WorldWideScience

Sample records for survival rates increase

  1. Increasing Calcium Oxide (Cao) to Accelerate Moulting and Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Erlando, Gito; ', Rusliadi; Mulyadi,

    2016-01-01

    The research about the increasing Calcium Oxide (CaO) to accelerate moulting and survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was conducted from Agustus until September 2015 at Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Instalasi Pembenihan Udang (IPU) Gelung, Situbondo Provinsi Jawa Timur. The purpose of this research was to investigate optimum doses calcium oxide to accelerate moulting and the survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vannamei shrimp with size PL25 were used in...

  2. Effect of increased ovulation rate on embryo and foetal survival as a model for selection by ovulation rate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection for ovulation rate in prolific species has not improved litter size, due to an increase in prenatal mortality, with most mortality observed in the foetal period. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and timing of embryo and early foetal survival in females with high ovulation rate using hormonal treatment as a model for selection by ovulation rate. Two groups of females (treated and untreated were used. Treated females were injected with 50 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin 48 h before mating. Females were slaughtered at 18 d of gestation. Ovulation rate (OR, number of implanted embryos (IE, number of live foetuses at 12 and 18 d (LF12 and LF18, respectively were recorded. In addition, embryo survival (ES=IE/OR, foetal survival at 18 d of gestation (FSLF18=LF18/IE, foetal survival between 12 and 18 d of gestation (FSLF18/LF12=LF18/LF12 and prenatal survival (PSLF18=LF18/OR were estimated. For each female, the mean and variability of the weight for live foetuses (LFWm and LFWv, respectively and their placentas (LFPWm and LFPWv, respectively were calculated. Treated females had a higher ovulation rate (+3.02 ova than untreated females, with a probability of 0.99. An increase in the differences (D between treated and untreated females was observed from implantation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.33, –0.70 and –1.28 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. These differences had a low accuracy and the probability that treated females would have a lower number of foetuses also increased throughout gestation (0.60, 0.70 and 0.86 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. According to the previous results for OR and LF18, treated females showed a lower survival rate from ovulation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.12, P=0.98 for PSLF18. Treated females also had lower embryo and foetal survival (D=–0.10 and P=0.94 for ES and D=–0.08 and P=0.93 for FSLF18. Main differences in foetal survival appeared from 12 to 18 d of gestation (D=–0

  3. Increased rate of survival in Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats treated with the new immunomodulator Pidotimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, R; Condorelli, F; Girardello, R; Uslenghi, C; Chisari, G; di Mauro, M; Speciale, A M; Meroni, P L; Nicoletti, F

    1992-01-01

    Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (type III ATCC) rapidly develop an acute form of experimental lobar pneumonia (ELP) with death of 80-90% of the animals by 6 days after the infection. Prophylactic treatment of these animals with the novel immunomodulator Pidotimod, at the dose of 25 mg/kg bw, significantly increased their rate of survival as compared to the control group (50 vs. 90% respectively). Recovery from the infection appeared definitive since all the Pidotimod-treated survivors were alive and in good condition at the end of the observation period (45 days post infection). Prophylactic treatment with higher or lower doses of the drug was ineffective. Therapy with Pidotimod was not effective. This preliminary study suggests that Pidotimod may have contributed to activation of specific and non-specific immune effectors involved in the host response to S. pneumoniae infection.

  4. Increasing Calcium Carbonate (Caco3) To Growt And Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Heriadi, Unggul Fitrah; ', Mulyadi; Putra, Iskandar

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in March 2016 - April 2016 for 21 days at the NationalBroodstock Center For Shrimp and Mollusk Karangasem Bali. The purpose of this study todetermine the effect of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the growth and survival rate vanameishrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei). Vanamei shrimp size PL25 were used in the research. Thecontainer used fiber tub with capacity 250 liters and the volume of water used is 100 liters.The treatment is giving of calcium carbonate 20 mg, 35mg, 50m...

  5. Lovastatin delays infection and increases survival rates in AG129 mice infected with dengue virus serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that treatment of DENV-infected cultures with Lovastatin (LOV, can affect viral assembly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LOV on the survival rate and viremia levels of DENV-2-infected AG129 mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were inoculated with 1 × 10(6 plaque-forming units (PFU/ml of DENV-2 and treated with LOV (200 mg/kg/day. Pre-treatment with one or three doses of LOV increased the survival rate compared to untreated mice (7.3 and 7.1 days, respectively, compared to 4.8 days. Viremia levels also decreased by 21.8% compared to untreated mice, but only in the group administered three doses prior to inoculation. When LOV was administered after viral inoculation, the survival rate increased (7.3 days in the group treated at 24 hpi, 6.8 days in the group treated at 48 hpi and 6.5 days in the group treated with two doses compared to the untreated group (4.8 days. Interestingly, the serum viral titer increased by 24.6% in mice treated at 48 hpi with a single dose of LOV and by 21.7% in mice treated with two doses (at 24 and 48 hpi of LOV compared to untreated mice. Finally histopathological changes in the liver and spleen in infected and untreated mice included massive extramedullary erythropoiesis foci and inflammatory filtration, and these characteristics were decreased or absent in LOV-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the effect of LOV on viremia depends on the timing of treatment and on the number of doses administered. We observed a significant increase in the survival rate in both schemes due to a delay in the progression of the disease. However, the results obtained in the post-treatment scheme must be handled carefully because this treatment scheme increases viremia and we do not know how this increase could affect disease progression in humans.

  6. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick J Larabee

    Full Text Available Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation has been co-opted for another (defense.

  7. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Fredrick J; Suarez, Andrew V

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense).

  8. Increased drying rate lowers the critical water content for survival in embryonic axes of English oak (Quercus robur L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Finch-Savage, William E; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2011-04-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  10. Escin Increases the Survival Rate of LPS-Induced Septic Mice Through Inhibition of HMGB1 Release from Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have described the effects of Escin on improving the survival rate of endotoxemic animals. The purpose of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of this potentially beneficial treatment. Methods: First, the survival rate of endotoxemic mice was monitored for up to 2 weeks after Escin pretreatment, Escin post-treatment, or Escin post-treatment + rHMGB1. The effects of Escin on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in the serum of endotoxemic mice and LPS-induced macrophages were evaluated by ELISA. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of HMGB1 in LPS-induced macrophages were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Additionally, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 was evaluated by ELISA in rHMGB1-induced macrophages. Finally, the protein levels and the activity of NF-κB in macrophages were checked by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Results: Both pretreatment and post-treatment with Escin could improve the survival rate of endotoxemic mice, while exogenous rHMGB1 reversed this effect. In addition, Escin decreased the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in endotoxemic mice and in LPS-induced macrophages. Escin could also inhibit the mRNA levels and activity of HMGB1. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 could be suppressed in rHMGB1-induced macrophages by Escin. Finally, Escin could suppress the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced macrophages. Conclusion: Escin could improve the survival of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. This effect maybe meditated by reducing the release of HMGB1, resulting in the suppression of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  11. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  12. The small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor, UTL-5g, delays deaths and increases survival rates for mice treated with high doses of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick

    2013-09-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and body weights were monitored. UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150 % of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200 % of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight loss induced by cisplatin, indicating that body weight may not be a sensitive-enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin, indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted.

  13. Induction chemotherapy for T3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer increases the rate of complete resection but does not confer improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin L; Mulvihill, Michael S; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Speicher, Paul J; D'Amico, Thomas A; Tong, Betty C; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of induction therapy prior to an operation in patients with cT3 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients diagnosed with cT3N0M0 NSCLC from 2006 to 2011 in the National Cancer Database who were treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy were stratified by treatment strategy: an operation first versus induction chemotherapy. Propensity scores were developed and matched cohorts were generated. Short-term outcomes included margin status, 30- and 90-day mortality rates, readmission and length of stay. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier methods were performed on both the unadjusted and propensity matched cohorts. A total of 3791 cT3N0M0 patients were identified for inclusion, of which 580 (15%) were treated with induction chemotherapy. Prior to adjustment, patients treated with induction chemotherapy were younger, had a higher comorbidity burden and were more likely to have private insurance (all P  induction chemotherapy were more likely to subsequently undergo an open procedure (87.3 vs 77.8%, P  = 0.005). These patients were more likely to obtain R0 resection (93.1% vs 90.0%, P  = 0.04) and were thereby less likely to have positive margins at the time of resection (6.9% vs 10.0%, P  = 0.03). Patients who received induction therapy had higher rates of 90-day mortality (6.6% vs 3.4%) but there was no difference in long-term survival between the groups. Despite yielding increased rates of R0 resection, induction chemotherapy for cT3N0M0 NSCLC is not associated with improved survival and should not be considered routinely. Further studies are warranted to elucidate cohorts that may benefit from induction therapy.

  14. [Multi-disciplinary treatment increases the survival rate of late stage pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers treated by free jejunal flap reconstruction after cancer resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Zhang, H; Ni, S; Wang, J; Li, D Z; Liu, S Y

    2016-05-23

    To investigate the survival status of patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers, who received free jejunal flap (FJF) to repair the defects following tumor resection, and to analyze the effect of multi-disciplinary treatment on their survival. Fifty-eight patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancer underwent free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction after cancer resection between 2010 and 2013. All their clinical records were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of flap transplantation was 91.4% (53/58). The 2-year overall survival rates (OSR) of cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer patients were 67.5% and 49.3%, respectively, both were significantly better than that of laryngeal cancer. The main causes of death were local recurrence and distant metastases. The group with no short-term complications had a better two-year OSR (59.0%) than the group with short-term complications (46.6%), however, the difference between them was not significant (P=0.103). The 2-year survival rate of the initial treatment group was 65.0%, better than that of the salvage treatment group (49.4%), but the difference was not significant (P=0.051). For the stage III and IV patients, the multi-disciplinary treatment group had a significantly better 2-year OSR (64.7%) than the single or sequential treatment group (37.0%, P=0.016). Free jejunal flap reconstruction is an ideal option for repairing the cervical digestive tract circumferential defects caused by tumor resection with a high success rate and a low mortality. Compared with the single or sequential treatment, multi-disciplinary treatment can significantly improve the survival rate of late-stage hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer patients.

  15. Increased litter survival rates, reduced clinical illness and better lactogenic immunity against TGEV in gilts that were primed as neonates with porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Ronald D; Lager, Kelly M

    2003-09-01

    Establishing immunological memory in female piglets at a young age with PRCV was effective in inducing a secondary immune response to a limiting dose of virulent TGEV given orally 13-18 days prior to farrowing. Subsequently, because of passive antibody transfer, the offspring of these primed gilts were more efficient in surviving a lethal TGEV challenge. An average survival rate of 89% occurred in 6 litters of piglets from primed gilts that were boosted with 2.8 x 10(6) plaque forming units (PFU) of TGEV whereas 76% of the piglets survived in three litters that suckled primed gilts boosted with 3.0 x 10(5)PFU of TGEV. Non-primed gilts given identical pre-farrowing doses of TGEV had litter survival rates of 63 and 55%, respectively. Moreover, both groups of litters from primed gilts suffered less clinical illness (as measured by the extent of weight loss post-challenge) than control litters. Priming of the piglets as neonates and boosting the pregnant gilts produced an anamnestic systemic immune response and correspondingly higher milk titers in the primed gilts compared to control animals. Thus, priming piglets with PRCV was beneficial in providing resistance to TGEV and could be incorporated into a vaccine strategy that yields better protection against TGEV.

  16. In situ normoxia enhances survival and proliferation rate of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells without increasing the risk of tumourigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Ru Choi

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs natively reside in a relatively low-oxygen tension (i.e., hypoxic microenvironment in human body. Low oxygen tension (i.e., in situ normoxia, has been known to enhance the growth and survival rate of ASCs, which, however, may lead to the risk of tumourigenesis. Here, we investigated the tumourigenic potential of ASCs under their physiological condition to ensure their safe use in regenerative therapy. Human ASCs isolated from subcutaneous fat were cultured in atmospheric O2 concentration (21% O2 or in situ normoxia (2% O2. We found that ASCs retained their surface markers, tri-lineage differentiation potential, and self-renewal properties under in situ normoxia without altering their morphology. In situ normoxia displayed a higher proliferation and viability of ASCs with less DNA damage as compared to atmospheric O2 concentration. Moreover, low oxygen tension significantly up-regulated VEGF and bFGF mRNA expression and protein secretion while reducing the expression level of tumour suppressor genes p16, p21, p53, and pRb. However, there were no significant differences in ASCs telomere length and their relative telomerase activity when cultured at different oxygen concentrations. Collectively, even with high proliferation and survival rate, ASCs have a low tendency of developing tumour under in situ normoxia. These results suggest 2% O2 as an ideal culture condition for expanding ASCs efficiently while maintaining their characteristics.

  17. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkas, Ghazi Faisal; Arqoub, Kamal H; Khader, Yousef S; Tarawneh, Mohammad R; Nimri, Omar F; Al-Zaghal, Marwan J; Subih, Hadil S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005-2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005-2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005-2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p < 0.005). The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  18. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Faisal Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005–2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005–2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005–2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p<0.005. The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  19. Acute traumatic coagulopathy decreased actual survival rate when compared with predicted survival rate in severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Gap Su; Moon, Sung Woo; Choi, Sung Hyuck; Hong, Yun Sik

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) should be combined with the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) to predict outcome in severe trauma patients and investigate effects of the change in coagulation state during early resuscitation on the actual survival rate. This was a retrospective study. Significant variables that affected 28-day mortality were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Study patients were classified into three groups: no coagulopathy, mild coagulopathy or severe coagulopathy. Concordance between actual and predicted survival rates were compared for each group. The predicted survival rate was calculated using the TRISS method. The study also determined whether changes in the coagulation state during inhospital resuscitation affected the relationship between actual and predicted survival in patients who had rechecked coagulation profile within 12 h after presentation. Data from a total of 336 patients were analysed. At presentation, 20.8% of the study patients had mild coagulopathy, whereas 7.7% had severe coagulopathy. Age, injury severity score, revised trauma score and presence of ATC at presentation were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Actual survival was significantly lower than predicted survival in the mild and severe coagulopathy groups. Aggravation of coagulation state from normal or mild to severe coagulopathy or persistent severe coagulopathy during inhospital resuscitation mainly contributed to the discrepancy between actual and predicted survival. ATC decreased actual survival more than expected. ATC should be combined with TRISS to predict trauma outcome in severely injured patients. Improvement in coagulopathy during resuscitation may reduce the incidence of preventable death after trauma.

  20. Physical activity increases survival after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.; Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina

    2016-01-01

    physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient...... of physical activity after heart valve surgery are positively associated with higher survival rates and participation in cardiac rehabilitation.......OBJECTIVES: Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between...

  1. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  2. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Huye District from December 2011 to June 2012, with aiming to investigate the survival rate of trees planted on private and public land from 2007-2011 and underlying factors. Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and ...

  3. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  4. MARKETING STRATEGY TO INCREASE BED OCCUPANCY RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  5. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  6. Apparent survival rates of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliable estimates of survival rates of southern African bird species are still rare. Yet precise information on life history traits of birds from this southern Mediterranean-type climate would help in evaluating the generality of global patterns of avian life history. We estimated annual survival of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer ...

  7. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... rate in the 1st year of life and a much lower rate in the first 3 months of life. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that survival was lower in the winter months for ringing data during 1920–2002 but not for radiotagged owls during 2005–2008 that experienced the highest mortality rates during...

  8. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages.

  9. RX-207, a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Protein Interaction with Glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs), Reduces Experimentally Induced Inflammation and Increases Survival Rate in Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP)-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Stefan; Harris, Nicholas; Il'kova, Gabriela; Rehák, Pavol; Zsila, Ferenc; Yurgenzon Kogan, Faina; Lahmy, Orly; Zhuk, Regina; Gregor, Paul; Koppel, Juraj

    2018-02-01

    The fused quinazolinone derivative, RX-207, is chemically and functionally related to small molecule inhibitors of protein binding to glycosaminoglycans (SMIGs). Composed of a planar aromatic amine scaffold, it inhibits protein binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). RX-207 reduced neutrophil migration in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis (37%), inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema (32%) and cerulein-induced pancreatitis (28%), and increased animal survival in the mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis (60%). The mechanism of RX-207 action, analyzed by UV spectroscopy, confirmed that which was elucidated for chemically related anti-inflammatory SMIGs. RX-207 binding to cell surface GAGs can account for the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment via the micro-vasculature and as a consequence, the reduction of neutrophil mediated tissue damage in the animal models of inflammation and improved survival of mice in CLP-induced sepsis.

  10. Childhood cancer survival rates in two South African units | Stones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cancers were leukaemia (25.0%), brain tumours (19.5%), lymphoma (13.0%) and nephroblastoma (10.0%). ... A comparison between ethnic groups showed white children to have the highest survival rate (62.8%); the rate for children of mixed racial origin was 53.8% and that for black children 48.5%.

  11. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  12. FUEL PRICE INCREASE AND MANUFACTURING FIRMS SURVIVAL IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Atmadji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The administered price of fuel has increased quite frequently since 1970. It has raised a concern on the survival ability of manufacturing firms that could be weakened by such policy. This research objective is for confirming whether the policy of increasing fuel price affects the survival of manufacturing firms in Indonesia. By using Instrumental Variable Probit Model, it demonstrates that increasing fuel price does not affect firms’ survival in the short-run, middle-run, as well as long-run. Nevertheless, the z-statistics increase when the period of estimation is expanded. It means that if the time span of sample observation is widened, the result might be different.Keywords: Fuel price, survival ability, instrumental variable probit modelJEL classification numbers: H27, D22AbstrakHarga bahan bakar minyak (BBM selalu meningkat sejak 1970. Kenaikan harga ini telah menimbulkan kekhawatiran pada kemampuan kelangsungan hidup perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia yang bisa dilemahkan oleh kebijakan tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mengonfirmasi apakah kebijakan kenaikan harga BBM mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup perusahaan industri manufaktur di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan Instrumental Variable Probit Model, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan harga BBM tidak mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidupperusahaan dalam jangka pendek, menengah, serta jangka panjang. Namun demikian, z-statistik meningkat ketika periode estimasi diperluas. Ini berarti bahwa jika rentang waktu pengamatan sampel melebar, hasilnya mungkin akan berbeda.Kata kunci: Harga BBM, kemampuan bertahan hidup, instrumental variable probit modelJEL classification numbers: H27, D22

  13. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Risk of Survival in Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the risk of survival in acute stroke using the MDRD equation derived estimated glomerular filtration rate. Design: A prospective observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Subjects: Eighty three acute stroke patients had GFR calculated within 48 hours of ...

  14. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  15. Measuring survival rates from sudden cardiac arrest: the elusive definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Michael R; Travers, Andrew H; Daya, Mohamud; Greene, H Leon; Salive, Marcel E; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Craven, Richard A; Groh, William J; Hallstrom, Alfred P

    2004-07-01

    Measuring survival from sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) is often used as a benchmark of the quality of a community's emergency medical service (EMS) system. The definition of OOH-CA survival rates depends both upon the numerator (surviving cases) and the denominator (all cases). The purpose of the public access defibrillation (PAD) trial was to measure the impact on survival of adding an automated external defibrillator (AED) to a volunteer response system trained in CPR. This paper reports the definition of OOH-CA developed by the PAD trial investigators, and it evaluates alternative statistical methods used to assess differences in reported "survival." Case surveillance was limited to the prospectively determined geographic boundaries of the participating trial units. The numerator in calculating a survival rate should include only those patients who survived an event but who otherwise would have died except for the application of some facet of emergency medical care-in this trial a defibrillatory shock. Among denominators considered were: total population of the study unit, all deaths within the study unit, and documented ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests. The PAD classification focused upon cases that might have benefited from the early use of an AED, in addition to the likely benefit from early recognition of OOH-CA, early access of EMS, and early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Results of this classification system were used to evaluate the impact of the PAD definition on the distribution of cardiac arrest case types between CPR only and CPR + AED units. Potential OOH-CA episodes were classified into one of four groups: definite, probable, uncertain, or not an OOH-CA. About half of cardiac arrests in the PAD units were judged to be definite OOH-CA events and therefore potentially treatable with an AED. However, events that occurred in CPR-only units were less likely to be classified as definite or probable OOH-CA events than those

  16. Increased Sleep Promotes Survival during a Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The relationship between sleep and immune function is not well understood at a functional or molecular level. We therefore used a genetic approach in Drosophila to manipulate sleep and evaluated effects on the ability of flies to fight bacterial infection. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: We used a genetic approach to transiently alter neuronal excitability in the mushroom body, a region in the central brain that is known to regulate sleep. Flies with increased sleep for up to two days prior to a bacterial infection showed increased resistance to the infection and improved survival. These flies also had increased expression levels of a subset of anti-microbial peptide mRNA prior to infection, as well as increased NFκB activity during infection as indicated by in vivo luciferase reporter activity. In contrast, flies that experienced reduced sleep for up to two days prior to infection had no effect on survival or on NFκB activity during infection. However, flies with reduced sleep showed an altered defense mechanism, such that resistance to infection was increased, but at the expense of reduced tolerance. This effect was dependent on environmental condition. Conclusions: Increasing sleep enhanced activity of an NFκB transcription factor, increased resistance to infection, and strongly promoted survival. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that sleep is beneficial to the host by maintaining a robust immune system. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Increased sleep promotes survival during a bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1077-1086. PMID:24882902

  17. Evaluating the use of enhanced oak seedlings for increased survival and growth: first-year survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua L. Moree; Andrew W. Ezell; John D. Hodges; Andrew J. Londo; K. David Godwin

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are very important in the southern landscape for timber production and wildlife habitat. More landowners are attempting to establish oak plantations as the demand for wood products and wildlife habitat continues to increase. These attempts are not always successful with early growth and survival becoming major concerns. In this...

  18. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  19. Intravenous hemostatic nanoparticles increase survival following blunt trauma injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall, Andrew J; Atkins, Kristyn T; Groynom, Rebecca E; Varley, Matthew E; Everhart, Lydia M; Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret M; Martyn-Dow, Blaine; Butler, Robert S; Ustin, Jeffrey S; Lavik, Erin B

    2012-11-12

    Trauma is the leading cause of death for people ages 1-44, with blood loss comprising 60-70% of mortality in the absence of lethal CNS or cardiac injury. Immediate intervention is critical to improving chances of survival. While there are several products to control bleeding for external and compressible wounds, including pressure dressings, tourniquets, or topical materials (e.g., QuikClot, HemCon), there are no products that can be administered in the field for internal bleeding. There is a tremendous unmet need for a hemostatic agent to address internal bleeding in the field. We have developed hemostatic nanoparticles (GRGDS-NPs) that reduce bleeding times by ~50% in a rat femoral artery injury model. Here, we investigated their impact on survival following administration in a lethal liver resection injury in rats. Administration of these hemostatic nanoparticles reduced blood loss following the liver injury and dramatically and significantly increased 1 h survival from 40 and 47% in controls (inactive nanoparticles and saline, respectively) to 80%. Furthermore, we saw no complications following administration of these nanoparticles. We further characterized the nanoparticles' effect on clotting time (CT) and maximum clot firmness (MCF) using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), a clinical measurement of whole-blood coagulation. Clotting time is significantly reduced, with no change in MCF. Administration of these hemostatic nanoparticles after massive trauma may help staunch bleeding and improve survival in the critical window following injury, and this could fundamentally change trauma care.

  20. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30......Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...

  1. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor. ... The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction.

  2. Veratridine increases the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.F. Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death is an important phenomenon involving many biochemical pathways. This degenerative event has been studied to understand how the cells activate the mechanisms that lead to self-destruction. Target cells and afferent cells play a relevant role in the regulation of natural cell death. We studied the effect of veratridine (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 µM on the survival of neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Veratridine (3.0 µM, a well-known depolarizing agent that opens the Na+ channel, promoted a two-fold increase in the survival of retinal ganglion cells kept in culture for 48 h. This effect was dose-dependent and was blocked by 1.0 µM tetrodotoxin (a classical voltage-dependent Na+ channel blocker and 30.0 µM flunarizine (a Na+ and Ca2+ channel blocker. These results indicate that electrical activity is also important for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell survival in vitro

  3. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...... the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase...

  4. Men and women show similar survival rates after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Paulo Franscisco Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Letícia Lima; Costa, Célia Regina; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Bergmann, Anke; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2017-04-01

    To compare the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of men and women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study of patients with breast cancer diagnosed and treated at the Cancer Hospital III of the National Cancer Institute of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1999 and 2013. Male breast cancer cases were matched for age, year of diagnosis, and clinical staging to three female cases (1:3). Patient characteristics were abstracted from hospital records and medical charts. Cases were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and comparisons between the genders were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals. The study population comprised 98 men and 294 women. There were significant differences (p breast surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of palliative bisphosphonate therapy. Five- and 10-year DFS rates were, respectively, 80.0 and 51.4% for men and 71.4 and 63.5% for women (p = 0.245), and 5- and 10-year OS rates were, respectively, 65.0 and 47.5% for men and 56.5 and 41.4% for women (p = 0.221). There was no significant difference in prognosis (DFS and OS rates) between the genders, but significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were detected between male and female breast cancer cases.

  5. [Survival and complication rate of central venous catheters in newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Heladia Josefa; Torres-Yáñez, Héctor Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In the current medical practice, central venous catheters (CVC) are very useful; however, their use involves certain risks, which increase morbidity and mortality, especially in newborns. The aim of this study was to describe both the frequency of complications and survival of CVC placed in newborns hospitalized in a third level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A descriptive, observational and prospective study was carried-out in the NICU from the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Demographic, perinatal and CVC variables were recorded. We included 152 CVCs, which were inserted in 123 newborns. For the CVC insertion, the puncture technique [percutaneous and subclavian] was used in 56.6 % (n = 86). There was at least one complication in 48.7 %.(n = 74). The most frequent complications were colonization 32.4 % (n = 24) and CVC-related bacteremia in 27 % (n = 20). Survival probability for CVC was 93.4 % at 10 days and 91.4 % at 17 days. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated significantly lower survival probability for non-central catheters. Most of CVC complications occurred within the first two weeks after these CVC were installed. Infectious complications were the most frequent.

  6. Ten-year survival rate for cantilevered fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D

    2005-01-01

    PubMed (1966-April 2004) provided the primary data source along with the bibliographies from identified articles and reviews. A manual search of two relevant journals (Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry published; published 2001-2003) provided a further source of data. Because there were no randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared fixed partial dentures (FPD) with and without cantilever extensions, other studies were selected if they met the following criteria: were published in the English language; were prospective and retrospective cohort studies; had a mean follow-up of >5 years; included patients who were clinically examined at follow-up; and reported details on suprastructures and described at least one-third of reconstructions as FPD. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and agreement determined by kappa. Two reviewers extracted data on the survival and success of the reconstructions and on biological and technical complications. Failure and complication rates were calculated by dividing the number of events by the total exposure time. Three prospective and 10 retrospective cohort studies incorporating 700 patients and 816 FPD were included. The mean number of cantilever extensions ranged from 1.1 to 6.0. Meta-analyses gave an estimated survival, after 10 years, of 81.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 78.2-84.9] and a proportion success of 63% (95% CI, 54.7-70.2). Considering biological complications using Poisson model analyses, the estimated rate of FPD lost because of caries after 10 years was 3.1% (95%CI, 1.0-8.8) and that for loss of vitality was 32.6% (95% CI, 13.9-64.9). The rate

  7. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerni...

  8. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  9. One-year survival rate of renal transplant: factors influencing the outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezapour S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siavash Rezapour,1 Aliasghar Yarmohammadi,1,2 Mahmoud Tavakkoli1,2 1Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 2Urology Department, Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Background: Renal transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, as the procedure not only improves quality of life, but also markedly increases patients’ survival rates. Organ and patient survival rates are important issues of interest post-transplantation. Aim: To determine the 1-year survival rate of renal transplant, we studied graft function, which is a predictor of survival, among those who received a kidney transplant in the time period between February 2012 and February 2013 at Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cohort study planned to determine patient and organ survival rates after kidney transplantation from living and deceased donors during a 1-year period. We also tried to clarify factors resulting in graft loss. Designated variables were collected using checklists and subsequently entered into SPSS software version 17 and analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and descriptive statistics.Results: From 173 patients included in the study, 67.1% (n=116 were female. The mean age of the recipients was 33±12.85 years. In the majority of cases, cause of end-stage renal disease was not clear (n=89, 51.44%. Urinary tract infection (23.1% was the commonest post-operative complication, followed by delayed graft function, which was diagnosed in 22 (12.7% recipients. Seventeen cases of graft rejection (9.8% were recorded and 4 (2.3% of these cases underwent nephrectomy that will be regarded as graft loss in this paper. Therefore, 1-year graft survival was 90.2%. Graft survival in cadaveric and live-donor recipients was 90.8% and 88.7%, respectively. As there was no mortality reported among graft recipients, 1-year patient survival rate

  10. Early case-fatality rates in elderly stroke patients do not increase when age increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2014-10-01

    We studied the association between age and survival after stroke. We particularly focused on deaths that could be attributed to the stroke lesion itself; that is, early death in severe stroke. A registry of all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark included 93897 patients with information on stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale [SSS] 0-58), computed tomography, cardiovascular risk, age, sex and fatality within 1 month. Using regression models, we constructed age trajectories of 3-days, 1-week, and 1-month case-fatality rates unadjusted and adjusted for stroke severity, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors for patients with SSS Age-trajectories (SSS age of 75 years. Case-fatality rates then declined (unadjusted model) or leveled off (adjusted model) as age increased. One-week case-fatality increased to the age of 85 years. Case-fatality then leveled off (unadjusted model) or continued to rise (adjusted model) as age increased. One-month case-fatality rates increased throughout the entire lifespan. Age-trajectories (SSS ≥ 25): the leveling off phenomenon was still present for 3-days case-fatality; however, it was less pronounced. Very early stroke case-fatality rates increasing to the age of 75-85 years subsequently leveled off or even declined with increasing age. Advanced age per se should not be seen as a disadvantage in terms of surviving stroke in the very acute phase. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  12. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: analysis of epidemiological profile and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana Cardoso; da Silva, Denise Bousfield; Freund, Ana Paula Ferreira; Dacoregio, Juliana Shmitz; Costa, Tatiana El Jaick Bonifácio; Costa, Imaruí; Faraco, Daniel; Silva, Maurício Laerte

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile and the survival rate of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a state reference pediatric hospital. Clinical-epidemiological, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. The study included new cases of patients with AML, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, younger than 15 years. Of the 51 patients studied, 84% were white; 45% were females and 55%, males. Regarding age, 8% were younger than 1 year, 47% were aged between 1 and 10 years, and 45% were older than 10 years. The main signs/symptoms were fever (41.1%), asthenia/lack of appetite (35.2%), and hemorrhagic manifestations (27.4%). The most affected extra-medullary site was the central nervous system (14%). In 47% of patients, the white blood cell (WBC) count was below 10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis. The minimal residual disease (MRD) was less than 0.1%, on the 15th day of treatment in 16% of the sample. Medullary relapse occurred in 14% of cases. When comparing the bone marrow MRD with the vital status, it was observed that 71.42% of the patients with type M3 AML were alive, as were 54.05% of those with non-M3 AML. The death rate was 43% and the main proximate cause was septic shock (63.6%). In this study, the majority of patients were male, white, and older than 1 year. Most patients with WBC count <10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis lived. Overall survival was higher in patients with MRD <0.1%. The prognosis was better in patients with AML-M3. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance...... imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0...

  15. The Clinicopathologic Characteristics and 5-year Survival Rate of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Bashardust, Nasrollah; Zakerian, Neda; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignancy in women, the most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths, and most patients have advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 5-year survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer based on age, tumor histology, stage of disease, and type of treatment. This study was conducted on 120 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer referred to Shahid Sadoughi hospital and Shah Vali oncology clinic of Yazd from 2006 to 2012. Demographic data and patient records were studied to evaluate the treatment outcome, pathology of the tumor, and stage of disease. Finally, the overall survival rate and tumor-free survival of patients was assessed. The mean patient age was 53.87± 14.11 years. Most participants had stage I (36.7%) or stage II (35%) disease. Serous adenocarcinoma (57.6%) was the most common pathology found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The overall survival of patients in this study was significantly associated with the histological tumor type (p = 0.000) and disease stage (p = 0.0377). Stage I (84.18%) and serous adenocarcinoma (72.81%) demonstrated the best survival. The tumor-free survival rates were not associated with histology types (p = 0.079), surgical procedure (p = 0.18), or chemotherapy (p = 0.18). The survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly associated with disease stage. Serous adenocarcinoma also had the best prognosis among the pathologies studied. Therefore, early detection of ovarian cancer can substantially increase the survival rate.

  16. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  17. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  18. Comparable cell survival between high dose rate flattening filter free and conventional dose rate irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Wilko F A R; van den Berg, Jaap; Slotman, Ben J; Sminia, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of clonogenic cell survival and cell proliferation following single dose and fractionated delivery of high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation compared to conventional dose rates. The human astrocytoma D384, glioma T98 and lung carcinoma SW1573 cell lines were irradiated using either a single dose (0-12 Gy) or a fractionated protocol of 5 daily fractions of 2 Gy (D384) or 3 Gy (SW1573). Cells were irradiated inside a phantom using fixed gantry beams of a linear accelerator. A sliding window technique created homogeneous dose distributions over the surface of the cell cultures. Irradiations using standard beams (6 MV, 600 MU/min.) and high dose rate FFF beams (10 MV, 2400 MU/min.) were compared. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. In the fractionated irradiation set-up, the number of clonogenic cells was estimated by including tumor cell proliferation during the overall treatment time in the analysis. All cell lines showed equal cell survival following irradiation using either the FFF beams or conventional flattened (FF) beams. This was observed after single dose exposure (0-12 Gy) as well as after fractionated irradiation (p = 0.08 for D384 and 0.20 for SW1373 cell lines). FFF irradiation with a dose rate of 2400 MU/min and four times higher dose per pulse compared to irradiation with FF beams did not change cell survival for three human cancer cell lines up to a fraction dose of 12 Gy compared to irradiation using FF beams.

  19. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  20. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  1. Efficacy of monoterpene perillyl alcohol upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Clovis O; Simão, Marcela; Lins, Igor R; Caetano, Regina O; Futuro, Débora; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-02-01

    The monoterpene perillyl alcohol (POH) a Ras inhibitor with potential capacity to arrest gliomagenesis is being used in a phase I/II clinical trial in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intranasal administration of monoterpene POH upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in comparison with historical control group of GBM patients. It was included 89 adults with recurrent GBM receiving daily intranasal administration of 440 mg POH and 52 matched GBM patients as historical control untreated group only with supportive treatment. Patients with recurrent primary GBM treated with POH survived significantly longer (log rank test, P < 0.0001) than untreated group. Patients with recurrent primary GBM in deep location survived significantly longer than with lobar location (log rank test, P < 0.0001). Median survival rate of secondary GBM was 11.2 months, longer (log rank test, P = 0.0366) than primary GBM (5.9 months). Radiographic improvement and reduction of corticosteroid dosage (36%) further associated with a delay towards progression. Intranasal administration of POH increased the overall survival of patients with recurrent GBM in comparison with historical untreated controls, but especially patients with secondary GBM and primary GBM with tumor localized in deep regions of the brain. The side effects of POH treatment were almost nonexistent, even in patients treated for over 4 years.

  2. Plasmodium Parasitemia Associated With Increased Survival in Ebola Virus-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Munster, Vincent J; Marzi, Andrea; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton O; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Martellaro, Cynthia; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi N; Best, Sonja M; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Giuliani, Ruggero; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Massaquoi, Moses; Feldmann, Heinz; de Wit, Emmie

    2016-10-15

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA. Clinical outcome in laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus-infected patients was analyzed as a function of age, sex, Ebola viremia, and Plasmodium species parasitemia. The case fatality rate of 1182 patients with laboratory-confirmed Ebola virus infections was 52%. The probability of surviving decreased with increasing age and decreased with increasing Ebola viral load. Ebola virus-infected patients were 20% more likely to survive when Plasmodium species parasitemia was detected, even after controlling for Ebola viral load and age; those with the highest levels of parasitemia had a survival rate of 83%. This effect was independent of treatment with antimalarials, as this was provided to all patients. Moreover, treatment with antimalarials did not affect survival in the Ebola virus mouse model. Plasmodium species parasitemia is associated with an increase in the probability of surviving Ebola virus infection. More research is needed to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this remarkable phenomenon and translate it into treatment options for Ebola virus infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Is growth rate more important than survival and reproduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic value of a trait was defined as the marginal profit per ewe per year resulting from a unit increase or decrease in the average value of a trait, whilst holding the average levels of all other traits constant, and at a discount rate of 0 and 12.5%. The results of the study indicated that on average, traits associated with ...

  4. Trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Moon, E K; Park, J Y; Jung, K W; Oh, C M; Kong, H J; Won, Y J

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population. Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry were extracted for 10,282 patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer (C01-C06) between 1999 and 2010 to evaluate the age-standardised incidence rate, annual percentage change (APC) and 5-year relative survival rate (RSR) according to gender and age. In males, the incidence rate slightly decreased [APC of -0.2% (P = 0.6427)]; in females, the incidence rate increased [APC of 3.1% (P oral tongue cancer (C02) significantly increased [APC of 2.2% and 4.1%, respectively (P oral tongue cancer incidence was most prominent in the younger age group (cancer increased only among males [APC of 4.8% (P oral cavity cancer in females increased, whereas it stabilised or decreased in males. However, the incidence of oral tongue cancer increased in both males and females, especially in the younger age group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Five-year survival rates of melanoma patients treated by diet therapy after the manner of Gerson: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, G L; Hildenbrand, L C; Bradford, K; Cavin, S W

    1995-09-01

    Compare 5-year melanoma survival rates to rates in medical literature. Retrospective. Hospital in Tijuana, Mexico. White adult patients (N = 153) with superficial spreading and nodular melanoma, aged 25-72 years. Gerson's diet therapy: lactovegetarian; low sodium, fat and (temporarily) protein; high potassium, fluid, and nutrients (hourly raw vegetable/fruit juices). Metabolism increased by thyroid; calorie supply limited to 2600-3200 calories per day. Coffee enemas as needed for pain and appetite. 5-year survival rates by stage at admission. Of 14 patients with stages I and II (localized) melanoma, 100% survived for 5 years, compared with 79% of 15,798 reported by Balch. Of 17 with stage IIIA (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 82% were alive at 5 years, in contrast to 39% of 103 from Fachklinik Hornheide. Of 33 with combined stages IIIA + IIIB (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 70% lived 5 years, compared with 41% of 134 from Fachklinik Hornheide. We propose a new stage division: IVA (distant lymph, skin, and subcutaneous tissue metastases), and IVB (visceral metastases). Of 18 with stage IVA melanoma, 39% were alive at 5 years, compared with only 6% of 194 from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Survival impact was not assessed for stage IVB. Male and female survival rates were identical for stages I-IIIB, but stage IVA women had a strong survival advantage. The 5-year survival rates reported here are considerably higher than those reported elsewhere. Stage IIIA/B males had exceptionally high survival rates compared with those reported by other centers.

  6. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…

  7. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  8. Survival and population size of a resident bird species are declining as temperature increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santisteban, Leonard; Benkman, Craig W; Fetz, Trevor; Smith, Julie W

    2012-03-01

    1. A large number of migratory bird species appear to be declining as the result of climate change, but whether resident bird species have or will be adversely affected by climate change is less clear. We focus on the South Hills crossbill (Loxia curvirostra complex), which is endemic to about 70 km(2) of Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) forest in southern Idaho, USA. 2. Our results indicate that the South Hills crossbill has declined by over 60% between 2003 and 2008, and that decreasing adult survival drives this population decline. 3. We evaluated the relative support for multiple hypotheses linking crossbill survival to climate, an ectoparasitic mite (scaly-leg mites Knemidokoptes jamaicensis), and the recent emergence of West Nile virus. Changes in adult apparent survival rate were closely associated with average spring and annual temperatures, and with high temperatures (≥32 °C) during summer, which have increased during the last decade. In contrast, there was little evidence that scaly-leg mites or West Nile virus contributed to recent declines in adult survival. 4. The most probable mechanism causing the decline in adult survival and population size is a decrease in the availability of their primary food resource, seeds in serotinous pine cones. Cone production has declined with increasing annual temperatures, and these cones appear to be prematurely opening owing to increasingly hot summer conditions releasing their seeds and reducing the carrying capacity for crossbills later in the year. 5. In light of regional climate change forecasts, which include an increase in both annual temperature and hot days (>32 °C), and the likely disappearance of lodgepole pine from southern Idaho by the end of this century, additional research is needed to determine how to maintain lodgepole pine forests and their supply of seeds to conserve one of the few bird species endemic to the continental United States. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of

  9. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  10. Radiotherapy combined with intracavitary irradiation for uterine cervical cancer. Study of survival rate, patterns of recurrence and complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuda, Junko; Mizutani, Yoshiyuki; Yoshino, Ayako; Takayama, Makoto; Furuya, Yoshiro (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Takei, Ryoji

    1994-09-01

    Survival rates and patterns of recurrence in 137 patients with uterine cervical cancer were determined. These patients were treated by radiotherapy with high-dose rate intracavitary irradiation using remote afterloading system (RALS) at Kyorin University Hospital from Oct. 1987 to Dec. 1992. Age range was from 29 to 87 years. According to clinical staging of UICC, stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 29, 62, 33, and 13 cases respectively. Cumulative 5-year survival rate of all cases was 72%. Cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for stage I, 81% for stage II, 38% for stage III, and 27% for stage IV. Cumulative 5-year survival rates of the postoperative radiotherapy and radical radiotherapy groups were 75% and 90% respectively. There was significant difference of survival rates between the postoperative radiotherapy group and the radical radiotherapy group. As patterns of recurrence, extrapelvic metastasis was more frequent than local recurrence. In stages II and III, recurrent patterns were extrapelvic matastasis in most cases. Of 18 cases with extrapelvic metastasis, there were 10 cases of paraaortic lymph node metastasis. With increase in the control rate of parraortic lymph node metastasis, survival rate of patients with uterine cervical cancer increased. Four of 5 cases with local recurrence controled by intracavitary irradiation is effective for local recurrence control. Rectal and bladder complications following radiotherapy were observed in 25 cases. However, all cases with complication after radiotherapy were treated conservatively, excluding 1 case (vasicorectal fistula). (author).

  11. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  12. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer: a nationwide Danish study from 1980 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Wessel, Irene; Charabi, Birgitte Wittenborg; Specht, Lena; Kjaer, Andreas; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980 to 2014. This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980-2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox regression analysis in relation to location, gender, age, and calendar year at diagnosis. Altogether, 8299 patients with oral cancer were identified, 5062 (61%) of whom were males and 3237 (39%) were females. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. The AAIR of patients with OC increased from 1.9 per 100,000 in 1980 to 3.5 per 100,000 in 2014, and we observed a significant increase in 5-year OS of 12% points (a relative increase of 38%) from the period 1980-1984 to 2005-2009. Women were found to have a better prognosis than men. We found an unexpected increase in the age-standardized incidence of OC during the last 30 years in Denmark, and also an improvement in survival. The 5-year OS was significantly better in recent years even when we adjusted the analysis for relevant covariates.

  13. Growth performance and survival rate of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of aflatoxin- contaminated feed (0% toxigenic maize, 25% toxigenic maize +75% good maize, 50% toxigenic maize+50%good maize, 75% toxigenic maize +25% good maize and 100% toxigenic maize) on growth, survival, haematology and histology ...

  14. Survival rates in West African savanna birds | Stevens | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite widespread interest in life histories and the comparison of parameters between tropical and temperate regions, there are still relatively few multispecies studies assessing annual survival in Afrotropical species. We used data from systematic mist-netting of savanna birds in Nigeria, between 2001 and 2008, ...

  15. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer: a nationwide Danish study from 1980 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    regression analysis in relation to location, gender, age, and calendar year at diagnosis. Results: Altogether, 8299 patients with oral cancer were identified, 5062 (61%) of whom were males and 3237 (39%) were females. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. The AAIR of patients with OC increased from 1......Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... to 2014. Material and methods: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980–2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox...

  17. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  18. Sex Disparity in Survival of Patients With Uveal Melanoma: Better Survival Rates in Women Than in Men in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, San Jun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Yeon, Bora; Cho, Hyunsoon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with uveal melanoma and sex disparity in this rate in South Korea. We extracted incident uveal melanoma patients using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database, which covered the entire population from 1999 to 2012 in South Korea. We estimated all-cause survival probabilities and cancer-specific survival probabilities of patients with uveal melanoma and compared these probabilities between subgroups (sex, tumor site, age at diagnosis, etc.) using Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank tests. We fitted the Cox-proportional hazards models for all-cause death and cancer death to determine sex disparities in survival. A total of 344 uveal melanoma patients (175 women, 51%) were ascertained. They comprised 283 patients with choroidal melanoma (82%) and 61 patients with ciliary body/iris melanoma (18%). The observed 5-year survival probability from all-cause death was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%-79%); women with uveal melanoma showed higher survival probability (83% [95% CI: 76%-89%]) compared with men (66% [95% CI: 58%-73%], P Korea, which requires further investigation of mechanism of the sex disparity in uveal melanoma.

  19. Preoperative Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Independently Predicts Overall Survival in Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma following Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Cross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the relationship between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and overall survival in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC following nephrectomy. Methods. 167 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized RCC had ESR levels measured preoperatively. Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were used to determine Area Under the Curve and relative sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ESR in predicting overall survival. Cut-offs for low (0.0–20.0 mm/hr, intermediate (20.1–50.0 mm/hr, and high risk (>50.0 mm/hr groups were created. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the univariate impact of these ESR-based groups on overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential of these groups to predict overall survival, adjusting for other patient and tumor characteristics. Results. Overall, 55.2% were low risk, while 27.0% and 17.8% were intermediate and high risk, respectively. Median (95% CI survival was 44.1 (42.6–45.5 months, 35.5 (32.3–38.8 months, and 32.1 (25.5–38.6 months, respectively. After controlling for other patient and tumor characteristics, intermediate and high risk groups experienced a 4.5-fold (HR: 4.509, 95% CI: 0.735–27.649 and 18.5-fold (HR: 18.531, 95% CI: 2.117–162.228 increased risk of overall mortality, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperative ESR values represent a robust predictor of overall survival following nephrectomy in localized RCC.

  20. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  1. High survival and hatching rates following vitrification of embryos at blastocyst stage: a bovine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Y J; Chung, Jin-Tae; Tan, Seang Lin; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Cryopreservation of embryos at the blastocyst stage may provide an effective method to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate for each treatment cycle of ovarian-stimulated IVF. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and hatching rate of bovine blastocysts following vitrification using a method designed for oocytes, with a view to introducing this methodology into human assisted reproduction technology and reproductive medicine. Bovine blastocysts were produced from abattoir materials subjected to in-vitro maturation and in-vitro fertilization. Survival rate of the bovine blastocysts was 100% (94/94) following vitrification using a method designed for oocyte cryopreservation. There was no difference in the hatching rate of the bovine blastocysts between control (62.5%: 60/96) and vitrified (61.7%: 58/94) groups. The number of dead cells in the blastocysts was not significantly different between control (5.0 +/- 2.9) and vitrified (9.5 +/- 4.0) groups. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that bovine blastocysts can be vitrified successfully using a procedure designed for oocyte cryopreservation. It is possible that this method may also be successful for the cryopreservation of human embryos. A further study into this is currently being organized.

  2. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  3. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo-Yun; Lee, Chung-O; Kim, Jin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982-1996 (256 patients), 1999-2006 (248 patients), and 2007-2011 (196 patients). Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis.

  4. Effect of nitric oxide on spinal evoked potentials and survival rate in rats with decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Broholm, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have, in experimental settings, been shown to decrease intravascular nitrogen bubble formation and to increase the survival rate during decompression sickness (DCS) from diving. The effect has been ascribed to a possible removal of preexisting micronuclei...... evaluated by means of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs). Anesthetized rats were decompressed from a 1-h hyperbaric air dive at 506.6 kPa (40 m of seawater) for 3 min and 17 s, and spinal cord conduction was studied by measurements of SEPs. Histological samples of the spinal cord were analyzed for lesions...... GTN (group 6) during the dive, before decompression. In all groups, decompression caused considerable intravascular bubble formation. The ISMN groups showed no difference compared with the control group, whereas the GTN groups showed a tendency toward faster SEP disappearance and shorter survival...

  5. Improved survival rate in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Heaf, J

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the survival rate of Danish diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1990 and 2005 and evaluated possible predictors of survival rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Register on Dialysis and Transplantation...... diabetic: 5%, non-diabetic: 24%. The survival rate of transplanted patients with diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) compared with non-diabetic patients at 1 year was: 95 vs 93%, at 5 years: 80 vs 85% and at 10 years: 52 vs 71%. Among diabetic patients survival rate was better in transplanted than in waiting...... and from the Scandiatransplant database. Survival rates in different patient groups and association with age, sex, calendar time, waiting-list status and renal transplantation were evaluated using a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: During the study period 8,421 patients (13% type 1 diabetic, 9...

  6. Survival and Growth Rates of Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis urolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings were fed twice daily using commercial fish feeds (white Rose floating type), initially at a rate of 5% of their total body weight (TBW) and two weeks later at 10% of their TBW. The growth rate (weight and length) was recorded once a week except for handling control fingerlings which were recorded at the beginning ...

  7. Variation in dicer gene is associated with increased survival in T-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    Full Text Available Dicer, an endonuclease in RNase III family, is essential for the RNA interference (RNAi pathway. Aberrant expression of Dicer has been shown in various cancers including some subtypes of T cell lymphoma (TCL, which influences patient prognosis. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs3742330A>G has been identified in the Dicer gene, located in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR that is important for mRNA transcript stability. We investigated whether rs3742330 is associated with the survival in 163 TCL patients. Significant association between Dicer rs3742330 and TCL survival were found. Patients carrying the GG genotype (n = 12 had a significantly increased overall survival (OS compared with those carrying the GA and AA genotypes (n = 70 and n = 81, respectively; p = 0.031. Moreover, the significant association was maintained for patients with mature T type (n = 134; p = 0.026. In multivariate Cox-regression analysis, rs3742330 proved to be an independent predictor for OS, together with the commonly used International Prognostic Index (IPI and BAFF rs9514828, another SNP we have previously reported to be associated with TCL survival, with hazard ratios (HRs for patient death rate of 8.956 (95% CI, 1.210 to 66.318; p = 0.032 for the GA genotype and 10.145 (95% CI, 1.371 to 75.084; p = 0.023 for the AA genotype. Furthermore, we observed cumulative effects of Dicer rs3742330 and BAFF rs9514828 on TCL survival. Compared with patients carrying zero unfavorable genotype, those carrying one and two unfavorable genotypes had an increased risk of death with a HR of 7.104 (95% CI, 0.969-53.086; p = 0.054 and 14.932 (95% CI, 1.950-114.354; p = 0.009, respectively, with a significant dose-response trend (p(trend  = 0.004. In conclusion, Dicer rs3742330 is associated with TCL survival, suggesting that genetic variation might play a role in predicting prognosis of TCL patients.

  8. Use of alpaca seminal plasma on ovulation rate and embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The South American camelids are a domesticated species adapted to the high Andes, they are considered as a species of induced ovulation. In these species, so that the release of the oocyte occurs, a neuroendocrine interaction and stimulation during intercourse (which have to lasts on average 18 minutes is necessary. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of an inducing factor for the ovulation found in the seminal plasma of the male that is crucial for ovulation to occurs in camelids. From 1968 researches were initiated to confirm and determine the inductor factor. The works have shown that ovulation in alpacas occurs after intramuscular and intravaginal application of seminal plasma. Recent studies showed the luteotropic effect of this factor, which is evidenced by the increase and retention of circulating concentrations of LH, the rapid change in the vascularization of the pre-ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum development, this contributes to the increase of the embryonic survival rate, due to the stimulus that causes this hormone in the pituitary to release LH, triggering an additional luteotropic effect on the corpus luteum with increased secretion of progesterone. At the field, level the results are not as manifest in relation to the results obtained when the ultrasound monitoring is performed. However, the work done by different research groups confirm the contribution of seminal plasma in increasing fertility rates and embryonic survival in domestic camelids such as alpaca and llama.

  9. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Luisa de Brito, Pacheco; Isabel Cristina, Olegário; Clarissa Calil, Bonifácio; Ana Flávia Bissoto, Calvo; José Carlos Pettorossi, Imparato; Daniela Prócida, Raggio

    2017-11-06

    Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE) and Vitro Molar (DFL). A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%). There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98-2.62, p = 0.058). The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%). Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  10. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  11. Survival Rates in Trauma Patients Following Health Care Reform in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Turner; Glance, Laurent G; Li, Wenjun; Buzas, Jeffery S; Hosmer, David W

    2015-07-01

    Massachusetts introduced health care reform (HCR) in 2006, expecting to expand health insurance coverage and improve outcomes. Because traumatic injury is a common acute condition with important health, disability, and economic consequences, examination of the effect of HCR on patients hospitalized following injury may help inform the national HCR debate. To examine the effect of Massachusetts HCR on survival rates of injured patients. Retrospective cohort study of 1,520,599 patients hospitalized following traumatic injury in Massachusetts or New York during the 10 years (2002-2011) surrounding Massachusetts HCR using data from the State Inpatient Databases. We assessed the effect of HCR on mortality rates using a difference-in-differences approach to control for temporal trends in mortality. Health care reform in Massachusetts in 2006. Survival until hospital discharge. During the 10-year study period, the rates of uninsured trauma patients in Massachusetts decreased steadily from 14.9% in 2002 to 5.0.% in 2011. In New York, the rates of uninsured trauma patients fell from 14.9% in 2002 to 10.5% in 2011. The risk-adjusted difference-in-difference assessment revealed a transient increase of 604 excess deaths (95% CI, 419-790) in Massachusetts in the 3 years following implementation of HCR. Health care reform did not affect health insurance coverage for patients hospitalized following injury but was associated with a transient increase in adjusted mortality rates. Reducing mortality rates for acutely injured patients may require more comprehensive interventions than simply promoting health insurance coverage through legislation.

  12. Aminophylline Improves Urine Flow Rates but Not Survival in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Variable AKI outcomes have been reported in association with aminophylline treatment. This study evaluated AKI outcome in a group of Nigerian children treated with aminophylline. Methods: This is a retrospective study of AKI in children ...

  13. Improving survival rates of newborn infants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield David

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number, rates and causes of early neonatal deaths in South Africa were not known. Neither had modifiable factors associated with these deaths been previously documented. An audit of live born infants who died in the first week of life in the public service could help in planning strategies to reduce the early neonatal mortality rate. Methods The number of live born infants weighing 1000 g or more, the number of these infants who die in the first week of life, the primary and final causes of these deaths, and the modifiable factors associated with them were collected over four years from 102 sites in South Africa as part of the Perinatal Problem Identification Programme. Results The rate of death in the first week of life for infants weighing 1000 g or more was unacceptably high (8.7/1000, especially in rural areas (10.42/1000. Intrapartum hypoxia and preterm delivery are the main causes of death. Common modifiable factors included inadequate staffing and facilities, poor care in labour, poor neonatal resuscitation and basic care, and difficulties for patients in accessing health care. Conclusion Practical, affordable and effective steps can be taken to reduce the number of infants who die in the first week of life in South Africa. These could also be implemented in other under resourced countries.

  14. Advanced Unilateral Retinoblastoma: The Impact of Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery on Enucleation Rate and Patient Survival at MSKCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available To report on the influence of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC on enucleation rates, ocular and patient survival from metastasis and impact on practice patterns at Memorial Sloan Kettering for children with advanced intraocular unilateral retinoblastoma.Single-center retrospective review of all unilateral retinoblastoma patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma treated at MSKCC between our introduction of OAC (May 2006 and December 2014. End points were ocular survival, patient survival from metastases and enucleation rates.156 eyes of 156 retinoblastoma patients were included. Primary enucleation rates have progressively decreased from a rate of >95% before OAC to 66.7% in the first year of OAC use to the present rate of 7.4%. The percent of patients receiving OAC has progressively increased from 33.3% in 2006 to 92.6% in 2014. Overall, ocular survival was significantly better in eyes treated with OAC in the years 2010-2014 compared to 2006-2009 (p = 0.023, 92.7% vs 68.0% ocular survival at 48 months. There have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group but two patients treated with primary enucleation have died of metastatic disease.OAC was introduced in 2006 and its impact on patient management is profound. Enucleation rates have decreased from over 95% to less than 10%. Our ocular survival rate has also significantly and progressively improved since May 2006. Despite treating more advanced eyes rather then enucleating them patient survival has not been compromised (there have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group. In our institution, enucleation is no longer the most common treatment for advanced unilateral retinoblastoma.

  15. Trends in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-year survival rates of beta-thalassemia patients in Southern Iran, 1995-2016: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Results: Five and 10-year survival rates remained unchanged since 1995-2016. Overall, 20- and 30-year survival rates were lower in younger birth cohorts than older ones. A declining trend was found in 20-year survival rate from 1995 to 2000 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was stable from 2001 to 2016. In addition, there was a declining trend in 30-year survival rate from 1995 to 2008 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was an increased trend from 2009 to 2016. Conclusion: Over the past two decades and in recent birth cohorts, the 20- and 30-year survival rates has declined. In other words, declining survival trends in the birth cohorts may be associated with some different causes of mortality such as exposure to the toxic effects of iron over time and the occurrence of diseaserelated mortality.

  16. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  17. Survival and Recovery Rates of Mallards Banded Postseason in South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a published report on the survival and recovery rates of mallards after they have been banded in South Carolina. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) has...

  18. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  19. Differentiating Telephone Surveys from Telemarketing to Increase Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that including the statement "I'm not selling anything" in a telephone survey introduction does not significantly affect response rates. Shows that only an introduction with a university reference significantly increased response rates. (SR)

  20. Survival Rate and its Related Factors in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghaffarian Shirazi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been noted that the myocardial infarction is an increasing episode in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help to reduce the number of death from this ongoing event. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and its association with different variables. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study evaluates 111 cases of acute myocardial infarction admitted in Yasuj Imam Sajjad hospital during the year 2004 and 2005. Data were collected using a questionnaire which was completed through direct interviewing by trained personnel. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of patients was 57± 12 years. The mean time of having access to physician after MI was 4 ± 2.2 hours. The mean time of reaching hospital after physician order was 5 ± 4.9 hours. The mean time of hospitalization was 4 ± 1.67 days. Considering the past history of these patients revealed that 31 percent were smokers, 16 percent had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 63 percent had hypertension, 8 percent had diabetes mellitus, 95 percent had clip I, 95 percent had no previous block, 82 percent had MI with Q wave. The survival rate in our study was found to be 0.91 in the first 10 hours, 0.847 in the first day, 0.829 in the first 28 days, 0.820 in the first third months, 0.792 in the first six months and 0.771 in the first 10 months of disease. Conclusion: The mortality rate during the first month among the patients with heart failure turned out to be higher than that of the other similar studies performed in other parts of the country however, the annual survival rate proved to be less. The most important causes of survival after the stroke are being single, smoking, fatness and angina pain

  1. Association between a Hospital’s Rate of Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Cardiac Arrest Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lena M.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Li, Yan; Chan, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Context National efforts to measure hospital performance for cardiac arrest have focused on case survival, with the hope of improving survival after cardiac arrest. However, it is plausible that hospitals with high case-survival rates do a poor job of preventing cardiac arrests in the first place. Objective To describe the association between inpatient cardiac arrest incidence and survival rates. Design, Setting, and Patients Within a large, national registry, we identified hospitals with at least 50 adult in-hospital cardiac arrest cases between January 1, 2000 and November 30, 2009. We used multivariable hierarchical regression to evaluate the correlation between a hospital’s cardiac arrest incidence rate and its case-survival rate after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Main Outcome Measure The correlation between a hospital’s incidence rate and case-survival rate for cardiac arrest. Results Of 102,153 cases at 358 hospitals, the median hospital cardiac arrest incidence rate was 4.02 per 1000 admissions (IQR: 2.95 to 5.65 per 1000 admissions), and the median hospital case-survival rate was 18.8% (IQR: 14.5% to 22.6%). In crude analyses, hospitals with higher case-survival rates also had lower cardiac arrest incidence (correlation of -0.16; P=0.003). This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics (correlation of -0.15; P=0.004). After adjusting for potential mediators of this relationship (i.e., hospital characteristics), the relationship between incidence and case-survival was attenuated (correlation of -0.07; P=0.18). The one modifiable hospital factor that most attenuated this relationship was a hospital’s nurse-to-bed ratio (correlation of -0.12; P=0.03). Conclusions Hospitals with exceptional rates of survival for in-hospital cardiac arrest are also better at preventing cardiac arrests, even after adjusting for patient case-mix. This relationship is partially mediated by measured hospital attributes

  2. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  3. Introduction of a prediction model to assigning periodontal prognosis based on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canut, Pedro; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alvarez-Novoa, Pablo; Alvarez-Novoa, Carmen; Marcos, Ana; Noguerol, Blas; Noguerol, Fernando; Zabalegui, Ion

    2017-09-04

    To develop a prediction model for tooth loss due to periodontal disease (TLPD) in patients following periodontal maintenance (PM), and assess its performance using a multicentre approach. A multilevel analysis of eleven predictors of TLPD in 500 patients following PM was carried out to calculate the probability of TLPD. This algorithm was applied to three different TLPD samples (369 teeth) gathered retrospectively by nine periodontist, associating several intervals of probability with the corresponding survival rates, based on significant differences in the mean survival rates. The reproducibility of these associations was assessed in each sample (One-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison with Bonferroni corrections). The model presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity, with optimal calibration and discrimination measurements. Seven intervals of probability were associated with seven survival rates and these associations contained close to 80% of the cases: the probability predicted the survival rate at this percentage. The model performed well in the three samples, since the mean survival rates of each association were significantly different within each sample, while no significant differences between the samples were found in pair-wise comparisons of means. This model might be useful for predicting survival rates in different TLPD samples This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Özgür Demiralp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P<0.05. Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials.

  5. Splenectomy increases the survival time of heart allograft via developing immune tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The spleen is an active lymphoid organ. The effect of splenectomy on the immune response remains unclear. This study investigated whether splenectomy can induce immune tolerance and has a beneficial role in cardiac allograft. Methods Wistar rats were used for heart donors. The Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats designated as the recipients of heart transplantation (HT) were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, splenectomy, HT, splenectomy + HT. The survival of transplanted hearts was assessed by daily checking of abdominal palpation. At various time points after transplantation, the transplanted hearts were collected and histologically examined; the level of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) and rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (annexin-v+ PI+ cells) in the blood were analyzed by using flow cytometric method. Results 1) Splenectomy significantly prolonged the mean survival time of heart allografts (7 ± 1.1 days and 27 ± 1.5 days for HT and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 12-14/group, HT vs. splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy delayed pathological changes (inflammatory cell infiltration, myocardial damage) of the transplanted hearts in splenectomy + HT rats; 3) The level of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in the blood of splenectomized rats was significantly increased within 7 days (2.4 ± 0.5%, 4.9 ± 1.3% and 5.3 ± 1.0% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p splenectomy surgery and gradually decreased to baseline level; 4) Splenectomy increased the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis (day 7: 0.3 ± 0.05%, 3.9 ± 0.9% and 4.1 ± 0.9% for sham, splenectomy and splenectomy + HT, respectively; n = 15/group, sham vs. splenectomy or splenectomy + HT, p Splenectomy inhibits the development of pathology and prolongs the survival time of cardiac allograft. The responsible mechanism is associated with induction of immune

  6. Ant Mutualism Increases Long-Term Growth and Survival of a Common Amazonian Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Selene; Donoso, David A; Queenborough, Simon A; Jaramillo, Liliana; Valencia, Renato; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    How ecological context shapes mutualistic relationships remains poorly understood. We combined long-term tree census data with ant censuses in a permanent 25-ha Amazonian forest dynamics plot to evaluate the effect of the mutualistic ant Myrmelachista schumanni (Formicinae) on the growth and survival of the common Amazonian tree Duroia hirsuta (Rubiaceae), considering its interactions with tree growth, population structure, and habitat. We found that the mutualist ant more than doubled tree relative growth rates and increased odds of survival. However, host tree size and density of conspecific neighbors modified the effect of the ant. Smaller trees hosting the mutualist ant consistently grew faster when surrounded by higher densities of conspecifics, suggesting that the benefit to the tree outweighs any negative effects of high conspecific densities. Moreover, our findings suggest that the benefit afforded by the ant diminishes with plant age and also depends on the density of conspecific neighbors. We provide the first long-term large-scale evidence of how mutualism affects the population biology of an Amazonian tree species.

  7. Neurogenesis and Increase in Differentiated Neural Cell Survival via Phosphorylation of Akt1 after Fluoxetine Treatment of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine (FLX is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and β-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten μM of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology.

  8. Look Different: Effect of Radiation Hormesis on the Survival Rate of Immunosuppressed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, M; Taeb, S; Okhovat, M A; Atefi, M; Negahdari, F

    2016-09-01

    Hormesis is defined as the bio-positive response of something which is bio-negative in high doses. In the present study, the effect of radiation hormesis was evaluated on the survival rate of immunosuppressed BALB/c mice by Cyclosporine A. We used 75 consanguine, male, BALB/c mice in this experiment. The first group received Technetium-99m and the second group was placed on a sample radioactive soil of Ramsar region (800Bq) for 20 days. The third group was exposed to X-rays and the fourth group was placed on the radioactive soil and then injected Technetium-99m. The last group was the sham irradiated control group. Finally, 30mg Cyclosporine A as the immunosuppressive agent was orally administered to all mice 48 hours after receiving X-rays and Technetium-99m. The mean survival rate of mice in each group was estimated during time. A log rank test was run to determine if there were differences in the survival distribution for different groups and related treatments. According to the results, the survival rate of all pre-irradiated groups was more than the sham irradiated control group (p Ramsar region for 20 days and then injected Technetium-99m. This study confirmed the presence of hormetic models and the enhancement of survival rate in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice as a consequence of low-dose irradiation. It is also revealed the positive synergetic radioadaptive response on survival rate of immunosuppressed animals.

  9. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  10. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    .... Smutny, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  11. 76 FR 67320 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... CONTACT: Jeff Smutny, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  12. 78 FR 77327 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... 2011-12 marketing year and would therefore be considered small handlers according to the SBA definition... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate...

  13. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  14. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  15. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  16. [Impact of ishemia-reperfusion injury on long survival rate in intestinal transplantation in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausada, Natalia; Stringa, Pablo; Cabanne, Ana; Ramisch, Diego; Machuca, Mariana; Galvao, Flavio; Coronato, Silvia; Raimondi, Jorge Clemente; Gondolesi, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    The intestine is a highly sensitive tissue to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury that will early respond increasing its permeability. Later this response is translated in morphologic and histological changes that reveal the degree of damage. The heterotopic intestinal transplantation model in rats allows to evaluate the evolution of intestinal tissue injury after ischemia-reperfusion without affecting the long survival rate. The aim of this paper is to establish a relationship between the ischemic reperfusion injury with the long-term survival Ten intestinal transplants were analyzed in adult, Wistar, inbred, male rats. Light microscopical examination was performed on intestine graft: 1) immediately post-dissection, 2) at the end of cold isquemia, 3) 30 min, 4) 48hs and 5) 5 days post-transplant procedure, respectively. Biopsies were reported according to Park's classification and extension of staining using immunohistochemestry to malondialdehyde (MDA) products. The Park's classification indexes reported in samples were 1) 0,57 +/- 1,13 (N=10); 2) 2,71 +/- 1,25 (N=10); 3) 4,14 +/- 0,89 (N=10); 4) 1,0 +/- 0,81 (N=7); 5) 0 (N=7). The highest levels of immunohistochemical detection of MDA were observed thirty minutes post-reperfusion (extension of staining between 51% to 75%). Three animals died when they were sampled at 48 hours, and the biopsies had Park's classification > or = 4 at 30 minutes post-reperfusion and endotoxemic signology. The highest degree of mucosal damage was observed immediately post-reperfusion. At 48hs the graft tended to be normalized Failure to repair the immediately I-R injury signficantly affects the long term survival.

  17. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  18. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve (DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites using ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Pr...

  19. Physical skill training increases the number of surviving new cells in the adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Curlik

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is a major site of plasticity in the adult brain, giving rise to thousands of new neurons every day, through the process of adult neurogenesis. Although the majority of these cells die within two weeks of their birth, they can be rescued from death by various forms of learning. Successful acquisition of select types of associative and spatial memories increases the number of these cells that survive. Here, we investigated the possibility that an entirely different form of learning, physical skill learning, could rescue new hippocampal cells from death. To test this possibility, rats were trained with a physically-demanding and technically-difficult version of a rotarod procedure. Acquisition of the physical skill greatly increased the number of new hippocampal cells that survived. The number of surviving cells positively correlated with performance on the task. Only animals that successfully mastered the task retained the cells that would have otherwise died. Animals that failed to learn, and those that did not learn well did not retain any more cells than those that were untrained. Importantly, acute voluntary exercise in activity wheels did not increase the number of surviving cells. These data suggest that acquisition of a physical skill can increase the number of surviving hippocampal cells. Moreover, learning an easier version of the task did not increase cell survival. These results are consistent with previous reports revealing that learning only rescues new neurons from death when acquisition is sufficiently difficult to achieve. Finally, complete hippocampal lesions did not disrupt acquisition of this physical skill. Therefore, physical skill training that does not depend on the hippocampus can effectively increase the number of surviving cells in the adult hippocampus, the vast majority of which become mature neurons.

  20. Measles Vaccination Supports Millennium Development Goal 4: Increasing Coverage and Increasing Child Survival in Northern Ghana, 1996–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Welaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMeasles vaccine (MV administered as the last vaccine after the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP may be associated with better child survival unrelated to prevention of measles infection. Other studies have shown that MV administered after DTP was more beneficial and was associated with lower mortality compared with DTP administered after MV or DTP administered simultaneously with MV. We compared the difference in mortality between measles vaccinated after DTP3 and measles-unvaccinated children in Navrongo, Ghana.MethodsThis was a follow-up study involving annual cohort of children aged 9–23 months from 1996 to 2012. We assessed survival in relation to the measles vaccination status within the first 12 months from interview date and until 5 years of age using Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsIn all, 38,333 children were included in the study. The proportion of children vaccinated with MV-after-DTP3 increased from 45% in 1996 to 95% in 2012. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for measles unvaccinated compared with MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated children was 1.38 (1.15–1.66 in the first 12 months after assessment of vaccination status and 1.22 (1.05–1.41 with follow-up to 5 years of age. The national immunization days campaigns with oral polio vaccine or MV might have reduced the effect of being MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated vs MV-unvaccinated. For 12 months of follow-up, the HR before a campaign for MV-unvaccinated children was 1.63 (1.23–2.17 compared to those who received MV-after-DTP3. After the campaign, the HR reduced to 1.23 (0.97–1.54. Stratifying the analysis by sex, measles-unvaccinated boys had a HR of 1.69 (1.33–2.61 compared to measles-unvaccinated girls who had a HR 1.06 (0.79–1.40 during 1-year follow-up. In 1989, only 7% of children in the area had received MV-after-DTP3; the increase in MV-after-DTP3 coverage from 1989 to 2012 may have lowered mortality rate among children aged 9 months to

  1. Survival Rate of Dental Implants in Patients with History of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Francisco; Gouveia, Sónia; Felino, António Campos; Costa, Ana Lemos; Almeida, Ricardo Faria

    To evaluate the differences between the survival rates of implants placed in patients with no history of periodontal disease (NP) and in patients with a history of chronic periodontal disease (CP). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all consenting patients treated with dental implants in a private clinic in Oporto, Portugal, from November 2, 2002 through February 11, 2011 were included. All patients were treated consecutively by the same experimental operator. This study aimed to analyze how the primary outcomes (presence of disease, time of placement, and time of loading) and the secondary outcomes (severity-generalized periodontitis, brand, implant length, prosthesis type, prosthesis metal-ceramic extension) influence the survival rate of dental implants. The survival analysis was performed through the Kaplan-Meier method, and the equality of survival distributions for all groups was tested with the log-rank test with a significance level of .05 for all comparisons. The sample consisted of 202 patients (47% NP and 53% CP) and 689 implants (31% NP and 69% CP). The survival rate in the NP and CP groups showed no statistically significant differences (95.8% versus 93.1%; P ≥ .05). Implants were lost before loading in 54.9% of the cases. The majority of the implants were lost in the first year and stabilized after the second year. Survival rates in the NP and CP patients showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the following factors: subclassification of the disease, implant brands, implant length (short/standard), type of prosthesis, extension of the prosthesis metal-ceramic, and time of placement and loading (P ≥ .05). This work disclosed no statistically significant differences in terms of survival rates when compared with the control group. Placing implants in patients with a history of periodontal disease appears to be viable and safe.

  2. Ten-year survival and success rate of implant-prosthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ihan Hren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implant-prosthodontic treatment for restoring a single missing tooth, partial edentulism and complete edentulism is a predictive and successful method in terms of both the survival rate of implants and the different parameters which determine the success rate of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year survival and success rates of dental implants, analyze the causes of early and late complications, and assess the type and number of prosthodontic complications.Patients and methods: In 51 patients, 113 titanium dental implants were inserted by one surgeon using a two-stage surgical protocol. The prosthodontic treatment included fixed or removable treatment options. Implant survival and success were evaluated 10 years after the completion of prosthodontic treatment. The evaluation comprised history, clinical examination with assessment of success parameters (prosthesis functionality, peri-implant tissue status, and x-ray assessment of bone loss.Results: Two implants were lost before and two 10 years after the prosthodontic treatment. The survival rate of implants was 96.4 % on the average, 100 % in the lower jaw, and 92.5 % in the upper jaw. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed in 4.5 % of all implants. The success rate was thus 95.5 %. Technical complications occurred in 2.8 % of fixed prostheses and 19 % of removable prostheses.Conclusion: The long-term survival and success rates of dental implants are high. Proper implant prosthodontic treatment planning is crucial to achieving high survival and success rates of implant treatment. Bone quality has to be taken into account when implant treatment is performed. Peri-implantitis is rarely observed, and prosthodontic complications are uncommon. On completion of the surgical and prosthetic phases of treatment, patients must be followed at regular intervals to ensure timely management of complications.

  3. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  4. Factors Influencing the Cure Rate in the Corneal Graft Rejection with Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feizi S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Immunologic rejection of the transplanted cornea is the major cause of human allograft failure with several risk factors contributing to it. Since in the corneal graft, most individuals do not reject the graft, we used the survival analysis with cure rate for the assessment of the factors influencing the cure rate at the time of data analysis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the cure rate and assess the risk factors for corneal graft rejection in the keratoconus disease in Labafinejad Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: This was a routine data base study in which the data were gathered from keratoconus patients’ files that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty operation. In the survival analysis, individuals who didn’t reject corneal were considered cured. To study the factors influencing the cure rate, we used the Weibull distribution for survival function and the logistic link function for the cure rate because of their tractability and accuracy.Results: Out of 119 patients 31 patients (26% rejected grafts. Among the factors influencing cure rate, only in vascularization and in persons older than 25 years of age was ameaningful effect on decreasing cure rate. With this cure model, the expected cure rate in the non-vascularization and less than 25 year- old patients was 81, in non-vascularization and more than 25 year- olds it is 64, in the vascularization and less than 25 year- olds, the cure rate is 19 and in the vascularization and more than 25 years of age, the cure rate is 9 percent and the observed cure rate for Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator was 79, 61, 27 and 0 percent, respectively. The results showed that the estimate of cure rate in the survival analysis was near the Kaplan-Meier product-limits estimator.Conclusion: One of the benefits of modeling is its ability to generalize the results; using them in the prediction. According to the results obtained from the fitting cure model

  5. 76 FR 50703 - Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 984 Walnuts Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This...

  6. Increasing seatbelt usage rate among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    While seatbelt use has increased considerably during the last two decades, non-use and inconsistent use is still a significant problem, especially among youths. In addition, population-wide seatbelt rates may appear acceptable, but the rate is low in...

  7. Rowing Crew Coordination Dynamics at Increasing Stroke Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Laura S; Zaal, Frank T J M; de Poel, Harjo J

    2015-01-01

    In rowing, perfect synchronisation is important for optimal performance of a crew. Remarkably, a recent study on ergometers demonstrated that antiphase crew coordination might be mechanically more efficient by reducing the power lost to within-cycle velocity fluctuations of the boat. However, coupled oscillator dynamics predict the stability of the coordination to decrease with increasing stroke rate, which in case of antiphase may eventually yield breakdowns to in-phase. Therefore, this study examined the effects of increasing stroke rate on in- and antiphase crew coordination in rowing dyads. Eleven experienced dyads rowed on two mechanically coupled ergometers on slides, which allowed the ergometer system to move back and forth as one 'boat'. The dyads performed a ramp trial in both in- and antiphase pattern, in which stroke rates gradually increased from 30 strokes per minute (spm) to as fast as possible in steps of 2 spm. Kinematics of rowers, handles and ergometers were captured. Two dyads showed a breakdown of antiphase into in-phase coordination at the first stroke rate of the ramp trial. The other nine dyads reached between 34-42 spm in antiphase but achieved higher rates in in-phase. As expected, the coordinative accuracy in antiphase was worse than in in-phase crew coordination, while, somewhat surprisingly, the coordinative variability did not differ between the patterns. Whereas crew coordination did not substantially deteriorate with increasing stroke rate, stroke rate did affect the velocity fluctuations of the ergometers: fluctuations were clearly larger in the in-phase pattern than in the antiphase pattern, and this difference significantly increased with stroke rate. Together, these results suggest that although antiphase rowing is less stable (i.e., less resistant to perturbation), potential on-water benefits of antiphase over in-phase rowing may actually increase with stroke rate.

  8. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  9. Interdependence of response rates, survival rates, stage and histology after radio-/chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schratter, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Szalay, S.; Janisch, H.

    1982-11-01

    Between February 1977 and February 1981, 55 patients with ovarian cancer (45 at stage III and 10 at stage IV) underwent simultaneous radio-/chemotherapy and early therapeutic second-look operation. The overall response rate amounts to 94%, 63% of which are complete and 31% are partial emissions. Stage III comprises 74% complete and 26% partial remissions. Patients with complete remission at stage III have a significantly longer tumor-free survival time than patients with partial remission (median 16 vs. 8 months). A longer overall survival time (median 30 vs. 16 months) is also significant. At stage III there have been 74% successful therapeutic second operations. In all patients with residual tumors above 2 cm in diameter after primary operation a response rate of 92% could be achieved, 52% showed complete remissions. The survival time proved to be independent of both histological parameter and age. The remaining residual tumor above or under 2 cm in diameter in any single location is, however, a significant prognostic factor for long-time survival. Possible curative chances for patients with stage III disease are only to be expected through interdisciplinary oncological cooperation.

  10. Prospective 5-year survival rate data following open-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerrit; von Heyden, Johanna; Pestka, Jan; Schmal, Hagen; Salzmann, Gian; Südkamp, Norbert; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using internal plate fixation is a well-established and frequently performed treatment option for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) in the young and active patients. The present study provides survival rate and functional outcome preoperatively and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Hypothesis of the authors was high survival rates after 5 years with still remaining satisfying functional results. Sixty-two patients suffering from tibial conditioned knee joint varus deformity and medial compartment OA that underwent high tibial osteotomy using an internal plate fixator (TomoFix™, Synthes) were included. Functional outcome was evaluated prior to surgery and in the further clinical course using standard instruments (IKDC score, Lysholm score). Treatment failure was defined as the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.8 ± 10.2 years) were available at a mean of 60.5 (SD ± 2.5) months (follow-up rate 82.3 %) postoperatively. Sixty-month IKDC (69.4 % SD ± 18.6) and Lysholm (76.6 SD ± 20.5) improved significantly when comparing with preoperative values (IKDC 44.6 SD ± 17.8; Lysholm 52.1 SD ± 20.8). Two of 51 subjects underwent TKA, resulting in a survival rate of 96 % among those patients followed (51 of 60; 85 %). Overall complication rate was 8.6 %. With a survival rate of over 96 % at 5 years, high tibial osteotomy seems to be a reliable treatment option with satisfying clinical outcome. Functional outcome was stable following 60 months. While a delay of the necessity for TKA seems likely with regard to the survival rate demonstrated in this article, possible avoidance needs to be demonstrated by longer follow-up studies. Therapeutic case series, Level IV.

  11. When do correlations increase with firing rates in recurrent networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K Barreiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A central question in neuroscience is to understand how noisy firing patterns are used to transmit information. Because neural spiking is noisy, spiking patterns are often quantified via pairwise correlations, or the probability that two cells will spike coincidentally, above and beyond their baseline firing rate. One observation frequently made in experiments, is that correlations can increase systematically with firing rate. Theoretical studies have determined that stimulus-dependent correlations that increase with firing rate can have beneficial effects on information coding; however, we still have an incomplete understanding of what circuit mechanisms do, or do not, produce this correlation-firing rate relationship. Here, we studied the relationship between pairwise correlations and firing rates in recurrently coupled excitatory-inhibitory spiking networks with conductance-based synapses. We found that with stronger excitatory coupling, a positive relationship emerged between pairwise correlations and firing rates. To explain these findings, we used linear response theory to predict the full correlation matrix and to decompose correlations in terms of graph motifs. We then used this decomposition to explain why covariation of correlations with firing rate-a relationship previously explained in feedforward networks driven by correlated input-emerges in some recurrent networks but not in others. Furthermore, when correlations covary with firing rate, this relationship is reflected in low-rank structure in the correlation matrix.

  12. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  13. Worse Long-term Patient Survival and Higher Cancer Rates in Liver Transplant Recipients With a History of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, Richard S; Fridell, Jonathan A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Loeffler, Amanda L; Krause, Audrey A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Tiwari, Sarika; Tector, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This study is a retrospective review of liver transplant (LT) recipients to determine the impact of tobacco exposure on 10-year survival and de novo cancer (CA) incidence. The records of 1275 consecutive LT patients were reviewed (2001 to 2011). Patients were categorized as current, previous, or never smokers (NS) at listing for LT. Additionally, smokers were stratified by pack-years of tobacco exposure. Events included patient death, cardiovascular events, and de novo cancers. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate survival. A complete cause of death analysis is provided, as well as a detailed tumor registry. Current (n = 279) and previous smokers (n = 323) were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at transplant (25%, 29% vs 18% [NS], P history of smoking, and the risk of negative events increases with increasing tobacco use. Smokers have higher rates of HCC and recurrence, de novo cancer, and worse long-term survival. This study summarizes the clinical outcomes for 1275 LT patients over 10 years, analyzing the impact of pre transplant recipient tobacco use. There are 47% of patients with a history of smoking. Because of demonstrated higher cancer rates and decreased survival, patients with a significant smoking history should be carefully scrutinized for liver transplantation.

  14. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  15. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  16. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved pension...

  17. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3...

  18. Retrospective Study of the Survival Rates of Indirect Pulp Therapy Versus Different Pulpotomy Medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Patrice Barsamian; Kuhnen, Marissa M; Best, Al M; Brickhouse, Tegwyn H

    2016-10-15

    The purposes of this retrospective chart review were to determine: (1) how primary molars in need of vital pulp therapy (VPT) have been treated over a period of four years at a university-based pediatric dental practice (UBP); and which treatments-indirect pulp therapy (IPT), formocresol pulpotomy (FCP), and ferric sulfate pulpotomy (FSP)-have been successful. Electronic patient records (axiUm) that contained the procedure codes D3120 (pulp cap-indirect) or D3220 (therapeutic pulpotomy) were totaled by year. Visit records were queried again to identify treatment failures (i.e., extractions [D7140] or pulpectomy [D3221/D3240]). A total of 2,001 primary molar teeth were included in the study. Success was compared using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. At the three-year follow-up, IPT had a 96.2 percent survival rate, FCP had a 65.8 percent survival rate, and FSP had a 62.9 percent survival rate (P<.0001). Over a four-year period of time, IPT became the more commonly used vital pulp therapy treatment at a university-based pediatric dental practice and had a significantly better survival rate than FCP or FSP.

  19. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...

  20. The effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of | Makhafola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of cryopreserved cock semen. Semen from three cock breeds; White Leghorn (WL), Ovambo (OV) and Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) was collected by means of the abdominal massage technique. Following semen collection, sperm were analyzed for ...

  1. Survival and growth rate of coastal water Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salt concentration on the survival and growth rate of Escherichia coli isolated from Lagos Lagoon surface water was investigated. This was necessitated to ascertain the suitability of using E. coli as feacal pollution indicator in this water body which experiences fluctuation in salinity values. The salinity during the ...

  2. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  3. The increasing predictive validity of self-rated health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Schnittker

    Full Text Available Using the 1980 to 2002 General Social Survey, a repeated cross-sectional study that has been linked to the National Death Index through 2008, this study examines the changing relationship between self-rated health and mortality. Research has established that self-rated health has exceptional predictive validity with respect to mortality, but this validity may be deteriorating in light of the rapid medicalization of seemingly superficial conditions and increasingly high expectations for good health. Yet the current study shows the validity of self-rated health is increasing over time. Individuals are apparently better at assessing their health in 2002 than they were in 1980 and, for this reason, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is considerably stronger across all levels of self-rated health. Several potential mechanisms for this increase are explored. More schooling and more cognitive ability increase the predictive validity of self-rated health, but neither of these influences explains the growing association between self-rated health and mortality. The association is also invariant to changing causes of death, including a decline in accidental deaths, which are, by definition, unanticipated by the individual. Using data from the final two waves of data, we find suggestive evidence that exposure to more health information is the driving force, but we also show that the source of information is very important. For example, the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is smaller among those who use the internet to find health information than among those who do not.

  4. Increased collagen synthesis rate during wound healing in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Zhou

    Full Text Available Wound healing in muscle involves the deposition of collagen, but it is not known whether this is achieved by changes in the synthesis or the degradation of collagen. We have used a reliable flooding dose method to measure collagen synthesis rate in vivo in rat abdominal muscle following a surgical incision. Collagen synthesis rate was increased by 480% and 860% on days 2 and 7 respectively after surgery in the wounded muscle compared with an undamaged area of the same muscle. Collagen content was increased by approximately 100% at both day 2 and day 7. These results demonstrate that collagen deposition during wound healing in muscle is achieved entirely by an increase in the rate of collagen synthesis.

  5. Immunocompetence index selection of broiler chicken lines for disease resistance and their impact on survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to develop the disease resistance broiler chicken lines over two generations (G0 , G1 and G2 of selection for immunocompetence (IC index by targeting all the facets of immune response traits viz., humoral response (HR to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, cell mediated immune response (CMI to phytohaeagglutination- Pmitogen (PHA-P, levels of serum serum immunoglobin- G (IgG and serum lysozyme (LZM level.Materials and Methods: The SDLSynthetic Dam Line (SDL broiler line consisting of 303, 204 and 300 birds in G0 , G1 and G2 generations, respectively were screened for immunocompetence traits such as humoral response to SRBCs, cell mediated immune response to PHA-Pand levels of serum lysozyme by Lysoplate assay and IgG by SRID method, and ranked based on their IC index values. Results: The percent survival rate up to 6 weeks of age in SDL broiler chicken lines were selected for high immunocompetence index (HIC and low immunocompetence index values (LIC over two generations (G1 , G1 and G2 of selection and observed that significant differences (P< 0.05 in percent survival pattern in the base population (n= 303 with the highest survivability of 100.00% was observed in 5-6 weeks of age followed by 99.37% and 97.23% in 4-5 and 0-4 weeks of age respectively. In the G1 generation, significant differences ( P<0.01 was noticed in the selected high and low index lines up to 6 weeks of age with the overall survival rate lower in high index lines (93.10% as compared to the low index lines (97.62%. Whereas the reverse trend was observed in the G2 generation that the high index line had significantly (P<0.05 higher survival percent (98.62% as compared to the low index lines (97.93%. Moreover, the overall survival rate was better substantially over the two generations of divergent immunocompetent index selection of SDL broiler chicken lines. The present investigation revealed that breeding for better immunocompetence status by selection index

  6. Hypothermia after cardiac arrest as a novel approach to increase survival in cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Rahmani, Farzad; Safari, Saeid; Golzari, Samad Ej

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this review study was to evaluate therapeutic mild hypothermia, its complications and various methods for induced mild hypothermia in patients following resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Studies conducted on post-cardiac arrest cares, history of induced hypothermia, and therapeutic hypothermia for patients with cardiac arrest were included in this study. We used the valid databases (PubMed and Cochrane library) to collect relevant articles. According to the studies reviewed, induction of mild hypothermia in patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation would lead to increased survival and better neurological outcome; however, studies on the complications of hypothermia or different methods of inducing hypothermia were limited and needed to be studied further. This study provides strategic issues concerning the induction of mild hypothermia, its complications, and different ways of performing it on patients; using this method helps to increase patients' neurological survival rate.

  7. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  8. Survival Rate of Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Charmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran, 2000- 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M vakili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Cancers are the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases globally. Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. This cancer is the third leading cause of death in America and one of the most prevalent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. Methods: The present observational (the analytical type study was conducted using the longitudinal and survival study methods. The population study included all patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. The samples were selected by the census method and all the patients diagnosed with colorectal between the years 2000 to 2010 (estimated to be about 452 cases. After collecting the data and coding them, they were inserted into the SPSS 16 and STATA 12 software. To investigate the survival and the factors influencing the survival time of patients which was the main objective of this study, the Kaplan-Meier method was used. In order to compare the survival function in different subgroups, the log rank test or generalized Wilcoxon test was used. Results: From the total 452 patients with colorectal cancer, 232 cases were male (51.3% and 220 were females (48.7%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.12 ±19.99 years at the time of diagnosis. The median age of patients was 60 years. The probability of survival at 1, 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of colorectal cancer in both sexes using the Kaplan-Meier was 85.7%, 71.9,% 52.5% respectively. Conclusion: Although the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province was at a desirable level, the need for further studies to identify prognostic factors is essential.

  9. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Non-Rated Air Force Line Officer Attrition Rates Using Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    priority for the project: schedule or cost [15]. A study conducted by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency ( NIMA ) used the concept of stocks and flows...quantity–such as food in a grocery store–and flows are rates at which the inventory flows into or out of stocks. NIMA is also a government entity, and is

  11. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  12. Metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: are survival rates excellent only within the stringent framework of clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, A; Agodi, A; Balaguer, J; Garaventa, A; Barchitta, M; Segura, V; Bianchi, M; Castel, V; Castellano, A; Cesaro, S; Couselo, J M; Cruz, O; D'Angelo, P; De Bernardi, B; Donat, J; de Andoin, N G; Hernandez, M I; La Spina, M; Lillo, M; Lopez-Almaraz, R; Luksch, R; Mastrangelo, S; Mateos, E; Molina, J; Moscheo, C; Mura, R; Porta, F; Russo, G; Tondo, A; Torrent, M; Vetrella, S; Villegas, J A; Viscardi, E; Zanazzo, G A; Cañete, A

    2017-01-01

    SIOPEN INES protocol yielded excellent 5-year survival rates for MYCN-non-amplified metastatic neuroblastoma. Patients deemed ineligible due to lack or delay of MYCN status or late registration were treated, but not included in the study. Our goal was to analyse survival at 10 years among the whole population. Italian and Spanish metastatic INES patients' data are reported. SPSS 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Among 98 infants, 27 had events and 19 died, while 79 were disease free. Five- and 10-year event-free survival (EFS) were 73 and 70 %, and overall survival (OS) was 81 and 74 %, respectively. MYCN status was significant for EFS, but not for OS in multivariate analysis. The survival rates of patients who complied with all the inclusion criteria for INES trials are higher compared to those that included also not registered patients. Five-year EFS and OS for INES 99.2 were 87.8 and 95.7 %, while our stage 4s population obtained 78 and 87 %. Concerning 99.3, 5-year EFS and OS were 86.7 and 95.6 %, while for stage 4 we registered 61 and 68 %. MYCN amplification had a strong impact on prognosis and therefore we consider it unacceptable that many patients were not studied for MYCN and probably inadequately treated. Ten-year survival rates were shown to decrease: EFS from 73 to 70 % and OS from 81 to 74 %, indicating a risk of late events, particularly in stage 4s. Population-based registries like European ENCCA WP 11-task 11 will possibly clarify these data.

  13. Chemotherapy increases long-term survival in patients with adult medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocakaya, Selin; Beier, Christoph Patrick; Beier, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    parts of treatment regimes; however, established prognostic factors and data clarifying the role of chemotherapy are missing. METHODS: We investigated 227 publications from 1969-2013, with 907 identifiable, individual patients being available for meta-analysis. Demographic data, risk stratification...... chemotherapy first-line survived significantly longer (mOS: 108 mo, 95% CI: 68.6-148.4) than patients treated with radiation alone (mOS: 57 mo, 95% CI: 39.6-74.4) or patients who received chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. This effect was not biased by tumor stage or decade of treatment. Importantly, (neo......)adjuvant chemotherapy also significantly increased the chance for long-term survival (>5 y) compared with radiotherapy alone or chemotherapy at tumor recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis clarifies relevant prognostic factors and suggests that chemotherapy as part of first-line therapy improves overall survival...

  14. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-18

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate(ASR) in DNNR(52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan(13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR(26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan(3.2%). The daily survival rate(DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources.

  15. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  16. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...: Jerry L. Simmons, Marketing Specialist or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would...

  17. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ..., Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would...

  18. 78 FR 77604 - Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 966 Tomatoes Grown in Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed...

  19. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. Under the marketing order now in..., such as the Committee's Executive, Marketing, Inspection, and Research Subcommittees. Alternate... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY...

  20. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  1. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Troyer

    Full Text Available Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor, using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960 than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920, while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106 than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067. Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004, indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  2. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  3. IMPROVED SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATES IN VITRIFIED-WARMED PIG OOCYTES AFTER RECOVERY CULTURE WITH COENZYME Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, D ae-Jin; Kwak, Tae-Uk; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    The primary problems with porcine oocyte vitrification are their low viability and development; both need improvement. This study was designed to improve the survival and developmental rates in vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were vitrified-warmed with Cryotop. Then the oocytes were supplemented with Q10 during recovery culture. The survival rates immediately after warming were 92.9% by morphological inspection and 39.3% by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay. The group of recovery culture with Q10 (VC+Q10) showed significantly higher viability compared to the group of recovery culture without Q10 (VC+) analyzed by morphology and the FDA. The VC+Q10 group showed a low Bax/Bcl-xl ratio and a high expression of MAP3K12 and TGFB3 compared to the VC+. The cleavage rate did not differ in both groups but, blastocyst yield was higher in VC+Q10 than the VC+ group. Supplementation of Q10 during recovery culture led to a higher blastocyst yield by increasing survival rates and regulating mRNA expressions.

  4. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  5. Aromatase expression increases the survival and malignancy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya De Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available In postmenopausal women, local estrogen produced by adipose stromal cells in the breast is believed to support estrogen receptor alpha (ERα positive breast cancer cell survival and growth. This raises the question of how the ERα positive metastatic breast cancer cells survive after they enter blood and lymph circulation, where estrogen level is very low in postmenopausal women. In this study, we show that the aromatase expression increased when ERα positive breast cancer cells were cultured in suspension. Furthermore, treatment with the aromatase substrate, testosterone, inhibited suspension culture-induced apoptosis whereas an aromatase inhibitor attenuated the effect of testosterone suggesting that suspended circulating ERα positive breast cancer cells may up-regulate intracrine estrogen activity for survival. Consistent with this notion, a moderate level of ectopic aromatase expression rendered a non-tumorigenic ERα positive breast cancer cell line not only tumorigenic but also metastatic in female nude mice without exogenous estrogen supplementation. The increased malignant phenotype was confirmed to be due to aromatase expression as the growth of orthotopic tumors regressed with systemic administration of an aromatase inhibitor. Thus, our study provides experimental evidence that aromatase plays an important role in the survival of metastatic ERα breast cancer cells by suppressing anoikis.

  6. Increased pancreatic cancer survival with greater lymph node retrieval in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carlo M; Lin, Chee Paul; Oster, Robert A; Reddy, Sushanth; Wang, Thomas; Vickers, Selwyn; Heslin, Martin

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the role of lymph node (LN) retrieval in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We utilized the National Cancer Data Base; Cox regression models and logistic regression models were used for statistical evaluation. We evaluated 26,792 patients with PA who underwent PD. The mean LN retrieved in LN(-) patients was 10.8 vs 14.4 for LN(+) patients (P < 0.0001). Greater LN retrieval is an independent predictor of a negative microscopic margin and decreased length of stay. The median survival of LN(-) patients exceeded that of LN(+) patients (24.5 vs 15.1 months, P < 0.0001). Increasing LN retrieval is a significant predictor of survival in all patients, and in LN(-) patients. The relationship of increased LN retrieval and enhanced survival is a nearly linear trend. Rather than demonstrating an inflection point that defines the extent of adequate lymphadenectomy, this dataset demonstrates an incremental relationship between LN retrieval and survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  9. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the

  10. Catecholamine-Independent Heart Rate Increases Require CaMKII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Singh, Madhu V; Hall, Duane D; Koval, Olha M.; Luczak, Elizabeth D.; Joiner, Mei-ling A.; Chen, Biyi; Wu, Yuejin; Chaudhary, Ashok K; Martins, James B; Hund, Thomas J; Mohler, Peter J; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Catecholamines increase heart rate by augmenting the cAMP responsive HCN4 ‘pacemaker current’ (If) and/or by promoting inward Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current (INCX), by a ‘Ca2+ clock’ mechanism in sinoatrial nodal cells (SANCs). The importance, identity and function of signals that connect If and Ca2+ clock mechanisms are uncertain and controversial, but the multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is required for physiological heart rate responses to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation. The aim of this stuy is to measure the contribution of the Ca2+ clock and CaMKII to cardiac pacing independent of β-AR agonist stimulation. Methods and Results We used the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist BayK 8644 (BayK) to activate the SANC Ca2+ clock. BayK and isoproterenol were similarly effective in increasing rates in SANCs and Langendorff-perfused hearts from WT control mice. In contrast, SANCs and isolated hearts from mice with CaMKII inhibition by transgenic expression of an inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) were resistant to rate increases by BayK. BayK only activated CaMKII in control SANCs, but increased ICa equally in all SANCs, indicating that increasing ICa was insufficient and suggesting CaMKII activation was required for heart rate increases by BayK. BayK did not increase If or protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of phospholamban (at Ser16), indicating that increased SANC Ca2+ by BayK did not augment cAMP/PKA signaling at these targets. Late diastolic intracellular Ca2+ release and INCX were significantly reduced in AC3-I SANCs and the response to BayK was eliminated by ryanodine in all groups. Conclusions The Ca2+ clock is capable of supporting physiological fight or flight responses, independent of β-AR stimulation or If increases. Complete Ca2+ clock and β-AR stimulation responses require CaMKII. PMID:21406683

  11. Effect of increased vacuum and aspiration rates on phacoemulsification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Isha; Cahoon, Judd M; Gardiner, Gareth; Garff, Kevin; Henriksen, Bradley S; Pettey, Jeff H; Barlow, William R; Olson, Randall J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of vacuum and aspiration rates on phacoemulsification efficiency. John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Formalin-soaked porcine lenses were divided into 2.0 mm cubes, and 0.9 mm 30-degree beveled 20-degree bent tips were used with micropulse ultrasound (US) (6 milliseconds on and 6 milliseconds off) and a peristaltic flow system. Vacuum levels were tested at 200, 300, 400, and 500 mm Hg, and aspiration rates were tested at 20, 35, and 50 mL/min. Efficiency (time to lens removal) and chatter (number of lens fragment repulsions from the tip) were determined. Increasing vacuum increased efficiency only when going from 200 mm Hg to higher vacuum levels. Increasing aspiration increased efficiency at all points measured (25 mL/min versus 35 mL/min, P vacuum was increased from 200 mm Hg to 300 mm Hg and up. Chatter decreased with increasing flow. Vacuum improved efficiency only up to 300 mm Hg and was more dependent on increasing flow. Similarly, chatter correlated with 200 mm Hg vacuum only and was more correlated with flow. Limitations of this study include use of only 1 US power modulation and hard nuclear material. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  13. Pepperweed invasion increases nitrogen cycling rates in irrigated grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, E. F.; Yang, W. H.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) is a perennial exotic species that has spread throughout the western United States, invading natural and agricultural systems. Pepperweed has been documented to increase soil microbial enzyme activity associated with nitrogen (N) mineralization, but the effect of pepperweed on soil N cycling has not been determined. The objectives of this study were to determine if (1) pepperweed elevates gross mineralization rates in bulk soil, (2) pepperweed impacts rates of other gross N cycling processes, and (3) N cycling patterns change with soil depth. We used 15N pool dilution and tracer techniques to measure rates of gross N mineralization, gross nitrification, dissimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction to ammonium (NH4+) (DNRA), and net N2O fluxes from replicate plots (n = 6 per cover type) dominated by pepperweed versus dominated by an invasive annual grass (Hordenum murinem) with no pepperweed present. Because pepperweed has extensive root systems, we measured gross N cycling rates at three depths (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm) to determine pepperweed effects through the soil profile. Soil NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, microbial biomass N (MBN), and gravimetric soil moisture content were also measured at each soil depth. Soil oxygen (O2) concentrations were measured from soil equilibration chambers buried at 10, 30, and 50 cm depth. Pepperweed plots exhibited significantly higher soil NH4+ concentrations, gross mineralization rates, and soil O2 concentrations across all depths (p < 0.05, ANOVAs). Gross nitrification rates, MBN, soil NO3- concentrations, and soil moisture did not differ significantly between pepperweed-dominated and grass-dominated plots. Between the cover types, soil concentrations of NH4+ and O2 as well as rates of mineralization and DNRA were higher in surface soils (0-20 cm) than deeper soils (20-40 and 40-60 cm) (p < 0.05, ANOVAs). Gross mineralization rates in surface soils (0-20 cm) averaged 30.1 ± 4.3 μg g-1 d-1 in grass

  14. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  15. Occurrence of complications and survival rates in elderly with neurological disorders undergoing enteral nutrition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Rezende, Nilton Alves de; Torres, Henrique Oswaldo da Gama

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of complications, as well as the survival rates, in elderly people having neurological diseases and undergoing enteral nutrition therapy (ENT). Patients aged over 60 years, assisted by a home medical service from a healthcare plan in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were thoroughly evaluated. The mentioned evaluation occurred at their homes after hospital discharge with enteral nutrition (EN) after a three-month period, a six-month period, and at the end of the study. A nutritional assessment was performed along with data collection performed on the patients' electronic medical records, and interviews performed with patients' family members and caregivers. Seventy-nine patients aged 82.9 ± 10.4 years old were evaluated; of these, 49.4% presented dementia, and 50.6% presented other neurological diagnoses. 100% of patients presented a high dependence level, assessed by the Katz index. The majority of patients (91.2%) presented some complications such as: pneumonia, catheter loss, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, fluid leakage, periostotomy, tube obstruction, reflux, and myiasis. Pneumonia was the most frequent complication, occurring in 55.9% of cases. The mortality rates were 15.2% at a three-month period, 22.8% at a six-month period, and 43% at the end of study. The median survival after starting EN was 364 days. Differences among the mortality rate and neurological diagnosis, EN routes of access, and complications were not observed. The survival rate was lower in patients having inadequate nutritional status and albumin levels nutritional status according to the clinical assessment and albumin levels lower than 3.5 mg/dL significantly influenced the survival rates.

  16. Daily survival rate and habitat characteristics of nests of Wilson's Plover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Elizabeth; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed habitat characteristics and measured daily survival rate of 72 nests of Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) during 2012 and 2013 on South Island and Sand Island on the central coast of South Carolina. At both study areas, nest sites were located at slightly higher elevations (i.e., small platforms of sand) relative to randomly selected nearby unused sites, and nests at each study area also appeared to be situated to enhance crypsis and/or vigilance. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests ranged from 0.969 to 0.988 among study sites and years, and the probability of nest survival ranged from 0.405 to 0.764. Flooding and predation were the most common causes of nest failure at both sites. At South Island, DSR was most strongly related to maximum tide height, which suggests that flooding and overwash may be common causes of nest loss for Wilson's Plovers at these study sites. The difference in model results between the 2 nearby study sites may be partially due to more-frequent flooding at Sand Island because of some underlying yet unmeasured physiographic feature. Remaining data gaps for the species include regional assessments of nest and chick survival and habitat requirements during chick rearing.

  17. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, DN; Adarsha, MS; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2–10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. Materials and Methods This study evaluated the existing literature – survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The

  18. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, Dn; Adarsha, Ms; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2-10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. This study evaluated the existing literature - survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The weighted mean was computed. The study found that the window preparation was of the

  19. Recombinant human erythropoietin increases survival and reduces neuronal apoptosis in a murine model of cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Lothar; Hempel, Casper; Penkowa, Milena

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is an acute encephalopathy with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes and localized ischaemia. In children CM induces cognitive impairment in about 10% of the survivors. Erythropoietin (Epo) has - besides of its well known...... with recombinant human Epo (rhEpo; 50-5000 U/kg/OD, i.p.) at different time points. The effect on survival was measured. Brain pathology was investigated by TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-digoxigenin nick end labelling), as a marker of apoptosis. Gene...... expression in brain tissue was measured by real time PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with rhEpo increased survival in mice with CM in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced apoptotic cell death of neurons as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain. This neuroprotective effect...

  20. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas.

  1. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. Materials and Methods: A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. Results: In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). Conclusion: OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas. PMID:23814575

  2. Humic substances increase survival of freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2013-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are known to decrease the toxicity of heavy metals to aquatic organisms, and it has been suggested that they can provide buffering protection in low pH conditions. Despite this, little is known about the ability for HS to increase survival to acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the ability of HS to increase survival of the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D sensu Page et al. in Biol Lett 1:139-142, 2005) to acid mine drainage was investigated using test waters collected from the Mount Morgan open pit in Central Queensland with the addition of Aldrich humic acid (AHA). The AMD water from the Mount Morgan open pit is highly acidic (pH 2.67) as well as contaminated with heavy metals (1780 mg/L aluminum, 101 mg/L copper [Cu], 173 mg/L manganese, 51.8 mg/L zinc [Zn], and 51.8 mg/L iron). Freshwater shrimp were exposed to dilutions in the range of 0.5 % to 5 % AMD water with and without the addition of 10 or 20 mg/L AHA. In the absence of HS, all shrimp died in the 2.5 % AMD treatment. In contrast, addition of HS increased survival in the 2.5 % AMD treatment by ≤66 % as well as significantly decreased the concentration of dissolved Cu, cobalt, cadmium, and Zn. The decreased toxicity of AMD in the presence of HS is likely to be due to complexation and precipitation of heavy metals with the HS; it is also possible that HS caused changes to the physiological condition of the shrimp, thus increasing their survival. These results are valuable in contributing to an improved understanding of potential role of HS in ameliorating the toxicity of AMD environments.

  3. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  4. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste

    OpenAIRE

    Quirynen, Marc; De Soete, Marc; Pauwels, M.; Goossens, K.; Teughels, Wim; Van Eldere, Johan; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND, AIMS: Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Ea...

  5. Microcalcification-Associated Breast Cancer: Presentation, Successful First Excision, Long-Term Recurrence and Survival Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Marga B; Steinmetz, Carolin; Westerman, Ronny; Ramaswamy, Annette; Albert, Ute-Susann

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluated mammographic, histological and immunohistochemical findings for microcalcification-associated breast cancer with regards to breast-conserving therapy, recurrence and survival rate. We retrospectively analyzed 99 consecutive, non-palpable and microcalcification-associated breast cancers (94 women) that were treated surgically between January 2002 and December 2003 at a national academic breast cancer center. Calcifications were classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Descriptors, surgical outcome and histological findings were assessed. Recurrences and survival rates were evaluated based on medical records, standardized patient questionnaires and/or contacting the physician. 42 of the 99 lesions (42.4%) were invasive carcinomas, 57 (57.6%) were pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). 6 out of 99 (6.1%) lesions were triple negative, and 29 (29.3%) were HER2/neu positive. Successful first excision rate was 76/99 lesions (76.8%). Breast conservation was achieved in 73.7% (73/99). 10 women showed local recurrences without negatively impacting survival. The recurrences included round/punctate, amorphous, fine pleomorphic, and fine linear or fine-linear branching descriptors. The breast cancer-specific long-term survival rate was 91/94 (96.8%) for a mean follow-up of 81.4 months. The 3 patients who died due to breast carcinoma showed fine pleomorphic calcifications, and had nodal-positive invasive carcinoma at diagnosis. Microcalcification-associated breast cancers are frequently treated with breast-conserving therapy. Continuous clinical and mammographic follow-up is recommended for all descriptors.

  6. Improvement of piglet survival rate in relation to farrowing systems and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, A; Le Dividich, J

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in the same farrowing house with the aim of comparing the efficiency of two types of floors and in order to estimate the effect of bedding material on the performance of newborn piglets. In addition, the productivity data of our sow herd as well as those of the national herd, were analysed in order to study the effect of the farrowing system and piglet maturity at birth on the survival rate of the newborn. The main results clearly show the detrimental effect on piglet survival of using slatted floors at farrowing. Furthermore the mode of sow tethering during parturition directly affects the piglets losses between birth and weaning, i.e. 2.03 piglets/litter for tethered sows, 2.17 for caged sows, 2.30 piglets when using farrowing rails. Use of a bedding material has a positive influence on the survival rate: 83.1% for straw, 78.5% for shredded paper versus 68.5% in the case of an insulated concrete floor. Rearing of newborn piglets in a cold environment leads to a drop in the rectal temperature, a poor body carbohydrate utilization and a decrease in colostrum intake. This results in a poor immunity, a low survival rate and a growth rate depression. Search for optimal environmental conditions for the newborn piglet is more important than for the sow. An adequate management of farrowing houses is recommended involving tethering of the sows, extra heating of the pens when the piglets are born and during their first 3 weeks of life.

  7. Gastrin activates autophagy and increases migration and survival of gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shalini V; Solum, Guri; Niederdorfer, Barbara; Nørsett, Kristin G; Bjørkøy, Geir; Thommesen, Liv

    2017-01-21

    The peptide hormone gastrin exerts a growth-promoting effect in both normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue. Gastrin mediates its effect via the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCKBR/CCK2R). Although a substantial part of the gastric adenocarcinomas express gastrin and CCKBR, the role of gastrin in tumor development is not completely understood. Autophagy has been implicated in mechanisms governing cytoprotection, tumor growth, and contributes to chemoresistance. This study explores the role of autophagy in response to gastrin in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Immunoblotting, survival assays and the xCELLigence system were used to study gastrin induced autophagy. Chemical inhibitors of autophagy were utilized to assess the role of this process in the regulation of cellular responses induced by gastrin. Further, knockdown studies using siRNA and immunoblotting were performed to explore the signaling pathways that activate autophagy in response to gastrin treatment. We demonstrate that gastrin increases the expression of the autophagy markers MAP1LC3B-II and SQSTM1 in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Gastrin induces autophagy via activation of the STK11-PRKAA2-ULK1 and that this signaling pathway is involved in increased migration and cell survival. Furthermore, gastrin mediated increase in survival of cells treated with cisplatin is partially dependent on induced autophagy. This study reveals a novel role of gastrin in the regulation of autophagy. It also opens up new avenues in the treatment of gastric cancer by targeting CCKBR mediated signaling and/or autophagy in combination with conventional cytostatic drugs.

  8. β-Catenin Signaling Increases during Melanoma Progression and Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Chemoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnberg, Tobias; Menzel, Moritz; Ewerth, Daniel; Sauer, Birgit; Schwarz, Michael; Schaller, Martin; Garbe, Claus; Schittek, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Beta-catenin plays an important role in embryogenesis and carcinogenesis by controlling either cadherin-mediated cell adhesion or transcriptional activation of target gene expression. In many types of cancers nuclear translocation of beta-catenin has been observed. Our data indicate that during melanoma progression an increased dependency on the transcriptional function of beta-catenin takes place. Blockade of beta-catenin in metastatic melanoma cell lines efficiently induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion in monolayer and 3-dimensional skin reconstructs and decreases chemoresistance. In addition, subcutaneous melanoma growth in SCID mice was almost completely inhibited by an inducible beta-catenin knockdown. In contrast, the survival of benign melanocytes and primary melanoma cell lines was less affected by beta-catenin depletion. However, enhanced expression of beta-catenin in primary melanoma cell lines increased invasive capacity in vitro and tumor growth in the SCID mouse model. These data suggest that beta-catenin is an essential survival factor for metastatic melanoma cells, whereas it is dispensable for the survival of benign melanocytes and primary, non-invasive melanoma cells. Furthermore, beta-catenin increases tumorigenicity of primary melanoma cell lines. The differential requirements for beta-catenin signaling in aggressive melanoma versus benign melanocytic cells make beta-catenin a possible new target in melanoma therapy. PMID:21858114

  9. Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Adam J; Purves, Joanne; Rolff, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of ‘arming the enemy’: bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a panel of populations of Staphylococcus aureus that were experimentally selected for resistance to a suite of individual AMPs and antibiotics to investigate the ‘arming the enemy’ hypothesis. We tested whether the selected strains showed higher survival in an insect model (Tenebrio molitor) and cross-resistance against other antimicrobials in vitro. A population selected for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide iseganan showed increased in vivo survival, but was not more virulent. We suggest that increased survival of AMP-resistant bacteria almost certainly poses problems to immune-compromised hosts. PMID:25469169

  10. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  11. Evolution of invasive traits in nonindigenous species: increased survival and faster growth in invasive populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Lindsey W; Lodge, David M

    2014-09-01

    The importance of evolution in enhancing the invasiveness of species is not well understood, especially in animals. To evaluate evolution in crayfish invasions, we tested for differences in growth rate, survival, and response to predators between native and invaded range populations of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus). We hypothesized that low conspecific densities during introductions into lakes would select for increased investment in growth and reproduction in invasive populations. We reared crayfish from both ranges in common garden experiments in lakes and mesocosms, the latter in which we also included treatments of predatory fish presence and food quality. In both lake and mesocosm experiments, O. rusticus from invasive populations had significantly faster growth rates and higher survival than individuals from the native range, especially in mesocosms where fish were present. There was no influence of within-range collection location on growth rate. Egg size was similar between ranges and did not affect crayfish growth. Our results, therefore, suggest that growth rate, which previous work has shown contributes to strong community-level impacts of this invasive species, has diverged since O. rusticus was introduced to the invaded range. This result highlights the need to consider evolutionary dynamics in invasive species mitigation strategies.

  12. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 500 unselected patients with primary urinary bladder tumours the influence of urothelial atypia on the 5 years survival-rate was examined. All tumours were transitional-cell tumours categorized according to the T-classification. Mucosal biopsies from 7 pre-selected sites...... worse than those with normal bladder mucosa (5 years survival 42% versus 62%). This difference in survival-rate became apparent first after two years of observation. Grade II atypia in the bladder mucosa and grade III (carcinoma in situ) had equal significance assessed by the survival-rates....

  13. Jaundice increases the rate of complications and one-year mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Bernhard; Drolz, Andreas; Michl, Barbara; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Nikfardjam, Miriam; Zauner, Christian; Heinz, Gottfried; Trauner, Michael; Fuhrmann, Valentin

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P Jaundice is a common finding during the course of HH. It leads to an increased rate of complications and worse outcome in patients with HH. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Improvements in logistics could increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömsöe, A; Afzelius, S; Axelsson, C; Södersved Källestedt, M L; Enlund, M; Svensson, L; Herlitz, J

    2013-06-01

    In a review based on estimations and assumptions, to report the estimated number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and to speculate about possible future improvements in Sweden. An observational study. All ambulance organisations in Sweden. Patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry who suffered an OHCA between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Approximately 80% of OHCA cases in Sweden in which CPR was started are included. None In 11 005 patients, the 1-month survival rate was 9.4%. There are approximately 5000 OHCA cases annually in which CPR is started and 30-day survival is achieved in up to 500 patients yearly (6 per 100 000 inhabitants). Based on findings on survival in relation to the time to calling for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and the start of CPR and defibrillation, it was estimated that, if the delay from collapse to (i) calling EMS, (ii) the start of CPR, and (iii) the time to defibrillation were reduced to <2 min, <2 min, and <8 min, respectively, 300-400 additional lives could be saved. Based on findings relating to the delay to calling for the EMS and the start of CPR and defibrillation, we speculate that 300-400 additional OHCA patients yearly (4 per 100 000 inhabitants) could be saved in Sweden. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  16. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  17. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,014 Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes during the years 2000–2013 at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Methods A cross-sectional analysis study was conducted using national administrative records data from the entire country, regarding permanent occupational disability medical certification, pension payment and vital status. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI in order to assess the cohort characteristics and all-cause mortality risk. Total expenses derived from pension payments for the period were accounted for in U.S. dollars (USD, 2013. Results There were 12,917 deaths in 142,725.1 person-years. Median survival time was 7.26 years. After multivariate adjusted analysis, males (HR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 1.29–1.50, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers (HR, 1.41; 95 % CI, 1.15–1.73 and renal complications (HR, 3.49; 95 % CI, 3.18–3.83 had the highest association with all-cause mortality. The all-period expenses derived from pension payments amounted to $777.78 million USD (2013, and showed a sustained increment: from $58.28 million USD in 2000 to $111.62 million USD in 2013 (percentage increase of 91.5 %. Conclusions Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes had a median survival of 7.26 years, and those

  18. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Prescription Opioid Shopping Increase Overdose Rates in Medicaid Beneficiaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Benjamin C; Lupulescu-Mann, Nicoleta; Charlesworth, Christina J; Kim, Hyunjee; Hartung, Daniel M; Deyo, Richard A; McConnell, K John

    2017-11-23

    The link between prescription opioid shopping and overdose events is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that a history of prescription opioid shopping is associated with increased risk of overdose events. This is a secondary analysis of a linked claims and controlled substance dispense database. We studied adult Medicaid beneficiaries in 2014 with prescription opioid use in the 6 months before an ambulatory care or emergency department visit with a pain-related diagnosis. The primary outcome was a nonfatal overdose event within 6 months of the cohort entry date. The exposure of interest (opioid shopping) was defined as having opioid prescriptions by different prescribers with greater than or equal to 1-day overlap and filled at 3 or more pharmacies in the 6 months before cohort entry. We used a propensity score to match shoppers with nonshoppers in a 1:1 ratio. We calculated the absolute difference in outcome rates between shoppers and nonshoppers. We studied 66,328 patients, including 2,571 opioid shoppers (3.9%). There were 290 patients (0.4%) in the overall cohort who experienced a nonfatal overdose. In unadjusted analyses, shoppers had higher event rates than nonshoppers (rate difference of 4.4 events per 1,000; 95% confidence interval 0.8 to 7.9). After propensity score matching, there were no outcome differences between shoppers and nonshoppers (rate difference of 0.4 events per 1,000; 95% confidence interval -4.7 to 5.5). These findings were robust to various definitions of opioid shoppers and look-back periods. Prescription opioid shopping is not independently associated with increased risk of overdose events. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  1. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (pworking memory (pnutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Survival rate and pressure ulcer prevalence in patients with and without dementia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, E; Rosenzweig, J P; Meiron, O

    2017-07-02

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in older patients with advanced dementia versus older patients without dementia but with other comorbidities, such as diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PUs were thought to be more prevalent and to present a higher risk of mortality in patients with dementia. PUs were assessed on admission using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) staging system. Patients were classified as either with or without dementia according to Reisberg's functional assessment staging test (FAST). The prevalence of PUs and the survival rates were analysed and compared in both groups. The combined effect of PUs and dementia on survival was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The median survival rate of patients with PUs and dementia was 63 days, significantly lower than in patients with PUs without dementia 117 days. Both groups had similar other comorbidities. These findings underscore the requirement for geriatricians and health professionals to be more vigilant in examining PUs as dementia progresses.

  3. Surgical fusion of early onset severe scoliosis increases survival in Rett syndrome: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Jenny; Torode, Ian; Wong, Kingsley; Ellaway, Carolyn; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; Mcphee, Bruce I; Cundy, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Scoliosis is a common comorbidity in Rett syndrome and spinal fusion may be recommended if severe. We investigated the impact of spinal fusion on survival and risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection in Rett syndrome. Data were ascertained from hospital medical records, the Australian Rett Syndrome Database, a longitudinal and population-based registry, and from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Death Index database. Cox regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the effects of spinal surgery on survival and severe respiratory infection respectively in 140 females who developed severe scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥45°) before adulthood. After adjusting for mutation type and age of scoliosis onset, the rate of death was lower in the surgery group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.74; p=0.009) compared to those without surgery. Rate of death was particularly reduced for those with early onset scoliosis (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.52; p=0.002). There was some evidence to suggest that spinal fusion was associated with a reduction in risk of severe respiratory infection among those with early onset scoliosis (risk ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.03; p=0.06). With appropriate cautions, spinal fusion confers an advantage to life expectancy in Rett syndrome. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Long-Term Survival Rate in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Treated With Noninvasive Ventilation in Ordinary Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Bocchino, Speranza; Lembo, Rosalba; Monti, Giacomo; Greco, Massimiliano; Zambon, Massimo; Colombo, Sergio; Pasin, Laura; Beretta, Luigi; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation is a life-saving technique increasingly used to treat acute respiratory failure. Noninvasive ventilation has been applied mostly in ICUs, but several reasons brought to an increasing application of noninvasive ventilation in ordinary wards. Few articles evaluated the outcomes of patients receiving noninvasive ventilation including long-term follow-up. The aim of the present study was to assess 1-year survival rate of patients treated with noninvasive ventilation outside the ICU for acute respiratory failure of heterogeneous causes and to identify the predictors of long-term mortality. Prospective, observational, pragmatic study. Ordinary wards of a teaching hospital. Consecutive patients treated with noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. None. Two-hundred and twenty-patients were enrolled. Mortality rates at 30-day, 90-days, and 1-year follow-up were 20%, 26%, and 34%. When excluding patients with "do-not-resuscitate" status, mortality rates were 13%, 19%, and 28%. The multivariate analyses identified solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic patients, and do-not-resuscitate status as independent predictors of mortality with postoperative acute respiratory failure associated with improved survival. The same predictors were confirmed when excluding do-not-resuscitate patients from the analyses. Noninvasive ventilation applied in ordinary wards was effective, with long-term outcomes not different from those reported for ICU settings. Solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic malignancies, and do-not-resuscitate status predicted mortality, whereas patients with postoperative acute respiratory failure had the best survival rate. Additional studies are required to evaluate noninvasive ventilation efficacy in the wards compared with ICU.

  5. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  6. Relation of Mitral Valve Surgery Volume to Repair Rate, Durability, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Joanna; Toyoda, Nana; Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Itagaki, Shinobu; Egorova, Natalia N; Boateng, Percy; El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Adams, David H

    2017-04-24

    Degenerative mitral valve repair rates remain highly variable, despite established benefits of repair over replacement. The contribution of surgeon-specific factors is poorly defined. This study evaluated the influence of surgeon case volume on degenerative mitral valve repair rates and outcomes. A mandatory New York State database was queried and 5,475 patients were identified with degenerative mitral disease who underwent mitral valve operations between 2002 and 2013. Mitral repair rates, mitral reoperations within 12 months of repair, and survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox modeling and restricted cubic spline function. Median annual surgeon volume of any mitral operations was 10 (range 1 to 230), with a mean repair rate of 55% (n = 20,797 of 38,128). In the subgroup of patients with degenerative disease, the mean repair rate was 67% (n = 3,660 of 5,475), with a range of 0% to 100%. Mean repair rates ranged from 48% (n = 179 of 370) for surgeons with total annual volumes of ≤10 mitral operations to 77% (n = 1,710 of 2,216) for surgeons with total annual volumes of >50 mitral operations (p mitral valve disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.13 for every additional 10 mitral operations; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.17; p mitral operations annually; and improved 1-year survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.95 for every additional 10 operations; 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98; p = 0.001). For surgeons with a total annual volume of ≤25 mitral operations, repair rates were higher (63.8%; n = 180 of 282) if they operated in the same institution as a surgeon with total annual mitral volumes of >50 and degenerative mitral valve repair rates of >70%, compared with surgeons operating in the other institutions (51.3%; n = 580 of 1,130) (adjusted OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.60; p mitral repair rates, but also freedom from reoperation, and survival. The data from this study support the guideline's concept of reference referral to experienced mitral

  7. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  9. Prenatal Stress Exposure Generates Higher Early Survival and Smaller Size without Impacting Developmental Rate in a Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Pauline M; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Sopinka, Natalie M; Heath, John W; Love, Oliver P

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring. Specifically, we measured early survival, rate of development, and multiple measures of morphology. Low and high cortisol dosing of eggs resulted in significantly higher survival compared to controls (37% and 24% higher, respectively). Fish reared from high dose eggs were structurally smaller compared to control fish, but despite this variation in structural size, exposure to elevated cortisol did not impact developmental rate. These results demonstrate that elevations in egg cortisol can positively influence offspring fitness through an increase in early survival while also altering phenotype at a critical life-history stage. Overall, these results suggest that exposure to prenatal stress may not always produce apparently negative impacts on offspring fitness and further proposes that complex phenotypic responses should be examined in relevant environmental conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Overall survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer improved with an increase in second-line chemotherapy after gemcitabine-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan Dong; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Zhi Min; Ma, Wen; Zhou, Si Wei; Xie, De Rong

    2011-03-09

    In the last decade, gemcitabine-based regimen as first-line therapy has demonstrated low efficacy regarding overall survival benefit for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore a new strategy, such as an increased second-line chemotherapy rate, in order to improve overall survival. Retrospective data analysis. The data in the literature on gemcitabine-based therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer were collected by searching databases, such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, and EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews). Linear regression was used to explore the relationship between overall survival and second-line chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and residual survival. Ten randomized controlled trials, involving 2,679 patients, were included in the present study. The results indicated that overall survival was positively correlated with a combination of chemotherapy, stage of disease and second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (r = 0.753; P = 0.003). Meanwhile median overall survival would be prolonged about 1.56 days if second-line chemotherapy was increased by 1% (t = 4.33; P = 0.001). Progression-free survival was not significantly correlated with second-line chemotherapy (r = 0.092; P = 0.701); in contrast, residual survival was positively correlated with second-line chemotherapy (r = 0.717; P chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer; more attention should be paid after first-line therapy which must be administered skillfully in order to improve overall survival, and this is worthy of further study.

  11. Immunotherapy with subcutaneous immunogenic autologous tumor lysate increases murine glioblastoma survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmans, Jochen; Van Woensel, Matthias; Creyns, Brecht; Dejaegher, Joost; Bullens, Dominique M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2017-10-24

    Immunotherapeutic strategies for glioblastoma, the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor, aim to improve its disastrous consequences. On top of the standard treatment, one strategy uses T cell activation by autologous dendritic cells (DC) ex vivo loaded with tumor lysate to attack remaining cancer cells. Wondering whether 'targeting' in vivo DCs could replace these ex vivo ones, immunogenic autologous tumor lysate was used to treat glioma-inoculated mice in the absence of ex vivo loaded DCs. Potential immune mechanisms were studied in two orthotopic, immunocompetent murine glioma models. Pre-tumoral subcutaneous lysate treatment resulted in a survival benefit comparable to subcutaneous DC therapy. Focussing on the immune response, glioma T cell infiltration was observed in parallel with decreased amounts of regulatory T cells. Moreover, these results were accompanied by the presence of strong tumor-specific immunological memory, shown by complete survival of a second glioblastoma tumor, inoculated 100 days after the first one. Finally, in combination with temozolomide, survival of established glioma in mice could be increased. Our results show the potential of immunogenic autologous tumor lysate used to treat murine glioblastoma, which will be worthwhile to study in clinical trials as it has potential as a cost-efficient adjuvant treatment strategy for gliomas.

  12. Effect of culture system on survival rate of vitrified bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Nazari, H; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B; Shams-Esfandabadi, N

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of in vitro culture system on bovine blastocyst yield and quality after vitrification. In Experiment 1, IVM/IVF zygotes were allocated to three culture conditions: (I) Oviductal cells-SOF (OCM-SOF); (II) Oviductal cells-TCM (OCM-TCM); and (III) SOF for 8 days. There was no significant difference between blastocyst rates among groups. In Experiment 2, the IVP-blastocysts in three above culture conditions were vitrified within groups segregated according to age (Day 7 and 8) and blastocoelic cavity size (early and expanded blastocysts). A trend of higher survival rate was obtained in vitrified/warmed early blastocysts compared with expanded ones, so that the difference in OCM-TCM group was significant (P<0.001). Higher survival and hatching rates (P<0.001) were obtained in OCM-SOF and OCM-TCM groups (co-culture) compared with SOF group and the age of blastocyst had no effect on post-thaw survival and hatching rates. In Experiment 3, after staining of blastocysts, in fresh blastocysts the highest number of trophectoderm cells was observed in OCM-TCM group and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) was higher in co-culture groups than SOF group (P<0.001). In vitrified/warmed blastocysts the number of ICM and trophectoderm cells in co-culture groups was higher than SOF group (P<0.001) except for the ICM of expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, in our culture conditions, the blastocyst yield is not influenced by culture system, while the cryotolerance of IVP-blastocysts is positively influenced by the presence of somatic cells. Moreover, the expanded blastocysts are more susceptible to cryoinjury than early blastocysts.

  13. Survival Rates of Teeth with Primary Endodontic Treatment after Core/Post and Crown Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kandace; Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Stover, Sheila; Eichmiller, Frederick; Hashimoto, Lance; MacDonald, Scott; Barkley, Gordon

    2017-12-08

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of delayed placement of the core/post and crown on the outcomes of nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). According to the Delta Dental of Wisconsin claims database, 160,040 NSRCTs were completed with a core/post and a crown placed before the end of the continuous coverage period or occurrence of an untoward event. Untoward events were defined as a retreatment, apicoectomy, or extraction as defined by the Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature. Statistical analysis was performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The survival rate from the time of crown placement to an untoward event was 99.1% at 1 year, 96.0% at 3 years, 92.3% at 5 years, and 83.8% at 10 years. Failure rates were greater when a core/post was placed more than 60 days after the NSRCT (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.08) and when the crown was placed more than 60 days after the core/post placement (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14). Overall, the survival rates of NSRCT were greater when performed by an endodontist versus other providers. On the basis of the information available from insurance claims data, this study shows that the long-term survival rates of initial endodontic therapy are adversely affected by the delayed placement of the final restoration and full coverage crown. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher survival rates of chronic hemodialysis patients on anti-hypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, K; Shoji, T; Nakai, S; Watanabe, Y; Akiba, T; Tsubakihara, Y

    2009-01-01

    The effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on survival have not been examined in a large cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. We examined the relationship between blood pressure, anti-hypertensive drug therapy, and survival using the nationwide HD registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Outcomes were confirmed using the coded ID numbers of the 2005 and 2006 registries. Logistic analyses were performed to determine the effect of anti-hypertensive drug therapy on survival. A total of 163,668 patients (50.6% men; 31.5% with diabetes mellitus; mean age 63.6 years) on HD 3 times a week in 2005 were studied. Mean (SD) levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 153.4 (24.1) and 78.7 (13.7) mm Hg, respectively, before the HD session. Two-thirds of the HD patients were prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and the numbers of anti-hypertensive medications were: 1 in 26.8%, 2 in 24.4%, and 3 or more in 14.5% of the total patients. The 1-year mortality rate was 6.6% overall: 8.5% in patients not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and 5.6% among those prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the 1-year mortality rate was 0.724 (0.681-0.770, p anti-hypertensive drugs, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, HD duration, serum albumin, and systolic blood pressure. Survival was better in patients prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs, particularly renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, than in those not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The causality on this association remained to be determined and prospective studies on blood pressure target levels and the effects of anti-hypertensive drug class in HD patients are warranted. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Salamander growth rates increase along an experimental stream phosphorus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpers, Phillip M; Maerz, John C; Rosemond, Amy D; Benstead, Jonathan P

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient-driven perturbations to the resource base of food webs are predicted to attenuate with trophic distance, so it is unclear whether higher-level consumers will generally respond to anthropogenic nutrient loading. Few studies have tested whether nutrient (specifically, nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]) enrichment of aquatic ecosystems propagates through multiple trophic levels to affect predators, or whether N vs. P is relatively more important in driving effects on food webs. We conducted two-year whole-stream N and P additions to five streams to generate gradients in N and P concentration and N:P ratio (target N:P = 2, 8, 16, 32, 128). Larval salamanders are vertebrate predators of primary and secondary macroinvertebrate consumers in many heterotrophic headwater streams in which the basal resources are detritus and associated microorganisms. We determined the effects of N and P on the growth rates of caged and free-roaming larval Desmognathus quadramaculatus and the average body size of larval Eurycea wilderae. Growth rates and average body size increased by up to 40% and 60%, respectively, with P concentration and were negatively related to N:P ratio. These findings were consistent across both species of salamanders using different methodologies (cage vs. free-roaming) and at different temporal scales (3 months vs. 2 yr). Nitrogen concentration was not significantly related to increased growth rate or body size of the salamander species tested. Our findings suggest that salamander growth responds to the relaxation of ecosystem-level P limitation and that moderate P enrichment can have relatively large effects on vertebrate predators in detritus-based food webs.

  16. [Improvement strategy to increase vaccination rates in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggendorf, H; Freynik, P; Hofmann, F

    2011-08-01

    Vaccination rates in adolescents in Germany are not sufficient. An intervention programme, which has been launched by the community health centre in Essen, should significantly increase vaccination coverage. In 2001 the Children and Youth Health Service at the Community Health Centre in Essen implemented a specific strategy to improve vaccination rates in adolescents. Vaccination rates were determined by control of vaccination certificates of all 6 (th) graders in Essen (n=5 589). After control of vaccination records the parents got a written, individual vaccination counselling for their child as well as a referral to the paediatrician to get the missing vaccinations. After 6 months the vaccination certificates were looked at again and vaccination coverage was determined. At the initial vaccination record control of 6 (th) graders in 2001 only 15% of the students, who presented their vaccination certificate, had an appropriate age related immunisation status. 84% of the students had had the tetanus/diphtheria and polio booster. But only 43% had been given a second measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation and only 24% had a complete hepatitis B coverage. The intervention programme (e. g., individual vaccination counselling) improved vaccination rates for hepatitis B and MMR by 16%. From 2001 to 2008 vaccination coverage in this age group could be improved from 43% to 87% for the second MMR vaccination and from 24% to 85% for hepatitis B. A remarkable improvement in vaccination coverage in children and adolescents could be achieved by a single, individual, written vaccination reminder. As a prerequisite a good cooperation between schools/paediatricians and the health authorities is needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Do Increased Doses to Stem-Cell Niches during Radiation Therapy Improve Glioblastoma Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Adeberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. The reasons for the inevitable glioblastoma recurrence are yet understood. However, recent data suggest that tumor cancer stem cells (CSCs in the stem-cell niches, with self-renewing capacities, might be responsible for tumor initiation, propagation, and recurrence. We aimed to analyze the effect of higher radiation doses to the stem-cell niches on progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in glioblastoma patients. Materials and Methods. Sixty-five patients with primary glioblastoma treated with radiation therapy were included in this retrospective analysis. The SVZ and DG were segmented on treatment planning magnetic resonance imaging, and the dose distributions to the structures were calculated. The relationship of dosimetry data and survival was evaluated using the Cox regression analysis. Results. Conventionally fractionated patients (n=54 who received higher doses (Dmean ≥ 40 Gy to the IL SVZ showed improved PFS (8.5 versus 5.2 months; p=0.013. Furthermore, higher doses (Dmean ≥ 30 Gy to the CL SVZ were associated with increased PFS (10.1 versus 6.9 months; p=0.025. Conclusion. Moderate higher IL SVZ doses (≥40 Gy and CL SVZ doses (≥30 Gy are associated with improved PFS. Higher doses to the DG, the second stem-cell niche, did not influence the survival. Targeting the potential cancer stem cells in the SVZ might be a promising treatment approach for glioblastoma and should be addressed in a prospective randomized trial.

  18. Protein kinase G1 α overexpression increases stem cell survival and cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that overexpression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type 1α (PKG1α could mimic the effect of tadalafil on the survival of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs contributing to regeneration of the ischemic heart.MSCs from male rats were transduced with adenoviral vector encoding for PKG1α ((PKG1αMSCs.Controls included native MSCs ((NatMSCs and MSCs transduced with an empty vector ((NullMSCs. PKG1α activity was increased approximately 20, 5 and 16 fold respectively in (PKG1αMSCs. (PKG1αMSCs showed improved survival under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD which was evidenced by lower LDH release, caspase-3/7 activity and number of positive TUNEL cells. Anti-apoptotic proteins pAkt, pGSK3β, and Bcl-2 were significantly increased in (PKG1αMSCs compared to (NatMSCs and (NullMSCs. Higher release of multiple prosurvival and angiogenic factors such as HGF, bFGF, SDF-1 and Ang-1 was observed in (PKG1αMSCs before and after OGD. In a female rat model of acute myocardial infarction, (PKG1αMSCs group showed higher survival compared with (NullMSCs group at 3 and 7 days after transplantation as determined by TUNEL staining and sry-gene quantitation by real-time PCR. Increased anti-apoptotic proteins and paracrine factors in vitro were also identified. Immunostaining for cardiac troponin I combined with GFP showed increased myogenic differentiation of (PKG1αMSCs. At 4 weeks after transplantation, compared to DMEM group and (NullMSCs group, (PKG1αMSCs group showed increased blood vessel density in infarct and peri-infarct areas (62.5±7.7; 68.8±7.3 per microscopic view, p<0.05 and attenuated infarct size (27.2±2.5%, p<0.01. Heart function indices including ejection fraction (52.1±2.2%, p<0.01 and fractional shortening (24.8%±1.3%, p<0.01 were improved significantly in (PKG1αMSCs group.Overexpression of PKG1α transgene could be a powerful approach to improve MSCs survival and their angiomyogenic potential in the

  19. Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri in increased survival and resistance to neoplasm in mice breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltan Dallal MM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several reports indicate that the probiotics can increase body resistance against malignant tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Lactobaci-llus reuteri Persian type culture collection (PTCC 1655 in preventing tumor growth, improving weight and survival rate in mice with breast cancer.Methods: Twenty mice, the BALB/c at six weeks age, weighing approximately 17 gram were divided into two groups. Oral administration of 500 micro liters of Lactobacillus reuteri suspension performed for the first group 14 days before tumor transplantation. The second group (control received the same volume of phosphate buffer saline (PBS. Then the mice had tumor transplantation surgery. Lactobacillus reuteri was prescribed in the first group in seven-day period and three-day interruption pattern. At the same time the second group (control received PBS. This process was continued until 45 day. The tumor growth, histology and body weight were evaluated in both group and the mortality of mice was recorded.Results: In the mice transplanted tumors that had received probiotics, tumor growth decreased in comparison with control group. In this group the body weight increased (P>0/05. In addition, the survival of these mice had significantly increased compared to control group (P=0.002. The evaluation of tumor tissue also showed increased immune system function in mice receiving the probiotic (P>0/05.Conclusion: Lactobacillus reuteri can improve immune system function and have an important role to help treatment of cancer.

  20. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.

  1. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  2. Increasing the rate of recycled asphalt: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan TUŠAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is material that can be recycled. In particular reclaimed asphalt (RA contains aged binder, which limits the reuse of RA. In this study the rate of recycled asphalt was increased by adding a rejuvenator containing paraffin. The authors investigated the effect of the rejuvenator in laboratory and in plant prepared samples of asphalt mixture. In laboratory samples with different percentage of RA (0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and rejuvenator were prepared. In asphalt plant only asphalt mixture with highest amount of RA and rejuvenator and control mixture without RA were prepared. On samples were conducted different tests, e.g. determining softening point, Fraass breaking point, penetration, indirect tensile strength. Results on extracted bitumen showed increase in softening point and decrease in Fraass breaking point with increasing percentage of RA and rejuvenator, meaning that service temperature of binders increased. Asphalt samples prepared in asphalt plant were laid on test field. Asphalt with RA and rejuvenator was built in at lower temperature (round 100 °C. Mixtures with RA and rejuvenator have better low temperature properties confirmed with Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST method, but are less resistant to compaction and less sensitive to water than control mixture. For comparison of long term behaviour wheel tracking test was performed on mixtures built in test field. A week after paving, the control mixture showed better properties, but one year later the results were opposite, asphalt containing RA and rejuvenator was more resistant to rutting. From the results of this experimental study the following was concluded: the amount of RA can be increased by using rejuvenator and the quality of such asphalt mixture is in most cases equal or even better than asphalt mixture made of virgin materials. By using RA we preserve nature, reduce usage of virgin raw materials, but it is cost effective only if recycling degree is high

  3. Survival rates of immature Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks estimated using field-placed enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Holmes, Elizabeth A; Foley, Janet E

    2010-06-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and Lyme borreliosis are emerging tick-borne diseases caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, and maintained in rodent-Ixodes spp. tick cycles, including I. pacificus in the western U.S. Ixodes pacificus has a multiple-year life cycle and B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum are transstadially, but not transovarially, transmitted within ticks, thus ticks function importantly in maintaining infection in nature. In this study, the survival of larval and nymphal I. pacificus was determined using ticks placed in tubes in leaf litter from June 2005 to September 2006 at two field sites in the California northern coast range mountains and a laboratory control. In all three sites, nymphal and larval survival ranged from 90-400 d, with differences in mean survival among sites. Fewer ticks died in the autumn in the moister field sites compared with the drier incubator control treatment. The first large die-off event in late autumn occurred at all sites shortly before relative humidity increased from 80-100% and temperature declined from approximately 22-15 degrees C. The concurrent die-off in the incubator population, subject to relative humidity and temperature regimes that were invariant, suggests that survival time was dependent on other factors in addition to environmental conditions. These results suggested that many ticks exhausted resources or tolerance for relatively low humidity within six months of questing, and that higher humidity prolonged survival. Based on observed longevity, humans and other animals could acquire A. phagocytophilum infection from adult I. pacificus that were infected up to three years earlier.

  4. Growing body of evidence on survival rates of implant-supported fixed prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Elliot

    2008-01-01

    the study-specific event rates, the Spearman goodness-of fit statistics and associated probability value were calculated. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate formally whether event rates varied by crown material (metal-ceramic vs all-ceramic) or crown design (cemented vs screw-retained). Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Survival of implants supporting SC was 96.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 95.9-97.6%] after 5 years. The survival rate of SC supported by implants was 94.5% (95% CI, 92.5-95.9%) after 5 years of function. The survival rate of metal-ceramic crowns, 95.4% (95% CI, 93.6-96.7%), was significantly higher (P 0.005) than the survival rate (91.2%; 95% CI, 86.8-94.2%), of all-ceramic crowns. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications occurred adjacent to 9.7% of the SC and 6.3% of the implants had bone loss exceeding 2 mm over the 5-year observation period. The cumulative incidence of implant fractures after 5 years was 0.14%. After 5 years, the cumulative incidence of screw or abutment loosening was 12.7%, and was 0.35% for screw or abutment fracture. For suprastructure-related complications, the cumulative incidence of ceramic or veneer fractures was 4.5%. An observation period of 5 years allows the conclusion that high survival rates of implants and implant-supported SC can be expected, but biological and, particularly, technical complications are frequent.

  5. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Freire, Gabriela Mesquita Lopes; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, Jo E

    2017-05-04

    The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR) sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6-7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  6. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirynen, M; de Soete, M; Pauwels, M; Goossens, K; Teughels, W; van Eldere, J; van Steenberghe, D

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Each time brushes were rinsed with tap water and stored dry at room temperature. At different time intervals an interdental brush or 4 tufts from a toothbrush were processed for vitality staining and selective and non-selective culturing procedures. Immediately after rinsing, a toothbrush without toothpaste harboured 10(7), 10(8) and 10(7) colony forming units (CFU) of respectively aerobic, anaerobic and black pigmented species. An insignificant decrease occurred the first 24 hours and after 48 hours still 10(4) CFU of aerobic and anaerobic species could be cultured. No periodontopathogen remained detectable at 8 hours, except for Fusobacterium nucleatum. The proportion of vital bacteria decreased in 48 hours from 50% to 30%. Comparable results were obtained for interdental brushes. The bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes was significantly reduced by the use of a detergent containing toothpaste by 2 log at baseline, another 2 log at 4 hours and an extra log more at 8 hours for aerobic and anaerobic species. A toothpaste without detergent only had an insignificant bactericidal effect. Toothpaste detergents decrease the survival rate of pathogenic species on a toothbrush and can thus limit the risk for bacterial translocation.

  7. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Augusto HILGERT

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6–7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  8. [Do antidepressants really increase suicide rates in childhood and adolescence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hernán; Martínez, Juan Carlos

    2007-09-01

    The use of antidepressant in depressive illness results in a reduction of suicidal attempts and deaths due to suicide, conditions that are generally present in this disorder. Recently, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) prohibited the use of antidepressants during childhood and adolescence. This decision was based on a supposed increase in suicidal thinking in these age groups. However, the evidence came from flawed clinical studies, some of them not even published, in which no significant differences were observed when compared to placebo. It is not possible to ascribe a direct responsibility to antidepressants, because depression, by definition, has suicidal ideation. On the contrary, the reduction of suicidal rates supports the effectiveness of these medications.

  9. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  10. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  11. Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2014-02-15

    This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1 h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135 mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400 mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI.

  12. Ciprofloxacin Derivatives Affect Parasite Cell Division and Increase the Survival of Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Martins-Duarte

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide disease whose clinical manifestations include encephalitis and congenital malformations in newborns. Previously, we described the synthesis of new ethyl-ester derivatives of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin with ~40-fold increased activity against T. gondii in vitro, compared with the original compound. Cipro derivatives are expected to target the parasite's DNA gyrase complex in the apicoplast. The activity of these compounds in vivo, as well as their mode of action, remained thus far uncharacterized. Here, we examined the activity of the Cipro derivatives in vivo, in a model of acute murine toxoplasmosis. In addition, we investigated the cellular effects T. gondii tachyzoites in vitro, by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. When compared with Cipro treatment, 7-day treatments with Cipro derivatives increased mouse survival significantly, with 13-25% of mice surviving for up to 60 days post-infection (vs. complete lethality 10 days post-infection, with Cipro treatment. Light microscopy examination early (6 and 24h post-infection revealed that 6-h treatments with Cipro derivatives inhibited the initial event of parasite cell division inside host cells, in an irreversible manner. By TEM and immunofluorescence, the main cellular effects observed after treatment with Cipro derivatives and Cipro were cell scission inhibition--with the appearance of 'tethered' parasites--malformation of the inner membrane complex, and apicoplast enlargement and missegregation. Interestingly, tethered daughter cells resulting from Cipro derivatives, and also Cipro, treatment did not show MORN1 cap or centrocone localization. The biological activity of Cipro derivatives against C. parvum, an apicomplexan species that lacks the apicoplast, is, approximately, 50 fold lower than that in T. gondii tachyzoites, supporting that these compounds targets the apicoplast. Our results

  13. Stadium IB - IIA cervical cancer patient’s survival rate after receiving definitive radiation and radical operation therapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy along with analysis of factors affecting the patient’s survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslim, S. K.; Purwoto, G.; Widyahening, I. S.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and overall survival rates of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IB-IIA) patients who receive definitive radiation therapy and those who are prescribed adjuvant postoperative radiation and to conduct a factors analysis of the variables that affect the overall survival rates in both groups of therapy. The medical records of 85 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stages IB-IIA who were treated at the Department of Radiotherapy of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were reviewed and analyzed to determine their overall survival and the factors that affected it between a definitive radiation group and an adjuvant postoperative radiation group. There were 25 patients in the definitive radiation and 60 patients in the adjuvant radiation group. The overall survival rates in the adjuvant radiation group at years one, two, and three were 96.7%, 95%, and 93.3%, respectively. Negative lymph node metastasis had an average association with overall survival (p 12 g/dl was a factor with an average association with the overall survival (p cervical cancer FIGO stage IB-IIA patients who received definitive radiation or adjuvant postoperative radiation. Negative lymph node metastasis had an effect on the overall survival rate in the adjuvant postoperative radiation group, while a preradiation Hb level >12 g/dl tended to affect the overall survival in the definitive radiation group patients.

  14. Review suggests high survival rates for veneers at five and ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Eileen; Conway, David I

    2013-03-01

    The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched and the Evidence-Based Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Rehabilitation were hand searched. Clinical trials registers, conference proceedings and academic colleagues were contacted to identify unpublished data, abstracts and other gray literature. There were no language limits. Article identification, screening, and eligibility and inclusion assessments were completed independently by two reviewers. Prospective and retrospective cohort and controlled trials assessing the outcome of feldspathic porcelain veneers in more than 15 patients were included. Some veneers in each study had to be in situ for five years. Veneers placed using unusual techniques, such as with no enamel preparation or excessive incisal edge lengthening, were excluded. Estimated cumulative survival and standard error for each study were assessed and used for meta-, sensitivity and post hoc analyses. The I(2) statistic and the Cochran Q test and its associated P value were used to evaluate statistical heterogeneity, with a random-effects meta-analysis used when the P value for heterogeneity was less than 0.1. Heterogeneity, publication patterns and small study biases were explored. Eleven studies were included with six (four prospective and two retrospective cohorts) contributing to the meta-analysis. The estimated cumulative survival for feldspathic porcelain veneers was 95.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.9% to 98.4%) at five years and ranged from 64% to 95% at ten years across three studies. A post hoc meta-analysis indicated that the 10-year best estimate may approach 95.6% (95% CI: 93.8% to 97.5%). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were found. When bonded to enamel substrate, feldspathic porcelain veneers have a very high 10-year survival rate that may

  15. Increased survival in the red flour beetle after oral priming with bacteria-conditioned media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Fritzlar, Svenja; Kurtz, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Immune priming is defined as enhanced protection upon secondary exposure to a pathogen. Such enhanced resistance after prior exposure has been demonstrated for a number of insect species including the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. In testing this phenomenon, the majority of studies have focused on introducing the pathogen into the insect's hemocoel via septic wounding through the cuticle. Although such septic injury can occur in nature, many pathogens enter their hosts via the oral route, i.e. by ingestion. Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria are well-known insect pathogens that infect their host orally. We found that T. castaneum larvae showed increased survival after oral exposure to B. thuringiensis, when they had been orally primed with filter-sterilized media in which spores of B. thuringiensis had been raised. Such priming was achieved only with a naturally pathogenic strain of B. thuringiensis and a strain that was made pathogenic by transfer of plasmids. Moreover, primed larvae were smaller in size 24 h after priming and had a longer developmental time, indicating that investment in such a response comes at a cost. However, the increased survival in primed larvae was not caused by larval size differences upon challenge. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Social marketing as a strategy to increase immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Douglas J; Diekema, Douglas S; Lee, Nancy R; Marcuse, Edgar K

    2009-05-01

    Today in the United States, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease are often traced to susceptible children whose parents have claimed an exemption from school or child care immunization regulations. The origins of this immunization hesitancy and resistance have roots in the decline of the threat of vaccine-preventable disease coupled with an increase in concerns about the adverse effects of vaccines, the emergence of mass media and the Internet, and the intrinsic limitations of modern medicine. Appeals to emotion have drowned out thoughtful discussion in public forums, and overall, public trust in immunizations has declined. We present an often overlooked behavior change strategy-social marketing-as a way to improve immunization rates by addressing the important roots of immunization hesitancy and effectively engaging emotions. As an example, we provide a synopsis of a social marketing campaign that is currently in development in Washington state and that is aimed at increasing timely immunizations in children from birth to age 24 months.

  17. Increasing fMRI sampling rate improves Granger causality estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Estimation of causal interactions between brain areas is necessary for elucidating large-scale functional brain networks underlying behavior and cognition. Granger causality analysis of time series data can quantitatively estimate directional information flow between brain regions. Here, we show that such estimates are significantly improved when the temporal sampling rate of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is increased 20-fold. Specifically, healthy volunteers performed a simple visuomotor task during blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast based whole-head inverse imaging (InI. Granger causality analysis based on raw InI BOLD data sampled at 100-ms resolution detected the expected causal relations, whereas when the data were downsampled to the temporal resolution of 2 s typically used in echo-planar fMRI, the causality could not be detected. An additional control analysis, in which we SINC interpolated additional data points to the downsampled time series at 0.1-s intervals, confirmed that the improvements achieved with the real InI data were not explainable by the increased time-series length alone. We therefore conclude that the high-temporal resolution of InI improves the Granger causality connectivity analysis of the human brain.

  18. A long-term retrospective analysis of survival rates of implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Stein, Brett E; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the survival rate of endosseous dental implants placed in the edentulous or partially edentulous mandible over a long-term follow-up period of 10 years or more. The charts of patients who underwent mandibular implant placement at a private prosthodontics practice and received follow-up care for 10 years or more were included in this study. Implants were examined according to the following study variables: patient sex, patient age, degree of edentulism (fully vs partially edentulous), implant location, time of loading (delayed vs immediate), implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of other implants during placement. The study sample was composed of 2,394 implants placed in 470 patients with 10 to 27 years of follow-up. Of these 2,394 implants, 176 failed, resulting in an overall cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 92.6%. A total of 1,482 implants were placed in edentulous mandibles, and 912 implants were placed in partially edentulous mandibles, with CSRs of 92.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Comparisons of the study variables with respect to CSR were largely nonsignificant. However, there were significant differences in CSRs between anterior vs posterior locations and rough- vs smooth-surfaced implants in addition to some prosthesis types, ages, and bone qualities. The overall CSR of 92.6% in the present study is high and comparable to survival rates observed in previous long-term analyses of mandibular implants. The significant differences observed between implant locations, patient age groups, bone qualities, and prostheses were not suggestive of any remarkable trends. Patient sex, age, degree of edentulism, implant location, time of loading, implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of multiple implants did not result in any significant effect on long-term implant survival. The CSR observed after 10 to 27 years of follow-up in a single private prosthodontic center was high (92

  19. Distributing tasks via multiple input pathways increases cellular survival in stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Alejandro A; Crane, Matthew M; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F; Tanaka, Reiko J; Voliotis, Margaritis; Swain, Peter S

    2017-05-17

    Improving in one aspect of a task can undermine performance in another, but how such opposing demands play out in single cells and impact on fitness is mostly unknown. Here we study budding yeast in dynamic environments of hyperosmotic stress and show how the corresponding signalling network increases cellular survival both by assigning the requirements of high response speed and high response accuracy to two separate input pathways and by having these pathways interact to converge on Hog1, a p38 MAP kinase. Cells with only the less accurate, reflex-like pathway are fitter in sudden stress, whereas cells with only the slow, more accurate pathway are fitter in increasing but fluctuating stress. Our results demonstrate that cellular signalling is vulnerable to trade-offs in performance, but that these trade-offs can be mitigated by assigning the opposing tasks to different signalling subnetworks. Such division of labour could function broadly within cellular signal transduction.

  20. Shorter survival rate in varus-aligned knees after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shang, Ping; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    One long-held tenet of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is that post-operative neutral limb alignment promotes implant durability. Recently, the concept of generic safe zone (0° ± 3°) has been challenged. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether neutral alignment was superior to malalignment in long-term survival of TKAs. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Chinese Periodical, Google and reference lists of all the included studies were searched. Of the 1512 studies initially identified, ten met the eligibility criteria, including eight case-control studies and two cohort trials. Relative risks of implant failure were compared between post-operative neutrally aligned and malaligned knees. Post-operative malalignment showed higher failure rate of knee implants compared with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.00-1.88, P = 0.05). Failure rate in knees with varus alignment was significantly higher than with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.07-2.55, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of implant failure between knees with valgus and neutral alignment (95 % CI 0.78-2.41, n.s.). No significant difference of failure rate was noted between neutral alignment and malalignment for fixed-bearing prothesis (95 % CI 0.94-1.95, n.s.) or rotating-platform prothesis (95 % CI 0.75-2.73, n.s.). There was no significant difference of failure rate between knees with neutral alignment and malalignment for studies with a mean follow-up of more than 10 years (95 % CI 0.81-2.01, n.s.) or studies using long-leg weight-bearing radiographs (95 % CI 0.79-1.79, n.s.). Post-operative varus alignment results in shorter survival rate after TKA. Not only neutral limb alignment but also the valgus alignment promotes implant durability. Neutral or valgus alignment rather than varus alignment is essential to achieve long-term survival of TKAs and patient satisfaction. III.

  1. SPARCL1 Expression Increases With Preoperative Radiation Therapy and Predicts Better Survival in Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotti, Angeliki, E-mail: angkotti@yahoo.gr; Holmqvist, Annica; Albertsson, Maria; Sun, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@liu.se

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is expressed in various normal tissues and many types of cancers. The function of SPARCL1 and its relationship to a patient's prognosis have been studied, whereas its relationship to radiation therapy (RT) is not known. Our aim was to investigate the expression of SPARCL1 in rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: The study included 136 rectal cancer patients who were randomized to undergo preoperative RT and surgery (n=63) or surgery alone (n=73). The expression levels of SPARCL1 in normal mucosa (n=29), primary tumor (n=136), and lymph node metastasis (n=35) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumors with RT had stronger SPARCL1 expression than tumors without RT (P=.003). In the RT group, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival than weak expression in patients with stage III tumors, independent of sex, age, differentiation, and margin status (P=.022; RR = 18.128; 95% confidence interval, 1.512-217.413). No such relationship was found in the non-RT group (P=.224). Further analysis of interactions among SPARCL1 expression, RT, and survival showed statistical significance (P=.024). In patients with metastases who received RT, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival compared to weak expression (P=.041) but not in the non-RT group (P=.569). Conclusions: SPARCL1 expression increases with RT and is related to better prognosis in rectal cancer patients with RT but not in patients without RT. This result may help us to select the patients best suited for preoperative RT.

  2. The Effect of Weaning Tecnique to Survival Rate and Height Growth of Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical rehabilitation planning of BPDAS Tondano on coastal area has reached 10,000 hectares, thus require many seedlings. Nyamplung has potential as rehabilitation plant in coastal at the same time it can support national demand of biofuel. However the nurseries of nyamplung in North Sulawesi are not optimal and need appropriate information of weaning method. This research used completely randomized design with three treatment factors, namely 1 Cutting the leaves consist of two levels ie D1 (pair leaves and D2 (intact leaf; 2 Cutting intact seeds, consists of two levels i.e B1 (removed seed and B2 (intact seeds; and 3 Cutting the roots lenght consist of three levels i.e A1 (5 cm, A2 (10 cm and A3 (15 cm. There were 180 seedlings taken from seed that germinated using cocopeat media. Results of variance analysis showed that the applied treatment only affect the heigth growth. The survival rate is not affected by all treatments or in the other words survival rate reached 100 %. The treatments on leaves and seeds gave significant effect, on the contrary with root treatment. The treatment of intact leaf (D2 and intact seeds (B2 produced the best height growth responses i.e 4.60 cm and 4.63 cm.

  3. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls.

  4. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (pyogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  5. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  7. Reduced in-hospital survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; Warnier, M J; Bardai, A

    2013-01-01

    with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have a lower survival rate after OHCA than non-OPD patients. METHODS: We performed a community-based cohort study of 1172 patients with non-traumatic OHCA with ECG-documented VT/VF between 2005 and 2008. We compared survival to emergency room (ER), to hospital admission...

  8. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  9. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  10. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Melissa C; De Vito, Carol; Bahirathan, Lavannya; Carol, Angela; Carroll, June C; Cotterchio, Michelle; Dobbins, Maureen; Lent, Barbara; Levitt, Cheryl; Lewis, Nancy; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Paszat, Lawrence; Rand, Carol; Wathen, Nadine

    2011-09-29

    Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP) change in completed screening tests. Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic reviews. This review served as the evidentiary foundation for an

  11. Frequent shopping by men and women increases survival in the older Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-07-01

    Active ageing is a key to healthy ageing; shopping behaviour is an economically relevant activity of the elderly. Analysis was based on the NAHSIT 1999-2000 dataset. A total of 1841 representative free-living elderly Taiwanese people were selected and information included demographics, socioeconomic status, health behaviours, shopping frequencies, physical function and cognitive function. These data were linked to official death records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate shopping frequency on death from 1999-2008 with possible covariate adjustment. Highly frequent shopping compared to never or rarely predicted survival (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.67) with adjustment for physical function and cognitive function and other covariates HR was 0.73 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.93). Elderly who shopped every day have 27% less risk of death than the least frequent shoppers. Men benefited more from everyday shopping than women with decreased HR 28% versus 23% compared to the least. Shopping behaviour favourably predicts survival. Highly frequent shopping may favour men more than women. Shopping captures several dimensions of personal well-being, health and security as well as contributing to the community's cohesiveness and economy and may represent or actually confer increased longevity.

  12. Tolerance to the rate-increasing and not rate-decreasing effects of pregnanolone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppolito, Amy K; Gerak, Lisa R

    2010-12-01

    Chronic treatment with benzodiazepines, which positively modulate γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors, can lead to the development of tolerance. Similar effects might also occur during chronic treatment with positive modulators acting at other sites on GABAA receptors (e.g. neuroactive steroids). In this study, tolerance and cross tolerance were examined in seven rats treated daily with the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone (25.6 mg/kg/day) and responding under a fixed ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. Dose-effect curves were determined for positive GABAA modulators (pregnanolone, flunitrazepam, midazolam, and pentobarbital), and other drugs (ketamine and morphine) before, during, and after chronic treatment. Initially, daily pregnanolone administration increased responding; although tolerance developed to the rate-increasing effects after 14 weeks, tolerance did not develop to the rate-decreasing effects. The potencies of pregnanolone, midazolam, and morphine to decrease responding did not change during treatment, whereas flunitrazepam was more potent and pentobarbital and ketamine were less potent during treatment as compared to before treatment. Pregnanolone and midazolam were more potent after treatment than before treatment. The development of tolerance to the rate-increasing effects of pregnanolone indicates that neuroadaptations occur during chronic treatment; the fact that tolerance develops to only some effects suggests that the behavioral consequences of these neuroadaptations are limited.

  13. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  14. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  15. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepods, Acartia spinicauda (Acartiidae) and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Diaptomidae) in order to determine food preference and survival rates respectively. Adults of A. spinicauda were fed monocultures...

  16. Growth and Survival Rate of Redclaw Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus Reared with Different Density in Recirculation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the growth and survival rate of redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus reared in recirculation system with density 20, 30, 40 and 50 m-2. Lobster with 6.02 ± 0.13 cm length and 6.23 ± 0.51 gram initial body weights were cultured in 60 x 30 x 40 cm aquarium and compiled in recirculation system, for 42 days. Result of research showed that there are statistically difference at growth rate daily weight, coefficient of variances and feed efficiency (p0.05. From this research it can be concluded that the best density for freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus was 50 m-2.Keywords: density, growth, survival rate, redclaw crayfish,  Cherax quadricarinatus ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup lobster capit merah (Cherax quadricarinatus yang dipelihara pada sistem resirkulasi dengan kepadatan 20, 30, 40 dan 50 ekor/m2. Benih lobster yang digunakan memiliki panjang awal rata-rata 6,02 ± 0,13 cm dan berat 6,23 ± 0,51 gram, dipelihara pada akuarium dengan ukuran 60 x 30 x 40 cm yang diisi air setinggi 20 cm dan disusun dalam sistem resirkulasi, selama 42 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata pada laju pertumbuhan bobot harian, koefisien keragaman dan efisiensi pakan (p0,05. Dari hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa padat penebaran yang dapat memberikan hasil maksimum adalah 50 ekor/m2.Kata kunci: padat penebaran, pertumbuhan, kelangsungan hidup, lobster capit merah, Cherax quadricarinatus

  17. Constant Growth Rate Can Be Supported by Decreasing Energy Flux and Increasing Aerobic Glycolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermenting glucose in the presence of enough oxygen to support respiration, known as aerobic glycolysis, is believed to maximize growth rate. We observed increasing aerobic glycolysis during exponential growth, suggesting additional physiological roles for aerobic glycolysis. We investigated such roles in yeast batch cultures by quantifying O2 consumption, CO2 production, amino acids, mRNAs, proteins, posttranslational modifications, and stress sensitivity in the course of nine doublings at constant rate. During this course, the cells support a constant biomass-production rate with decreasing rates of respiration and ATP production but also decrease their stress resistance. As the respiration rate decreases, so do the levels of enzymes catalyzing rate-determining reactions of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle (providing NADH for respiration and of mitochondrial folate-mediated NADPH production (required for oxidative defense. The findings demonstrate that exponential growth can represent not a single metabolic/physiological state but a continuum of changing states and that aerobic glycolysis can reduce the energy demands associated with respiratory metabolism and stress survival.

  18. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Hesse, Daniela; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel; Bönecker, Marcelo; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; van Amerongen, W Evert

    2013-09-01

    Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of the restoration. Because the use of a flowable GIC layer seemed to improve its adaptation in approximal restorations in vitro, we evaluated whether the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer would improve the SR of approximal-ART restorations. A total of 208 children (6-7 years old) with at least one occluso-proximal carious lesion in a primary molar were selected and randomly allocated to two groups: G1, conventional technique, one-layer GIC (powder/liquid ratio 1:1); and G2, two-layer technique, consisting of a first layer of GIC with a flowable consistency (powder/liquid ratio 1:2) and a second layer of a regular consistency. Restorations were made by final-year students and evaluated after 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival and logrank test. Poisson regression analyses (α = 5) were used to verify the influence of factors such as insertion technique, restoration surface and operators. The overall SR of the restorations after 18 months was 68 %. There was no difference in SR between the techniques, neither did the other factors influence the SR. Over 18 months, the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer in approximal-ART restorations does not improve the restoration survival. This study suggests that the two-layer technique is not the answer for increasing approximal-ART restoration longevity.

  19. Metformin Increases Overall Survival in Patients with Diabetes Undergoing Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransgaard, Tina; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that metformin decreases the risk of developing colorectal cancer in patients with diabetes, but only few studies have examined potential survival benefits after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of the study was to examine the association......-Meier estimator and the Cox regression model adjusted for important clinical risk factors were used. RESULTS: A total of 30,493 patients were included in the study, of which 3391 were diagnosed with diabetes and 1962 were treated with metformin. The adjusted HR of all-cause mortality for the diabetes group was 1.......12 (1.06-1.18, p metformin-treated group compared with the insulin-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: A 12 % increase in all-cause mortality among patients with CRC and diabetes was found. Treatment...

  20. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ascencio-Montiel, Iv?n de Jes?s; Kumate-Rodr?guez, Jes?s; Borja-Aburto, V?ctor Hugo; Fern?ndez-Garate, Jos? Esteban; Konik-Comonfort, Selene; Mac?as-P?rez, Oliver; Campos-Hern?ndez, ?ngel; Rodr?guez-V?zquez, H?ctor; L?pez-Rold?n, Ver?nica Miriam; Zitle-Garc?a, Edgar Jes?s; Sol?s-Cruz, Mar?a del Carmen; Vel?zquez-Ram?rez, Ismael; Aguilar-Jim?nez, Miriam; Villa-Caballero, Leonel; Cisneros-Gonz?lez, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,01...

  1. Type VI collagen increases cell survival and prevents anti-beta 1 integrin-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S J; Doane, K J

    1998-05-25

    Cell-matrix interactions are important in the development of the avian cornea. Type VI collagen is present within the periocular mesenchyme prior to the migration of cells into the corneal stroma and is abundant in the mature stroma. Whether the interaction of cells with type VI collagen is essential for cellular survival in the cornea is not known. In the present study, we examined the interaction of corneal cells with type VI collagen in vitro to determine if it can increase cell proliferation and decrease apoptosis. In vivo analysis demonstrated that apoptosis occurs in the periocular region during early stages of avian corneal development, but in fully mature corneas apoptosis only occurs in the corneal epithelium and not in the stroma. In vitro analysis examined the importance of beta 1 integrin interactions with type VI collagen in mature corneal fibroblasts and the precursor cells. Using an anti-beta 1 integrin blocking antibody, CSAT, integrin/matrix interactions were disrupted. Results indicated that viability of both corneal fibroblasts and periocular mesenchyme cells was greater on type VI collagen than on type I collagen or BSA-blocked glass. In addition, less apoptosis was observed for both cell types on type VI collagen when beta 1 integrin--matrix interactions were disrupted. These data indicated that these cells require intact beta 1 interactions with type I collagen and with BSA-coated glass controls to remain viable. Thus, type VI collagen may play a role in the rescue of corneal cells from anti-beta 1 integrin-induced apoptosis by increasing cell survival, probably via a non-beta 1 integrin-dependent mechanism.

  2. Intermittent hypoxia selects for genotypes and phenotypes that increase survival, invasion, and therapy resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Verduzco

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in tumors correlates with greater risk of metastases, increased invasiveness, and resistance to systemic and radiation therapy. The evolutionary dynamics that links specific adaptations to hypoxia with these observed tumor properties have not been well investigated. While some tumor populations may experience fixed hypoxia, cyclical and stochastic transitions from normoxia to hypoxia are commonly observed in vivo. Although some phenotypic adaptations to this cyclic hypoxia are likely reversible, we hypothesize that some adaptations may become fixed through mutations promoted by hypoxia-induced genomic instability. Here we seek to identify genetic alterations and corresponding stable phenotypes that emerge following cyclic hypoxia. Although these changes may originate as adaptations to this specific environmental stress, their fixation in the tumor genome may result in their observation in tumors from regions of normoxia, a condition known as pseudohypoxia. We exposed several epithelial cell lines to 50 cycles of hypoxia-normoxia, followed by culture in normoxia over a period of several months. Molecular analyses demonstrated permanent changes in expression of several oncogenes and tumor-suppressors, including p53, E-cadherin, and Hif-1α. These changes were associated with increased resistance to multiple cytotoxins, increased survival in hypoxia and increased anchorage-independent growth. These results suggest cycles of hypoxia encountered in early cancers can select for specific and stable genotypic and phenotypic properties that persist even in normoxic conditions, which may promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy.

  3. Dampak Stres Salinitas Terhadap Prevalensi White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV dan Survival Rate Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Pada Kondisi Terkontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attabik Mukhammad Amrillah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome (WSS adalah penyakit yang secara signifikan menyebabkan tingginya mortalitas dan kerusakan parah pada budidaya udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak stres salinitas terhadap prevalensi WSSV dan survival rate udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini menggunakan udang vannamei ukuran PL 40 yang diinfeksi WSSV dengan konsentrasi virus 20 μg/ml pada tiga rentang salinitas yang berbeda 0-10 ppt, 11-20 ppt, 21–30 ppt dan di rendam selama 4 jam kemudian dilakukan pengamatan selama 7 hari pasca infeksi dan diukur survival rate dan kuaitas airnya. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel terinfeksi oleh WSSV, ditunjukkan hasil analisa PCR dan gejala klinis yang timbul. Salinitas 0-10 ppt memberikan hasil persentase survival rate terendah jika dibandingkan dengan rentang salinitas yang lainnya yaitu sebesar 7 ekor atau 33% dari jumlah total sampel yang digunakan. Persentase survival rate udang tertinggi pasca infeksi virus WSSV terdapat pada perlakuan salinitas 21-30 ppt yaitu sebesar 13 ekor atau 63% dari jumlah total individu, dan salinitas 11-20 ppt memiliki persentase survival rate medium yaitu sebesar 10 ekor atau 49% dari jumlah total sampel. Stres salinitas mempengaruhi prevalensi WSSV dengan semakin tingginya tingkat infeksi seiring menurunnya rentang salinitas, akan tetapi survival rate semakin tinggi seiring dengan bertambahnya rentang salinitas.

  4. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V; Conwell, Y

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine if the change in the suicide rate is associated with individuals' use of antidepressants as has been suggested by ecological studies. DESIGN: Decomposition of suicide rates by antidepressant treatment group. SETTING: Population......-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA......), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants). The change in the suicide rate during 1996-2000 was decomposed by treatment group. RESULTS: Only one in five older adults dying by suicide was in treatment at the time of death. Whereas the male suicide rate declined by 9.7 suicides per...

  5. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  6. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  7. The genotoxin colibactin exacerbates lymphopenia and decreases survival rate in mice infected with septicemic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Ingrid; Martin, Patricia; Payros, Delphine; Cuevas-Ramos, Gabriel; Boury, Michèle; Watrin, Claude; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Olier, Maïwenn; Oswald, Eric

    2014-07-15

    Sepsis is a life-threatening infection. Escherichia coli is the first known cause of bacteremia leading to sepsis. Lymphopenia was shown to predict bacteremia better than conventional markers of infection. The pks genomic island, which is harbored by extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and encodes the genotoxin colibactin, is epidemiologically associated with bacteremia. To investigate a possible relationship between colibactin and lymphopenia, we examined the effects of transient infection of lymphocytes with bacteria that were and those that were not producing the genotoxin. A mouse model of sepsis was used to compare the virulence of a clinical ExPEC isolate with its isogenic mutant impaired for the production of colibactin. We observed that colibactin induced double-strand breaks in the DNA of infected lymphocytes, leading to cell cycle arrest and to cell death by apoptosis. E. coli producing colibactin induced a more profound lymphopenia in septicemic mice, compared with the isogenic mutant unable to produce colibactin. In a sepsis model in which the mice were treated by rehydration and antibiotics, the production of colibactin by the bacteria was associated with a significantly lower survival rate. In conclusion, we demonstrate that production of colibactin by E. coli exacerbates lymphopenia associated with septicemia and could impair the chances to survive sepsis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  9. The effect of salinity increase on the photosynthesis, growth and survival of the Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Gil, José M.; Marín-Guirao, Lázaro; Ruiz, Juan M.

    2012-12-01

    There are major concerns in the Mediterranean Sea over the effects of hypersaline effluents from seawater desalination plants on seagrass communities. However, knowledge concerning the specific physiological capacities of seagrasses to tolerate or resist salinity increases is still limited. In this study, changes in the photosynthetic characteristics, pigment content, leaf light absorption, growth and survival of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa were examined across a range of simulated hypersaline conditions. To this end, large plant fragments were maintained under salinities of 37 (control ambient salinity), 39, 41 and 43 (practical salinity scale) in a laboratory mesocosm system for 47 days. At the end of the experimental period, net photosynthesis exhibited a modest, but significant, decline (12-17%) in all tested hypersaline conditions (39-43). At intermediate salinity levels (39-41), the decline in photosynthetic rates was mainly accounted for by substantial increases in respiratory losses (approximately 98% of the control), the negative effects of which on leaf carbon balance were offset by an improved capacity and efficiency of leaves to absorb light, mainly through changes in accessory pigments, but also in optical properties related to leaf anatomy. Conversely, inhibition of gross photosynthesis (by 19.6% compared to the control mean) in the most severe hypersaline conditions (43) reduced net photosynthesis. In this treatment, the respiration rate was limited in order to facilitate a positive carbon balance (similar to that of the control plants) and shoot survival, although vitality would probably be reduced if such metabolic alterations persisted. These results are consistent with the ecology of Mediterranean C. nodosa populations, which are considered to have high morphological and physiological plasticity and a capacity to grow in a wide variety of coastal environments with varying salinity levels. The results from this study support the premise that C

  10. Biofilms Formed by Gram-Negative Bacteria Undergo Increased Lipid A Palmitoylation, Enhancing In Vivo Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabaev, Sabina; Chauhan, Ashwini; Novikov, Alexey; Iyer, Pavithra; Szczesny, Magdalena; Beloin, Christophe; Caroff, Martine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial biofilm communities are associated with profound physiological changes that lead to novel properties compared to the properties of individual (planktonic) bacteria. The study of biofilm-associated phenotypes is an essential step toward control of deleterious effects of pathogenic biofilms. Here we investigated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structural modifications in Escherichia coli biofilm bacteria, and we showed that all tested commensal and pathogenic E. coli biofilm bacteria display LPS modifications corresponding to an increased level of incorporation of palmitate acyl chain (palmitoylation) into lipid A compared to planktonic bacteria. Genetic analysis showed that lipid A palmitoylation in biofilms is mediated by the PagP enzyme, which is regulated by the histone-like protein repressor H-NS and the SlyA regulator. While lipid A palmitoylation does not influence bacterial adhesion, it weakens inflammatory response and enhances resistance to some antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, we showed that lipid A palmitoylation increases in vivo survival of biofilm bacteria in a clinically relevant model of catheter infection, potentially contributing to biofilm tolerance to host immune defenses. The widespread occurrence of increased lipid A palmitoylation in biofilms formed by all tested bacteria suggests that it constitutes a new biofilm-associated phenotype in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25139899

  11. The relationship between annual survival rate and migration distance in mallards: an examination of the time-allocation hypothesis for the evolution of migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Predictions of the time-allocation hypothesis were tested with several a posteriori analyses of banding data for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The time-allocation hypothesis states that the critical difference between resident and migrant birds is their allocation of time to reproduction on the breeding grounds and survival on the nonbreeding grounds. Residents have higher reproduction and migrants have higher survival. Survival and recovery rates were estimated by standard band-recovery methods for banding reference areas in the central United States and central Canada. A production-rate index was computed for each reference area with data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service May Breeding Population Survey and July Production Survey. An analysis of covariance was used to test for the effects of migration distance and time period (decade) on survival, recovery, and production rates. Differences in migration chronology were tested by comparing direct-recovery distributions for different populations during the fall migration. Differences in winter locations were tested by comparing distributions of direct recoveries reported during December and January. A strong positive relationship was found between survival rate, and migration distance for 3 of the 4 age and sex classes. A weak negative relationship was found between recovery rate and migration distance. No relationship was found between production rate and migration distance. During the fall migration, birds from the northern breeding populations were located north of birds from the southern breeding populations. No pattern could be found in the relative locations of breeding and wintering areas. Although our finding that survival rate increased with migration distance was consistent with the time-allocation hypothesis, our results on migration chronology and location of wintering areas were not consistent with the mechanism underlying the time-allocation hypothesis. Neither this analysis nor other recent

  12. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  13. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Björn

    2013-02-15

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS) simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch) increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1) static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2) dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  14. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo; Sofía Charvel; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breast...

  15. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments.

  16. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Yiting [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kastan, Michael B. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Matsui, William, E-mail: matsuwi@jhmi.edu [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L., E-mail: deweete@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  17. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, Arthur Musakulu; van Amerongen, Willem Evert

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary molars, participated. Over a 3-week period, three 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' operators randomly paired with four 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' assistants, made the restorations at site using hand instruments. They randomly used Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Easymix and Ketac Molar Aplicap glass ionomer cements to restore the cavities, under randomly selected rubber dam and cotton roll isolation methods. The fillings were independently evaluated by nine trained and calibrated evaluators. After 1 year, the survival rate of the fillings evaluated in the study was 44.8%. Irrespective of the other factors involved, restorations with the highest survival rate were of size between 2 and 3 mm (mesio-distal, bucco-lingual, and depth) or volumes 10.0-19.9 mm(3) (Chi-square, P = 0.002, KM mean survival of 345 days). While the survival rates for class II ART restorations were still low, the choice of medium-sized proximal cavities gave better survival rates for this technique.

  18. Sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: incidence rate, risk factors and its effect on survival risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongqi; Gong, Dehua; Jia, Fengyu; Xu, Bin; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a degenerative syndrome mainly characterized by the atrophy of skeletal muscle, along with the decrease of muscle strength and function. However, there are currently few studies concerning sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis dialysis (MHD). This study was aimed to investigate the incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients and its influencing factors, as well as its impact on survival risk. All 131 MHD patients enrolled in our study were tested with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and grip strength. Demographic data was collected and anthropometric measurement and laboratory examination were conducted. The total incidence of sarcopenia within the 131 MHD patients was 13.7% and the incidence of sarcopenia in patients over 60 years was 33.3%. The dialysis duration, with or without diabetes, serum phosphorus and pre-albumin levels of sarcopenic patients were significantly different from those of non-sarcopenicones; the modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) scores of sarcopenic patients were higher than those without sarcopenia. Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis duration, diabetes and serum phosphorus level were independent risk factors for sarcopenia in MHD patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a one-year survival of 88.9% in sarcopenic patients, which was significantly lower than non-sarcopenic patients. The incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients was high and increased gradually with age. Dialysis duration, diabetes, serum phosphorus level and malnutrition predisposed the patients to sarcopenia. One-year follow-up found that the mortality risk of sarcopenic patients was higher than that of non-sarcopenic patients.

  19. Functionalized Scaffold-mediated Interleukin 10 Gene Delivery Significantly Improves Survival Rates of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Carolyn; Power, Karen; Sefton, Michael; O'Brien, Timothy; Gallagher, William M.; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    While stem cell transplantation could potentially treat a variety of disorders, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated conclusive benefits. This may be partly because transplanted stem cells have low survival rates, potentially due to host inflammation. The system described herein used two different gene therapy techniques to improve retention of rat mesenchymal stem cells. In the first, stem cells were transfected with interleukin-10 (IL-10) before being loaded into a collagen scaffold. In the second, unmodified stem cells were loaded into a collagen scaffold along with polymer-complexed IL-10 plasmids. The scaffolds were surgically implanted into the dorsum of syngeneic rats. At each endpoint, the scaffolds were explanted and cell retention, IL-10 level and inflammatory response were quantified. All treatment groups had statistically significant increases in cell retention after 7 days, but the group treated with 2 µg of IL-10 polyplexes had a significant improvement even at 21 days. This cell retention was associated with increased IL-10 and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. The primary effect on the inflammatory response appeared to be on macrophage differentiation, encouraging the regulatory phenotype over the cytotoxic lineage. Improving cell survival may be an important step toward realization of the therapeutic potential of stem cells. PMID:21266957

  20. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  1. Maternal investment, sibling competition, and offspring survival with increasing litter size and parity in pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Nævdal, Eric; Bøe, Knut Egil

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted negative effects on weight gain with increasing litter size. Based on maternal investment theory, we also predicted that piglet mortality would be higher for litters born late in a sow's life and thus that the number of surviving piglets would be higher in early litters. As predicted, piglet mortality increased with increasing litter size both due to an increased proportion of crushed piglets, where most of them failed in the teat competition, and due to starvation caused by increased sibling competition, resulting in a constant number of survivors. Piglet weight at day 1 and growth until weaning also declined with increasing litter size. Sows in parity four had higher piglet mortality due to starvation, but the number of surviving piglets was not affected by parity. In conclusion, piglet mortality caused by maternal crushing of piglets, many of which had no teat success, and starvation caused by sibling competition, increased with increasing litter size for most sow parities. The constant number of surviving piglets at the time of weaning suggests that 10 to 11 piglets could be close to the upper limit that the domestic sow is capable of taking care of.

  2. Factors Affecting the Survival Rate of Dental Implants: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikar, Sonal; Talukdar, Pratim; Kumari, Sarala; Panda, Sangram Kumar; Oommen, Vinni Mary; Prasad, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Dental implants have emerged as new treatment modality for the majority of patients and are expected to play a significant role in oral rehabilitation in the future. The present study was conducted to assess various factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants. The present retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics. In this study, 5200 patients with dental implants which were placed during June 2008-April 2015 were included. Exclusion criteria were patients with hormonal imbalance, patients with chronic infectious disease, patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, pregnant women, drug and alcohol addicts, and patients with severe periodontal diseases. Parameters such as name, age, gender, length of implant, diameter of implant, location of implant, and bone quality were recorded. Data were tabulated and statistically evaluated with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0., IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA. Out of 5200 patients, 2800 were males and 2400 females. Maximum implants failures (55) were seen in age group above 60 years of age (males - 550, females -700). Age group 11.5 mm (40/700) followed by implants with 4.5 mm (16/1600) and implants with diameter 3.75-4.5 mm (50/2600). The Chi-square test showed significant results ( P < 0.05). Mandibular posterior showed 3.3% implants failure, maxillary posterior revealed 2.2%, maxillary anterior showed 2.1%, and mandibular anterior showed 1% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Type I bone showed 0.3% implant failure, Type II showed 1.95%, Type III showed 3%, and Type IV revealed 0.8% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Age, length of implant, diameter of implant, bone quality, and region of implant are factors determining the survival rate of implants. We found that implant above 11.5 mm length, and with diameter <3.75 mm, placed in the mandibular posterior region, in Type III bone showed maximum failures.

  3. Biofilms formed by gram-negative bacteria undergo increased lipid a palmitoylation, enhancing in vivo survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabaev, Sabina; Chauhan, Ashwini; Novikov, Alexey; Iyer, Pavithra; Szczesny, Magdalena; Beloin, Christophe; Caroff, Martine; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2014-08-19

    Bacterial biofilm communities are associated with profound physiological changes that lead to novel properties compared to the properties of individual (planktonic) bacteria. The study of biofilm-associated phenotypes is an essential step toward control of deleterious effects of pathogenic biofilms. Here we investigated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structural modifications in Escherichia coli biofilm bacteria, and we showed that all tested commensal and pathogenic E. coli biofilm bacteria display LPS modifications corresponding to an increased level of incorporation of palmitate acyl chain (palmitoylation) into lipid A compared to planktonic bacteria. Genetic analysis showed that lipid A palmitoylation in biofilms is mediated by the PagP enzyme, which is regulated by the histone-like protein repressor H-NS and the SlyA regulator. While lipid A palmitoylation does not influence bacterial adhesion, it weakens inflammatory response and enhances resistance to some antimicrobial peptides. Moreover, we showed that lipid A palmitoylation increases in vivo survival of biofilm bacteria in a clinically relevant model of catheter infection, potentially contributing to biofilm tolerance to host immune defenses. The widespread occurrence of increased lipid A palmitoylation in biofilms formed by all tested bacteria suggests that it constitutes a new biofilm-associated phenotype in Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial communities called biofilms display characteristic properties compared to isolated (planktonic) bacteria, suggesting that some molecules could be more particularly produced under biofilm conditions. We investigated biofilm-associated modifications occurring in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of all Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. We showed that all tested commensal and pathogenic biofilm bacteria display high incorporation of a palmitate acyl chain into the lipid A part of LPS. This lipid A palmitoylation is mediated by the PagP enzyme, whose

  4. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of continuous hemofiltration(CHF on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock.Methods Sixteen healthy male dogs were randomly divided into heatshock group(HS group,n=8 and continuous hemofiltration group(CHF group,n=8.Severe heatstroke model was established by applying high temperature to whole body,and then the animals were removed from the heating cabin as soon as they presented manifestations of shock.Dogs of HS group were put into an ordinary environment,while dogs of CHF group received CHF treatment.The core temperature(Tc,mean arterial pressure(MAP,blood gas analysis,serum electrolytes and survival rate of dogs in two groups were observed.Results The time from heat exposure to shock was 107.0±28.5min and 111.4±22.2min in HS group and CHF group respectively(t=-0.354,P=0.729.The Tc in CHF group declined to normal level 15 to 30 minitues after CHF treatment,while the Tc in HS group remained at a level higher than that before heat exposure at 90min after shock.The Tc of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.01.The MAP of both groups was obviously lowered than that before heatstroke.The MAP of CHF group raised gradually 30 min after treatment,while the MAP of HS group rose very slowly,and it was significantly lower than that of CHF group at each time point after 45min(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.All the dogs in both groups manifested hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis when shock appeared.After shock,respiratory alkalosis in HS group gradually became metabolic acidosis,with some animals manifested combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis because of respiratory decompensation,while the blood gas levels in CHF group recovered to normal gradually.The blood gas levels of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.Hypernatremia,hyperchloraemia and hyperpotassaemia were found in all animals of both

  5. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p Fullerenes significantly increased bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  6. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518......, 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182...

  7. Greater mass increases annual survival of Prothonotary Warblers wintering in northeastern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared D. Wolfe; Matthew D. Johnson; C. John Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of survival of nearctic-neotropic migrants have broadened our understanding of life-history variation across taxa and latitudes. Despite the importance of assessing migrants' survival through all phases of their life-cycle, data from their tropical winter ranges are few. In this study we used 14 years of data on captured birds to quantify the influence...

  8. 76 FR 29963 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... significantly due to lack of ] regulation and noted the importance of such coverage to children. Response: We... below 10 percent could be problematic from an actuarial perspective; and (3) a threshold designed to be... different products. Response: Our understanding is that some States review rate filings at a product level...

  9. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (Pgroup, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, Page. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  10. Offspring schooling associated with increased parental survival in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Harling, Guy

    2017-03-01

    Investing in offspring's human capital has been suggested as an effective strategy for parents to improve their living conditions at older ages. A few studies have assessed the role of children's schooling in parental survival in high-income countries, but none have considered lower-resource settings with limited public wealth transfers and high adult mortality. We followed 17,789 parents between January 2003 and August 2015 in a large population-based open cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association between offspring's schooling and time to parental death. We assessed the association separately by parental sex and for four cause of death groups. A one year increase in offspring's schooling attainment was associated with a 5% decline in the hazard of maternal death (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.94-0.97) and a 6% decline in the hazard of paternal death (aHR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.92-0.96), adjusting for a wide range of demographic and socio-economic variables of the parent and their children. Among mothers, the association was strongest for communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (aHR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.82-0.92) and AIDS and tuberculosis (aHR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.89-0.96), and weakest for injuries. Among fathers, the association was strongest for injuries (aHR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95) and AIDS and tuberculosis (aHR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.89-0.96), and weakest for non-communicable diseases. Higher levels of schooling in offspring are associated with increased parental survival in rural South Africa, particularly for mothers at risk of communicable disease mortality and fathers at risk of injury mortality. Offspring's human capital may be an important factor for health disparities, particularly in lower-resource settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  12. Maximal rate of increase in heart rate during the rest-exercise transition tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Maximillian J; Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate kinetics are faster in well-trained athletes at exercise onset, indicating sensitivity to training status, but whether they track performance changes due to changes in training load is unknown. Randomised, counterbalanced, cross-over. 17 cyclists completed two weeks of light and two weeks of heavy training. The day after each training period heart rate was recorded during 5 min cycling at 100 W to determine the maximal rate of heart rate increase. Participants then performed a 5 min cycle time-trial after which heart rate recovery was determined. Work during 5 min cycle time-trial decreased 3.5% (Ptraining load (completed light training then heavy training) and, although maximal rate of heart rate increase did not change (P=0.27), within-individual changes in work were correlated with changes in maximal rate of heart rate increase (r=0.87, P=0.005). Work during 5 min cycle time-trial increased 6.5% (Ptraining load (completed heavy training then light training) and maximal rate of heart rate increase increased 28% (P=0.002) but the changes in maximal work were not related to changes in rate of heart rate increase (r=0.32, P=0.40). Heart rate recovery tended to track changes in 5 min cycle time-trial work following increases and decreases in training load (r=0.65-0.75, P=0.03-0.08). Maximal rate of heart rate increases during cycling at 100 W tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased, but not performance improvements when training loads are reduced. Maximal rate of heart rate increase may be a useful adjunct to heart rate recovery for tracking changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival rates of short-span implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L

    2010-01-01

    Publications were sought using Medline, and searches were made by hand of the journals Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, along with reference lists of identified articles. Titles and abstracts were initially screened by two independent reviewers to identify prospective or retrospective longitudinal cohort studies or controlled studies reporting on implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses (ICFDP) with a mean followup period of at least 5 years. A clinical examination had to be performed at the end of the followup. For multiple publications reporting on the same population, only the most recent report was included. Data for the meta-analysis were extracted by two independent reviewers. Information regarding survival and complication rates of both implants and ICFDP were extracted. Implant survival was considered if the implant was present at the followup examination; ICFDP survival was considered if the prosthesis was present at the followup visit without any modifications. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications were included in the category of biological complications. As for technical complications, all the events affecting the implant and/ or the meso- and/ or the suprastructures' integrity were considered. Among them, the following categories were defined: implant fractures, veneer fractures, framework fractures, abutment or screw fractures, loss of retention and screw loosening. The five studies included in the meta-analysis yielded an estimated 5- and 10-year ICFDP cumulative survival rate of 94.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84.1-98%] and 88.9% (95% CI, 70.8- 96.1%), respectively. Five-year estimates for peri-implantitis were 5.4% (95% CI, 2.0-14.2%) and 9.4% (95% CI, 3.3-25.4%) at implant and prosthesis levels, respectively. Veneer fracture (5-year

  14. Preliminary Study on Intrasplenic Implantation of Artificial Cell Bioencapsulated Stem Cells to Increase the Survival of 90% Hepatectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M.S.

    2012-01-01

    We implanted artificial cell bioencapsulated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the spleens of 90% hepatectomized (PH) rats. The resulting 14 days survival rate was 91%. This is compared to a survival rate of 21% in 90% hepatectomized rats and 25% for those receiving free MSCs transplanted the same way. Unlike free MSCs, the bioencapsulated MSCs are retained in the spleens and their hepatotrophic factors can continue to drain directly into the liver without dilution resulting in improved hepatic regeneration. In addition, with time the transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells in the spleen renders the spleen as a ectopic liver support. PMID:19132579

  15. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  16. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  17. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  18. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  19. Forced mastication increases survival of adult neural stem cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Yuki; Kitamura, Takamasa; Fujihara, Yuri; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Mitome, Masato; Hasegawa, Tomokazu

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of forced mastication on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of adult mice. Six-week-old mice were subjected to either a hard or normal diet for 13 weeks. They received a daily injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 12 consecutive days beginning at 14 weeks of age. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the DG was counted 1 day after and 5 weeks after the final BrdU injection. The number of BrdU-positive cells 1 day after injection did not differ between the 2 diet groups. However, the number of BrdU-positive cells in the group fed the hard diet was significantly increased 5 weeks after BrdU injection compared to the group fed the normal diet. The results of the Morris water maze test showed that mice fed a hard diet required significantly less time to reach the platform than the control mice when tested at 10 days. Moreover, mice in the group fed the hard diet spent significantly more time in the former platform area than the group fed the normal diet, indicating that hard diet feeding improved spatial memory compared to normal diet feeding. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of glutamate receptor 1 mRNA was significantly increased in the group fed the hard diet compared with the group fed the normal diet. These results suggest that mastication increases the survival of adult neural stem cells in the hippocampal DG.

  20. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  1. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  2. Green tea increases the survival yield of Bifidobacteria in simulated gastrointestinal environment and during refrigerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The well–known prebiotics are carbohydrates but their effects may not always be beneficial, as they can also encourage the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Eubacterium biforme and Clostridium perfringens. Therefore, new alternatives such as non-carbohydrate sources to stimulate the growth of probiotics are needed. The aim of this work was to evaluate (I the green tea polyphenols by HPLC-LC/MS and (II the protective effect of green tea extract on viability and stability of B. infantis ATCC 15697 and B. breve ATCC 15700 microencapsulated in chitosan coated alginate microcapsules during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. Results The major compound identified by HPLC-LC/MS in green tea was epigallocatechin gallate followed by caffeine and epigallocatechin. The survival yield of probiotic bacteria in microcapsules with 10% GT during storage at 4°C, demonstrated significantly (P B.infantis and B. breve with 5% and 10% GT showed a significantly (P  Conclusions The results of this study suggest that green tea coencapsulated with B. infantis or B. breve exert a protective effect of bacteria during exposure to gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. For a health perspective, the results confirm the growing interest probiotic bacteria and the perceived benefit of increasing their numbers in the gastrointestinal tract by microencapsulation.

  3. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  5. Enhancing the Survival Rate of Sand Goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr., Larvae with Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPenicillin G and streptomycin sulphate were administered for 18 days of rearing of sand goby larvae. 7'wo-days larvae (3,37-3,41 mm were reared in 160 1 aerated water at stocking density of 50 fish/1.  Until 17 days of rearing period, the larvae were fed plankton (50-300 gm at stocking density of 20-30 individual/mi, and at day 13-I8, were fed Artemia sp. (1-2 individual/ml.  During first seven days, penicillin G and streptomycin sulphate (1.000 IU/1 and 10 mg/1, respectively were applied daily, and there after once every three days.  The fry which reared in media containing antibiotics exhibited higher survival rate (28,09%, compared to 3,3 1 %, than the control, whereas their growth was similar (1,09-1,53 mm. Keywords :  Antibiotics, survival rate, sand goby fish, Oxyeleotris marmorata  ABSTRAKAntibiotik penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat telah digunakan dalam pemeliharaan larva ikan betutu selama 18 hari.  Larva umur 2 hari (3,37-3,41 mm dipelihara dalain tangki berisi air sebanyak 160 1 yang diaerasi halus, dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/1.  Antibiotik diberikan kepada media pemeliharaan larva setiap hari pada 7 hari pertarna pemeliharaan dan selanjutnya setiap 3 hari sekaii hingga akhir pemeliharaan, sebanyak 1.000 IU/1 dan 10 mg/1 masing-masing untuk penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat.  Pada hari pertama hingga ke- 1 7, larva diberi makan plankton berukuran 50-300 gm sebanyak 20-30 individu/ml, hari ke- 13 sampai 18 diberi Artemia sp. sebanyak 1-2 ekor/ml.  Larva yang dipelihara pada media berantibiotik memiliki kelangsungan hidup (28,09% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanpa antibiotik (3,31%, sedangkan pertumbuhan panjang mutlaknya sama yaitu 1,09-1,53 mm.Kata kunci :  Antibiotik, kelangsungan hidup, ikan betutu, Oxyeleotris marmorata

  6. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  7. Survival sex work and increased HIV risk among sexual minority street-involved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Wood, Evan

    2010-04-01

    Exchanging sex for money, drugs, or other commodities for survival is associated with an array of HIV risks. We sought to determine if street-involved drug-using sexual minority youth are at greater risk for survival sex work and are more likely to engage in risk behaviors with clients. We examined factors associated with survival sex work among participants enrolled in the At Risk Youth Study using logistic regression. Self-reported risk behaviors with clients were also examined. Of 558 participants eligible for this analysis, 75 (13.4%) identified as a sexual minority and 63 (11.3%) reported survival sex work in the past 6 months. Sexual minority males (adjusted odds ratio = 16.1, P exchange sex are urgently required.

  8. Major histocompatibility complex I upregulation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is associated with increased survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Sekar

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that high MHCI expression confers improved overall and recurrence free survival in patients with clear cell RCC and could serve as an important prognostic tool in identifying high-risk patients.

  9. Effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery on survival rate of patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Huan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery, a type of stereotactic body radiotherapy, in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer after resection or ablation, as well as the effect of clinical factors on survival rate. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 34 patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery who were treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery. The patients′ survival rate and survival time after radiotherapy were calculated, and the influencing factors for survival were analyzed. The gross tumor volume of tumor target was 1.475-1082.075 cm3 (median 162.99 cm3. The fraction dose was 7-20 Gy (median 9 Gy, the number of times of irradiation was 2-8 times (median 5 times, and the tumor dose was 24-60 Gy (median 45 Gy once a day. The major indices for observation were short-term outcome, toxic and side effects, and long-term outcome. The log-rank test was used to analyze the surviral-related factors. The chi-square test and fisher test were used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy were 91.2%, 70.6%, and 44.1%, respectively, and the median survival time was 34 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival rates were 55.9%, 38.2%, and 29.4%, respectively. There were no significant differences in 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy between the ≤1-year (early postoperative group and the >1-year (late postoperative group (89%/73.7%/57.9% vs 93%/73.3%/33.3%, χ2=0.354, P=0.368. The univariate analyses showed that sex, age, time to postoperative recurrence, diameter and number of recurrent lesions, liver function classification, alpha-fetoprotein level, and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with patients' survival after radiotherapy. ConclusionCyberKnife radiosurgery is safe and effective in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer, with the

  10. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  11. Outbreeding increases offspring survival in wild greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, S J; Jones, G; Ransome, R D; Barratt, E M

    2001-05-22

    The factors influencing the survival of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) offspring born over seven years at a maternity colony in south-west Britain were studied. The effects of a range of phenotypic and maternal variables were analysed using a historical data set. In addition, the influence of two genetic measures on mortality, individual heterozygosity and a new measure of outbreeding, termed mean d(2), was assessed. Logistic regressions were undertaken with survival modelled as a binary response variable. Survival to two life stages was studied for each variable and all models were developed for both sexes separately and together. Only one variable, mean d(2), was significantly associated with survival. Male offspring with high mean d(2) scores were more likely to survive to their first and second summers. The influence of mean d(2) was not due to a single locus under selection but a wider multilocus effect and probably represents heterosis as opposed to solely inbreeding depression. Therefore, the extent to which an individual is outbred may determine survival more than widely used phenotypic characteristics such as size and mass. Mean d(2) may reflect immunocompetence, which influences mortality. Protection of mating sites in order to facilitate gene flow and, therefore, outbreeding may help to promote population stability and growth.

  12. Aggressive Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Increases Survival: A Scandinavian Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Watten Brudvik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We examined overall and disease-free survivals in a cohort of patients subjected to resection of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRLM in a 10-year period when new treatment strategies were implemented. Methods. Data from 239 consecutive patients selected for liver resection of CRLM during the period from 2002 to 2011 at a single center were used to estimate overall and disease-free survival. The results were assessed against new treatment strategies and established risk factors. Results. The 5-year cumulative overall and disease-free survivals were 46 and 24%. The overall survival was the same after reresection, independently of the number of prior resections and irrespectively of the location of the recurrent disease. The time intervals between each recurrence were similar (11 ± 1 months. Patients with high tumor load given neoadjuvant chemotherapy had comparable survival to those with less extensive disease without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Positive resection margin or resectable extrahepatic disease did not affect overall survival. Conclusion. Our data support that one still, and perhaps to an even greater extent, should seek an aggressive therapeutic strategy to achieve resectable status for recurrent hepatic and extrahepatic metastases. The data should be viewed in the context of recent advances in the understanding of cancer biology and the metastatic process.

  13. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  14. Efficacy of trap modifications for increasing capture rates of aquatic snakes in floating aquatic funnel traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing detection and capture probabilities of rare or elusive herpetofauna of conservation concern is important to inform the scientific basis for their management and recovery. The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is an example of a secretive, wary, and generally difficult-to-sample species about which little is known regarding its patterns of occurrence and demography. We therefore evaluated modifications to existing traps to increase the detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake to improve the precision with which occurrence, abundance, survival, and other demographic parameters are estimated. We found that adding a one-way valve constructed of cable ties to the small funnel opening of traps and adding hardware cloth extensions to the wide end of funnels increased capture rates of the Giant Gartersnake by 5.55 times (95% credible interval = 2.45–10.51) relative to unmodified traps. The effectiveness of these modifications was insensitive to the aquatic habitat type in which they were deployed. The snout-vent length of the smallest and largest captured snakes did not vary among trap modifications. These trap modifications are expected to increase detection and capture probabilities of the Giant Gartersnake, and show promise for increasing the precision with which demographic parameters can be estimated for this species. We anticipate that the trap modifications found effective in this study will be applicable to a variety of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles and amphibians and improve conservation efforts for these species.

  15. Eurythmy therapy increases specific oscillations of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Minnerop, Antje; Trapp, Barbara; Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk

    2015-06-06

    Mind-body therapies are beneficial for several diseases (e.g. chronic pain, arterial hypertension, mood disorders). Eurythmy therapy (EYT) is a mind-body therapy from Anthroposophic Medicine. In each EYT exercise a short sequence of body movements and simultaneous guided imagery is repeated several times. In this study, the simultaneous effects of two different EYT exercises on cardiac autonomic regulation as assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) were investigated. Twenty healthy subjects (age: 29.1 ± 9.3 years, 13 female) performed two different EYT exercises (EYT-A and EYT-B) for 8 min. Each EYT exercise was compared against two matched control exercises: control exercise 1 (CE1-A and CE1-B) consisted of a repetition of the body movements of the EYT exercise but without guided imagery, control exercise 2 consisted of walking on the spot (CE2-A and CE2-B). Spectral power of HRV during each exercise was quantified on the basis of Holter ECG recordings. During EYT-A the frequency of the peak oscillation in the very low frequency (VLF) band matched the repetition rate of the sequence of body movements (0.02 Hz). Low frequency (LF) oscillations were augmented when compared to the control exercises (EYT-A: 7.31 ± 0.84, CE1-A: 6.98 ± 0.90, CE2-A: 6.52 ± 0.87 ln ms(2), p exercises (EYT-B: 9.32 ± 0.82, CE1-B: 6.31 ± 0.75, CE2-B: 6.04 ± 0.80 ln ms(2), p exercises clearly affected cardiac autonomic regulation in a rhythmic manner according to the stimulus of the specific body movements of each EYT exercise. These results offer a physiological basis to develop a rationale for specific clinical indications of these EYT exercises such as stress reduction or prevention of hypertension. DRKS00006760 (registered on 10/10/2014, i.e. retrospective registration); view details at http://www.drks.de/DRKS00006760.

  16. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival to discharge. RESULTS: Overall the proportion of this very preterm cohort who survived to discharge from neonatal care was 89.5%, varying from 93.2% to 74.8% across the regions. Less than 2% of infants

  17. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  18. Melanoma tumors frequently acquire LRP2/megalin expression, which modulates melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Hammer, Katrine; Hager, Henrik; Christensen, Julie N; Ludvigsen, Maja; Honoré, Bent; Thomsen, Mai-Britt H; Madsen, Mette

    2015-05-01

    We show that the multiligand receptor megalin, known to mediate uptake and trafficking of nutrients and signaling molecules, is frequently expressed in malignant melanoma samples. Expression of megalin-encoding mRNA was investigated in 65 samples of nevi, melanomas, and melanoma metastases and was observed in more than 60% of the malignant samples, while only in 20% of the benign counterparts. Megalin expression in nevus and melanoma samples was additionally investigated by immunohistochemistry, which confirmed our mRNA-based observations. We furthermore show that a panel of tumor-derived melanoma cell lines express LRP2/megalin endogenously. In these cells, megalin is internalized from the cell surface and localizes extensively to intracellular vesicles, confirming receptor activity and pointing toward association with the endocytic apparatus. Groundbreaking, our results indicate that sustained megalin expression in melanoma cells is crucial for cell maintenance, as siRNA-mediated reduction in melanoma cell expression of LRP2/megalin significantly decreases melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Use of ultrasonication to increase germination rates of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribera, Ignacio; Vicient, Carlos M

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used as model organism in plant biology. Although not of agronomic significance, it offers important advantages for basic research in genetics and molecular biology including the availability of a large number of mutants and genetically modified lines. However, Arabidopsis seed longevity is limited and seeds stored for more than 10 years usually show a very low capacity for germination. The influence of ultrasonic stimulation was investigated on the germination of A. thaliana L. seeds. All experiments have been performed using a frequency of 45 kHz at constant temperature (24 °C). No germination rate differences were observed when using freshly collected seeds. However, using artificially deteriorated seeds, our results show that short ultrasonic stimulation (mature fertile plants. Ultrasound technology can be used to enhance the germination process of old Arabidopsis seeds without negatively affecting seedling development. This effect seems to be, at least in part, due to the opening of pores in the seed coat. The use of ultrasonic stimulation in Arabidopsis seeds may contribute to the recovering of long time stored lines.

  20. Technical interventions to increase adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2016-12-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is the most robust colonoscopy quality metric and clinical studies have adopted it as the ideal method to assess the impact of technical interventions. Areas covered: We reviewed papers focusing on the impact of colonoscopy technical issues on ADR, including withdrawal time and technique, second evaluation of the right colon, patient positional changes, gastrointestinal assistant participation during colonoscopy, water-aided technique, optimization of bowel preparation and antispasmodic administration. Expert commentary: Overall, technical interventions are inexpensive, available worldwide and easy to implement. Some of them, such as the adoption of split dose regimen and slow scope withdrawal to allow a careful inspection, have been demonstrated to significantly improve ADR. Emerging data support the use of water-exchange colonoscopy. According to published studies, other technical interventions seem to provide only marginal benefit to ADR. Unfortunately, the available evidence has methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, the inclusion of expert endoscopists only and the evaluation of single technical interventions. Additionally, larger studies are needed to clarify whether these interventions might have a higher benefit on low adenoma detectors and whether the implementation of a bundle of them, instead of a single technical maneuver, might have a greater impact on ADR.

  1. Increased diversification rates follow shifts to bisexuality in liverworts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Machac, Antonin; Gradstein, S. Robbert

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in sexual systems are one of the key drivers of species diversification. In contrast to angiosperms, unisexuality prevails in bryophytes. Here, we test the hypotheses that bisexuality evolved from an ancestral unisexual condition and is a key innovation in liverworts. We investigate whether...... are significantly biased toward unisexuality, even though bisexuality is coupled with increased diversification. Sexual systems are strongly conserved deep within the liverwort tree but become much more labile toward the present. Bisexuality appears to be a key innovation in liverworts. Its effects...

  2. Increasing the admission rate to upper secondary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoest, A.; Jensen, V.M.; Nielsen, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    the effects of a school intervention that introduces structured student career guidance in lower secondary school on upper secondary school admission. Disregarding the sunk-cost of implementation, the reform was cost-neutral. In a difference-in-difference framework, we find that the reform increases admission......Although several studies investigate the effects of school resources on student performance, these studies tend to focus more on intervention effect sizes than on their cost-effectiveness. Exploiting policy-induced variation in Denmark and using high-quality administrative data, we investigate...

  3. Obesity and increasing rate of infantile Blount disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Ayla; Hancılı, Suna; Kuru, L İhsan

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of infantile Blount disease is rising in parallel to the increasing obesity in children. Seven children (3 female) between the ages of 17 and 30 months (21.8 ± 4.3 months) were included in the study. All patients had complaints of inward bowing of the legs and excess weight gain. The biochemical and hormonal assessments of all patients yielded normal results. Patients were diagnosed with infantile Blount disease based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings. This disease should be differentiated from physiological genu varum, and the potential psychosocial and physical complications are prevented with early diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Recurrent and de novo glomerulonephritis following renal transplantation: higher rates of rejection and lower graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirioglu, Safak; Caliskan, Yasar; Goksoy, Yagmur; Gulcicek, Sibel; Ozluk, Yasemin; Sarihan, Irem; Seyahi, Nurhan; Kilicaslan, Isin; Turkmen, Aydin; Sever, Mehmet Sukru

    2017-12-01

    In this retrospective study with case-control design, we aimed to determine the clinical and pathological characteristics of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (GN), and their effects on transplant recipients. One hundred and twenty renal transplant recipients with biopsy-proven recurrent or de novo primary GN were compared with two matched control groups including 120 transplant recipients with nonrecurrent primary GN (nonrecurrent GN group) and 120 transplant recipients with non-GN etiology (non-GN group). Primary outcome was allograft loss, and secondary outcomes were biopsy-confirmed cellular or antibody-mediated rejection. In recurrent/de novo GN, nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups, 54.2% (n = 65), 16.7% (n = 20) and 8.3% (n = 10) of patients reached primary outcome after a median follow-up of 96 (IQR: 56-149) months, respectively. Allograft loss was significantly higher in recurrent/de novo GN group compared to nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups (p < 0.001). At 10 years, allograft loss rates in recurrent/de novo GN group were 54.2% for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 53.2% for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and 33.4% for IgA nephropathy cases. Biopsy-confirmed rejection rate was significantly higher in the recurrent/de novo GN group (n = 25, 20.8%) compared to non-GN (n = 8, 6.7%) group (p = 0.001). Recurrent/de novo GN is associated with higher risk of rejection and worse allograft survival.

  5. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  6. Increased fracture rates in Turner's syndrome: a nationwide questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Vestergaard, Peter; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Mosekilde, Leif; Brixen, Kim; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2003-07-01

    Reduced bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) have previously been reported in Turner's syndrome, although appropriate GH treatment and early induction of puberty seem to permit normal bone mass accumulation. Furthermore, an increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis have been reported in a registry study. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the risk of fractures in TS and to explore risk factors, in a historical follow-up survey based on a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was issued to all females with TS (n = 632) in Denmark and to 1888 randomly selected controls (C) matched for age and geographical region. A total of 322 patients (51%) and 1169 controls (62%) returned the questionnaire. TS women were younger than C (30 years, range: 1-73 years vs. 34 years, range 2-82 years, P protective in females above 13 years of age (HR: 0.70, CI 0.54-0.93, P = 0.012). A history of parental fractures increased the risk (HR 1.92, CI 1.62-2.27, P early fractures in TS, especially in those without ovarian function and with a positive family history of fracture and osteoporosis. It thereby emphasizes the need for being vigilant with respect to BMD measurements in these patients.

  7. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: seperating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kenneth C; Lamar, Charisee A; Freeman, Harold P

    2003-06-01

    Black females have lower breast carcinoma survival rates compared with white females. One possible reason is that black females have more advanced-stage breast disease. Another factor may be racial differences in the utilization of cancer treatments. The authors determined racial differences in 6-year stage specific survival rates, adjusting for age and treatments (using estrogen receptor [ER] status), to determine whether there were racial differences in treatment. Racial differences in the stage distributions of breast disease were used to examine the impact of racial factors on breast carcinoma diagnosis. For all breast carcinoma cases, the stage specific 6-year survival rates, in general, were significantly lower for black females for all stages combined and for Stages I-III in every age group. However, examination by different treatments, as measured by ER status, revealed some different results. Only black women younger than age 50 years with ER-positive tumors and women younger than age 65 years with ER-negative tumors had significantly lower stage-specific survival rates. In addition, the stage distribution analyses showed that black females of every age group had less Stage I breast disease. For younger black women (younger than age 50 years), there was evidence of racial differences in treatment for both women with ER-positive tumors and women with ER-negative tumors, as indicated by their lower stage-specific survival rates. In contrast, for black females age 65 years or older with ER-positive or ER-negative tumors, the lack of a significant difference in the stage-specific survival rate suggests that Medicare may help to alleviate racial disparities in cancer treatment. Furthermore, racial differences in the stage distributions indicated the need for earlier diagnosis for black females of every age. Published 2003 American Cancer Society.

  9. Proteome reallocation in Escherichia coli with increasing specific growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Maser, Andres; Nahku, Ranno; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-04-01

    Cells usually respond to changing growth conditions with a change in the specific growth rate (μ) and adjustment of their proteome to adapt and maintain metabolic efficiency. Description of the principles behind proteome resource allocation is important for understanding metabolic regulation in response to changing μ. Thus, we analysed the proteome resource allocation dynamics of Escherichia coli into different metabolic processes in response to changing μ. E. coli was grown on minimal and defined rich media in steady state continuous cultures at different μ and characterised combining two LC-MS/MS-based proteomics methods: stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and intensity based label-free absolute quantification. We detected slowly growing cells investing more proteome resources in energy generation and carbohydrate transport and metabolism whereas for achieving faster growth cells needed to devote most resources to translation and processes closely related to the protein synthesis pipeline. Furthermore, down-regulation of energy generation and carbohydrate metabolism proteins with faster growth displayed very similar expression dynamics with the global transcriptional regulator CRP (cyclic AMP receptor protein), pointing to a dominant protein resource allocating role of this protein. Our data also suggest that acetate overflow may be the result of global proteome resource optimisation as cells saved proteome resources by switching from fully respiratory to respiro-fermentative growth. The presented results give a quantitative overview of how E. coli adjusts its proteome to achieve faster growth and in future could contribute to the design of more efficient cell factories through proteome optimisation.

  10. Improvement of the Measure of the Network Survival Rate and its Application to a Japanese Business Relations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    We analyze the typical characteristics of the percolation transition of a large-scale complex network, a Japanese business relation network consisting of approximately 600,000 nodes and 4,000,000 links. By utilizing percolation characteristics, we revise the definition of network survival rate that we previously proposed. The new network survival rate has a strong correlation with the old one. The calculation cost is also much smaller and the number of trials decreases from 100,000 to 1,000. Finally, we discuss the identification of robust and fragile regions using this index.

  11. Increased Lymph Node Yield Is Associated with Improved Survival in Rectal Cancer Irrespective of Neoadjuvant Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjaer, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the lymph node yield achieved during rectal cancer resection is associated with survival. It is debated whether a high lymph node yield improves survival, per se, or whether it does so by diminishing the International Union Against Cancer stage drifting effect....... OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implications of the lymph node yield in curative resected rectal cancer. DESIGN: This study was based on data from a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer database. SETTINGS: This was a national cohort study. PATIENTS: All 6793...... patients in Denmark who were diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage I to III adenocarcinoma of the rectum and so treated in the period from 2003 to 2011 were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was overall survival. RESULTS: The observed percentages...

  12. Autism Linked to Increased Oncogene Mutations but Decreased Cancer Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbro, Benjamin W; Singh, Rohini; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Mahajan, Vinit B; Bassuk, Alexander G

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one phenotypic aspect of many monogenic, hereditary cancer syndromes. Pleiotropic effects of cancer genes on the autism phenotype could lead to repurposing of oncology medications to treat this increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition for which there is currently no treatment. To explore this hypothesis we sought to discover whether autistic patients more often have rare coding, single-nucleotide variants within tumor suppressor and oncogenes and whether autistic patients are more often diagnosed with neoplasms. Exome-sequencing data from the ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration was compared to that of a control cohort from the Exome Variant Server database revealing that rare, coding variants within oncogenes were enriched for in the ARRA ASD cohort (p<1.0 x 10(-8)). In contrast, variants were not significantly enriched in tumor suppressor genes. Phenotypically, children and adults with ASD exhibited a protective effect against cancer, with a frequency of 1.3% vs. 3.9% (p<0.001), but the protective effect decreased with age. The odds ratio of neoplasm for those with ASD relative to controls was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19; p<0.0001) in the 0 to 14 age group; 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; p = 0.024) in the 15 to 29 age group; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.17; p = 0.095) in the 30 to 54 age group; and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.74; p = 0.267) in those 55 and older. Both males and females demonstrated the protective effect. These findings suggest that defects in cellular proliferation, and potentially senescence, might influence both autism and neoplasm, and already approved drugs targeting oncogenic pathways might also have therapeutic value for treating autism.

  13. Autism Linked to Increased Oncogene Mutations but Decreased Cancer Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Darbro

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is one phenotypic aspect of many monogenic, hereditary cancer syndromes. Pleiotropic effects of cancer genes on the autism phenotype could lead to repurposing of oncology medications to treat this increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition for which there is currently no treatment. To explore this hypothesis we sought to discover whether autistic patients more often have rare coding, single-nucleotide variants within tumor suppressor and oncogenes and whether autistic patients are more often diagnosed with neoplasms. Exome-sequencing data from the ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration was compared to that of a control cohort from the Exome Variant Server database revealing that rare, coding variants within oncogenes were enriched for in the ARRA ASD cohort (p<1.0 x 10(-8. In contrast, variants were not significantly enriched in tumor suppressor genes. Phenotypically, children and adults with ASD exhibited a protective effect against cancer, with a frequency of 1.3% vs. 3.9% (p<0.001, but the protective effect decreased with age. The odds ratio of neoplasm for those with ASD relative to controls was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19; p<0.0001 in the 0 to 14 age group; 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; p = 0.024 in the 15 to 29 age group; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.17; p = 0.095 in the 30 to 54 age group; and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.74; p = 0.267 in those 55 and older. Both males and females demonstrated the protective effect. These findings suggest that defects in cellular proliferation, and potentially senescence, might influence both autism and neoplasm, and already approved drugs targeting oncogenic pathways might also have therapeutic value for treating autism.

  14. Increased rates of pregnancy complications in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleski, Stephanie M; Lindenmeyer, Christina C; Veloski, J Jon; Miller, Robin S; Miller, Cynthia L; Kastenberg, David; DiMarino, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated small bowel disorder that develops in genetically susceptible individuals upon exposure to dietary gluten. Celiac disease could have extra-intestinal manifestations that affect women's reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate fertility and outcomes of pregnancy among women with celiac disease. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed information collected from patients at a tertiary care celiac center and from members of 2 national celiac disease awareness organizations. Women without celiac disease were used as controls. Women completed an anonymous online survey, answering 43 questions about menstrual history, fertility, and outcomes of pregnancy (329 with small bowel biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and 641 controls). Of the 970 women included in the study, 733 (75.6%) reported that they had been pregnant at some point; there was no significant difference between women with celiac disease (n=245/329, 74.5%) and controls (488/641, 76.1%; P=0.57). However, fewer women with celiac disease than controls (79.6% vs. 84.8%) gave birth following 1 or more pregnancies (P=0.03). Women with celiac disease had higher percentages of spontaneous abortion than controls (50.6% vs. 40.6%; P=0.01), and of premature delivery (23.6% vs. 15.9% among controls; P=0.02). The mean age at menarche was higher in the celiac disease group (12.7 years) than controls (12.4 years; P=0.01). In a retrospective cohort analysis examining reproductive features of women with celiac disease, we associated celiac disease with significant increases in spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and later age of menarche.

  15. Increased HDAC1 deposition at hematopoietic promoters in AML and its association with patient survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tickenbrock, Lara; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Trento, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    was established, that revealed an AML specific pattern of HDAC1 distribution. Many of the HDAC1-binding altered promoters regulate genes involved in hematopoiesis, transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. HDAC1 binding patterns were associated with patients' event free survival. This is the first study...... to determine HDAC1 modification patterns in a large number of AML and ALL specimens. Our findings suggest that dyslocalization of HDAC1 is a common feature in AML. Importantly, HDAC1 modifications possess prognostic power for patient survival. Our findings suggest that altered HDAC1 localization...

  16. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Blake

    Full Text Available Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02 when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72 and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases. Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  17. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Survival of male Tengmalm’s owls increases with cover of old forest in the territory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkarainen, H.; Korpimäki, E.; Laaksonen, T.; Nikula, A.; Suorsa, P.

    2008-01-01

    The loss and fragmentation of forest habitats have been considered to pose a worldwide threat to the viability of forest-dwelling animals, especially to species that occupy old forests. We investigated whether the annual survival of sedentary male Tengmalm’s owls Aegolius funereus was associated

  19. Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K.; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival. OBJECTIVE To examine...... temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which...... resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n...

  20. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  1. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  2. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2...... or were euthanized (CI: 19 – 32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68 – 81%). Conclusions: The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  3. Edema-induced increase in tumour cell survival for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd prostate permanent seed implants - a bio-mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue Ning; Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Edema caused by the surgical procedure of prostate seed implantation expands the source-to-point distances within the prostate and hence decreases the dose coverage. The decrease of dose coverage results in an increase in tumour cell survival. To investigate the effects of edema on tumour cell survival, a bio-mathematical model of edema and the corresponding cell killing by continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDRI) was developed so that tumour cell surviving fractions can be estimated in an edematous prostate for both {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed implants. The dynamic nature of edema and its resolution were modelled with an exponential function V(T)=V{sub p} (1+M exp(-0.693T/T{sub e})) where V{sub p} is the prostate volume before implantation, M is the edema magnitude and T{sub e} is edema half-life (EHL). The dose rate of a radioactive seed was calculated according to AAPM TG43, i.e. D radical S{sub k}{delta}g(r) {phi}-bar{sub an}/r{sup 2}, where r is the distance between a seed and a given point. The distance r is now a function of time because of edema. The g(r) was approximated as 1/r{sup 0.4} and 1/r{sup 0.8} for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, respectively. By expanding the mathematical expression of the resultant dose rate in a Taylor series of exponential functions of time, the dose rate was made equivalent to that produced from multiple fictitious radionuclides of different decay constants and strengths. The biologically effective dose (BED) for an edematous prostate implant was then calculated using a generalized Dale equation. The cell surviving fraction was computed as exp(-{alpha}BED), where {alpha} is the linear coefficient of the survival curve. The tumour cell survival was calculated for both {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seed implants and for different tumour potential doubling time (TPDT) (from 5 days to 30 days) and for edemas of different magnitudes (from 0% to 95%) and edema half-lives (from 4 days to 30 days). Tumour cell survival increased

  4. Fasting increases survival to cold in FOXO, DIF, autophagy mutants and in other genotypes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, Éric; Massou, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Fasting increases survival to a severe cold stress in young and middle-aged wild-type flies, this effect being lowered or absent at old age. As an attempt to determine the mechanisms of this effect, genes involved in metabolism (dFOXO), autophagy (Atg7), innate immunity (Dif (1) ), and resistance to cold (Frost) were studied. The 12 mutant, RNAi and control lines tested in this study displayed an increased survival to cold after fasting. This shows that fasting has a robust effect on survival to cold in many genotypes, but the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. This mechanism does not seem to be linked to metabolic pathways often considered to play a critical role in ageing and longevity determinations (insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway and autophagy).

  5. Time trends in incidence rates and survival of newly diagnosed stage IV breast cancer by tumor histology: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meglio, Antonio; Freedman, Rachel A; Lin, Nancy U; Barry, William T; Metzger-Filho, Otto; Keating, Nancy L; King, Tari A; Sertoli, Mario Roberto; Boccardo, Francesco; Winer, Eric P; Vaz-Luis, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Few contemporary data are available that compare incidence and survival of metastatic breast cancer between ductal and lobular carcinomas. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 registries, we identified 10,639 patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 2011. Annual age-adjusted incidence rates and annual percent changes (APCs) were analyzed. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the impact of year of diagnosis and histology on overall survival. 9250 (86.9 %) patients had ductal and 1389 (13.1 %) had lobular carcinomas. Metastatic breast cancer incidence increased slightly over time for ductal (APC = +1.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = +1.0 to +2.4) and lobular carcinomas (APC = +3.0, 95 % CI = +1.8 to +4.3). Median overall survival was 22 months among the whole cohort. More recent year of diagnosis was associated with better overall survival only for patients with ductal carcinomas (interaction p value = 0.006), with an adjusted hazard ratio of death for every five-year increment in the date of diagnosis of 0.93 (95 % CI =  0.91-0.95) among ductal carcinomas, compared with 1.05 (95 % CI = 0.95-1.10) among lobular carcinomas. Overall survival was longer for lobular versus ductal carcinomas (28 versus 21 months, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio of death = 0.93, 95 % CI = 0.87-0.99), but the magnitude of this effect was attenuated among the cohort restricted to hormone receptor-positive tumors. In this population-based analysis, incidence rates of metastatic breast cancer at presentation increased slightly over time for both histologies, and particularly for lobular tumors. A modest improvement in metastatic breast cancer median overall survival was observed, but was apparently limited to ductal carcinomas.

  6. Temperature- and age-dependent survival, development, and oviposition rates of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had...

  7. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim.  To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Design.  A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary

  8. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Opinya, G.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical

  9. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; de Oliveira Rocha, R.; Bönecker, M.; Raggio, D.P.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of

  10. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijan, M.; Amorim, R.G. de; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Oliveira, L.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment

  11. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, H; Rinehart, J P; Yocum, G D; Greenlee, K J; Helm, B R; Kemp, W P; Schulz, C H; Bowsher, J H

    2014-05-01

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but survival may come at a cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, develops in brood cells inside natural cavities, and may be exposed to hypoxic conditions for extended periods of time. Whether M. rotundata is tolerant of hypoxia, and whether exposure results in sub-lethal effects, has never been investigated. Overwintering M. rotundata prepupae were exposed to 10%, 13%, 17%, 21% and 24% O2 for 11 months. Once adults emerged, five indicators of quality - emergence weight, body size, feeding activity, flight performance, and adult longevity, - were measured to determine whether adult bees that survived past exposure to hypoxia were competent pollinators. M. rotundata prepupae are tolerant of hypoxic condition and have higher survival rates in hypoxia, than in normoxia. Under hypoxia, adult emergence rates did not decrease over the 11 months of the experiment. In contrast, bees reared in normoxia had decreased emergence rates by 8 months, and were dead by 11 months. M. rotundata prepupae exposed to extended hypoxic conditions had similar emergence weight, head width, and cross-thorax distance compared to bees reared in standard 21% oxygen. Despite no significant morphological differences, hypoxia-exposed bees had lower feeding rates and shorter adult lifespans. Hypoxia may play a role in post-diapause physiology of M. rotundata, with prepupae showing better survival under hypoxic conditions. Extended exposure to hypoxia, while not fatal, causes sub-lethal effects in feeding rates and longevity in the adults, indicating that hypoxia tolerance comes at a cost. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 increases hematopoietic stem cell survival and accelerates hematopoietic recovery after radiation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Rebecca L.; Georger, Mary; Bromberg, Olga; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Frisch, Benjamin J.; Becker, Michael W.; Calvi, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which continuously maintain all mature blood cells, are regulated within the marrow microenvironment. We previously reported that pharmacologic treatment of naïve mice with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expands HSPCs. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating this expansion remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PGE2 treatment in naïve mice inhibits apoptosis of HSPCs without changing their proliferation rate. In a murine model of sub-lethal total body irradiation (TBI), in which HSPCs are rapidly lost, treatment with a long-acting PGE2 analogue (dmPGE2) reversed the apoptotic program initiated by TBI. dmPGE2 treatment in vivo decreased the loss of functional HSPCs following radiation injury, as demonstrated both phenotypically and by their increased reconstitution capacity. The antiapoptotic effect of dmPGE2 on HSPCs did not impair their ability to differentiate in vivo, resulting instead in improved hematopoietic recovery after TBI. dmPGE2 also increased microenvironmental cyclooxygenase-2 expression and expanded the α-SMA+ subset of marrow macrophages, thus enhancing the bone marrow microenvironmental response to TBI. Therefore, in vivo treatment with PGE2 analogues may be particularly beneficial to HSPCs in the setting of injury by targeting them both directly and also through their niche. The current data provide rationale for in vivo manipulation of the HSPC pool as a strategy to improve recovery after myelosuppression. PMID:23169593

  13. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-03-01

    European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. A total of 14 countries. Consensus groups of PCPs. Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = -0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = -0.57, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.12; ovary: r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.62). There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a "PCP-as-gatekeeper" system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. KEY POINTS European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European countries show a wide variation in the probability of initial presentation to a PCP. The degree to

  14. Survival rate of lithium disilicate restorations at 4 years: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Taiseer A; Delgado, Alex J; Donovan, Terence E

    2015-09-01

    Ceramic restorations are frequently being placed due to the esthetic demand and the cost of noble metals that has increased considerably. One major disadvantage of ceramic restoration is failure of the material due to fracture by crack propagation. In vitro studies are of little clinical significance and in vivo studies are too short to support clinical success. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the failure rate of lithium disilicate restorations (monolithic and layered) at 4 years. Data were collected over 45 months from 2 commercial laboratories. Restorations were categorized into monolithic restorations and layered restorations. Each category was further classified into complete coverage single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, e.max veneers, and inlay/onlay restorations. Failure rates were compared and analyzed using Chi-square (α=.05). A total of 21,340 restorations were evaluated in this study and included 15,802 monolithic restorations and 5538 layered restorations. The failure rate for single crown monolithic restorations was 0.91% and was 1.83% for single crown layered restorations. For fixed dental prostheses, 4.55% of monolithic restorations failed. For e.max veneers, 1.3% of monolithic veneers fractured and 1.53% of layered veneers fractured. Of the inlay/onlay restorations group, 1.01% of monolithic restorations fractured. In the short term (45 months), restorations fabricated with the lithium disilicate material (IPS e.max) had relatively low fracture rates. Layered single crowns fractured at approximately 2 times the rate of monolithic crowns. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND TYPES OF MEDIA ON THE SURVIVAL RATE OF S. agalactiae BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful effect of phages in phage therapy has been proven by an increase of the presence of phages in survivors. Seven previously isolated phages were used to examine the effects of storage temperature and types of media on their survival rate. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 isolated from a Streptococcosis-infected Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were used in this study. Phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2 and PSaG-3 were isolated from a diseased Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy. All of the phages were stored in refrigerator at temperature of 8oC and kept in two types of media, Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB and BHIB enriched with glycerol. To determine the lytic activity of the phages, 20 μL of each phage suspension was poured onto BHIA plate and incubated at 25oC for 24 to 48 hours. The result showed that phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 have lytic activity against S. agalactiae and S. iniae than phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2, and PSaG-3. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20, and PSaT-21 always survived up to three weeks and phage PSaT-18 in BHIB have the highest potential as a candidate of phage therapy for Streptococcosis.

  16. Offspring schooling associated with increased parental survival in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Harling, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Background Investing in offspring's human capital has been suggested as an effective strategy for parents to improve their living conditions at older ages. A few studies have assessed the role of children's schooling in parental survival in high-income countries, but none have considered lower-resource settings with limited public wealth transfers and high adult mortality. Methods We followed 17,789 parents between January 2003 and August 2015 in a large population-based open cohort in rural ...

  17. From utopia to reality: increased survival in peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Sampedro, Juan José; Morales-Soriano, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    We have read with great interest the article by Illán et al.1 entitled "Long survival in a patient with metastatic colorectal carcinoma: reality or utopia?" This article describes the case of a 42 year old patient with mucinous-type colon adenocarcinoma who had tumor recurrence with peritoneal metastases 18 months after resection of the primary tumor and adjuvant chemotherapy. After multiple metastasectomies and several lines of chemotherapy, the patient died 27 months after the recurrence.

  18. Viral vector-mediated downregulation of RhoA increases survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jan Christoph; Tönges, Lars; Michel, Uwe; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Rho/ROCK pathway is a promising therapeutic target in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of various pathway members has been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and survival. However, because pharmacological inhibitors are inherently limited in their specificity, shRNA-mediated approaches can add more information on the function of each single kinase involved. Thus, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) to specifically downregulate Ras homologous member A (RhoA) via shRNA. We found that specific knockdown of RhoA promoted neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) grown on the inhibitory substrate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) as well as neurite regeneration of primary midbrain neurons (PMN) after scratch lesion. In the rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model in vivo, downregulation of RhoA significantly enhanced axonal regeneration compared to control. Moreover, survival of RGC transduced with AAV expressing RhoA-shRNA was substantially increased at 2 weeks after optic nerve axotomy. Compared to previous data using pharmacological inhibitors to target RhoA, its upstream regulator Nogo or its main downstream target ROCK, the specific effects of RhoA downregulation shown here were most pronounced in regard to promoting RGC survival but neurite outgrowth and axonal regeneration were also increased significantly. Taken together, we show here that specific knockdown of RhoA substantially increases neuronal survival after optic nerve axotomy and modestly increases neurite outgrowth in vitro and axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush.

  19. The dwell time and survival rates of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty in patient with unexpected central venous obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Yim, Younghee

    2016-09-21

    To evaluate the dwell time and actual survival rates of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements after balloon angioplasty in patients with unexpected central venous obstructions. Data were obtained on all PICC insertions performed in a tertiary care hospital from August 2008 to December 2013. Thirty-five PICCs attempted after balloon angioplasty in 25 patients (15 male and 10 female patients; mean age, 63 years). Fisher's exact test was used to test for differences in reasons for catheter removal between the groups of patients with stenosis or obstructions. Survival curves for PICC dwell time of all patients, stenosis group, and obstruction group were generated separately using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with log-rank tests. There were a total 21 obstructions and 14 stenoses. The overall technical success rate of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty was 94% (33 of 35 procedures). The PICC dwell time was determined for 27 PICCs and ranged from 4 to 165 days (mean, 39.6 days). Among all PICCs, 16 were removed early, resulting in an actual survival rate of 40.7% (11 of 27 PICCs). There were no significant differences in reasons for catheter removal between the stenosis and obstruction groups (p = 0.24). The dwell times for both groups were not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.54). PICC placement after balloon angioplasty is a good treatment option for patients with unexpected central venous lesions, and offers high technical success rates. The actual survival rate was relatively lower (40.7%) than that from previous studies.

  20. Thymidine kinase 1 deficient cells show increased survival rate after UV-induced DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, T; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Balanced deoxynucleotide pools are known to be important for correct DNA repair, and deficiency for some of the central enzymes in deoxynucleotide metabolism can cause imbalanced pools, which in turn can lead to mutagenesis and cell death. Here we show that cells deficient for the thymidine salvage...... enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than TK1 positive cells although they have thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels of only half the size of control cells. Our results suggest that higher thymidine levels in the TK- cells caused by defect thymidine salvage to d...

  1. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR INCREASING THE RATING OF UNIVERSITY IN INTERNATIONAL RATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The principles of forming the world's most popular international Internet-ranking of universities are considered. The principles of forming the international rating of electronic resources known as Webometrics, which results are defined by summing four values based on quantity of unique external links to the site page and by the quantity of “valuable” files placed on website are represented.  Мost Internet ratings make slope on the  Web activity of the university and its researchers, therefore the participation of entire staff at university is required

  2. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  3. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Eden, Ece; Frencken, Jo E; Oncag, Ozant

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel and (2) in the survival rate of class II composite resin restorations between two treatment groups after 2 years. Three hundred twenty-seven children with 568 class II cavitated lesions were included in a parallel mouth study design. Four operators placed resin composite (Filtek Z 250) restorations bonded with a self-etch adhesive (Adper prompt L pop). Two independent examiners evaluated the restorations after 0.5, 1, and 2 years using the modified Ryge criteria. The Kaplan-Meier survival method was applied to estimate survival percentages. A high proportion of restorations were lost during the study period. Therefore, the first hypothesis could not be tested. No statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival percentages of restorations produced by the two treatment approaches over the 2-year period (ART, 54.1 +/- 3.4%; ART with Carisolv, 46.0 +/- 3.4%). This hypothesis was accepted. ART with chemomechanical gel might not provide an added benefit increasing the survival percentages of ART class II composite resin restorations in primary teeth.

  4. Estimating survival rates of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis veliger larvae under summer and autumn temperature regimes in residual water of trailered watercraft at Lake Mead, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 6 January 2007, invasive quagga mussels [Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897] were discovered in the Boulder Basin ofLake Mead, Nevada, a popular site for recreational boating in the southwestern United States. Recreational watercraft are considered aprimary vector for overland dispersal of quagga mussel veliger larvae between water bodies. Thus, effective decontamination of veligers inresidual water carried by trailered recreation boats is critical to controlling this species’ spread. The survival rate of quagga mussel veligerswas measured during exposure to environmental temperature conditions mimicking those experienced in the residual water of traileredvessels during warm summer and cooler autumn months in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Under warm summer conditions,quagga mussel veligers survived approximately five days while under cooler autumn conditions they survived 27 days. When tested underautumn temperature conditions veliger survival times increased with increased level of larval development. The results suggested a greaterlikelihood of veliger transport in the residual water of trailered watercraft during autumn months. The results indicated that presentlyrecommended vessel quarantine times to kill all externally attached juvenile and adult dreissenid mussels prior to launching in an uninfested water body should be increased to generate 100% veliger mortality in residual water unable to be fully drained from the internal areas of watercraft.

  5. Viral vector-mediated downregulation of RhoA increases survival and axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christoph Koch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rho/ROCK pathway is a promising therapeutic target in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Pharmacological inhibition of various pathway members has been shown to promote neuronal regeneration and survival. However, because pharmacological inhibitors are inherently limited in their specificity, shRNA-mediated approaches can add more information on the function of each single kinase involved. Thus, we generated adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV to specifically downregulate RhoA via shRNA. We found that specific knockdown of RhoA promoted neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGC grown on the inhibitory substrate CSPG as well as neurite regeneration of primary midbrain neurons after scratch lesion. In the rat optic nerve crush model in vivo, downregulation of RhoA significantly enhanced axonal regeneration compared to control. Moreover, survival of RGCs transduced with AAV expressing RhoA-shRNA was substantially increased at two weeks after optic nerve axotomy.Compared to previous data using pharmacological inhibitors to target RhoA, its upstream regulator Nogo or its main downstream target ROCK2, the specific effects of RhoA downregulation shown here were more pronounced in regard to promoting RGC survival while the stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth were rather moderate. Taken together, we show here that specific knockdown of RhoA substantially increases neuronal survival after optic nerve axotomy and modestly increases neurite outgrowth in vitro and axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush.

  6. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  7. Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Troisi, Rebecca J; Savage, Sharon A

    2009-04-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents, but there is a second incidence peak among individuals aged > 60 years. Most osteosarcoma epidemiology studies have been embedded in large analyses of all bone tumors or focused on cases occurring in adolescence. Detailed descriptions of osteosarcoma incidence and survival with direct comparisons among patients of all ages and ethnicities are not available. Frequency, incidence, and survival rates for 3482 patients with osteosarcoma from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2004 were investigated by age (ages 0-24 years, 25-59 years, and 60 to > or = 85 years), race, sex, pathology subtype, stage, and anatomic site. There were large differences in incidence and survival rates by age. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma among patients with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. Tumor site differences among age groups were noted. Survival rates varied by anatomic site and disease stage and did not improve significantly from 1984 to 2004. This comprehensive, population-based description of osteosarcoma, identified important differences in incidence, survival, pathologic subtype, and anatomic site among age groups, and quantified the impact of osteosarcoma in patients with Paget disease or as a second cancer on incidence and mortality rates. These findings may have implications in understanding osteosarcoma biology and epidemiology. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society

  8. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  9. Increasing Nucleosome Occupancy Is Correlated with an Increasing Mutation Rate so Long as DNA Repair Machinery Is Intact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puya G Yazdi

    Full Text Available Deciphering the multitude of epigenomic and genomic factors that influence the mutation rate is an area of great interest in modern biology. Recently, chromatin has been shown to play a part in this process. To elucidate this relationship further, we integrated our own ultra-deep sequenced human nucleosomal DNA data set with a host of published human genomic and cancer genomic data sets. Our results revealed, that differences in nucleosome occupancy are associated with changes in base-specific mutation rates. Increasing nucleosome occupancy is associated with an increasing transition to transversion ratio and an increased germline mutation rate within the human genome. Additionally, cancer single nucleotide variants and microindels are enriched within nucleosomes and both the coding and non-coding cancer mutation rate increases with increasing nucleosome occupancy. There is an enrichment of cancer indels at the theoretical start (74 bp and end (115 bp of linker DNA between two nucleosomes. We then hypothesized that increasing nucleosome occupancy decreases access to DNA by DNA repair machinery and could account for the increasing mutation rate. Such a relationship should not exist in DNA repair knockouts, and we thus repeated our analysis in DNA repair machinery knockouts to test our hypothesis. Indeed, our results revealed no correlation between increasing nucleosome occupancy and increasing mutation rate in DNA repair knockouts. Our findings emphasize the linkage of the genome and epigenome through the nucleosome whose properties can affect genome evolution and genetic aberrations such as cancer.

  10. 12 CFR 227.24 - Unfair acts or practices regarding increases in annual percentage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... increase the annual percentage rate for a category of transactions on any consumer credit card account... exception. An annual percentage rate for a category of transactions may be increased to a rate disclosed at... exception. An annual percentage rate for a category of transactions that varies according to an index that...

  11. Pancreatic Digestive Enzyme Blockade in the Intestine Increases Survival After Experimental Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLano, Frank A.; Hoyt, David B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2015-01-01

    Shock, sepsis, and multiorgan failure are associated with inflammation, morbidity, and high mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but evidence suggests that pancreatic enzymes in the intestinal lumen autodigest the intestine and generate systemic inflammation. Blocking these enzymes in the intestine reduces inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. We investigated whether enzymatic blockade also reduces mortality after shock. Three rat shock models were used here: hemorrhagic shock, peritonitis shock induced by placement of cecal material into the peritoneum, and endotoxin shock. One hour after initiation of hemorrhagic, peritonitis, or endotoxin shock, animals were administered one of three different pancreatic enzyme inhibitors—6-amidino-2-naphtyl p-guanidinobenzoate di-methanesulfate, tranexamic acid, or aprotinin—into the lumen of the small intestine. In all forms of shock, blockade of digestive proteases with protease inhibitor attenuated entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the intestine and subsequent autodigestion and morphological damage to the intestine, lung, and heart. Animals treated with protease inhibitors also survived in larger numbers than untreated controls over a period of 12 weeks. Surviving animals recovered completely and returned to normal weight within 14 days after shock. The results suggest that the active and concentrated digestive enzymes in the lumen of the intestine play a central role in shock and multi-organ failure, which can be treated with protease inhibitors that are currently available for use in the clinic. PMID:23345609

  12. Increased cardiac arrest survival and bystander intervention in enclosed pedestrian walkway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minha; Demirtas, Derya; Buick, Jason E; Feldman, Michael J; Cheskes, Sheldon; Morrison, Laurie J; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-09-01

    Cities worldwide have underground or above-ground enclosed walkway systems for pedestrian travel, representing unique environments for studying out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). The characteristics and outcomes of OHCAs that occur in such systems are unknown. To determine whether OHCAs occurring in enclosed pedestrian walkway systems have differing demographics, prehospital intervention, and survival outcomes compared to the encompassing city, by examining the PATH walkway system in Toronto. We identified all atraumatic, public-location OHCAs in Toronto from April 2006 to March 2016. Exclusion criteria were obvious death, existing DNR, and EMS-witnessed OHCAs. OHCAs were classified into mutually exclusive location groups: Toronto, Downtown, and PATH-accessible. PATH-accessible OHCAs were those that occurred within the PATH system between the first basement and third floor. We analyzed demographic, prehospital intervention, and survival data using t-tests and chi-squared tests. We identified 2172 OHCAs: 1752 Toronto, 371 Downtown, and 49 PATH-accessible. Compared to Toronto, a significantly higher proportion of PATH-accessible OHCAs was bystander-witnessed (62.6% vs 83.7%, p=0.003), had bystander CPR (56.6% vs 73.5%, p=0.019), bystander AED use (11.0% vs 42.6%, pinfrastructure systems worldwide should consider these findings when determining AED placement and public engagement strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recognising out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during emergency calls increases bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initiation of early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) depends on bystanders' or medical dispatchers' recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary aim of our study was to investigate if OHCA recognition during the emergency call was associated with byst......BACKGROUND: Initiation of early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) depends on bystanders' or medical dispatchers' recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary aim of our study was to investigate if OHCA recognition during the emergency call was associated...... with bystander CPR, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and 30-day survival. Our secondary aim was to identify patient-, setting-, and dispatcher-related predictors of OHCA recognition. METHODS: We performed an observational study of all OHCA patients' emergency calls in the Capital Region of Denmark from...... the association between OHCA recognition and bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of OHCA recognition. RESULTS: We included 779 emergency calls in the analyses. During the emergency calls, 70.1% (n=534) of OHCAs were recognised...

  14. Increased tumour ADC value during chemotherapy predicts improved survival in unresectable pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology and IVR Center, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan); Marugami, Nagaaki [Nara Medical University, Department of Endoscopy and Ultrasound, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan); Sho, Masayuki; Akahori, Takahiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Surgery, Kashihara-city, Nara (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate whether changes to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of primary tumour in the early period after starting chemotherapy can predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Subjects comprised 43 patients with histologically confirmed unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy. Minimum ADC values in primary tumour were measured using the selected area ADC (sADC), which excluded cystic and necrotic areas and vessels, and the whole tumour ADC (wADC), which included whole tumour components. Relative changes in ADC were calculated from baseline to 4 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. Relationships between ADC and both PFS and OS were modelled by Cox proportional hazards regression. Median PFS and OS were 6.1 and 11.0 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, sADC change was the strongest predictor of PFS (hazard ratio (HR), 4.5; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.7-11.9; p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis for OS revealed sADC change and CRP as independent predictive markers, with sADC change as the strongest predictive biomarker (HR, 6.7; 95 % CI, 2.7-16.6; p = 0.001). Relative changes in sADC could provide a useful imaging biomarker to predict PFS and OS with chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.)

  15. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  16. Enhancing hatch rate and survival in laboratory-reared hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish through application of antibiotics to eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Olin; Bonar, Scott A.; Barrett, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of four antibiotics in enhancing the hatch rate, larval survival, and adult survival of hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish Cyprinodon diabolis (hybridized with Ash Meadows Amargosa Pupfish C. nevadensis mionectes). Cephalexin (CEX; concentration = 6.6 mg/L of water), chloramphenicol (CAM; 50 mg/L), erythromycin (ERY; 12.5 mg/L), and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 25 mg/L) were applied as a constant bath either to incubating eggs or to larvae that hatched from untreated eggs. Hatch rate was roughly doubled by incubation in the presence of CAM (68% hatch) and TMP-SMX (66%) relative to the control (28%). Cephalexin and ERY conferred no benefit upon the hatch rate. Among fry that hatched from treated eggs, there was no increase in 15-d larval survival. However, fish that hatched from eggs treated with CAM, ERY, and TMP-SMX demonstrated enhanced survival at 360 d (51.2, 38.4, and 43.6%, respectively) and at 540 d (22.6, 6.8, and 20.2%, respectively); the untreated control had no survivors to those time points. All groups of eggs treated with antibiotics showed reductions in bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) at 24 h posttreatment. At 120 h posttreatment, CEX-treated eggs had CFU counts similar to those of the control, whereas the TMP-SMX-treated eggs had the lowest CFU counts. Eggs treated with CAM and ERY had similar CFU counts, which were significantly reduced from the control counts. Larvae that were treated with CAM and TMP-SMX within 12 h posthatch showed enhanced 15-d survival (74% and 72%, respectively) in comparison with the control (56%). For pupfish rearing efforts in which antibiotic use is appropriate, CAM and TMP-SMX appear to provide the greatest benefit, particularly when applied to incubating eggs rather than to hatched larvae.

  17. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warattama Suksaphar; Danuchit Banomyong; Titalee Jirathanyanatt; Yaowaluk Ngoenwiwatkul

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations...

  18. Survival Rates and Bone and Soft Tissue Level Changes Around One-Piece Dental Implants Placed with a Flapless or Flap Protocol: 8.5-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froum, Stuart J; Khouly, Ismael

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the survival rates and to measure marginal bone changes and peri-implant conditions 8.5 years after placement of one-piece implants with an anodically oxidized surface (AOS). A total of 52 subjects who received a one-piece implant with an AOS using a flapless or flap protocol and completed a previous randomized clinical trial were contacted for a recall visit 8.5 years after implant placement (T8.5). Implant success and survival rates, probing pocket depth (PPD), presence of bleeding on probing (BoP), papilla level, and incidence of complications and peri-implant disease were assessed by a single, blinded examiner. A second blinded examiner evaluated marginal bone level changes. Results for 8.5 years were compared to those at the time of implant placement, implant loading (0.5 year), and 1 and 1.5 years follow-up. The results based on 28 patients who attended the follow-up visit (half had flapless and half a flap protocol) showed a 100% implant survival rate and a 96.4% implant success rate 8.5 years after implant placement using one-piece implants, with no difference in survival and success rates between the flapless and the flap protocol. During the same follow-up period, a significant increase in crestal bone height from 1.5 to 8.5 years was observed. Analysis suggested decreasing mean levels of bone loss with time (P rates of BoP (22.8% vs 17.9%, respectively). Papilla levels increased during the first year after implant loading. However, there was little additional change between 1.5 and 8.5 years. A total of eight fractured porcelain crowns and three crown loosenings were reported. One-piece implants with an AOS showed high survival rates and stable marginal bone and periimplant soft tissue levels regardless of whether a flapless or flap protocol was used.

  19. A clinical study on survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Sami; Güven, Orhan; Gllareva, Enis; Prekazi, Mergime; Salihu, Leminot

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo and to see the effect of stage of disease on the success of surgical treatment. 789 patients with SCCLL who were referred to the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, were examined during a period of 20 years (between 1993 and 2013). 614 (77.82%) of these patients received treatment and have regularly visited the department once every 3 months for post-operative controls. Data have been collected from these 614 patients for 10 years; thus the follow-up period lasts for 10 years for every patient under control. The collected data were analysed using Chi square test. Patients were classified by sex, aetiology, stage of the disease, location of the disease, the treatment patients received, metastasis rate and survival rate. The most susceptible patients were those at ages between 50 and 70. The youngest patient was 8 years old whereas the oldest was 92. The male-female ratio was 5:1. 57% of the patients had been working outdoors and had been exposed to sunlight. Ten years survival rate for the Stages I, II, III and IV was 91.7%, 83.7%, 28% and 11.4% respectively. It was found that the success of the surgery was closely related with the stage of disease and early diagnosis. Training the relevant parties (i.e., the people, family doctors etc.) on early diagnosis would improve the survival rate. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijan, Maite; de Amorim, Rodrigo Guedes; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Mulder, Jan; Oliveira, Luciana; Creugers, Nico H J; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment (UCT) protocol after 3.5 years. Cavitated primary molars were treated according to CRT, ART, and UCT (small cavities were restored with ART and medium/large cavities were daily cleaned with toothpaste/toothbrush under supervision). Molar extractions resulting from toothache, sepsis, or pulp exposure were failures. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival curves. The numbers of treated teeth, among the 302 6-7-year-old children, were 341 (CRT), 244 (ART), and 281 (for UCT group: 109 small ART, 166 open cavities, and 6 combinations). Protocol groups were similar at baseline regarding gender and mean decayed missing filled tooth score, but not regarding age and type of surface. The numbers of molars extracted were 22 (CRT), 16 (ART), and 26 (UCT). Fistulae were most often recorded. After 3.5 years, the cumulative survival rate ± standard error for all molars treated was 90.9 ± 2.0 % with CRT, 90.4 ± 2.4 % with ART, and 88.6 ± 1.9 % with UCT (p = 0.13). Only a type of surface effect was observed over the 3.5-year period: survival rates for molars were higher for single- than for multiple-surface cavities. There was no difference in the cumulative survival rates of primary molars treated according to the CRT, ART, and UCT protocols over a 3.5-year period. Keeping cavities in primary molars biofilm-free might be another treatment option alongside restoring such cavities through conventional and ART protocols.

  1. Dental Implant Survival and Complication Rate over 2 Years for Individuals with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskow, Caroline C; Oates, Thomas W

    2017-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that implant therapy may be a viable option for diabetic individuals with elevated glycemic levels. The purpose of this 2 year observational study was to evaluate survival and clinical complications of dental implants following placement in type 2 diabetes individuals having poor glycemic control. Adult participants (n = 24) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (8.0% ≤ HbA1c ≤ 12.0%) received two or more transgingival dental implants. Survival was evaluated after 1 (23 participants, 72 implants) and 2 (20 participants, 59 implants) years. Clinical complications were evaluated in 18 participants (52 implants) after 21-34 months. Relationships between complications and stratified HbA1c levels were assessed using Pearson's correlation test. Survival rates were 98.6% (71/72 implants) after 1 year and 96.6% (57/59 implants) after 2 years. Complications were identified in 29% of participants with peri-implant mucositis, the most common event. Complications correlated directly with number of implants across HbA1c strata (0.42, R2  = 0.66). There was no correlation between HbA1c and the occurrences of complications or mucositis. This 2-year evaluation supports the broader application of implant therapy in type 2 diabetes individuals with poor glycemic control in demonstrating high survival rates with limited complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Increased Subventricular Zone Radiation Dose Correlates With Survival in Glioblastoma Patients After Gross Total Resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Linda [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ye, Xiaobu [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); McNutt, Todd; Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lim, Michael; Chaichana, Kaisorn [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo, E-mail: aquinon2@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Redmond, Kristin, E-mail: kjanson3@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) have a controversial role in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as potential tumor-initiating cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between radiation dose to the SVZ and survival in GBM patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 116 patients with primary GBM treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2006 and 2009. All patients underwent surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation therapy (60 Gy/30 fractions) and concomitant temozolomide. Ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral SVZs were contoured on treatment plans by use of coregistered magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Multivariate Cox regression was used to examine the relationship between mean SVZ dose and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as overall survival (OS). Age, Karnofsky Performance Status score, and extent of resection were used as covariates. The median age was 58 years (range, 29-80 years). Results: Of the patients, 12% underwent biopsy, 53% had subtotal resection (STR), and 35% had gross total resection (GTR). The Karnofsky Performance Status score was less than 90 in 54 patients and was 90 or greater in 62 patients. The median ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral mean SVZ doses were 48.7 Gy, 34.4 Gy, and 41.5 Gy, respectively. Among patients who underwent GTR, a mean ipsilateral SVZ dose of 40 Gy or greater was associated with a significantly improved PFS compared with patients who received less than 40 Gy (15.1 months vs 10.3 months; P=.028; hazard ratio, 0.385 [95% confidence interval, 0.165-0.901]) but not in patients undergoing STR or biopsy. The subgroup of GTR patients who received an ipsilateral dose of 40 Gy or greater also had a significantly improved OS (17.5 months vs 15.6 months; P=.027; hazard ratio, 0.385 [95% confidence interval, 0.165-0.895]). No association was found between SVZ radiation dose and PFS

  3. Increased flexibility for modeling telemetry and nest-survival data using the multistate framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineau, Olivier; Kendall, William L.; Doherty, Paul F.; Shenk, Tanya M.; White, Gary C.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Although telemetry is one of the most common tools used in the study of wildlife, advances in the analysis of telemetry data have lagged compared to progress in the development of telemetry devices. We demonstrate how standard known-fate telemetry and related nest-survival data analysis models are special cases of the more general multistate framework. We present a short theoretical development, and 2 case examples regarding the American black duck and the mallard. We also present a more complex lynx data analysis. Although not necessary in all situations, the multistate framework provides additional flexibility to analyze telemetry data, which may help analysts and biologists better deal with the vagaries of real-world data collection.

  4. Cardiomyocyte Differentiation Promotes Cell Survival During Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibition Through Increased Maintenance of Cellular Energy Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Erin M; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Waas, Matthew; Nycz, Alyssa; Corbett, John A; Gundry, Rebekah L

    2017-04-01

    To address concerns regarding the tumorigenic potential of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) that may remain after in vitro differentiation and ultimately limit the broad use of hPSC-derivatives for therapeutics, we recently described a method to selectively eliminate tumorigenic hPSC from their progeny by inhibiting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). Limited exposure to NAMPT inhibitors selectively removes hPSC from hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CM) and spares a wide range of differentiated cell types; yet, it remains unclear when and how cells acquire resistance to NAMPT inhibition during differentiation. In this study, we examined the effects of NAMPT inhibition among multiple time points of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Overall, these studies show that in vitro cardiomyogenic commitment and continued culturing provides resistance to NAMPT inhibition and cell survival is associated with the ability to maintain cellular ATP pools despite depletion of NAD levels. Unlike cells at earlier stages of differentiation, day 28 hPSC-CM can survive longer periods of NAMPT inhibition and maintain ATP generation by glycolysis and/or mitochondrial respiration. This is distinct from terminally differentiated fibroblasts, which maintain mitochondrial respiration during NAMPT inhibition. Overall, these results provide new mechanistic insight into how regulation of cellular NAD and energy pools change with hPSC-CM differentiation and further inform how NAMPT inhibition strategies could be implemented within the context of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1191-1201. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  5. Minocycline prevents cerebral malaria, confers neuroprotection and increases survivability of mice during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoorv, Thittayil Suresh; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological complication arising due to Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infection. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline, has been earlier reported to have a neuroprotective role in several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline treatment on the survivability of mice during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). The currently accepted mouse model, C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, was used for the study. Infected mice were treated with an intra-peritoneal dose of minocycline hydrochloride, 45mg/kg daily for ten days that led to parasite clearance in blood, brain, liver and spleen on 7th day post-infection; and the mice survived until experiment ended (90days) without parasite recrudescence. Evans blue extravasation assay showed that blood-brain barrier integrity was maintained by minocycline. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein level and caspase activity, which is related to CM pathogenesis, was significantly reduced in the minocycline-treated group. Fluoro-Jade® C and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the brains of minocycline group revealed a decrease in degenerating neurons and absence of hemorrhages respectively. Minocycline treatment led to decrease in gene expressions of inflammatory mediators like interferon-gamma, CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2; receptors CXCR3 and CCR2; and hence decrease in T-cell-mediated cerebral inflammation. We also proved that this reduction in gene expressions is irrespective of the anti-parasitic property of minocycline. The distinct ability of minocycline to modulate gene expressions of CXCL10 and CXCR3 makes it effective than doxycycline, a tetracycline used as chemoprophylaxis. Our study shows that minocycline is highly effective in conferring neuroprotection during ECM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  8. Differences in treatment and survival rates of non-small-cell lung cancer in three regions of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosclaude, P; Galat, J P; Macé-Lesech, J; Roumagnac-Machelard, M; Mercier, M; Robillard, J

    1995-11-01

    Treatment and survival rates of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were compared between three French Cancer Registries (Calvados, Doubs, Tarn). The methodological issues in such comparisons are discussed. The treatments for NSCLC differed between the regions: radiotherapy tended to be preferred in Calvados (73% vs 21.3% surgery), whereas surgery was more frequently employed in Doubs and Tarn (27.7% and 37% respectively). The percentage of cases receiving no therapeutic treatment ranged from 7.8% (Calvados) to 26% (Tarn). Despite the differences in treatment, the overall survival rates were similar in the three regions. Adjustment for treatment in such a descriptive study may be misleading since different therapeutic strategies in different regions may lead to selection of patients of systematically better or poorer prognosis in the various treatment groups.

  9. Effect of antibiotics selection on survival rate of nodal explant and gene transformation in Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of hygromycin antibiotic supplemented in modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS on the survival rate of nodal explant of Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate were determined.The use of hygromycin at 50 mg/l caused absolute death of nodal tissue after 4 weeks of culture. Dipping nodal explant with agrobacterium, EHA 105 containing pCAMBIA1301 for 15 min followed by co-cultureon filter paper laid on MMS with 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA, 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ and 200 mg/l cefotaxime for 2 days then transferring the explant to culture on MMS supplemented with the abovephytohormones and 50 mg/l hygromycin resulted in the highest survival rate at 26.6% with 4 shoots/callus. Histochemical analysis of gus activity was found in callus after 6 weeks of nodal culture and in leaf fromshoot derived from the callus.

  10. Survival and progression rates of large European silver eel Anguilla anguilla in late freshwater and early marine phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Thorstad, Eva B.; Koed, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The population of European silver eel Anguilla anguilla has declined tremendously in the last decades. The cause of this decline is unknown, and it is necessary to investigate the migratory behaviour and survival rates of silver eels during the reproductive migration in order to understand...... was high in fresh water. However, 60% of eels were lost in the inner and outer fjord, supporting the hypothesis that mortality is large in the early phase of the marine migration and that fishing may be a major cause of mortality of silver eels. There was no indication that the slowest-migrating...... if the decline is related to factors acting during that migration. We estimated survival and progression rates of European silver eel migrating in the lower part of the River Gudenaa and during the first phase of the marine migration in the Randers Fjord in Denmark. Fifty migrating silver eel (total body length...

  11. Exploring survival rates of companies in the UK video-games industry: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cabras, I.; Goumagias, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Cowling, P.; Li, F.; Kudenko, D.; Devlin, S.; Nucciarelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates companies operating in the UK video-game industry with regard to their levels of survivability. Using a unique dataset of companies founded between 2009 and 2014, and combining elements and theories from the fields of Organisational Ecology and Industrial Organisation, the authors develop a set of hierarchical logistic regressions to explore and examine the effects of a range of variables such as industry concentration, market size and density on...

  12. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  13. 24 Hour Survival Rate and its Determinants in Patients with Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Movahedi; Ali Kavosi; Hamidreza Behnam Vashani; Gholamreza Mohammadi; Hasan Mehrad Majd; Javad Malekzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims The main cause of death in the adult population in the industrialized world is sudden cardiac arrest. The first purpose of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is return of spontaneous circulation. Post cardiopulmonary resuscitation cares are fifth stage of American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation that less take into consideration. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of “24 Hour Survival Rate and it’s determinants in patients w...

  14. A High-Fat Diet Containing Lard Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression and Reduces Survival Rate in Mice: Possible Contribution of Adipose Tissue-Derived Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jin Cho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate.

  15. One-Year Multicenter Prospective Evaluation of Survival Rates and Bone Resorption in One-Piece Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleh Golab, Kaveh; Balouch, Amir; Mirtorabi, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported the efficiency of immediate loading techniques. The aim of this multicenter prospective study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the one-piece screw (OPS) implants used by general dentists. A total of 272 patients were treated with 533 implants at five dental clinics by five general dentists. Some implants were provided with provisional restoration. Implants in partially edentulous spaces were splinted with acryl, composite, and intraoral welding. The implant survival rates, bone resorption, plaque accumulation, and soft tissue health were evaluated after 3, 6, and 12 months. The final restorations were cemented in the maxilla after 6 months and in the mandible after 3 months. Twelve implants failed (98% survival rate) after 12 months. None of the splinted implants failed during the follow-ups. There were five failures in unsplinted partial cases. The average amounts of bone loss around the implants were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm, 0.56 ± 0.41 mm, and 0.59 ± 0.41 mm after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Visible plaque was registered in 18% of the implants, and bleeding on probing was observed in 17% of the implants after 12 months. High survival rates and favorable host tissue responses support the clinical performance of OPS implants. This study demonstrated that one-piece implants can be efficiently used by well-trained general dentists. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Increased Expression of the GLUT-1 Gene is Associated With Worse Overall Survival in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Abbott, Andrea M.; Pimiento, Jose M.; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Malafa, Mokenge P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is currently no reliable method to predict the risk of relapse after curative resection of early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Increased glucose metabolism observed on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) by malignant cells, the Warburg effect, is a well-known characteristic of the malignant phenotype. We investigated the role of glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) gene expression, a glucose cell plasma membrane transporter, in early-stage pancreatic cancer. Methods Associations between GLUT-1 gene expression with PET maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and histologic grade were investigated in early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine predictors of prognosis. Cox proportional hazards model was used for survival analysis. Results Sixty-three patients had GLUT-1 gene analysis performed, and 50 patients had both GLUT-1 analysis and PET scan. Patients with high GLUT-1 gene expression had a decreased overall survival by univariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model (HR=2.82, p=0.001) and remained significant on multivariate analysis (HR=2.54, p=0.03). There was no correlation of GLUT-1 gene expression with histologic grade or PET SUVmax. Conclusion Increased GLUT-1 gene expression was associated with a decreased overall survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This supports increased GLUT-1 gene expression as a potential prognostic marker in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26692443

  17. Estimated glucose disposal rate and long-term survival in type 2 diabetes after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Thomas; Holzmann, Martin J; Eliasson, Björn; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Kuhl, Jeanette; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2017-03-01

    We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients who underwent primary CABG in Sweden from 2006 to 2013 were identified from the SWEDEHEART register and by record linkage to the National Diabetes Register; all patients with type 2 diabetes were included and formed the study population. Patients were followed until 2013 through national registers for major adverse cardiovascular events and death from any cause. eGDR was calculated using waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, and presence or the absence of hypertension. The association between eGDR and death was estimated using multivariable Cox regression. A total of 3256 patients were included. During a mean follow-up of 3.1 years (10,227 person-years), in total, 14 % patients died: 17 % (n = 186) in the 1st tertile (lowest eGDR), 14 % (n = 145) in the 2nd tertile, and 13 % (n = 133) in the 3rd tertile (highest eGDR). There was a significant association between eGDR and increased risk of death: adjusted hazard ratio (95 % confidence interval): 1.46 (1.12-1.90) for the 1st eGDR tertile compared to the 3rd and highest eGDR tertile. In conclusion, patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent CABG, a low eGDR, were associated with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality that was independent of other cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Insulin resistance measured by eGDR could be a useful risk marker in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease.

  18. Increased immunogenicity of surviving tumor cells enables cooperation between liposomal doxorubicin and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danet-Desnoyers Gwen-äel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil is a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug with a favorable hematologic toxicity profile. Its active drug, doxorubicin, has interesting immunomodulatory properties. Here, the effects of Doxil on surviving tumor cell immunophenotype were investigated. Methods Using ID8 murine ovarian cancer cells, the immunomodulatory effects of Doxil were studied by measuring its impact on ovarian cancer cell expression of MHC class-I and Fas, and susceptibility to immune attack in vitro. To evaluate the ability of Doxil to cooperate with cancer immunotherapy, the interaction between Doxil and Interleukin 18 (IL-18, a pleiotropic immunostimulatory cytokine, was investigated in vivo in mice bearing ID8-Vegf tumors. Results While Doxil killed ID8 tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner, tumor cells escaping Doxil-induced apoptosis upregulated surface expression of MHC-I and Fas, and were sensitized to CTL killing and Fas-mediated death in vitro. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the combination of immunotherapy with Doxil provides positive interactions. Combination IL-18 and Doxil significantly suppressed tumor growth compared with either monotherapy in vivo and uniquely resulted in complete tumor regression and long term antitumor protection in a significant proportion of mice. Conclusion These data demonstrate that Doxil favorably changes the immunophenotype of a large fraction of the tumor that escapes direct killing thus creating an opportunity to expand tumor killing by immunotherapy, which can be capitalized through addition of IL-18 in vivo.

  19. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  20. Survival outcomes of obese patients in type II endometrial cancer: Defining the prognostic impact of increasing BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Caroline C; Cansino, Catherine; O'Malley, David M; Cohn, David E; Fowler, Jeffrey M; Copeland, Larry J; Backes, Floor J; Salani, Ritu

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of obesity as a risk factor for type II endometrial cancer (EC), as well as the prognostic significance of increasing body mass index (BMI) on survival. A single institution retrospective analysis of 154 type II EC cases from 1987 to 2010 was conducted. Patients were categorized into cohorts by BMI (normal (obese class I (30-34.9), and obese class II-III (≥35)). Descriptive, regression and ANOVA analyses were performed. Kaplan-Meier curves were compared with log rank tests. The BMI distribution was 22.8% normal BMI; 24% overweight; 17.5% class I; and 35.7% class II-III. The median follow up was 41 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 45.4, 36.0, 35.3 and 42.0 months and overall survival (OS) was 54.7, 44.7, 44.8 and 49.7 months, among the respective groups. There was no association between BMI and PFS (p=0.71), OS (p=0.72), or time to recurrence (p=0.71). There were no differences among the increasing BMI groups compared to normal weight women for the risk of death. Our analysis did not reveal any differences in outcomes by BMI group. Our data reveals that obesity is highly prevalent in type II ECs, though obesity has not historically been described as a risk factor. While BMI as a single variable may not be prognostic for survival outcomes, the role of obesity as a risk factor for type II EC should be further investigated, given the increasing prevalence of obesity in type II ECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased Severe Trauma Patient Volume is Associated With Survival Benefit and Reduced Total Health Care Costs: A Retrospective Observational Study Using a Japanese Nationwide Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akira; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Otomo, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of severe trauma patient volume with survival benefit and health care costs. The effect of trauma patient volume on survival benefit is inconclusive, and reports on its effects on health care costs are scarce. We conducted a retrospective observational study, including trauma patients who were transferred to government-approved tertiary emergency hospitals, or hospitals with an intensive care unit that provided an equivalent quality of care, using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. We categorized hospitals according to their annual severe trauma patient volumes [1 to 50 (reference), 51 to 100, 101 to 150, 151 to 200, and ≥201]. We evaluated the associations of volume categories with in-hospital survival and total cost per admission using a mixed-effects model adjusting for patient severity and hospital characteristics. A total of 116,329 patients from 559 hospitals were analyzed. Significantly increased in-hospital survival rates were observed in the second, third, fourth, and highest volume categories compared with the reference category [94.2% in the highest volume category vs 88.8% in the reference category, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 95% CI) = 1.75 (1.49-2.07)]. Furthermore, significantly lower costs (in US dollars) were observed in the second and fourth categories [mean (standard deviation) for fourth vs reference = $17,800 ($17,378) vs $20,540 ($32,412), adjusted difference (95% CI) = -$2559 (-$3896 to -$1221)]. Hospitals with high volumes of severe trauma patients were significantly associated with a survival benefit and lower total cost per admission.

  2. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R. [Georgia Univ., Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d{sup -1} for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to {sup 137}Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d{sup -1}. Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  3. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  4. The influence of anti-predator training, personality and sex in the behavior, dispersion and survival rates of translocated captive-raised parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice R.S. Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main factors responsible for the failure of reintroduction/translocation programs. Animal's personality and sex can also influence key behaviors for survival and reproduction. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of anti-predator training, personality and sex on the survival and behaviors of translocated blue-fronted Amazon parrots. Thirty-one captive-raised parrots were translocated to a Cerrado area in Brazil. Parrots were separated into two groups: anti-predator trained group (ATG and control group (CG. Personality tests were performed with individuals of the ATG group. Data were collected using focal sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every minute. Anti-predator training, personality and sex did not influenced parrots' survival after release. However, anti-predator training proved to be efficient in eliciting more natural behaviors in parrots after release. Shy individuals and males showed to be more sociable than bold individuals and females. Personality and sex did not influence behavior exhibition. Parrots interacted more, positively or negatively, with individuals of its own group. Training session closer to the release date should be tried. Behavioral data and not just survival rates should be used to evaluate the efficiency of the techniques, because behavior can give clues about the adaptation of the individuals to the new habitat, increasing the success of the conservation program.

  5. Do female cancer patients display better survival rates compared with males? Analysis of the Korean National Registry data, 2005-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Won Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences have been reported in the prognosis of certain cancers. In this study, we investigated whether Korean females display better survival rates compared with male patients for solid tumor sites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database from 599,288 adult patients diagnosed with solid cancers between 2005 and 2009. Patients were followed until December 2010. We applied a relative excess risk (RER model adjusting for year of follow-up, age at diagnosis, and stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: For all solid cancer sites combined, women displayed an 11% lower risk of death compared to men (RER 0.89; 95% CI 0.88-0.90 after adjusting for year of follow-up, age, stage, and case mix. Women showed significantly lower RERs for the following sites: head/neck, esophagus, small intestine, liver, nasal cavities, lung, bone/cartilages, melanoma of skin, soft tissue, brain and CNS, and thyroid. In contrast, women displayed a poorer prognosis than did men for colorectal, laryngeal, kidney and bladder cancer. However, the survival gaps between men and women narrowed by increase in age; female patients over 75 years of age displayed a 3% higher RER of death compared with males in this age group. CONCLUSIONS: Female cancer patients display an improved survival for the majority of solid tumor sites, even after adjustment for age and stage. Age at diagnosis was the major contributor to the women's survival advantage.

  6. Tumor endoprosthesis revision rates increase with peri-operative chemotherapy but are reduced with the use of cemented implant fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Luke R; Clarkson, Paul W; Phillips, Amy E; Biau, David J; Masri, Bassam A

    2014-07-01

    Chemotherapy may reduce osseointegration of tumor endoprosthesis, while delaying chemotherapy may reduce survival. We studied the effects of chemotherapy and cemented fixation on tumor endoprosthesis survivorship with a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive patients receiving lower limb salvage surgery. We compared rates of radiographic loosening/revision and effect of cement fixation between chemotherapy/no chemotherapy cohorts. Chemotherapy increased the total revision rate (HR = 3.8 [1-14], P = 0.033), but did not affect aseptic loosening. Cement fixation reduced revision for loosening (HR = 0.09 (0.008-0.98), P = 0.012) and showed less radiographic loosening (HR = 0.09 (0.02-0.51), P = 0.00066). Cement fixation had lower rates of revision for loosening and radiographic loosening regardless of whether chemotherapy was given. We conclude that for these implants, cement fixation provides superior results to uncemented fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  8. Coffee consumption protects against progression in liver cirrhosis and increases long-term survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kilian; Smit, Mark; Wannhoff, Andreas; Rupp, Christian; Scholl, Sabine G; Antoni, Christoph; Dollinger, Matthias; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Schemmer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic options to treat progression of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) or improve long-term survival after liver transplantation remain scarce. We investigated the impact of coffee consumption under these conditions. We recorded coffee consumption habits of 379 patients with ESLD awaiting liver transplantation and 260 patients after liver transplantation. Survival was analyzed based on coffee intake. One hundred ninety-five patients with ESLD consumed coffee on a daily basis, while 184 patients did not. Actuarial survival was impaired (P = 0.041) in non-coffee drinkers (40.4 ± 4.3 months, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.0-48.9) compared with coffee drinkers (54.9 ± 5.5 months, 95% CI: 44.0-65.7). In subgroup analysis, the survival of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD; P = 0.020) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; P = 0.017) was increased with coffee intake while unaffected in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (P = 0.517) or other liver disease entities (P = 0.652). Multivariate analysis showed that coffee consumption of PSC and ALD patients retained as an independent risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.15-3.28; P = 0.013) along with MELD score (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.09-1.17; P = 0.000). Following liver transplantation, long-term survival was longer in coffee drinkers (coffee: 61.8 ± 2.0 months, 95% CI: 57.9-65.8) than non-drinkers (52.3 ± 3.5 months, 95% CI: 45.4-59.3; P = 0.001). Coffee consumption delayed disease progression in ALD and PSC patients with ESLD and increased long-term survival after liver transplantation. We conclude that regular coffee intake might be recommended for these patients. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Increased survival of normal cells during laser photodynamic therapy: implications for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliya, K.S.; Matthews, J.L.; Fay, J.W.; Dowben, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Laser light-induced, dye-mediated photolysis of leukemic cells was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating occult tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Merocyanine 540 (MC540) was mixed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells in the presence of human albumin. This cell-dye mixture was irradiated with 514 nm argon laser light. Results show that in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% albumin, laser light doses of 62.4 J/cm/sup 2/, 93.6 J/cm/sup 2/ and 109.2 J/cm/sup 2/, respectively, were required for a 5 log reduction in the survival of leukemic cells. Under identical conditions, 80% to 84% of the normal bone marrow cells and 41% of the granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells survived. The number of surviving stromal cells was reduced (1+) compared to the untreated control (4+). Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with equal number of HL-60 cells did not interfere with the killing of HL-60 cells treated with MC540 and laser light. The non-specific cytotoxicity of laser light alone was less than 6% for normal bone marrow cells. These results suggest that the concentration of human albumin plays an important role in laser light-induced phototoxicity. This laser light-induced selective photolysis of leukemic cells can be used in ex vivo purging of tumor cell-contaminated bone marrow grafts to achieve very high survival rates of normal bone marrow cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells.

  10. Survival rate of Saccharomyces boulardii adapted to a functional freeze-dried yoghurt, related to processing, storage and digestion by experimental Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tranquilino-Rodriguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saccharomycesboulardiiis a probiotic clinically effective inthe prevention and treatment of antibiotic induced diarrheain both children and adults, Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the microorganisms need to survive the gastrointestinal transit and arrive to their action site alive in order to exert their beneficial effects. Microencapsulation is an alternative to improve the viability of probiotic in foods which can also survive in the gastrointestinal conditions. Freeze--drying is a method of dehydration that does not affect nutrients and bioactive compounds,such as probiotics contained in foods.All of them will increase the survival rate of S.boulardii.Purpose of this study:This study focused on formulae freeze-dried yogurt containing inulin, vegetable palm oil,and S.boulardii, both asfree cells and in microencapsulated form.Also,the effect of ampicillin associated S.boulardii. Methods. Yogurts were given to an “in vivo” digestion process, using male Wistar rats.The survival of S. boulardiiwas subsequently evaluated in colon and feces.For this study, six treatmentsof four of rats were used:i control rats ii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiias free cells, iii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiiinmicro-encapsulated form, iv control rats fed with penicillin,v rats fed with ampicillin plus yogurtcontaining S. boulardiias free cells, and vi rats fed with penicillin plus yogurt containing S. boulardiiin micro-encapsulated form. Results:The study demonstrated it was feasible to freeze-drythe S. boulardiiand incorporate it into a yogurtmade with skim milk,inulin, and unsaturated vegetable oil.The freeze-drying process not affected thesurvival of the S. boulardii(p<0.05. Microencapsulation increased the survival of S. boulardii on 1.77-Log CFU/g, and the presence of S. boulardii was only detected in colon and fecesof those rats which

  11. The Increasing Trend in Caesarean Section Rates: Global, Regional and National Estimates: 1990-2014

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Betrán, Ana Pilar; Ye, Jianfeng; Moller, Anne-Beth; Zhang, Jun; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Torloni, Maria Regina

    2016-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) rates continue to evoke worldwide concern because of their steady increase, lack of consensus on the appropriate CS rate and the associated additional short- and long-term risks and costs...

  12. Survival rate variation with different histological subtypes of poor prognostic male anal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kelash; Vikash, Sindhu; Chen, Liaobin; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The prognosis of male anal squamous cell carcinoma (MASCC) and female anal squamous cell carcinoma (FASCC) is variable. The influence of tumor subtype on the survival rate and gender is poorly known. Our study is the largest population-based study and aims to outline the difference in survival between MASCC and FASCC patients. Methods A retrospective population-based study was performed to compare the disease-specific mortalities (DSMs) between genders related to the tumor subtypes. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database was employed to obtain the data from January 1988 to December 2014. Results A total of 4,516, (3,249 males and 1,267 females), patients with anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) were investigated. The 5-year DSMs were 24.18% and 18.08% for men and women, respectively. The univariate analysis of the male basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and cloacogenic carcinoma (CC) patients demonstrated higher DSMs (P <0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, BSCC and CC were associated with soaring DSMs in male patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the cohort of BSCC and CC patients, male patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in survival rate compared to females. A more precise classification of ASCC and individualized management for MASCC are warranted. PMID:29137429

  13. Empiric potassium supplementation and increased survival in users of loop diuretics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Leonard

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the clinical strategy of empiric potassium supplementation in reducing the frequency of adverse clinical outcomes in patients receiving loop diuretics is unknown. We sought to examine the association between empiric potassium supplementation and 1 all-cause death and 2 outpatient-originating sudden cardiac death (SD and ventricular arrhythmia (VA among new starters of loop diuretics, stratified on initial loop diuretic dose.We conducted a one-to-one propensity score-matched cohort study using 1999-2007 US Medicaid claims from five states. Empiric potassium supplementation was defined as a potassium prescription on the day of or the day after the initial loop diuretic prescription. Death, the primary outcome, was ascertained from the Social Security Administration Death Master File; SD/VA, the secondary outcome, from incident, first-listed emergency department or principal inpatient SD/VA discharge diagnoses (positive predictive value = 85%.We identified 654,060 persons who met eligibility criteria and initiated therapy with a loop diuretic, 27% of whom received empiric potassium supplementation (N = 179,436 and 73% of whom did not (N = 474,624. The matched hazard ratio for empiric potassium supplementation was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98, p = 0.003 for all-cause death. Stratifying on initial furosemide dose, hazard ratios for empiric potassium supplementation with furosemide < 40 and ≥ 40 milligrams/day were 0.93 (0.86-1.00, p = 0.050 and 0.84 (0.79-0.89, p < 0.0001. The matched hazard ratio for empiric potassium supplementation was 1.02 (0.83-1.24, p = 0.879 for SD/VA.Empiric potassium supplementation upon initiation of a loop diuretic appears to be associated with improved survival, with a greater apparent benefit seen with higher diuretic dose. If confirmed, these findings support the use of empiric potassium supplementation upon initiation of a loop diuretic.

  14. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... rate or glomerular filtration barrier and occurrence of stroke. Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 934-938. 2. Matsushita K,Mahmoodi BK, Woodward M,. Emberson JR, Jafar TH, Jee SH et al. Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the. MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  15. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  16. Retrospective success and survival rates of dental implants placed with simultaneous bone augmentation in partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Nima; Darby, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the success and survival rate of dental implants placed with simultaneous hard tissue grafting. All patients treated in Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne who had implant placement with and without guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures were identified. Seventy-three attended a follow-up appointment. These patients were examined recording probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque accumulation and radiographic bone loss by one examiner. Clinical and radiographic findings were compared in grafted and non-grafted groups and also analysed for years in function. Approximately 50% of implants were placed simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique. In the majority of cases, defects were filled by deproteinized bovine bone mineral and covered with collagen membrane. The range of time in function was 20-88 months with a mean 34.8 (±1.7). Seventy-nine per cent of the implants placed in anterior maxilla were placed with GBR, while only 18% in posterior mandible needed grafting procedure. The cumulative implant survival rates at the time of examination was 97.95% for both GBR and non-GBR group. The mean PPD, BOP, and Plaque index were not statistically significantly different in GBR vs. non-GBR groups two to seven years in function. However, bone loss is significantly less in GBR group 2-7 years after function. The overall success rate was around 90% after 2-7 years in function with the GBR group slightly less than the non-GBR group, but not statistically significant. For the subjects included in this retrospective study, the data demonstrate that GBR is a predictable procedure. The survival and success rates of the implants inserted with simultaneous GBR were similar, if slightly lower, to the non-grafted implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Breast Cancer Detected at Screening US: Survival Rates and Clinical-Pathologic and Imaging Factors Associated with Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Woo Jung; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Hak Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To determine the survival rates and clinical-pathologic and imaging factors associated with recurrence in women with breast cancer detected at screening ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. A retrospective review of the databases of four institutions identified 501 women (median age, 47 years; range, 27-74 years) with breast cancer (425 invasive cancers and 76 ductal carcinoma in situ) detected at screening US between January 2004 and March 2011. Five-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were estimated, and the clinical-pathologic and imaging data were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to determine factors associated with recurrence. Results At a median follow-up of 7.0 years (range, 5.0-12.1 years), 15 (3.0%) recurrences were detected: five in ipsilateral breast and 10 in contralateral breast. The 5-year OS and RFS rates were 100% and 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.8%, 99.2%), respectively. In patients with invasive cancers, age younger than 40 years (hazard ratio: 3.632 [95% CI: 1.099, 11.998]; P = .032), the triple-negative subtype (hazard ratio: 7.498 [95% CI: 2.266, 24.816]; P = .001), and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A lesions (hazard ratio: 5.113 [95% CI: 1.532, 17.195]; P = .008) were associated with recurrence. Conclusion Women with breast cancers detected at screening US have excellent outcomes, with a 5-year RFS rate of 98.0%. However, in patients with invasive breast cancer, age younger than 40 years, the triple-negative subtype, and BI-RADS category 4A lesions were associated with recurrence. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  18. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-04-18

    Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts--Cohort I 1890-1919; Cohort II 1920-1959--and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Increased Rrm2 gene dosage reduces fragile site breakage and prolongs survival of ATR mutant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Specks, Julia; Barlow, Jacqueline H

    2015-01-01

    of the RNR regulatory subunit RRM2 (Rrm2(TG)) present supraphysiological RNR activity and reduced chromosomal breakage at fragile sites. Moreover, increased Rrm2 gene dosage significantly extends the life span of ATR mutant mice. Our study reveals the first genetic condition in mammals that reduces fragile...

  1. Mobile zinc increases rapidly in the retina after optic nerve injury and regulates ganglion cell survival and optic nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqing; Andereggen, Lukas; Yuki, Kenya; Omura, Kumiko; Yin, Yuqin; Gilbert, Hui-Ya; Erdogan, Burcu; Asdourian, Maria S; Shrock, Christine; de Lima, Silmara; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Zhuo, Yehong; Hershfinkel, Michal; Lippard, Stephen J; Rosenberg, Paul A; Benowitz, Larry

    2017-01-10

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye, cannot regenerate their axons once the optic nerve has been injured and soon begin to die. Whereas RGC death and regenerative failure are widely viewed as being cell-autonomous or influenced by various types of glia, we report here that the dysregulation of mobile zinc (Zn(2+)) in retinal interneurons is a primary factor. Within an hour after the optic nerve is injured, Zn(2+) increases several-fold in retinal amacrine cell processes and continues to rise over the first day, then transfers slowly to RGCs via vesicular release. Zn(2+) accumulation in amacrine cell processes involves the Zn(2+) transporter protein ZnT-3, and deletion of slc30a3, the gene encoding ZnT-3, promotes RGC survival and axon regeneration. Intravitreal injection of Zn(2+) chelators enables many RGCs to survive for months after nerve injury and regenerate axons, and enhances the prosurvival and regenerative effects of deleting the gene for phosphatase and tensin homolog (pten). Importantly, the therapeutic window for Zn(2+) chelation extends for several days after nerve injury. These results show that retinal Zn(2+) dysregulation is a major factor limiting the survival and regenerative capacity of injured RGCs, and point to Zn(2+) chelation as a strategy to promote long-term RGC protection and enhance axon regeneration.

  2. Increased serum sTRAIL levels were correlated with survival in bevacizumab-treated metastatic colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisgin Atil

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody developed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF for the treatment of metastatic cancer. The parameters of RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors are not adequate to detect important treatment effects and response. Our goal was to evaluate the possibility of using sTRAIL (serum-soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and VEGF as markers of treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with metastatic colon cancer. Methods sTRAIL and VEGF levels were measured by ELISA in the sera of 16 bevacizumab-treated metastatic colon cancer patients and 10 presumably healthy age-matched controls. The measurements were taken before and after treatment for comparison purposes. Results Elevated levels of sTRAIL were found in seven out of 16 patients after bevacizumab treatment. Although these patients had a median survival time of 20.6 months, the remaining bevacizumab-treated patients who did not show an increase in sTRAIL had a median survival time of 9.4 months. As expected, serum VEGF levels were decreased in all patients who received bevacizumab therapy and showed no correlation between serum VEGF levels and patient survival (data not shown. Conclusions Serum sTRAIL levels might be a useful predictor of prognosis in metastatic colon cancer, in the early evaluation stages following bevacizumab treatment.

  3. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase provides a survival advantage to colorectal cancer cells via upregulation of cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Harris, Jennifer W; Mitov, Mihail I; Kim, Ji Tae; Butterfield, D Allan; Lee, Eun Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Gao, Tianyan; Evers, B Mark

    2015-08-07

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a lipogenic enzyme, is upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Increased de novo lipid synthesis is thought to be a metabolic adaptation of cancer cells that promotes survival and metastasis; however, the mechanisms for this phenomenon are not fully understood. We show that FASN plays a role in regulation of energy homeostasis by enhancing cellular respiration in CRC. We demonstrate that endogenously synthesized lipids fuel fatty acid oxidation, particularly during metabolic stress, and maintain energy homeostasis. Increased FASN expression is associated with a decrease in activation of energy-sensing pathways and accumulation of lipid droplets in CRC cells and orthotopic CRCs. Immunohistochemical evaluation demonstrated increased expression of FASN and p62, a marker of autophagy inhibition, in primary CRCs and liver metastases compared to matched normal colonic mucosa. Our findings indicate that overexpression of FASN plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis in CRC via increased oxidation of endogenously synthesized lipids. Importantly, activation of fatty acid oxidation and consequent downregulation of stress-response signaling pathways may be key adaptation mechanisms that mediate the effects of FASN on cancer cell survival and metastasis, providing a strong rationale for targeting this pathway in advanced CRC.

  4. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1996-12-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities of simplification, and to outline the limits of application, of a vitrification method for cow embryos. Morulae and blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of slaughterhouse-derived, in vitro matured oocytes with frozen-thawed bull semen, and subsequent culture on a granulosa cell monolayer. Vitrification was performed by equilibration of embryos with 12.5% ethylene glycol and 12.5% dimethylsulphoxide at 20-22 degrees C for 60 s, then with 25% ethylene glycol and 25% dimethylsulphoxide at 4 degrees C for another 60 s. Embryos were then loaded in straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapour for 2 min, and then plunged. Straws were thawed in a 22 degrees C water-bath, the embryos were directly rehydrated and further incubated in straw, and were then expelled and cultured in vitro for 72 h. In the first experiment, embryos of different age and developmental stage (Day 5 compacted morulae, Day 6 early blastocysts, Days 6 and 7 blastocysts, Day 7 expanded blastocysts and Day 8 hatched blastocysts) as well as Days 7 and 5 blastocysts previously subjected to partial zone dissection were vitrified. After thawing, the re-expansion rates of blastocysts and zona-dissected embryos did not differ (67 and 87%, respectively), and hatching was more frequent for blastocysts frozen in advanced developmental stages (34, 47 and 63% for early blastocysts, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts, respectively). The re-expansion rate of morulae was lower (10%) and no hatching of these embryos was observed. In the second experiment, Day 7 expanded blastocysts were vitrified using PBS, PBS+albumin, TCM199 and TCM199+calf serum as holding media. No differences in re-expansion and hatching rates were seen. However, when incubation with the concentrated cryoprotectant solution was performed at 20-22 degrees C, the embryo survival rate decreased (PBS+albumin) or no embryo survived (TCM199+calf serum) the vitrification procedure. In

  5. Survival Rates Using Individualized Bioselection Treatment Methods in Patients with Advanced Laryngeal Cancer : The University of Michigan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gregory T.; Bellile, Emily; Eisbruch, Avraham; Urba, Susan; Bradford, Carol R.; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark E.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; McLean, Scott A.; Moyer, Jeffery; Taylor, Jeremy MG; Worden, Francis P.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of chemoradiation for advanced laryngeal cancer led to a major paradigm shift in treatment as an alternative to laryngectomy. Despite widespread adoption, survival rates have not improved and the original premise of matching neoadjuvant chemotherapy tumor response to determine subsequent treatment has not been followed. A unique approach incorporating a single cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to select patients with advanced disease for either laryngectomy or concurrent chemoradiation was studied to determine if improved survival could be achieved. Design From 2002–2012, we treated an unselected cohort of 247 patients with laryngeal cancer in an academic institution. Interventions Limited disease patients (n=94) underwent endoscopic resection (n=33; 35%), radiation (n=50; 53%) or chemoradiation for deeply invasive T2 lesions (n=11; 12%). For advanced disease (n=153), neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treatment selection (n=71; 46%), concurrent chemoradiation (n=50; 33%) or primary surgery (n=32; 21%) was recommended. Outcomes Propensity for treatment selection in advanced patients was modeled using logistic regression. Overall (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models stratified by propensity score. Median follow was 48 months. Results Five-year OS and DSS was 75% (95% C.I. 68–81%) and 83% (77–88%), respectively for the entire cohort. DSS was 92% (83–97%) for patients with Stage I, II and 78% (69–84%) for patients with Stage III, IV disease. For advanced disease patients, 5-year OS (and DSS) ranged from 78% (91%) for surgery to 76% (79%) for neoadjuvant bioselection and 61% (66%) for primary chemoradiation. Propensity-adjusted multivariable Cox models controlling for known prognostic factors showed DSS was significantly improved in the neoadjuvant group compared to definitive chemoradiation [Hazard ratio 0.48, 95%CI: (0.29, 0.80), p=0.005]. DSS for the definitive surgery group was

  6. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  7. Increased Body Mass Index Is Associated With Improved Survival in United States Veterans With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Kenneth R.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; McDonald, Jay R.; Luo, Suhong; Zeringue, Angelique; Liu, Jingxia; Fu, Qiang; Chang, Su-Hsin; Colditz, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Obesity increases the risk of death from many malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common form of NHL, the association between body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis and survival is unclear. Patients and Methods We evaluated the association between BMI at diagnosis and overall survival in a retrospective cohort of 2,534 United States veterans diagnosed with DLBCL between October 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008. Cox modeling was used to control for patient- and disease-related prognostic variables. Results Mean age at diagnosis was 68 years (range, 20 to 100 years); 64% of patients were overweight (BMI, 25 to < 30) or obese (BMI, ≥ 30). Obese patients were significantly younger, had significantly fewer B symptoms, and trended toward lower-stage disease, compared with other BMI groups. Cox analysis showed reduced mortality in overweight and obese patients (overweight: hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.83; obese: HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.80), compared with normal-weight patients (BMI, 18.5 to < 25). Treatment during the rituximab era reduced the risk of death without affecting the association between BMI and survival. Disease-related weight loss occurred in 29% of patients with weight data 1 year before diagnosis. Cox analysis based on BMI 1 year before diagnosis continued to demonstrate reduced risk of death in overweight and obese patients. Conclusion Being overweight or obese at the time of DLBCL diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for this association will require further study. PMID:22649138

  8. Increased Expression of Periplasmic Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Enhances Survival of Escherichia coli Invasive Strains within Nonphagocytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Andrea; Pacello, Francesca; Folcarelli, Silvia; Ajello, Maria; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Greco, Rita; Grazia Ammendolia, Maria; Touati, Danièle; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Valenti, Piera

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the influence of periplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase on the intracellular survival of Escherichia coli strains able to invade epithelial cells by the expression of the inv gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis but unable to multiply intracellularly. Intracellular viability assays, confirmed by electron microscopy observations, showed that invasive strains of E. coli engineered to increase Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase production are much more resistant to intracellular killing than strains containing only the chromosomal sodC copy. However, we have found only a slight difference in survival within HeLa cells between a sodC-null mutant and its isogenic wild-type strain. Such a small difference in survival correlates with the very low expression of this enzyme in the wild-type strain. We have also observed that acid- and oxidative stress-sensitive E. coli HB101(pRI203) is more rapidly killed in epithelial cells than E. coli GC4468(pRI203). The high mortality of E. coli HB101(pRI203), independent of the acidification of the endosome, is abolished by the overexpression of sodC. Our data suggest that oxyradicals are involved in the mechanisms of bacterial killing within epithelial cells and that high-level production of periplasmic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase provides bacteria with an effective protection against oxidative damage. We propose that Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase could offer an important selective advantage in survival within host cells to bacteria expressing high levels of this enzyme. PMID:10603365

  9. Cannabidiol increases survival and promotes rescue of cognitive function in a murine model of cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, A C; Brant, F; Miranda, A S; Machado, F S; Teixeira, A L

    2015-03-19

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection that might cause permanent neurological deficits. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotomimetic compound of Cannabis sativa with neuroprotective properties. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of CBD in a murine model of CM. Female mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) and treated with CBD (30mg/kg/day - 3 or 7days i.p.) or vehicle. On 5th day-post-infection (dpi), at the peak of the disease), animals were treated with single or repeated doses of Artesunate, an antimalarial drug. All groups were tested for memory impairment (Novel Object Recognition or Morris Water Maze) and anxiety-like behaviors (Open field or elevated plus maze test) in different stages of the disease (at the peak or after the complete clearance of the disease). Th1/Th2 cytokines and neurotrophins (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF)) were measured in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of experimental groups. PbA-infected mice displayed memory deficits and exhibited increase in anxiety-like behaviors on the 5dpi or after the clearance of the parasitemia, effects prevented by CBD treatment. On 5dpi, TNF-α and IL-6 increased in the hippocampus, while only IL-6 increased in the prefrontal cortex. CBD treatment resulted in an increase in BDNF expression in the hippocampus and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus (TNF-α) and prefrontal cortex (IL-6). Our results indicate that CBD exhibits neuroprotective effects in CM model and might be useful as an adjunctive therapy to prevent neurological symptoms following this disease. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The rapid killing of various bacteria in contact with metallic copper is thought to be influenced by the influx of copper ions into the cells, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. This study showed that the kinetics of contact killing of copper surfaces depended greatly on the amount...... surface corrosion rates were determined from electrochemical polarization tests using the Stern-Geary method and revealed decreased corrosion rates with benzotriazole and thermal oxide coating. Copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium cells suspended in 0.8% NaCl showed prolonged survival rates...... on electroplated copper surfaces with benzotriazole coating and thermal oxide coating compared to surfaces without anti-corrosion treatment. Control of surface corrosion affected the level of copper ion influx into bacterial cells, which contributed directly to bacterial killing....

  11. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  12. Association with pregnancy increases the risk of local recurrence but does not impact overall survival in breast cancer: A case-control study of 87 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, A S; De Rycke, Y; Stevens, D; Donnadieu, A; Langer, A; Rouzier, R; Lerebours, F

    2016-12-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) constitutes 7% of all BCs in young women. The prognosis of PABC remains controversial. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the association of pregnancy with BC on the rates of overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), and distant and local recurrence-free survival. We conducted a retrospective unicenter case-control study. We enrolled PABC patients treated at our institution between 1992 and 2009. For each case, 2 BC controls were matched for age and year of diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the parameters associated with prognosis. Eighty-seven PABC patients were enrolled and matched with 174 controls. The univariate analysis did not reveal any significant differences in OS, DFS or distant recurrence rates between the 2 groups. Pregnancy associated status, a tumor larger than T2 and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as the primary treatment were significantly associated with an increased risk of local relapse. The multivariate analysis showed that the pregnancy associated status and the tumor size were strong prognostic factors of local recurrence. Pregnancy associated status negates the prognostic value of tumor size, as both T0-T2 and T3-T4 PABC patients have the same poor prognosis as control BC patients with T3-T4 tumors. Interestingly, although PABC patients have more locally advanced tumors, they did not have a higher rate of radical surgery than the control BC patients. Pregnancy associated status is a strong prognostic factor of local relapse in BC. In PABC patients, when possible, radical surgery should be the preferred first treatment step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased actin polymerization and stabilization interferes with neuronal function and survival in the AMPKγ mutant Loechrig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Cook

    Full Text Available loechrig (loe mutant flies are characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, behavioral deficits, and early death. The mutation is due to a P-element insertion in the gene for the γ-subunit of the trimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK complex, whereby the insertion affects only one of several alternative transcripts encoding a unique neuronal isoform. AMPK is a cellular energy sensor that regulates a plethora of signaling pathways, including cholesterol and isoprenoid synthesis via its downstream target hydroxy-methylglutaryl (HMG-CoA reductase. We recently showed that loe interferes with isoprenoid synthesis and increases the prenylation and thereby activation of RhoA. During development, RhoA plays an important role in neuronal outgrowth by activating a signaling cascade that regulates actin dynamics. Here we show that the effect of loe/AMPKγ on RhoA prenylation leads to a hyperactivation of this signaling pathway, causing increased phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizating factor cofilin and accumulation of filamentous actin. Furthermore, our results show that the resulting cytoskeletal changes in loe interfere with neuronal growth and disrupt axonal integrity. Surprisingly, these phenotypes were enhanced by expressing the Slingshot (SSH phosphatase, which during development promotes actin depolymerization by dephosphorylating cofilin. However, our studies suggest that in the adult SSH promotes actin polymerization, supporting in vitro studies using human SSH1 that suggested that SSH can also stabilize and bundle filamentous actin. Together with the observed increase in SSH levels in the loe mutant, our experiments suggest that in mature neurons SSH may function as a stabilization factor for filamentous actin instead of promoting actin depolymerization.

  14. Review of Research Shows, Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates with IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates With IVF Share: An analysis of research conducted on acupuncture ... an adjuvant (booster) treatment to in vitro fertilization (IVF) found that, overall, acupuncture did not increase pregnancy ...

  15. Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC, orange claw (OC and small male (SM at harvest in all-male culture and assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m−2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m−2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density was significant (P < 0.05 affect adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yields performance was from 20 juvenile m−2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22 was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01 and the BC (0.43 population. The survival rate of the SM population was 100% while others were 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the OC male (23.87 g than the SM (19.57 g and the BC male (6.31 g. Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.

  16. Effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on survival and development rate of larval Arkansas River Shiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia S.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Decreases in the abundance and diversity of stream fishes in the North American Great Plains have been attributed to habitat fragmentation, altered hydrological and temperature regimes, and elevated levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids, such as the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi, may be particularly vulnerable to these changing conditions because of their reproductive strategy. Our objectives were to assess the effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on the developmental and survival rates of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. Results suggest temperature had the greatest influence on the developmental rate of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. However, embryos exposed to the higher levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids reached developmental stages earlier than counterparts at equivalent temperatures. Although this rapid development may be beneficial in fragmented waters, our data suggest it may be associated with lower survival rates. Furthermore, those embryos incubating at high temperatures, or in high levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids resulted in less viable embryos and larvae than those incubating in all other temperature, total dissolved solid, and total suspended solid treatment groups. As the Great Plains ecoregion continues to change, these results may assist in understanding reasons for past extirpations and future extirpation threats as well as predict stream reaches capable of sustaining Arkansas River Shiners and other species with similar early life-history strategies.

  17. Comparison of peritonitis rates and patient survival in automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama

    2016-09-01

    Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.

  18. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  19. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study.

  20. Sumatran tiger survival threatened by deforestation despite increasing densities in parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luskin, Matthew Scott; Albert, Wido Rizki; Tobler, Mathias W

    2017-12-05

    The continuing development of improved capture-recapture (CR) modeling techniques used to study apex predators has also limited robust temporal and cross-site analyses due to different methods employed. We develop an approach to standardize older non-spatial CR and newer spatial CR density estimates and examine trends for critically endangered Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) using a meta-regression of 17 existing densities and new estimates from our own fieldwork. We find that tiger densities were 47% higher in primary versus degraded forests and, unexpectedly, increased 4.9% per yr from 1996 to 2014, likely indicating a recovery from earlier poaching. However, while tiger numbers may have temporarily risen, the total potential island-wide population declined by 16.6% from 2000 to 2012 due to forest loss and degradation and subpopulations are significantly more fragmented. Thus, despite increasing densities in smaller parks, we conclude that there are only two robust populations left with >30 breeding females, indicating Sumatran tigers still face a high risk of extinction unless deforestation can be controlled.

  1. Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Eberle-Sudré, Kimberlee; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    "Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?" looks at a decade of graduation rates for African American students at four-year, public institutions that improved student success during the past decade. It shows that while a majority (almost 70 percent) of institutions we examined improved graduation rates for black…

  2. Higher survival rate of vitrified and thawed in vitro produced bovine blastocysts following culture in defined medium supplemented with beta-mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedambale, Tshimangadzo Lucky; Du, Fuliang; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2006-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare bovine embryo developmental quality, after culture in different defined culture media, up to blastocyst stage, and subsequently cultured in media supplemented with beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) following blastocyst vitrification and thawing. In part one of this study, presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated into the following media: (1) CR1, (2) KSOM, (3) SOF, and (4) sequential KSOM-SOF. In the second part of the study, blastocysts derived from four different culture media were subjected to a solid surface vitrification (35% (v/v) ethylene glycol+0.5M Sucrose+5% (w/v) Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and tested for the effect of beta-ME on their post-vitrification survival. Following thawing, blastocysts were cultured with or without beta-ME. Culture medium had no effect on cleavage rates; however, a significantly greater number of zygotes cultured in KSOM, KSOM-SOF, or SOF developed to the 8-cell stage, compared with those cultured in CR1. A greater proportion of the zygotes cultured in SOF or KSOM-SOF reached blastocysts, than did those cultured in CR1 or KSOM. The use of sequential KSOM-SOF significantly increased total cell numbers of Day 7 expanded-blastocysts when compared to those cultured in CR1, KSOM, or SOF. Addition of beta-ME into culture media after vitrification and thawing improved blastocyst survival, hatching rates, and total cell numbers of blastocysts. In conclusion, supplementation of beta-ME into culture medium after vitrification and thawing significantly increased blastocyst survival, hatching rates, and their total cell numbers. These results suggest that vitrified IVF embryos should be thawed and briefly cultured in beta-ME medium prior to embryo transfer.

  3. Effect of Triiodothyronine and Cortisol on Development, Growth and Survival Rate of Sand Goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata, Blkr. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Sri Pudji

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of triiodothyronine and cortisol on the development, growth, and survival rate of sand goby larvae.  The experiment was carried out at Kolan Percobaan Babakan, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB Bogor.  The larvae were immersed in solution of A (T3 2 mg/1 + C 1 mg/1, B (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mgll, C (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0,0 1 mg/1 dan D (without hormone for one hour.  After treatment, larvae were reared in aquarium (50x50x50 cm.  Larvae were fed by rotifer and phytoplankton, three times a day.  Larval development, growth and survival rate were observed.  Result showed that T3 2 mg/1 +C 1 nig/1 and T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mg/1 could accelerated development of swim bladder and eyespot of larvae.  Treatment did not effect body pigmentation and growth; but effect survival rate of sand goby larvae.Key words :  Triidothyronine, cortisol, larvae, sand goby fish, development, growth, survival rate ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian hormon triidotironin dan kortisol terhadap perkembangan, pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan betutu.  Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kolam Percobaan Babakan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Institut Pertanian Bogor.  Larva direndam selama satu jam dalam larutan A (T3 2 mg/1 + C 1 mg/1, B (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mg/1, C (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0,0 1 mg/1 dan D (tanpa hormon.  Setelah perlakuan, larva dipelihara dalam akuariun berukuran 50x50x50 cm.  Selama pemeliharaan larva diberi pakan berupa rotifer dan fitoplankton dengan frekuensi tiga kali sehari.  Perkembangan, petumbuhan, dan kelangsungan hidup larva diamati.  Perendaman larva ikan betutu dalam larutan A dan B dapat mempercepat pembentukan gelembung renang dan bintik mata.  Perlakuan yang diberikan tidak mempengaruhi kecepatan terjadinya pigmentasi tubuh dan pertumbuhan, tetapi mempengaruhi derriat kelangsungan hidup larva.Kata kunci :  Triidotironin, kortisol

  4. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  5. Low-cost GICs reduce survival rate in occlusal ART restorations in primary molars after one year: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olegário, Isabel Cristina; Pacheco, Anna Luisa de Brito; de Araújo, Mariana Pinheiro; Ladewig, Nathalia de Miranda; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2017-02-01

    The high costs of the worldwide recommended GICs might be a barrier for the implementation of ART. To overcome this problem, low cost GIC are used even though there is a lack of evidence for the survival rate of restorations. To evaluate the performance of low-cost GICs used on occlusal ART restorations after one year. A total of 150 primary molars in 150 children with occlusal caries lesions were selected in 4-8 year-old children. The patients were randomly allocated in three groups: G1-GC Gold Label 9 (GC Corp); G2-Vitro Molar (DFL) and G3-Maxxion R (FGM). All treatments were performed following the ART premises in school setting. Restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test and Cox regression was used for testing association with clinical factors (α=5%). GC Gold Label 9 had better performance compared to the low-cost GICs (HR=1.47, CI=1.04-2.08, p=0.027). The overall SR of restorations was 65.33% and the SR per group was G1=77.55%; G2=61.11% and G3=42.55%. The low-cost GICs have a poorer performance than GC Gold Label 9 in occlusal ART restoration in primary molars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Increasing the probability of surviving loss of consciousness underwater when using a rebreather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Re-circulating underwater breathing apparatus (rebreathers) have become increasingly popular amongst sport divers. In comparison to open-circuit scuba, rebreathers are complex life support equipment that incorporates many inherent failure modes and potential for human error. This individually or in combination can lead to an inappropriate breathing gas. Analysis of rebreather diving incidents suggests that inappropriate breathing gas is the most prevalent disabling agent. This can result in spontaneous loss of consciousness (LoC), water aspiration and drowning. Protecting the airway by maintaining the diver/rebreather oral interface may delay water aspiration following LoC underwater; the possibility of a successful rescue is, thus, increased. One means of protecting the airway following LoC underwater is the use of a full-face mask (FFM). However, such masks are complex and expensive; therefore, they have not been widely adopted by the sport diving community. An alternative to the FFM used extensively throughout the global military diving community is the mouthpiece retaining strap (MRS). A recent study documented 54 LoC events in military rebreather diving with only three consequent drownings; all divers were reported to be using a MRS. Even allowing for the concomitant use of a tethered diving partner system in most cases, the low number of fatalities in this large series is circumstantially supportive of the efficacy of the MRS. Despite drowning featuring as a final common pathway in the vast majority of rebreather fatalities, the MRS has not been widely adopted by the sport rebreather diving community.

  7. Effects of Aeration Rate and Salinity Gradient on the Survival and Growth in the Early Life Stages of the Devil Stinger Inimicus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Andou, Yoshihide; Tomioka, Chisato; Yogo, Shigeru; Kadomura, Kazushi; Miyaki, Kadoo; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a flow field in the rearing tank exhibited by different aeration rate and salinity gradient on the larviculture of the devil stinger Inimicus japonicus. Two different rearing experiments using 1 kl rearing tanks were conducted from hatching (day 0) to settlement. In the Experiment 1, fish were reared until day 21 in 5 different aeration rates (0-1200 ml/min). There was a significant and positive relationship between survival and aeration rate, and fish survival b...

  8. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    carcinogenicity (Meyer and Jorgenson 1984,. Fitzpatrick et al, 1995) and / or mutagenic properties. (Marking et al, 1994), its use was limited to the treatment of non-food ... effective anti fungal agents used to control fungal infections on eggs and improves hatching rate. Formalin effectively kills parasites on gills, skin and fins.

  9. Haemodynamic unloading increases the survival and affects the differentiation of cardiac stem cells after implantation into an infarcted heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Li, Tao-Sheng; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Ryo; Mikamo, Akihito; Guo, Chang-Ying; Murata, Tomoaki; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2014-06-01

    It has been anticipated that stem cell therapy is capable of repairing an injured heart but is currently limited by its marginal efficacy. We believe that mechanical stress due to haemodynamic loading may negate the therapeutic potency of stem cells and therefore investigated how haemodynamic unloading affects the survival and differentiation of stem cells after implantation into an infarcted heart. A left ventricular (LV) haemodynamic unloading model was implemented by heterotopic transplantation of an infarcted donor heart into another healthy mouse. An in situ infarcted heart with general haemodynamic loading was used as control. A total of 5 million cardiac stem cells expanded from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transgenic mouse were intramyocardially implanted into the infarcted LVs of haemodynamically unloaded donor heart or general haemodynamic loaded heart. The survival and differentiation of the implanted cardiac stem cells were evaluated by histological analyses at 3 and 21 days after cell implantation (n = 5-6 in each time points per group). Compared with the general haemodynamic loading condition, haemodynamic unloading of the infarcted hearts significantly improved the survival, increased the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of cardiac stem cells at 21 days after cell implantation (P cells was much higher in the unloaded hearts than in the loaded hearts at 21 days after cell implantation, although the difference was not statistically significant (5.67 ± 5.10 vs 0.75 ± 0.50, P = 0.051). Among the surviving GFP(+) donor cells 21 days after implantation, the expressions of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, smooth muscle actin and sarcomeric alpha actin were ~7, 38 and 27% in the loaded heart and ~19, 14 and 55% in the unloaded heart, respectively. Haemodynamic unloading favours the survival/engraftment of donor stem cells and affects their differentiation after implantation into an infarcted heart. Although further studies in a

  10. 78 FR 59775 - Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order; Assessment Rate... Blueberry Promotion, Research and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate from $12 to $18 per ton (an increase of $0.003 per pound). The Order is administered by the U.S. Highbush Blueberry...

  11. 75 FR 55942 - Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 915 Avocados Grown in South Florida; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... increases the assessment rate established for the Avocado Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2010...

  12. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...

  13. Does global warning increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the...

  14. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of nest box temperature and humidity on the growth and survival of approx. 700 mink litters. Surprisingly this study did not find any general biological explanatory temperature and/or humidity effects within days on the number of live born kits dying and kits...... growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors acting...... on the female/litter prior to or during the parturition are an important determent of early kit growth and viability. The results indicate that females with large litters have less success by taken care of the kits compared to females with small litters. In addition litters with high mean growth were also...

  15. Are survival and mortality rates associated with recruitment to clinical trials in teenage and young adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia? A retrospective observational analysis in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Rachael; Sandhu, Sabrina; Khan, Maria; Moran, Anthony; Feltbower, Richard; Stiller, Charles; Stevens, Mike C G; Rowntree, Clare; Vora, Ajay; McCabe, Martin G

    2017-10-05

    Participation rates in clinical trials are low in teenagers and young adults (TYA) with cancer. Whilst the importance of clinical trials in informing best practice is well established, data regarding individual patient benefit are scarce. We have investigated the association between overall survival and trial recruitment in TYA patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Retrospective. National (England) TYA patients treated for ALL. 511 patients aged 15-24 years diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2010 inclusive, of whom 239 (46.7%) participated in the UKALL2003 trial. Patients were identified using National Clinical Trial (UKALL2003) and Cancer Registry (National Cancer Data Repository, English National Cancer Online Registration Environment) Databases. Relative survival rates were calculated for trial and non-trial patients and observed differences were modelled using a multiple regression approach. The numbers and percentages of deaths in those patients included in the survival analysis were determined for each 3-month period, p values were calculated using the two-tailed z-test for difference between proportions and 95% CIs for percentage deaths were derived using the binomial distribution based on the Wilson Score method. Patients treated on the trial had a 17.9% better 2-year survival (85.4% vs 67.5%, p<0.001) and 8.9% better 1-year survival (90.8% vs 81.9%, p=0.004) than those not on the trial. 35 (14.6%) patients recruited to the trial died in the 2 years following diagnosis compared with 86 (32.6%) of those not recruited (p<0.001). TYA patients recruited to the clinical trial UKALL 2003 in England had a lower risk of mortality and a higher overall survival than contemporaneous non-trial patients. These data underline the potential for individual patient benefit in participating in a clinical trial and the importance of international efforts to increase trial participation in the TYA age group. ISRCTN07355119. © Article author(s) (or their

  16. Flexible survival strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilms result in increased fitness compared with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-12-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage.

  17. Flexible Survival Strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Result in Increased Fitness Compared with Candida albicans *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage. PMID

  18. Does global warming increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dingcheng; Haack, Robert A; Zhang, Runzhi

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the relationship between global warming and establishment rate of invasive alien species, especially for poikilothermic invaders such as insects. We present data that demonstrate a significant positive relationship between the change in average annual surface air temperature and the establishment rate of invasive alien insects in mainland China during 1900-2005. This relationship was modeled by regression analysis, and indicated that a 1 °C increase in average annual surface temperature in mainland China was associated with an increase in the establishment rate of invasive alien insects of about 0.5 species year⁻¹. The relationship between rising surface air temperature and increasing establishment rate remained significant even after accounting for increases in international trade during the period 1950-2005. Moreover, similar relationships were detected using additional data from the United Kingdom and the contiguous United States. These findings suggest that the perceived increase in establishments of invasive alien insects can be explained only in part by an increase in introduction rate or propagule pressure. Besides increasing propagule pressure, global warming is another driver that could favor worldwide bioinvasions. Our study highlights the need to consider global warming when designing strategies and policies to deal with bioinvasions.

  19. Cell-delivered magnetic nanoparticles caused hyperthermia-mediated increased survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Matthew T; Balivada, Sivasai; Wang, Hongwang; Shrestha, Tej B; Seo, Gwi Moon; Pyle, Marla; Abayaweera, Gayani; Dani, Raj; Koper, Olga B; Tamura, Masaaki; Chikan, Viktor; Bossmann, Stefan H; Troyer, Deryl L

    2012-01-01

    Using magnetic nanoparticles to absorb alternating magnetic field energy as a method of generating localized hyperthermia has been shown to be a potential cancer treatment. This report demonstrates a system that uses tumor homing cells to actively carry iron/iron oxide nanoparticles into tumor tissue for alternating magnetic field treatment. Paramagnetic iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded into RAW264.7 cells (mouse monocyte/ macrophage-like cells), which have been shown to be tumor homing cells. A murine model of disseminated peritoneal pancreatic cancer was then generated by intraperitoneal injection of Pan02 cells. After tumor development, monocyte/macrophage-like cells loaded with iron/ iron oxide nanoparticles were injected intraperitoneally and allowed to migrate into the tumor. Three days after injection, mice were exposed to an alternating magnetic field for 20 minutes to cause the cell-delivered nanoparticles to generate heat. This treatment regimen was repeated three times. A survival study demonstrated that this system can significantly increase survival in a murine pancreatic cancer model, with an average post-tumor insertion life expectancy increase of 31%. This system has the potential to become a useful method for specifically and actively delivering nanoparticles for local hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  20. Increased incidence of cerebral metastases in sarcoma patients with prolonged survival from chemotherapy. Report of cases of leiomysarcoma and chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercovich, F G; Luna, M A; Gottlieb, J A

    1975-11-01

    Soft tissue and bony sarcomas rarely metastasize to the central nervous system, particularly to the cerebral hemispheres. In 456 patients with metastatic sarcoma, only 6 (1.3%) had cerebral metastases documented by brain scan at the time of referral for chemotherapy. Adriamycin-containing combination chemotherapeutic regimens have led to a significant increase in the median survival of patients from the start of chemotherapy (18 + months for responders compared, to 7 months in nonresponders). Of 14 patients relapsing after a response or stabilization of disease of 6 months or greater, the cause of relapse was the development of cerebral metastases in 5 (36%). Two of these cases, one a patient with leiomyosarcoma and one with chondrosarcoma, were documented by autopsy and are reported in detail because of their rarity in the medical literature. Although the numbers are small, the increased incidence of cerebral metastases in the group relapsing after a lengthy response suggests that improved chemotherapy for sarcomas resulting in improved survival may be chaning the pattern of metastatic disease, and may require new the;apeutic approaches.

  1. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Christian; Gudushauri, Paata; Wong, Tak-Man; Lau, Tak-Wing; Pun, Terence; Leung, Frankie

    2016-01-01

    In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and p = 0.028). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (p = 0.037), female sex (p = 0.024), A2 fracture class (p = 0.010), increased operative duration (p = 0.011), poor reduction quality (p = 0.000), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (p = 0.050). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (p = 0.036), higher MMSE marks (p = 0.000), higher MBI marks (p = 0.010), better premorbid walking status (p = 0.000), less fracture collapse (p = 0.011), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (p = 0.020). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival.

  2. Effect of Different Rearing Density on Survival Rate and Growth of Giant Gouramy Osphronemus gouramy Lac. Fry at Size of 2 cm in Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Effendi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant gouramy Osphronemus gouramy Lac is one of the fish for food that has