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Sample records for survival remain unclear

  1. Unclear Predication in the Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher DESURMONT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine l’emploi d’adjectifs évaluatifs (Evaluative adjectives: EAs comme brave, clever, crazy, foolish, silly, wise. La construction illustrée ci-dessus a été considérée comme un cas de « prédication épisodique » (Stage-level predication. Stowell (1991 par exemple propose une « coercion analysis » selon laquelle la proposition infinitive transformerait la nature du jugement adjectival: d’absolu et non borné, il deviendrait relatif. Cependant, Kertz (2006, prenant appui sur une batterie de « S-level tests », a démontré que cette construction est un cas de prédication d’individu (Individual level predication et non de prédication épisodique (S-level; ce qui implique que la présence d’une infinitive ne modifierait pas fondamentalement la nature de la prédication. Cependant, considérer la nature de la prédication dans cette construction comme étant clairement I-level est manifestement contre-intuitif . Il semblerait que nous ayons affaire à ce que l’on pourrait appeler une « prédication incertaine » (unclear predication. Ce point de vue est ici défendu en impliquant les paramètres suivants: 1 le statut syntaxique de l’enchâssée, 2 son statut sémantique, 3 le préconstruit à l’origine du jugement adjectival.This paper examines Evaluative Adjectives (in short: EAs like brave, clever, crazy, foolish, silly, wise when followed by to + infinive as in (1 or (2:(1 C8T 2147 I suppose I'm silly to worry about that. (Examples from the BNC(2 EU 1623 You’d be crazy to sell today. Intuitively, this construction appears to be a case of Stage-level predication (Stowell, 1991. However, the Derived EA construction passes none of the classic S-level tests, as demonstrated in Kertz’ (2006 “Adjunct Control analysis”. Yet to consider this construction as a clear case of Individual-level predication remains counter-intuitive. This paper aims at showing that it should be regarded as a case

  2. Survival of Norway spruce remains higher in mixed stands under a dryer and warmer climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Susanne; Albrecht, Axel; Cullmann, Dominik; Engels, Friedrich; Griess, Verena C; Hahn, W Andreas; Hanewinkel, Marc; Härtl, Fabian; Kölling, Christian; Staupendahl, Kai; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Shifts in tree species distributions caused by climatic change are expected to cause severe losses in the economic value of European forestland. However, this projection disregards potential adaptation options such as tree species conversion, shorter production periods, or establishment of mixed species forests. The effect of tree species mixture has, as yet, not been quantitatively investigated for its potential to mitigate future increases in production risks. For the first time, we use survival time analysis to assess the effects of climate, species mixture and soil condition on survival probabilities for Norway spruce and European beech. Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) models based on an extensive dataset of almost 65,000 trees from the European Forest Damage Survey (FDS)--part of the European-wide Level I monitoring network--predicted a 24% decrease in survival probability for Norway spruce in pure stands at age 120 when unfavorable changes in climate conditions were assumed. Increasing species admixture greatly reduced the negative effects of unfavorable climate conditions, resulting in a decline in survival probabilities of only 7%. We conclude that future studies of forest management under climate change as well as forest policy measures need to take this, as yet unconsidered, strongly advantageous effect of tree species mixture into account. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Remaining missed opportunities of child survival in Peru: modelling mortality impact of universal and equitable coverage of proven interventions.

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    Tam, Yvonne; Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara

    2016-10-04

    Peru has made great improvements in reducing stunting and child mortality in the past decade, and has reached the Millennium Development Goals 1 and 4. The remaining challenges or missed opportunities for child survival needs to be identified and quantified, in order to guide the next steps to further improve child survival in Peru. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to project the mortality impact of proven interventions reaching every women and child in need, and the mortality impact of eliminating inequalities in coverage distribution between wealth quintiles and urban-rural residence. Our analyses quantified the remaining missed opportunities in Peru, where prioritizing scale-up of facility-based case management for all small and sick babies will be most effective in mortality reduction, compared to other evidenced-based interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths. Eliminating coverage disparities between the poorest quintiles and the richest will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 22.0 and 40.6 %, while eliminating coverage disparities between those living in rural and urban areas will reduce under-five and neonatal mortality by 29.3 and 45.2 %. This projected neonatal mortality reduction achieved by eliminating coverage disparities is almost comparable to that already achieved by Peru over the past decade. Although Peru has made great strides in improving child survival, further improvement in child health, especially in newborn health can be achieved if there is universal and equitable coverage of proven, quality health facility-based interventions. The magnitude of reduction in mortality will be similar to what has been achieved in the past decade. Strengthening health system to identify, understand, and direct resources to the poor and rural areas will ensure that Peru achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.

  4. Histological Subtype Remains a Significant Prognostic Factor for Survival Outcomes in Patients With Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm With Peritoneal Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yeqian; Alzahrani, Nayef A; Chua, Terence C; Morris, David L

    2017-04-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that appendiceal mucinous neoplasm with peritoneal dissemination is not a homogenous disease. This study aimed to examine the impact of different histological subtypes on survival of a large cohort of patients with appendiceal mucinous neoplasms uniformly treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data of patients with peritoneal dissemination of appendiceal neoplasm who underwent cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The study was conducted by 1 surgical team at St. George Hospital. A total of 444 patients formed the cohort of this study. Histological diagnoses were categorized based on Carr criteria to include acellular mucin, disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis, peritoneal mucinous neoplasms without signet ring cells, and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis with signet cells. Patients with low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms with neoplastic epithelium absent tended to have lower CEA, CA19-9, and CA125 levels preoperatively (p = 0.109, 0.008, and 0.034). Factor analysis showed that histological diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor for survival outcomes (HR = 3.13 (95% CI, 2.34-4.39); p 20, completeness of cytoreductive score ≥2, use of early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy, transfusion units, CEA >7.0 mg/L, CA19-9 >24.0 U/mL, and CA125 >24 U/mL. This study was limited by its retrospective nature, lack of uniform classifications of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms in early years, and the heterogeneity of this study cohort given the long study period. Histological subtype remains a significant prognostic factor for survival outcomes in patients with appendiceal mucinous neoplasms. It should be taken into account when selecting patients for cytoreductive surgery, tailoring appropriate adjuvant therapies and follow-up surveillance plan.

  5. Retrospective comparative ten-year study of cumulative survival rates of remaining teeth in large edentulism treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures or removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Seiya; Arakawa, Hikaru; Maekawa, Kenji; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Noda, Kinji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Sonoyama, Wataru; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the survival rates of remaining teeth between implant-supported fixed dentures (IFDs) and removable partial dentures (RPDs) in patients with large edentulous cases. The second goal was to assess the risk factors for remaining tooth loss. The study subjects were selected among those who received prosthodontic treatment at Okayama University Dental Hospital for their edentulous space exceeding at least four continuous missing teeth. Twenty-one patients were included in the IFD group and 82 patients were included in the RPD group. Survival rates of remaining teeth were calculated in three subcategories: (1) whole remaining teeth, (2) adjacent teeth to intended edentulous space, and (3) opposing teeth to intended edentulous space. The ten-year cumulative survival rate of the whole remaining teeth was significantly higher in the IFD group (40.0%) than in the RPD group (24.4%). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between two groups in the survival rate of teeth adjacent or opposing to intended edentulous space. A Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RPD restoration and gender (male) were the significant risk factors for remaining tooth loss (whole remaining teeth). These results suggest that IFD treatment can reduce the incidence of remaining tooth loss in large edentulous cases. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A surviving intact branch stabilizes remaining axon architecture after injury as revealed by in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzana, Ariana O; Lee, Jae K; Mui, Matthew; Chang, Amy; Zheng, Binhai

    2015-05-20

    The complex morphology of axons presents a challenge in understanding axonal responses to injury and disease. By in vivo two-photon imaging of spinal dorsal column sensory axons, we systematically examined the effect of injury location relative to the main bifurcation point on axon degeneration and regeneration following highly localized laser injuries. Retrograde but not anterograde degeneration was strongly blocked at the bifurcation point at both the acute and subacute phases. Eliminating either the ascending or descending branch led to a poor regenerative response, while eliminating both led to a strong regenerative response. Thus, a surviving intact branch suppresses both retrograde degeneration and regeneration of the injured branch, thereby preserving the remaining axon architecture. Regenerating axons exhibited a dynamic pattern with alternating phases of regeneration and pruning over a chronic period. In vivo imaging continues to reveal new insights on axonal responses to injury in the mammalian spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  8. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA–DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix–loop–helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt–β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK–ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous “cancer cells”. PMID:25883792

  9. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA-DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovics, J G

    2015-03-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix-loop-helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt-β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK-ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous "cancer cells".

  10. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  11. Can SLE classification rules be effectively applied to diagnose unclear SLE cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, A; Fernandez, M; Wu, W; Narasimhan, G; Greidinger, E L; Mills, D K

    2016-06-27

    The objective of this paper is to develop novel classification criteria to distinguish between unclear systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) cases. A total of 205 variables from 111 SLE and 55 MCTD patients were evaluated to uncover unique molecular and clinical markers for each disease. Binomial logistic regressions (BLRs) were performed on currently used SLE and MCTD classification criteria sets to obtain six reduced models with power to discriminate between unclear SLE and MCTD patients that were confirmed by receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Decision trees were employed to delineate novel classification rules to discriminate between unclear SLE and MCTD patients. SLE and MCTD patients exhibited contrasting molecular markers and clinical manifestations. Furthermore, reduced models highlighted SLE patients exhibiting prevalence of skin rashes and renal disease while MCTD cases show dominance of myositis and muscle weakness. Additionally decision tree analyses revealed a novel classification rule tailored to differentiate unclear SLE and MCTD patients (Lu-vs-M) with an overall accuracy of 88%. Validation of our novel proposed classification rule (Lu-vs-M) includes novel contrasting characteristics (calcinosis, CPK elevated and anti-IgM reactivity for U1-70K, U1A and U1C) between SLE and MCTD patients and showed a 33% improvement in distinguishing these disorders when compared to currently used classification criteria sets. Pending additional validation, our novel classification rule is a promising method to distinguish between patients with unclear SLE and MCTD diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  13. 77 FR 41109 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking that would establish initial and variation margin... Securities Commissions (``IOSCO'') established a Working Group on Margin Requirements (``WGMR'') to develop...

  14. 76 FR 27621 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC97 Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major... margin requirements for swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants (MSPs). Elsewhere today in the... period for the proposed margin regulations so that the comment period will run concurrently with the...

  15. Clinical Impact of a Second FDG-PET in Atypical/Unclear Dementia Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, David; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Guimond, Jean; Fortin, Marie-Pierre; Houde, Michèle; Poulin, Stéphane; Verret, Louis; Bouchard, Rémi W; Laforce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of atypical/unclear dementia is often difficult and this delays treatment initiation. Several authors have shown that beyond standard dementia workup, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) reduces the number of unclear diagnoses, leads to earlier treatment, and has a beneficial impact on families. However, it is not uncommon that the FDG-PET findings are equivocal in this setting. For those cases, a repeat FDG-PET may clarify the diagnosis and prevent treatment delay. We retrospectively assessed the clinical impact of a repeat FDG-PET in 59 patients with atypical/unclear dementia syndromes and inconclusive initial FDG-PET. Changes in primary diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, and management following the second FDG-PET were examined. Conducting a second FDG-PET reduced the number of unclear diagnoses from 80% to 34% , led to diagnostic change in 24% of cases, and treatment modification in 22% of patients. Overall, the clinical impact was higher when initial diagnostic confidence was low and the second FDG-PET repeated ≥12 months after the first one. In tertiary care memory clinic settings, when diagnostic incertitude persists despite extensive evaluation and an equivocal FDG-PET, repeating the FDG-PET 12 months later can greatly clarify the diagnosis and improve management.

  16. UNRAVELING RELATIVELY UNCLEAR STORIES: A NARRATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENT-TEACHERS’ IDENTITY WORK

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    Joseph Ernest Mambu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the need for more empirical evidence of Indonesian-based novice teachers’ identity, this paper aims to uncover nonnative English-speaking student-teachers’ identity work in their relatively unclear narratives of teaching practicum experiences. (Narrative discourse analytical perspectives were used to examine two student-teachers’ narratives that were elicited in individual interviews. An analysis of one female student-teacher’s narrative suggests that digressive plotting—at first glance—and the use of some cryptic, and sometimes idiosyncratic, expressions can be re-constructed by a discourse analyst such that the overall structure and message of the speaker’s narrative is streamlined. A relatively unclear narrative was also produced by a male student-teacher. Different from the female student-teacher’s detailed narrative with digressive plotting, the male student-teacher’s plotting was underdeveloped. However, both student-teachers exercised their agency, though in different degrees, when framing their personal stories. This paper concludes with the notion that the narrative analysis makes more visible student-teachers’ identity work in which they, with their sense of agency, overcame (interpersonal tensions or struggles narrated in stories which are not necessarily clear.

  17. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...

  18. Remaining Life Expectancy With and Without Polypharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy for Swedish women and men aged 65 years and older. DESIGN: Age-specific prevalence of polypharmacy from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) combined with life tables from Statistics Sweden...... was used to calculate the survival function and remaining life expectancy with and without polypharmacy according to the Sullivan method. SETTING: Nationwide register-based study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,347,564 individuals aged 65 years and older who had been prescribed and dispensed a drug from July 1...... to September 30, 2008. MEASUREMENTS: Polypharmacy was defined as the concurrent use of 5 or more drugs. RESULTS: At age 65 years, approximately 8 years of the 20 remaining years of life (41%) can be expected to be lived with polypharmacy. More than half of the remaining life expectancy will be spent...

  19. Unclear results for the use of botulinum toxin therapy for TMD pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, James R

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive search was carried out on major databases such as PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL. Reference lists of the included studies were explored along with journals likely to contain studies relevant to the topic. The search was restricted to the English language. The inclusion criteria included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials including parallel or cross-over studies comparing botulinum toxin therapy (BTX) versus any alternative intervention or placebo. Quality assessment and data extraction were done following the Cochrane risk of bias tool and recommendations. All of the steps in the review, including the search and selection process, were done independently by two reviewers. Disagreements were discussed with one another until consensus was reached. Five relevant studies were included in the review, which consisted of 117 participants. Two trials revealed a significant inter-group difference in myofascial pain reduction. Another trial that compared BTX with fascial manipulation showed no significant difference in pain relief for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), while the remaining two trials showed no significant difference between the BTX and placebo groups. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the considerable variation in study methods and evaluation of the results. All five studies were targeted primarily on the masseter and temporalis muscles and most of them administered injections at bilateral muscle sites. The methods used to find the muscles to target were all based on physical examination, with three studies using electromyography (EMG) as guidance. The dose of BTX ranged from 70U to 300U, the majority used being 100-150U. All studies gave a single session of BTX and re-evaluated participants at least one month following the injection. No consensus could be reached on the therapeutic benefit of BTX on TMDs.

  20. The impact of hemoglobin levels on patient and graft survival in renal transplant recipients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2008-08-27

    It remains unclear whether low hemoglobin levels are associated with increased mortality or graft loss after renal transplantation. This study assessed the relationship of hemoglobin levels with patient and graft survival in 3859 patients with functioning renal transplants more than 6-months posttransplantation.

  1. New hominin remains from Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle; Viola, Bence; Wrinn, Patrick; Chikisheva, Tatiana; Derevianko, Anatoly; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Islamov, Uktur; Suleimanov, Rustam; Ritzman, Terrence

    2008-08-01

    Although the Paleolithic occupations of Uzbekistan and the neighboring foothill regions of Tajikistan and Kazakhstan are well-documented, almost no hominin fossil material has been discovered in the area since Teshik-Tash 1 in 1938. Here we describe and offer a preliminary comparative framework for hominin remains that were recovered in 2003 from two Middle Paleolithic sites in Uzbekistan, Obi-Rakhmat Grotto and Anghilak Cave. The description of Teshik-Tash as a Neandertal and the preponderance of lithic assemblages identified as Mousterian in character has supported the interpretation of the region as the eastern-most extent of the Neandertal range. The material from Obi-Rakhmat (OR-1), a subadult represented by part of a permanent maxillary dentition and a fragmentary cranium, expresses a relatively Neandertal-like dentition coupled with more ambiguous cranial anatomy. The remains from Anghilak Cave include a non-diagnostic, diminutive right fifth metatarsal (AH-1). These findings are important additions to the Central Asia hominin fossil record.

  2. Social identification when an in-group identity is unclear: the role of self-anchoring and self-stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina

    2013-09-01

    The present paper investigates how people identify with groups depending on the clarity of a group's identity content. According to self-categorization theory, self-stereotyping (i.e., projection of group prototypes onto self) should be the cognitive process underlying social identification. We argue, however, that this is only plausible in clearly defined groups. If a group is unclear in terms of its identity content, we argue that self-anchoring (i.e., projection of personal self onto group) accounts for social identification. In line with these hypotheses, two studies (with minimal and real groups) reveal that self-anchoring positively predicts the level of social identification and entitativity in unclearly, but not clearly defined groups. Conversely, self-stereotyping positively predicts the level of social identification in clearly, but not unclearly defined groups. Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the differential impact of cognitive projection processes on social identification depending on group clarity. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis: A literature review of a rare diffuse parenchymal lung disease with unclear clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Gleason

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis is a rare disease, with unclear clinical significance and very few reported cases in the literature. In this study, we review the demographics, presentation, imaging, diagnostic workup, and histologic findings of the 25 patients previously published in the literature with an outline of the disease history. Materials and Methods: We conducted a review of the literature through July 2016 for studies reporting cases of diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis by searching multiple scholarly databases. Results: Of the 25 cases identified 2 were male (8%, and 23 were female (92%. Ages ranged from 37 to 73 with a median age of 59.5 years at diagnosis. 15 (60% were asymptomatic and imaging abnormalities were discovered incidentally. 8 (32% had unexplained respiratory complaints. 11 (44% had history of or active malignancy. 3 (12% were diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy while the remainder had surgical lung biopsies. Conclusion: Diffuse pulmonary meningotheliomatosis should be considered in all patients with diffuse bilateral pulmonary nodules on HRCT. The condition is more prevalent in females and its clinical significance is unclear, although nearly half of those diagnosed had a history of malignancy. CT imaging and surgical lung biopsy are the modalities of choice for diagnosis but transbronchial biopsies have recently been used obtain the diagnosis. Additional research needs to be done to further characterize the nature of this condition and the clinical scenarios in which is presents.

  4. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum: An effective method to trace the origin of unclear ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que Yanhong [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: quebaobao@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xuemei [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: wxmlmt@yahoo.com.cn; Liu Yanjun [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: lyj7512@sina.com; Li Ping [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: liping7213@sina.com; Ou Guocheng [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: yang9951@126.com; Zhao Wenjing [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail: awk999@163.com

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: Thickened greater omentum is encountered with high frequency in patients with ascites. The purpose of our study was to assess the utility of greater omentum biopsy under the guidance of ultrasound (US) in tracing the origin of unclear ascites and differentiating benign and malignant ascites. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database for all records of greater omentum biopsy cases. One hundred and ninety-four patients with unclear ascites and thickened greater omentum were included in the study. The sonograms of greater omentum were evaluated before undergoing the ultrasound-guided biopsy and a biopsy was considered successful if a specific benign or malignant diagnosis was rendered by the pathologist. Results: Successful biopsy was rendered for 182 biopsy procedures (93.8%, 182/194) including tuberculosis (n = 114), chronic inflammation (n = 3), metastases (n = 58), malignant mesothelioma (n = 6) and pseudomyxoma peritonei (n = 1). Twelve biopsies were non-diagnostic. According to the results of biopsy and follow-up, the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascities were respectively 95.6% (65/68) and 92.9% (117/126). The greater omentum of 84 cases of tuberculous peritonitis showed 'cerebral fissure' sign and was well seen as an omental cake infiltrated with irregular nodules when involved by carcinomatosis. No 'cerebral fissure' sign was observed in peritoneal carcinomatosis. The sensitivity and specificity of this sign in indicating the existence of tuberculous peritonitis were 73.5% (89/121) and 100% (73/73). Moreover, if the specific 'cerebral fissure' sign was combined with the biopsy results, the specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascits increased to 96.8% (122/126). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum is an important and effective method to diagnose the unclear ascites for

  5. Dopamine transporter imaging in clinically unclear cases of parkinsonism and the importance of Scans Without Evidence of Dopaminergic Deficit (SWEDDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. T. Utiumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD is susceptible to misdiagnosis, especially in the earlier stages of the disease. Recently, in vivo imaging techniques assessing the presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT have emerged as a useful tool in PD diagnosis, improving its accuracy. OBJECTIVE: It was to illustrate the clinical usefulness of a brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT DAT ligand, and highlight relevant aspects of scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDDs in this context. CASES: We described four representative patients with clinically unclear parkinsonian syndromes who underwent [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT and reviewed the clinical implications. CONCLUSION: DAT-SPECT is an important, cost-effective, technique for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. Additionally, SWEDD cases present clinical and paraclinical peculiarities that may retrospectively identify them as essential/dystonic tremor. The lack of histopathological data limits further conclusions.

  6. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  7. Families and health-care professionals' perspectives and expectations of family-centred care: hidden expectations and unclear roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Imelda

    2015-10-01

    Family-centred care (FCC) is viewed as a pivotal concept in the provision of high-quality nursing care for children and their families, yet implementation continues to be problematic worldwide. This research investigated how FCC was enacted from families and nurses' perspectives. Descriptive qualitative approach using elements of analysis from grounded theory method. Data were collected though individual interviews with 18 children aged 7-16 years, their parents (n = 18) and 18 nurses from two children's hospital and one children's unit in a large general hospital in Ireland. Four key themes were identified: expectations; relying on parents' help; working out roles; and barriers to FCC. Nurses wholeheartedly endorsed FCC because of the benefits for families and their reliance on parents' contribution to the workload. There was minimal evidence of collaboration or negotiation of roles which resulted in parents feeling stressed or abandoned. Nurses cited busy workload, under-staffing and inappropriate documentation as key factors which resulted in over-reliance on parents and hindered their efforts to negotiate and work alongside parents. Families are willing to help in their child's care but they require clear guidance, information and support from nurses. Hidden expectations and unclear roles are stressful for families. Nurses need skills training, adequate resources and managerial support to meet families' needs appropriately, to establish true collaboration and to deliver optimal family-centred care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. IGFBP2 expression predicts IDH-mutant glioma patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin Eric; Cohen, Adam L; Colman, Howard; Jensen, Randy L; Fults, Daniel W; Couldwell, William T

    2017-01-03

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 genes occur in ~80% of lower-grade (WHO grade II and grade III) gliomas. Mutant IDH produces (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate, which induces DNA hypermethylation and presumably drives tumorigenesis. Interestingly, IDH mutations are associated with improved survival in glioma patients, but the underlying mechanism for the difference in survival remains unclear. Through comparative analyses of 286 cases of IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant lower-grade glioma from a TCGA data set, we report that IDH-mutant gliomas have increased expression of tumor-suppressor genes (NF1, PTEN, and PIK3R1) and decreased expression of oncogenes(AKT2, ARAF, ERBB2, FGFR3, and PDGFRB) and glioma progression genes (FOXM1, IGFBP2, and WWTR1) compared with IDH-wildtype gliomas. Furthermore, each of these genes is prognostic in overall gliomas; however, within the IDH-mutant group, none remains prognostic except IGFBP2 (encodinginsulin-like growth factor binding protein 2). Through validation in an independent cohort, we show that patients with low IGFBP2 expressiondisplay a clear advantage in overall and disease-free survival, whereas those with high IGFBP2 expressionhave worse median survival than IDH-wildtype patients. These observations hold true across different histological and molecular subtypes of lower-grade glioma. We propose therefore that an unexpected biological consequence of IDH mutations in glioma is to ameliorate patient survival by promoting tumor-suppressor signaling while inhibiting that of oncogenes, particularly IGFBP2.

  9. Potential Toxicity and Underlying Mechanisms Associated with Pulmonary Exposure to Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Conflicting Literature and Unclear Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany G. Kornberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Fine/micron-sized iron oxide particulates are incidentally released from a number of industrial processes, including iron ore mining, steel processing, welding, and pyrite production. Some research suggests that occupational exposure to these particulates is linked to an increased risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, whereas other studies suggest that iron oxide is biologically benign. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs, which are less than 100 nm in diameter, have recently surged in use as components of novel drug delivery systems, unique imaging protocols, as environmental catalysts, and for incorporation into thermoplastics. However, the adverse outcomes associated with occupational exposure to IONPs remain relatively unknown. Relevant in vivo studies suggest that pulmonary exposure to IONPs may induce inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, genotoxicity, and extra-pulmonary effects. This correlates well with in vitro studies that utilize relevant dose, cell type(s, and meaningful end points. A majority of these adverse outcomes are attributed to increased oxidative stress, most likely caused by particle internalization, dissolution, release of free iron ions, and disruption of iron homeostasis. However, because the overall toxicity profile of IONPs is not well understood, it is difficult to set safe exposure limit recommendations that would be adequate for the protection of at-risk workers. This review article will focus on known risks following IONPs exposure supported by human, animal, and cell culture-based studies, the potential challenges intrinsic to IONPs toxicity assessment, and how these may contribute to the poorly characterized IONPs toxicity profile.

  10. Calculating the price of tanks, vessels and process equipment of petrochemical industry second criteria of integrity and survival remaining of API RP 579 (Fitness for service); Calculo do preco de tanques, vasos e equipamentos de processo da industria petroquimica segundo criterios de integridade e sobrevida remanescente do API RP 579 (Fitness for service)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morato, Paulo Cesar Vidal Morato [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    By owning many tanks, vessels and process equipment, PETROBRAS has developed the concept of 'Fitness-For-Service' (suitability for use) under the standard API RP 579, i.e. to verify the structural integrity and remaining useful life of equipment in service. In this paper we will discuss how to calculate the remaining useful life of equipment used in accordance with such criteria and with this technical data, calculate the depreciated price. Steps: verification of applicability; surveys of the technical data of the equipment; surveys the minimum thickness of plating equipment over the years; calculation of the average annual rate of corrosion (tc); calculation of the required minimum thickness according to the criteria of API RP 579 (tr); calculation of remaining useful life (nr); calculation of the depreciated price (Vd) equipment. Conclusions: intended for evaluation of tanks price, vessels and process equipment according to API RP 579 concepts. Estimate the remaining useful life of equipment used and calculates the depreciated price. Scientific method based, consistent and robust, due to calculating established the remaining useful life. (author)

  11. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  12. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2014-09-01

    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  13. Mammalian Remains from Indian Sites on Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1960-01-01

    Mr. H. R. VAN HEEKEREN and Mr. C. J. DU RY, of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde at Leiden, entrusted me with the identification of some animal remains collected from Indian sites on Aruba by Professor J. P. B. DE JOSSELIN DE JONG in 1923. These remains relate for the most part to marine turtles

  14. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah; van de Goot, Frank; Ruijter, Jan; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2017-01-01

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered

  15. EDITORIAL MALARIA DIAGNOSIS Malaria remains the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-02

    Mar 2, 2005 ... Malaria remains the most significant parasitic disease affecting man. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to cost effective management (1). Since the identification of Plasmodium parasites in human blood in 1880, the diagnosis of malaria has remained a hot bed of scientific discussion.

  16. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass Remaining During Evaporation of Sessile Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    oscillations in the mass remaining. • TRANSFORM ED t TRUEt TRUEtCont 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 TIMI (Hr) Figure 13. Effect of 3 min...2.5 2.55 2.8 TIMI (Hr) 2.86 2.1 275 2.8 Figure 14. Mass Remaining vs. Time Expanded Scale The assumed sinusoidal variation of the friction velocity

  19. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  20. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  1. The annuity puzzle remains a puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, Kim; Nijman, Theo; Werker, Bas J. M.

    We examine incomplete annuity menus, background risk, bequest motives, and default risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds

  2. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  3. The case for fencing remains intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  5. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  6. [Remaining solvents in dry cleaned over clothes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, H; Fujishiro, K; Matsuno, K; Kawamoto, T; Okubo, T

    1999-03-01

    We examined remaining solvents in dry cleaned trousers to estimate the magnitude of environmental pollution. A cleaning solvent of petroleum hydrocarbon was analyzed by means of capillary column mass spectrum gas chromatography. Principal ingredients were identified to be nonane, decane and undecane. The same main components were detected in dry cleaned trousers. Total amounts of evaporated vapor from a pair of trousers (480 g) in 5 days after dry cleaning were nonane (0.73 mg), decane (1.53 mg) and undecane (1.09 mg). The levels on the fifth day were 5%(nonane), 18%(decane) and 32%(undecane) of the first day's concentration, respectively. The half times of the remaining solvents were 1.0 day (nonane), 1.7 days (decane) and 2.7 days (undecane), respectively.

  7. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Poux, Florent; Neuville, Romain; Hallot, Pierre; Billen, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmenta...

  8. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  9. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  10. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  11. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  12. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  13. The effect of direct and indirect exposure to violence on youth survival expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Tara D; Swisher, Raymond R

    2014-12-01

    Research finds that adolescents gravely overestimate their risk of death and that these pessimistic attitudes correlate with risky behaviors undermining health and well-being; however, it remains unclear why adolescents have negative expectations about their survival. Because youth are most likely to be exposed to violence (as victims and/or witnesses), perhaps these experiences are key in undermining expectations about the future. We explored the effect of direct and indirect exposures to violence-across various contexts-on adolescents' survival expectations. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we tested the effect of violent experiences: individual direct and vicarious violence, familial and relational violence, school violence, and community violence on adolescents' expectations of surviving to 35 years of age. Victims of childhood physical abuse were less likely to expect to survive to 35 years of age. Although not significant at the conventional p violence were marginally associated with decreased survival expectations (p violence undermined expectations at the bivariate level, but became nonsignificant after adjustments for individual demographic characteristics. Violent victimization in childhood and adolescence is a public health issue with both immediate and long-term consequences. Violence exposure severely compromises individuals' optimism about the future and places them at risk for behaviors that can further undermine well-being. Practitioners should be mindful of diminished survival expectations as a less overt consequence of exposure to violence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Regulation of radial glial survival by signals from the meninges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovits, Randor; Barros, Claudia S.; Belvindrah, Richard; Patton, Bruce; Müller, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Summary Radial glial cells (RGCs) in the developing cerebral cortex are progenitors for neurons and glia and their processes serve as guideposts for migrating neurons. So far, it has remained unclear whether RGC processes also control the function of RGCs more directly. Here we show that RGC numbers and cortical size are reduced in mice lacking β1 integrins in RGCs. TUNEL stainings and time-lapse video recordings demonstrate that β1-deficient RGCs processes detach from the meningeal BM followed by apoptotic death of RGCs. Apoptosis is also induced by surgical removal of the meninges. Finally, mice lacking the BM components laminin α2 and α4 show defects in the attachment of RGC processes at the meninges, a reduction in cortical size, and enhanced apoptosis of RGC cells. Our findings demonstrate that attachment of RGC processes at the meninges is important for RGC survival and the control of cortical size. PMID:19535581

  15. Therapeutic impact of [{sup 18}F]fluoride positron-emission tomography/computed tomography on patients with unclear foot pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Dorothee Rita; Hesselmann, Rolf; Johayem, Anass; Hany, Thomas F.; Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Strobel, Klaus [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Maquieira, Gerardo J.; Espinosa, Norman [University of Zurich, Foot and Ankle Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco [University of Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate the therapeutic impact of [{sup 18}F]fluoride positron-emission tomography/computed tomography ([{sup 18}F]fluoride PET/CT) imaging on patients with unclear foot pain. Twenty-eight patients were prospectively included in this study. Therapeutic management was defined by two experienced dedicated foot surgeons before and after [{sup 18}F]fluoride PET/CT imaging. Twenty-six patients underwent cross-sectional imaging [CT, magnetic resonance (MR)] prior to PET/CT. A retrospective analysis of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnoses was performed when a therapy change occurred after PET/CT imaging. In 13/28 (46%) patients therapeutic management was changed due to PET/CT results. Management changes occurred in patients with the following diagnoses: os trigonum syndrome; sinus tarsi syndrome; os tibiale externum syndrome; osteoarthritis of several joints; non-consolidated fragments; calcaneo-navicular coalition; plantar fasciitis; insertional tendinopathy; suggestion of periostitis; neoarticulations between metatarsal bones. Os trigonum, os tibiale externum, subtalar osteoarthritis and plantar fasciitis were only seen to be active on PET/CT images but not on MR images. [{sup 18}F]fluoride PET/CT has a substantial therapeutic impact on management in patients with unclear foot pain. (orig.)

  16. Value of conventional, and diffusion- and perfusion weighted MRI in the management of patients with unclear cerebral pathology, admitted to the intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundgren, P.C. [Department of Radiology, Lund University Hospital, SE 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Reinstrup, P. [Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Lund University Hospital, SE 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Romner, B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Lund University Hospital, SE 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Holtaas, S.; Maly, P. [Department of Radiology, Lund University Hospital, SE 221 85 Lund (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    The aim of our retrospective study was to determine the extent to which diffusion- and perfusion- weighted MRI combined with conventional MRI could be helpful in the evaluation of intensive care unit (ICU) patients who have unknown or unclear cerebral pathology underlying a serious clinical condition. Twenty-one ICU patients with disparity between the findings on brain CT scan and their clinical status were studied. All patients underwent conventional MR and diffusion-weighted imaging and 14 also had MR perfusion studies. Abnormalities were present on diffusion-weighted imaging of 17 of the 21 patients and on perfusion-weighted studies of 7 of 14 patients. The MRI results changed the preliminary/working diagnosis in six patients. In eight other patients, MRI revealed additional pathology that had not been suspected clinically, and/or characterized more closely findings that had already been detected by CT or suspected clinically. MRI showed abnormalities in four of the five patients who had normal CT. MRI findings suggested a negative clinical outcome in all nine patients who subsequently died. MRI findings also suggested positive long-term outcome in five of nine patients who improved significantly as based on Glasgow and extended Glasgow outcome scales. In the three unconscious patients who had normal diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging the clinical outcome was good. This study suggests that MRI in seriously ill ICU patients with unclear cerebral pathology can provide information that changes, characterizes, or supports diagnoses and/or prognoses and therefore facilitates further management. (orig.)

  17. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  18. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  19. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  20. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  1. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  2. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT.

  3. The Changing Face of Survival in Rett Syndrome and MECP2-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquinio, Daniel C; Hou, Wei; Neul, Jeffrey L; Kaufmann, Walter E; Glaze, Daniel G; Motil, Kathleen J; Skinner, Steven A; Lee, Hye-Seung; Percy, Alan K

    2015-11-01

    Survival in Rett syndrome remains unclear. Although early estimates were grim, more recent data suggest that survival into adulthood is typical. We aimed to define survival in Rett syndrome more clearly and identify risk factors for early death. Participants with clinical Rett Syndrome or methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 mutations without clinical RTT were recruited through the Rett Syndrome Natural History study from 2006 to 2015. Clinical details were collected, and survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Risk factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1189 valid participants, 51 died (range 3.9-66.6 years) during the 9-year follow-up period. Those who died included 36 (3.9%) classic Rett syndrome females, 5 (5.9%) atypical severe Rett syndrome females, 1 (2.4%) non-Rett syndrome female, the single atypical severe male, 6 (30%) non-Rett syndrome males, and 2 (7.1%) methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 duplication syndrome males. All atypical mild Rett syndrome females, methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 duplication syndrome females, and the single classic Rett syndrome male remain alive. Most deaths were due to cardiorespiratory issues. Only one died from severe malnutrition, scoliosis, and extreme frailty. Survival for classic and atypical Rett syndrome was greater than 70% at 45 years. Overall severity and several modifiable risk factors, including ambulation, weight, and seizures, were associated with mortality in classic Rett syndrome. Survival into the fifth decade is typical in Rett syndrome, and death due to extreme frailty has become rare. Although the leading cause of death remains cardiorespiratory compromise, many risk factors for early death are modifiable. Intense therapeutic interventions could further improve the prognosis for individuals with Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship of diagnostic and therapeutic delay with survival in colorectal cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria; Esteva, Magdalena; Cabeza, Elena; Campillo, Carlos; Llobera, Joan; Aguiló, Antonio

    2007-11-01

    Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer before the onset of symptoms improves survival. Once symptoms have occurred, however, the effect of delay on survival is unclear. We review here evidence on the relationship of diagnostic and therapeutic delay with survival in colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic of Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify publications published between 1962 and 2006 dealing with delay, survival and colon cancer. A meta-analysis was performed based on the calculation of the relative risk (RR) and on a model of random effects. We identified 40 studies, representing 20,440 patients. Fourteen studies were excluded due to excessively restricted samples (e.g. exclusion of patients with intestinal obstruction, with tumours at stage C or D at the time of diagnosis, or who died 1-3 months after surgery); or because they studied only a portion of the delay. Of the 26 remaining studies, 20 showed no association between delay and survival. In contrast, four studies showed that delay was a factor contributing to better prognosis, and two showed that it contributed to poorer prognosis. There was no association between delay and survival when the colon and rectum were considered separately, when a multivariate analysis was performed, and when the effects of tumour stage and degree of differentiation were taken into account. To perform a meta-analysis, 18 additional studies were excluded, since the published articles did not specify the absolute numbers. In the remaining eight studies, the combined relative risk (RR) of delay was 0.92 (confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.87-0.97). The results of the review suggest that there is no association between diagnostic and therapeutic delay and survival in colorectal cancer patients. Colon and rectum should be assessed separately, and it is necessary to adjust for other relevant variables such as tumour stage.

  5. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  6. Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jodi M; Martinez, Steve R; Bold, Richard J; Chen, Steven L

    2010-09-15

    The role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast remains unclear. We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database for patients with breast ACC resected between 1988 and 2005, and divided patients based on the receipt of RT. Univariate and multivariate survival comparisons were made for overall and disease-specific survival. Three hundred seventy six patients met criteria for inclusion. Demographics and staging were similar between groups. Univariate analysis revealed an absolute overall and cause-specific survival benefit of 21% and 7% at 10 years (P = 0.005 and P = 0.12 respectively). In the multivariate analysis, RT was a significant predictor of overall and cause-specific survival with hazard ratios of 0.44 (95% Confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.88) and 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01-0.88), respectively. RT after local surgical therapy for ACC of the breast improved both cause-specific and overall survival. Use of RT in this rare tumor should be considered in patients otherwise eligible for RT. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Improving but inferior survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in taiwan: a population-based study, 1990-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shang-Ju; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Lin, Chien-Ting; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is much less prevalent in Asian countries. Whether there are differences in survival outcomes between the East and West, however, remain unclear. The survival data for CLL patients identified in the Taiwan Cancer Registry database between 1990 and 2004, together with corresponding data in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, were retrieved. The relative survivals (RS, adjusted for the expected survival in the general population) were estimated in patients diagnosed in three 5-year periods of time. CLL drastically shortened patients' life expectancy; more importantly, this negative impact in Taiwan was much larger than that in the US: the 5-year RS in Taiwan and US were 59% and 76%, and the 10-year RS, 45% and 56%, respectively. Nevertheless, survival in Taiwan was better in the periods after 1995 (5-year RS, from 53.0% to 60.6%), a time period corresponding to the introduction of the Taiwan National Health Insurance scheme. Such improvement was largely due to decreased mortality in patients younger than 65 (5-year RS, from 53.5% to 69.1%). Despite the improvement, patients' RS in Taiwan in recent periods remain steadily 15∼20% inferior to that in the US in both younger and older patient groups. The improved RS in Taiwan implies that therapeutic advances are changing the prognosis of CLL. The stable RS gap between Taiwanese and the US patients suggests the existence of an ethnic difference in CLL patients' outcomes.

  8. Improving but inferior survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in taiwan: a population-based study, 1990-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Ju Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is much less prevalent in Asian countries. Whether there are differences in survival outcomes between the East and West, however, remain unclear. METHODS: The survival data for CLL patients identified in the Taiwan Cancer Registry database between 1990 and 2004, together with corresponding data in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, were retrieved. The relative survivals (RS, adjusted for the expected survival in the general population were estimated in patients diagnosed in three 5-year periods of time. RESULTS: CLL drastically shortened patients' life expectancy; more importantly, this negative impact in Taiwan was much larger than that in the US: the 5-year RS in Taiwan and US were 59% and 76%, and the 10-year RS, 45% and 56%, respectively. Nevertheless, survival in Taiwan was better in the periods after 1995 (5-year RS, from 53.0% to 60.6%, a time period corresponding to the introduction of the Taiwan National Health Insurance scheme. Such improvement was largely due to decreased mortality in patients younger than 65 (5-year RS, from 53.5% to 69.1%. Despite the improvement, patients' RS in Taiwan in recent periods remain steadily 15∼20% inferior to that in the US in both younger and older patient groups. CONCLUSIONS: The improved RS in Taiwan implies that therapeutic advances are changing the prognosis of CLL. The stable RS gap between Taiwanese and the US patients suggests the existence of an ethnic difference in CLL patients' outcomes.

  9. Evaluation of 18F-fluoride PET/MR and PET/CT in patients with foot pain of unclear cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Isabel; Beer, Ambros J; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Crönlein, Moritz; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Sandmann, Gunther; Fürst, Sebastian; Kilger, Robert; Herz, Michael; Ziegler, Sybille; Schwaiger, Markus; Eiber, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to compare the quality and diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoride PET/MR imaging with that of (18)F-fluoride PET/CT imaging in patients with foot pain of unclear cause. Twenty-two patients (9 men, 13 women; mean age, 48 ± 18 y; range, 20-78 y) were prospectively included in this study and underwent a single-injection dual-imaging protocol with (18)F-fluoride PET/CT and PET/MR. At a minimum, the PET/MR protocol included T1-weighted spin echo and proton-density fat-saturated sequences in 2 planes each with simultaneous acquisition of PET over 20 min. PET/CT included a native isotropic (0.6 mm) diagnostic CT scan (80 kV, 165 mAs) and a subsequent PET scan (2 min per bed position). By consensus, 2 masked interpreters randomly assessed both PET datasets for image quality (3-point scale) and for the presence of focal lesions with increased (18)F-fluoride uptake (maximum of 4 lesions). For each dataset (PET/CT vs. PET/MR), the diagnoses were defined using both PET and a morphologic dataset. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) from the 2 devices were compared using linear correlation and Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, we estimated the potential for dose reduction for PET/MR compared with PET/CT considering the longer acquisition time of PET/MR analyzing count rate statistics. Image quality was rated diagnostic for both PET datasets. However, with a mean rating of 3.0/3 for PET/MR and 2.3/3 for PET/CT, image quality was significantly superior for PET/MR (P PET/MR and PET/CT was equivalent, with the same 42 lesions showing focal (18)F-fluoride uptake. In PET/MR, the mean SUVmean was 10.4 (range, 2.0-67.7) and the mean SUVmax was 15.6 (range, 2.9-94.1). In PET/CT, the corresponding mean SUVmean of PET/CT was 10.2 (range, 1.8-55.6) and the mean SUVmax was 16.3 (range, 2.5-117.5), resulting in a high linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.96, P PET/MR was more specific in nondegenerative pathologies because of the higher soft-tissue and bone marrow contrast

  10. Low socioeconomic status is associated with worse survival in children with cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While low socioeconomic status (SES has been associated with inferior cancer outcome among adults, its impact in pediatric oncology is unclear. Our objective was therefore to conduct a systematic review to determine the impact of SES upon outcome in children with cancer. METHODS: We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL from inception to December 2012. Studies for which survival-related outcomes were reported by socioeconomic subgroups were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed articles and extracted data. Given anticipated heterogeneity, no quantitative meta-analyses were planned a priori. RESULTS: Of 7,737 publications, 527 in ten languages met criteria for full review; 36 studies met final inclusion criteria. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, lower SES was uniformly associated with inferior survival, regardless of the measure chosen. The majority of associations were statistically significant. Of 52 associations between socioeconomic variables and outcome among high-income country (HIC children, 38 (73.1% found low SES to be associated with worse survival, 15 of which were statistically significant. Of the remaining 14 (no association or high SES associated with worse survival, only one was statistically significant. Both HIC studies examining the effect of insurance found uninsured status to be statistically associated with inferior survival. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic gradients in which low SES is associated with inferior childhood cancer survival are ubiquitous in LMIC and common in HIC. Future studies should elucidate mechanisms underlying these gradients, allowing the design of interventions mediating socioeconomic effects. Targeting the effect of low SES will allow for further improvements in childhood cancer survival.

  11. Low Socioeconomic Status Is Associated with Worse Survival in Children with Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Wilejto, Marta; Pole, Jason D.; Guttmann, Astrid; Sung, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Background While low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with inferior cancer outcome among adults, its impact in pediatric oncology is unclear. Our objective was therefore to conduct a systematic review to determine the impact of SES upon outcome in children with cancer. Methods We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL from inception to December 2012. Studies for which survival-related outcomes were reported by socioeconomic subgroups were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed articles and extracted data. Given anticipated heterogeneity, no quantitative meta-analyses were planned a priori. Results Of 7,737 publications, 527 in ten languages met criteria for full review; 36 studies met final inclusion criteria. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), lower SES was uniformly associated with inferior survival, regardless of the measure chosen. The majority of associations were statistically significant. Of 52 associations between socioeconomic variables and outcome among high-income country (HIC) children, 38 (73.1%) found low SES to be associated with worse survival, 15 of which were statistically significant. Of the remaining 14 (no association or high SES associated with worse survival), only one was statistically significant. Both HIC studies examining the effect of insurance found uninsured status to be statistically associated with inferior survival. Conclusions Socioeconomic gradients in which low SES is associated with inferior childhood cancer survival are ubiquitous in LMIC and common in HIC. Future studies should elucidate mechanisms underlying these gradients, allowing the design of interventions mediating socioeconomic effects. Targeting the effect of low SES will allow for further improvements in childhood cancer survival. PMID:24586813

  12. The influence of social support on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survival: a systematic review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Beattie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT can negatively impact the psychosocial well-being of the patient. Social support is a complex term that has been variably used to encompass perceived and objective support, including caregiver presence. Social support has been associated with superior psychosocial outcomes; however the influence of social support on HSCT survival remains unclear. We sought to summarize the literature on the influence of social support on HSCT survival. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINAHL, AND PSYCINFO WERE SEARCHED USING THE FOLLOWING SEARCH CATEGORIES/CONCEPTS: 1 HSCT, 2 Social support, 3 Caregiver, 4 Survival, and 5 Treatment outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 6 relevant studies: 4 publications, 1 dissertation, and 1 abstract. Three studies were retrospective and 3, prospective. Sample size ranged between 92-272 with a mean/median patient age between 30-55 yrs. The duration of follow-up ranged between 13.3-48 months. Social support was measured inconsistently: 2 by retrospective investigator assessment, 2 as patients' perceived support, 1 as caregiver presence, and 1 included caregiver presence and retrospective investigator assessment. The 4 published studies and 1 abstract demonstrate an association between better social support and survival. However, the unpublished dissertation, with the largest sample size found no association. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of evidence examining social support with HSCT survival. Available studies are older, with the most recent publication in 2005. A heterogeneous group of HSCT patients were studied with variable follow-up times. Further, covariates were variably considered in HSCT survival analyses and we suggest that there may be publication bias, given the negative unpublished study with the largest sample size. Prospective studies using validated scales are necessary to better assess the influence of social support on HSCT mortality. Given the potential

  13. Long-Term Survival Outcomes of Cancer-Directed Surgery for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David B; Rice, David C; Niu, Jiangong; Atay, Scott; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Antonoff, Mara; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Walsh, Garrett L; Swisher, Stephen G; Roth, Jack A; Tsao, Anne; Gomez, Daniel; Giordano, Sharon H; Mehran, Reza; Sepesi, Boris

    2017-10-10

    Purpose Small observational studies have shown a survival advantage to undergoing cancer-directed surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM); however, it is unclear if these results are generalizable. Our purpose was to evaluate survival after treatment of MPM with cancer-directed surgery and to explore the effect surgery interaction with chemotherapy or radiation therapy on survival by using the National Cancer Database. Patients and Methods Patients with microscopically proven MPM were identified within the National Cancer Database (2004 to 2014). Propensity score matching was performed 1:2 and among this cohort, a Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify predictors of survival. Median survival was calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 20,561 patients with MPM, 6,645 were identified in the matched cohort, among whom 2,166 underwent no therapy, 2,015 underwent chemotherapy alone, 850 underwent cancer-directed surgery alone, 988 underwent surgery with chemotherapy, and 274 underwent trimodality therapy. The remaining 352 patients underwent another combination of surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. Thirty-day and 90-day mortality rates were 6.3% and 15.5%. Cancer-directed surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were independently associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.77, 0.74, and 0.88, respectively). Stratified analysis revealed that surgery-based multimodality therapy demonstrated an improved survival compared with surgery alone, with no significant difference between surgery-based multimodality therapies; however, the largest estimated effect was when cancer-directed surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were combined (hazard ratio, 0.52). For patients with the epithelial subtype who underwent trimodality therapy, median survival was extended from 14.5 months to 23.4 months. Conclusion MPM is an aggressive and rapidly fatal disease. Surgery-based multimodality therapy was associated with

  14. Impaired survival of regulatory T cells in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, Caroline E.; van Nimwegen, Menno; Kleinjan, Alex; ten Berge, Bregje; Muskens, Femke; in 't Veen, Johannes C. C. M.; Annema, Jouke T.; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Hendriks, Rudi W.; Kool, Mirjam; van den Blink, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Impaired regulatory T cell (Treg) function is thought to contribute to ongoing inflammatory responses in sarcoidosis, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Moreover, it is not known if increased apoptotic susceptibility of Tregs may contribute to an impaired immunosuppressive function in

  15. Impaired survival of regulatory T cells in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. Broos (Caroline); M. van Nimwegen (Menno); A. Kleinjan (Alex); B. ten Berge (Bregje); F. Muskens (Femke); J.C.C.M. in 't Veen (Johannes); J.T. Annema (Jouke); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); M. Kool (Mirjam); B. van den Blink (Bernt)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impaired regulatory T cell (Treg) function is thought to contribute to ongoing inflammatory responses in sarcoidosis, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Moreover, it is not known if increased apoptotic susceptibility of Tregs may contribute to an impaired

  16. Systematic review finds that study data not published in full text articles have unclear impact on meta-analyses results in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Christine M; Blümle, Anette; Schell, Lisa K; Schwarzer, Guido; Oeller, Patrick; Cabrera, Laura; von Elm, Erik; Briel, Matthias; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis as part of a systematic review aims to provide a thorough, comprehensive and unbiased statistical summary of data from the literature. However, relevant study results could be missing from a meta-analysis because of selective publication and inadequate dissemination. If missing outcome data differ systematically from published ones, a meta-analysis will be biased with an inaccurate assessment of the intervention effect. As part of the EU-funded OPEN project (www.open-project.eu) we conducted a systematic review that assessed whether the inclusion of data that were not published at all and/or published only in the grey literature influences pooled effect estimates in meta-analyses and leads to different interpretation. Systematic review of published literature (methodological research projects). Four bibliographic databases were searched up to February 2016 without restriction of publication year or language. Methodological research projects were considered eligible for inclusion if they reviewed a cohort of meta-analyses which (i) compared pooled effect estimates of meta-analyses of health care interventions according to publication status of data or (ii) examined whether the inclusion of unpublished or grey literature data impacts the result of a meta-analysis. Seven methodological research projects including 187 meta-analyses comparing pooled treatment effect estimates according to different publication status were identified. Two research projects showed that published data showed larger pooled treatment effects in favour of the intervention than unpublished or grey literature data (Ratio of ORs 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.28 and 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.66). In the remaining research projects pooled effect estimates and/or overall findings were not significantly changed by the inclusion of unpublished and/or grey literature data. The precision of the pooled estimate was increased with narrower 95% confidence interval. Although we may anticipate that

  17. Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, E.F.; Koning, T.J. de; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Hasselt, P.M. van

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES

  18. Survival and Psychomotor Development With Early Betaine Treatment in Patients With Severe Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, Eugene F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; van Hasselt, Peter M.

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES

  19. Estimates of conditional survival in gastric cancer reveal a reduction of racial disparities with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyimbazi, David; Nelson, Rebecca A; Choi, Audrey H; Li, Lily; Chao, Joseph; Sun, Virginia; Hamner, John B; Kim, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    In prior analyses, conditional survival (CS) estimates for gastric cancer have weighed clinical and pathologic factors to predict prognosis at time intervals after surgery. Since racial disparities in gastric cancer outcomes were not considered, our objective was to determine whether race influences CS estimates. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry were used to identify gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent curative surgical intervention between 1988 and 2005. Five-year relative conditional survival (RCS) was computed for patients who survived at least 1 to 5 years after surgery. RCS was calculated by assessing observed and expected survival in an age- and race-matched standard population. Results were compared across time and racial groups (white, black, and Asian) using z test statistics. Of 14,067 patients, 63.8 % were white, 15.5 % black, and 20.7 % Asian. Racial disparities among groups were observed with improved survival of Asians at time point zero and improved RCS at 1 year. At 5 years following curative surgery, each racial group had increased RCS and the greatest magnitude of relative increase was observed in white and black patients (121 and 118 %, respectively). Comparison of RCS at the 5-year time point revealed a reduction of racial disparities in survival among the three groups. Our investigation shows that racial disparities in gastric cancer outcomes are pronounced at the time of curative surgery but diminish after years of survival, thus suggesting race has less influence over outcomes the longer patients survive. The reasons for reduction of racial disparities remain unclear and warrant future study.

  20. Cool echidnas survive the fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Julia; Cooper, Christine Elizabeth; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Fires have occurred throughout history, including those associated with the meteoroid impact at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) boundary that eliminated many vertebrate species. To evaluate the recent hypothesis that the survival of the K–Pg fires by ancestral mammals was dependent on their ability to use energy-conserving torpor, we studied body temperature fluctuations and activity of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), often considered to be a ‘living fossil’, before, during and after a prescribed burn. All but one study animal survived the fire in the prescribed burn area and echidnas remained inactive during the day(s) following the fire and substantially reduced body temperature during bouts of torpor. For weeks after the fire, all individuals remained in their original territories and compensated for changes in their habitat with a decrease in mean body temperature and activity. Our data suggest that heterothermy enables mammals to outlast the conditions during and after a fire by reducing energy expenditure, permitting periods of extended inactivity. Therefore, torpor facilitates survival in a fire-scorched landscape and consequently may have been of functional significance for mammalian survival at the K–Pg boundary. PMID:27075255

  1. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis, classification...

  2. Survival in Women with NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katcoff, Hannah; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women, few studies have investigated the hormonal influence on survival after a lung cancer diagnosis and results have been inconsistent. We evaluated the role of reproductive and hormonal factors in predicting overall survival in women with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Population-based lung cancer cases diagnosed between November 1, 2001 and October 31, 2005 were identified through the Metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Interview and follow-up data were collected for 485 women. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for death after an NSCLC diagnosis associated with reproductive and hormonal variables. Results Use of hormone therapy (HT) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.54–0.89), adjusting for stage, surgery, radiation, education level, pack-years of smoking, age at diagnosis, race, and a multiplicative interaction between stage and radiation. No other reproductive or hormonal factor was associated with survival after an NSCLC diagnosis. Increased duration of HT use before the lung cancer diagnosis (132 months or longer) was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.37–0.78), and this finding remained significant in women taking either estrogen alone or progesterone plus estrogen, never smokers, and smokers. Conclusion These findings suggest that HT use, in particular use of estrogen plus progesterone, and long-term HT use are associated with improved survival of NSCLC. PMID:24496005

  3. The effects of hemoglobin levels and their interactions with cigarette smoking on survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi; Shen, Lu-Jun; Li, Sheng; Chen, Ling; Guo, Xiang; Qian, Chao-Nan; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2016-05-01

    There is very little published information regarding the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) levels combined with smoking on the survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the interactions between them remain unclear. A total of 2440 NPC patients were confirmed, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify valuable prognostic Hb levels in the entire population and in the cohort of smokers. The survival differences were compared using log-rank tests. The multiplicative and additive interactions were assessed using Cox regression and a Microsoft Word Excel spreadsheet. Postradiotherapy (RT) Hb was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.797; P = 0.006), failure-free survival (FFS) (HR=0.811; P = 0.010), and loco-regional failure-free survival (LR-FFS) (HR = 0.725; P = 0.000). In the cohort of smokers, pack-years was also an independent predictor of OS (HR = 0.673; P OS, with RERI = 5.616, AP = 0.665, and S = 4.078. Stratified analyses demonstrated that heavy smokers with low post-RT Hb had HRs of 2.295 (P < 0.001) for death, 2.222 (P < 0.001) for disease failure, and 2.267 (P < 0.001) loco-regional recurrence compared with light smokers with high post-RT Hb levels, and post-RT Hb level is an important predictor of survival in patients with NPC. The positive interaction between post-RT Hb level and pack-years contributes to the elevated risk of poor survival. Oncologists should devote particular attention to heavy smokers with low post-RT Hb levels in the future. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Positive lymph node metastasis has a marked impact on the long-term survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis is extremely poor. However, what is the main risk factor for survival remains unclear for these patients. We aimed to find out the relative frequency, incidence and locations of extrahepatic metastases and the risk factors of long-term survival of the patients. METHODS: 132 HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis diagnosed by 18F-FDG PET/CT and conventional workup were enrolled into this study. The incidence and locations of extrahepatic metastases were summarized, and the related risk factors of overall survival were analyzed. RESULTS: The most frequent extrahepatic metastatic sites were lymph nodes in 72 (54.5%, bone in 33 (25.0% and lung in 28 (21.2% patients. On univariate analysis, prothrombin time, Child-Pugh grade, portal/hepatic vein invasion and lymph node metastasis were independent risk factors of overall survival. On multivariate analysis, lymph node metastasis was the only independent risk factor of overall survival. The cumulative survival rates at 1- and 3-years after diagnosis of extrahepatic metastasis of HCC were 34.4% and 9.3%, respectively. The median survival time was 7 months (range 1 ∼38 months. The median survival time for patients with or without lymph node metastasis were 5 months (range 1∼38 months and 12 months (range 1∼30 months, respectively (P = 0.036. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed lymph nodes to be the most frequent site of extrahepatic metastases for primary HCC. Lymph node metastasis was the main risk factor of overall survival in patients with HCC with extrahepatic metastasis.

  5. Prediagnostic alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer survival: The Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Robinson, Jamaica R; Campbell, Peter T; Win, Aung Ko; Figueiredo, Jane C; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2017-05-15

    Although previous studies have noted an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) among moderate to heavy alcohol consumers in comparison with nondrinkers, the relation between alcohol consumption and CRC survival remains unclear. Cases of incident invasive CRC diagnosed between 1997 and 2007 were identified via population-based cancer registries at 4 study sites in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Study participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire on prediagnostic behaviors, including wine, beer, and liquor consumption, at the baseline. Prospective follow-up for survival was conducted for 4966 CRC cases. Cox regression was used to compare nondrinkers with individuals who consumed, on average, 1 or more servings of alcohol per day in the years preceding their CRC diagnosis with respect to overall and disease-specific survival. Separate analyses by beverage type, stratified by patient and tumor attributes, were also performed. All models were adjusted for the age at diagnosis, sex, study site, year of diagnosis, smoking history, body mass index, and education. Prediagnostic beer and liquor consumption was not associated with CRC survival; however, higher levels of wine consumption were modestly associated with a better prognosis overall (CRC-specific hazard ratio [HR], 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.03; overall HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94). Similar patterns were noted in stratified analyses. These findings suggest that prediagnostic wine consumption is modestly associated with more favorable survival after CRC. Cancer 2017;123:1035-43. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  6. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, Frederic; Triba, Mohamed N; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frederic; Hubert, Hervé; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Escutnaire, Josephine; Guenin, Aurelien; Hoogvorst, Astrid; Marbeuf-Gueye, Carol; Reuter, Paul-Georges; Javaud, Nicolas; Vicaut, Eric; Chevret, Sylvie

    2017-02-01

    Relationship between cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation (CPR) durations and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remain unclear. Our primary aim was to determine the association between survival without neurologic sequelae and cardiac arrest intervals in the setting of witnessed OHCA. We analyzed 27,301 non-traumatic, witnessed OHCA patients in France included in the national registry from June 1, 2011 through December 1, 2015. We analyzed cardiac arrest intervals, designated as no-flow (NF; from collapse to start of CPR) and low-flow (LF; from start of CPR to cessation of resuscitation) in relation to 30-day survival without sequelae. We determined the influence of recognized prognostic factors (age, gender, initial rhythm, location of cardiac arrest) on this relation. For the entire cohort, the area delimited by a value of NF greater than 12min (95% confidence interval: 11-13min) and LF greater than 33min (95% confidence interval: 29-45min), yielded a probability of 30-day survival of less than 1%. These sets of values were greatly influenced by initial cardiac arrest rhythm, age, sex and location of cardiac arrest. Extended CPR duration (greater than 40min) in the setting of initial shockable cardiac rhythm is associated with greater than 1% survival with NF less than 18min. The NF interval was highly influential on the LF interval regardless of outcome, whether return of spontaneous circulation (pCPR duration in OHCA patients. The knowledge of (NF, LF) curves as function of age, initial rhythm, location of cardiac arrest or gender may aid in decision-making vis-à-vis the termination of CPR or employment of advanced techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pelvis Ewing sarcoma: Local control and survival in the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safia K; Robinson, Steven I; Arndt, Carola A S; Petersen, Ivy A; Haddock, Michael G; Rose, Peter S; Issa Laack, Nadia N

    2017-09-01

    Local control for Ewing sarcoma (ES) has improved in modern studies. However, it is unclear if these gains have also been achieved for pelvis tumors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate local control and survival in pelvis ES patients treated in the modern era. All pelvis ES patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2012 and seen at Mayo Clinic were identified. Factors relevant to survival and local control were analyzed. The cohort consisted of 48 patients. Fifty-two percent had metastatic disease at diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival was 73% and 65%, respectively, for localized disease. The 5-year cumulative incidence of local recurrence was 19%, with a 26% incidence for radiation, 13% for surgery, and 0% for surgery + radiation (P = 0.54). All local failures occurred in-field. Sacral involvement by tumor trended toward a higher incidence of local recurrence (hazard ratio 3.06, P = 0.09). Patients treated with definitive radiation doses ≥5,600 cGy had a lower incidence of local recurrence (17% vs. 28%, P = 0.61). Our study demonstrates excellent survival for localized tumors in the modern era. Anatomical localization within the pelvis likely correlates with outcomes. Local control remains problematic, especially for patients treated with definitive radiation. Though statistically not significant, surgery + radiation and definitive radiation dose ≥5,600 cGy were associated with the lowest incidence of local failure, suggesting treatment intensification may improve local control for pelvis ES. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Immediate postmastectomy breast reconstruction showed limited advantage in patient survival after stratifying by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Yu, Ke-Da; Zuo, Wen-Jia; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Postmastectomy breast reconstruction is widely used in breast cancer patients for its aesthetic effect. Although several studies have casted suspicion upon the oncological safety of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy, the potential impact of different reconstruction methods on patient survival remains unclear. We identified 35,126 female patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were compared among patients who underwent mastectomy with or without immediate breast reconstruction (autologous reconstruction or implant reconstruction) using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In multivariate analysis unadjusted for family income, patients undergoing immediate postmastectomy reconstruction exhibited improved BCSS [POOLED reconstruction (any types of reconstruction): hazard ratio (HR)  =  0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.95, P = 0.001] and OS (pooled reconstruction: HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.65-0.75, Padvantage in BCSS and OS compared with those undergoing mastectomy alone. When comparing between the two reconstruction methods, no significant differences were observed in either BCSS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.11, 95%CI 0.90-1.35, P = 0.330) or OS (implant versus autologous reconstruction: HR = 1.07, 95% 0.90-1.28, P = 0.424). Compared to mastectomy alone, immediate postmastectomy reconstruction had limited advantage in survival after adjusting for confounding factor of family income. Our findings, if validated in other large databases, may help to illustrate the actual effect of immediate postmastectomy reconstruction on patient survival.

  9. Will the olympics survive?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, T.

    1977-01-01

    The United States of America dominated 58 events in athletics, field and swimming, which between them accounted for 35 per cent of all events in the Munich Olympiad. 1972; these events favour taller individuals. But, in 25 per cent of other events (1) cycling, (2) fencing, (3) gymnastics, (4) judo, (5) weightlifting and (6) Graeco Roman wrestling the U.S.A. did not win a single medal. The failure of the U.S.A. to maintain her lead in Munich was largely due to weaknesses in these other events in many of which the potential medallists can be derived from the lower half of the height distribution (events 3 to 6). These weaknesses are Russia's strength and they continued to remain unstrengthened at Montreal. Also, the domination held by the U.S.A. in swimming was seriously challenged by East Germany. The present trends indicate that the U.S.A.'s ranking is likely to slip further to the third position in Moscow 1980. Factors inhibiting the survival of the Olympics are pointed. PMID:861436

  10. The effect of surgery type on survival and recurrence in very young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, May Lynn; Paszat, Lawrence Frank; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Sutradhar, Rinku; McCready, David R; Rakovitch, Eileen; Warner, Ellen; Wright, Frances C; Hodgson, Nicole; Brackstone, Muriel; Baxter, Nancy N

    2017-02-01

    The impact of surgical treatment on outcomes in breast cacner in very young women remains unclear. We sought to determine the effect of surgery type on risk of recurrence and survival in a population-based cohort. All women diagnosed with breast cancer aged ≤35 (1994-2003) were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables, including primary surgery, recurrences, and death were abstracted from chart review. Cox regression models were fit to determine the effect of surgery type on recurrence and overall survival. We identified 1,381 patients with 11-year median follow-up of which 793 (57%) had BCS. Of the remaining mastectomy patients, 52% had postmastectomy radiation. Overall, 41% of patients sustained a recurrence of any type and 31% died. Controlling for known confounders, there was no association between type of surgery and death from any cause (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.78, 1.25) or first recurrence (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.75, 1.14). Distant recurrence was most common (13% in BCS; 25.3% in mastectomy) with local recurrence 12.4% after BCS and 7.5% after mastectomy. In this cohort of very young women who were selected for treatment with BCS and mastectomy, we found similar oncologic outcomes. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:122-130. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Survival Comparisons for Breast Conserving Surgery and Mastectomy Revisited: Community Experience and the Role of Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Doi, Suhail A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence suggests superiority of breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiation over mastectomy alone for treatment of early stage breast cancer. Whether the superiority of BCS plus radiation is related to the surgical approach itself or to the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy following BCS remains unclear. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with breast cancer diagnosed from 1994–2012. Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics and treatment specifics were captured electronically. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed with inverse probability of treatment weighting to reduce selection bias effects in surgical assignment. Results Data from 5335 women were included, of which two-thirds had BCS and one-third had mastectomy. Surgical decision trends changed over time with more women undergoing mastectomy in recent years. Women who underwent BCS versus mastectomy differed significantly regarding age, cancer stage/grade, adjuvant radiation, chemotherapy, and endocrine treatment. Overall survival was similar for BCS and mastectomy. When BCS plus radiation was compared to mastectomy alone, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival was 96.5% vs 93.4%, 92.9% vs 88.3% and 80.9% vs 67.2%, respectively. Conclusion These analyses suggest that survival benefit is not related only to the surgery itself, but that the prognostic advantage of BCS plus radiation over mastectomy may also be related to the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy. This conclusion requires prospective confirmation in randomized trials. PMID:25487237

  12. Bird remains from the Maastrichtian type area (Late Cretaceous)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Schulp, A. S.; Jagt, J. W M

    2008-01-01

    Remains of Late Cretaceous birds are rare, which is especially true for Europe and the type area of the Maastrichtian Stage (southeast Netherlands, northeast Belgium) in particular. In the present paper, we record new remains (isolated tarsometatarsus and radius) that document the presence of both

  13. The impact of comorbidity on cancer survival: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard M

    2013-11-01

    completing a course of cancer treatment is lower. Postoperative complications and mortality are higher in patients with comorbidity. It is unclear from the literature whether the apparent undertreatment reflects appropriate consideration of greater toxicity risk, poorer clinical quality, patient preferences, or poor adherence among patients with comorbidity. Conclusion: Despite increasing recognition of the importance of comorbid illnesses among cancer patients, major challenges remain. Both treatment effectiveness and compliance appear compromised among cancer patients with comorbidity. Data on clinical quality is limited. Keywords: comorbidity, cancer, diagnosis, treatment, survival

  14. Qingping Straight Sword: The Last Remaining Chinese Sword System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Berwick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following examination of classical Chinese straight sword (jian details the very rare Qingping straight sword system. The study meshes Chinese- and English-sourced research with a revealing interview (conducted by America’s senior Qingping disciples, Reza Momenan and Hon Lee with Lu Junhai—the grandmaster of this unique sword system. The author presents Qingping system as perhaps the only known, complete Chinese sword system surviving from China’s pre-Rebulican era (1911-1949.

  15. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  16. Descriptions of the dental remains of Homo floresiensis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAIFU, YOUSUKE; KONO, REIKO T; SUTIKNA, THOMAS; SAPTOMO, E. WAHYU; JATMIKO; AWE, ROKUS DUE; BABA, HISAO

    2015-01-01

    Dental remains of Homo floresiensis excavated during 2002–2004 at Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia, consist of one partial maxillary dentition, two nearly complete mandibular dentitions, and four isolated teeth...

  17. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  18. Skeletal sexing standards of human remains in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gulhan, O

    2017-01-01

    The identification of victims involved in mass fatality incidents, as well as the identification of unknown individuals in criminal cases has become an increasingly important issue nowadays. Sex assessment represents a key point in forensic evaluations due to its significance in providing biological identity. Even though the availability of documented skeletal remains to forensic practitioners is a common practice in many countries, in Turkey, contemporary documented skeletal remains are not ...

  19. Method for recovering elemental silicon from cutting remains.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Torgeir; Julrud, Stein; Cassayre, Laurent; Chamelot, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Taxil, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for recovering elemental silicon cutting remains containing silicon particles, wherein the method comprises manufacturing solid anodes from the cutting remains, arranging one or more manufactured anode (s) in an electrolytic cell with a molten salt electrolyte and one or more cathode (s), and applying a potential difference between the one or more anode (s) and cathode (s) to obtain an oxidation of metallic silicon in the one or more anode (s), tran...

  20. Female reproductive decline is determined by remaining ovarian reserve and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wilkosz

    Full Text Available The early decline and loss of female fertility in humans and other species represents an evolutionary paradox. Despite being born with a vast stock of oocytes, females encounter an exhaustion of ovarian reserve and sterility half way through their natural lives. Female reproductive ageing has been proposed to proceed as an ongoing decline in ovarian reserve, determined by remaining ovarian follicle number. However, despite extensive modelling, the respective contributions of intra-, inter-, and extra-ovarian signalling have not been fully characterised. It remains unclear whether reproductive ageing progresses simply as a pre-determined function of remaining ovarian follicles, or as an age-dependent process in humans. Here, we have analysed ovarian response to hormonal stimulation in women who have undergone surgical removal of a single ovary, in order to investigate the relative contributions of intra-, inter, and extra-ovarian signalling on reproductive ageing. Our data show that in unilaterally oophorectomised women, ovarian response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH declines beyond levels predicted by a total ovarian follicle pool model of reproductive ageing. Maintenance of ovarian function later in reproductive life, despite the removal of half of the total ovarian reserve, suggests a role for an extra-ovarian age-dependent regulation of reproductive decline. This highlights the need for further work to identify signalling factors that communicate age-related signals between the soma and the germline.

  1. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd to 9(th centuries is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  3. Lymphatic endothelial S1P promotes mitochondrial function and survival in naive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Alejandra; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Serasinghe, Madhavika; Verma, Akanksha; Muller, James; Chaluvadi, V Sai; Dustin, Michael L; Hla, Timothy; Elemento, Olivier; Chipuk, Jerry E; Schwab, Susan R

    2017-06-01

    Effective adaptive immune responses require a large repertoire of naive T cells that migrate throughout the body, rapidly identifying almost any foreign peptide. Because the production of T cells declines with age, naive T cells must be long-lived. However, it remains unclear how naive T cells survive for years while constantly travelling. The chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) guides T cell circulation among secondary lymphoid organs, including spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, where T cells search for antigens. The concentration of S1P is higher in circulatory fluids than in lymphoid organs, and the S1P1 receptor (S1P1R) directs the exit of T cells from the spleen into blood, and from lymph nodes and Peyer's patches into lymph. Here we show that S1P is essential not only for the circulation of naive T cells, but also for their survival. Using transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells support the survival of T cells by secreting S1P via the transporter SPNS2, that this S1P signals through S1P1R on T cells, and that the requirement for S1P1R is independent of the established role of the receptor in guiding exit from lymph nodes. S1P signalling maintains the mitochondrial content of naive T cells, providing cells with the energy to continue their constant migration. The S1P signalling pathway is being targeted therapeutically to inhibit autoreactive T cell trafficking, and these findings suggest that it may be possible simultaneously to target autoreactive or malignant cell survival.

  4. Survival of emerald ash borer in chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David L. Cappaert

    2005-01-01

    The ability of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to survive following chipping or grinding of infested ash trees remains a critical question for regulatory officials. In October 2002, we felled eight infested ash trees and sampled sections of the trunk and large branches from each tree to estimate EAB density.

  5. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...

  6. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  7. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  8. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  9. Remaining a Nonparticipant in a Cooperative Group Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardoff, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A high school history teacher of gifted students examined difficulties in establishing cooperative groups when members changed frequently. Student interviews and surveys indicated that some students were happy to remain nonparticipants in any group. Participation was less a factor of group makeup than a factor of student opinion about grades.…

  10. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  11. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  12. The Workers' Value of the Remaining Employment Contract Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Hazans, Mihails

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces and applies a method for estimating workers' marginal willingness to pay for job attributes employing data on job search activity. Worker's willingness to pay for the remaining duration of the employment contract is derived. We provide evidence that workers attach substantial

  13. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  14. Five reasons why South African librarianship remains untransformed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... librarianship remains untransformed. These reasons are the result of misunderstandings by librarians about the historical process, social change, political change, professional change and the intellectual roles of librarians. Suggestions for dealing with these misunderstandings are provided. (Innovation: 2002 25: 27-36) ...

  15. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  16. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  17. The treatment of human remains | Satyapal | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concerns regarding treatment of the dead in scientific and public arenas, issues related to consent, respect for human dignity, scientific integrity, societal expectations, and why treatment of cadavers are ethically significant are highlighted. The display of human remains claimed as 'edutainment' or 'anatomy art' in Body ...

  18. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  19. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian L

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laure Aurelian Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Oncolytic viruses (OVs comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD. Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient’s baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs’ function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral

  20. Remaining teeth, cardiovascular morbidity and death among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Gamborg, M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if number of remaining teeth was associated with development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over 5-12 years. METHODS: Prospective observational study among 1474 men and 1458 women born 1922, 1932, 1942 or 1952 from The Danish MONICA follow up study (MONItoring......, incidence of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease, during averagely 7.5 years of follow-up. Compared to those with most teeth remaining, the edentulous suffered >3-fold increased Hazard (HR) of developing stroke (HR=3.25; 95% CI: 1.48-7.14), whereas the risk of developing any cardiovascular...... disease was increased by 50% (HR=1.50; 95% CI: 1.02-2.19). Risk for coronary heart disease was increased by 31%, but was not significant, after the adjustment for education, age, smoking, diabetes, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure and body mass index (HR= 1.31; 95% CI: 0.74-2.31). Associations were...

  1. Suicidal terrorist bombings in Israel--identification of human remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahana, T; Freund, M; Hiss, J

    1997-03-01

    Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in mass disaster investigations. Religious and jurisdictional demands in Israel, require the identification process to be completed in the shortest possible time. In the 18 suicidal terrorist bombings that took place in Israel between the years 1993-1996, 127 victims and 19 perpetrators were killed, and their severely fragmented bodies were identified within 24 h. The efficient completion of the identification endeavor was enabled by the implementation of a variety of techniques and the close collaboration in the investigation between the different emergency and forensic agencies. This paper presents the mass disaster identification policy and techniques currently used in Israel. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the identification of extremely fragmented human remains from mass disasters and the creation of a central data bank of fingerprints and genetic markers is emphasized.

  2. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  4. Mechanism of Human Influenza Virus RNA Persistence and Virion Survival in Feces: Mucus Protects Virions From Acid and Digestive Juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Ryohei; Nakaya, Takaaki; Naito, Yuji; Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-07-01

    Although viral RNA or infectious virions have been detected in the feces of individuals infected with human influenza A and B viruses (IAV/IBV), the mechanism of viral survival in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. We developed a model that attempts to recapitulate the conditions encountered by a swallowed virus. While IAV/IBV are vulnerable to simulated digestive juices (gastric acid and bile/pancreatic juice), highly viscous mucus protects viral RNA and virions, allowing the virus to retain its infectivity. Our results suggest that virions and RNA present in swallowed mucus are not inactivated or degraded by the gastrointestinal environment, allowing their detection in feces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Field contamination of skeletonized human remains with exogenous DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Suni M; Christensen, Alexander F

    2013-01-01

    The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory reports the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of over 800 skeletal samples a year for the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command-Central Identification Laboratory. These sequences are generated from degraded skeletal remains that are presumed to belong to U.S. service members missing from past military conflicts. In the laboratory, it is possible to control for contamination of remains; however, in the field, it can be difficult to prevent modern DNA from being transferred to skeletal elements and being carried forward through the analysis process. Four such cases are described here along with the controls in place in the laboratory to eliminate the possibility of the exogenous DNA being reported as authentic. In each case, the controls implemented by the laboratories prevented the false reporting of contaminant exogenous DNA from remains that were either faunal or human, but lacked endogenous DNA. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  8. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  9. Choosing and remaining in nursing: Iranian male nurses' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Azadi, Arman; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Monadi, Morteza; Negarandeh, Reza

    2013-10-01

    Iranian male nurses' career-choosing practices have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why Iranian male nurses choose nursing as a career. In addition it sought to understand the reasons why they remain in nursing. An exploratory descriptive design, employing a qualitative approach was used. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. The analysis culminated in the development of three themes which described the participants' motivations for choosing nursing as a career as well as the factors that influenced their decisions to remain in nursing following qualification. Practical motivations such as job security were important factors in choosing nursing. The most common reason for remaining in nursing was desire to care for others, for God's sake. Factors that influenced their decision to leave mainly centered on the public view to nursing as a feminine discipline. However, the nurses in this study believed that nursing was a profession appropriate for both men and women because of gendered nursing care and preferences of patient in Iran.

  10. Extended Pleurectomy-Decortication-Based Treatment for Advanced Stage Epithelial Mesothelioma Yielding a Median Survival of Nearly Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Simone, Charles B; Culligan, Melissa J; Barsky, Andrew R; Doucette, Abigail; McNulty, Sally; Hahn, Stephen M; Alley, Evan; Sterman, Daniel H; Glatstein, Eli; Cengel, Keith A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess survival for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), epithelial subtype, utilizing extended pleurectomy-decortication combined with intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) and adjuvant pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. From 2005 to 2013, 90 patients underwent lung-sparing surgery and PDT for MPM. All patients had a preoperative diagnosis of epithelial subtype, of which 17 proved to be of mixed histology. The remaining 73 patients with pure epithelial subtype were analyzed. All patients received lung-sparing surgery and PDT; 92% also received chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 5.3 years for living patients. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in all 73 patients. Thirty-day mortality was 3% and 90-day mortality was 4%. For all 73 patients (89% American Joint Commission on Cancer stage III/IV, 69% N2 disease, median tumor volume 550 mL), the median overall and disease-free survivals were 3 years and 1.2 years, respectively. For the 19 patients without lymph node metastases (74% stage III/IV, median tumor volume 325 mL), the median overall and disease-free survivals were 7.3 years and 2.3 years, respectively. This is a mature dataset for MPM that demonstrates the ability to safely execute a complex treatment plan that included a surgical technique that consistently permitted achieving a macroscopic complete resection while preserving the lung. The role for lung-sparing surgery is unclear but this series demonstrates that it is an option, even for advanced cases. The overall survival of 7.3 years for the node negative subset of patients, still of advanced stage, is encouraging. Of particular interest is the overall survival being approximately triple the disease-free survival, perhaps PDT related. The impact of PDT is unclear, but it is hoped that it will be established by an ongoing randomized trial. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Socioeconomic status and survival among older adults with dementia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruoling; Hu, Zhi; Wei, Li; Wilson, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    People from lower socioeconomic groups have a higher risk of mortality. The impact of low socioeconomic status on survival among older adults with dementia and depression remains unclear. To investigate the association between socioeconomic status and mortality in people with dementia and late-life depression in China. Using Geriatric Mental Status - Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (GMS-AGECAT) we interviewed 2978 people aged ⩾60 years in Anhui, China. We characterised baseline socioeconomic status and risk factors and diagnosed 223 people with dementia and 128 with depression. All-cause mortality was followed up over 5.6 years. Individuals with dementia living in rural areas had a three times greater risk of mortality (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.96, 95% CI 1.45-6.04) than those in urban areas, and for those with depression the HR was 4.15 (95% CI 1.59-10.83). There were similar mortality rates when comparing people with dementia with low v. high levels of education, occupation and income, but individuals with depression with low v. high levels had non-significant increases in mortality of 11%, 50% and 55% respectively Older adults with dementia and depression living in rural China had a significantly higher risk of mortality than urban counterparts. Interventions should be implemented in rural areas to tackle survival inequality in dementia and depression. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  12. Fledging success is a poor indicator of the effects of bird blow flies on ovenbird survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Kapfer, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Infestations of bird blow flies (Protocalliphora spp. and Trypocalliphora braueri) have various negative effects on the condition of nestling birds. In the absence of other stressors such as inclement weather, however, infestation alone rarely reduces fledging success. Previous studies have documented effects of blow flies on nestling condition and fledging success. Without information regarding fledgling survival, the full effect of blow-fly infestation remains unclear. To fully investigate the effect of blow-fly infestation on reproductive success of the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), we monitored infested and non-infested nests and monitored fledglings from each by using radio telemetry. Blow flies did not affect birds during the nestling period, as brood size, mean nestling mass, fledging success, and time to fledging in infested and non-infested nests were no different. Fledgling survival and minimum distance traveled the first day after fledging, however, were significantly lower for infected fledglings than for those that were not infected. We conclude that the stress of the early fledgling period combined with recent or concurrent blow-fly infection increases mortality in young Oven-birds. Our results demonstrate the importance of including the post-fledging period in investigations of the effects of ectoparasitic infestations on birds.

  13. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  14. Does postoperative radiation therapy impact survival in non-metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma? A SEER-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, Okyaz; Akbarov, Ilgar; Wille, Sebastian; Engelmann, Udo

    2015-10-01

    The effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on survival in sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) with no evidence of distant metastasis remains unclear. Subjects diagnosed with non-metastatic sRCC were identified using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) (2004-2012) database and divided into groups based on their surgical treatment (ST): no surgery or radiation therapy (NSR); partial nephrectomy (PNE); radical nephrectomy with ureterectomy and bladder cuff resection (RNE + UE + BLAD); and radical nephrectomy (RNE). Certain radical nephrectomy cases also received adjuvant external-beam radiation therapy (RNE + RAD). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival (OS). A multivariable competing risks regression analysis was used to calculate disease-specific survival (DSS) probability and to determine factors associated with cause-specific mortality (CSM). A total of 408 patients were included in this study. The 5-year OS and predicted DSS were significantly higher in the patients who underwent STs (i.e., PNE, RNE + UE + BLAD, RNE, and RNE + RAD) (20.1-54.0 and 20.1-59.9 %, respectively) than in the NSR group (9.0 and 11.6 %, respectively) (P therapy did not increase OS in non-metastatic sRCC patients.

  15. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation is associated with bladder cancer cell growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fu-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 signaling pathway plays an important role in several human cancers. Activation of Stat3 is dependent on the phosphorylation at the tyrosine residue 705 by upstream kinases and subsequent nuclear translocation after dimerization. It remains unclear whether oncogenic Stat3 signaling pathway is involved in the oncogenesis of bladder cancer. Results We found that elevated Stat3 phosphorylation in 19 of 100 (19% bladder cancer tissues as well as bladder cancer cell lines, WH, UMUC-3 and 253J. To explore whether Stat3 activation is associated with cell growth and survival of bladder cancer, we targeted the Stat3 signaling pathway in bladder cancer cells using an adenovirus-mediated dominant-negative Stat3 (Y705F and a small molecule compound, STA-21. Both prohibited cell growth and induction of apoptosis in these bladder cancer cell lines but not in normal bladder smooth muscle cell (BdSMC. The survival inhibition might be mediated through apoptotic caspase 3, 8 and 9 pathways. Moreover, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin and a cell cycle regulating gene (cyclin D1 was associated with the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion These results indicated that activation of Stat3 is crucial for bladder cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, interference of Stat3 signaling pathway emerges as a potential therapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  16. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  17. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  18. Cranial trauma and the assessment of posttraumatic survival time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, M.; de Boer, H. H. [=Hans H.; van der Merwe, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of trauma on skeletal remains can be very difficult, especially when it comes to the estimation of posttraumatic survival time in partially healed lesions. The ability to reliably estimate the time an individual has survived after sustaining an injury is especially important in cases of

  19. Pacific salmon extinctions: quantifying lost and remaining diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard G; Waples, Robin S; Myers, James M; Weitkamp, Laurie A; Bryant, Gregory J; Johnson, Orlay W; Hard, Jeffrey J

    2007-08-01

    Widespread population extirpations and the consequent loss of ecological, genetic, and life-history diversity can lead to extinction of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and species. We attempted to systematically enumerate extinct Pacific salmon populations and characterize lost ecological, life history, and genetic diversity types among six species of Pacific salmon (Chinook [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], sockeye [O. nerka], coho [O. kisutch], chum [O. keta], and pink salmon [O. gorbuscha] and steelhead trout [O. mykiss]) from the western contiguous United States. We estimated that, collectively, 29% of nearly 1400 historical populations of these six species have been lost from the Pacific Northwest and California since Euro-American contact. Across all species there was a highly significant difference in the proportion of population extinctions between coastal (0.14 extinct) and interior (0.55 extinct) regions. Sockeye salmon (which typically rely on lacustrine habitats for rearing) and stream-maturing Chinook salmon (which stay in freshwater for many months prior to spawning) had significantly higher proportional population losses than other species and maturation types. Aggregate losses of major ecological, life-history, and genetic biodiversity components across all species were estimated at 33%, 15%, and 27%, respectively. Collectively, we believe these population extirpations represent a loss of between 16% and 30% of all historical ESUs in the study area. On the other hand, over two-thirds of historical Pacific salmon populations in this area persist, and considerable diversity remains at all scales. Because over one-third of the remaining populations belong to threatened or endangered species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, it is apparent that a critical juncture has been reached in efforts to preserve what remains of Pacific salmon diversity. It is also evident that persistence of existing, and evolution of future, diversity will depend

  20. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  1. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  2. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  3. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  4. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  5. Bayesian Estimation of Remaining Useful Life for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    To optimally plan maintenance of wind turbine blades, knowledge of the degradation processes and the remaining useful life is essential. In this paper, a method is proposed for calibration of a Markov deterioration model based on past inspection data for a range of blades, and updating of the model...... for a specific wind turbine blade, whenever information is available from inspections and/or condition monitoring. Dynamic Bayesian networks are used to obtain probabilities of inspection outcomes for a maximum likelihood estimation of the transition probabilities in the Markov model, and are used again when...

  6. Prevalence, predictors, and survival in pulmonary hypertension related to end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Hasseriis; Iversen, Martin Jes; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, prognostic importance, and factors that predict the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH) diagnosed with right heart catheterization (RHC) in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear....

  7. REMAINED DENTAL PARTICLES IN THE JAWS OF EDENTULOUSPATIENTS (ISFAHAN. 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOSHARRAF

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Remained teeth and other lesions such as cysts, abcesses and tumors is one of the important problems in edentulous patients. In a cross-sectional study, 330 edentulous patients were evaluated radiographically. The radiographic evaluation of patients revealed the presence of 86 residual roots in 58 radiographs. 17.58% of patients had residual roots & 5.8% of patients had Impacted teeth. 58.1% of residual roots and 45% of impacted teeth were in the maxilla and others were in mandible. Maximum Percentage of residual roots (58.1% and impacted teeth (70% were found in molar region. In this study revealed 23.3% of examined patients had remaining dental fragments. From these patients, 5.76% had impacted teeth and 17.58% had residual roots, and maximum percentage of rooth fragments (58.1% were found in molar region. In similar study by spyropoulus, maximum percentage of root fragments (45.6% reported in molar region and maximum percentage of impacted teeth were found in molar and canine region (41.2% in molar and 41.2 in canine region. In this study, 58.1% of root fragments and 45% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla but in spyropoulos" report, 71.9% of root fragments and 94.1% of impacted teeth were found in the maxilla.

  8. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  9. Mechanical determinants of bone form: insights from skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, C B

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of skeletal remains from humans living in the past forms an important complement to observational and experimental studies of living humans and animal models. Including earlier humans in such analyses increases the range of variation in both behavior and body size and shape that are represented, and can provide insights into the adaptive potential of the modern human skeleton. I review here a variety of studies of archaeological and paleontological remains that have investigated differences in skeletal structure from a mechanical perspective, focusing in particular on diaphyseal strength of the limb bones. Several conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1) there has been a decline in overall skeletal strength relative to body size over the course of human evolution that has become progressively steeper in recent millennia, probably due to increased sedentism and technological advancement; 2) differences in pelvic structure and hip mechanical loadings affect femoral shape; 3) activity patterns affect overall strength and shape of both the lower and upper limb bones; and 4) responsiveness to changes in mechanical loading varies between skeletal features (e.g., articulations versus diaphyses) and by age.

  10. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  11. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  12. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  13. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  14. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Sex-related time-dependent variations in post-stroke survival-evidence of a female stroke survival advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2007-01-01

    of stroke and remained so during the first month suggesting a female survival advantage. Throughout the second month the rate reversed in favour of men suggesting that women in that period are paying a 'toll' for their initial survival advantage. Hereafter, the rate steadily decreased, and after 4 months...

  16. The survival of Coxiella burnetii in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, A. S.; Ul'Yanova, T. Yu.; Tarasevich, I. V.

    2007-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen of Q-fever—a widespread zoonosis. The effective adaptation of C. burnetii to intracellular existence is in contrast with its ability to survive in the environment outside the host cells and its resistance to chemical and physical agents. Its mechanism of survival remains unknown. However, its survival appears to be related to the developmental cycle of the microorganism itself, i.e., to the formation of its dormant forms. The survival of Coxiella burnetii was studied for the first time. The pathogenic microorganism was inoculated into different types of soil and cultivated under different temperatures. The survival of the pathogen was verified using a model with laboratory animals (mice). Viable C. burnetii were found in the soil even 20 days after their inoculation. The relationship between the organic carbon content in the soils and the survival of C. burnetii was revealed. Thus, the results obtained were the first to demonstrate that the soil may serve as a reservoir for the preservation and further spreading of the Q-fever pathogen in the environment, on the one hand, and reduce the risk of epidemics, on the other.

  17. Nutritional factors in ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Kushi, Lawrence H; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the United States. Because symptoms tend be nonspecific, early detection is difficult, and most ovarian cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor. Nonetheless, there is clinical evidence that even given the same tumor characteristics (histologic type, stage, and grade), some cases experience much better survival than others. This has led to extensive research on molecular prognostic factors to enable more efficient and targeted therapeutic regimens. However, little is known about the impact that lifestyle factors, such as diet or physical activity, may have in the prognosis of ovarian cancer, whether on disease-free survival or on the response to and complications from treatment. The role of obesity on ovarian cancer survival is unclear. Obesity may delay diagnosis, hinder optimal surgical and cytotoxic treatment, and cause postoperative complications. As overweight and obesity rates reach epidemic proportions, the impact of body mass index in the clinical management of ovarian cancer is increasingly significant, whereas current evidence of its impact is limited and inconclusive.

  18. Homo naledi pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Caroline; Cofran, Zachary; García-Martínez, Daniel; Williams, Scott A; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R; Hawks, John

    2017-11-20

    In the hominin fossil record, pelvic remains are sparse and are difficult to attribute taxonomically when they are not directly associated with craniodental material. Here we describe the pelvic remains from the Dinaledi Chamber in the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, which has produced hominin fossils of a new species, Homo naledi. Though this species has been attributed to Homo based on cranial and lower limb morphology, the morphology of some of the fragmentary pelvic remains recovered align more closely with specimens attributed to the species Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus than they do with those of most (but not all) known species of the genus Homo. As with A. afarensis and A. africanus, H. naledi appears to have had marked lateral iliac flare and either a weakly developed or non-existent acetabulocristal buttress or a distinct, albeit weakly developed, acetabulospinous buttress. At the same time, H. naledi has robust superior pubic and ischiopubic rami and a short ischium with a narrow tuberoacetabular sulcus, similar to those found in modern humans. The fragmentary nature of the Dinaledi pelvic assemblage makes the attribution of sex and developmental age to individual specimens difficult, which in turn diminishes our ability to identify the number of individuals represented in the assemblage. At present, we can only confidently say that the pelvic fossils from Rising Star represent at least four individuals based on the presence of four overlapping right ischial fossils (whereas a minimum of 15 individuals can be identified from the Dinaledi dental assemblage). A primitive, early Australopithecus-like false pelvis combined with a derived Homo-like true pelvis is morphologically consistent with evidence from the lower ribcage and proximal femur of H. naledi. The overall similarity of H. naledi ilia to those of australopiths supports the inference, drawn from the observation of primitive pelvic

  19. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  20. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  1. Tactile display on the remaining hand for unilateral hand amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human rely profoundly on tactile feedback from fingertips to interact with the environment, whereas most hand prostheses used in clinics provide no tactile feedback. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility to use a tactile display glove that can be worn by a unilateral hand amputee on the remaining healthy hand to display tactile feedback from a hand prosthesis. The main benefit is that users could easily distinguish the feedback for each finger, even without training. The claimed advantage is supported by preliminary tests with healthy subjects. This approach may lead to the development of effective and affordable tactile display devices that provide tactile feedback for individual fingertip of hand prostheses.

  2. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  3. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  4. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  5. Mean remaining life span: a new clinically relevant parameter to assess the quality of transfused red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Denison J; Nalbant, Demet; Widness, John A; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The quality of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) to treat anemia depends on its potential for oxygen delivery, governed by two properties: 1) initial posttransfusion recovery and 2) life span of initially surviving RBCs. The latter property is poorly evaluated by the traditional mean potential life span (MPL) or mean cell age (MA), because these parameters do not evaluate how long transfused RBCs remain in circulation. Furthermore, evaluation of MPL is based on two problematic assumptions regarding transfused RBCs: 1) they were produced at a constant steady-state rate and 2) they have similar storage life spans. This work introduces a new parameter, the mean remaining life span (MRL) to quantify transfused RBC survival (TRCS) and presents a simple algorithm for its evaluation. The MRL was calculated for four adult subjects with sickle cell disease and four adult diabetic and nondiabetic subjects using RBC survival data sets with existing TRCS parameters. The RBC survival curves in the sickle cell subjects were nonlinear with rapid decline in survival within the first 5 days. The MRL was approximately 4.6 days. Thus, the MRL was indicative of the survival of all transfused RBCs. For the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, the RBC disappearance curves did not deviate substantially from a linear decline. Thus, the estimates for MRL ranging from 39 to 51 days are similar to the MA previously computed. MRL overcomes limitations of previously proposed TRCS parameters, is simpler to calculate, and is physiologically and clinically more appropriate. © 2014 AABB.

  6. Temporal genetic change in the last remaining population of woolly mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Veronica; Dalén, Love; Vartanyan, Sergey; Lidén, Kerstin; Ryman, Nils; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2010-01-01

    During the Late Pleistocene, the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) experienced a series of local extinctions generally attributed to human predation or environmental change. Some small and isolated populations did however survive far into the Holocene. Here, we investigated the genetic consequences of the isolation of the last remaining mammoth population on Wrangel Island. We analysed 741 bp of the mitochondrial DNA and found a loss of genetic variation in relation to the isolation event, probably caused by a demographic bottleneck or a founder event. However, in spite of ca 5000 years of isolation, we did not detect any further loss of genetic variation. Together with the relatively high number of mitochondrial haplotypes on Wrangel Island near the final disappearance, this suggests a sudden extinction of a rather stable population. PMID:20356891

  7. Biomechanical behavior of teeth without remaining coronal structure restored with different post designs and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Angélica; Hoelcher, Kaue Andreas Lotice; Reginato, Vagner Flavio; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro; Caldas, Ricardo Armini; Bacchi, Atais

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to access the biomechanical behavior of teeth without remaining coronal structure when restored with posts of different materials and configurations. Fifty bovine teeth (n=10 per group) with standard dimensions were restored as follows: cast post and core (CPC), prefabricated metallic post (PFM), parallel glass-fiber post (P-FP), conical glass-fiber post (C-FP) or composite core (no post, CC). The survival rate during thermomechanical challenging (TC), the fracture strength (FS), and failure pattern (FP) were evaluated. Finite element models were realized to evaluate the stress distribution with a 100N load. All post-containing teeth survived TC, while CC had 30% of failures. CPC and C-FP had the higher fracture strength, but a high number of irreparable fractures (60%), such as PFM (70%). Von Mises analysis has shown the maximum stresses into the canal in groups restored with metallic posts, while glass-fiber posts and CC presented the maximum stresses at load contact point in the crown. CPC led to higher modified von Mises (mvM) stress in the cervical third of dentin. However, mvM values did not reach the dentin fracture limit for any group. Analysis of maximal contact pressure has shown better stress distribution along with the dentin interface in post-containing groups, especially for CPC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  9. Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1997-05-20

    This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The top and sides of this rectangular source was covered with earth of density 1.6 g/cm{sup 3} to a thickness of 15.24 cm (6 in). This soil is modeled as 40% void space. The source consisted of earth of the same density with the void spaces filled with

  10. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Wierucka

    Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.

  11. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  12. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  13. Motion and Pain Relief Remain 23 Years After Manipulation Under Anesthesia for Frozen Shoulder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vastamäki, Heidi; Vastamäki, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) as treatment for idiopathic frozen shoulder increases motion, provides pain relief, and restores function, but it is unclear whether the improvements persist long...

  14. Antenatal genetic testing and the right to remain in ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R

    2001-09-01

    As knowledge increases about the human genome, prenatal genetic testing will become cheaper, safer and more comprehensive. It is likely that there will be a great deal of support for making prenatal testing for a wide range of genetic disorders a routine part of antenatal care. Such routine testing is necessarily coercive in nature and does not involve the same standard of consent as is required in other health care settings. This paper asks whether this level of coercion is ethically justifiable in this case, or whether pregnant women have a right to remain in ignorance of the genetic make-up of the fetus they are carrying. While information gained by genetic testing may be useful for pregnant women when making decisions about their pregnancy, it does not prevent harm to future children. It is argued that as this kind of testing provides information in the interests of the pregnant women and not in the interests of any future child, the same standards of consent that are normally required for genetic testing should be required in this instance.

  15. Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Johnson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified environmental reservoir of infectivity contributes to the natural transmission of prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [TSEs] in sheep, deer, and elk. Prion infectivity may enter soil environments via shedding from diseased animals and decomposition of infected carcasses. Burial of TSE-infected cattle, sheep, and deer as a means of disposal has resulted in unintentional introduction of prions into subsurface environments. We examined the potential for soil to serve as a TSE reservoir by studying the interaction of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc with common soil minerals. In this study, we demonstrated substantial PrP(Sc adsorption to two clay minerals, quartz, and four whole soil samples. We quantified the PrP(Sc-binding capacities of each mineral. Furthermore, we observed that PrP(Sc desorbed from montmorillonite clay was cleaved at an N-terminal site and the interaction between PrP(Sc and Mte was strong, making desorption of the protein difficult. Despite cleavage and avid binding, PrP(Sc bound to Mte remained infectious. Results from our study suggest that PrP(Sc released into soil environments may be preserved in a bioavailable form, perpetuating prion disease epizootics and exposing other species to the infectious agent.

  16. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Bacterial vaginosis in 2011: a lot of questions remain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, J-M; Lepargneur, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent vaginal affections. It results from a deep imbalance of the vaginal ecosystem whose mechanisms remain mysterious, even if recent progress were accomplished in their comprehension: if the flora implied in the bacterial vaginosis is recognized like polymorphic, it appears that Gardnerella vaginalis plays a major part with two genomically different forms: a commensal form (slightly adhesive to the epithelial cells), and a pathogenic one (strongly adhesive to the epithelial cells); the changes in lactobacilli are also to take into account: L. iners could be a marker of the vaginal flora imbalance whereas L. crispatus is generally met in the normal vaginal flora. These findings could influence the composition of coming probiotics; it is recognized that bacterial vaginosis is involved in the risk of prematurity but molecular quantification of G. vaginalis (and of Atopobium vaginae) is more sensitive for the diagnosis of BV what could improve the detection of high-risk pregnant women. The isolated antibiotic treatments are not very effective on the prevention of recurrences. The rebalancing of the vaginal flora is essential. In this field, the local estrogens showed some effectiveness. The use of probiotics is promising and can be recommended in complement of the antibiotic treatment even if the results of the clinical studies are still too heterogeneous to lead to precise indications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Dekel, Dario R.; Page, Miles; Bae, Chulsung; Yan, Yushan; Zelenay, Piotr; Kim, Yu Seung

    2018-01-01

    The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is an attractive alternative to acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which to date have required platinum-based catalysts, as well as acid-tolerant stack hardware. The AEMFC could use non-platinum-group metal catalysts and less expensive metal hardware thanks to the high pH of the electrolyte. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving the performance and durability of the AEMFC through the development of new materials and the optimization of system design and operation conditions. In this perspective article, we describe the current status of AEMFCs as having reached beginning of life performance very close to that of PEMFCs when using ultra-low loadings of Pt, while advancing towards operation on non-platinum-group metal catalysts alone. In the latter sections, we identify the remaining technical challenges, which require further research and development, focusing on the materials and operational factors that critically impact AEMFC performance and/or durability. These perspectives may provide useful insights for the development of next-generation of AEMFCs.

  19. Barrett's esophagus-related diseases remain uncommon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Fang, Dian Chun; Yu, Cheng Gong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Min Hu

    2011-12-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE)-related esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has shown the fastest rise in incidence in Western countries; however, research data on BE-related diseases from China are inconclusive. We aimed to review and analyze the published results on these diseases in China. We searched PubMed and Chinese medical literature for key words: BE, EAC, Chinese and China. Relevant research papers along with the study results from our own groups were reviewed and analyzed. Using standardized criteria, columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) was found in as many as 29% of resection specimens in Chinese patients with proximal gastric cancer. However, BE with intestinal metaplasia was rare, ranging from 0.06% in the general population to disease and tobacco or alcohol abuse, but not male gender or obesity. At endoscopy, most CLE/BE were diseases, except for CLE, are rare in China. The clinical significance and malignant potential of CLE in the Chinese population remain elusive. Further investigation on these diseases is in progress. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2011 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  1. The remaining challenges of pneumococcal disease in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ludwig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease can be divided into invasive disease, i.e. when bacteria are detected in normally sterile body fluids, and noninvasive disease. Pneumococcal disease occurs more frequently in younger children and older adults. It is estimated that, in 2050, 30.3% of the European population will be ≥65 yrs old, compared with 15.7% in 2000. Preventive medicine, including vaccination, is essential for the promotion of healthy ageing. Uptake rates for influenza vaccination in the elderly are generally low, despite recommendations in many countries. In addition, it has been reported that influenza infections can make people more susceptible to pneumococcal infections. Despite pneumococcal vaccination, case fatality rates for patients hospitalised with invasive pneumococcal disease have remained at around 12% since the 1950s. Even when effective antibiotic therapy is administered, mortality can be high amongst immunocompetent patients in intensive care. Timely and accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease and identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome is essential to ensure that adequate treatment, including hospitalisation when necessary, is implemented as early as possible. Improved diagnostic techniques and more efficacious treatments may help to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, but preventive measures, such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, should be promoted in order to avoid preventable disease, particularly in the elderly.

  2. Cohesin Can Remain Associated with Chromosomes during DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D.P. Rhodes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1 subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication. We developed a non-fluorescent HaloTag ligand to discriminate the fluorescence recovery signal from labeling of newly synthesized Halo-tagged Scc1 protein (pulse-chase or pcFRAP. In cells where cohesin turnover is inactivated by deletion of WAPL, Scc1 can remain associated with chromatin throughout S phase. These findings suggest that cohesion might be generated by cohesin that is already bound to un-replicated DNA.

  3. Cohesin Can Remain Associated with Chromosomes during DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James D P; Haarhuis, Judith H I; Grimm, Jonathan B; Rowland, Benjamin D; Lavis, Luke D; Nasmyth, Kim A

    2017-09-19

    To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1) subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication. We developed a non-fluorescent HaloTag ligand to discriminate the fluorescence recovery signal from labeling of newly synthesized Halo-tagged Scc1 protein (pulse-chase or pcFRAP). In cells where cohesin turnover is inactivated by deletion of WAPL, Scc1 can remain associated with chromatin throughout S phase. These findings suggest that cohesion might be generated by cohesin that is already bound to un-replicated DNA. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-exercise physical activity and survival: English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2014-10-01

    The activity patterns of older adults include more light/mild-intensity or "non-exercise" activity and less moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity. The health benefits of this type of activity pattern remain unclear. To examine dose-response associations between physical activity and survival using time-varying analysis to understand the importance of "non-exercise" activity for survival in older adults. Participants (N=10,426) were drawn from The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a representative sample of men and women aged ≥50 years living in England. Participant data were linked with death records from the National Health Service registries from 2002 to 2011. Analyses were conducted in 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of death according to time-varying estimates of physical activity. Over an average follow-up of 7.8 years (median follow-up, 8.5 years), there were 1,896 deaths. In models adjusted for comorbidities, psychosocial factors, smoking, and obesity, there was a dose-response association between time-varying physical activity and mortality, with the greatest survival benefit in vigorously active participants. However, participating in mild ("non-exercise")-intensity physical activity was also associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.76, 95% CI=0.69, 0.83); cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.74, 95% CI=0.64, 0.85); and death by other causes (HR=0.67, 95% CI=0.58, 0.78). Time-varying models produced stronger, more robust estimates than models using a single measurement of physical activity at baseline. Older adults gain health benefits from participating in regular "non-exercise" physical activity, although the greatest benefits are observed for more vigorous activity. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary quality may enhance survival related to cognitive impairment in Taiwanese elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cognition increases mortality in the aged. It is unclear how dietary quality might affect this relationship.To examine how dietary diversity and cognition might interact to determine survival.In a Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT 1999–2000, 1,839 representative elderly were followed for mortality up to 10 years. The dietary quality measure was a dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0–6 to present six food groups (dairy, meat, rice and grains, fruit, vegetable,fat and oil derived from a 24-h dietary recall. Cognitive function was evaluated by the validated Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ.Those with cognitive impairment (SPMSQ ≥ 3 errors had 2.56 (95% confidence intervals (CI, 1.99–3.28 times the all-cause-mortality risk of those with intact cognition. After control for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR remained significant (1.46, 95% CI: 1.06–2.02. Significant interactions for DDS and cognition were found (p<0.001. Jointly, compared to normal-SPMSQ-highest DDS, the greatest HR is where impaired cognition is combined with the lowest DDS (HR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.19–4.24. Increased DDS was associated with improvement in survival that is especially evident in those with 1–2 errors where the greatest HR reduction was found, and for fruit. Attributability for mortality amounted to 18% for impaired cognition and 33% for least diverse diet.Dietary diversity may improve survival in relation to impaired cognitive function.

  6. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  7. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  8. Education for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  9. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  10. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  11. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  12. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  13. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  14. Survival Outcome after Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Surgery for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Jun; Dai, Wan-Rong; Xu, Yong

    2017-08-22

    Treatment modalities in medically compromised patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are controversial. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or stereotactic ablative radiotherapy has been increasingly recognized as a favorable alternative to surgical resection for early-stage NSCLC. Many retrospective analyses compared the efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with surgery for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the efficacy between SBRT and surgery regimens for patients with early-stage NSCLC remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy between SBRT and surgery. Publications on comparison SBRT with Surgery in treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from 2011 to 2017 were collected. Retrospective trials analyzed the summary hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control survival (LC), regional control survival (RC), loco-regional control survival (LRC), and distant control survival (DC) between SBRT and Surgery. The major outcomes measures were hazard ratios (HRs). Meta-analysis Revman 5.3 software was used to analyze the combined Pooled HRs using fixed- or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity. A systematic literature search was conducted including14 studies. In this meta-analysis, patients with SBRT achieved inferior OS, DFS, LC, RC, LRC and DC, compared with surgery. In this study we found more favorable outcomes with stage I NSCLC treated with SBRT. The surgery had no obvious advantages in this meta-analysis. Although surgery has become the recommended treatment at present, SBRT has potential to be an alternative treatment as a novel non-invasive radiation therapy modality in patients with stage I-II NSCLC.

  15. Cardiomyocyte Differentiation Promotes Cell Survival During Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibition Through Increased Maintenance of Cellular Energy Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Erin M; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Waas, Matthew; Nycz, Alyssa; Corbett, John A; Gundry, Rebekah L

    2017-04-01

    To address concerns regarding the tumorigenic potential of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) that may remain after in vitro differentiation and ultimately limit the broad use of hPSC-derivatives for therapeutics, we recently described a method to selectively eliminate tumorigenic hPSC from their progeny by inhibiting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). Limited exposure to NAMPT inhibitors selectively removes hPSC from hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CM) and spares a wide range of differentiated cell types; yet, it remains unclear when and how cells acquire resistance to NAMPT inhibition during differentiation. In this study, we examined the effects of NAMPT inhibition among multiple time points of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Overall, these studies show that in vitro cardiomyogenic commitment and continued culturing provides resistance to NAMPT inhibition and cell survival is associated with the ability to maintain cellular ATP pools despite depletion of NAD levels. Unlike cells at earlier stages of differentiation, day 28 hPSC-CM can survive longer periods of NAMPT inhibition and maintain ATP generation by glycolysis and/or mitochondrial respiration. This is distinct from terminally differentiated fibroblasts, which maintain mitochondrial respiration during NAMPT inhibition. Overall, these results provide new mechanistic insight into how regulation of cellular NAD and energy pools change with hPSC-CM differentiation and further inform how NAMPT inhibition strategies could be implemented within the context of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1191-1201. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  16. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  17. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  18. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  19. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  20. Adrenaline (epinephrine) dosing period and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective review of prospectively collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sam A; Huszti, Ella; Bradley, Steven M; Chan, Paul S; Bryson, Chris L; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Nichol, Graham

    2014-03-01

    Expert guidelines for treatment of cardiac arrest recommend administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) every three to five minutes. However, the effects of different dosing periods of epinephrine remain unclear. We sought to evaluate the association between epinephrine average dosing period and survival to hospital discharge in adults with an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 20,909 IHCA events from 505 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) quality improvement registry. Epinephrine average dosing period was defined as the time between the first epinephrine dose and the resuscitation endpoint, divided by the total number of epinephrine doses received subsequent to the first epinephrine dose. Associations with survival to hospital discharge were assessed by using generalized estimating equations to construct multivariable logistic regression models. Compared to a referent epinephrine average dosing period of 4 to <5 min per dose, survival to hospital discharge was significantly higher in patients with the following epinephrine average dosing periods: for 6 to <7 min/dose, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.41 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.78); for 7 to <8 min/dose, adjusted OR, 1.30 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.65); for 8 to <9 min/dose, adjusted OR, 1.79 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.32); for 9 to <10 min/dose, adjusted OR, 2.17 (95%CI: 1.62, 2.92). This pattern was consistent for both shockable and non-shockable cardiac arrest rhythms. Less frequent average epinephrine dosing than recommended by consensus guidelines was associated with improved survival of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cracking the survival code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  2. Artillery Survivability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  3. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  4. Long-term weight loss after colorectal cancer diagnosis is associated with lower survival: The Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Hua, Xinwei; Hardikar, Sheetal; Robinson, Jamaica; Lindor, Noralane M; Win, Aung Ko; Hopper, John L; Figueiredo, Jane C; Potter, John D; Campbell, Peter T; Gallinger, Steven; Cotterchio, Michelle; Adams, Scott V; Cohen, Stacey A; Phipps, Amanda I; Newcomb, Polly A

    2017-12-01

    Body weight is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and survival, but to the authors' knowledge, the impact of long-term postdiagnostic weight change is unclear. Herein, the authors investigated whether weight change over the 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC is associated with survival. CRC cases diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified through 4 population-based cancer registry sites. Participants enrolled within 2 years of diagnosis and reported their height and weight 2 years prior. Follow-up questionnaires were administered approximately 5 years after diagnosis. Associations between change in weight (in kg) or body mass index (BMI) with overall and CRC-specific survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage of disease, baseline BMI, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, time between diagnosis and enrollment, and study site. At the 5-year postdiagnostic survey, 2049 participants reported higher (53%; median plus 5 kg), unchanged (12%), or lower (35%; median -4 kg) weight. Over a median of 5.1 years of subsequent follow-up (range, 0.3-9.9 years), 344 participants died (91 of CRC). Long-term weight loss (per 5 kg) was found to be associated with poorer overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.21) and CRC-specific survival (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.39). Significantly lower survival was similarly observed for relative weight loss (>5% vs ≤5% change), BMI reduction (per 1 unit), or BMI category change (overweight to normal vs remaining overweight). Weight loss 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC was found to be significantly associated with decreased long-term survival, suggesting the importance of avoiding weight loss in survivors of CRC. Future research should attempt to further evaluate this association, accounting for whether this weight change was intentional or represents a marker of declining health. Cancer 2017

  5. Prognostic factors of overall survival and cancer-specific survival in patients with resected early-stage rectal adenocarcinoma: a SEER-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Chao; Chung, Kuan-Chih; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Liu, Chia-Cheng; Lu, Chien-Chang

    2017-12-01

    The benefits of radiotherapy for colorectal cancer are well documented, but the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on early-stage rectal adenocarcinoma remains unclear. This study aimed to identify predictors of overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with stage II rectal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy. Patients with early-stage rectal adenocarcinoma in the postoperative state were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The primary endpoints were OS and overall CSS. Stage IIA patients without radiotherapy had significantly lower OS and CSS compared with those who received radiation before or after surgery. Stage IIB patients with radiotherapy before surgery had significantly higher OS and CSS compared with patients in the postoperative or no radiotherapy groups. Patients with signet ring cell carcinoma had the poorest OS among all the groups. Multivariable analysis showed that ethnicity (HR, 0.388, p=0.006) and radiation before surgery (HR, 0.614, p=0.006) were favorable prognostic factors for OS, while age (HR, 1.064, pstage IIB (HR, 3.011, p=0.011), and more than one tumor deposit (TD) (HR, 2.300, p=0.001) were unfavorable prognostic factors for OS. Old age (HR, 1.047, pstage IIB (HR, 8.619, p=0.005), circumferential resection margin between 0.1 mm and 10 mm (HR, 1.529, p=0.039), and more than one TD (HR, 2.688, p=0.001) were unfavorable prognostic factors for CSS. This population-based study identified predictors of OS and CSS in patients with early-stage resected rectal adenocarcinoma, which may help to guide future management of this patient population. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Effect of age and body weight on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhmann, Ditte J A; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is very toxic and the association between outcome and age and Body Mass Index is unclear. We investigated effect of age and Body Mass Index on toxicity and survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. We studied all patients who completed first...

  7. Does hydroxyapatite coating of uncemented cups improve long-term survival?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarinis, Stergios; Mäkelä, Keijo T; Eskelinen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether hydroxyapatite (HA) coating of uncemented cups used in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) improves bone ingrowth and reduces the risk of aseptic loosening. We therefore investigated survival of different uncemented cups that were available with or without HA...

  8. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  9. Tossing Out the Leftovers: The Fate of the Remains of Earth's Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones, L.; Levison, H. F.; Zahnle, K. J.

    1999-09-01

    Impact rates on the Moon and (presumably) Earth were orders of magnitude higher than they are now when the late lunar basins formed about 3900 Myr ago. Small bodies that remained in the inner solar system after the Earth and Moon formed have been suggested as possible basin-forming impactors (Wetherill 1975). As part of a study to determine whether various classes of small bodies might have produced the Late Heavy Bombardment, we have integrated the orbits of 200 test particles in the 0.7-1.3 AU region. The particles initially had circular orbits with zero inclination to the ecliptic. The integration included all the planets and was run for 100 Myr. 42% of the particles survived for 100 Myr; 23.5% hit Earth; 14% hit Venus; 14% hit the Sun; and 0.5% hit Mars. At late times the number, N, of particles that survive for time t goes as N = A - B log t, where A and B are constants (cf. Holman and Wisdom 1993, Evans and Tabachnik 1999). Using this law, we predict that about 10% of the particles would had survived to the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment, some 600 Myr after the solar system formed. Thus accretional leftovers are plausible impactors for producing the late lunar basins. However, if the Moon underwent a ''cataclysm,'' i.e., a sharp increase in the impact rate some 3900 Myr ago, some additional process, such as tidal disruption of a multi-100 km planetesimal by the Earth or Venus, would need to be invoked (Hartmann et al. 2000). Evans, N.W., and Tabachnik, S. (1999). Possible long-lived belts in the inner solar system. Nature 399, 41-43. Hartmann, W.K., Ryder, G., Dones, L., and Grinspoon, D. (2000). The time-dependent intense bombardment of the primordial Earth/Moon system. In Origin of the Earth and Moon (R. Canup and K. Righter, Eds.). Univ. Arizona Press and Lunar and Planetary Institute. Holman, M.J., and Wisdom, J. (1993). Dynamical stability in the outer solar system and the delivery of short period comets. Astron. J. 105, 1987-1999. Wetherill, G

  10. Effect of the crown, post, and remaining coronal dentin on the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Simamoto Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Soares, Carlos José; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; Santos-Filho, Paulo César Freitas

    2014-03-01

    It is unclear how the amount of remaining coronal dentin and the type of post and core rehabilitation affect the strain, stress distribution, and fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the type of post, type of crown, and the amount of remaining coronal dentin on the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated teeth. The investigation was conducted by using 3-dimensional finite element analysis and laboratory tests. Three-dimensional models of a maxillary central incisor were generated: without remaining coronal dentin, with 1.0 mm of remaining coronal dentin, with 2.0 mm of remaining coronal dentin, and restored with a glass-fiber post or a cast post and core in combination with a metal crown or an alumina-reinforced ceramic crown. The results were evaluated by using the von Mises criterion and Maximum Principal Stress. One hundred twenty bovine incisors were selected and divided into 12 treatment groups (n=10). Specimens were loaded at a 135-degree angle to perform strain measurements and were then loaded until fracture. The strain and fracture resistance results were analyzed with 3-way analysis of variance and the Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05). The alumina-reinforced ceramic crowns and metal crowns associated with a glass-fiber post showed a homogeneous stress distribution within the root. The cast post and core concentrated higher stresses at the post-dentin interface. Significant differences were found among the mean fracture resistance values for all groups (Pcrowns. Roots restored with glass-fiber posts exhibited more favorable fractures. The presence of 2 mm of remaining coronal dentin improved the mechanical behavior of the endodontically treated maxillary incisors. Teeth restored with glass-fiber posts and composite resin cores showed a homogeneous stress distribution within the root dentin. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic

  11. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  12. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  13. Association between prehospital physician involvement and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Annika; Steinmetz, Jacob; Wissenberg, Mads

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an important public health problem. While several interventions are known to improve survival, the impact of physician-delivered advanced cardiac life support for OHCA is unclear. We aimed to assess the association between prehospital physician.......13 (95% CI=0.99-1.29). CONCLUSION: In this large population-based observational study, we found prehospital physician involvement after OHCA associated with better 30-day survival. This association was also found for ROSC, but with less certainty for 1-year survival....

  14. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Remains High in African American and Hispanic Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Theresa; Ramsey, David; Graham, David; Shaib, Yasser; Shiota, Seiji; Velez, Maria; Cole, Rhonda; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Vela, Marcelo; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori in the United States has been declining in the 1990s albeit less so among blacks and Hispanics. As the socioeconomic status of racial groups has evolved, it remains unclear whether the prevalence or the racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence of H. pylori have changed. This is a cross-sectional study from a Veteran Affairs center among patients aged 40-80 years old who underwent a study esophagogastroduodenoscopy with gastric biopsies, which were cultured for H. pylori irrespective of findings on histopathology. Positive H. pylori was defined as positive culture or histopathology (stained organism combined with active gastritis). We calculated age-, race-, and birth cohort-specific H. pylori prevalence rates and examined predictors of H. pylori infection in logistic regression models. We analyzed data on 1200 patients; most (92.8%) were men and non-Hispanic white (59.9%) or black (28.9%). H. pylori was positive in 347 (28.9%) and was highest among black males aged 50-59 (53.3%; 44.0-62.4%), followed by Hispanic males aged 60-69 (48.1%; 34.2-62.2%), and lowest in non-Hispanic white males aged 40-49 (8.2%; 2.7-20.5%). In multivariate analysis, age group 50-59 was significantly associated with H. pylori (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-4.45) compared with those aged 40-49, and with black race (adjusted OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.83-3.60) and Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.70-5.34) compared with non-Hispanic white. Irrespective of age group, patients born during 1960-1969 had a lower risk of H. pylori (adjusted OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.96) compared to those born in 1930-1939. Those with some college education were less likely to have H. pylori compared to those with no college education (adjusted OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37-0.69). Among veterans, the prevalence of active H. pylori remains high (28.9%) with even higher rates in blacks and Hispanics with lower education levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  15. Level of HER2 gene amplification predicts response and overall survival in HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Martin, Carlos; Plaza, Jose Carlos; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; Salud, Antonieta; Pons, Francesc; Fonseca, Paula; Leon, Ana; Alsina, Maria; Visa, Laura; Rivera, Fernando; Galan, M Carmen; Del Valle, Elena; Vilardell, Felipe; Iglesias, Mar; Fernandez, Soledad; Landolfi, Stefania; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Mayorga, Marta; Jose Paulés, M; Sanz-Moncasi, Pilar; Montagut, Clara; Garralda, Elena; Rojo, Federico; Hidalgo, Manuel; Lopez-Rios, Fernando

    2013-12-10

    Previous studies have highlighted the importance of an appropriate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) evaluation for the proper identification of patients eligible for treatment with anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Today, the relationship remains unclear between the level of HER2 amplification and the outcome of HER2-positive gastric cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with trastuzumab. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of HER2 gene amplification determined by the HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number could significantly predict some benefit in overall survival and response to therapy in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy. Ninety patients with metastatic gastric cancer treated with first-line trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were studied. The optimal cutoff values for HER2/CEP17 ratio and HER2 gene copy number (GCN) for discriminating positive results in terms of response and prolonged survival were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves analyses. In this study, a median HER2/CEP17 ratio of 6.11 (95% CI, 2.27 to 21.90) and a median HER2 gene copy number of 11.90 (95% CI, 3.30 to 43.80) were found. A mean HER2/CEP17 ratio of 4.7 was identified as the optimal cutoff value discriminating sensitive and refractory patients (P = .005). Similarly, the optimal cutoff for predicting survival longer than 12 months was 4.45 (P = .005), and for survival longer than 16 months was 5.15 (P = .004). For HER2 GCN, the optimal cutoff values were 9.4, 10.0, and 9.5, respectively (P = .02). The level of HER2 gene amplification significantly predicts sensitivity to therapy and overall survival in advanced gastric cancer treated with trastuzumab-based chemotherapy.

  16. Obesity adversely affects survival in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R; Matsumoto, Martha E; Burch, Patrick A; Kim, George P; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; de Andrade, Mariza; Reid-Lombardo, Kaye; Bamlet, William R

    2010-11-01

    Higher body-mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer, but its effect on survival has not been thoroughly investigated. The authors assessed the association of BMI with survival in a sample of pancreatic cancer patients and used epidemiologic and clinical information to understand the contribution of diabetes and hyperglycemia. A survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards by usual adult BMI was performed on 1861 unselected patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; analyses were adjusted for covariates that included clinical stage, age, and sex. Secondary analyses incorporated self-reported diabetes and fasting blood glucose in the survival model. BMI as a continuous variable was inversely associated with survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio [HR], 1.019 for each increased unit of BMI [kg/m2], Ppancreatic cancer. Although the mechanism of this association remains undetermined, diabetes and hyperglycemia do not appear to account for the observed association. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  17. Survival Prognosis in Very Old Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    to rise without use of hands increased the chance for men to 11.2% (95% confidence interval (CI)=7.7-14.7) and for women to 22.0% (95% CI=18.9-25.1). When combining this with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores from 28 to 30, the chances were 21.7% (95% CI=11.5-31.9) for men and 34.2% (95% CI=24...... performance, cognition, depression symptomatology, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality, evaluated as average remaining lifespan and chance of surviving to 100 years. RESULTS: Men aged 92 to 93 had an overall 6.0% chance of surviving to 100 years, whereas the chance for women was 11.4%. Being able...

  18. Targeted p16(Ink4a) epimutation causes tumorigenesis and reduces survival in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Da-Hai; Waterland, Robert A; Zhang, Pumin; Schady, Deborah; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Guan, Yongtao; Gadkari, Manasi; Shen, Lanlan

    2014-09-01

    Cancer has long been viewed as a genetic disease; however, epigenetic silencing as the result of aberrant promoter DNA methylation is frequently associated with cancer development, suggesting an epigenetic component to the disease. Nonetheless, it has remained unclear whether an epimutation (an aberrant change in epigenetic regulation) can induce tumorigenesis. Here, we exploited a functionally validated cis-acting regulatory element and devised a strategy to induce developmentally regulated genomic targeting of DNA methylation. We used this system to target DNA methylation within the p16(Ink4a) promoter in mice in vivo. Engineered p16(Ink4a) promoter hypermethylation led to transcriptional suppression in somatic tissues during aging and increased the incidence of spontaneous cancers in these mice. Further, mice carrying a germline p16(Ink4a) mutation in one allele and a somatic epimutation in the other had accelerated tumor onset and substantially shortened tumor-free survival. Taken together, these results provide direct functional evidence that p16(Ink4a) epimutation drives tumor formation and malignant progression and validate a targeted methylation approach to epigenetic engineering.

  19. Harnessing BET Inhibitor Sensitivity Reveals AMIGO2 as a Melanoma Survival Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanals-Cirera, Barbara; Hasson, Dan; Vardabasso, Chiara; Di Micco, Raffaella; Agrawal, Praveen; Chowdhury, Asif; Gantz, Madeleine; de Pablos-Aragoneses, Ana; Morgenstern, Ari; Wu, Pamela; Filipescu, Dan; Valle-Garcia, David; Darvishian, Farbod; Roe, Jae-Seok; Davies, Michael A; Vakoc, Christopher R; Hernando, Eva; Bernstein, Emily

    2017-11-16

    Bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitors (BETi) represent promising therapeutic agents for metastatic melanoma, yet their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we interrogated the transcriptional effects of BETi and identified AMIGO2, a transmembrane molecule, as a BET target gene essential for melanoma cell survival. AMIGO2 is upregulated in melanoma cells and tissues compared to human melanocytes and nevi, and AMIGO2 silencing in melanoma cells induces G1/S arrest followed by apoptosis. We identified the pseudokinase PTK7 as an AMIGO2 interactor whose function is regulated by AMIGO2. Epigenomic profiling and genome editing revealed that AMIGO2 is regulated by a melanoma-specific BRD2/4-bound promoter and super-enhancer configuration. Upon BETi treatment, BETs are evicted from these regulatory elements, resulting in AMIGO2 silencing and changes in PTK7 proteolytic processing. Collectively, this study uncovers mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of BETi in melanoma and reveals the AMIGO2-PTK7 axis as a targetable pathway for metastatic melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathways in vitiligo skin: insight into the molecular pathways of cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Barygina, Victoria; Cecchi, Cristina; Lotti, Torello; Prignano, Francesca; Silvestro, Agrippino; Nassi, Paolo; Taddei, Niccolò

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. The aetiology of vitiligo remains unclear, but recent experimental data underline the interactions between melanocytes and other typical skin cells, particularly keratinocytes. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. Sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, well-known modulators of lifespan in many species, have a role in gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy ageing. In the literature there is no evidence for SIRT1 signalling in vitiligo and its possible involvement in disease progression. Here, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 16 patients suffering from non-segmental vitiligo and SIRT1 signalling was investigated in these cells. For the first time, a new SIRT1/Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been revealed in vitiligo. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathway via Akt-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 and down-regulates pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes. We therefore propose SIRT1 activation as a novel way of protecting perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes from damage. PMID:24410795

  1. IMPACTS OF TISSUE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA ON NEURONAL SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eChevilley

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA. In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival.

  2. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  3. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  4. Obesity in cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V

    2012-08-21

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

  5. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  7. Chemotherapy Use and Survival Among Young and Middle-Aged Patients With Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjelievskaia, Janna; Brown, Derek; McGlynn, Katherine A; Anderson, William; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin

    2017-05-01

    Treatment options for patients with young-onset colon cancer remain to be defined and their effects on prognosis are unclear. To investigate receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy by age category (18-49, 50-64, and 65-75 years) and assess whether age differences in chemotherapy matched survival gains among patients diagnosed as having colon cancer in an equal-access health care system. This cohort study was based on linked and consolidated data from the US Department of Defense's Central Cancer Registry and Military Heath System medical claims databases. There were 3143 patients aged 18 to 75 years with histologically confirmed primary colon adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2007. This study was conducted from December 2015 to August 2016. Patients who underwent surgery and postoperative systemic chemotherapy. The primary outcome measure of the study was overall survival of patients who only received surgery and those who received both surgery and postoperative systemic chemotherapy. Of the 3143 patients, 1841 were men (58.6%). Young (18-49 years) and middle-aged (50-64 years) patients were 2 to 8 times more likely to receive postoperative systemic chemotherapy compared with older patients (65-75 years) across all tumor stages. Middle-aged patients with stage I (odds ratio, 5.04; 95% CI, 2.30-11.05) and stage II (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.58-3.72) disease were more likely to receive postoperative chemotherapy compared with older patients. Both groups were more likely to receive multiagent chemotherapy than were older patients (patients aged 18-49 years: odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.42-4.32 and patients aged 50-64 years: odds ratio, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.70-4.18). Among patients who received surgery and postoperative systemic chemotherapy, no significant differences were observed in survival among age groups (the 95% CIs of hazard ratios included 1 for young and middle-aged patients compared with older patients for all tumor stages). In an equal-access health care

  8. Survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary Y Y; Cheng, Peter K C; Lim, Wilina W L

    2005-10-01

    The primary modes of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) appear to be direct mucus membrane contact with infectious droplets and through exposure to formites. Knowledge of the survival characteristics of the virus is essential for formulating appropriate infection-control measures. Survival of SARS-CoV strain GVU6109 was studied in stool and respiratory specimens. Survival of the virus on different environmental surfaces, including a laboratory request form, an impervious disposable gown, and a cotton nondisposable gown, was investigated. The virucidal effects of sodium hypochlorite, house detergent, and a peroxygen compound (Virkon S; Antec International) on the virus were also studied. SARS-CoV GVU6109 can survive for 4 days in diarrheal stool samples with an alkaline pH, and it can remain infectious in respiratory specimens for >7 days at room temperature. Even at a relatively high concentration (10(4) tissue culture infective doses/mL), the virus could not be recovered after drying of a paper request form, and its infectivity was shown to last longer on the disposable gown than on the cotton gown. All disinfectants tested were shown to be able to reduce the virus load by >3 log within 5 min. Fecal and respiratory samples can remain infectious for a long period of time at room temperature. The risk of infection via contact with droplet-contaminated paper is small. Absorbent material, such as cotton, is preferred to nonabsorptive material for personal protective clothing for routine patient care where risk of large spillage is unlikely. The virus is easily inactivated by commonly used disinfectants.

  9. Leukoplakia, Oral Cavity Cancer Risk, and Cancer Survival in the U.S. Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Katki, Hormuzd A; Silverberg, Michael J; Manos, M Michele; Engels, Eric A; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    Screening for oral leukoplakia, an oral cavity cancer (OCC) precursor, could lead to earlier detection of OCC. However, the progression rate from leukoplakia to OCC and the benefits of leukoplakia screening for improving OCC outcomes are currently unclear. We conducted a case-cohort study of U.S. adults ages ≥65 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linkage. We identified leukoplakia diagnoses through Medicare claims, and OCC diagnoses through SEER cancer registries. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate leukoplakia associations with OCC incidence, and the absolute OCC risk following leukoplakia diagnosis was calculated. Among OCC cases, we compared OCC stage and OCC survival between cases with a prior leukoplakia diagnosis versus those without prior leukoplakia. Among 470,266 individuals in the SEER-Medicare subcohort, 1,526 (0.3%) had a leukoplakia diagnosis. Among people with leukoplakia, the cumulative OCC incidence was 0.7% at 3 months and 2.5% at 5 years. OCC risk was most increased leukoplakia diagnosis (HR, 115), likely representing the diagnosis of prevalent cancers. Nonetheless, risk remained substantially increased in subsequent follow-up [HR ≥ 3 months, 24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 22-27; HR ≥ 12 months, 22, 95% CI, 20-25]. Among OCC cases (N = 8,927), those with prior leukoplakia were less likely to be diagnosed at regional/distant stage (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.30-0.43), and had lower mortality (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.84) when compared with OCC cases without a prior leukoplakia. Individuals with leukoplakia have substantially elevated risk of OCC. Lower stage and better survival after OCC diagnosis suggest that leukoplakia identification can lead to earlier OCC detection and reduced mortality. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Statin Use and Breast Cancer Survival: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J.; Visvanathan, Kala; Artama, Miia; Vainio, Harri; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that statins, an established drug group in the prevention of cardiovascular mortality, could delay or prevent breast cancer recurrence but the effect on disease-specific mortality remains unclear. We evaluated risk of breast cancer death among statin users in a population-based cohort of breast cancer patients. The study cohort included all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in Finland during 1995–2003 (31,236 cases), identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Information on statin use before and after the diagnosis was obtained from a national prescription database. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression method to estimate mortality among statin users with statin use as time-dependent variable. A total of 4,151 participants had used statins. During the median follow-up of 3.25 years after the diagnosis (range 0.08–9.0 years) 6,011 participants died, of which 3,619 (60.2%) was due to breast cancer. After adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and treatment selection, both post-diagnostic and pre-diagnostic statin use were associated with lowered risk of breast cancer death (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.38–0.55 and HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.44–0.67, respectively). The risk decrease by post-diagnostic statin use was likely affected by healthy adherer bias; that is, the greater likelihood of dying cancer patients to discontinue statin use as the association was not clearly dose-dependent and observed already at low-dose/short-term use. The dose- and time-dependence of the survival benefit among pre-diagnostic statin users suggests a possible causal effect that should be evaluated further in a clinical trial testing statins’ effect on survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:25329299

  11. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Shows No Survival Advantage to Chemotherapy Alone in Stage IIIA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Seth B; Mitzman, Brian; Lutfi, Waseem; Kuchta, Kristine; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Howington, John A; Kim, Ki Wan

    2018-02-13

    For operable patients with clinical stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer, the optimum neoadjuvant treatment strategy remains unclear. Our aim was to compare perioperative and long-term outcomes for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) alone. We queried the National Cancer Database to identify all patients with N2 and either T1-T2 non-small cell lung cancer who received either NCRT or NCT followed by lobectomy between 2006 and 2012. Patients with T3 tumors were excluded. A propensity match analysis was performed incorporating preoperative variables, and the incidence of postoperative complications, pathologic downstaging, and long-term survival were compared. In all, 1,936 patients met criteria, 745 NCT and 1,191 NCRT. The NCRT patients were younger, less likely to be treated at an academic medical center, and more likely to have adenocarcinoma. After propensity matching, patients in the NCT group showed lower 30-day mortality (1.3% versus 2.9%) and 90-day mortality (2.9% versus 6.0%), and were more likely to undergo a minimally invasive resection (25.7% versus 14.1%). The NCRT patients were more likely to have a pathologic complete response (14.2% versus 4.0%) and to be N0 at the time of resection (45.2% versus 38.7%). In the multivariable analysis, NCRT patients were at a greater risk of mortality than NCT patients (hazard ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.36). In our cohort, combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy was associated with improved pathologic downstaging but showed increased perioperative mortality with no improvement in long-term overall survival. For stage IIIA patients with smaller tumors without local invasion, chemotherapy alone may be the preferred neoadjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peroxiredoxin 3 maintains the survival of endometrial cancer stem cells by regulating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Sung; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Seo, Young Jin; Byun, Jung Mi; Kim, Young Nanm; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Han, Jin; Kim, Ki Tae; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2017-11-03

    Cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapy could reduce tumor growth, recurrence, and metastasis in endometrial cancer (EC). The mitochondria of CSCs have been recently found to be an important target for cancer treatment, but the mitochondrial features of CSCs and their regulators, which maintain mitochondrial function, remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial properties of CSCs, and identified specific targets for eliminating CSCs in EC. We found that endometrial CSCs displayed higher mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca 2+ , reactive oxygen species, ATP levels, and oxygen consumption rates than non-CSCs. Further, we also verified that mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) was upregulated, and that it contributed to the survival of CSCs in EC. The knockdown of the Prx3 gene resulted not only in decreased sphere formation, but also reduced the viability of endometrial CSCs, by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, we found that the forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1), an important transcriptional factor, is overexpressed in patients with EC. FoxM1 expression correlates with elevated Prx3 expression levels, in agreement with the tumorigenic ability of Prx3 in endometrial CSCs. Taken together, our findings indicate that human endometrial CSCs have enhanced mitochondrial function compared to that of endometrial tumor cells. Endometrial CSCs show increased expression of the mitochondrial Prx3, which is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and survival, and is induced by FoxM1. Based on our findings, we believe that these proteins might represent valuable therapeutic targets and could provide new insights into the development of new therapeutic strategies for patients with endometrial cancer.

  13. Survival analysis of patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continuous improvement of dialysis technology and pharmacological treatment, mortality rates for dialysis patients are still high. A 2-year prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital to determine the factors influencing survival among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. 96 patients with end-stage renal disease surviving more than 3 months on hemodialysis (8-12 h/week were studied. Follow-up was censored at the time of death or at the end of 2-year study period, whichever occurred first. Of the 96 patients studied (mean age 49.74 ± 14.55 years, 75% male and 44.7% diabetics, 19 died with an estimated mortality rate of 19.8%. On an age-adjusted multivariate analysis, female gender and hypokalemia independently predicted mortality. In Cox analyses, patient survival was associated with delivered dialysis dose (single pool Kt/V, hazard ratio [HR] =0.01, P = 0.016, frequency of hemodialysis (HR = 3.81, P = 0.05 and serum albumin (HR = 0.24, P = 0.005. There was no significant difference between diabetes and non-diabetes in relation to death (Relative Risk = 1.109; 95% CI = 0.49-2.48, P = 0.803. This study revealed that mortality among hemodialysis patients remained high, mostly due to sepsis and ischemic heart disease. Patient survival was better with higher dialysis dose, increased frequency of dialysis and adequate serum albumin level. Efforts at minimizing infectious complications, preventing cardiovascular events and improving nutrition should increase survival among hemodialysis patients.

  14. Survival Prognosis in Very Old Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Jeune, Bernard; Osler, Merete; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether simple functional indicators are predictors of survival prognosis in very old adults. DESIGN In-person survey conducted over a 3-month period in 1998; assessment of survival over a 15-year follow-up period. SETTING Denmark. PARTICIPANTS All 3,600 Danes born in 1905 and living in Denmark in 1998, were invited to participate regardless of residence and health; 2,262 (63%) participated in the survey: 1,814 (80.2%) in person and 448 (19.8%) through a proxy. MEASUREMENTS Socioeconomic factors, medications and diseases, activities of daily living, physical performance, cognition, depression symptomatology, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality, evaluated as average remaining lifespan and chance of surviving to 100 years. RESULTS Men aged 92 to 93 had an overall 6.0% chance of surviving to 100 years, whereas the chance for women was 11.4%. Being able to rise without use of hands increased the chance for men to 11.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.7–14.7) and for women to 22.0% (95% CI = 18.9–25.1). When combining this with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores from 28 to 30, the chances were 21.7% (95% CI = 11.5–31.9) for men and 34.2% (95% CI = 24.8–43.5) for women. CONCLUSION Chair stand score combined with MMSE score is a quick and easy way to estimate overall chance of survival in very old adults, which is particularly relevant when treatment with potential side effects for nonacute diseases is considered. J Am Geriatr Soc 64:81–88, 2016. PMID:26782855

  15. Primary localization and tumor thickness as prognostic factors of survival in patients with mucosal melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mehra

    Full Text Available Data on survival with mucosal melanoma and on prognostic factors of are scarce. It is still unclear if the disease course allows for mucosal melanoma to be treated as primary cutaneous melanoma or if differences in overall survival patterns require adapted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, this investigation is the first to present 10-year survival rates for mucosal melanomas of different anatomical localizations.116 cases from Sep 10 1984 until Feb 15 2011 retrieved from the Comprehensive Cancer Center and of the Central Register of the German Dermatologic Society databases in Tübingen were included in our analysis. We recorded anatomical location and tumor thickness, and estimated overall survival at 2, 5 and 10 years and the mean overall survival time. Survival times were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival times by localizations and by T-stages.We found a median overall survival time of 80.9 months, with an overall 2-year survival of 71.7%, 5-year survival of 55.8% and 10-year survival of 38.3%. The 10-year survival rates for patients with T1, T2, T3 or T4 stage tumors were 100.0%, 77.9%, 66.3% and 10.6% respectively. 10-year survival of patients with melanomas of the vulva was 64.5% in comparison to 22.3% of patients with non-vulva mucosal melanomas.Survival times differed significantly between patients with melanomas of the vulva compared to the rest (p = 0.0006. It also depends on T-stage at the time of diagnosis (p < 0.0001.

  16. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  17. Prostaglandin receptor EP3 regulates cell proliferation and migration with impact on survival of endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyan; Trillsch, Fabian; Mayr, Doris; Kuhn, Christina; Rahmeh, Martina; Hofmann, Simone; Vogel, Marianne; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; von Schönfeldt, Viktoria

    2018-01-02

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 3 (EP3) regulates tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in numerous cancers. The role of EP3 as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer remains unclear. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of EP3 expression in endometrial cancer. We analyzed the EP3 expression of 140 endometrial carcinoma patients by immunohistochemistry. RL95-2 endometrial cancer cell line was chosen from four endometrial cancer cell lines (RL95-2, Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, and HEC-1-B) according to EP3 expression level. Treated with PGE2 and EP3 antagonist, RL95-2 cells were investigated by MTT, BrdU, and wound healing assay for functional assessment of EP3. EP3 staining differed significantly according to WHO tumor grading in both whole cohort (p = 0.01) and the subgroup of endometrioid carcinoma (p = 0.01). Patients with high EP3 expression in their respective tumors had impaired progression-free survival as well as overall survival in both cohorts above. EP3 expression in the overall cohort was identified as an independent prognostic marker for progression-free survival (HR 1.014, 95%CI 1.003-1.024, p = 0.01) when adjusted for age, stage, grading, and recurrence. Treatment with EP3 antagonists induced upregulation of estrogen receptor β and decreased activity of Ras and led to attenuated proliferation and migration of RL95-2 cells. EP3 seems to play a crucial role in endometrial cancer progression. In the context of limited systemic treatment options for endometrial cancer, this explorative analysis identifies EP3 as a potential target for diagnostic workup and therapy.

  18. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  19. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  20. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  1. Effect of the number of lymph nodes harvested on the long-term survival of gastric cancer patients according to tumor stage and location: a 12-year study of 1,637 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhanlong; Ye, Yingjiang; Xie, Qiwei; Liang, Bin; Jiang, Kewei; Wang, Shan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of the number of lymph nodes harvested on the long-term survival of gastric cancer according to Tumor, Node, and Metastasis (TNM) stage and tumor location remains unclear. Patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer (1998 to 2009) were evaluated retrospectively (1,637 patients). The patients' clinicopathological variables, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were recorded. The effect of the number of lymph nodes harvested on survival was analyzed according to TNM stage and tumor location. Harvest of greater than 30 lymph nodes was associated with significantly better OS and PFS than less than or equal to 14 lymph nodes, but no significant difference was observed between less than or equal to 14 and 15 to 29 lymph nodes harvested. The number of lymph nodes harvested was significantly associated with the OS or/and PFS of late stage cancer (N+, T3 to T4, and stage III to IV), harvest of greater than 30 lymph nodes brought significantly better survival compared with the other 2 groups. A higher number of harvested lymph nodes was associated with significantly better PFS for gastric cancer of the body of stomach, but not for proximal, distal, and whole stomach cancer. When the tumor was located in the body of the stomach, the PFS was better with 15 to 29 lymph nodes than less than 14 lymph nodes; however, the OS and PFS were not significantly different between greater than 30 lymph nodes and 15 to 29 lymph nodes. TNM stage and number of lymph nodes harvested were the independent risk factors affecting the survival. Tailored lymphadenectomy according to TNM stage and tumor location might be considered for gastric cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Survival After Relapse of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschmann, Carl; Bloom, Karina; Upadhyaya, Santhosh; Geyer, J Russell; Leary, Sarah E S

    2016-05-01

    Survival after recurrence of medulloblastoma has not been reported in an unselected cohort of patients in the contemporary era. We reviewed 55 patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma between 2000 and 2010, and treated at Seattle Children's Hospital to evaluate patterns of relapse treatment and survival. Fourteen of 47 patients (30%) over the age of 3 experienced recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma after standard therapy. The median time from diagnosis to recurrence was 18.0 months (range, 3.6 to 62.6 mo), and site of recurrence was metastatic in 86%. The median survival after relapse was 10.3 months (range, 1.3 to 80.5 mo); 3-year survival after relapse was 18%. There were trend associations between longer survival and having received additional chemotherapy (median survival 12.8 vs. 1.3 mo, P=0.16) and radiation therapy (15.4 vs. 5.9 mo, P=0.20). Isolated local relapse was significantly associated with shorter survival (1.3 vs. 12.8 mo, P=0.009). Recurrence of medulloblastoma is more likely to be metastatic than reported in previous eras. Within the limits of our small sample, our data suggest a potential survival benefit from retreatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation even in heavily pretreated patients. This report serves as a baseline against which to evaluate novel therapy combinations.

  4. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives of...

  5. Combined aberrant expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 and CD24 is associated with disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Shao, Qing; Ji, Dong; Li, Fan; Guo, Xiaodong; Chen, Guofeng

    2014-10-23

    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), as a tumor suppressor, has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by reducing the expression of CD24, which has been identified as a prognostic factor for HCC patients. However, the clinical significance of combined NDRG2 and CD24 expression in HCC remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of NDRG2 and CD24 expression with clinicopathological parameters and patients' survival. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression and subcellular localizations of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins in 130 pairs of HCC and adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues. NDRG2 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of hepatocytes in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues, whereas its immunostaining was weak or negative in HCC tissues. In contrast, CD24 protein exhibited the cytoplasm immunostaining in tumor cells of HCC tissues but showed negative expression in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues. The statistical analysis also showed that the expression levels of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins in HCC tissues were respectively lower and higher than those in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues significantly (both Pexpression and CD24 expression in HCC tissues (P=0.02). Moreover, combined NDRG2 downregulation and CD24 upregulation (NDRG2-low/CD24-high) more frequently occurred in HCC tissues with high serum AFP (P=0.03), advanced tumor stage (P=0.001) and high tumor grade (P=0.02). Furthermore, HCC patients with NDRG2-low/CD24-high expression showed shortest 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both Pexpression of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins was an independent prognostic factor for both 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P=0.01) in HCC. These findings suggest that the downregulation of NDRG2 combined with the upregulation of CD24 may play a synergistic role in the occurrence and

  6. Survival of Salmonella Newport in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher M; Armstrong, Alexandra E; Evans, Sanford; Mild, Rita M; Langdon, Christopher J; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-08-02

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed foodborne illness in the United States and raw shellfish consumption is a commonly implicated source of gastrointestinal pathogens. A 2005 epidemiological study done in our laboratory by Brands et al., showed that oysters in the United States are contaminated with Salmonella, and in particular, a specific strain of the Newport serovar. This work sought to further investigate the host-microbe interactions between Salmonella Newport and oysters. A procedure was developed to reliably and repeatedly expose oysters to enteric bacteria and quantify the subsequent levels of bacterial survival. The results show that 10 days after an exposure to Salmonella Newport, an average concentration of 3.7 × 10(3)CFU/g remains within the oyster meat, and even after 60 days there still can be more than 10(2)CFU/g remaining. However, the strain of Newport that predominated in the market survey done by Brands et al. does not survive within oysters or the estuarine environment better than any other strains of Salmonella we tested. Using this same methodology, we compared Salmonella Newport's ability to survive within oysters to a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli and found that after 10 days the concentration of Salmonella was 200-times greater than that of E. coli. We also compared those same strains of Salmonella and E. coli in a depuration process to determine if a constant 120 L/h flux of clean seawater could significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria within oysters and found that after 3 days the oysters retained over 10(4)CFU/g of Salmonella while the oysters exposed to the non-pathogenic strain of E. coli contained 100-times less bacteria. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that any of the clinically relevant serovars of Salmonella can survive within oysters for significant periods of time after just one exposure event. Based on the drastic differences in survivability between Salmonella and a non

  7. Five Years Survival on Hemodialysis Predicted by Artificial Neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five Years Survival on Hemodialysis Predicted by Artificial Neural Network Model. ... Introduction: Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients' morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. It is important to identify risk factors affecting outcome and define their relative contribution. Methods: The data of 93 patients who ...

  8. Patient and alograft survival after transplantation with a living donor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Late allograft loss remains a key area of concern. This study Was aimed at determining the patient and renal allograft outcome and identifying the factors responsible for survival following transplantation with a living-related donor kidney at the Nairobi Hospital, Kenya. METHODS: Follow-up data for ...

  9. Association between overall environmental quality and lung cancer survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer remains one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers in the United States. Individual environmental exposures have been associated with lung cancer incidence. However, the impact of cumulative environmental exposures on survival is not well understood. To address this...

  10. Vitamin D and prostate cancer survival in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, Tatyana; Bailey, Beth A; Youssef, Dima; Manning, Todd; Grant, William B; Peiris, Alan N

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among the male population worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to prostate cancer and its aggressiveness. Herein, we initiated a retrospective study to evaluate vitamin D status and monitoring in veterans with prostate cancer, and to examine the potential link between vitamin D and survival status and length of survival in this population. We found that veterans who were initially vitamin D deficient were significantly less likely to survive than those who were not initially deficient, and that both initial and follow-up vitamin D deficiency were associated with decreased likelihood of survival after prostate cancer diagnosis. We recommend that vitamin D deficiency be replaced in veterans with prostate cancer. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  12. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  13. Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: Why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nate McDowell; William T. Pockman; Craig D. Allen; David D. Breshears; Neil Cobb; Thomas Kolb; Jennifer Plaut; John Sperry; Adam West; David G. Williams; Enrico A. Yepez

    2008-01-01

    Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and...

  14. Comparative survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Murine Norovirus on spinach plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Outbreaks resulting from the consumption of leafy greens contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and norovirus have occurred. It is unclear how the stress response factor rpoS in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. affects their survival on spinach. Purpose: A comparison ...

  15. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  16. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  17. Extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate: a novel actor in human glioblastoma stem cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Riccitelli

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive intracranial neoplasms in humans, and despite advances and the introduction of the alkylating agent temozolomide in therapy have improved patient survival, resistance mechanisms limit benefits. Recent studies support that glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs, a cell subpopulation within the tumour, are involved in the aberrant expansion and therapy resistance properties of glioblastomas, through still unclear mechanisms. Emerging evidence suggests that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P a potent onco-promoter able to act as extracellular signal, favours malignant and chemoresistance properties in GSCs. Notwithstanding, the origin of S1P in the GSC environment remains unknown. We investigated S1P metabolism, release, and role in cell survival properties of GSCs isolated from either U87-MG cell line or a primary culture of human glioblastoma. We show that both GSC models, grown as neurospheres and expressing GSC markers, are resistant to temozolomide, despite not expressing the DNA repair protein MGMT, a major contributor to temozolomide-resistance. Pulse experiments with labelled sphingosine revealed that both GSC types are able to rapidly phosphorylate the long-chain base, and that the newly produced S1P is efficiently degraded. Of relevance, we found that S1P was present in GSC extracellular medium, its level being significantly higher than in U87-MG cells, and that the extracellular/intracellular ratio of S1P was about ten-fold higher in GSCs. The activity of sphingosine kinases was undetectable in GSC media, suggesting that mechanisms of S1P transport to the extracellular environment are constitutive in GSCs. In addition we found that an inhibitor of S1P biosynthesis made GSCs sensitive to temozolomide (TMZ, and that exogenous S1P reverted this effect, thus involving extracellular S1P as a GSC survival signal in TMZ resistance. Altogether our data implicate for the first time GSCs as a pivotal source

  18. Splenectomy increases the survival time of heart allograft via developing immune tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The spleen is an active lymphoid organ. The effect of splenectomy on the immune response remains unclear. This study investigated whether splenectomy can induce immune tolerance and has a beneficial role in cardiac allograft. Methods Wistar rats were used for heart donors. The Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats designated as the recipients of heart transplantation (HT) were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, splenectomy, HT, splenectomy + HT. The survival of transplanted hearts was assessed by daily checking of abdominal palpation. At various time points after transplantation, the transplanted hearts were collected and histologically examined; the level of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) and rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (annexin-v+ PI+ cells) in the blood were analyzed by using flow cytometric method. Results 1) Splenectomy significantly prolonged the mean survival time of heart allografts (7 ± 1.1 days and 27 ± 1.5 days for HT and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 12-14/group, HT vs. splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy delayed pathological changes (inflammatory cell infiltration, myocardial damage) of the transplanted hearts in splenectomy + HT rats; 3) The level of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the blood of splenectomized rats was significantly increased within 7 days (2.4 ± 0.5%, 4.9 ± 1.3% and 5.3 ± 1.0% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p splenectomy surgery and gradually decreased to baseline level; 4) Splenectomy increased the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (day 7: 0.3 ± 0.05%, 3.9 ± 0.9% and 4.1 ± 0.9% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy inhibits the development of pathology and prolongs the survival time of cardiac allograft. The responsible mechanism is associated with induction of immune

  19. Downregulation of serine protease HTRA1 is associated with poor survival in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lehner

    Full Text Available HTRA1 is a highly conserved serine protease which has been implicated in suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT and cell motility in breast cancer. Its prognostic relevance for breast cancer is unclear so far. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of HTRA1 mRNA expression on patient outcome using a cohort of 131 breast cancer patients as well as a validation cohort including 2809 publically available data sets. Additionally, we aimed at investigating for the presence of promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism for silencing the HTRA1 gene in breast tumors. HTRA1 downregulation was detected in more than 50% of the breast cancer specimens and was associated with higher tumor stage (p = 0.025. By applying Cox proportional hazard models, we observed favorable overall (OS and disease-free survival (DFS related to high HTRA1 expression (HR = 0.45 [CI 0.23-0.90], p = 0.023; HR = 0.55 [CI 0.32-0.94], p = 0.028, respectively, with even more pronounced impact in node-positive patients (HR = 0.21 [CI 0.07-0.63], p = 0.006; HR = 0.29 [CI 0.13-0.65], p = 0.002, respectively. Moreover, HTRA1 remained a statistically significant factor predicting DFS among established clinical parameters in the multivariable analysis. Its impact on patient outcome was independently confirmed in the validation set (for relapse-free survival (n = 2809: HR = 0.79 [CI 0.7-0.9], log-rank p = 0.0003; for OS (n = 971: HR = 0.63 [CI 0.48-0.83], log-rank p = 0.0009. In promoter analyses, we in fact detected methylation of HTRA1 in a small subset of breast cancer specimens (two out of a series of 12, and in MCF-7 breast cancer cells which exhibited 22-fold lower HTRA1 mRNA expression levels compared to unmethylated MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, we show that downregulation of HTRA1 is associated with shorter patient survival, particularly in node-positive breast cancer. Since HTRA1 loss was demonstrated to

  20. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough's Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Silvia M; Saladié, Palmira; Cáceres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Antonio; Parfitt, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    A recurring theme of late Upper Palaeolithic Magdalenian human bone assemblages is the remarkable rarity of primary burials and the common occurrence of highly-fragmentary human remains mixed with occupation waste at many sites. One of the most extensive Magdalenian human bone assemblages comes from Gough's Cave, a sizeable limestone cave set in Cheddar Gorge (Somerset), UK. After its discovery in the 1880s, the site was developed as a show cave and largely emptied of sediment, at times with minimal archaeological supervision. Some of the last surviving remnants of sediment within the cave were excavated between 1986 and 1992. The excavations uncovered intensively-processed human bones intermingled with abundant butchered large mammal remains and a diverse range of flint, bone, antler, and ivory artefacts. New ultrafiltrated radiocarbon determinations demonstrate that the Upper Palaeolithic human remains were deposited over a very short period of time, possibly during a series of seasonal occupations, about 14,700 years BP (before present). The human remains have been the subject of several taphonomic studies, culminating in a detailed reanalysis of the cranial remains that showed they had been carefully modified to make skull-cups. Our present analysis of the postcrania has identified a far greater degree of human modification than recorded in earlier studies. We identify extensive evidence for defleshing, disarticulation, chewing, crushing of spongy bone, and the cracking of bones to extract marrow. The presence of human tooth marks on many of the postcranial bones provides incontrovertible evidence for cannibalism. In a wider context, the treatment of the human corpses and the manufacture and use of skull-cups at Gough Cave have parallels with other Magdalenian sites in central and western Europe. This suggests that cannibalism during the Magdalenian was part of a customary mortuary practice that combined intensive processing and consumption of the bodies with

  1. Does stage of cancer, comorbidity or lifestyle factors explain educational differences in survival after endometrial cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Ulla Holten; Ibfelt, Else; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    .11–1.67). Conclusion: Early detection in all educational groups might reduce social inequalities in survival, however, the unexplained increased risk for death after adjustment for prognostic factors, warrants increased attention to patients with short education in all age groups throughout treatment......Background: Several studies have documented an association between socioeconomic position and survival from gynaecological cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between level of education and survival after endometrial cancer among...... Danish women; and whether differences in stage at diagnosis and comorbidity contribute to the educational differences in survival. Methods: Women with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database, with information on clinical...

  2. Binding of Human Fibrinogen to MRP Enhances Streptococcus suis Survival in Host Blood in a αXβ2 Integrin-dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Yaya; Li, Xueqin; Zheng, Yuling; Wu, Xiaohong; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-05-27

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2), an important zoonotic pathogen, induces strong systemic infections in humans; sepsis and meningitis are the most common clinical manifestations and are often accompanied by bacteremia. However, the mechanisms of S. suis 2 survival in human blood are not well understood. In our previous study, we identified muramidase-released protein (MRP), a novel human fibrinogen (hFg)-binding protein (FBP) in S. suis 2 that is an important epidemic infection marker with an unknown mechanism in pathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that the N-terminus of MRP (a.a. 283-721) binds to both the Aα and Bβ chains of the D fragment of hFg. Strikingly, the hFg-MRP interaction improved the survival of S. suis 2 in human blood and led to the aggregation and exhaustion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) via an αXβ2 integrin-dependent mechanism. Other Fg-binding proteins, such as M1 (GAS) and FOG (GGS), also induced PMNs aggregation; however, the mechanisms of these FBP-hFg complexes in the evasion of PMN-mediated innate immunity remain unclear. MRP is conserved across highly virulent strains in Europe and Asia, and these data shed new light on the function of MRP in S. suis pathogenesis.

  3. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop.

  4. National database study of survival of pediatric congenital heart disease patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jen Yeh

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: This national database study revealed that the survival of children with simple CHD was still slightly lower than that of the general population and the survival of severe CHD patients, though only accounting for one-tenth of CHD cases, remained unsatisfactory. Such survival profiles are similar to those from Western reports and warrant a refined and dedicated medical care program for children with CHD.

  5. Allergies, obesity, other risk factors and survival from pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H; Chou, Joanne F; Ludwig, Emmy; O'Reilly, Eileen; Allen, Peter J; Jarnagin, William R; Bayuga, Sharon; Simon, Jennifer; Gonen, Mithat; Reisacher, William R; Kurtz, Robert C

    2010-11-15

    Survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains extremely poor, approximately 5% at 5 years. Risk factors include smoking, high body mass index (BMI), family history of pancreatic cancer, and long-standing diabetes; in contrast, allergies are associated with reduced risk. Little is known about associations between these factors and survival. We analyzed overall survival in relation to risk factors for 475 incident cases who took part in a hospital based case-control study. Analyses were conducted separately for those who did (160) and did not (315) undergo tumor resection. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to describe survival according to smoking, BMI, family history, diabetes, and presence of allergies. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for covariates. There was no association with survival based on smoking, family history, or history of diabetes in either group. Among patients with resection, those with allergies showed nonstatistically significant longer survival, a median of 33.1 months (95% CI: 19.0-52.5) vs. 21.8 months (95% CI: 18.0-33.1), p = 0.25. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.43-1.23), p = 0.23. Among patients without resection, those with self-reported allergies survived significantly longer than those without allergies: 13.3 months (95% CI: 10.6-16.9) compared to 10.4 months (95% CI: 8.8-11.0), p = 0.04, with an adjusted HR of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49-0.95), p = 0.02. Obesity was nonsignificantly associated with poorer survival, particularly in the resected group (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 0.76-3.44). The mechanisms underlying the association between history of allergies and improved survival are unknown. These novel results need to be confirmed in other studies.

  6. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  7. Predicting secondary school dropout among South African adolescents: A survival analysis approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Hui (Jimmy); Caldwell, Linda L; Smith, Edward A; Weybright, Elizabeth H; Wegner, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    ...% of the age appropriate population remain enrolled. Survival analysis was used to identify the risk of dropping out of secondary school for male and female adolescents and examine the influence of substance use and leisure experience predictors...

  8. The impact of bevacizumab treatment on survival and quality of life in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Urup, Thomas; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains one of the most devastating tumors, and patients have a median survival of 15 months despite aggressive local and systemic therapy, including maximal surgical resection, radiation therapy, and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. The purpose of antineoplastic...

  9. A Five-Year Breast Cancer-Specific Survival Disadvantage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Racial/ethnic disparities in female breast cancer survival continue to persist in United States. However, disparities comparing African Americans (AA), Asians and Caucasians remain to be assessed. We aimed to assess multiracial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer survival, and to examine the factors that may explain the ...

  10. Prognostic Model for Survival in Patients With Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Schilthuis, Marten S.; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P. M.; Buist, Marrije R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer

  11. Deep learning predictions of survival based on MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burgh, Hannelore K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413641066; Schmidt, Ruben; Westeneng, Henk-Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993663; de Reus, Marcel A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413970728; van den Berg, Leonard H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288255216; van den Heuvel, Martijn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304820466

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease, with large variation in survival between patients. Currently, it remains rather difficult to predict survival based on clinical parameters alone. Here, we set out to use clinical characteristics in combination with MRI data

  12. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA–DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkovics, J G

    2015-01-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals....

  13. Temporal trends in acute myocardial infarction: What about survival of hospital survivors? Disparities between STEMI & NSTEMI remain. Soroka acute myocardial infarction II (SAMI-II) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakht, Ygal; Gilutz, Harel; Shiyovich, Arthur

    2016-01-15

    Contemporary data on trends of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), particularly outcomes of hospital survivors by AMI type is sparse. Analysis of 11,107 consecutive AMI patients in a tertiary hospital in Israel throughout 2002-2012. The annual incidence of ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI) admissions was calculated using age-gender-ethnicity direct adjustment. A multivariate prognostic model was built to evaluate in-hospital and 1-year post-discharge all-cause-mortality, adjusted for patients' risk factors. A decline in the adjusted incidence of AMI admissions (per-1000 persons) was documented (2002 vs. 2012) for STEMI: 4.70 vs. 1.38 (p<0.001) and non-significant tendency of increase for NSTEMI: 1.86 vs. 2.37 (p=0.109). The prevalence of most cardiovascular risk-factors, some non-cardiovascular comorbidities and invasive interventions increased. In-hospital mortality declined significantly for STEMI: 10.8% vs. 7.7% (p<0.001) and with no change for NSTEMI: 5.0% vs. 5.5% (p=0.137). Consistently, 1-year post-discharge mortality declined for STEMI: 13% vs. 5.9% (p<0.001) and with a non-significant increase for NSTEMI: 12.6% vs. 17.0% (p=0.377). Adjusting for the risk factors, an increase of one year was associated with a decline of in-hospital mortality for STEMI: AdjOR=0.86 (p<0.001) and for NSTEMI: AdjOR=0.92 (p<0.001). However, the risk for post-discharge mortality increased for STEMI: AdjOR=1.11 (p<0.001) and for NSTEMI: AdjOR=1.12 (p<0.001). Throughout 2002-2012 significant decline in the incidence and of in-hospital mortality of STEMI were found. However, adjusted post-discharge mortality rates increased significantly with time. Measures for improving incidence and outcomes of AMI patients focusing on NSTEMI and hospital-survivors are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  15. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: effect on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Rossella; Ficano, Leonardo; Piccoli, Federico; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2011-05-15

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is offered to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with severe dysphagia. Immediate benefits of PEG are adequate food intake and weight stabilization. However, the impact of PEG on survival is still uncertain. In this work we retrospectively evaluated the effect of PEG on survival in a cohort of ALS patients followed in a tertiary referral centre. Between 2000 and 2007, 150 dysphagic ALS patients were followed until death or tracheostomy. PEG was placed in 76 patients who accepted the procedure and survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier life-table method. In ALS patients submitted to PEG, no major complications were observed. Total median survival time from symptom onset was 38 months for PEG users as compared to 32 months for the remaining dysphagic patients who declined the procedure (p=0.05). Among bulbar-onset patients, PEG users showed a median survival time longer than those with no PEG (28 months vs. 25 months), even though the difference was not significant. Conversely, dysphagic spinal-onset patients with PEG lived significantly longer than those who refused this palliative care (44 months vs. 36 months, p=0.046). Survival in patients with PEG was not affected by the severity of the respiratory impairment, as measured by forced vital capacity. This study demonstrates that PEG improves survival in dysphagic ALS patients, with few side effects. The procedure is safe and applicable even to patients with impaired respiratory function. PEG remains a milestone in palliative care in dysphagic ALS patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CAMMA-RAY SPECTRUM OF BOVINE THYROID DURING UNCLEAR FALLOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ASKARI SHIRAZI

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a nuclear explo sion, the radioactive materials descend t o the earth. Most of the act i v i t y results from fis sion fragments. Therefore, new atoms created when heavy a toms such as uranium and plutonium are fissioned. Atoms made radioactive by neutron capture are a:50 important."nIf the explosion is sufficiently high in the air, it takes months to years for most of t he resulting finely dispersed par t icl e to settle (1& 2. By t his time the gr eater pa r t o f "t he initial radioactivity has de caye d away. This delayed f allo ut covers the entire wor~d. Rain and snow help t o bring it down . It tends t o be gr ea t er in wet c l i ma t e and seasons. In t h is a r t i cle the da t a obtaine d during Russi an nuclear air t e sts has been a nalys e ( 1961 .

  17. Giant scrotal lymphedema of unclear etiology: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ganiyu A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Scrotal lymphedema is common in the tropics and subtropics. The giant variants can cause a lot of physical disability and psychological disturbances. Case presentation We present a 25-year-old Nigerian male with giant scrotal lymphedema with severe debilitating symptoms, immobility and emotional disturbance. He benefited from a modified Charles' procedure and reconstruction of the penile shaft using a split-thickness skin graft. Conclusion Giant scrotal lymphedema related to poverty, ignorance and neglect, is amenable to surgery. Surgery provides a cosmetically acceptable and functionally satisfying outcome.

  18. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease with an unclear aetiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    equipment, nuclear reactors and the aerospace industry), drug use (e.g. methotrexate) and exposure to organic material (e.g. birds) should be excluded on history. When acquiring tissue, the most accessible site should be used. For lung lesions, endo- or transbronchial lung biopsy (TBL) is a safe procedure in experienced ...

  19. The (unclear effects of invalid retro-cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eGressmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies with the retro-cue paradigm have shown that validly cueing objects in visual working memory long after encoding can still benefit performance on subsequent change detection tasks. With regard to the effects of invalid cues, the literature is less clear. Some studies reported costs, others did not. We here revisit two recent studies that made interesting suggestions concerning invalid retro-cues: One study suggested that costs only occur for larger set sizes, and another study suggested that inclusion of invalid retro-cues diminishes the retro-cue benefit. New data from one experiment and a reanalysis of published data are provided to address these conclusions. The new data clearly show costs (and benefits that were independent of set size, and the reanalysis suggests no influence of the inclusion of invalid retro-cues on the retro-cue benefit. Thus, previous interpretations may be taken with some caution at present.

  20. MR imaging following herniography in patients with unclear groin pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leander, P.; Ekberg, O.; Sjoeberg, S.; Kesek, P. [Department of Radiology, Malmoe University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess if MRI gives the same diagnostic information as herniography concerning the presence of hernias and reveals other causes of groin pain. The prospective study enrolled 20 patients referred for herniography, 6 women and 14 men, mean age 48 years. After herniography the patients underwent MRI using T1-weighted, fat-suppressed inversion recovery (STIR), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) pulse sequences. No contrast medium was administered at MRI. Herniography revealed 11 hernias and MRI depicted 8 of these. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted well the anatomy in the groins. In 3 patients where hernias were not revealed, MRI revealed inflammatory changes in the symphysis region as a possible cause of groin pain. The primary diagnostic tool for diagnosing hernias is herniography. If the herniogram is normal, MRI may reveal other causes of groin pain and may also better visualize related structures in the groin. (orig.)

  1. Staking out the unclear ethical terrain of online social experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Puschmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the ethical issues raised by large-scale online social experiments using the controversy surrounding the so-called Facebook emotional contagion study as our prime example (Kramer, Guillory, & Hancock, 2014. We describe how different parties approach the issues raised by the study and which aspects they highlight, discerning how data science advocates and data science critics use different sets of analogies to strategically support their claims. Through a qualitative and non-representative discourse analysis we find that proponents weigh the arguments for and against online social experiments with each other, while critics question the legitimacy of the implicit assignment of different roles to scientists and subjects in such studies. We conclude that rather than the effects of the research itself, the asymmetrical nature of the relationship between these actors and the present status of data science as a (to the wider public black box is at the heart of the controversy that followed the Facebook study, and that this perceived asymmetry is likely to lead to future conflicts.

  2. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Lindsay M.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. PMID:22705441

  3. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Lindsay M; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jennifer A; Ordóñez, Adriana; Chambers, Joseph E; Beckett, Alison J; Patel, Vruti; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S; Bradley, Jayson; Peden, Andrew A; Prior, Ian A; Lomas, David A; Marciniak, Stefan J

    2016-12-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor produced in the liver that is responsible for the regulation of pulmonary inflammation. The commonest pathogenic gene mutation yields Z-α1-antitrypsin, which has a propensity to self-associate forming polymers that become trapped in inclusions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is unclear whether these inclusions are connected to the main ER network in Z-α1-antitrypsin-expressing cells. Using live cell imaging, we found that despite inclusions containing an immobile matrix of polymeric α1-antitrypsin, small ER resident proteins can diffuse freely within them. Inclusions have many features to suggest they represent fragmented ER, and some are physically separated from the tubular ER network, yet we observed cargo to be transported between them in a cytosol-dependent fashion that is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and dependent on Sar1 and sec22B. We conclude that protein recycling occurs between ER inclusions despite their physical separation.-Dickens, J. A., Ordóñez, A., Chambers, J. E., Beckett, A. J., Patel, V., Malzer, E., Dominicus, C. S., Bradley, J., Peden, A. A., Prior, I. A., Lomas, D. A., Marciniak, S. J. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin. © The Author(s).

  5. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jennifer A.; Ordóñez, Adriana; Chambers, Joseph E.; Beckett, Alison J.; Patel, Vruti; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S.; Bradley, Jayson; Peden, Andrew A.; Prior, Ian A.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor produced in the liver that is responsible for the regulation of pulmonary inflammation. The commonest pathogenic gene mutation yields Z-α1-antitrypsin, which has a propensity to self-associate forming polymers that become trapped in inclusions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is unclear whether these inclusions are connected to the main ER network in Z-α1-antitrypsin-expressing cells. Using live cell imaging, we found that despite inclusions containing an immobile matrix of polymeric α1-antitrypsin, small ER resident proteins can diffuse freely within them. Inclusions have many features to suggest they represent fragmented ER, and some are physically separated from the tubular ER network, yet we observed cargo to be transported between them in a cytosol-dependent fashion that is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and dependent on Sar1 and sec22B. We conclude that protein recycling occurs between ER inclusions despite their physical separation.—Dickens, J. A., Ordóñez, A., Chambers, J. E., Beckett, A. J., Patel, V., Malzer, E., Dominicus, C. S., Bradley, J., Peden, A. A., Prior, I. A., Lomas, D. A., Marciniak, S. J. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin. PMID:27601439

  6. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation...

  8. ASSESSING RAPTOR DIET: COMPARING PELLETS, PREY REMAINS, AND OBSERVATIONAL DATA AT HEN HARRIER NESTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen M. Redpath; Roger Clarke; Mike Madders; Simon J. Thirgood

    2001-01-01

    Abstract We compared techniques to assess diet at 17 Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) nests. Diet was measured directly from observations and compared to estimates from pellets, prey remains and a combination of pellets and remains...

  9. Obesity and endometrial cancer survival: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, H; Irwin, M L

    2013-05-01

    Although it is known that obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer and is linked to higher mortality rates in the general population, the association between obesity and mortality among endometrial cancer survivors is unclear. We performed a medline search using exploded Mesh keywords 'endometrial neoplasms/' and ('body mass index/' or 'obesity/') and ('survival analysis/' or 'mortality/' or (survivor* or survival*).mp.). We also inspected bibliographies of relevant papers to identify related publications. Our search criteria yielded 74 studies, 12 of which met inclusion criteria. Four of the included studies reported a statistically or marginally significant association between obesity and higher all cause mortality among endometrial cancer survivors after multivariate adjustment. The suggestive association between body mass index and higher all cause mortality among women with endometrial cancer was comparable to the magnitude of association reported in prospective studies of healthy women. Of the five studies that examined progression-free survival and the two studies reporting on disease-specific mortality, none reported an association with obesity. Future studies are needed to understand disease-specific mortality, the importance of obesity-onset timing and whether mechanisms of obesity-related mortality in this population of women differ from those of the general population.

  10. Obesity and endometrial cancer survival: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, H; Irwin, ML

    2013-01-01

    Although it is known that obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer and is linked to higher mortality rates in the general population, the association between obesity and mortality among endometrial cancer survivors is unclear. We performed a medline search using exploded Mesh keywords ‘endometrial neoplasms/’ and (‘body mass index/’ or ‘obesity/’) and (‘survival analysis/’ or ‘mortality/’ or (survivor* or survival*).mp.). We also inspected bibliographies of relevant papers to identify related publications. Our search criteria yielded 74 studies, 12 of which met inclusion criteria. Four of the included studies reported a statistically or marginally significant association between obesity and higher all cause mortality among endometrial cancer survivors after multivariate adjustment. The suggestive association between body mass index and higher all cause mortality among women with endometrial cancer was comparable to the magnitude of association reported in prospective studies of healthy women. Of the five studies that examined progression-free survival and the two studies reporting on disease-specific mortality, none reported an association with obesity. Future studies are needed to understand disease-specific mortality, the importance of obesity-onset timing and whether mechanisms of obesity-related mortality in this population of women differ from those of the general population. PMID:22710929

  11. Frontline Science: HMGB1 induces neutrophil dysfunction in experimental sepsis and in patients who survive septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Murielle; Tadié, Jean-Marc; Uhel, Fabrice; Gacouin, Arnaud; Piau, Caroline; Bone, Nathaniel; Le Tulzo, Yves; Abraham, Edward; Tarte, Karin; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis is accompanied by the initial activation of proinflammatory pathways and long-lasting immunosuppression that appears to contribute to late-occurring mortality. Although high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in many aspects of inflammation, its role in sepsis-induced immune suppression remains unclear. In this study, we examined HMGB1's contribution to neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity dysfunction and associated neutrophil-dependent bacterial clearance in mice subjected to sepsis and in patients who survive septic shock. Using a murine model of polymicrobial septic peritonitis, we demonstrated that treatment with anti-HMGB1 Ab significantly diminished sepsis-induced dysfunction of neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity. In a subsequent set of experiments, we found that blocking HMGB1 preserved the ability of neutrophils from patients recovering from septic shock to activate NADPH oxidase. Taken together, our data suggest that HMGB1 accumulation in the late phase of sepsis plays a specific role in the development of postsepsis immunosuppression and specifically affects neutrophil-dependent antibacterial defense mechanisms. Thus, blocking HMGB1 may be a promising therapeutic intervention to diminish the adverse effects of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Climate change overruns resilience conferred by temperature-dependent sex determination in sea turtles and threatens their survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Genovart, Meritxell; Paladino, Frank V; Spotila, James R; Oro, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is the predominant form of environmental sex determination (ESD) in reptiles, but the adaptive significance of TSD in this group remains unclear. Additionally, the viability of species with TSD may be compromised as climate gets warmer. We simulated population responses in a turtle with TSD to increasing nest temperatures and compared the results to those of a virtual population with genotypic sex determination (GSD) and fixed sex ratios. Then, we assessed the effectiveness of TSD as a mechanism to maintain populations under climate change scenarios. TSD populations were more resilient to increased nest temperatures and mitigated the negative effects of high temperatures by increasing production of female offspring and therefore, future fecundity. That buffered the negative effect of temperature on the population growth. TSD provides an evolutionary advantage to sea turtles. However, this mechanism was only effective over a range of temperatures and will become inefficient as temperatures rise to levels projected by current climate change models. Projected global warming threatens survival of sea turtles, and the IPCC high gas concentration scenario may result in extirpation of the studied population in 50 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Knocking down of the KCC2 in rat hippocampal neurons increases intracellular chloride concentration and compromises neuronal survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Christophe; Gubkina, Olena; Schaefer, Michael; Becq, Hélène; Ludwig, Anastasia; Mukhtarov, Marat; Chudotvorova, Ilona; Corby, Severine; Salyha, Yuriy; Salozhin, Sergey; Bregestovski, Piotr; Medina, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract KCC2 is a neuron-specific potassium–chloride co-transporter controlling intracellular chloride homeostasis in mature and developing neurons. It is implicated in the regulation of neuronal migration, dendrites outgrowth and formation of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections. The function of KCC2 is suppressed under several pathological conditions including neuronal trauma, different types of epilepsies, axotomy of motoneurons, neuronal inflammations and ischaemic insults. However, it remains unclear how down-regulation of the KCC2 contributes to neuronal survival during and after toxic stress. Here we show that in primary hippocampal neuronal cultures the suppression of the KCC2 function using two different shRNAs, dominant-negative KCC2 mutant C568A or DIOA inhibitor, increased the intracellular chloride concentration [Cl−]i and enhanced the toxicity induced by lipofectamine-dependent oxidative stress or activation of the NMDA receptors. The rescuing of the KCC2 activity using over-expression of the active form of the KCC2, but not its non-active mutant Y1087D, effectively restored [Cl−]i and enhanced neuronal resistance to excitotoxicity. The reparative effects of KCC2 were mimicked by over-expression of the KCC3, a homologue transporter. These data suggest an important role of KCC2-dependent potassium/chloride homeostasis under neurototoxic conditions and reveal a novel role of endogenous KCC2 as a neuroprotective molecule. PMID:21486764

  14. Different loci and mRNA copy number of the increased serum survival gene of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang-Ye; Li, Yi-Jing; Fan, Chen

    2018-02-01

    The increased serum survival gene (iss) has been identified as a virulence trait associated with the virulence of Escherichia coli, causing colibacillosis in poultry. However, it remains unclear as to whether iss mRNA copy number and sequence affect virulence. To examine these influences, we assessed the presence of iss, sequence analysis, iss mRNA copy number, and serum resistance. The iss gene was detected in 88 (all) E. coli isolates from different sources, and sequencing identified 16 alleles (32 different loci) and 10 amino acid sequences (10 different loci). Nested polymerase chain reaction improved iss detection. The isolates from sick chickens had >68% livability in serum resistance tests and higher iss mRNA copy number. The iss mRNA copy number highly correlated with mortality and E. coli livability. Student's t tests confirmed the relationship between the different loci to iss transcription, serum resistance, and virulence. These data suggest that iss mRNA copy number and different loci affect the virulence and serum resistance. These findings could be useful in further studies on the prevalence of iss among E. coli isolates and other virulence factors.

  15. Long-term survival of chronic dialysis patients following survival from an episode of multiple-organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Richard J; Templeton, Maie; Ashworth, Simon; Broomhead, Robert; McLean, Adam; Brett, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the long-term outcome for patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) who survived multiple-organ failure. We performed a review of databases from the renal medicine service and intensive care units (ICU) of the participating hospitals within Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK. Patients with ESRF admitted to ICU who required support of two or more organ systems or were ventilated for more than 36 hours were included. To provide a comparison we examined the survival of a comparator group of ESRF patients in the general population with similar demographic and disease characteristics to our study group. We also examined the outcome for ESRF patients admitted to ICU who died prior to discharge. Survival data for two years following discharge from ICU were examined for the impact of age, prior dialysis history, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores and medical or surgical status. Of the 199 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 111 (56%) survived their ICU stay. Sixty-two (56%) of the survivors remained alive two years following discharge. There was no group difference in survival with regards to age, dialysis history or APACHE II scores. Those admitted with a medical rather than surgical diagnosis were less likely to survive two years (P live beyond the early post-ICU period appears similar to the background population of ESRF patients.

  16. Acute pancreatitis: analysis of factors influencing survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M L; Daggett, W M; Civette, J M; Vasu, M A; Lawson, D W; Warshaw, A L; Nardi, G L; Bartlett, M K

    1977-01-01

    Of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), there remains a group who suffer life-threatening complications despite current modes of therapy. To identify factors which distinguish this group from the entire patient population, a retrospectiva analysis of 519 cases of AP occurring over a 5-year period was undertaken. Thirty-one per cent of these patients had a history of alcoholism and 47% had a history of biliary disease. The overall mortality was 12.9%. Of symptoms and signs recorded at the time of admission, hypotension, tachycardia, fever, abdominal mass, and abnormal examination of the lung fields correlated positively with increased mortality. Seven features of the initial laboratory examination correlated with increased mortality. Shock, massive colloid requirement, hypocalcemia, renal failure, and respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation were complications associated with the poorest prognosis. Among patients in this series with three or more of these clinical characteristics, maximal nonoperative treatment yielded a survival rate of 29%, compared to the 64% survival rate for a group of patients treated operatively with cholecystostomy, gastrostomy, feeding jejunostomy, and sump drainage of the lesser sac and retroperitoneum.

  17. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  18. Impact of fluid status and inflammation and their interaction on survival: a study in an international hemodialysis patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Marijke J E; Marcelli, Daniele; Canaud, Bernard J; Carioni, Paola; Wang, Yuedong; Grassmann, Aileen; Konings, Constantijn J A M; Kotanko, Peter; Leunissen, Karel M; Levin, Nathan W; van der Sande, Frank M; Ye, Xiaoling; Maheshwari, Vaibhav; Usvyat, Len A; Kooman, Jeroen P

    2017-05-01

    In hemodialysis patients extracellular fluid overload is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and a relation with inflammation has been reported in previous studies. The magnitude and nature of this interaction and the effects of moderate fluid overload and extracellular fluid depletion on survival are still unclear. We present the results of an international cohort study in 8883 hemodialysis patients from the European MONDO initiative database where, during a three-month baseline period, fluid status was assessed using bioimpedance and inflammation by C-reactive protein. All-cause mortality was recorded during 12 months of follow up. In a second analysis a three-month baseline period was added to the first baseline period, and changes in fluid and inflammation status were related to all-cause mortality during six-month follow up. Both pre-dialysis estimated fluid overload and fluid depletion were associated with an increased mortality, already apparent at moderate levels of estimated pre-dialysis fluid overload (1.1-2.5L); hazard ratio 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.35-1.98). In contrast, post-dialysis estimated fluid depletion was associated with a survival benefit (0.74 [0.62-0.90]). The concurrent presence of fluid overload and inflammation was associated with the highest risk of death. Thus, while pre-dialysis fluid overload was associated with inflammation, even in the absence of inflammation, fluid overload remained a significant risk factor for short-term mortality, even following improvement of fluid status. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Demographic and lifestyle factors and survival among patients with esophageal and gastric cancer: The Biobank Japan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Emiko; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Koshi; Hirata, Makoto; Nagai, Akiko; Matsuda, Koichi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Muto, Kaori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Yamagata, Zentaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have evaluated associations between the characteristics of patients with esophageal and gastric cancer and survival, but these associations remain unclear. We described the distribution of demographic and lifestyle factors among patients with esophageal and gastric cancer in Japan, and investigated their potential effects on survival. Between 2003 and 2007, 24- to 95-year-old Japanese patients with esophageal and gastric cancer were enrolled in the BioBank Japan Project. The analysis included 365 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 1574 patients with gastric cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality were estimated using medical institution-stratified Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 213 patients with ESCC (median follow-up, 4.4 years) and 603 patients with gastric cancer (median follow-up, 6.1 years) died. Among patients with ESCC, the mortality risk was higher in ever drinkers versus never drinkers (multivariable HR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.53). Among patients with gastric cancer, the mortality risk was higher in underweight patients versus patients of normal weight (multivariable HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.05). Compared to patients with gastric cancer with no physical exercise habit, those who exercised ≥3 times/week had a lower mortality risk (multivariate HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.93). However, lack of stage in many cases was a limitation. Among patients with ESCC, alcohol drinkers have a poor prognosis. Patients with gastric cancer who are underweight also have a poor prognosis, whereas patients with physical exercise habits have a good prognosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival Processing Eliminates Collaborative Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B; Bliss, Heather; Baker, Melissa A

    2017-04-11

    The present experiments examined the effect of processing words for their survival value, relevance to moving, and pleasantness on participants' free recall scores in both nominal groups (non-redundant pooled individual scores) and collaborative dyads. Overall, participants recalled more words in the survival processing conditions than in the moving and pleasantness processing conditions. Furthermore, nominal groups in both the pleasantness condition (Experiment 1) and the moving and pleasantness conditions (Experiment 2) recalled more words than collaborative groups, thereby replicating the oft-observed effect of collaborative inhibition. However, processing words for their survival value appeared to eliminate the deleterious effects of collaborative remembering in both Experiments 1 and 2. These results are discussed in the context of the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis and the effects of both expertise and collaborative skill on group remembering.

  1. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  2. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  3. Survival following spinal cord infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; McFarlane, C L

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective open cohort. To calculate the survival of patients with spinal cord infarction and to compare the cause of death in patients with different mechanisms of ischaemic injury. Spinal Rehabilitation Unit, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Consecutive admissions between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2008 with recent onset of spinal cord infarction. Linkage to the Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages (Victoria) was used to determine survival following discharge from in-patient rehabilitation and cause of death. A total of 44 patients were admitted (males=26, 59%), with a median age of 72 years (interquartile range (IQR) 62-79). One patient died during their in-patient rehabilitation programme. In all, 14 patients (n=14/44; 33%) died during the follow-up period. The median survival after diagnosis was 56 months (IQR 28-85) and after discharge from in-patient rehabilitation was 46 months (IQR 25-74). The 1- and 5-year mortality rates were 7.0% (n=3/43; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.4-18.6%) and 20.9% (n=9/43; 95% CI=11.4-35.2%). There was no statistically significant difference in survival between patients with the different aetiologies of spinal cord infarction (other vs idiopathic: χ(2)=0.6, P=0.7; other vs vascular: χ(2)=1.9, P=0.3). There was no relationship between survival and gender (χ(2)=0.2, P=0.6), age (χ(2)=3.0, P=0.08), level of injury (χ(2)=0.0, P=1) or American Spinal Cord Society Impairment Scale grade of spinal cord injury (χ(2)=0.02, P=0.9). Patients with spinal cord infarction appear to have a fair survival after discharge from in-patient rehabilitation, not withstanding the occurrence of risk factors of vascular disease in many patients.

  4. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet survival, if possible, could have an important economic impact.

    Litters and sows

    Data on some 33.000 litters and some 400.000 piglets from a commercial breeding progr...

  5. Frailty Models in Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wienke, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of frailty offers a convenient way to introduce unobserved heterogeneity and associations into models for survival data. In its simplest form, frailty is an unobserved random proportionality factor that modifies the hazard function of an individual or a group of related individuals. "Frailty Models in Survival Analysis" presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental approaches in the area of frailty models. The book extensively explores how univariate frailty models can represent unobserved heterogeneity. It also emphasizes correlated frailty models as extensions of

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species on the Early Earth and Survival of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Melikea; Mason, Paul; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Smidt, Hauke; Freund, Friedemann; Rothschild, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex, multicellular life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. However it remains unclear how free oxygen first became available on the early Earth. A potentially important, and as yet poorly constrained pathway, is the production of oxygen through the weathering of rocks and release into the near-surface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), as precursors to molecular oxygen, are a key step in this process, and may have had a decisive impact on the evolution of life, present and past. ROS are generated from minerals in igneous rocks during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions oxidized to the valence state -1 and during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that, despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, organisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defences against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of oxygen and its derived ROS. Conversely it appears that microorganisms learned to take advantage of the enormous reactive potential and energy gain provided by nascent oxygen. We investigate how oxygen might be released through weathering. We test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces and iron sulphides. We model bacteria such as Deionococcus radiodurans and Desulfotomaculum, Moorella and Bacillus species for their ability to grow or survive in the presence of ROS. We examine how early Life might have adapted to oxygen.

  7. Trends of population-based breast cancer survival in Germany and the US: Decreasing discrepancies, but persistent survival gap of elderly patients in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have revealed both higher cancer survival in the US than in Germany and substantial improvement of cancer survival in the past in these countries. This population-based study aims at comparing most recent 5-year relative survival of breast cancer patients and preceding trends in both countries. Methods Women with a first invasive breast cancer diagnosed and followed up between 1988 and 2008 from Germany and the US (utilizing data from the Saarland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, respectively) were included. Period analysis was used to derive most up-to-date 5-year relative survival and preceding survival trends according to age and stage. Results Since 1993, age standardized relative survival has steadily improved in Germany and the US to 83% and 88%, respectively. In the period 2005–08, relative survival of localized cancer was above 97% in both countries, and 79% and 83% for locally/regionally spread breast cancer, respectively. Prognosis of metastasized disease has remained very poor overall, with improvement essentially being restricted to younger patients. The proportion of patients diagnosed with localized breast cancer was consistently higher in the US. If adjusted for stage, the differences in relative survival between both countries diminished over time and eventually disappeared. Conclusions Similar survival is now observed in both countries for patients below the age of 70 years, but in Germany survival is still much lower for elderly patients. The observed trends point to treatment advances as a major cause for improved survival. However, substantial differences in mammography usage existed between both countries and might probably also account for the observed differences (to a lesser extent, also differences in health care systems, and delivery of cancer care). Encouraging, survival of breast cancer patients has improved in Germany to a much greater extent than in the US, albeit the

  8. Worldwide comparison of ovarian cancer survival: Histological group and stage at diagnosis (CONCORD-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Melissa; Coleman, Michel P; Carreira, Helena; Salmerón, Diego; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Allemani, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer comprises several histological groups with widely differing levels of survival. We aimed to explore international variation in survival for each group to help interpret international differences in survival from all ovarian cancers combined. We also examined differences in stage-specific survival. The CONCORD programme is the largest population-based study of global trends in cancer survival, including data from 60 countries for 695,932 women (aged 15-99years) diagnosed with ovarian cancer during 1995-2009. We defined six histological groups: type I epithelial, type II epithelial, germ cell, sex cord-stromal, other specific non-epithelial and non-specific morphology, and estimated age-standardised 5-year net survival for each country by histological group. We also analysed data from 67 cancer registries for 233,659 women diagnosed from 2001 to 2009, for whom information on stage at diagnosis was available. We estimated age-standardised 5-year net survival by stage at diagnosis (localised or advanced). Survival from type I epithelial ovarian tumours for women diagnosed during 2005-09 ranged from 40 to 70%. Survival from type II epithelial tumours was much lower (20-45%). Survival from germ cell tumours was higher than that of type II epithelial tumours, but also varied widely between countries. Survival for sex-cord stromal tumours was higher than for the five other groups. Survival from localised tumours was much higher than for advanced disease (80% vs. 30%). There is wide variation in survival between histological groups, and stage at diagnosis remains an important factor in ovarian cancer survival. International comparisons of ovarian cancer survival should incorporate histology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Greenleaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR], controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed patients. Results Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08–1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22–1.46], respectively and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00–1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03–1.29], respectively than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08–1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25–2.11], respectively than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P < 0.0001. Conclusions Even after controlling for other prognostic factors, married patients

  10. Selection of food combinations to optimize survival, growth, and reproduction of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in static-renewal, water-only laboratory exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Major, Kaley M

    2016-10-01

    Although standardized sediment toxicity testing methods have been developed for the amphipod Hyalella azteca, no standardized chronic water-only toxicity testing methods have been established. Furthermore, optimal feeding and water quality conditions for culturing and toxicity testing with this species remained unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the food or combination of foods that best promotes survival, growth, and reproduction of the US Lab strain of Hyalella azteca under 42-d, water-only, static-renewal testing conditions. The authors conducted 7 42-d control (no toxicant) tests with various combinations of food (including Tetramin, yeast-cereal leaves-trout chow, diatoms, wheatgrass, alfalfa, and maple leaves) and substrate types (clean "unconditioned" Nitex screens vs "conditioned" Nitex screens that were colonized by live biofilms). Over all treatments, survival ranged from 18% to 96%, dry weight per individual from 0.084 mg to 1.101 mg, and reproduction from 0 young/female to 28.4 young/female. Treatments that included Tetramin tended to result in better performance than those that did not. In particular, treatments that included Tetramin and either conditioned screens or diatoms consistently had high survival, weight, and reproduction values as well as low variability among replicates (measured as coefficient of variation). A ramped Tetramin plus diatom suspension feeding regime appears to have the greatest potential to produce consistently good performance across laboratories using static-renewal systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2407-2415. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Antitumor and chemosensitizing action of dichloroacetate implicates modulation of tumor microenvironment: A role of reorganized glucose metabolism, cell survival regulation and macrophage differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kant, Shiva; Singh, Sukh Mahendra, E-mail: sukhmahendrasingh@yahoo.com

    2013-11-15

    Targeting of tumor metabolism is emerging as a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer. Dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), has been shown to exert a potent tumoricidal action against a variety of tumor cells. The main mode of its antineoplastic action implicates a shift of glycolysis to oxidative metabolism of glucose, leading to generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates. However, the effect of DCA on tumor microenvironment, which in turn regulates tumor cell survival; remains speculative to a large extent. It is also unclear if DCA can exert any modulatory effect on the process of hematopoiesis, which is in a compromised state in tumor-bearing hosts undergoing chemotherapy. In view of these lacunas, the present study was undertaken to investigate the so far unexplored aspects with respect to the molecular mechanisms of DCA-dependent tumor growth retardation and chemosensitization. BALB/c mice were transplanted with Dalton's lymphoma (DL) cells, a T cell lymphoma of spontaneous origin, followed by administration of DCA with or without cisplatin. DCA-dependent tumor regression and chemosensitization to cisplatin was found to be associated with altered repertoire of key cell survival regulatory molecules, modulated glucose metabolism, accompanying reconstituted tumor microenvironment with respect to pH homeostasis, cytokine balance and alternatively activated TAM. Moreover, DCA administration also led to an alteration in the MDR phenotype of tumor cells and myelopoietic differentiation of macrophages. The findings of this study shed a new light with respect to some of the novel mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of DCA and thus may have immense clinical applications. - Highlights: • DCA modulates tumor progression and chemoresistance. • DCA alters molecules regulating cell survival, glucose metabolism and MDR. • DCA reconstitutes biophysical and cellular composition of tumor microenvironment.

  12. Survival benefit of mantle cell lymphoma patients enrolled in clinical trials; a joint study from the LYSA group and French cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Alix; Le Gouill, Steven; Gressin, Rémy; Bertaut, Aurélie; Monnereau, Alain; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Delafosse, Patricia; Troussard, Xavier; Moreau, Anne; Hermine, Olivier; Maynadié, Marc

    2017-10-11

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma entity with a poor prognosis. Therapeutic advances have improved the survival of patients enrolled in clinical trials; however, their impact on patients outside clinical trials remains unclear. In this work, we compared patient outcome inside and outside clinical trials. We identified MCL patients recorded in six French population-based registries between 2008 and 2012 to perform a comparison with patients enrolled in two prospective multicenter MCL clinical trials conducted by the LYSA group during the same period. Variables associated with inclusion in a clinical trial were identified using a logistic regression. Pohar-Perme estimator and Nelson et al. flexible parametric model was used to estimate net survival probabilities and prognosis factors on excess mortality. A total of 312 registry patients were compared to the 372 patients enrolled in LYSA clinical trials. Patients included in clinical trials were younger (median age 60 vs 74, p enrollment [OR = 0.09 (0.06-0.12) and OR = 1.61 (1.11-2.34), respectively]. The 4 year net survival was better in clinical trials [79.9% (75.9-84.7) vs 60.3% (53.6-67.0)]. This result was confirmed in multivariate analysis in patients older than 65 years with a lower excess mortality rate [0.33 (0.17-0.66)]. MCL included in trials are highly selected patients who are not representative of MCL patients who are encountered in everyday practice. With widened inclusion criteria, clinical trial patients could be more representative of the general population.

  13. Survival Benefit of Kidney Transplantation in HIV-infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jayme E; Gustafson, Sally; Mehta, Shikha; Reed, Rhiannon D; Shelton, Brittany; MacLennan, Paul A; Durand, Christine; Snyder, Jon; Salkowski, Nicholas; Massie, Allan; Sawinski, Deirdre; Segev, Dorry L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the survival benefit of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although kidney transplantation (KT) has emerged as a viable option for select HIV-infected patients, concerns have been raised that risks of KT in HIV-infected patients are higher than those in their HIV-negative counterparts. Despite these increased risks, KT may provide survival benefit for the HIV-infected patient with ESRD, yet this important clinical question remains unanswered. Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients were linked to IMS pharmacy fills (January 1, 2001 to October 1, 2012) to identify and study 1431 HIV-infected KT candidates from the first point of active status on the waiting list. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to establish a counterfactual framework for estimating survival benefit of KT. Adjusted relative risk (aRR) of mortality at 5 years was 79% lower after KT compared with dialysis (aRR 0.21; 95% CI 0.10-0.42; P <0.001), and statistically significant survival benefit was achieved by 194 days of KT. Among patients coinfected with hepatitis C, aRR of mortality at 5 years was 91% lower after KT compared with dialysis (aRR 0.09; 95% CI 0.02-0.46; P < 0.004); however, statistically significant survival benefit was not achieved until 392 days after KT. Evidence suggests that for HIV-infected ESRD patients, KT is associated with a significant survival benefit compared with remaining on dialysis.

  14. School Leadership: Handbook for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart C., Ed.; And Others

    Based on the assumption that the survival of the nation's schools and their leaders depends on these leaders having real influence over the quality of schooling, this volume draws from the work of many authorities to look at leadership from three perspectives: the person, the structure, and the skills. Chapters focusing on the person who holds the…

  15. Long-term haemodialysis survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James; Nielsen, Arne Høj; Hansen, Henrik Post

    2012-01-01

    Haemodialysis (HD) treatment for end-stage renal disease bears a poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient who, apart from two transplant periods lasting 8 months in all, was treated with conventional in-centre HD three times a week and who survived for 41 years. Patients should be aware tha...

  16. Characteristics of Patients Who Survived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Choi, David; Versteeg, Anne; Albert, Todd; Arts, Mark; Balabaud, Laurent; Bunger, Cody; Buchowski, Jacob Maciej; Chung, Chung Kee; Coppes, Maarten Hubert; Crockard, Hugh Alan; Depreitere, Bart; Fehlings, Michael George; Harrop, James; Kawahara, Norio; Kim, Eun Sang; Lee, Chong-Suh; Leung, Yee; Liu, Zhongjun; Martin-Benlloch, Antonio; Massicotte, Eric Maurice; Mazel, Christian; Meyer, Bernhard; Peul, Wilco; Quraishi, Nasir A.; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Tomita, Katsuro; Ulbricht, Christian; Wang, Michael; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survival after metastatic cancer has improved at the cost of increased presentation with metastatic spinal disease. For patients with pathologic spinal fractures and/or spinal cord compression, surgical intervention may relieve pain and improve quality of life. Surgery is generally

  17. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet

  18. Modelling survival and connectivity of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; van Walraven, L.; van Langenberg, V.; van der Veer, H.W.; Hostens, K.; Pitois, S.; Robbens, J.

    2015-01-01

    Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model

  19. Survivability of SCADA Control Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, José; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The endorsement of information technologies for critical infrastructures control introduces new threats in their security and surveillance. Along with certain level of protection against attacks, it is desirable for critical processes to survive even if they succeed. A stochastic Petri Nets-based

  20. [Hypopharynx reconstruction of defects after operation on advanced pyriform sinus cancer with remaining laryngeal mucosa flap and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Wei, Lianzhi; Zhu, Jiang

    2004-07-01

    To explore the outcome of hypopharynx reconstruction by using remaining laryngeal mucosa flap and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in advanced pyriform sinus cancer. Twelve patients with pyriform sinus cancers underwent hemilaryngectomy and partial pharyngectomy, two patients underwent cervical esophagectomy at the same time. The defects were reconstructed by remaining laryngeal mucosa flap. Four cases were involved in the bilateral larynx, received total laryngectomy and were repaired by pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. There was no operative fatal case and all flaps survived. Only one suffered from postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistulas, whose defect was reconstructed by remaining laryngeal mucosa flap and had radiotherapy. All patients could swallow ordinary food and had no benign esophagostenosis and pharyngostenosis after operation. Out of 16 patients, 1 case died of general metastasis; 3 cases died of local tumor relapse, tumor relapse of cervical lymphonode and lung metastasis respectively within 1 year after operation; the other 12 cases survived over 2 years. The advantage of hypopharynx reconstruction with remaining laryngeal mucosa flap is simple and convenient with less trauma and complication. The reconstruction should be completed by using the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap when the bilateral larynx are involved in.

  1. Direct dating of Neanderthal remains from the site of Vindija Cave and implications for the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavanić, Ivor; Comeskey, Daniel; Kubiak, Cara; Korlević, Petra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Radović, Siniša; Procopio, Noemi; Buckley, Michael; Pääbo, Svante; Higham, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000–29,000 B.P. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B.P. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC). This method is more efficient in eliminating modern contamination in the bone collagen. The revised dates are older than 40,000 B.P., suggesting the Vindija Neanderthals did not live more recently than others across Europe, and probably predate the arrival of anatomically modern humans in Eastern Europe. We applied zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry (ZooMS) to find additional hominin remains. We identified one bone that is Neanderthal, based on its mitochondrial DNA, and dated it directly to 46,200 ± 1,500 B.P. We also attempted to date six early Upper Paleolithic bone points from stratigraphic units G1, Fd/d+G1 and Fd/d, Fd. One bone artifact gave a date of 29,500 ± 400 B.P., while the remainder yielded no collagen. We additionally dated animal bone samples from units G1 and G1–G3. These dates suggest a co-occurrence of early Upper Paleolithic osseous artifacts, particularly split-based points, alongside the remains of Neanderthals is a result of postdepositional mixing, rather than an association between the two groups, although more work is required to show this definitively. PMID:28874524

  2. Treatment and survival of patients harboring histological variants of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alicia; Nuño, Miriam; Walia, Sartaaj; Mukherjee, Debraj; Black, Keith L; Patil, Chirag G

    2014-10-01

    It is unclear whether the survival difference observed between glioblastoma (GBM), giant cell glioblastoma (gcGBM), and gliosarcoma (GSM) patients is due to differences in tumor histology, patient demographics, and/or treatment regimens. The USA National Cancer Database was utilized to evaluate patients diagnosed with GBM, gcGBM, and GSM between 1998 and 2011. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to estimate overall survival. A cohort of 69,935 patients was analyzed; 67,509 (96.5%) of these patients had GBM, 592 (0.9%) gcGBM, and 1834 (2.6%) GSM. The median age for GBM and GSM patients was 61 versus 56 years for gcGBM (p<0.0001). Higher extent of resection (p<0.0001) and radiation (p=0.001) were observed in gcGBM patients compared to other histologies. Multivariate analysis showed that gcGBM patients had a 20% reduction in the hazards of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.93) compared to GBM, while GSM patients trended towards higher hazards of mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12) than the GBM cohort. Previous studies have suggested a disparity in the survival of patients with GBM tumors and their histological variants. Using a large cohort of patients treated at hospitals nationwide, this study found a 20% reduction in the hazards of mortality in gcGBM patients compared to GBM. Similarly, gcGBM patients had a 24% reduction in the hazards of mortality compared to the GSM cohort. GSM patients had a 3% increase in the hazards of mortality compared to GBM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy and overall survival in adult medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Benjamin H; Lester-Coll, Nataniel H; Park, Henry S; Yeboa, Debra N; Kelly, Jacqueline R; Baehring, Joachim M; Becker, Kevin P; Yu, James B; Bindra, Ranjit S; Roberts, Kenneth B

    2017-02-01

    Although chemotherapy is used routinely in pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) patients, its benefit for adult MB is unclear. We evaluated the survival impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in adult MB. Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified patients aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with MB in 2004-2012 and underwent surgical resection and adjuvant craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Patients were divided into those who received adjuvant CSI and chemotherapy (CRT) or CSI alone (RT). Predictors of CRT compared with RT were evaluated with univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Survival analysis was limited to patients receiving CSI doses between 23 and 36 Gy. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, log-rank test, multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, and propensity score matching. Of the 751 patients included, 520 (69.2%) received CRT, and 231 (30.8%) received RT. With median follow-up of 5.0 years, estimated 5-year OS was superior in patients receiving CRT versus RT (86.1% vs 71.6%, P < .0001). On multivariable analysis, after controlling for risk factors, CRT was associated with superior OS compared with RT (HR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.32-0.88, P = .01). On planned subgroup analyses, the 5 year OS of patients receiving CRT versus RT was improved for M0 patients (P < .0001), for patients receiving 36 Gy CSI (P = .0007), and for M0 patients receiving 36 Gy CSI (P = .0008). This national database analysis demonstrates that combined postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with superior survival for adult MB compared with radiotherapy alone, even for M0 patients who receive high-dose CSI.

  4. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  5. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  6. Decomposition patterns of buried remains at different intervals in the Central Highveld region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais-Werner, A; Myburgh, J; Meyer, A; Nienaber, W C; Steyn, M

    2017-07-01

    Burial of remains is an important factor when one attempts to establish the post-mortem interval as it reduces, and in extreme cases, excludes oviposition by Diptera species. This in turn leads to modification of the decomposition process. The aim of this study was to record decomposition patterns of buried remains using a pig model. The pattern of decomposition was evaluated at different intervals and recorded according to existing guidelines. In order to contribute to our knowledge on decomposition in different settings, a quantifiable approach was followed. Results indicated that early stages of decomposition occurred rapidly for buried remains within 7-33 days. Between 14 and 33 days, buried pigs displayed common features associated with the early to middle stages of decomposition, such as discoloration and bloating. From 33 to 90 days advanced decomposition manifested on the remains, and pigs then reached a stage of advanced decomposition where little change was observed in the next ±90-183 days after interment. Throughout this study, total body scores remained higher for surface remains. Overall, buried pigs followed a similar pattern of decomposition to those of surface remains, although at a much slower rate when compared with similar post-mortem intervals in surface remains. In this study, the decomposition patterns and rates of buried remains were mostly influenced by limited insect activity and adipocere formation which reduces the rate of decay in a conducive environment (i.e. burial in soil).

  7. Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The authors adapted the concept of future time perspective (FTP) to the work context and examined its relationships with age and work characteristics (job complexity and control). Structural equation modeling of data from 176 employees of various occupations showed that age is negatively related to 2 distinct dimensions of occupational FTP: remaining time and remaining opportunities. Work characteristics (job complexity and control) were positively related to remaining opportunities and moderated the relationship between age and remaining opportunities, such that the relationship became weaker with increasing levels of job complexity and control. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  9. Research Note Tebuthiuron residues remain active in soil for at least ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated patterns of emergence and survival of monocotyledonous oats (Avena sativa) and dicotyledonous cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in soils collected from bare patches resulting from the application of tebuthiuron between two and eight years earlier. Untreated soils provided a control. Both oats and ...

  10. Peptidoglycan Recycling in Gram-Positive Bacteria Is Crucial for Survival in Stationary Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Borisova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan recycling is a metabolic process by which Gram-negative bacteria reutilize up to half of their cell wall within one generation during vegetative growth. Whether peptidoglycan recycling also occurs in Gram-positive bacteria has so far remained unclear. We show here that three Gram-positive model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces coelicolor, all recycle the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc of their peptidoglycan during growth in rich medium. They possess MurNAc-6-phosphate (MurNAc-6P etherase (MurQ in E. coli enzymes, which are responsible for the intracellular conversion of MurNAc-6P to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate and d-lactate. By applying mass spectrometry, we observed accumulation of MurNAc-6P in MurNAc-6P etherase deletion mutants but not in either the isogenic parental strains or complemented strains, suggesting that MurQ orthologs are required for the recycling of cell wall-derived MurNAc in these bacteria. Quantification of MurNAc-6P in ΔmurQ cells of S. aureus and B. subtilis revealed small amounts during exponential growth phase (0.19 nmol and 0.03 nmol, respectively, per ml of cells at an optical density at 600 nm [OD600] of 1 but large amounts during transition (0.56 nmol and 0.52 nmol and stationary (0.53 nmol and 1.36 nmol phases. The addition of MurNAc to ΔmurQ cultures greatly increased the levels of intracellular MurNAc-6P in all growth phases. The ΔmurQ mutants of S. aureus and B. subtilis showed no growth deficiency in rich medium compared to the growth of the respective parental strains, but intriguingly, they had a severe survival disadvantage in late stationary phase. Thus, although peptidoglycan recycling is apparently not essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, it provides a benefit for long-term survival.

  11. High expression of HMGA2 predicts poor survival in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ning Na,1,* Tujie Si,2,* Zhengyu Huang,1,* Bin Miao,1 Liangqing Hong,1 Heng Li,1 Jiang Qiu,2 Jianguang Qiu3 1Department of Kidney Transplantation, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 2Department of Organ Transplant, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 3Department of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: High-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2 is involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes and is upregulated in several tumors, but its role in renal carcinoma remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of HMGA2 and its relationship to the overall survival (OS of patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC following surgery. The expression of HMGA2 was evaluated retrospectively by immunohistochemistry (IHC in 162 patients with ccRCC who underwent nephrectomy in 2003 and 2004. An IHC analysis revealed that HMGA2 was expressed in the nuclei of tumor cells in 146 (90.1% patients with ccRCC. The level of HMGA2 was positively correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and Fuhrman Grade. A Kaplan–Meier analysis with log-rank test found that patients with high HMGA2 expression had a poor outcome and that patients with low HMGA2 expression had better survival. Cox regression analysis showed that HMGA2 expression could serve as an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC patients. The efficacy of the following prognostic models was improved when HMGA2 expression was added: tumor node metastasis stage, UCLA Integrated Scoring System, Mayo Clinic stage, size, grade, and necrosis score. In summary, this study showed that HMGA2 expression is an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with ccRCC. HMGA2 was found to be a valuable biomarker for ccRCC progression. Keywords: renal carcinoma, high-mobility group protein A

  12. Peptidoglycan Recycling in Gram-Positive Bacteria Is Crucial for Survival in Stationary Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Marina; Gaupp, Rosmarie; Duckworth, Amanda; Schneider, Alexander; Dalügge, Désirée; Mühleck, Maraike; Deubel, Denise; Unsleber, Sandra; Yu, Wenqi; Muth, Günther; Bischoff, Markus; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peptidoglycan recycling is a metabolic process by which Gram-negative bacteria reutilize up to half of their cell wall within one generation during vegetative growth. Whether peptidoglycan recycling also occurs in Gram-positive bacteria has so far remained unclear. We show here that three Gram-positive model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces coelicolor, all recycle the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) of their peptidoglycan during growth in rich medium. They possess MurNAc-6-phosphate (MurNAc-6P) etherase (MurQ in E. coli) enzymes, which are responsible for the intracellular conversion of MurNAc-6P to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate and d-lactate. By applying mass spectrometry, we observed accumulation of MurNAc-6P in MurNAc-6P etherase deletion mutants but not in either the isogenic parental strains or complemented strains, suggesting that MurQ orthologs are required for the recycling of cell wall-derived MurNAc in these bacteria. Quantification of MurNAc-6P in ΔmurQ cells of S. aureus and B. subtilis revealed small amounts during exponential growth phase (0.19 nmol and 0.03 nmol, respectively, per ml of cells at an optical density at 600 nm [OD600] of 1) but large amounts during transition (0.56 nmol and 0.52 nmol) and stationary (0.53 nmol and 1.36 nmol) phases. The addition of MurNAc to ΔmurQ cultures greatly increased the levels of intracellular MurNAc-6P in all growth phases. The ΔmurQ mutants of S. aureus and B. subtilis showed no growth deficiency in rich medium compared to the growth of the respective parental strains, but intriguingly, they had a severe survival disadvantage in late stationary phase. Thus, although peptidoglycan recycling is apparently not essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, it provides a benefit for long-term survival. PMID:27729505

  13. [Survival of Salmonella in spices and growth in cooked food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Yurie; Minai, Yuji; Haga, Minoru; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2008-04-01

    Contamination of spices with pathogens has been reported worldwide, and Salmonella might result in foodborne infections. In this study, we investigated the survival of Salmonella in black pepper and red pepper, and the growth of the surviving Salmonella in cooked food. Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into spices, and their survival during storage was examined. In black pepper, S. Enteritidis was no longer viable after storage for 28 days, but S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg remained viable. In red pepper, S. Weltevreden and S. Senftenberg survived for 28 days although S. Enteritidis was not viable after 7 days. Salmonella Weltevreden and Salmonella Senftenberg were inoculated into cooked food, and their survival during storage was determined. In potato salad, egg salad, namul and kimchi as cooked foods, both pathogens grew at 30 degrees C, but not at 10 degrees C. Our results indicate that cooked food should be stored at low temperature after addition of spices, such as black pepper and red pepper, following the cooking.

  14. Design for Survivability: An Approach to Assured Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly expanding unmanned air traffic includes and will continue to include non-cooperative participants. Non-cooperative behavior may be due to technical failure, a lack of appropriate equipment, a careless or malicious operator. Regardless of the cause, the outcome remains: growing density of non-cooperative traffic will increase the risk of collision between unmanned vehicles and aircraft carrying humans. As a result, the degraded safety of airspace may limit access to airspace, with adverse consequences for the traveling public and the economy. Because encounters with small non-cooperative objects, such as birds or wayward drones, can happen too rapidly for an external control system to mitigate them, it is imperative that the aircraft that carry humans survive encounters with non-cooperative vehicles. To-date, design for survivability has been practiced explicitly in the military domain. Survivability against collisions in civil aviation has been limited to tolerances against bird strikes; and these tolerances have proved inadequate on occasion. The growing risk of collision with unmanned vehicles now requires the development of survivability discipline for civilian transport aircraft. The new discipline must be infused into multidisciplinary design methods, on par with traditional disciplines. In this paper, we report on a preliminary study of survivability considerations for the civil aviation domain.

  15. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2017-12-01

    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Impact of ICD lead on the system durability, predictors of long-term survival following ICD system extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacheć, Wojciech; Tomasik, Andrzej; Polewczyk, Anna; Kutarski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) systems are considered as having higher risk of complication and shorter durability but reasons of this multifactorial phenomenon remain unclear. We aimed to analyze this problem in population of patients with ICD leads referred for lead extraction (TLE). We have compared TLE indications, procedural results, and defined the long-term outcomes of TLE in patients with ICD/CRT-D devices (n  =  482, ICD (+)) with lead extractions in patients with standard pacemakers (n  =  1,402, ICD (-)). Demographic, clinical characteristics, and procedural outcomes were ascertained from single, primary operator registry. Long-term survival data were provided by the National Health Fund. The ICD (+) subgroup had a significantly higher incidence rate of either infective or noninfective indications for TLE. The clinical success rate of extraction was 99.2% in ICD (+) versus 97.4% in ICD (-) (P  =  0.05) at a complication rate of 1.04% versus 2.14% (NS), respectively. In the median follow-up of 3.39 years, 142 patients from the ICD (+) subgroup and 303 from the ICD (-) subgroup died. The highest mortality rate of 41.1% was observed in the ICD (+) subgroup with infective indications. Infection, renal failure, diabetes, and age were the multivariate factors associated with increased mortality in the ICD (+) subgroup. ICD leads remain more vulnerable, with respect to mechanical failure and their propensity to infection, in comparison to pacing leads. Their TLE is very effective at least complication rate, when performed by a highly skilled and experienced operator. However, long-term mortality after their TLE is high and is affected mostly by infections or patient-related factors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 78 FR 2618 - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... service-life indicators or warning devices. These indicators are built into a respirator to alert the user... should be modified to state: ``Each remaining service-life indicator or warning device shall give an... indicators; minimum requirements. * * * * * (f) Each remaining service-life indicator or warning device must...

  18. Observations on food remains in faeces of elephant, leopard and crabeater seals

    OpenAIRE

    Green, K.; Williams, R.

    1986-01-01

    Faecal material of leopard, crabeater and elephant seals was collected from the vicinity of Davis station, Antarctica. Very few identifiable remains were found in elephant seal droppings. Fish remains, mainly of Pleuragramma antarcticum, were found in both leopard and crabeater seal droppings. The mysid Antarctomysis maxima was also found in crabeater seal droppings and amphipods and decapod crustaceans in leopard seal droppings.

  19. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  20. Survival of Salmonella enterica in poultry feed is strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Ana; Pendleton, Sean; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Wei; Critzer, Faith; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Feed components have low water activity, making bacterial survival difficult. The mechanisms of Salmonella survival in feed and subsequent colonization of poultry are unknown. The purpose of this research was to compare the ability of Salmonella serovars and strains to survive in broiler feed and to evaluate molecular mechanisms associated with survival and colonization by measuring the expression of genes associated with colonization (hilA, invA) and survival via fatty acid synthesis (cfa, fabA, fabB, fabD). Feed was inoculated with 1 of 15 strains of Salmonella enterica consisting of 11 serovars (Typhimurium, Enteriditis, Kentucky, Seftenburg, Heidelberg, Mbandanka, Newport, Bairely, Javiana, Montevideo, and Infantis). To inoculate feed, cultures were suspended in PBS and survival was evaluated by plating samples onto XLT4 agar plates at specific time points (0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 4 d, and 7 d). To evaluate gene expression, RNA was extracted from the samples at the specific time points (0, 4, 8, and 24 h) and gene expression measured with real-time PCR. The largest reduction in Salmonella occurred at the first and third sampling time points (4 h and 4 d) with the average reductions being 1.9 and 1.6 log cfu per g, respectively. For the remaining time points (8 h, 24 h, and 7 d), the average reduction was less than 1 log cfu per g (0.6, 0.4, and 0.6, respectively). Most strains upregulated cfa (cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis) within 8 h, which would modify the fluidity of the cell wall to aid in survival. There was a weak negative correlation between survival and virulence gene expression indicating downregulation to focus energy on other gene expression efforts such as survival-related genes. These data indicate the ability of strains to survive over time in poultry feed was strain dependent and that upregulation of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of virulence genes were associated with a response to desiccation stress.

  1. Neoadjuvant treatment intensification or adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma rectum: The optimum treatment approach remains unresolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Supriya; Benson, Rony; Haresh, K P; Rath, G K

    2015-12-01

    Rectal carcinoma [RC] is often managed with preoperative radiotherapy or radio-chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Efforts are being made to improve outcome by intensifying the preoperative treatment. However, the optimum therapy remains unclear. There is ongoing controversy regarding the optimum radiation dose, chemotherapy regimen and schedule. In addition there exists growing disagreement regarding the role of adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant radiation or chemoradiation. We reviewed the recent land mark trials to find a road map in the management of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Preoperative short course radiotherapy has long been proven to improve local disease control. The initial trials with long course chemoradiotherapy, comparing short course radiotherapy have shown to increase local control and pathological complete response rates. Since then treatment intensification of this neoadjuvant schedule has been tried by many researchers. But initial results of these treatment intensification trials, show no significant benefit and are associated with increased toxicity. There is an unmet need to stratify patients depending on risk to assign them to long course chemoradiotherapy or short course radiotherapy. Current evidence does not support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy appears to improve disease control with favorable toxicity profile and there is very little to choose between long course chemoradiotherapy and short course radiotherapy. However, long course chemoradiotherapy may be beneficial for patients with high risk features like positive circumferential resection margin [CRM] and extramural spread of >5mm. There is no role for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who were treated preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  3. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TERT promoter mutation and its interaction with IDH mutations in glioma: Combined TERT promoter and IDH mutations stratifies lower-grade glioma into distinct survival subgroups-A meta-analysis of aggregate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Huy Gia; Altibi, Ahmed M A; Duong, Uyen N P; Ngo, Hanh T T; Pham, Thong Quang; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Park, Chul-Kee; Fung, Kar-Ming; Hassell, Lewis

    2017-12-01

    The clinical significance of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation in glioma remains unclear. The aim of our meta-analysis is to investigate the prognostic impact TERT promoter mutation in glioma patients and its interaction with other molecular markers, particularly Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation from aggregate level data. Relevant articles were searched in four electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Virtual Health Library. Pooled HRs were calculated using random effect model weighted by inverse variance method. From 1010 studies, we finally included 28 studies with 11519 patients for meta-analyses. TERT mutation is significantly associated with compromised overall survival (OS) (HR=1.38; 95% CI=1.15-1.67) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR=1.31; 95% CI=1.06-1.63) in glioma patients. In studying its reaction with IDH, TERT promoter mutation was associated with reduced OS in both IDH-mutant (IDH-mut) and IDH-wild type (IDH-wt) glioblastomas but shown to have inverse effects on IDH-mut and IDH-wt grade II/III tumors. Our analysis categorized WHO grade II/III glioma patients into four distinct survival subgroups with descending survival as follow: TERT-mut/IDH-mut≫TERT-wt/IDH-mut≫TERT-wt/IDH-wt≫TERT-mut/IDH-wt. Prognostic value of TERT promoter mutations in gliomas is dependent on tumor grade and the IDH mutational status. With the same tumor grade in WHO grade II and III tumors and the same IDH mutation status, TERT-mut is a prognostic factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Residence in Rural Areas of the United States and Lung Cancer Mortality. Disease Incidence, Treatment Disparities, and Stage-Specific Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Graham T; Kim, Taeha; Munson, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    There is increased lung cancer mortality in rural areas of the United States. However, it remains unclear to what extent rural-urban differences in disease incidence, stage at diagnosis, or treatment explain this finding. To explore the relationship between smoking rates, lung cancer incidence, and lung cancer mortality in populations across the rural-urban continuum and to determine whether survival is decreased in rural patients diagnosed with lung cancer and whether this is associated with rural-urban differences in stage at diagnosis or the treatment received. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 348,002 patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 2000 and 2006. Data from metropolitan, urban, suburban, and rural areas in the United States were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database. County-level population estimates for 2003 were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau, and corresponding estimates of smoking prevalence were obtained from published literature. The exposure was rurality, defined by the rural-urban continuum code area linked to each cohort participant by county of residence. Outcomes included lung cancer incidence, mortality, diagnostic stage, and treatment received. Lung cancer mortality increased with rurality in a dose-dependent fashion across the rural-urban continuum. The most rural areas had almost twice the smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence of the largest metropolitan areas. Rural patients diagnosed with stage I non-small cell lung cancer underwent fewer surgeries (69% vs. 75%; P survival (40 vs. 52 mo; P = 0.0006) compared with the most urban patients. Stage at diagnosis was similar across the rural-urban continuum, as was median survival for patients with stages II-IV lung cancer. Higher rural smoking rates drive increased disease incidence and per capita lung cancer mortality in rural areas of the United States. There were no rural-urban discrepancies in diagnostic stage

  6. An oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma quantitative histomorphometric-based image classifier of nuclear morphology can risk stratify patients for disease-specific survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Lewis, James S; Dupont, William D; Plummer, W Dale; Janowczyk, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-12-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of head and neck carcinoma. Its incidence is increasing worldwide, and it is associated with major morbidity and mortality. It is often unclear which patients have aggressive, treatment refractory tumors vs those whose tumors will be more responsive to treatment. Better identification of patients with high- vs low-risk cancers could help provide more tailored treatment approaches and could improve survival rates while decreasing treatment-related morbidity. This study investigates computer-extracted image features of nuclear shape and texture on digitized images of H&E-stained tissue sections for risk stratification of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients compared with standard clinical and pathologic parameters. With a tissue microarray cohort of 115 retrospectively identified oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients, 50 were randomly chosen as the modeling set, and the remaining 65 constituted the test set. Following nuclear segmentation and feature extraction, the Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to identify the five most prognostic quantitative histomorphometric features from the modeling set. These top ranked features were then combined via a machine learning classifier to construct the oral cavity histomorphometric-based image classifier (OHbIC). The classifier was then validated for its ability to risk stratify patients for disease-specific outcomes on the test set. On the test set, the classifier yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.72 in distinguishing disease-specific outcomes. In univariate survival analysis, high-risk patients predicted by the classifier had significantly poorer disease-specific survival (P=0.0335). In multivariate analysis controlling for T/N-stage, resection margins, and smoking status, positive classifier results were independently predictive of poorer disease-specific survival: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)=11.023 (2

  7. Adélie penguin survival: age structure, temporal variability and environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerson, Louise; Southwell, Colin

    2011-12-01

    The driving factors of survival, a key demographic process, have been particularly challenging to study, especially for winter migratory species such as the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). While winter environmental conditions clearly influence Antarctic seabird survival, it has been unclear to which environmental features they are most likely to respond. Here, we examine the influence of environmental fluctuations, broad climatic conditions and the success of the breeding season prior to winter on annual survival of an Adélie penguin population using mark-recapture models based on penguin tag and resight data over a 16-year period. This analysis required an extension to the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber model by incorporating age structure in recapture and survival sub-models. By including model covariates, we show that survival of older penguins is primarily related to the amount and concentration of ice present in their winter foraging grounds. In contrast, fledgling and yearling survival depended on other factors in addition to the physical marine environment and outcomes of the previous breeding season, but we were unable to determine what these were. The relationship between sea-ice and survival differed with penguin age: extensive ice during the return journey to breeding colonies was detrimental to survival for the younger penguins, whereas either too little or too much ice (between 15 and 80% cover) in the winter foraging grounds was detrimental for adults. Our results demonstrate that predictions of Adélie penguin survival can be improved by taking into account penguin age, prior breeding conditions and environmental features.

  8. Does Intelligence Provide Survival Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2009-01-01

    Intelligence is defined as a general mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas, and learn. Intelligence can also be defined as the ability to acquire and apply information gathered from the environment to modify its behavior. It is this intelligence that has allowed the genus Homo to survive for 2 million years. However, recently the global financial meltdown and the deleterious effects of climate change raise the question of whether intelligence has ...

  9. Survival on Land and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-01-01

    flower, leaf steams, and young leaves may be eaten cooked as greens provided you cook them in several changes of water to remove the bitter taste and...and become a weed almost throughout the tropics. Its bladdery pods contain a single retl tomato-like fruit that is edible. Raspberries, blackberries ...plant that 108 SURVIVAL OK LAND AND SEA is about one foot In height and has blue flowers and inflated leaf stems. The young leaves, leafy stalks

  10. Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA commissioned the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) to conduct a thorough review of both the technical and the organizational causes of the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew on February 1, 2003. The accident investigation that followed determined that a large piece of insulating foam from Columbia s external tank (ET) had come off during ascent and struck the leading edge of the left wing, causing critical damage. The damage was undetected during the mission. The CAIB's findings and recommendations were published in 2003 and are available on the web at http://caib.nasa.gov/. NASA responded to the CAIB findings and recommendations with the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Implementation Plan. Significant enhancements were made to NASA's organizational structure, technical rigor, and understanding of the flight environment. The ET was redesigned to reduce foam shedding and eliminate critical debris. In 2005, NASA succeeded in returning the space shuttle to flight. In 2010, the space shuttle will complete its mission of assembling the International Space Station and will be retired to make way for the next generation of human space flight vehicles: the Constellation Program. The Space Shuttle Program recognized the importance of capturing the lessons learned from the loss of Columbia and her crew to benefit future human exploration, particularly future vehicle design. The program commissioned the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team (SCSIIT). The SCSIIT was asked to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival for all future human space flight vehicles. To do this, the SCSIIT investigated all elements of crew survival, including the design features, equipment, training, and procedures intended to protect the crew. This report documents the SCSIIT findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

  11. Statistical analysis of survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J; Breslow, N

    1984-01-01

    A general review of the statistical techniques that the authors feel are most important in the analysis of survival data is presented. The emphasis is on the study of the duration of time between any two events as applied to people and on the nonparametric and semiparametric models most often used in these settings. The unifying concept is the hazard function, variously known as the risk, the force of mortality, or the force of transition.

  12. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  13. Study of dental occlusion in ancient human remains: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorin, Elena; Cadafalch, Joan; Ceperuelo, Dolors; Adserias Adserias, Maria José; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduard; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    The anthropological dental and maxillary study in human skeletal remains usually refers to alterations or conditions of the oral cavity. These alterations could have repercussions on life style, dietary habits and diseases. In this particular context, dental occlusion is not often analyzed due to the fragmented condition of the remains, and especially due to the lack of methodology adapted to study ancient remains. The aim of this study is to propose an anthropological method based on clinical dental practice. In the method presented in this work, odontological parameters such as overjet, overbite, and Angle's Classification of Malocclusion, are evaluated.

  14. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  15. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  16. RSPF-based Prognosis Framework for Estimation of Remaining Useful Life in Energy Storage Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a case study where a RSPF-based prognosis framework is applied to estimate the remaining useful life of an energy storage device (Li-Ion...

  17. Pittsburgh Coal Bed Remaining Resources by County in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pittsburgh coal bed resource areas and attributed with remaining resource values in...

  18. Scott's Lake Site/Santee Indian Mound/Fort Watson Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a generic dataset collected on human remains and funerary objects during Scott's Lake Site Excavation. Excavated by Dr. Leland G. Ferguson of SCIAA in 1973,...

  19. Designing a monitoring program to estimate estuarine survival of anadromous salmon smolts: simulating the effect of sample design on inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Jeremy D.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Clements, Shaun; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    A number of researchers have attempted to estimate salmonid smolt survival during outmigration through an estuary. However, it is currently unclear how the design of such studies influences the accuracy and precision of survival estimates. In this simulation study we consider four patterns of smolt survival probability in the estuary, and test the performance of several different sampling strategies for estimating estuarine survival assuming perfect detection. The four survival probability patterns each incorporate a systematic component (constant, linearly increasing, increasing and then decreasing, and two pulses) and a random component to reflect daily fluctuations in survival probability. Generally, spreading sampling effort (tagging) across the season resulted in more accurate estimates of survival. All sampling designs in this simulation tended to under-estimate the variation in the survival estimates because seasonal and daily variation in survival probability are not incorporated in the estimation procedure. This under-estimation results in poorer performance of estimates from larger samples. Thus, tagging more fish may not result in better estimates of survival if important components of variation are not accounted for. The results of our simulation incorporate survival probabilities and run distribution data from previous studies to help illustrate the tradeoffs among sampling strategies in terms of the number of tags needed and distribution of tagging effort. This information will assist researchers in developing improved monitoring programs and encourage discussion regarding issues that should be addressed prior to implementation of any telemetry-based monitoring plan. We believe implementation of an effective estuary survival monitoring program will strengthen the robustness of life cycle models used in recovery plans by providing missing data on where and how much mortality occurs in the riverine and estuarine portions of smolt migration. These data

  20. Incidental Findings in the Use of DNA to Identify Human Remains: An Ethical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Lisa S.; London, Alex John; Aronson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA analysis is increasingly used to identify the remains of victims of conflicts and disasters. This is especially true in cases where remains are badly damaged and fragmented, or where antemortem records are unavailable. Incidental findings (IFs)—that is, genetics-related information for which investigators were not looking—may result from these identification efforts employing DNA analysis. Because of the critical role played by family members of the missing in identification efforts, as w...

  1. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline. Copyright © 2013 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  2. The macrofaunal remains of wild animals from Abbofs Cave and Lame Sheep Shelter, Seacow Valley, Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Plug

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The faunal remains from two adjacent shelters in the Seacow Valley provide evidence of seasonal predation on springbok by hunter-gatherer societies. The unusually high proportion of foetal and neonate remains indicate the hunting of pregnant ewes and/or ewes with newborn lambs. The deposits are disturbed by ground squirrel burrowing, but these did not influence the species representation. The coming of pre-colonial pastoralists and trekboer farmers did not initially influenced the availability of game.

  3. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth loss than did other groups in Korean adults. Participants had more anterior and premolar teeth on mandible, but they had more molars on maxilla. In addition, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. PMID

  4. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    OpenAIRE

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean a...

  5. Regional Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survival in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotra, Saket; van Diepen, Sean; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Carrel, Margaret; Vellano, Kimberly; Anderson, Monique L.; McNally, Bryan; Abella, Benjamin; Sasson, Comilla; Chan, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have shown marked variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival across U.S. regions, factors underlying this survival variation remain incompletely explained. Methods and Results Using data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, we identified 96,662 adult patients with out-of-hospital cardiac in 132 U.S. counties. We used hierarchical regression models to examine county-level variation in rates of survival and survival with functional recovery (defined as Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2) and examined the contribution of demographics, cardiac arrest characteristics, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), automated external defibrillator (AED) use, and county-level socio-demographic factors in survival variation across counties. A total of 9317 (9.6%) patients survived to discharge, and 7176 (7.4%) achieved functional recovery. At a county-level, there was marked variation in rates of survival to discharge (range: 3.4%-22.0%, median odds ratio [MOR] 1.40, 95% CI 1.32-1.46) and survival with functional recovery (range: 0.8%-21.0%, MOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.43-1.62). County-level rates of bystander CPR and AED use were positively correlated with both outcomes (Pcardiac arrest characteristics explained 4.8% and 27.7% of the county-level variation in survival, respectively. Additional adjustment of bystander CPR and AED explained 41% of the survival variation, and this increased to 50.4% after adjustment of county-level socio-demographic factors. Similar findings were noted in analyses of survival with functional recovery. Conclusions Although out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival varies significantly across U.S. counties, a substantial proportion of the variation is due to differences in bystander response across communities. PMID:27081119

  6. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  7. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  8. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  9. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  10. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations.

  11. Maternal Risk of Breeding Failure Remained Low throughout the Demographic Transitions in Fertility and Age at First Reproduction in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Radical declines in fertility and postponement of first reproduction during the recent human demographic transitions have posed a challenge to interpreting human behaviour in evolutionary terms. This challenge has stemmed from insufficient evolutionary insight into individual reproductive decision-making and the rarity of datasets recording individual long-term reproductive success throughout the transitions. We use such data from about 2,000 Finnish mothers (first births: 1880s to 1970s) to show that changes in the maternal risk of breeding failure (no offspring raised to adulthood) underlay shifts in both fertility and first reproduction. With steady improvements in offspring survival, the expected fertility required to satisfy a low risk of breeding failure became lower and observed maternal fertility subsequently declined through an earlier age at last reproduction. Postponement of the age at first reproduction began when this risk approximated zero–even for mothers starting reproduction late. Interestingly, despite vastly differing fertility rates at different stages of the transitions, the number of offspring successfully raised to breeding per mother remained relatively constant over the period. Our results stress the importance of assessing the long-term success of reproductive strategies by including measures of offspring quality and suggest that avoidance of breeding failure may explain several key features of recent life-history shifts in industrialized societies. PMID:22529952

  12. The Tyrolean Iceman and excavated human remains as sources of information about the past, the present, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøvold, T

    1998-01-01

    The 5,200-year-old mummy of the so-called "Iceman" found in the Tyrolean Alps in September 1991 has not only provided unique information about the European Stone Age, but has also supported disciplines of glaciology and paleoclimatology, contributed to medical history, age-at-death determination, and plastic surgery. The Iceman is the oldest known case of medical tattooing. Since the body is unique, new noninvasive methods had to be developed to investigate it. Stereolithographic skull models were produced to study the skull. Age determination was partly based on computer tomography. These methods may even be used for present or future medical or forensic practice. Furthermore, a collection of identified skulls from a charnel house in Austria, dating from about 1780 AD to 1990 AD, has been used for testing and developing osteological methods, though the inclusion of the skulls in the charnel house is formally classified a second burial. These skulls have been studied by permission from the local Catholic church. Careful respect for the ancestors is crucial in both these and other cases. In return, access to the remains of ancestors provides information which may shed light upon the past, the present, and even help survival in the future.

  13. The Risk of Cardiovascular Events After an Acute Coronary Event Remains High, Especially During the First Year, Despite Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Assi, Emad; López-López, Andrea; González-Salvado, Violeta; Redondo-Diéguez, Alfredo; Peña-Gil, Carlos; Bouzas-Cruz, Noelia; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Riziq-Yousef Abumuaileq, Rami; García-Acuña, José M; González-Juanatey, José R

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the incidence and predictors of infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death after acute coronary syndrome. We investigated these aspects and developed tools for predicting these events according to the time of their occurrence. A retrospective study was conducted of 4858 patients who survived an acute coronary event. We analyzed the incidence and predictors of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death during the first year (n=4858) vs successive years (n=4345 patients free of composite events during the first year). There were 329 events in the first year (cumulative incidence function: 7.3% person-years) and 616 in successive years (21.5% person-years; follow-up 4.9±2.4 years). The risk of events during the first year per tertile was 2.5% person-years in the low-risk tertile ( 6 points) (P 6 points) (P<.001). The 2 scales showed the following predictive indexes: C statistic, 0.74 and 0.69, respectively; P (Hosmer-Lemeshow test)≥0.44 CONCLUSION: The risk of recurrence of cardiovascular events remains high after acute coronary syndrome. The level of risk can be easily quantified with acceptable predictive ability. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival of gynecological cancers in Turkey: where are we at?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Murat; Dundar, Selin; Kucukyildiz, Irem; Karaca, Mujdegul Zayifoglu; Boztas, Guledal; Turan, Semra Hatice; Hacikamiloglu, Ezgi; Keskinkilic, Bekir

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the 5-year relative survival rates in gynecological cancers diagnosed and treated in Turkey by year 2009 and to compare the results with developed countries. Data of patients diagnosed for ovarian, corpus uteri or cervix uteri cancer at year 2009 are collected from 9 national cancer registry centers. Date of deaths are retracted from governmental Identity Information Sharing System (KPS). In order to calculate relative survival rates, national general population mortality tables are obtained from Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). Hakulinen method is used for computing curves by R program. Data for European, Asian and some developed countries were obtained from official web pages. A total of 1,553 patients are evaluated. Among these, 713 (45.9%) are corpus uteri cancers, while remaining 489 (31.5%) are ovarian and 351 (22.6%) are cervix uteri. Five-year overall relative survival rates are 85%, 50%, and 62% for corpus uteri, ovarian, and cervix uteri, respectively. These figures are between 73%-87% for corpus uteri, 31%-62% for ovarian and 61%-80% for cervix uteri in developed countries. Stage is the most important factor for survival in all cancers. Five-year relative survival rates in corpus uteri cancers are 92%, 66%, and 38% for localized, regional, and distant metastatic disease, respectively. These figures are 77%, 57%, and 29% for ovarian; 80%, 50%, and 22% for cervix uteri. This is the first report from Turkey giving national overall relative survival for gynecological cancers from a population based cancer registry system.

  15. Effect of smoking on survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, Philippe; Knöpfli, Marina; Dufour, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity and physical activity have gained interest in the field of hepatocellular carcinoma. These factors play a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies revealed the impact of tobacco consumption on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and its synergistic effects with viral etiologies (hepatitis B and C). The effects of smoking on survival in patients with a diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma have not yet been investigated in a Western cohort where hepatitis C infection is a major risk factor. Using data from a prospective cohort of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were followed at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, survival was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis in smokers and nonsmokers, and multivariate Cox regression was applied to control for confounding variables. Of 238 eligible hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 64 were smokers at the time of inclusion and 174 were nonsmokers. Smokers had a significant worse overall survival than nonsmokers (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.58, P=.003). Analysis of patients according to their underlying liver disease, revealed that smoking, and not nonsmoking, affected survival of hepatitis B virus and C virus-infected patients only. In this subgroup, smoking was an independent predictor for survival (hazard ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.23, P<.001) and remained independently predictive when adjusted for confounding variables. This study shows that smoking is an independent predictor of survival in hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  17. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum

  18. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  19. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  20. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry...

  1. 46 CFR 133.105 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 133.105 Section 133.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.105 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as...

  2. 46 CFR 199.201 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.201 Section 199.201 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Passenger Vessels § 199.201 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be...

  3. 46 CFR 199.261 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.261 Section 199.261 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.261 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be a totally...

  4. 46 CFR 28.120 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 28.120 Section 28.120 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.120 Survival craft. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section and 28.305, each vessel must carry the survival craft specified in Table 28...

  5. 46 CFR 174.320 - Damage survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage survival. 174.320 Section 174.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO... survival. A hopper dredge survives assumed damage if it meets the following conditions: (a) The maximum...

  6. Surviving the crash: T-cell homeostasis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOSHIBA

    Spatial and temporal elements. – Cellular sites for the integration of cell death and survival cues. – Spatial regulation of Notch activity for cell survival. Page 4. Cell survival is determined by the availability and uptake of nutrients live dead. Activated T-cells. T-cells. Page 5. dead wildtype. Bax active -6A7. Nucleus – H33342.

  7. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  8. The Heart Failure Overweight/Obesity Survival Paradox: The Missing Sex Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Amanda R; Wu, Yuping; Hachamovitch, Rory; Young, James B; Cho, Leslie

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether body mass index (BMI) has a differential impact on survival for females versus males with advanced systolic heart failure (HF). Females have a survival advantage in HF, the mechanisms of which are unclear. There is also a proposed "obesity survival paradox" in which excess adiposity promotes HF survival. We reviewed 3,811 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% who had undergone cardiopulmonary exercise testing between 1995 and 2011. The endpoint was all-cause mortality. Multivariable analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Because of the nonlinearity of BMI, a restricted cubic spline was used. An interaction term was added to investigate the impact of BMI on mortality by sex. The unadjusted data demonstrated an overall obesity survival paradox in HF. This survival paradox disappeared for males after adjustment for potential confounders, with overweight and obese males showing higher adjusted mortality hazard ratios compared with normal weight males. Conversely, females in the overweight BMI range (25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) had the lowest adjusted mortality (hazard ratio: 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.77 to 0.93; p = 0.0005 compared with normal weight females) with a nadir in mortality hazard just below BMI 30 kg/m(2). The multivariable model supported a differential impact of BMI on mortality in males versus females (p for interaction obesity survival paradox disappeared after adjustment for confounders. Overweight and obese males had higher adjusted mortality than normal weight males, whereas a BMI in the overweight range was associated with a significant survival benefit in females. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  10. [Study of remains and dental wastes of a First World War German rest camp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Tzortzis, S; Desfosses, Y; Signoli, M; Tardivo, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the analysis of dental remains and waste from the dental office of a German rest camp of the First World War in order to study the living conditions of the soldiers, the care policy and the prosthetic rehabilitation techniques used in this context. The study included both dental and prosthetic remains, revealed during the excavation. The criteria to determine dental and periodontal health were the presence or absence of caries, wear, tartar and periodontal lesion. Location, severity and frequency of each of these parameters were examined. Regarding the prosthetic remains, the type of prosthesis and the materials used were determined. Three hundred and twenty seven (327) dental remains were analyzed. A high prevalence of large caries, especially in the molar areas, was highlighted. The incisal areas had however more wear and tartar. 183 casts of plaster dental arcade allowed to highlight a significant proportion of posterior edentulous. Prosthetic remains and laboratory waste revealed the use of vulcanite and porcelain for making dentures.

  11. New paleoradiological investigations of ancient human remains from North West Lombardy archaeological excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, Marta; Borgo, Melania; Armocida, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Luca; Ferioli, Elena [University of Insubria (Varese), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Varese (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Since its birth in 1895, radiology has been used to study ancient mummies. The purpose of this article is to present paleoradiological investigations conducted on several medieval human remains in Varese province. Anthropological (generic identification) and paleopathological analyses were carried out with the support of diagnostic imaging (X-ray and CT scans). Human remains were discovered during excavations of medieval archaeological sites in northwest Lombardy. Classical physical anthropological methods were used for the macroscopic identification of the human remains. X-ray and CT scans were performed on the same scanner (16-layer Hitachi Eclos 16 X-ray equipment). Radiological analysis permitted investigating (1) the sex, (2) age of death, (3) type of trauma, (4) therapeutic interventions and (5) osteomas in ancient human remains. In particular, X-ray and CT examinations showed dimorphic facial traits on the mummified skull, and the same radiological approaches allowed determining the age at death from a mummified lower limb. CT analyses allow investigating different types of traumatic lesions in skulls and postcranial skeleton portions and reconstructing the gait and functional outcomes of a fractured femur. Moreover, one case of possible Gardner's syndrome (GS) was postulated from observing multiple osteomas in an ancient skull. Among the medical tests available to the clinician, radiology is the most appropriate first-line procedure for a diagnostic approach to ancient human remains because it can be performed without causing any significant damage to the specimen. (orig.)

  12. Sexual dimorphism in glioma glycolysis underlies sex differences in survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Joseph E.; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular bases for sex differences in cancer remain undefined and how to incorporate them into risk stratification remains undetermined. Given sex differences in metabolism and the inverse correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and survival, we hypothesized that glycolytic phenotyping would improve glioma subtyping. Using retrospectively acquired lower-grade glioma (LGG) transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we discovered male-specific decreased survival resulting from glycolytic gene overexpression. Patients within this high-glycolytic group showed significant differences in the presence of key genomic alterations (i.e., 1p/19q codeletion, CIC, EGFR, NF1, PTEN, FUBP1, and IDH mutations) compared with the low-glycolytic group. Although glycolytic stratification defined poor prognostic males independent of grade, histology, TP53, and ATRX mutation status, we unexpectedly found that females with high-glycolytic gene expression and wild-type IDH survived longer than all other wild-type patients. Validation with an independent metabolomics dataset from grade 2 gliomas determined that glycolytic metabolites selectively stratified males and also uncovered a potential sexual dimorphism in pyruvate metabolism. These findings identify a potential synergy between patient sex, tumor metabolism, and genomic alterations in determining outcome for glioma patients. PMID:28768910

  13. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  14. Graphing survival curve estimates for time-dependent covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lonni R; Peterson, Edward L; Breslau, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Graphical representation of statistical results is often used to assist readers in the interpretation of the findings. This is especially true for survival analysis where there is an interest in explaining the patterns of survival over time for specific covariates. For fixed categorical covariates, such as a group membership indicator, Kaplan-Meier estimates (1958) can be used to display the curves. For time-dependent covariates this method may not be adequate. Simon and Makuch (1984) proposed a technique that evaluates the covariate status of the individuals remaining at risk at each event time. The method takes into account the change in an individual's covariate status over time. The survival computations are the same as the Kaplan-Meier method, in that the conditional survival estimates are the function of the ratio of the number of events to the number at risk at each event time. The difference between the two methods is that the individuals at risk within each level defined by the covariate is not fixed at time 0 in the Simon and Makuch method as it is with the Kaplan-Meier method. Examples of how the two methods can differ for time dependent covariates in Cox proportional hazards regression analysis are presented.

  15. Survival outcome of malignant minor salivary tumors in Pakistani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malignant tumors of minor salivary glands (MSG are rare. Survival outcome in Pakistani population with malignant MSG tumors remains to be defined. The objective of this study was to report the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and survival outcome of radically treated malignant tumors of MSG in Pakistani population. Materials and Methods: Between April 2003 and March 2011, 45 patients with malignant tumors of MSG were treated at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital and included in the study. Patient characteristics and treatment modalities were assessed and local, regional, and distant failures determined. Relapse-free (RFS and overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves, and log-rank test was used to determine significance. Results: Median age was 40 (17-83 years. Male to female ratio was 1.25:1. Most common site was hard palate in 31 (69% patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (51% was the most common histological diagnosis. Nine patients (20% underwent surgery as the only treatment modality, six patients received (13% radiotherapy alone, and 30 patients (67% had surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Eight patients developed recurrence (four local, two regional, one locoregional, and one distant. The 5-year actuarial overall OS and RFS was 77 and 66%, respectively. Age, T-stage, and treatment modality were significant for RFS, whereas T-stage and treatment modality were significant factors for OS. Conclusion: Surgery as single modality or combined with radiation therapy resulted in acceptable survival in Pakistani population with malignant minor salivary tumors.

  16. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  17. Guide Map for Preserving Remaining Ability of Nursing Home Residents With Physical-Cognitive Functional Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJu; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Mi So; Choi, Jung Eun; Chang, Sung Ok

    2017-02-01

    As the population ages, preserving the remaining ability of residents is emphasized in nursing homes. Establishing the nursing knowledge of nursing home-specific practice should be included in the continuing education of new nursing home nurses. This study developed a practical guide map for preserving the remaining ability of nursing home residents by analyzing 144 residents' case data pertaining to the nursing care provided by 19 nurses skilled in nursing homes, as well as conducting a literature review. From the collected data, 236 nursing diagnoses were given to the 144 cases. As the residents' physical conditions and psychosocial characteristics were linked with the nursing process, various steps were needed to plan the nursing process of preserving the remaining ability of nursing home residents. This practical guide map will be useful for new nurses in nursing homes to improve the quality care of elderly residents. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):73-80. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Exploring the world of micro sculptures - subfossil Cladocera remains under the SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Zawiska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The scanning electron microscope (SEM is widely used for the identification of microstructural characteristics and morphology of different microorganisms. Common procedures are based and developed for remains of living species. This paper presents an effective method for drying and preparing subfossil Cladocera remains for SEM observation, which has been recently adapted and tested on several samples originating from different American and European lakes. This method results to be fast and cheap, as it excludes the use of expensive and toxic reagents. Moreover, it allows to recognize the micro sculpture and other species specific characteristics present on the different body parts of the Cladocera remains. The present contribution provides 29 high quality pictures of 12 cladoceran species at magnification between 200x and 11,000x. SEM images reveal  that the patterns observed on the shells under the light microscope actually are always three dimensional structures.

  19. Bodily matters above and below ground: the treatment of American remains from the Korean War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Judith

    2010-02-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, depending on the capabilities of the military mortuary services and the time limits set by government, the bodies of the American fallen in foreign wars have been repatriated home to their families. In the Korean War the conditions of combat posed large challenges to the recovery and returns of bodily remains. Almost half a century after that conflict, the American missing in Korea have become significant players within the government's expanding efforts that were prompted in answer to demands to locate American soldiers who remain unaccounted for from the Vietnam War. The essay traces the background to U.S. military mortuary services and the operation in the Korean War and in the subsequent joint expeditions in North Korea. The analysis concludes that in most of these ventures the outlay of resources has produced few remains.

  20. DNA typing for the identification of old skeletal remains from Korean War victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Kim, Na Young; Park, Myung Jin; Sim, Jeong Eun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2010-11-01

    The identification of missing casualties of the Korean War (1950-1953) has been performed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles, but recent advances in DNA extraction techniques and approaches using smaller amplicons have significantly increased the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles from highly degraded skeletal remains. Therefore, 21 skeletal remains of Korean War victims and 24 samples from biological relatives of the supposed victims were selected based on circumstantial evidence and/or mtDNA-matching results and were analyzed to confirm the alleged relationship. Cumulative likelihood ratios were obtained from autosomal short tandem repeat, Y-chromosomal STR, and mtDNA-genotyping results, and mainly confirmed the alleged relationship with values over 10⁵. The present analysis emphasizes the value of mini- and Y-STR systems as well as an efficient DNA extraction method in DNA testing for the identification of old skeletal remains. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wales, Nathan; Andersen, Kenneth; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA...... extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated......Ancient DNA (aDNA) recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA...

  2. Prognostic and Remaining Life Prediction of Electronic Device under Vibration Condition Based on CPSD of MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic of electronic device under vibration condition can help to get information to assist in condition-based maintenance and reduce life-cycle cost. A prognostic and remaining life prediction method for electronic devices under random vibration condition is proposed. Vibration response is measured and monitored with acceleration sensor and OMA parameters, including vibration resonance frequency, especially first-order resonance frequency, and damping ratio is calculated with cross-power spectrum density (CPSD method and modal parameter identification (MPI algorithm. Steinberg vibration fatigue model which considers transmissibility factor is used to predict the remaining life of electronic component. Case study with a test board is carried out and remaining life is predicted. Results show that with this method the vibration response characteristic can be monitored and predicted.

  3. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  4. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the impact of water processing on wood charcoal remains: Tell Qarassa North, a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Zapata, Lydia; Colledge, Sue

    . In this work a comparison of the results obtained from water processing and hand-picking of wood charcoal remains at the Neolithic site of Tell Qarassa North (south Syria) is presented. The material comes from a burnt roof structure, where a total of 50 hand-picked wood samples and four flotation samples (120...... such as vitrification and those related to decay. The results showed large differences in the taxonomic and taphonomic composition of wood remains retrieved in situ and through flotation. While Amygdalus had same proportions in both assemblages, in those derived by flotation, there were greater proportions of Pistacia...... of different anatomic elements of the wood, which binds the cells and may increase resistance to mechanical damage during processes as flotation. This may explain why vitrification was better represented in the roof samples processed by flotation, since water might have destroyed weaker wood charcoal remains...

  6. Suicidal behavior in surviving co-twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Galeandro, Piera Maria; Lester, David; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    Recent research has provided strong support for the existence of a familial risk for suicide, and efforts have been made to separate genetic from enviromental risk factors. Twin studies have played a major role in the identification of genetic factors, and the results indicate that the concordance rate for suicide is higher in identical than in fraternal twins (Baldessarini & Hennen, 2004). Moreover, Segal and Roy (1995) reported a significantly higher frequency of nonfatal suicidal attempts by monozygotic (MZ) than by dyzygotic (DZ) twins whose co-twins had committed suicide. However, doubts remain as to whether the increased risk of suicide in MZ twins is a response to the intense grief over the loss of a close relative, or whether a common genotype is associated with suicidal behavior. Sudden loss, which may carry a stigma in the case of a suicide, has been linked to increased persistent emotional stress and physiological changes (Epstein, 1993; Martin & Dean, 1993). A number of researchers have reported greater suicidal ideation among bereaved MZ twins as compared to DZ twins, suggesting that a loss due to suicide may increase the risk of suicidal behavior in the surviving co-twin (Segal & Bouchard, 1993; Segal & Roy, 1995; Segal et al., 1995). The aim of the present article is to address the issue of the intense grief experienced by twins after the co-twin suicide.

  7. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  8. Survival of enterococci during hospital laundry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, K E; Holliday, M G; Jones, A L; Robson, I; Perry, J D

    2002-02-01

    Much remains to be elucidated about the epidemiology of nosocomial enterococcal infections. Enterococci are, however, known to be relatively thermotolerant, and several studies have shown that under laboratory conditions many strains are able to survive the time/temperature combinations of the UK Department of Health recommendations for the decontamination of used linen (HSG(95)18). We therefore wished to investigate the efficacy of decontamination of enterococci from hospital linen in working hospital laundries. The thermotolerance of 40 strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium was first determined. Reduction by a factor of greater than 10(5) was achieved in only two of 40 strains after 3 min at 71 degrees C or 10 min at 65 degrees C, the time/temperature combinations specified by the Department of Health for the disinfection of used linen. During experimental challenge of 10 working hospital laundries, however, we demonstrated successful decontamination of laundry artificially contaminated with enterococci. This was shown to take place during the washing stage. Our study suggests that, despite the relative thermotolerance of enterococci, the time/temperature combinations specified in HSG(95)18 should be adequate for their decontamination in hospital laundries. Copyright 2002 The Hospital Infection Society.

  9. Surviving With Smog and Smoke: Precision Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-11-01

    Despite continuous efforts of regional governmental agencies, air pollution remains a major threat to public health worldwide. In January 2017, a severe episode of smog similar to the Great Smog of 1952 occurred in London. The longest episode of Chinese haze also developed in Beijing, during which levels of particulate matter smoke. For countries with large populations of smokers, such as China, India, the United States, and Russia, surviving both smog and smoke is a serious problem. With novel genomic and epigenomic studies revealing air pollution- and smoking-induced mutational signatures and epigenetic editing in diseases such as lung cancer, it has become feasible to develop precision strategies for early intervention in the disease-causing pathways driven by the specific mutations or epigenetic regulations, or both. New therapies guided by gene-drug interactions and genomic biomarkers may also be developed. We discuss both perspectives regarding the urgent need to manage the toxic effects of smog and smoke for the benefit of global health and the novel concept of precision intervention to protect the exposed individuals when exposure to smog and secondhand smoke cannot be voluntarily avoided or easily modified. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surviving Impact in Experiments and on Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Oblique impacts experiments in the laboratory (at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range, AVGR) reveal that significant fractions of the projectile can survive impact for impact speeds of 6km/s and contribute to the cratering process or remain preserved within or around the crater. At low impact angles (30° from the horizontal) into strength-controlled targets (aluminum, copper), survivors re-impact witness plates downrange with fragments as large as 10% of the initial mass surviving intact. Scouring by projectile fragments during penetration contributes to many of the crater floor structures in strength-controlled targets, e.g., as erosion pits and downrange shelf. Frozen flow lines in ductile targets reveal the center of maximum coupling, well above the crater floor on the uprange wall. Above this zone, small projectile fragments survive on the uprange wall (even at high impact angles), whereas impactor-melt coats the crater floor downrange. Beyond the crater rim downrange, melt from the impactor scours the surface and coats the surface. Hydrocode models capture some of these processes at both small and large scales (e.g., downrange bench within the crater and downrange melt sliding along the surface), but they do not capture the fine-scale detailed interactions. Such laboratory impact experiments reveal fundamental processes typically ignored when interpreting planetary-scale collisions. For example, decapitated portions of the impactor from oblique impacts excavate portions of the surface downrange prior to the excavation stage. As a result, the transient crater does not grow across a flat surface but intersects a depression downrange created by the failed impactor. This affects crater excavation, ejecta evolution, and dispersal of impactor signatures. While laboratory impact velocities (6km/s) do not approach many planetary-scale applications (20km/s), oblique impacts result in peak pressures comparable to laboratory conditions, especially on Mars or the lower

  11. Association of pretreatment body mass index and survival in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergotti, William G; Davis, Kara S; Abberbock, Shira; Bauman, Julie E; Ohr, James; Clump, David A; Heron, Dwight E; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon; Johnson, Jonas T; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    Pretreatment body mass index (BMI) >25kg/m(2) is a positive prognostic factor in patients with head and neck cancer. Previous studies have not been adequately stratified by human papilloma virus (HPV) status or subsite. Our objective is to determine prognostic significance of pretreatment BMI on overall survival in HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). This is a retrospective review of patients with HPV+ OPSCC treated between 8/1/2006 and 8/31/2014. Patients were stratified by BMI status (>/25kg/m(2) had a longer overall survival (HR=0.49, P=0.01) as well as a longer disease-specific survival (HR=0.43, P=0.02). Overall survival remained significantly associated with high BMI on multivariate analysis (HR=0.54, P=0.04). Pre-treatment normal or underweight BMI status is associated with worse overall survival in HPV+ OPSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival of women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and liver metastases: is it improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Eliyaz; Short, Dee; North, Bernard; Savage, Philip M; Seckl, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether survival outcomes of women with liver metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) have improved from the previous finding of 27% at 5 years. The Charing Cross GTN database was searched for patients with liver metastases treated between 1975 and 2007. Prognostic variables were recorded and analyzed for effect on survival. Thirty-eight (1.8%) of 2,100 GTN patients had liver metastases. One patient with placental site trophoblastic tumor was excluded. In the remaining 37 cases the overall survival was 48% at 5 years. Seven patients with very advanced disease died survival was 68%. No prognostic variable was significant on univariate analysis. However, patients presenting >2.8 years and survival, respectively. The prognosis of patients with liver metastases from GTN has improved. Outcome may be best in those patients presenting within 2.8 years of the causative pregnancy and without very large volumes of disease.

  13. Updated Estimates of the Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. ESCO Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Carvallo Bodelon, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Murphy, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-01

    The energy service company (ESCO) industry has a well-established track record of delivering energy and economic savings in the public and institutional buildings sector, primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. The ESCO industry often provides (or helps arrange) private sector financing to complete public infrastructure projects with little or no up-front cost to taxpayers. In 2014, total U.S. ESCO industry revenue was estimated at $5.3 billion. ESCOs expect total industry revenue to grow to $7.6 billion in 2017—a 13% annual growth rate from 2015-2017. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to update and expand our estimates of the remaining market potential of the U.S. ESCO industry. We define remaining market potential as the aggregate amount of project investment by ESCOs that is technically possible based on the types of projects that ESCOS have historically implemented in the institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors using ESCO estimates of current market penetration in those sectors. In this analysis, we report U.S. ESCO industry remaining market potential under two scenarios: (1) a base case and (2) a case “unfettered” by market, bureaucratic, and regulatory barriers. We find that there is significant remaining market potential for the U.S. ESCO industry under both the base and unfettered cases. For the base case, we estimate a remaining market potential of $92-$201 billion ($2016). We estimate a remaining market potential of $190-$333 billion for the unfettered case. It is important to note, however, that there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the estimates for both the base and unfettered cases.

  14. Do Maltreated Children who Remain at Home Function Better than Those who Are Placed?

    OpenAIRE

    Mennen, Ferol E.; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of children in the child welfare system remain with their maltreating parents, yet little is known about their level of functioning and whether they are in need of mental health intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mental health functioning of an ethnically diverse sample of 302 maltreated children and 151 non maltreated children ages 9–12 to see if there were differences between those who remained at home, those placed in kin care, non-relative foster care...

  15. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-W. Shao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the “colour change” of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the “colure change” is used to evaluate the “real” surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The“Lingdao man No.1”, is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P. excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by

  16. Long-term survival in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with DTIC or temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina; Lee, Christopher W; Kovacic, Laurel; Shah, Amil; Klasa, Richard; Savage, Kerry J

    2010-01-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma typically have a poor outcome; however, a small proportion of patients achieve long-term survival (LTS). It is unclear how often LTS is related to sensitivity to chemotherapy. All patients with metastatic melanoma treated with either dacarbazine (DTIC) or temozolomide (TMZ) at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) from January 1, 1988 to February 1, 2006 were identified through the BCCA pharmacy electronic database, which was then linked to the surveillance and outcomes unit to identify patients with LTS, defined as survival > or =18 months following chemotherapy. In total, 397 patients were treated with either DTIC (n = 349) or TMZ (n = 48) and 43 patients (10.8%) were identified with LTS. Two additional patients with LTS were added prior to 1988 for a total of 45 patients. The 5-year overall and progression-free survival rates for patients with LTS were 33% and 16%, respectively. In total, 16% had a complete response (CR) to chemotherapy, which was the only factor identified that correlated with survival in the multivariate analysis. However, most patients with LTS had an incomplete response to chemotherapy. LTS occurs in select patients who achieve a CR to chemotherapy. However, this occurs in only a minority of patients and, in most cases, the longer survival is likely the result of indolent disease biology or host factors.

  17. Survival benefits of remote ischemic conditioning in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Hashmi, Ammar; Hecker, Louise; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the surgical intensive care unit. Prior studies have demonstrated a survival benefit of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in many disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of RIC on survival in sepsis in an animal model and to assess alterations in inflammatory biochemical profiles. We hypothesized that RIC alters inflammatory biochemical profiles resulting in decreased mortality in a septic mouse model. Eight to 12 week C57BL/6 mice received intra-peritoneal injection of 12.5-mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Septic animals in the experimental group underwent RIC at 0, 2, and 6 h after LPS by surgical exploration and alternate clamping of the femoral artery. Six 4-min cycles of ischemia-reperfusion were performed. Primary outcome was survival at 5-d after LPS injection. Secondary outcome was to assess the following serum cytokine levels: interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFα) at the baseline before LPS injection, 0 hour after LPS injection, and at 2, 4, 24 hours after induction of sepsis (RIC was performed at 2 h after LPS injection). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test were used. ANOVA test was used to compare cytokine measurements. We performed experiments on 44 mice: 14 sham and 30 RIC mice (10 at each time point). Overall survival was higher in the experimental group compared to the sham group (57% versus 21%; P = 0.02), with the highest survival rate observed in the 2-hour post-RIC group (70%). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 2-h post-RIC group had increased survival at 5 days after LPS (P = 0.04) with hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.09-0.98). In the RIC group, serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα peaked at 2 h after LPS and then decreased significantly over 24 hours (P sepsis and has the potential for implementation in the clinical practice. Early implementation of RIC may play an

  18. Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Nate G.; Pockman, William T.; Allen, Craig D.; Breshears, David D.; Cobb, Neil; Kolb, Thomas; Plaut, Jennifer; Sperry, John; West, Adam; Williams, David G.; Yepez, Enrico A.

    2008-01-01

    Severe droughts have been associated with regional-scale forest mortality worldwide. Climate change is expected to exacerbate regional mortality events; however, prediction remains difficult because the physiological mechanisms underlying drought survival and mortality are poorly understood. We developed a hydraulically based theory considering carbon balance and insect resistance that allowed development and examination of hypotheses regarding survival and mortality. Multiple mechanisms may cause mortality during drought. A common mechanism for plants with isohydric regulation of water status results from avoidance of drought-induced hydraulic failure via stomatal closure, resulting in carbon starvation and a cascade of downstream effects such as reduced resistance to biotic agents. Mortality by hydraulic failure per se may occur for isohydric seedlings or trees near their maximum height. Although anisohydric plants are relatively drought-tolerant, they are predisposed to hydraulic failure because they operate with narrower hydraulic safety margins during drought. Elevated temperatures should exacerbate carbon starvation and hydraulic failure. Biotic agents may amplify and be amplified by drought-induced plant stress. Wet multidecadal climate oscillations may increase plant susceptibility to drought-induced mortality by stimulating shifts in hydraulic architecture, effectively predisposing plants to water stress. Climate warming and increased frequency of extreme events will probably cause increased regional mortality episodes. Isohydric and anisohydric water potential regulation may partition species between survival and mortality, and, as such, incorporating this hydraulic framework may be effective for modeling plant survival and mortality under future climate conditions.

  19. Survival of Bactericidal Antibiotic Treatment by a Persister Subpopulation of Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Ng, Yin; Gram, Lone

    2013-01-01

    to 108 CFU ml−1, and 103 to 104 CFU ml−1 survived 72-h treatment with 100 μg of norfloxacin ml−1, indicating a persister subpopulation. This survival was not caused by antibiotic resistance as regrown persisters were as sensitive to norfloxacin as the parental strain. Higher numbers of persisters (105...... persisters could be activated by the addition of fermentable carbohydrates and subsequently killed by gentamicin; however, a stable surviving subpopulation of 103 CFU ml−1 remained. Nitrofurantoin that has a growth-independent mode of action was effective against both growing and dormant cells, suggesting...

  20. Trends in survival of Danish AIDS patients from 1981 to 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Tauris, P

    1990-01-01

    Length of survival was analysed in relation to year of diagnosis, AIDS-indicative disease, age, risk behaviour, zidovudine therapy, and CD4 cell count and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels at the time of diagnosis in a group of 231 consecutive adult Danish AIDS patients reported before 1 January......% (3-31%) at 2 years prior to 1986, 32% (16-49%) in 1986 and 52% (34-69%) in 1987, whereas survival remained stable for patients with other AIDS-indicative diseases. Survival was similar for patients who were diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma alone and PCP alone. Independent predictors of a shortened...

  1. Risk of progression and survival in multiple myeloma relapsing after therapy with IMiDs and bortezomib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S K; Lee, J H; Lahuerta, J J

    2012-01-01

    Promising new drugs are being evaluated for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), but their impact should be measured against the expected outcome in patients failing current therapies. However, the natural history of relapsed disease in the current era remains unclear. We studied 286 patients with...

  2. Association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and survival in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Kelly L; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Goh, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10% of women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) carry deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. A recent article suggested that BRCA2-related EOC was associated with an improved prognosis, but the effect of BRCA1 remains unclear....

  3. Retention in Treated Wastewater Affects Survival and Deposition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Sand Columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jiuyi; Zhao, Xiaokang; Tian, Xiujun; Li, Jin; Sjollema, Jelmer; Wang, Aimin

    The fate and transport of pathogenic bacteria from wastewater treatment facilities in the Earth's subsurface have attracted extensive concern over recent decades, while the impact of treated-wastewater chemistry on bacterial viability and transport behavior remains unclear. The influence of

  4. Molecular Basis of Stationary Phase Survival and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jananee Jaishankar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stationary phase is the stage when growth ceases but cells remain metabolically active. Several physical and molecular changes take place during this stage that makes them interesting to explore. The characteristic proteins synthesized in the stationary phase are indispensable as they confer viability to the bacteria. Detailed knowledge of these proteins and the genes synthesizing them is required to understand the survival in such nutrient deprived conditions. The promoters, which drive the expression of these genes, are called stationary phase promoters. These promoters exhibit increased activity in the stationary phase and less or no activity in the exponential phase. The vectors constructed based on these promoters are ideal for large-scale protein production due to the absence of any external inducers. A number of recombinant protein production systems have been developed using these promoters. This review describes the stationary phase survival of bacteria, the promoters involved, their importance, regulation, and applications.

  5. A case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jae Eun; Joo, Young Seon; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2015-03-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous insecticide. There have been previous reports of chlorfenapyr intoxication, but none have reported patient survival or an association with pancreatitis. A 61-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with vomiting after ingesting 10 mL chlorfenapyr in a suicide attempt 1 hour before. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, then transferred to the intensive care unit. Initial laboratory data were unremarkable except for elevated amylase/lipase levels (134/222 U/L), which were even higher 7 days later and remained elevated for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse pancreatic swelling. The patient improved with conservative care and was discharged to home 19 days after admission. This is the first reported case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication. We recommend early aggressive management in the emergency department and close monitoring in the intensive care unit to detect and treat potentially fatal deterioration after chlorfenapyr intoxication.

  6. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    OpenAIRE

    Leora Halpern Lanz; Megan Carmichael

    2015-01-01

    The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  7. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, Andrei; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Donovan, William

    2012-01-01

    This is the first guideline describing the International Standards to document remaining Autonomic Function after Spinal Cord Injury (ISAFSCI). This guideline should be used as an adjunct to the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) including the ...

  8. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  9. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  10. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  11. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through...

  12. Remaining load carrying capacity of gas pipelines damaged by surface corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenta, F.; Sochor, M.; Spaniel, M.; Michalec, J. (Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The influence of surface corrosive defects on the remaining working ability of transit gas pipelines of big diameters is discussed. An analytical and a FEM-numerical approach to the problem are presented. Finally a comparison of some of the authors' experimental results (to verify the theoretical solutions) with ANSI/ASME Code recommendations is given. (author)

  13. Digital Marketing Budgets for Independent Hotels: Continuously Shifting to Remain Competitive in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leora Halpern Lanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hotel marketing budget, typically amounting to approximately 4-5% of an asset’s total revenue, must remain fluid, so that the marketing director can constantly adapt the marketing tools to meet consumer communications methods and demands. This article suggests how an independent hotel can maximize their marketing budget by using multiple channels and strategies.

  14. Beyond Race and Gender: Motivating Enlisted Personnel to Remain in Today's Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brenda

    2001-01-01

    ... to remain in the military than do the race, gender, or racial climate variables. Satisfaction with pay and benefits has a significant positive effect on the likelihood that respondents will stay in the military, but pride in service is more robust...

  15. Optimization of DNA recovery and amplification from non-carbonized archaeobotanical remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Wales

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA recovered from archaeobotanical remains can provide key insights into many prominent archaeological research questions, including processes of domestication, past subsistence strategies, and human interactions with the environment. However, it is often difficult to isolate aDNA from ancient plant materials, and furthermore, such DNA extracts frequently contain inhibitory substances that preclude successful PCR amplification. In the age of high-throughput sequencing, this problem is even more significant because each additional endogenous aDNA molecule improves analytical resolution. Therefore, in this paper, we compare a variety of DNA extraction techniques on primarily desiccated archaeobotanical remains and identify which method consistently yields the greatest amount of purified DNA. In addition, we test five DNA polymerases to determine how well they replicate DNA extracted from non-charred ancient plant remains. Based upon the criteria of resistance to enzymatic inhibition, behavior in quantitative real-time PCR, replication fidelity, and compatibility with aDNA damage, we conclude these polymerases have nuanced properties, requiring researchers to make educated decisions as to which one to use for a given task. The experimental findings should prove useful to the aDNA and archaeological communities by guiding future research methodologies and ensuring precious archaeobotanical remains are studied in optimal ways, and may thereby yield important new perspectives on the interactions between humans and past plant communities.

  16. Detection Method of the Remaining Files Based on Logs Regarding Changed Directory and Hash Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    There are a lot of information leakages because the files are copied from the removable storage medium and are left in the storage unit of personal computer without deleting. In order to prevent human mistakes, this paper proposes a method for detecting the remaining files copied from the removable storage medium. The proposed method records logs regarding changed information registering in a directory that is management list of files in storage unit and the hash values of file contents. The remaining files are detected when the removable storage medium removes from the personal computer, and they are displayed on the monitor. The detection processing works in five steps. First, copy operation toward file is detected by tracing the sequence of logs. Secondly, files copied from the removable storage medium are distinguished based on hash values. Thirdly, file operation and folder operation to copied files are distinguished. Fourthly, the deletion operation against the copied file is detected by using file name and path matching. Finally, file name and path using for tracing are changed according to folder operation. In case of the deletion operation is not found, it is judged that copied files are remaining. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the storage unit.

  17. On the prediction of the remaining vase life of cut roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Vollebregt, H.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to examine the hypothesis that the time–temperature sum built up during storage and transport at constant as well as stepwise changing temperatures is a good predictor of the remaining vase life of cut roses. Theoretical calculations and graphing of functions

  18. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  19. The Class of 2012: Labor Market for Young Graduates Remains Grim. EPI Briefing Paper #340

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shierholz, Heidi; Sabadish, Natalie; Wething, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Though the labor market is slowly improving, the Great Recession that began in December 2007 was so long and severe that the crater it left in the labor market continues to be devastating for workers of all ages. Unemployment has been above eight percent for more than three years, and 12.7 million workers remain unemployed today. The weak labor…

  20. Skeletal Indicators of Shark Feeding on Human Remains: Evidence from Florida Forensic Anthropology Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michala K; Winburn, Allysha P; Burgess, George H

    2017-05-02

    This research examines a series of six Florida forensic anthropology cases that exhibit taphonomic evidence of marine deposition and shark-feeding activities. In each case, we analyzed patterns of trauma/damage on the skeletal remains (e.g., sharp-force bone gouges and punctures) and possible mechanisms by which they were inflicted during shark predation/scavenging. In some cases, shark teeth were embedded in the remains; in the absence of this evidence, we measured interdental distance from defects in the bone to estimate shark body length, as well as to draw inferences about the potential species responsible. We discuss similarities and differences among the cases and make comparisons to literature documenting diagnostic shark-inflicted damage to human remains from nearby regions. We find that the majority of cases potentially involve bull or tiger sharks scavenging the remains of previously deceased, adult male individuals. This scavenging results in a distinctive taphonomic signature including incised gouges in cortical bone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work? : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna; van den Heuvel, Swenneke; Geuskens, Goedele; Ybema, Jan Fekke; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Robroek, Suzan

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  3. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.; Heuvel, S. van den; Geuskens, G.; Ybema, J.F.; Wind, A. de; Burdorf, A.; Robroek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in the Study on

  4. How do Older Employees with Health Problems Remain Productive at Work?: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); G.A. Geuskens (Goedele); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); A. de Wind (Astrid); A. Burdorf (Alex); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The goal of this qualitative study was to gain insight into how older employees remain productive at work in spite of health problems. Methods Twenty-six semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with older employees, 46-63 years of age, who reported a poor health in

  5. Online Remaining Fatigue Life Prognosis for Composite Materials Based on Strain Data and Stochastic Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheroglou, N.; Zarouchas, D.; Loutas, T.; Alderliesten, R.C.; Benedictus, R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study utilizes a state-of-the-art stochastic modeling with structural health monitoring (SHM) data derived from strain measurements, in order to assess the remaining useful life (RUL) online in composite materials under fatigue loading. Non-Homogenous Hidden Semi Markov model (NHHSMM) is

  6. Using endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca to identify rodent seed predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmao ZHANG, Wei WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Some rodent-dispersed seeds have a hard seed-coat (e.g. woody endocarp. Specific scrapes or dental marks on the hard seed-coat left by rodents when they eat these seeds can be used to identify seed predators. In this study we measured the morphological traits of endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca used by Chinese white-bellied rats Niviventor confucianus and Korean field mice Apodemus peninsulae. We established their Fisher′s linear discriminant functions to separate endocarp-remains between the two predators. A total of 90.0 % of the endocarp-remains left by Korean field mice and 88.0 % of those left by Chinese white-bellied rats were correctly classified. The overall percentage of correct classification was 89.0 %. One hundred and sixty endocarp-remains of unknown what species predated them were classified using the functions. The method may allow more reliable quantitative studies of the effects of Chinese white-bellied rats and Korean field mice on seed consumption and dispersal of wild apricot and this study might be used for reference in other studies of seed predators identification on hard seeds [Current Zoology 55 (6: 396 –400, 2009].

  7. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  8. Mesolithic and Neolithic human remains in the Netherlands : physical anthropological and stable isotope investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Liesbeth; Plicht, Hans van der

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the interdisciplinary study of skeletal remains from Late Mesolithic and Middle Neolithic sites in the Lower Rhine Basin. The combination of archaeological, physical anthropological and chemical analysis has led to a better understanding of the treatment of the

  9. Dating rice remains through phytolith carbon-14 study reveals domestication at the beginning of the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xinxin; Lu, Houyuan; Jiang, Leping; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Xiaoyan; Huan, Xiujia; He, Keyang; Wang, Can; Wu, Naiqin

    2017-06-20

    Phytolith remains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) recovered from the Shangshan site in the Lower Yangtze of China have previously been recognized as the earliest examples of rice cultivation. However, because of the poor preservation of macroplant fossils, many radiocarbon dates were derived from undifferentiated organic materials in pottery sherds. These materials remain a source of debate because of potential contamination by old carbon. Direct dating of the rice remains might serve to clarify their age. Here, we first validate the reliability of phytolith dating in the study region through a comparison with dates obtained from other material from the same layer or context. Our phytolith data indicate that rice remains retrieved from early stages of the Shangshan and Hehuashan sites have ages of approximately 9,400 and 9,000 calibrated years before the present, respectively. The morphology of rice bulliform phytoliths indicates they are closer to modern domesticated species than to wild species, suggesting that rice domestication may have begun at Shangshan during the beginning of the Holocene.

  10. Explaining why nurses remain in or leave bedside nursing: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Paula; McPherson, Gladys

    2014-09-01

    To describe the application of critical ethnography to explain nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing, and to describe researcher positioning and reflexivity. Enquiry into hospital nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing positions has been conducted from a variety of theoretical perspectives by researchers adopting a range of methodological approaches. This research helps to explain how work environments can affect variables such as job satisfaction and turnover, but provides less insight into how personal and professional factors shape decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing. A critical theoretical perspective was taken to examine the employment decisions made by nurses in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data was collected from nurses (n=31) through semi-structured interviews and unobtrusive observation. The authors describe critical ethnography as a powerful research framework for enquiry that allowed them to challenge assumptions about why nurses remain in or leave their jobs, and to explore how issues of fairness and equity contribute to these decisions. Critical ethnography offers a powerful methodology for investigations into complex interactions, such as those between nurses in a PICU. In adopting this methodology, researchers should be sensitised to manifestations of power, attend to their stance and location, and reflexion. The greatest challenges from this research included how to make sense of the insider position, how to acknowledge assumptions and allow these to be challenged, and how to ensure that power relationships in the environment and in the research were attended to.

  11. A remarkable collection of Late Pleistocene reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) remains from Woerden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, T. van; Jagt, I. van der; Beeren, Z.; Argiti, V.; Leije, J. van der; Essen, H. van; Busschers, F.S.; Stoel, P.; Plicht, H. van der

    2011-01-01

    Woerden, in the central part of The Netherlands, is a locality where the amateur-archaeologist Pieter Stoel collected several thousands of fossil mammalian remains of Pleistocene age. The stratigraphically-mixed assemblage includes a broad variety of taxa including species that are indicative of

  12. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 68825 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, National Park Service, Coolidge, AZ; Correction AGENCY: National... Interior, National Park Service, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument, Coolidge, AZ. The human remains and... notice are the sole responsibility of the Superintendent, Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. This...

  14. Female College Presidents: Characteristics to Become and Remain Chief Executive Officer of a College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Arlette

    2012-01-01

    Through an ethnographic approach, the perceptions of female college presidents from the northeastern region of the United States regarding leadership styles and the characteristics to become and remain the chief executive officer of a college were investigated. Six presidents from various types of four-year colleges were interviewed. Themes,…

  15. Point Cloud Metrics for Separating Standing Archaeological Remains and Low Vegetation in ALS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, R.; Nuninger, L.

    2013-07-01

    The integration of Airborne Laser Scanning survey into archaeological research and cultural heritage management has substantially added to our knowledge of archaeological remains in forested areas, and is changing our understanding of how these landscapes functioned in the past. While many types of archaeological remains manifest as micro-topography, several important classes of features commonly appear as standing remains. The identification of these remains is important for archaeological prospection surveys based on ALS data, and typically represent structures from the Roman, Medieval and early Modern periods. Standing structures in mixed scenes with vegetation are not well addressed by standard classification approaches developed to identify bare earth (terrain), individual trees or plot characteristics, or buildings (roofed structures). In this paper we propose an approach to the identification of these structures in the point cloud based on multi-scale measures of local density, roughness, and normal orientation. We demonstrate this approach using discrete-return ALS data collected in the Franche-Comte region of France at a nominal point density of 8 pts/m2, a resolution which, in coming years, will become increasingly available to archaeologists through government supported mapping schemes.

  16. A Drosophila Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Uncouples snRNP Biogenesis Functions of Survival Motor Neuron from Locomotion and Viability Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Praveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The spinal muscular atrophy (SMA protein, survival motor neuron (SMN, functions in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. SMN has also been implicated in tissue-specific functions; however, it remains unclear which of these is important for the etiology of SMA. Smn null mutants display larval lethality and show significant locomotion defects as well as reductions in minor-class spliceosomal snRNAs. Despite these reductions, we found no appreciable defects in the splicing of mRNAs containing minor-class introns. Transgenic expression of low levels of either wild-type or an SMA patient-derived form of SMN rescued the larval lethality and locomotor defects; however, snRNA levels were not restored. Thus, the snRNP biogenesis function of SMN is not a major contributor to the phenotype of Smn null mutants. These findings have major implications for SMA etiology because they show that SMN's role in snRNP biogenesis can be uncoupled from the organismal viability and locomotor defects.

  17. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D. Ambers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Results Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin, and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA. The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian. Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. Conclusions This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that

  18. More comprehensive forensic genetic marker analyses for accurate human remains identification using massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Angie D; Churchill, Jennifer D; King, Jonathan L; Stoljarova, Monika; Gill-King, Harrell; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-10-17

    Although the primary objective of forensic DNA analyses of unidentified human remains is positive identification, cases involving historical or archaeological skeletal remains often lack reference samples for comparison. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers an opportunity to provide biometric data in such cases, and these cases provide valuable data on the feasibility of applying MPS for characterization of modern forensic casework samples. In this study, MPS was used to characterize 140-year-old human skeletal remains discovered at a historical site in Deadwood, South Dakota, United States. The remains were in an unmarked grave and there were no records or other metadata available regarding the identity of the individual. Due to the high throughput of MPS, a variety of biometric markers could be typed using a single sample. Using MPS and suitable forensic genetic markers, more relevant information could be obtained from a limited quantity and quality sample. Results were obtained for 25/26 Y-STRs, 34/34 Y SNPs, 166/166 ancestry-informative SNPs, 24/24 phenotype-informative SNPs, 102/102 human identity SNPs, 27/29 autosomal STRs (plus amelogenin), and 4/8 X-STRs (as well as ten regions of mtDNA). The Y-chromosome (Y-STR, Y-SNP) and mtDNA profiles of the unidentified skeletal remains are consistent with the R1b and H1 haplogroups, respectively. Both of these haplogroups are the most common haplogroups in Western Europe. Ancestry-informative SNP analysis also supported European ancestry. The genetic results are consistent with anthropological findings that the remains belong to a male of European ancestry (Caucasian). Phenotype-informative SNP data provided strong support that the individual had light red hair and brown eyes. This study is among the first to genetically characterize historical human remains with forensic genetic marker kits specifically designed for MPS. The outcome demonstrates that substantially more genetic information can be obtained from

  19. Survival paths through the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    when the information is high-dimensional e.g. when there are many thousands of genes or markers. In these situations machine learning methods such as the random forest can still be applied and provide reasonable prediction accuracy. The main focus in this talk is the performance of random forest...... in particular when the response is three-dimensional. In a diagnostic study of inflammatory bowel disease three classes of patients have to be diagnosed based on microarray gene-expression data. The performance of random forest is compared on a probability scale and on a classification scale to elastic net....... In survival analysis with competing risks I present an extension of random forest using time-dependent pseudo-values to build event risk prediction models. This approach is evaluated with data from Copenhagen stroke study. Further, I will explain how to use the R-package "pec" to evaluate random forests using...

  20. Targeted p16Ink4a epimutation causes tumorigenesis and reduces survival in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Da-Hai; Waterland, Robert A.; Zhang, Pumin; Schady, Deborah; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Guan, Yongtao; Gadkari, Manasi; Shen, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has long been viewed as a genetic disease; however, epigenetic silencing as the result of aberrant promoter DNA methylation is frequently associated with cancer development, suggesting an epigenetic component to the disease. Nonetheless, it has remained unclear whether an epimutation (an aberrant change in epigenetic regulation) can induce tumorigenesis. Here, we exploited a functionally validated cis-acting regulatory element and devised a strategy to induce developmentally regulated ...

  1. MRI survival guide; MRT Basiskurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoza, J. [Alta Imaging Medical Group and Magnetic Imaging Affiliates, Berkeley, CA (United States); Herfkens, R.J. [eds.] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center

    1999-07-01

    The book is a German translation of an American textbook with the original title ''MRI Survival Guide'' and is intended to serve as an introductory guide for beginners or a reference book for quick information. Readers will find information on the fundamentals of the technology and methodology of MRI as well as all details of relevance to practice in a precise and easy-to-grasp arrangement, covering all anatomic areas of interest, illustrations and descriptions of characteristic signs of pathologic processes, high-quality and unusually large-sized diagnostic pictures, a modern didactic concept for quick orientiation, including surveys, tables, and reproductions for visualisation of contents. (orig./CB) [German] Praktisch jeder Mediziner wird im Laufe seiner Berufstaetigkeit mit der MRT konfrontiert - unabhaengig davon ob in der Radiologie, Orthopaedie, Gynaekologie, Chirurgie, Neurologie oder sonstigen Fachrichtung. Das Buch ist eine Uebersetzung eines amerikanischen Lehrbuches mit dem Originaltitel ''MRI Survival Guide'' und will eine wesentliche Erleichterung als 'Ueberlebenshandbuch fuer die MRT' bieten: - Darstellung aller relevanten Grundlagen zu Technik, verschiedenen Sequenzen und Methodik der MRT - knapp und mit maximalem Praxisbezug - Beruecksichtigung aller moeglichen Untersuchungsregionen und strukturierte Orientierung daran (Gehirn, Wirbelsaeule, Kopf/Nacken, Brustkorb, Bauch, Becken, Muskel-Skelett-Bereich) - Illustration und Beschreibung der charakteristischen Erscheinungsmerkmale aller haeufigen pathologischen Prozesse im MRT, inklusive direkt umsetzbarer differentialdiagnostischer Abgrenzungskriterien - hochwertiges und aussergewoehnlich gross dimensioniertes Bildmaterial - modernes, didaktisches Konzept fuer die rasche Orientierung mit vielen Uebersichten, Tabellen und Abbildungen zur Visualisierung der Inhalte, Praxistips und Aufzeigen von Fehlermoeglichkeiten - zum Einstieg, zur Rekapitulation

  2. Identification of human remains from the Second World War mass graves uncovered in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Hadžić Metjahić, Negra; Čakar, Jasmina; Džehverović, Mirela; Dogan, Serkan; Ferić, Elma; Džijan, Snježana; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Madžar, Tomislav; Rod, Eduard; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-06-01

    To present the results obtained in the identification of human remains from World War II found in two mass graves in Ljubuški, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Samples from 10 skeletal remains were collected. Teeth and femoral fragments were collected from 9 skeletons and only a femoral fragment from 1 skeleton. DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using an optimized phenol/chloroform DNA extraction procedure. All samples required a pre-extraction decalcification with EDTA and additional post-extraction DNA purification using filter columns. Additionally, DNA from 12 reference samples (buccal swabs from potential living relatives) was extracted using the Qiagen DNA extraction method. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex ESI kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, and PowerPlex Y23 was used to amplify 23 Y chromosomal STR loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using a standard statistical approach. A total of 10 samples were processed, 9 teeth and 1 femoral fragment. Nine of 10 samples were profiled using autosomal STR loci, which resulted in useful DNA profiles for 9 skeletal remains. A comparison of established victims' profiles against a reference sample database yielded 6 positive identifications. DNA analysis may efficiently contribute to the identification of remains even seven decades after the end of the World War II. The significant percentage of positively identified remains (60%), even when the number of the examined possible living relatives was relatively small (only 12), proved the importance of cooperation with the members of the local community, who helped to identify the closest missing persons' relatives and collect referent samples from them.

  3. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family history of colorectal cancer and its impact on survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer: results from NCCTG Trial N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Knodell, Claire L; Foster, Nathan R; Sargent, Daniel J; Limburg, Paul J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Smyrk, Thomas C; Sinicrope, Frank A; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Goldberg, Richard M; Alberts, Steven R

    2017-02-01

    Family history of colon cancer often portends increased risk of disease development; however, the prognostic significance of family history related to disease and survival outcomes is unclear. To investigate the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients, a prospective cohort of 1,935 patients with resected stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (N0147), comparing the standard of care FOLFOX to FOLFOX with cetuximab, was studied. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire on family history and were followed every 6 months until death or 5 years after randomization. We examined the endpoints of disease-free survival (DFS), time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), comparing patients with a positive versus negative family history of colorectal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients with a positive family history were 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-1.16] for DFS, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76-1.16) for TTR, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74-1.15) for OS (all adjusted P>0.47). A non-significant trend toward improved DFS (P=0.17; adjusted P=0.34) was observed when 2 or more relatives were affected as compared to 0 relatives (multivariate HR: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45-1.15), whereas subjects with histories of 0 or 1 affected relatives had similar DFS (multivariate HR for 1 vs. 0: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81-1.24). Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored. The only significant interaction was for deficient MMR (dMMR) and first-degree relatives with a family history of colorectal cancer (0 vs. 1 vs. 2+ relatives) for a benefit on OS (univariate P=0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for other factors (P=0.029). Among patients with stage III resected colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX, a family history of colorectal cancer did not significantly impact DFS, TTR, or OS outcomes, with the exception of

  5. Family history of colorectal cancer and its impact on survival in patients with resected stage III colon cancer: results from NCCTG Trial N0147 (Alliance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson-Knodell, Claire L.; Foster, Nathan R.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Limburg, Paul J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Sinicrope, Frank A.; Jahagirdar, Balkrishna; Goldberg, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Family history of colon cancer often portends increased risk of disease development; however, the prognostic significance of family history related to disease and survival outcomes is unclear. Methods To investigate the relationship between family history of colorectal cancer and survival outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients, a prospective cohort of 1,935 patients with resected stage III colon cancer enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (N0147), comparing the standard of care FOLFOX to FOLFOX with cetuximab, was studied. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire on family history and were followed every 6 months until death or 5 years after randomization. Results We examined the endpoints of disease-free survival (DFS), time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), comparing patients with a positive versus negative family history of colorectal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients with a positive family history were 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78–1.16] for DFS, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.76–1.16) for TTR, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.74–1.15) for OS (all adjusted P>0.47). A non-significant trend toward improved DFS (P=0.17; adjusted P=0.34) was observed when 2 or more relatives were affected as compared to 0 relatives (multivariate HR: 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45–1.15), whereas subjects with histories of 0 or 1 affected relatives had similar DFS (multivariate HR for 1 vs. 0: 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81–1.24). Interactions of the molecular factors KRAS, BRAF, and MMR with family history were also explored. The only significant interaction was for deficient MMR (dMMR) and first-degree relatives with a family history of colorectal cancer (0 vs. 1 vs. 2+ relatives) for a benefit on OS (univariate P=0.001), which remained significant after adjusting for other factors (P=0.029). Conclusions Among patients with stage III resected colon cancer treated with adjuvant FOLFOX, a family history of colorectal cancer did not significantly impact DFS

  6. Relation between hypermetabolism, cachexia, and survival in cancer patients: a prospective study in 390 cancer patients before initiation of anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Clara; Jouinot, Anne; Durand, Jean-Philippe; Neveux, Nathalie; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Huillard, Olivier; Alexandre, Jérôme; Cynober, Luc; Goldwasser, François

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cachexia is a major cause of death in cancer patients. The role of hypermetabolism in cancer cachexia remains unclear.Objective: We studied the relation between resting energy expenditure (REE), the estimated energy balance, clinical and biological markers of cachexia, and survival.Design: REE was measured with the use of indirect calorimetry in cancer patients before the initiation of anticancer therapies. Hypermetabolic, normometabolic, and hypometabolic patients were identified with the use of Boothby's standard. Weight loss, performance status (PS), C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, the nutritional risk index, daily energy intake, energy balance (equal to daily energy intakes minus the REE), and survival were recorded.Results: Of 390 enrolled patients, 49% of subjects were hypermetabolic, 30% of subjects were normometabolic, and 21% of subjects were hypometabolic. Mean daily energy intakes did not differ significantly between the 3 groups. Hypermetabolic patients, compared with normometabolic patients, were more likely to have a negative energy balance [45% compared with 32%, respectively; OR: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.91); P = 0.024], weight loss >5% [48% compared with 34%, respectively; OR: 1.83 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.04); P = 0.013], PS ≥2 [40% compared with 29%, respectively; OR: 1.70 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.88); P = 0.038], and CRP concentrations ≥10 mg/L [52% compared with 33%, respectively; OR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.33, 3.66); P = 0.001]. In metastatic patients, compared with normometabolism, hypermetabolism was associated with a reduced median survival [14.6 compared with 21.4 mo, respectively; OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.17); P = 0.044].Conclusions: Hypermetabolism is correlated with clinical and biological markers of cancer cachexia and is associated with a shorter survival in metastatic cancer patients. The development of therapeutic strategies that aim to blunt hypermetabolism appears warranted. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as

  7. Cabazitaxel Remains Active in Patients Progressing After Docetaxel Followed by Novel Androgen Receptor Pathway Targeted Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nakouzi, Nader; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Albigès, Laurence; Wang, Chris; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Gross-Goupil, Marine; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Guillot, Aline; Gajda, Dorota; Massard, Christophe; Gleave, Martin; Fizazi, Karim; Loriot, Yohann

    2015-08-01

    Cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate (AA), and enzalutamide have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) following docetaxel chemotherapy. Whether taxanes and next-generation androgen receptor (AR) axis inhibitors are cross-resistant or not is a subject of debate. To evaluate the antitumour activity of cabazitaxel in mCRPC pretreated with abiraterone or enzalutamide. The antitumour activity of cabazitaxel was assessed in patients with mCRPC and progressive disease after treatment with docetaxel and AA. In parallel, cabazitaxel antitumour activity was studied in enzalutamide-resistant models. Changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and progression-free survival were used to determine the activity of cabazitaxel treatment. Cell proliferation, immunofluorescence, and AR transactivation assay were used in enzalutamide-resistant models. A total of 79 patients who had progressive mCRPC after docetaxel (median: 8 cycles; range: 4-12 mo), and AA (median: 4.8 mo; range:1-55 mo) received cabazitaxel 25mg/m(2) every 3 weeks (median: 6 cycles; range:1-15 cycles). A PSA decline ≥30% was achieved in 48 patients (62%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51-73), and a decline ≥50% was achieved in 28 patients (35%; 95% CI, 25-47). The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.4 and 10.9 mo, respectively. In vitro, cabazitaxel decreased cell viability in both enzalutamide-sensitive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells within the same range of concentrations. PC3, an AR-negative cell line, exhibited similar sensitivity to cabazitaxel. Cabazitaxel and AR-pathway inhibitors are not cross-resistant. Preclinical data suggest that cabazitaxel activity does not act mainly through AR axis inhibition. The antitumour activity of cabazitaxel, a chemotherapy agent, was studied in prostate cancer resistant to conventional hormonal therapy and to more recent endocrine therapies (abiraterone or

  8. Survival of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in modified Romanowsky staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Angus; Chan, Wei Yee; Trott, Darren; Hill, Peter B

    2017-08-01

    Stains that are used regularly for patient-side diagnosis to rapidly identify bacterial and fungal infections could become contaminated by common pathogens, such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, during slide immersion. To determine whether the inoculation of S. pseudintermedius into modified Romanowsky type stains (Quick Dip ® ) results in viable bacterial contamination and whether this is influenced by the addition of organic debris (canine hair and skin). A clinical isolate of S. pseudintermedius was inoculated into clean and organically contaminated Quick Dip ® solutions (methanol fixative, eosin, methylene blue), and positive (broth) and negative (bleach) controls. Each solution was tested for the presence of viable bacteria by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) at various time points. Solutions also were examined under high power microscopy to count the number of visible bacteria at each time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was able to survive in the clean and contaminated Quick Dip ® stains for at least one hour, but by 24 h no viable bacteria remained. Survival of the bacteria was not supported in the fixative at any time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius remained visible under high power microscopy for up to 2 weeks in all organically contaminated solutions of the Quick Dip ® set. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius only remains viable in eosin and methylene blue for short periods of time, but the prolonged visibility of dead organisms could theoretically lead to the misdiagnosis of cytology samples. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Improvement of neuromuscular synaptic phenotypes without enhanced survival and motor function in severe spinal muscular atrophy mice selectively rescued in motor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Paez-Colasante

    Full Text Available In the inherited childhood neuromuscular disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, lower motor neuron death and severe muscle weakness result from the reduction of the ubiquitously expressed protein survival of motor neuron (SMN. Although SMA mice recapitulate many features of the human disease, it has remained unclear if their short lifespan and motor weakness are primarily due to cell-autonomous defects in motor neurons. Using Hb9(Cre as a driver, we selectively raised SMN expression in motor neurons in conditional SMAΔ7 mice. Unlike a previous study that used choline acetyltransferase (ChAT(Cre+ as a driver on the same mice, and another report that used Hb9(Cre as a driver on a different line of conditional SMA mice, we found no improvement in survival, weight, motor behavior and presynaptic neurofilament accumulation. However, like in ChAT(Cre+ mice, we detected rescue of endplate size and mitigation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ denervation status. The rescue of endplate size occurred in the absence of an increase in myofiber size, suggesting endplate size is determined by the motor neuron in these animals. Real time-PCR showed that the expression of spinal cord SMN transcript was sharply reduced in Hb9(Cre+ SMA mice relative to ChAT(Cre+ SMA mice. This suggests that our lack of overall phenotypic improvement is most likely due to an unexpectedly poor recombination efficiency driven by Hb9(Cre . Nonetheless, the low levels of SMN were sufficient to rescue two NMJ structural parameters indicating that these motor neuron cell autonomous phenotypes are very sensitive to changes in motoneuronal SMN levels. Our results directly suggest that even those therapeutic interventions with very modest effects in raising SMN in motor neurons may provide mitigation of neuromuscular phenotypes in SMA patients.

  10. Paxillin promotes tumor progression and predicts survival and relapse in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma by microRNA-218 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Lin, Wea-Long; Sung, Wen-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Lee, Huei

    2014-08-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) 16-infected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) differs significantly from non-HPV-infected OCSCC. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HPV-infected OCSCC remains unclear. Paxillin (PXN) has been reported to promote lung tumor progression by miR-218 targeting. In addition, expression of miR-218 has been shown to be reduced by HPV16 E6 in cervical cancer. We thus asked whether PXN can promote tumor progression by E6-reduced miR-218 in OCSCC, especially in HPV-infected OCSCC. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PXN expression increased markedly upon E6-mediated reductions in miR-218, resulting in increased colony formation and invasion capabilities in HPV-infected OCSCC cells. Among tumor specimens, HPV16/18 infection was negatively associated with miR-218 expression and positively associated with PXN expression. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models demonstrated that patients with low-miR-218 tumors or high-PXN tumors exhibited shorter overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) than those with high-miR-218 tumors or low-PXN tumors. Interestingly, HPV-infected patients with low-miR-218, high-PXN tumors and both combinations exhibited the worst OS and RFS compared with patients in their counterparts. These observations in patients were consistent with the findings from the cell model. Therefore, we suggest that PXN might be targeted to suppress tumor progression and consequently to improve outcomes in OCSCC, especially in HPV-infected OCSCC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Human pancreatic cancer-associated stellate cells remain activated after in vivo chemoradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carla Cabrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is characterized by an extensive fibrotic reaction or desmoplasia and complex involvement of the surrounding tumor microenvironment. Pancreatic stellate cells are a key mediator of the pancreatic matrix and they promote progression and invasion of pancreatic cancer by increasing cell proliferation and offering protection against therapeutic interventions. Our study utilizes human tumor-derived pancreatic stellate cells (HTPSCs isolated from fine needle aspirates of pancreatic cancer tissue from patients with locally advanced, unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma before and after treatment with full dose gemcitabine plus concurrent hypo-fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery. We show that HTPSCs survive in vivo chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment and display a more activated phenotype post therapy. These data support the idea that stellate cells play an essential role in supporting and promoting pancreatic cancer and further research is needed to develop novel treatments targeting the pancreatic tumor microenvironment.

  12. Climbing Stairs, Handrail Use, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, J; Rottenberg, Y; Jacobs, J M

    2017-01-01

    Negotiating stairs is identified as a challenging task by older people, and using a handrail to climb stairs is a compensatory gait strategy to overcome mobility difficulties. We examine the association between handrail use to climb stairs at increasing ages, and long term survival. Data were collected by the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study, which is a prospective study of a representative sample from the 1920-1921 birth-cohort living in West Jerusalem. Comprehensive assessment at home in 1990, 1998, and 2005, at ages 70 (n=446), 78 (n=897), and 85 (n=1041) included direct questioning concerning handrail use for climbing stairs. Mortality data were collected from age 70-90. The frequency of handrail use to climb stairs at ages 70, 78, 85 years was 23.1% (n=103/446), 41.0% (n=368/897), and 86.7% (n=903/1041) respectively. Handrail use was associated throughout follow-up with a consistent pattern of negative demographic, functional and medical parameters. Between ages 70-78, 70-90, 78-85, 78-90, and 85-90, survival was significantly lower among subjects using a handrail, with unadjusted mortality Hazard Ratios of HR 1.57 (95%CI, 1.01-2.42), HR 1.65 (95%CI, 1.27-2.14), HR 1.78 (95%CI, 1.41-2.25), HR 1.71 (95%CI, 1.41-2.06), and HR 1.53 (95%CI, 1.01-2.33) respectively. HR's remained significant at all ages after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (gender, education, marital, and financial status), and common medical conditions (ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain), as well as between ages 78-85 and 78-90 after adjusting for functional covariables (self-rated health, physical activity, depression, BMI and ADL difficulties). Using a handrail to climb stairs is increasingly common with rising age, was associated with a negative profile of health parameters and is associated with subsequent mortality.

  13. Properties of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells Surviving Curcumin Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yan, Michael E. Geusz, Roudabeh J. Jamasbi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory agent curcumin can selectively eliminate malignant rather than normal cells. The present study examined the effects of curcumin on the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cell line and characterized a subpopulation surviving curcumin treatments. Cell density was measured after curcumin was applied at concentrations between 10 and 60 μM for 30 hours. Because of the high cell loss at 60 μM, this dose was chosen to select for surviving cells that were then used to establish a new cell line. The resulting line had approximately 20% slower growth than the original LLC cell line and based on ELISA contained less of two markers, NF-κB and ALDH1A, used to identify more aggressive cancer cells. We also injected cells from the original and surviving lines subcutaneously into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice and monitored tumor development over three weeks and found that the curcumin surviving-line remained tumorigenic. Because curcumin has been reported to kill cancer cells more effectively when administered with light, we examined this as a possible way of enhancing the efficacy of curcumin against LLC cells. When LLC cells were exposed to curcumin and light from a fluorescent lamp source, cell loss caused by 20 μM curcumin was enhanced by about 50%, supporting a therapeutic use of curcumin in combination with white light. This study is the first to characterize a curcumin-surviving subpopulation among lung cancer cells. It shows that curcumin at a high concentration either selects for an intrinsically less aggressive cell subpopulation or generates these cells. The findings further support a role for curcumin as an adjunct to traditional chemical or radiation therapy of lung and other cancers.

  14. Impact of beta blockers on epithelial ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Elena S; Karlan, Beth Y; Li, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Stress may promote ovarian cancer progression through mechanisms including autonomic nervous system mediators such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. Beta blockers, used to treat hypertension, block production of these adrenergic hormones, and have been associated with prolonged survival in several malignancies. We sought to determine the association between beta blocker use and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) disease progression and survival. We performed an institutional retrospective review of patients with EOC treated between 1996 and 2006. Patients underwent cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy. Women were considered beta blocker users if these medications were documented on at least two records more than 6 months apart. Statistical tests included Fisher's exact, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression analyses. 248 met inclusion criteria. 68 patients used antihypertensives, and 23 used beta blockers. Median progression-free survival for beta blocker users was 27 months, compared with 17 months for non-users (p=0.05). Similarly, overall disease-specific survival was longer for beta blocker users (56 months) compared with non-users (48 months, p=0.02, hazard ratio=0.56). Multivariate analysis identified beta blocker use as an independent positive prognostic factor, after controlling for age, stage, grade, and cytoreduction status (p=0.03). Overall survival remained longer for beta blocker users (56 months) when compared with hypertensive patients on other medications (34 months) and patients without hypertension (51 months) (p=0.007). In this cohort of patients with EOC, beta blocker use was associated with a 54% reduced chance of death compared with that of non-users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Never smokers with resected lung cancer: different demographics, similar survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Rahouma, Mohamed; Hussein, Mohamed Kamel; Nasar, Abu; Nguyen, Andrew B; Harrison, Sebron; Lee, Benjamin; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K

    2017-11-22

    We sought to examine changes over time in the proportion of never smokers among surgical lung cancer patients and to determine whether smoking history affected survival. We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database. Among never smokers and smokers, demographic and pathological data were compared. Disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analysed. Propensity matching was performed for further comparison of survival in a matched cohort. Among 3232 patients, we identified 718 never smokers (22%), 993 smokers with never smokers increased over time, comprising 26.6% of the cohort after 2007 compared with 16.1% prior thereto (P ≤ 0.001). Never smokers were younger, more likely to be women and Asian, more frequently had adenocarcinoma and lower lobe tumours and were more likely to have pStage I disease. In pStage-matched cohorts, there were no differences in DFS or CSS. Similarly, in propensity-matched groups (498 patients each), there was no difference in 5-year DFS (66% vs 67%, P = 0.661) or in CSS (84% vs 81%, P = 0.350). On univariate analysis of the matched cohort, never smoking status had no effect on DFS (hazard ratio 1.05, P = 0.661) or CSS (hazard ratio 1.16, P = 0.350). The proportion of never smokers undergoing resections for lung cancer is increasing. Never smokers have distinct demographic patterns and tend to be younger women with adenocarcinoma. Despite these differences, stage and propensity-matched never smokers have the same survival as smokers and remain at equal risk for recurrence and death.

  16. Sleep remains disturbed in obstructive sleep apnea patients treated with positive airway pressure: a three-month cohort study using continuous actigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippin, Jon; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven W.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remain sleepy despite positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear but could include persistently disturbed sleep. The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between subjective sleepiness and actigraphic measures of sleep during the first three months of PAP treatment. Methods We enrolled 80 patients with OSA and 50 comparison subjects prior to treatment and observed them through three months of PAP therapy. PAP adherence and presence of residual respiratory events were determined from PAP machine downloads. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and actigraphic data were collected before and at monthly intervals after starting PAP. Results OSA subjects were sleepier and showed a greater degree of sleep disruption by actigraphy at baseline. After three months of PAP, only ESS and number of awakenings normalized, while wake after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency (SE) remained worse in OSA subjects. For OSA subjects, FOSQ improved but never reached the same level as comparison subjects. ESS and FOSQ improved slowly over the study period. Conclusions As a group, OSA patients show actigraphic evidence of persistently disturbed sleep and sleepiness related impairments in day-to-day function after three months of PAP therapy. Improvements in sleepiness evolve over months with more severely affected patients responding quicker. Persistent sleep disruption may partially explain residual sleepiness in some PAP adherent OSA patients. PMID:27810182

  17. Sleep remains disturbed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated with positive airway pressure: a three-month cohort study using continuous actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippin, Jon; Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Some patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remain sleepy despite positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear but could include persistently disturbed sleep. The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between subjective sleepiness and actigraphic measures of sleep during the first three months of PAP treatment. We enrolled 80 patients with OSA and 50 comparison subjects prior to treatment and observed them through three months of PAP therapy. PAP adherence and presence of residual respiratory events were determined from PAP machine downloads. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and actigraphic data were collected before and at monthly intervals after starting PAP. Patients with OSA were sleepier and showed a greater degree of sleep disruption by actigraphy at the baseline. After three months of PAP, only ESS and number of awakenings (AWAKE#) normalized, while wake after sleep onset and sleep efficiency remained worse in patients with OSA. FOSQ was improved in patients with OSA but never reached the same level as that of comparison subjects. ESS and FOSQ improved slowly over the study period. As a group, patients with OSA show actigraphic evidence of persistently disturbed sleep and sleepiness-related impairments in day-to-day function after three months of PAP therapy. Improvements in sleepiness evolve over months with more severely affected patients responding quicker. Persistent sleep disruption may partially explain residual sleepiness in some PAP-adherent OSA patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Pre-diagnosis diet and survival after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playdon, Mary C; Nagle, Christina M; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; Ferrucci, Leah M; Protani, Melinda M; Carter, Jonathan; Hyde, Simon E; Neesham, Deborah; Nicklin, James L; Mayne, Susan T; Webb, Penelope M

    2017-06-06

    The relationship between diet and survival after ovarian cancer diagnosis is unclear as a result of a limited number of studies and inconsistent findings. We examined the association between pre-diagnostic diet and overall survival in a population-based cohort (n=811) of Australian women diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer between 2002 and 2005. Diet was measured by validated food frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained up to 31 August 2014 via medical record review and Australian National Death Index linkage. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, controlling for diagnosis age, tumour stage, grade and subtype, residual disease, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, marital status, and energy intake. We observed improved survival with highest compared with lowest quartile of fibre intake (hazard ratio (HR)=0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.90, P-trend=0.002). There was a suggestion of better survival for women with highest compared with lowest intake category of green leafy vegetables (HR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99), fish (HR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.57-0.95), poly- to mono-unsaturated fat ratio (HR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.59-0.98), and worse survival with higher glycaemic index (HR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.65, P-trend=0.03). The associations we observed between healthy components of diet pre-diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival raise the possibility that dietary choices after diagnosis may improve survival.

  19. Differences in survival associated with processed and with nonprocessed red meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Bottai, Matteo; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    High red meat consumption is associated with an increased mortality risk. This association is partly explained by the negative effect of processed meat consumption, which is widely established. The role of nonprocessed meat is unclear. The objective was to examine the combined association of processed and nonprocessed meat consumption with survival in a Swedish large prospective cohort. In a population-based cohort of 74,645 Swedish men (40,089) and women (34,556), red meat consumption was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. We estimated differences in survival [15th percentile differences (PDs), differences in the time by which the first 15% of the cohort died] according to levels of total red meat and combined levels of processed and nonprocessed red meat consumption. During 15 y of follow-up (January 1998 to December 2012), we documented 16,683 deaths (6948 women; 9735 men). Compared with no consumption, consumption of red meat >100 g/d was progressively associated with shorter survival--up to 2 y for participants consuming an average of 300 g/d (15th PD: -21 mo; 95% CI: -31, -10). Compared with no consumption, high consumption of processed red meat (100 g/d) was associated with shorter survival (15th PD: -9 mo; 95% CI: -16, -2). High and moderate intakes of nonprocessed red meat were associated with shorter survival only when accompanied by a high intake of processed red meat. We found that high total red meat consumption was associated with progressively shorter survival, largely because of the consumption of processed red meat. Consumption of nonprocessed red meat alone was not associated with shorter survival. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index Predicts Survival in Elderly Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients with Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Yacong; Wang, Kunlun; Liu, Yang; You, Jie; Cui, Han; Zhu, Yiwei; Lu, Quanjun; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The impact of nutritional status on survival among elderly esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients undergoing radiotherapy is unclear. In this study, we aimed at validating the performance of the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) in predicting overall survival time in elderly ESCC patients with radiotherapy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 239 ESCC patients aged 60 and over admitted consecutively from January 2008 to November 2014 in the Department of Radiotherapy, Henan Tumor Hospital (Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University), Zhengzhou, Henan, China. All patients were subjected to nutritional screening using GNRI, and were followed for the occurrence of lymphatic node metastasis, radiation complication and mortality. The Kaplan-Meier method with Log-rank test was used to estimate survival curves. Univariable Cox regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with overall survival time. Among the 239 patients, 184 patients (76.9%) took no nutritional risk, 32 patients (13.4%) took moderate risk of malnutrition, and 23 patients (9.7%) took a high risk of malnutrition. Univariable Cox regression showed that both high nutritional risk group and moderate nutritional risk group were significantly less likely to survive than no nutritional risk patients (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.688, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.019-2.798 for moderate risk group, and HR = 2.699, 95% CI = 1.512-4.819 for high risk group, respectively). The GNRI is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival time in elderly ESCC patients with radiotherapy. A GNRI ≤98 can be suggested as an indicator of surviving less.

  1. Ñuagapua (Chaco, Bolivia): Evidence for the latest occurrence of megafauna in association with human remains in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, Mauro; Della Fazia, Jacopo; Paredes Rios, Freddy; Tito, Giuseppe

    2012-02-01

    Quebrada (stream) Ñuagapua, which is located in the Bolivian Chaco in the Andean foothill generates an alluvial fan many kilometres in length. Three major lithostratigraphic units characterise the sedimentary sequence in this region. The lower and upper parts are formed from predominantly sandy sediments that demonstrate rapid growth of the alluvial fan, associated with an intense erosion of barren slopes. The intermediate unit consists of forest soil that seals deep channels containing bones together with a forest association. The remains of a wooden plank, dated 140 yr BP, were found at the top of this soil, which laterally contains charcoals, ash layers and large charred trunks, sometimes in growth positions. Roots localised in this layer also sustain a number of very large still living trees. These findings are evidence of a recent phase of alluvial fan sedimentation resulting from slope erosion activated by forest clearing. The Chaco has been intensively settled for agricultural and pastoral purposes since the 18th century. The lower unit contains a hearth, scattered burnt bones, flint flakes and ceramic artefacts. Radiometric dating indicates a middle Holocene human occupation, between ca. 7.79 and 6.65 ka cal yr BP. We suggest that the sedimentary unit is associated with intense soil erosion processes triggered by early Neolithic deforestation. A sandy layer of the lower unit, slightly above the archaeological remains, contains transported bones of megafaunal elements that apparently represent the South American latest occurrence of some extinct taxa. The mammal association is highly heterogeneous, containing species living in aquatic, forest, prairie and savannah environments from a very specific layer that represents the almost simultaneous burial of animals killed slightly up-valley. This anomalous association is probably the result of human impact as opening the forest favoured the introduction of open environment fauna that had previously survived on

  2. Remaining Technical Challenges and Future Plans for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Bruckner, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of Oil-Free technologies (foil gas bearings, solid lubricants and advanced analysis and predictive modeling tools) to advanced turbomachinery has been underway for several decades. During that time, full commercialization has occurred in aircraft air cycle machines, turbocompressors and cryocoolers and ever-larger microturbines. Emerging products in the automotive sector (turbochargers and superchargers) indicate that high volume serial production of foil bearings is imminent. Demonstration of foil bearings in APU s and select locations in propulsion gas turbines illustrates that such technology also has a place in these future systems. Foil bearing designs, predictive tools and advanced solid lubricants have been reported that can satisfy anticipated requirements but a major question remains regarding the scalability of foil bearings to ever larger sizes to support heavier rotors. In this paper, the technological history, primary physics, engineering practicalities and existing experimental and experiential database for scaling foil bearings are reviewed and the major remaining technical challenges are identified.

  3. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Jarillo

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. Material and methods: A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Results: Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. Conclusions: The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  4. Study of sexual dimorphism of Malaysian crania: an important step in identification of the skeletal remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser; Alias, Aspalilah; Swarhib, Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Siti Noorain; Das, Srijit

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering. Results showed that all parameters were significantly higher in males than in females except for orbital height of the left eye by independent t test (Pforensic tool for identification of unknown crania. PMID:28713610

  5. Study of sexual dimorphism of Malaysian crania: an important step in identification of the skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdelnasser; Alias, Aspalilah; Nor, Faridah Mohd; Swarhib, Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Siti Noorain; Das, Srijit

    2017-06-01

    Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering. Results showed that all parameters were significantly higher in males than in females except for orbital height of the left eye by independent t test (Ppopulation. The results of the present study can be used as a forensic tool for identification of unknown crania.

  6. Remaining inconsistencies with solar neutrinos: can spin flavour precession provide a clue?

    CERN Document Server

    Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A few inconsistencies remain after it has been ascertained that LMA is the dominant solution to the solar neutrino problem: why is the SuperKamiokande spectrum flat and why is the Chlorine rate prediction over two standard deviations above the data. There also remains the ananswered and important question of whether the active neutrino flux is constant or time varying. We propose a scenario involving spin flavour precession to sterile neutrinos with three active flavours that predicts a flat SuperK spectrum and a Chlorine rate prediction more consistent with data. We also argue that running the Borexino experiment during the next few years may provide a very important clue as to the possible variability of the solar neutrino flux.

  7. DNA analyses of the remains of the Prince Branciforte Barresi family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, O; Martínez-Labarga, C; Favaro, M; Frezza, D; Mallegni, F

    2001-01-01

    The five skeletons found buried in the church of Militello di Catania, Sicily, were tentatively identified by morphological analysis and historical reports as the remains of Prince Branciforte Barresi, two of his children, his brother and another juvenile member of the family (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries). In order to attempt to clarify the degree of relationships of the five skeletons, sex testing and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of the hypervariable segments I and II (HV1 and HV2) of control region were performed. Moreover, the 9 bp-deletion marker of region V (COII/tRNAlys) was examined. Molecular genetic analyses were consistent with historical expectations, although they did not directly demonstrate that these are in fact the remains of the Prince and his relatives, due to the impossibility of obtaining DNA from living maternal relatives of the Prince.

  8. "Why we stay": immigrants' motivations for remaining in communities impacted by anti-immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Lewis Valentine, Jessa; Padilla, Brian

    2013-07-01

    Although restrictive immigration policy is intended to reduce incentives for unauthorized immigrants to remain in the United States, many immigrants remain in their U.S. community despite the anti-immigration climate surrounding them. This study explores motivations shaping immigrants' intentions to stay in Arizona after passage of Senate Bill 1070 in 2010, one of the most restrictive immigration policies in recent decades. We conducted three focus groups in a large metropolitan city in Arizona with Mexican immigrant parents (N = 25). Themes emerging from the focus groups described multiple and interlocking personal, family and community, and contemporary sociopolitical motivations to stay in their community, and suggest that some important motivating factors have evolved as a result of immigrants' changing environment. Implications for research and social policy reform are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Constant negotiating: managing work-related musculoskeletal disorders while remaining at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Young, Joanne; Solberg, Shirley; Gaudine, Alice

    2014-02-01

    We used grounded theory to explore processes and strategies used by workers affected by work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) while they remained in the workplace, and we developed a theory to describe the overall process. Participants included 25 workers affected by WMSDs who were currently employed in various workplaces in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The theoretical model has five main phases: (a) becoming concerned, (b) getting medical help, (c) dealing with the workplace, (d) making adjustments to lifestyle, and (e) taking charge, each with separate subphases. Constant negotiating was the core variable that explained the overall process, with workers engaged in negotiations with others in occupational, health, and social contexts. Using a two-dimensional figure, we illustrate the negotiation strategies workers used. We discuss implications for health care, workplaces, education, and research for creating a culture of understanding and respect for injured workers who wish to remain working after developing WMSDs.

  10. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  11. Case Study of Remaining Service Life Assessment of a Cooling Water Intake Concrete Structure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Darmawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of remaining service life of a cooling water intake concrete structure (CWICS subjected to corrosion due to chloride attacks. Field and laboratory tests were performed to determine the current existing condition of the structure. Both destructive and nondestructive tests were employed to obtain the parameter needed for the assessment. Based on the current condition and test results, structural analysis was carried out and the remaining safety factor of CWICS was determined. From the analysis, it was found that most concrete elements of CWICS had safety factor greater than unity and might fulfil its intended service life up to the year 2033. However, fewer elements require immediate strengthening to extend their service life.

  12. Development of remaining wall thickness measurement system for boiler wall tube using gamma scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durongsak, K.; Yenjai, C.; Rassame, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the General Monte Carlo N-Particle version 5 (MCNP5) simulation of the measuring system for the remaining thickness of the wall tube using gamma scattering technique is performed to investigate the applicability of this technique and to find the optimum geometrical setup for the experimental setup. The numerical results show that the optimal geometry condition to provide the highest ratio between the gamma flux changes per thickness variation, namely, the measurement sensitivity, is the alignment of the source incidence angle of 30 degree and detector scattering angle of 30 degrees. Sequentially, the preliminary experiment of thickness measurement system for the tube using the gamma scattering technique is conducted based on the selected geometrical test setup by the simulation. It is found that the experimental results have generally a good agreement with the calculated results. Conclusively, it is suggested that the gamma scattering technique has a potential method to measure the remaining wall thickness in the boiler wall tube.

  13. Location of Ancient Building Remains by Geophysical Surveys in the Bogoroditsky Nunnery of Kazan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepak, Z.

    2003-04-01

    In the beginning of the 20th cent., several cathedrals, towers and fence of the Bogoroditsky Nunnery, an architectural monument of the 18-19th cent., were destroyed. However, some attempts to rebuild the nunnery have been made in the recent years. For this purpose, transient electromagnetic sounding, using the equipment ImpulseAuto M-1/0-20, was conducted in 2000-02 to locate the remains of ancient buildings in the cultural layer. The resulting vertical sections of total electric conduction S(H) along the survey lines revealed the former position of the Our Lady Church, Candlemas Day Church, Trinity Cathedral, Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan (COLK), and of some towers and walls. Archaeological excavations revealed the remains of a stone apse of the COLK's eastern part. Preserved drawings permitted the precise location of the Cathedral. These data will be used for the minimising further excavations and in engineering and restoration works.

  14. Spectral analysis of pharmaceutical formulations prepared according to ancient recipes in comparison with old museum remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, M Cristina; Baraldi, C; Freguglia, G; Baraldi, P

    2011-10-01

    A study of the composition of the remains of ancient ointments from museums was undertaken to enable understanding of the preparation techniques. Comparison of ancient recipes from different historical periods and spectroscopic characteristics of inorganic and/or organic remains recovered in museum vessels enabled preparation of ancient pharmaceutical-cosmetic formulations. Farmacopea Augustana by Occo was one the most important books studied for the 14 formulations prepared in the laboratory. Three formulations are discussed in detail and raw materials and new preparations were proposed for ozone ageing. The most important micro Raman results are discussed. The spectra of the raw materials lipids, beeswax, and resins are discussed; beeswax and pig suet (axŭngia) Raman spectra were found to be similar, but different from those of the aged oils. SERS was applied to ancient ointments and galbanum and the Raman spectra are reported and discussed for the first time.

  15. Administration of the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor etodolac prolongs cardiac allograft survival in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Masahide; Yoshimura, Rikio; Hase, Taro; Chargui, Jamel; Yoshimura, Norio; Touraine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    Etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. COX-2 is a key factor in the progression of inflammation. Although inflammation is an essential pathologic feature of cardiac allograft rejection, the role of COX-2 in this process remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of COX and the effects of etodolac in a mouse cardiac allograft model. Balb/c mice (H-2d) were used as recipients and C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice as heart donors. Heart function was evaluated daily after transplantation by regular abdominal palpation of the heart and by laparotomy in cases where the beating became weak. Rejection was defined as total cessation of cardiac muscle contraction. COX-2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Cardiac isograft was well tolerated (>150 days, n=5), while non-treated cardiac allograft was rapidly rejected (mean 10.9±2.4, n=7). In the etodolac-treated cardiac allograft (10 mg/kg/day by hypodermic injection), survival was extended to 18.53±2.1 days (n=7). The necrotic area and the grade of COX-2 immunostaining were more significantly reduced in the etodolac-treated cardiac allograft than in the non-treated cardiac allograft at day 14. These results indicate that etodolac contributes to protection against rejection after heart transplantation. Etodolac could therefore be used to suppress graft rejection by means of its anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. Radiological assessment of the skeletal remains from Hiraizumi, Japan: review of results from the 1950 investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Akio; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Tarusawa, Teruo; Ehara, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Scientific investigations on the skeletal remains of four generations of the Fujiwara clan enshrined at the Chusonji World Heritage Site were carried out in March 1950. Although an official report on this investigation was published at the time, it did not merit much public attention. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe the radiological aspects of the investigation, which may be of interest in the context of eleventh and twelfth century Japanese history.

  17. Analysis of Subfossil Molecular Remains of Purple Sulfur Bacteria in a Lake Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Coolen, Marco J. L.; Overmann, Jörg

    1998-01-01

    Molecular remains of purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were detected in Holocene sediment layers of a meromictic salt lake (Mahoney Lake, British Columbia, Canada). The carotenoid okenone and bacteriophaeophytin a were present in sediments up to 11,000 years old. Okenone is specific for only a few species of Chromatiaceae, including Amoebobacter purpureus, which presently predominates in the chemocline bacterial community of the lake. With a primer set specific for Chromatiaceae in combi...

  18. Coastal structural remains on the east coast of India: Evidence of maritime activities and their significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    in relation to the maritime history of the east coast of India. Keywords: Coastal structures, Ancient ports, Maritime activities, Structural remains, East coast of India. Introduction The Indian Peninsula has noticed a chain of development of seaports... number of ancient ports of India were located at the mouth of rivers and in case of lagoons at the outlets to the sea, where cargo can be handled easily and vessels can be anchored properly. Further, to corroborate the fact, the ancient Indian text...

  19. Optimization of Aeroengine Shop Visit Decisions Based on Remaining Useful Life and Stochastic Repair Time

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Cai; Xin Li; Xi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Considering the wide application of condition-based maintenance in aeroengine maintenance practice, it becomes possible for aeroengines to carry out their preventive maintenance in just-in-time (JIT) manner by reasonably planning their shop visits (SVs). In this study, an approach is proposed to make aeroengine SV decisions following the concept of JIT. Firstly, a state space model (SSM) for aeroengine based on exhaust gas temperature margin is developed to predict the remaining useful life (...

  20. Methods for Predicting Remaining Service Life of Power Transformers and Their Components

    OpenAIRE

    Badune, J; Vītoliņa, S; Maskaļonoks, V

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the overview of methods for prediction of remaining service life of power transformers and the analysis of possibility to apply these methods to transformers in power system in Latvia. Particular attention is paid to the methodology for the analysis of transformer components since due to statistical data of faults this issue is topical for transformers in Latvia. Calculations, performed for 4 power transformers, are presented as a case study.