 3 Mg C ha-1. The apparent 'self-rewetting' of blanket bogs in the decades following drainage has implications for their restoration as it suggests that there may not be large quantities of dry peat left to rewet, and that there is a risk of inundation (potentially leading to high methane emissions) along subsided ditch lines. Many peatland processes are likely to be maintained in drained blanket bog, including support of typical peatland vegetation, but infilling of lost peat and recovery of original C stocks are likely to take longer than is generally

  1. High 1-Year Complication Rate after Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, H. S.; Bakker, I. S.; Dekker, J. W. T.; Vermeer, T. A.; Consten, E. C. J.; Hoff, C.; Klaase, J. M.; Havenga, K.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Wiggers, T.

    Surgical options after anterior resection for rectal cancer include a primary anastomosis, anastomosis with a defunctioning stoma, and an end colostomy. This study describes short-term and 1-year outcomes of these different surgical strategies. Patients undergoing surgical resection for primary mid

  2. Age-related differences in unruptured intracranial aneurysms : 1-year outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahaney, Kelly B; Brown, Robert D; Meissner, Irene; Piepgras, David G; Huston, John; Zhang, Jie; Torner, James C; Groen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECT: The aim of this study was to determine age-related differences in short-term (1-year) outcomes in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). METHODS: Four thousand fifty-nine patients prospectively enrolled in the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms were

  3. Malnutrition in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) determinants and short term impact of corrective intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Balu; Nair, Sreeparvathy B; Sundaram, K R; Babu, Uma K; Shivaprakasha, K; Rao, Suresh G; Kumar, R Krishna

    2008-07-01

    To identify determinants of malnutrition in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and examine the short-term effects of corrective intervention. Patients with CHD admitted for corrective intervention were evaluated for nutritional status before and 3 months after surgery. Detailed anthropometry was performed and z-scores calculated. Malnutrition was defined as weight, height and weight/height z-score heart failure (CHF), age at correction, lower birth weight and fat intake, previous hospitalizations, >or= 2 children; height z-score nutritional status on short-term follow-up.

  4. Improved hepatic lipid composition following short-term exercise in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Kelly, Karen R

    2013-01-01

    . Design and Participants: Obese individuals (N = 17, 34.3 ± 1.0 kg/m2) with clinically confirmed NAFLD were enrolled in a short-term aerobic exercise program that consisted of 7 consecutive days of treadmill walking at ∼85% of maximal heart rate for 60 minutes per day. Preintervention and postintervention......Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, low levels of polyunsaturated lipids, and adiponectin are implicated in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objective: We examined the effects of short-term aerobic exercise on these metabolic risk factors...

  5. Short-Term Intake and "in sacco" Degradability of Mixtures of Two Tropical Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Dung, DD.; Omokanye, AT.; Lamidi, OS.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted using four mixtures of Arachis hypogaea and Adenodolichos paniculatus in the ratios 100 : 0, 90 : 10, 80 : 20 and 70 : 30. In the first study, sheep were subjected to short-term intake trials for a period of three days. In the second study, in sacco dry matter (DM) degradability during 48h of the four mixtures was determined. Although no significant (P> 0.05) differences among treatments were observed, short-term intake tended to increase with increasing inclusi...

  6. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... of expertise (e.g. Dall, et al., 2016). We will present a paradigm testing the proposed distinction using specific isolation of attentional components (see Bundesen, 1990; Sørensen, Vangkilde, & Bundesen, 2015). We propose that objective complexity can be manipulated through the number of strokes in Chinese...

  7. Predictors of non-responding in short-term psychodynamic group therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Selection for psychotherapy may be improved by identifying predictors of non-responding to treatment, but there are only few studies of non-responding in short-term psychodynamic group therapy. We analyzed potential socio-demographic and clinical predictors in a sample of 239 patients in 39...... to explore before selection of patients to short-term time-limited psychodynamic group therapy....... sessions of psychodynamic group psychotherapy, including self-reported symptoms, personality, and extra-therapeutic events. Non-responding was assessed by the Symptom Check List-90-Revised Global Severity Index (SCL-90-R GSI) according to Jacobson and Truax’s Reliable Change Index. Non...

  8. Short-term effects of gamma ray bursts on oceanic photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Peñate, Liuba; Martín, Osmel; Cárdenas, Rolando; Agustí, Susana

    2010-01-01

    We continue our previous work on the potential short-term influence of a gamma ray bursts on Earth’s biosphere, focusing on the only important short-term effect on life: the ultraviolet flash which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the γ radiation through the atmosphere. Thus, in this work we calculate the ultraviolet irradiances penetrating the first hundred meters of the water column, for Jerlov’s ocean water types I, II and III. Then we estimate the UV fla...

  9. Short-term effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on oceanic photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Penate, Liuba; Martin, Osmel; Cardenas, Rolando; Agusti, Susana

    2010-01-01

    We continue our previous work on the potential short-term influence of a gamma ray bursts on Earth's biosphere, focusing on the only important short-term effect on life: the ultraviolet flash which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the {\\gamma} radiation through the atmosphere. Thus, in this work we calculate the ultraviolet irradiances penetrating the first hundred meters of the water column, for Jerlov's ocean water types I, II and III. Then we estimate the UV flash potential for ...

  10. Hybrid Coronary Revascularization has Improved Short-term Outcomes but Worse Mid-term Reintervention Rates Compared to CABG: A Propensity Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Katz, Abraham N; Forest, Stephen J; Pyo, Robert T; Greenberg, Mark A; DeRose, Joseph J

    We evaluated short-term outcomes and mid-term survival and reintervention of hybrid coronary revascularization versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting using a propensity score matched cohort. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing surgery for multivessel coronary artery disease from 2007 to 2015 at a single institution. Patients were propensity matched 1:1 to receiving hybrid coronary revascularization or conventional bypass grafting by multivariate logistic regression on preoperative characteristics. Short-term outcomes were compared. Freedom from reintervention and death were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. Propensity score matching selected 91 patients per group from 91 hybrid and 2601 conventionally revascularized patients. Hybrid revascularization occurred with surgery first in 56 (62%), percutaneous intervention first in 32 (35%), and simultaneously in 3 (3%) patients. Median intervals between interventions were 3 and 36 days for surgery first and percutaneous intervention first, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar. Patients undergoing hybrid revascularization had shorter postoperative length of stay (median = 4 vs 5 days, P revascularization was associated with earlier reintervention (P = 0.02). Hazard ratios for reintervention and patient mortality of hybrid coronary revascularization versus conventional revascularization were 3.60 (95% confidence interval = 1.16-11.20) and 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 0.37-3.72), respectively. Despite having favorable short-term outcomes and similar survival, hybrid coronary revascularization may be associated with earlier reintervention compared with conventional techniques.

  11. Severe acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery: short-term outcomes in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistolesi, Valentina; Di Napoli, Anteo; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Zeppilli, Laura; Polistena, Francesca; Sacco, Maria Itala; Regolisti, Giuseppe; Tritapepe, Luigi; Pierucci, Alessandro; Morabito, Santo

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a major complication of cardiac surgery. Our aim was to evaluate, in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for cardiac surgery-associated AKI (CS-AKI), prognostic factors related to in-hospital survival and renal function recovery to independence from RRT. We conducted a retrospective analysis in patients with severe CS-AKI who underwent CRRT for at least 48 h. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was calculated on a daily basis to evaluate illness severity throughout the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In 264 patients (age 66.4 ± 11.7 years, 192 males), 30-day survival was 57.6 % while survival to discharge from the hospital was 40.5 %. Renal function recovery occurred in 96.3 % of survivors and in 13.4 % of non-survivors (p CRRT (SOFA-max) as independent prognostic factors for failure to recover renal function. Female gender was associated with a higher probability of survival, while higher serum creatinine at the start of CRRT, oliguria, sepsis and SOFA-max were independently associated with mortality. The subgroup of patients with a day-1 SOFA score above the median (≥10) showed a lower probability of survival and a lower cumulative incidence of renal function recovery. In a selected population of patients with severe CS-AKI requiring RRT, short-term outcomes appear strongly associated with the worst grade of illness severity during the first week of CRRT, thus reflecting the sequential occurrence of additional major complications during ICU stay. Renal function recovery and in-hospital survival appear mutually linked, sharing oliguria, sepsis and SOFA score as the main determinants of both outcomes.

  12. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods.

  13. Mercury exposure and short-term consequences on physiology and reproduction in Antarctic petrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravieri, Alice; Fort, Jérôme; Tarroux, Arnaud; Cherel, Yves; Love, Oliver P; Prieur, Solène; Brault-Favrou, Maud; Bustamante, Paco; Descamps, Sébastien

    2017-11-13

    Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant reaching Antarctic environments through atmospheric transport and deposition. Seabirds as meso to top predators can accumulate high quantities of Hg through diet. Reproduction is one of the most sensitive endpoints of Hg toxicity in marine birds. Yet, few studies have explored Hg exposure and effects in Antarctic seabirds, where increasing environmental perturbations challenge animal populations. This study focuses on the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica from Svarthamaren, Antarctica, where the world's largest breeding population is thought to be in decline. Hg and the stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C, proxy of feeding habitat) and nitrogen (δ(15)N, trophic position/diet) were measured in red blood cells from 266 individuals over two breeding years (2012-13, 2013-14). Our aims were to 1) quantify the influence of individual traits (size and sex) and feeding ecology (foraging location, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) on Hg exposure, and 2) test the relationship between Hg concentrations with body condition and breeding output (hatching success and chick survival). Hg concentrations in Antarctic petrels (mean ± SD, 0.84 ± 0.25, min-max, 0.42-2.71 μg g(-1) dw) were relatively low when compared to other Antarctic seabirds. Hg concentrations increased significantly with δ(15)N values, indicating that individuals with a higher trophic level (i.e. feeding more on fish) had higher Hg exposure. By contrast, Hg exposure was not driven by feeding habitat (inferred from both foraging location and δ(13)C values), suggesting that Hg transfer to predators in Antarctic waters is relatively homogeneous over a large geographical scale. Hg concentrations were not related to body condition, hatching date and short-term breeding output. At present, Hg exposure is likely not of concern for this population. Nevertheless, further studies on other fitness parameters and long-term breeding output are warranted because Hg can have long

  14. Short-term toxicity studies with triphenyltin compounds in rats and guinea-pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, H.G.; Kroes, R.; Vink, H.H.; Esch, G.J. van

    1966-01-01

    Short-term toxicity studies have been carried out in rats and guinea-pigs fed diets containing triphenyltin acetate (TPTA), triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) or triethyltin hydroxide (TETH) for 90 days at levels ranging from 0 to 50 ppm. The lowest dietary levels found to retard growth in rats and

  15. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  16. Overview of developing desired conditions: Short-term actions, long-term objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Chew; K. O' Hara; J. G. Jones

    2001-01-01

    A number of modeling tools are required to go from short-term treatments to long-term objectives expressed as desired future conditions. Three models are used in an example that starts with determining desired stand level structure and ends with the implementation of treatments over time at a landscape scale. The Multi-Aged Stocking Assessment Model (MASAM) is used for...

  17. The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

  18. Short-term effects of a peer group intervention for HIV prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report describes the implementation and short-term results of a peer group intervention for HIV prevention on the HIV-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of primary school teachers in Malawi. The intervention, based on the social-cognitive learning model, took place in 2000 at two teacher training colleges ...

  19. Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Rest, van de O.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with

  20. The Impact of Short-Term Professional Development on Participant Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Patricia A.; Christopher, Debra E.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Buchting, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    A narrative literature review was conducted to identify the design features of effective short-term face-to-face professional development (PD) events. The 23 reviewed studies described PD with durations of 30 hours or less and involved participants in education or human service-related professions. Design features associated with positive impacts…

  1. Gender Inequality in Biology Classes in China and Its Effects on Students' Short-Term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated gender inequality in biology lessons and analysed the effects of the observed inequality on students' short-term knowledge achievement, situational interest and students' evaluation of teaching (SET). Twenty-two biology teachers and 803 7th-grade students from rural and urban classrooms in China participated in the study.…

  2. The influence of titanium dioxide additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the addition of 1% by weight of titanium dioxide fine particles to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term DC breakdown strength of the LDPE was investigated using direct and reverse polarity voltages. The samples used were cylinders of both plain and doped materials...

  3. Experimentation Using Short-Term Spectral Features for Secure Mobile Internet Voting Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure mobile Internet voting architecture based on the Sensus reference architecture and report the experiments carried out using short-term spectral features for realizing the voice biometric based authentication module of the architecture being proposed. The short-term spectral features investigated are Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs, Mel-Frequency Discrete Wavelet Coefficients (MFDWC, Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC, and Spectral Histogram of Oriented Gradients (SHOGs. The MFCC, MFDWC, and LPCC usually have higher dimensions that oftentimes lead to high computational complexity of the pattern matching algorithms in automatic speaker recognition systems. In this study, higher dimensions of each of the short-term features were reduced to an 81-element feature vector per Speaker using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm while neural network ensemble was utilized as the pattern matching algorithm. Out of the four short-term spectral features investigated, the LPCC-HOG gave the best statistical results with R statistic of 0.9127 and mean square error of 0.0407. These compact LPCC-HOG features are highly promising for implementing the authentication module of the secure mobile Internet voting architecture we are proposing in this paper.

  4. Visuospatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Correlates of Vocabulary Ability in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas; Kornisch, Myriam; Furlong, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent studies indicate that school-age children's patterns of performance on measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) differ across types of neurodevelopmental disorders. Because these disorders are often characterized by early language delay, administering STM and WM tests to toddlers could…

  5. Japanese encephalitis in a Danish short-term traveler to Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlinrud, Anne M; Christiansen, Claus B; Koch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a recent case of Japanese encephalitis in a Danish male traveler to Cambodia, who we believe is the second Danish case within the last 15 years. Although both this and a number of other travel-related cases occurred in short-term travelers, change in vaccination recommendations...

  6. A Multiple Case Study of Verbal Short-Term Memory in Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, S.; Glaser, B.; Van der Linden, M.; Eliez, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS, 22q 11.2 deletion) is characterized by severely delayed language development. The current study explored the integrity of verbal short-term memory (STM), a cognitive function critically involved in language development, in eight children with VCFS. Methods: Using a multiple case study design, we…

  7. Neural Network-based Load Forecasting and Error Implication for Short-term Horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuntia, S.R.; Rueda Torres, José L.; van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Load forecasting is considered vital along with many other important entities required for assessing the reliability of power system. Thus, the primary concern is not to forecast load with a novel model, rather to forecast load with the highest accuracy. Short-term load forecast accuracy is often

  8. Protecting visual short-term memory during maintenance : Attentional modulation of target and distractor representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.E.; Gulbinaite, R.; van den Bos, T.; Slagter, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    In the presence of distraction, attentional filtering is a key predictor of efficient information storage in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Yet, the role of attention in distractor filtering, and the extent to which attentional filtering continues to protect information during post-perceptual

  9. The effect of sepsis and short-term exposure to nitrous oxide on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... required surgery and were exposed to short-term (45 - 105 minutes) H20 anaesthesia, were studied. Hone had evidence of pre-operative vitamin 8'2 or folate deficiency. The effect of the combination of H20 anaesthesia and sepsis on DNA synthesis in bone marrow cells was assessed morphologically,.

  10. Short-Term Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian Diet And Blood Rheology In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Previous epidemiological studies have found a decrease cardiovascular disease risk and reduced level of haemorheological parameters in adult vegetarians. It is not quite known if the duration of consumption of vegetarian diet affects the level of these parameters. Objective: To evaluate the effects of short term ...

  11. The effect of sepsis and short-term exposure to nitrous oxide on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recognised that prolonged anaesthesia with nitrous oxide (N20) induces megaloblastic anaemia by oxidising vitamin B12 To determine whether sepsis aggravates the effect of H20 on haemopoiesis 5 patients with severe sepsis, who required surgery and were exposed to short-term (45 - 105 minutes) N20 anaesthesia, ...

  12. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  13. Six Weeks in the Eifel: A Case for Culture Learning during Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Cate

    2007-01-01

    Based on findings from a recent study investigating how a group of undergraduate students defined, experienced, and perceived self-identified cultural encounters during a five-week stay in Mayen, Germany, this article suggests that short-term language and culture study abroad programs are fertile venues for exploring culture learning. After…

  14. A review on the young history of the wind power short-term prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Crespo, A.; Navarro, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper makes a brief review on 30 years of history of the wind power short-term prediction, since the first ideas and sketches on the theme to the actual state of the art oil models and tools, giving emphasis to the most significant proposals and developments. The two principal lines of thought...

  15. Learning in Context in a Short-Term Education Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalley, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe learning that occurred among participants who engaged in a short-term education abroad program using a modified situated learning theoretical framework. In situated learning theory, experience becomes activity and takes on a dynamic relation to learning. For the study, I selected a specific case to examine…

  16. Prosodic Similarity Effects in Short-Term Memory in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Barnes, Lisa; Mead, Natasha; Power, Alan James; Leong, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory. We study participants with dyslexia and age-matched and younger reading-level-matched typically developing controls. We find that all participants, including dyslexic participants, show prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. All participants exhibited better retention of words that differed in prosodic structure, although participants with dyslexia recalled fewer words accurately overall compared to age-matched controls. Individual differences in prosodic memory were predicted by earlier vocabulary abilities, by earlier sensitivity to syllable stress and by earlier phonological awareness. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. The implications of a prosodic similarity effect for theories of lexical representation and of dyslexia are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Experimental Study of Short-Term Training in Social Cognition in Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, Marine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Jacobs, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Using an experimental approach, our study examined the differentiated effects on pre-schoolers' social cognition of two short-term social information processing (SIP) and Theory of Mind (ToM) training sessions dealing with emotions and beliefs. The links between ToM, SIP, and social adjustment or externalizing behavior were examined. 47…

  18. The interaction of short-term and long-term memory in phonetic category formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsberger, James D.

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the role that short-term memory capacity plays in the relationship between novel stimuli (e.g., non-native speech sounds, native nonsense words) and phonetic categories in long-term memory. Thirty native speakers of American English were administered five tests: categorial AXB discrimination using nasal consonants from Malayalam; categorial identification, also using Malayalam nasals, which measured the influence of phonetic categories in long-term memory; digit span; nonword span, a short-term memory measure mediated by phonetic categories in long-term memory; and paired-associate word learning (word-word and word-nonword pairs). The results showed that almost all measures were significantly correlated with one another. The strongest predictor for the discrimination and word-nonword learning results was nonword (r=+0.62) and digit span (r=+0.51), respectively. When the identification test results were partialed out, only nonword span significantly correlated with discrimination. The results show a strong influence of short-term memory capacity on the encoding of phonetic detail within phonetic categories and suggest that long-term memory representations regulate the capacity of short-term memory to preserve information for subsequent encoding. The results of this study will also be discussed with regards to resolving the tension between episodic and abstract models of phonetic category structure.

  19. Short-term tests of estrogenic potential of plant stanols and plant stanol esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Frankos, V.H.; Leeman, W.R.; Jonker, D.

    1999-01-01

    To test for potential estrogenic activity of plant stanols and plant stanol esters, two short-term tests were performed. These were the E-screen test, which measures a substance's ability to induce proliferation of estrogen-responsive human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells in culture, and an in

  20. Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences on Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Colleen; Charles, Jennell; Bingham, Sue

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid rise in the number of universities offering students opportunities to study abroad. Traditional semester-long programs have been shortened with many new programs ranging anywhere from 1 to 8 weeks in length. The increased number of short-term programs has enabled professional degree programs, such as…

  1. The Cultural Adaptation Process during a Short-Term Study Abroad Experience in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan W.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2015-01-01

    Globalization continuously shapes our world and influences post-secondary education. This study explored the cultural adaptation process of participants during a short-term study abroad program. Participants experienced stages which included initial feelings, cultural uncertainty, cultural barriers, cultural negativity, academic and career growth,…

  2. Predicting Changes in Cultural Sensitivity among Students of Spanish during Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs of less than a semester are becoming increasingly popular among undergraduate students in the United States. However, little research has examined the changes in students' cultural sensitivity through their participation in such programs or what factors may predict growth and improvement in such areas. This study…

  3. Short-term dynamics of second-growth mixed mesophytic forest strata in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia C. Huebner; Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2007-01-01

    The short-term dynamics of mixed mesophytic forest strata in West Virginia were examined using similarity analysis and linear correlation of shared ordination space. The overstory tree, understory tree, shrub/vine, and herb strata were stable over a six year interval, whereas the tree seedling and sapling strata were unstable. All strata but the shrub/vine and tree...

  4. Short-Term Psychological Effects of Interactive Video Game Technology Exercise on Mood and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, William D.; Newton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Recent interest in interactive video game technology (IVGT) has spurred the notion that exercise from this technology may have meaningful physiological and psychological benefits for children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term psychological effects of interactive video game exercise in young adults and whether…

  5. Some analytical results pertaining to Cournot models for short-term electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Conejo, A.J.; Garcia-Bertrand, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This paper provides some theoretical results pertaining to the Cournot model applied to short-term electricity markets. Price, quantities and profits are first obtained, and then results related to sensitivities and limit values are derived and discussed. The cases of both several identical Cournot producers and one dominant Cournot producer are analyzed. A case example illustrates the results obtained. (author)

  6. Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, EHEM; Pomp, ER; Strubbe, JH; Scheurink, AJW; Koolhaas, JM

    2005-01-01

    Deafferentation affects short-term but not long-term control of food intake (PHYSIOL BEHAV XX(X) 000-000, 2005). Rats were treated neonatally with capsaicin (CAP) to investigate the involvement of vagal afferents in food intake control and body weight regulation. In the first set of experiments,

  7. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  8. Job satisfaction and short-term sickness absence among Dutch workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A; Roelen, CAM; Groothoff, JW

    Background Sickness absence is a considerable economic and social problem. Short-term sickness absence is known to be associated with behavioural attitudes. The correlation between sickness absence and job satisfaction has been studied infrequently and with contradictory results. Aims This study

  9. An Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Short-Term Study Abroad and Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagengast, Emil

    2017-01-01

    How does short-term study abroad affect students' attitudes toward human rights? What role does study abroad play in human rights education? This study assesses the learning outcomes of two study abroad programs that aimed to promote human rights education. I applied a mixed methods approach to measure the changes in the opinions of students who…

  10. Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Benin City, Nigeria. O. G. Igharo, T.L. Olawoye, H.B. Osadolor, F. A. Idomeh, O. J. Osunbor, A. O. Osagie, O.C. Iyamu ...

  11. Short-Term Memory for Serial Order: A Recurrent Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Plaut, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Despite a century of research, the mechanisms underlying short-term or working memory for serial order remain uncertain. Recent theoretical models have converged on a particular account, based on transient associations between independent item and context representations. In the present article, the authors present an alternative model, according…

  12. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  13. Short-term variability of mineral dust, metals and carbon emission from road dust resuspension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amato, F.; Schaap, M.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Keuken, M.; Querol, X.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities has severe impact on morbidity and mortality of their population. In these cities, road dust resuspension contributes largely to PM and airborne heavy metals concentrations. However, the short-term variation of emission through resuspension is not well

  14. Interleukin-6 but not soluble adhesion molecules has short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interleukin-6 but not soluble adhesion molecules has short-term prognostic value on mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. ... Abstract. Inflammatory responses represent an important element in all phases of the atherosclerotic process. This recognition has stimulated the evaluation of ...

  15. Dialogue Journals in Short-Term Study Abroad: "Today I Wrote My Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita; Tweedie, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Short-term study abroad programs are growing in popularity, and educators and researchers are exploring effective tools to enhance the learning and cultural experiences of students in these programs. Dialogue journals, writing journals in which students respond to instructor prompts and in turn initiate topics for further written discussion, are a…

  16. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  17. Prepectoral Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction and Postmastectomy Radiotherapy: Short-Term Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sigalove, MD

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. Immediate implant-based prepectoral breast reconstruction followed by PMRT appears to be well tolerated, with no excess risk of adverse outcomes, at least in the short term. Longer follow-up is needed to better understand the risk of PMRT in prepectorally reconstructed breasts.

  18. Toxicity of selected plant volatiles in microbial and mammalian short-term assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammati, A.; Bonsi, P.; Zucco, F.; Moezelaar, R.; Alakomi, H.L.; Wright, von A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, several short-term microbial and mammalian in vitro assays were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of four plant volatiles showing antifungal activity: cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol and S(+)-carvone. All inhibited viability and proliferation of Hep-2 cells in a

  19. Short-term impact of blue mussel dredging ( Mytilus edulis L.) on a benthic community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, T.; Christiansen, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The short-term effect of mussel dredging in a brackish Danish sound was studied. A commercial dredging track was identified and an analysis of the species composition inside the track and at an adjacent control area showed that dredging changed the community structure by reducing the density of p...

  20. Aetiologies and Short-term Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Aetiologies and Short Term Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury … Oluseyi A. 39 failure or following medical treatment such as use of nephrotoxic medications. Data were analyzed using the statistical. Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 by Chicago Inc. Results were presented in tabular form.

  1. Expertise prompts initial faster processing followed by increased short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2017-01-01

    Attention is a process of prioritising cognitive recourses to task-relevant stimulus. A number of studies have demonstrated various processing limitations in attention; for example, visual short-term memory (VSTM) only retains a limited number of objects (Sperling, 1960). An increasing number...

  2. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of

  3. Visual Short-Term Memory: Is Capacity Dependent on Complexity or Familiarity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Granlund, Rabia Line; Wiechmann, Maria

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and Cavanagh...

  4. Visual Short-Term Memory: is Capacity Dependent on Stimulus Complexity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2004) have argued...

  5. A Neural Network Model of the Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a neural network model of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) is presented. The model links closely with Bundesen’s (1990) well-established mathematical theory of visual attention. We evaluate the model’s ability to fit experimental data from a classical whole and partial report study...

  6. Short-term duloxetine administration affects neural correlates of mood-congruent memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendolkar, Indira; van Wingen, Guido; Urner, Maren; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown how antidepressants reverse mood-congruent memory bias, a cognitive core factor causing and maintaining depression. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, we investigated the effect of a short-term treatment (14 days) with the dual reuptake inhibitor duloxetine on

  7. The human hippocampal formation mediates short-term memory of colour-location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Carsten; Braun, Mischa; Ostendorf, Florian; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kopp, Ute; Ploner, Christoph J

    2008-01-31

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been considered essential for declarative long-term memory, whereas the fronto-parietal cortex is generally seen as the anatomical substrate of short-term memory. This traditional dichotomy is questioned by recent studies suggesting a possible role of the MTL for short-term memory. In addition, there is no consensus on a possible specialization of MTL sub-regions for memory of associative information. Here, we investigated short-term memory for single features and feature associations in three humans with post-surgical lesions affecting the right hippocampal formation and in 10 healthy controls. We used three delayed-match-to-sample tasks with two delays (900/5000 ms) and three set sizes (2/4/6 items). Subjects were instructed to remember either colours, locations or colour-location associations. In colour-only and location-only conditions, performance of patients did not differ from controls. By contrast, a significant group difference was found in the association condition at 5000 ms delay. This difference was largely independent of set size, thus suggesting that it cannot be explained by the increased complexity of the association condition. These findings show that the hippocampal formation plays a significant role for short-term memory of simple visuo-spatial associations, and suggest a specialization of MTL sub-regions for associative memory.

  8. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system. 866.1645 Section 866.1645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... determining in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical specimens. Test results...

  9. Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: Investigating Short-term and Long-term Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerauer, Peter; Müller, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    empirical results show that museum visitors performed significantly better on knowledge acquisition and retention tests related to augmented exhibits than to non-augmented exhibits directly after visiting the exhibition (i.e., short-term), but this positive effect of AR vanished in the long run....

  10. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, SPERM QUANTITY AND QUALITY AFTER SHORT-TERM STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of diabetes mellitus in the streptozotocin rat model suggest that sexual dysfunctions may result from diabetes-induced alterations of the neuroendocrine-reproductive tract axis. Our investigation was performed to better define the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on ra...

  11. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography.

  12. Selective Short-Term Memory Deficits Arise from Impaired Domain-General Semantic Control Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ehsan, Sheeba; Hopper, Samantha; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Semantic short-term memory (STM) patients have a reduced ability to retain semantic information over brief delays but perform well on other semantic tasks; this pattern suggests damage to a dedicated buffer for semantic information. Alternatively, these difficulties may arise from mild disruption to domain-general semantic processes that have…

  13. Case series: Two cases of eyeball tattoos with short-term complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Duarte

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: Eyeball tattoos are performed by non-ophthalmic trained personnel. There are a substantial number of short-term risks associated with this procedure. Long-term effects on the eyes and vision are still unknown, but in a worst case scenario could include loss of vision or permanent damage to the eyes.

  14. Do Children with Phonological Delay Have Phonological Short-Term and Phonological Working Memory Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Rebecca; Eadie, Patricia; Liow, Susan Rickard; Dodd, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    While little is known about why children make speech errors, it has been hypothesized that cognitive-linguistic factors may underlie phonological speech sound disorders. This study compared the phonological short-term and phonological working memory abilities (using immediate memory tasks) and receptive vocabulary size of 14 monolingual preschool…

  15. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  16. Short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a need to develop reproducible interventions that reinforce the implementation of these guidelines and assess their effect and sustainability. Objectives. To assess the short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention on mortality attributable to SAM in two hospitals located in the Eastern ...

  17. Creative Activity, Personality, Mental Illness, and Short-Term Mating Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…

  18. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  19. Short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced hollow core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on different methods of analysis that are currently used by design codes to predict the short-term and long-term deflection of reinforced concrete slab systems and compares the predicted deflections with measured deflections. The experimental work to measure deflections involved the testing of ...

  20. Obesity and pregnancy: Mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomal...

  1. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods: Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed ...

  2. Short-Term Memory for Pictures and Words by Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Norman R.; Wooldridge, Peter W.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve mentally retarded and 12 nonretarded adults were compared in a Brown-Peterson short-term memory task for the retention of words and pictures over intervals up to 30 seconds. The retarded subjects forgot more rapidly over the initial 10 seconds. They also retained pictures better than they did words. (Author/DB)

  3. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Using Decomposition-Based Neural Networks Combining Abnormal Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most promising renewable resources in electricity generation, wind energy is acknowledged for its significant environmental contributions and economic competitiveness. Because wind fluctuates with strong variation, it is quite difficult to describe the characteristics of wind or to estimate the power output that will be injected into the grid. In particular, short-term wind speed forecasting, an essential support for the regulatory actions and short-term load dispatching planning during the operation of wind farms, is currently regarded as one of the most difficult problems to be solved. This paper contributes to short-term wind speed forecasting by developing two three-stage hybrid approaches; both are combinations of the five-three-Hanning (53H weighted average smoothing method, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD algorithm, and nonlinear autoregressive (NAR neural networks. The chosen datasets are ten-minute wind speed observations, including twelve samples, and our simulation indicates that the proposed methods perform much better than the traditional ones when addressing short-term wind speed forecasting problems.

  4. Short-Term Upper Limb Immobilization Affects Action-Word Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Meugnot, Aurore; Beauprez, Sophie-Anne; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether well-established associations between action and language can be altered by short-term upper limb immobilization. The dominant arm of right-handed participants was immobilized for 24 hours with a rigid splint fixed on the hand and an immobilization vest restraining the shoulder, arm, and forearm. The…

  5. Splitting Attention across the Two Visual Fields in Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvenne, Jean-Francois; Holt, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans have the ability to attentionally select the most relevant visual information from their extrapersonal world and to retain it in a temporary buffer, known as visual short-term memory (VSTM). Research suggests that at least two non-contiguous items can be selected simultaneously when they are distributed across the two visual hemifields. In…

  6. A Probabilistic Clustering Theory of the Organization of Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, A. Emin; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the content of a memory for even a simple display encoded in visual short-term memory (VSTM) can be very complex. VSTM uses organizational processes that make the representation of an item dependent on the feature values of all displayed items as well as on these items' representations. Here, we develop a…

  7. Relations among Acute and Chronic Nicotine Administration, Short-Term Memory, and Tactics of Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that nicotine may enhance short-term memory. Some of this evidence comes from nonhuman primate research using a procedure called delayed matching-to-sample, wherein the monkey is trained to select a comparison stimulus that matches some physical property of a previously presented sample stimulus. Delays between sample…

  8. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  9. The Impact of Pointing on the Short-Term Memory (STM) of Heterophonic Homographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study entailed two short-term memory (STM) experiments investigating the importance of vowel diacritics for the temporary retention of three distinct Hebrew word list types: heterophonic homographs, non-homographs and homophonic homographs. Eighty university students participated in each experiment, with half of them tested with word lists…

  10. The Development of Visual Short-Term Memory for Multifeature Items during Middle childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin J.; Simpson, Andrew; Potts, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) research suggests that the adult capacity is limited to three or four multifeature object representations. Despite evidence supporting a developmental increase in capacity, it remains unclear what the unit of capacity is in children. The current study employed the change detection paradigm to investigate both the…

  11. Order Short-Term Memory Capacity Predicts Nonword Reading and Spelling in First and Second Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Florence; Poncelet, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the…

  12. Short-Term Memory Stages in Sign vs. Speech: The Source of the Serial Span Discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Speakers generally outperform signers when asked to recall a list of unrelated verbal items. This phenomenon is well established, but its source has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluate the relative contribution of the three main processing stages of short-term memory--perception, encoding, and recall--in this effect. The present study…

  13. Visual Short-Term Memory for Complex Objects in 6- and 8-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mee-Kyoung; Luck, Steven J.; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' visual short-term memory (VSTM) for simple objects undergoes dramatic development: Six-month-old infants can store in VSTM information about only a simple object presented in isolation, whereas 8-month-old infants can store information about simple objects presented in multiple-item arrays. This study extended this work to examine…

  14. Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity for Simple and Complex Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not…

  15. Areas of Left Perisylvian Cortex Mediate Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Acheson, Daniel J.; Barbey, Aron K.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Postle, Bradley R.; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A contentious issue in memory research is whether verbal short-term memory (STM) depends on a neural system specifically dedicated to the temporary maintenance of information, or instead relies on the same brain areas subserving the comprehension and production of language. In this study, we examined a large sample of adults with acquired brain…

  16. The Ineluctable Modality of the Audible: Perceptual Determinants of Auditory Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W.; Macken, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Classical cognitive accounts of verbal short-term memory (STM) invoke an abstract, phonological level of representation which, although it may be derived differently via different modalities, is itself amodal. Key evidence for this view is that serial recall of phonologically similar verbal items (e.g., the letter sounds "b",…

  17. Adipose gene expression response of lean and obese mice to short-term dietary restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, Evert M van; Keijer, Jaap; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Brom, Charissa E van den; Kohl, Thomas; Franssen-van Hal, Nicole L W; Hoebee, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to higher morbidity risks, which are alleviated even by mild weight loss. To gain insight in the molecular effects of weight loss in adipose tissue, we analyzed the effects of short-term dietary restriction (DR) on mice fed a low-fat diet (lean mice) or a high-fat diet

  18. What's Magic about Magic Numbers? Chunking and Data Compression in Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy, Fabien; Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Short term memory is famously limited in capacity to Miller's (1956) magic number 7 plus or minus 2--or, in many more recent studies, about 4 plus or minus 1 "chunks" of information. But the definition of "chunk" in this context has never been clear, referring only to a set of items that are treated collectively as a single unit. We propose a new…

  19. Cleaning products and short-term respiratory effects among female cleaners with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaya, D.; Mirabelli, M.C.; Gimeno, D.; Antó, J.M.; Delclos, G.L.; Rivera, M.; Orriols, R.; Arjona, L.; Burgos, F.; Zock, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the short-term effects of exposure to cleaning products on lung function and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaning women. Methods: Twenty-one women with current asthma and employed as professional cleaners participated in a 15-day panel study. During 312

  20. The salivary microbiome is consistent between subjects and resistant to impacts of short-term hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Damien J; Wurster, Jenna I; Flokas, Myrto E; Alevizakos, Michail; Zabat, Michelle; Korry, Benjamin J; Rowan, Aislinn D; Sano, William H; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Ducharme, R Bobby; Chan, Philip A; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Belenky, Peter

    2017-09-08

    In recent years, a growing amount of research has begun to focus on the oral microbiome due to its links with health and systemic disease. The oral microbiome has numerous advantages that make it particularly useful for clinical studies, including non-invasive collection, temporal stability, and lower complexity relative to other niches, such as the gut. Despite recent discoveries made in this area, it is unknown how the oral microbiome responds to short-term hospitalization. Previous studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome is extremely sensitive to short-term hospitalization and that these changes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we present a comprehensive pipeline for reliable bedside collection, sequencing, and analysis of the human salivary microbiome. We also develop a novel oral-specific mock community for pipeline validation. Using our methodology, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of patients before and during hospitalization or azithromycin treatment to profile impacts on this community. Our findings indicate that azithromycin alters the diversity and taxonomic composition of the salivary microbiome; however, we also found that short-term hospitalization does not impact the richness or structure of this community, suggesting that the oral cavity may be less susceptible to dysbiosis during short-term hospitalization.

  1. Short-term glucose load and serum adenosine deaminase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term glucose load and serum adenosine deaminase activity in diabetic Nigerians. P O Anaja, E A Ekanem. Abstract. No Abstract. Annals of Nigerian Medicine Vol. 2 (1) 2006: pp. 43-48. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics ...

  2. Integration and segregation of large-scale brain networks during short-term task automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Betzel, Richard F; Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; Richiardi, Jonas; Ruge, Hannes

    2016-11-03

    The human brain is organized into large-scale functional networks that can flexibly reconfigure their connectivity patterns, supporting both rapid adaptive control and long-term learning processes. However, it has remained unclear how short-term network dynamics support the rapid transformation of instructions into fluent behaviour. Comparing fMRI data of a learning sample (N=70) with a control sample (N=67), we find that increasingly efficient task processing during short-term practice is associated with a reorganization of large-scale network interactions. Practice-related efficiency gains are facilitated by enhanced coupling between the cingulo-opercular network and the dorsal attention network. Simultaneously, short-term task automatization is accompanied by decreasing activation of the fronto-parietal network, indicating a release of high-level cognitive control, and a segregation of the default mode network from task-related networks. These findings suggest that short-term task automatization is enabled by the brain's ability to rapidly reconfigure its large-scale network organization involving complementary integration and segregation processes.

  3. Study on Short-term Variability of Ship Responses in Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    of the cross-spectra, has not been discussed in detail. Using long stationary time series, the transition of amplitudes and relative phase angles of the cross-spectra has been investigated by iterative analyzes with a few seconds of time shifting. In the results, the short-term variability of the relative...

  4. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  5. Short-term Preoperative Octreotide for Thyrotropin-secreting Pituitary Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Fang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: OCT can control hormone levels and damage the ultrastructure of tumor cells and organelles. Short-term response to OCT may be related to SSTR5 expression. Preoperative SST analog treatment for TSHoma could be considered as a combination therapy.

  6. Short-Term Mood Repair through Art: Effects of Medium and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Coleman, Katelyn; Winner, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of expressive media (drawing versus writing) and emotion regulation strategy (coping by venting versus coping by distraction) on short-term mood repair. After inducing a sad mood in 40 participants, the researchers randomly assigned them to one of two conditions: drawing or writing. Mood valence was assessed before…

  7. Short-term photoacclimation effects on photoinhibition of phytoplankton in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, A.C.; Garcon, V.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Arrigo, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed whether short-term photoacclimation responses of natural phytoplankton populations in the Drake Passage (Southern Ocean) were affecting protection from photodamage as cells are mixed up to the surface from depth. To this end, we measured phytoplankton fluorescence characteristics and

  8. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Short-Term Sleep Deprivation on Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Dinges, David F.

    2010-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted in an effort to understand the impact of short-term (less than 48 hr) total sleep deprivation (SD) on outcomes in various cognitive domains. Despite this wealth of information, there has been disagreement on how these data should be interpreted, arising in part because the relative magnitude of…

  9. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  10. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  11. Short-term memory as an additional predictor of school achievement for East-African children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van der Flier, H.

    2004-01-01

    The predictive validity of assessment procedures can be increased by adding predictors to the prediction supplied by general ability tests. Out of Jensen's early work comes the suggestion of focusing on the cognitive ability short-term memory (STM). Meta-analysis convincingly shows high predictive

  12. Short-Term Memory for Order but Not for Item Information Is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmann, Wibke M.; Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter; Job, Remo

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that people with dyslexia experience difficulties with the learning of serial order information during the transition from short-to long-term memory (Szmalec et al. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition" 37(5): 1270-1279, 2011). At the same time, models of short-term memory…

  13. Short-term carbon partitioning fertilizer responses vary among two full-sib loblolly pine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy P. Stovall; John R. Seiler; Thomas R. Fox

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fertilizer application on the partitioning of gross primary productivity (GPP) between contrasting full-sib clones of Pinus taeda (L.). Our objective was to determine if fertilizer growth responses resulted from similar short-term changes to partitioning. A modeling approach incorporating respiratory carbon (C) fluxes,...

  14. Electrophysiological Correlates of Improved Short-Term Memory for Emotional Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; Morgan, Helen M.; Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Van Strien, Jan W.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term memory (LTM) is enhanced for emotional information, but the influence of stimulus emotionality on short-term memory (STM) is less clear. We examined the electrophysiological correlates of improved visual STM for emotional face identity, focusing on the P1, N170, P3b and N250r event-related potential (ERP) components. These correlates are…

  15. Orienting Attention within Visual Short-Term Memory: Development and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Andria; Nobre, Anna C.; Astle, Duncan; Scerif, Gaia

    2014-01-01

    How does developing attentional control operate within visual short-term memory (VSTM)? Seven-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults (total n = 205) were asked to report whether probe items were part of preceding visual arrays. In Experiment 1, central or peripheral cues oriented attention to the location of to-be-probed items either prior to…

  16. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  17. Saccadic Eye Movements Impose a Natural Bottleneck on Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory…

  18. Manipulations of attention dissociate fragile visual short-term memory from visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    People often rely on information that is no longer in view, but maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Traditionally, VSTM is thought to operate on either a short time-scale with high capacity - iconic memory - or a long time scale with small capacity - visual working memory. Recent research

  19. Spatiotemporal Proximity Effects in Visual Short-Term Memory Examined by Target-Nontarget Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P.; Pardhan, Shahina; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a limited-capacity system that holds a small number of objects online simultaneously, implying that competition for limited storage resources occurs (Phillips, 1974). How the spatial and temporal proximity of stimuli affects this competition is unclear. In this 2-experiment study, we examined the effect of the…

  20. Another look at trading costs and short-term reversal profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Groot (Wilma ); J.J. Huij (Joop); W. Zhou (Weili)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSeveral studies report that abnormal returns associated with short-term reversal investment strategies diminish once trading costs are taken into account. We show that the impact of trading costs on the strategies' profitability can largely be attributed to excessively trading in small

  1. Short term memory and working memory in blind versus sighted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that blind people may strengthen their memory skills to compensate for absence of vision. However, which aspects of memory are involved is open to debate and a developmental perspective is generally lacking. In the present study, we compared the short term memory (STM) and working

  2. Assessing Global Learning in Short-Term Study Abroad: Population, Environment, and Society in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Rachel S.

    2017-01-01

    This teaching note suggests that a short-term study abroad program embedded within a longer course can be a tool for enhancing global learning. The work uses the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) Global Learning VALUE rubric to evaluate student work from a spring break seminar to Shanghai, China. The seminar was…

  3. Are narcissists sexy? Zeroing in on the effect of narcissism on short-term mate appeal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufner, M.; Rauthmann, J.F.; Czarna, A.Z.; Denissen, J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual’s mate appeal and that this effect

  4. The Durable Effects of Short-Term Programs on Student Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Caza, Arran

    2012-01-01

    Research involving students (N=612) at a large, research-extensive university who participated in voluntary short-term leadership programs showed an increase in leadership capacity, even when measured three months later. A popular assessment tool, the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS), was used. Not all leadership competency scores…

  5. Socially Responsible Leadership: The Role of Participation in Short-Term Service Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendall, Kristan Cilente

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between short-term service immersion programs (STSI), such as Alternative Spring Break (ASB), and socially responsible leadership as measured by the Socially Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS). Participation in STSI programs have been growing exponentially since 2006 (Bohn, 2009; Break…

  6. The attention-weighted sample-size model of visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Philip L.; Lilburn, Simon D.; Corbett, Elaine A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a phase discrimination task that required judgments about the configural relations between pairs of black and white features. Sewell et al. (2014) previously showed that VSTM capacity in an orientation discrimination task was well...

  7. An Experiment on the Short-Term Effects of Engagement and Representation in Program Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Seppo; Sajaniemi, Jorma

    2008-01-01

    When visualization tools utilized in computer programming education have been evaluated empirically, the results have remained controversial. To address this problem, we have developed a model of short-term effects of program animation, and used it in a series of experiments. In the current experiment, we varied visual representation of an…

  8. Two Distinct Origins of Long-Term Learning Effects in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Perez, Trecy Martinez; Oberauer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is highly sensitive to learning effects: digit sequences or nonword sequences which have been rendered more familiar via repeated exposure are recalled more accurately. In this study we show that sublist-level, incidental learning of item co-occurrence regularities affects immediate serial recall of words and…

  9. Influence of weight grouping on the short term egg production of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strain I) and Black Olympia (Strain 2) to determine the influence of weight grouping on short term egg production traits. The two strains of layer type chickens were separated on the basis of plumage pattern and body weight at three weeks of age.

  10. Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test: a new procedure for the detection of feigned memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.; Schmand, B.; de Sterke, S.; Lindeboom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The validity of two malingering tests, the newly developed Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test and the Distraction test (Baker, Hanley, Jackson, Kimmance, & Slade, 1993) was examined in a group of patients with closed-head injury (CHI), a normal control group, and a control group with

  11. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  12. Cognitive Backward Masking: A Window Into the Formation of a Short-Term Memory Trace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Working memory consolidation denotes the process that enables sensory information to be stored in short-term memory. What is currently unclear is how long this process takes and whether it continues after a stimulus has been masked. Here, we address these matters by examining whether the

  13. The Influence of Auditory Short-Term Memory on Behavior Problem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Justin; Keith, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of two subcomponents of auditory short-term memory on the developmental trajectories of behavior problems. The sample included 7,058 children from the NLSY79--Children and Young Adult survey between the ages 5 and 14 years. Results suggested that anxious/depressed behavior increases…

  14. Congenital Amusia: A Short-Term Memory Deficit for Non-Verbal, but Not Verbal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Schulze, Katrin; Foxton, Jessica M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital amusia refers to a lifelong disorder of music processing and is linked to pitch-processing deficits. The present study investigated congenital amusics' short-term memory for tones, musical timbres and words. Sequences of five events (tones, timbres or words) were presented in pairs and participants had to indicate whether the sequences…

  15. Hub Group: An Innovative Approach to Group Therapy in a Short-Term Inpatient Adolescent Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitel, Ashley; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes Hub Group, a short-term ward-based group therapy program for institutionalized adolescents. Backed by a behaviorally-based privilege system, Hub Group contracting methods facilitate rapid investment in group therapy and promote change. Advantages and disadvantages of including mixed levels of functioning in the same group are discussed.…

  16. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  17. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  18. Potentials of short term and long term cryopreserved sperm of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To service the growing demand for male African giant catfish (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock for aquaculture in Nigeria, and to conserve valuable genetic resources, we improved both short-term (in deep freezer at -35°C) and long-term cryopreservation (in liquid nitrogen at -296°C) of catfish sperm. Catfish sperm ...

  19. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  20. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14)