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Sample records for survival rates improve

  1. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  2. Aminophylline Improves Urine Flow Rates but Not Survival in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Variable AKI outcomes have been reported in association with aminophylline treatment. This study evaluated AKI outcome in a group of Nigerian children treated with aminophylline. Methods: This is a retrospective study of AKI in children ...

  3. Improving survival rates of newborn infants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield David

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number, rates and causes of early neonatal deaths in South Africa were not known. Neither had modifiable factors associated with these deaths been previously documented. An audit of live born infants who died in the first week of life in the public service could help in planning strategies to reduce the early neonatal mortality rate. Methods The number of live born infants weighing 1000 g or more, the number of these infants who die in the first week of life, the primary and final causes of these deaths, and the modifiable factors associated with them were collected over four years from 102 sites in South Africa as part of the Perinatal Problem Identification Programme. Results The rate of death in the first week of life for infants weighing 1000 g or more was unacceptably high (8.7/1000, especially in rural areas (10.42/1000. Intrapartum hypoxia and preterm delivery are the main causes of death. Common modifiable factors included inadequate staffing and facilities, poor care in labour, poor neonatal resuscitation and basic care, and difficulties for patients in accessing health care. Conclusion Practical, affordable and effective steps can be taken to reduce the number of infants who die in the first week of life in South Africa. These could also be implemented in other under resourced countries.

  4. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved pension...

  5. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3...

  6. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  7. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  8. Improved survival rate in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Heaf, J

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the survival rate of Danish diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1990 and 2005 and evaluated possible predictors of survival rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Register on Dialysis and Transplantation...... diabetic: 5%, non-diabetic: 24%. The survival rate of transplanted patients with diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) compared with non-diabetic patients at 1 year was: 95 vs 93%, at 5 years: 80 vs 85% and at 10 years: 52 vs 71%. Among diabetic patients survival rate was better in transplanted than in waiting...... and from the Scandiatransplant database. Survival rates in different patient groups and association with age, sex, calendar time, waiting-list status and renal transplantation were evaluated using a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: During the study period 8,421 patients (13% type 1 diabetic, 9...

  9. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Yiting [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kastan, Michael B. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Matsui, William, E-mail: matsuwi@jhmi.edu [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L., E-mail: deweete@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  10. Improvement of piglet survival rate in relation to farrowing systems and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, A; Le Dividich, J

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in the same farrowing house with the aim of comparing the efficiency of two types of floors and in order to estimate the effect of bedding material on the performance of newborn piglets. In addition, the productivity data of our sow herd as well as those of the national herd, were analysed in order to study the effect of the farrowing system and piglet maturity at birth on the survival rate of the newborn. The main results clearly show the detrimental effect on piglet survival of using slatted floors at farrowing. Furthermore the mode of sow tethering during parturition directly affects the piglets losses between birth and weaning, i.e. 2.03 piglets/litter for tethered sows, 2.17 for caged sows, 2.30 piglets when using farrowing rails. Use of a bedding material has a positive influence on the survival rate: 83.1% for straw, 78.5% for shredded paper versus 68.5% in the case of an insulated concrete floor. Rearing of newborn piglets in a cold environment leads to a drop in the rectal temperature, a poor body carbohydrate utilization and a decrease in colostrum intake. This results in a poor immunity, a low survival rate and a growth rate depression. Search for optimal environmental conditions for the newborn piglet is more important than for the sow. An adequate management of farrowing houses is recommended involving tethering of the sows, extra heating of the pens when the piglets are born and during their first 3 weeks of life.

  11. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

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    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  12. IMPROVED SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATES IN VITRIFIED-WARMED PIG OOCYTES AFTER RECOVERY CULTURE WITH COENZYME Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, D ae-Jin; Kwak, Tae-Uk; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    The primary problems with porcine oocyte vitrification are their low viability and development; both need improvement. This study was designed to improve the survival and developmental rates in vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were vitrified-warmed with Cryotop. Then the oocytes were supplemented with Q10 during recovery culture. The survival rates immediately after warming were 92.9% by morphological inspection and 39.3% by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay. The group of recovery culture with Q10 (VC+Q10) showed significantly higher viability compared to the group of recovery culture without Q10 (VC+) analyzed by morphology and the FDA. The VC+Q10 group showed a low Bax/Bcl-xl ratio and a high expression of MAP3K12 and TGFB3 compared to the VC+. The cleavage rate did not differ in both groups but, blastocyst yield was higher in VC+Q10 than the VC+ group. Supplementation of Q10 during recovery culture led to a higher blastocyst yield by increasing survival rates and regulating mRNA expressions.

  13. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  14. Functionalized Scaffold-mediated Interleukin 10 Gene Delivery Significantly Improves Survival Rates of Stem Cells In Vivo

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    Holladay, Carolyn; Power, Karen; Sefton, Michael; O'Brien, Timothy; Gallagher, William M.; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    While stem cell transplantation could potentially treat a variety of disorders, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated conclusive benefits. This may be partly because transplanted stem cells have low survival rates, potentially due to host inflammation. The system described herein used two different gene therapy techniques to improve retention of rat mesenchymal stem cells. In the first, stem cells were transfected with interleukin-10 (IL-10) before being loaded into a collagen scaffold. In the second, unmodified stem cells were loaded into a collagen scaffold along with polymer-complexed IL-10 plasmids. The scaffolds were surgically implanted into the dorsum of syngeneic rats. At each endpoint, the scaffolds were explanted and cell retention, IL-10 level and inflammatory response were quantified. All treatment groups had statistically significant increases in cell retention after 7 days, but the group treated with 2 µg of IL-10 polyplexes had a significant improvement even at 21 days. This cell retention was associated with increased IL-10 and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. The primary effect on the inflammatory response appeared to be on macrophage differentiation, encouraging the regulatory phenotype over the cytotoxic lineage. Improving cell survival may be an important step toward realization of the therapeutic potential of stem cells. PMID:21266957

  15. Optimized surgical techniques and postoperative care improve survival rates and permit accurate telemetric recording in exercising mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Beat; Rettich, Andreas; Vogel, Johannes; Gassmann, Max; Arras, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    compromised physiological capacities. Conclusion Recovery and survival rates of mice after major surgery were significantly improved by careful management of postoperative intensive care regimens including key supportive measures such as pain relief, administration of fluids, and warmth. Furthermore, fixation of the blood pressure transmitter provided constant reliable telemetric recordings in exercising mice. PMID:19646283

  16. Improvement of the Measure of the Network Survival Rate and its Application to a Japanese Business Relations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    We analyze the typical characteristics of the percolation transition of a large-scale complex network, a Japanese business relation network consisting of approximately 600,000 nodes and 4,000,000 links. By utilizing percolation characteristics, we revise the definition of network survival rate that we previously proposed. The new network survival rate has a strong correlation with the old one. The calculation cost is also much smaller and the number of trials decreases from 100,000 to 1,000. Finally, we discuss the identification of robust and fragile regions using this index.

  17. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Blake

    Full Text Available Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02 when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72 and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases. Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  18. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

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    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  19. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yonghoon; Byun, Sang Jun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  20. Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K.; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival. OBJECTIVE To examine...... temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which...... resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n...

  1. Improvement of survival rate in patients with cardiogenic shock by using nonpulsatile and pulsatile ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, K; el-Banayosy, A; Posival, H; Seggewiss, H; Murray, E; Körner, M M; Körfer, R

    1992-12-01

    Between January 1988 and January 1992, 65 patients (pts) had a ventricle assist device (VAD) inserted in our clinic. In 24 pts a VAD was applied because of primarily unsuccessful weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (Group A). In a further 24 pts (Group B) a VAD was installed for the therapy of refractive cardiogenic shock (CS) after initially successful cardiac surgery (n = 21) and after acute myocardial infarction (n = 3). Twelve pts were bridged to heart transplantation (Group C) and five had a VAD inserted for various other reasons (Group D). In 36 (55.4%) of the total 65 pts a nonpulsatile VAD (Biomedicus 540) was used: 10 in Group A; 20 in B, 3 in C and 3 in D. In 29 pts (44.6%) a pulsatile VAD (Abiomed BVS 5000) was used: 14 in Group A, 4 in B, 9 in C and 2 in D. Weaning rate and long-term survival rates were 50% and 46% respectively in Group A and 38% and 42% in Group B. Seven pts from Group C were transplanted and six are long-term survivors. Two pts (40%) in Group D were discharged from hospital. Major postoperative complications were bleeding (46%), thromboembolism (14%), multiple organ failure (11%), renal failure (11%), arterial embolism (4.6%), sepsis (3%). The results indicate that application of a VAD can be recommended in pts with postcardiotomy CS to allow recovery of cardiac function and in pts with irreversible ventricular damage as bridging to HTX.

  2. Acute traumatic coagulopathy decreased actual survival rate when compared with predicted survival rate in severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Gap Su; Moon, Sung Woo; Choi, Sung Hyuck; Hong, Yun Sik

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) should be combined with the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) to predict outcome in severe trauma patients and investigate effects of the change in coagulation state during early resuscitation on the actual survival rate. This was a retrospective study. Significant variables that affected 28-day mortality were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Study patients were classified into three groups: no coagulopathy, mild coagulopathy or severe coagulopathy. Concordance between actual and predicted survival rates were compared for each group. The predicted survival rate was calculated using the TRISS method. The study also determined whether changes in the coagulation state during inhospital resuscitation affected the relationship between actual and predicted survival in patients who had rechecked coagulation profile within 12 h after presentation. Data from a total of 336 patients were analysed. At presentation, 20.8% of the study patients had mild coagulopathy, whereas 7.7% had severe coagulopathy. Age, injury severity score, revised trauma score and presence of ATC at presentation were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Actual survival was significantly lower than predicted survival in the mild and severe coagulopathy groups. Aggravation of coagulation state from normal or mild to severe coagulopathy or persistent severe coagulopathy during inhospital resuscitation mainly contributed to the discrepancy between actual and predicted survival. ATC decreased actual survival more than expected. ATC should be combined with TRISS to predict trauma outcome in severely injured patients. Improvement in coagulopathy during resuscitation may reduce the incidence of preventable death after trauma.

  3. Reduced-dose cyclosporine with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone significantly improves the long-term glomerular filtration rate and graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rending; Xu, Ying; Wu, Jianyong; Wang, Yimin; He, Qiang; Chen, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether reduced doses of chronic calcineurin inhibitors benefit graft survival. This retrospective study analyzed 60 first cadaveric renal transplant recipients who received cyclosporine (CSA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone (CMP group) and 71 recipients who received reduced-dose CSA with prednisone and MMF (RCMP group). All recipients were followed for at least 96 months. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated at different time points, graft survival, the incidence of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) and the acute rejection rate within six months were analyzed and compared between the two groups. The incidence of acute rejection within six months post-transplant was 15.5% (11/71) in the RCMP group and 13.3% (8/60) in the CMP group. This difference was not significant (p=0.727). The MDRD-calculated GFR in the CMP group reached a peak at 24 months post-transplant (66.6 ± 20.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) then decreased gradually. In contrast, in the RCMP group, the GFR reached a peak at 36 months post-transplant (76.9 ± 19.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). The GFR from month 36 to month 96 was significantly higher in the RCMP group than in the CMP group. The Kaplan-Meier calculated death-censored graft survival in the RCMP group was significantly higher than that observed in the CMP group, with an estimated cumulative proportion surviving at 96 months of 95.5% in the RCMP group and 83.5% in the CMP group. The incidence of CAN within 96 months was 5.6% (4/71) in the RCMP group vs. 16.7% (10/60) in the CMP group (p=0.042). An RCMP regimen can significantly improve the long-term GFR level and benefit graft survival.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma reduces skin flap inflammatory cells infiltration and improves survival rates through induction of angiogenesis: An experiment in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Geng, Qiuhua; Hu, Junling; Shao, Jianchuan; Ruan, Jing; Zheng, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on flap survival in an experimental rabbit model. Symmetrical rectangular dorsal cutaneous flaps (8 × 2 cm) were elevated in 15 rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into a 3-day group (n = 5), a 7-day group (n = 5), and a 14-day group (n = 5). Either side of the dorsum was selected for injection of PRP into the flap basal surface, while the other side received an equal volume of saline as a control. The flaps were immediately sutured back, after which the flap survival was measured and histology specimens were collected at 3, 7, and 14 days. Platelet-rich plasma significantly improved flap survival rates of the PRP side flaps relative to the control in the 3-day (74.4% ± 4.7% vs 65.8% ± 6.8%; p platelet-rich plasma side flap vs the blank control side flap. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes the survival of random rabbit flaps and, therefore, represents a promising treatment to prevent skin flap necrosis in reconstructive and plastic surgery.

  5. Induction chemotherapy for T3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer increases the rate of complete resection but does not confer improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin L; Mulvihill, Michael S; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Speicher, Paul J; D'Amico, Thomas A; Tong, Betty C; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of induction therapy prior to an operation in patients with cT3 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients diagnosed with cT3N0M0 NSCLC from 2006 to 2011 in the National Cancer Database who were treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy were stratified by treatment strategy: an operation first versus induction chemotherapy. Propensity scores were developed and matched cohorts were generated. Short-term outcomes included margin status, 30- and 90-day mortality rates, readmission and length of stay. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier methods were performed on both the unadjusted and propensity matched cohorts. A total of 3791 cT3N0M0 patients were identified for inclusion, of which 580 (15%) were treated with induction chemotherapy. Prior to adjustment, patients treated with induction chemotherapy were younger, had a higher comorbidity burden and were more likely to have private insurance (all P  induction chemotherapy were more likely to subsequently undergo an open procedure (87.3 vs 77.8%, P  = 0.005). These patients were more likely to obtain R0 resection (93.1% vs 90.0%, P  = 0.04) and were thereby less likely to have positive margins at the time of resection (6.9% vs 10.0%, P  = 0.03). Patients who received induction therapy had higher rates of 90-day mortality (6.6% vs 3.4%) but there was no difference in long-term survival between the groups. Despite yielding increased rates of R0 resection, induction chemotherapy for cT3N0M0 NSCLC is not associated with improved survival and should not be considered routinely. Further studies are warranted to elucidate cohorts that may benefit from induction therapy.

  6. Discovery of medical Big Data analytics: Improving the prediction of traumatic brain injury survival rates by data mining Patient Informatics Processing Software Hybrid Hadoop Hive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Rodger

    Full Text Available Entering medical encounter data by hand is time-consuming. In addition, data are often not entered into the database in a timely enough fashion to enable their use for subsequent mission planning. The Patient Informatics Processing Software semi-automates the data collection process onboard ships. Then data within these images are captured and used to populate a database, after which multiple ship databases are used for reporting and analysis. In this paper, we used the Patient Informatics Processing Software Hybrid Hadoop Hive to orchestrate database processing via various ships, by marshaling the distributed servers, running the various tasks in parallel, managing all of the communications and data transfers between the various parts of the system, and providing for redundancy and fault tolerance. Then we employed the Apache Hive as a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop for data summarization, query, and analysis to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI as well as other injury cases. Finally, a proposed Misdiagnosis Minimization Approach method was used for data analysis. We collected data on three ship variables (Byrd, Boxer, Kearsage and injuries to four body regions (head, torso, extremities, and abrasions to determine how the set of collected variables relates to the body injuries. Two dimensions or canonical variables (survival vs. mortality were necessary to understand the association between the two sets of variables. Our method improved data classification and showed that survival, mortality, and morbidity rates can be derived from the superset of Medical Operations data and used for future decision-making and planning. We suggest that an awareness of procedural errors as well as methods to reduce misclassification should be incorporated into all TBI clinical trials. Keywords: Decision support, Traumatic brain injuries, Apache hive, Symbolic data analysis, Informatics, Data mining

  7. Improving Survival in Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nath Mukerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality in cirrhosis is consequent of decompensation, only treatment being timely liver transplantation. Organ allocation is prioritized for the sickest patients based on Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD score. In order to improve survival in patients with high MELD score it is imperative to preserve them in suitable condition till transplantation. Here we examine means to prolong life in high MELD score patients till a suitable liver is available. We specially emphasize protection of airways by avoidance of sedatives, avoidance of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure, elective intubation in grade III or higher encephalopathy, maintaining a low threshold for intubation with lesser grades of encephalopathy when undergoing upper endoscopy or colonoscopy as pre transplant evaluation or transferring patient to a transplant center. Consider post-pyloric tube feeding in encephalopathy to maintain muscle mass and minimize risk of aspiration. In non intubated and well controlled encephalopathy, frequent physical mobility by active and passive exercises are recommended. When renal replacement therapy is needed, night-time Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis may be useful in keeping the daytime free for mobility. Sparing and judicious use of steroids needs to be borne in mind in treatment of ARDS and acute hepatitis from alcohol or autoimmune process.

  8. The recommended treatment algorithms of the BCLC and HKLC staging systems: does following these always improve survival rates for HCC patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Jung, Sin-Ho; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-10-01

    Several staging systems have been proposed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among them, only the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC) staging systems also recommend treatment modality. This study was designed to see whether BCLC and HKLC staging can guide treatment strategy, so analyzed whether patients survival is better for those who received recommended therapy by each staging system. A total of 3515 treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed HCC patients at a single centre were analyzed. Five-year survival rates according to BCLC stages: 0 = 79.1%, A = 62.9%, B = 40.3%, C = 21.3% and D = 27.0%; 5-year survival rates according to HKLC stages: I = 72.3%, IIa = 54.9%, IIb = 50.6%, IIIa = 21.3%, IIIb = 10.2%, IVa = 16.7%, IVb = 7.2%, Va = 47.1% and Vb = 11.3%. The C-indices of the BCLC and HKLC staging systems were 0.708 and 0.732 respectively. Patient survival was better when patients received the recommended treatment in stages 0 or A; survival was worse if treatment began at stage B, C or D. For HKLC staging system, survival was better when patients received the recommended treatment in stages I, IIa, IIb, IIIa or Va but was worse when treatment began in stages IIIb, IVa, IVb or Vb. Both the BCLC and HKLC staging systems effectively stratified patient prognosis, but neither could direct therapy for a large proportion of patients; for some stages, recommended therapy was associated with worse prognosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. MicroRNA-21 knockout improve the survival rate in DSS induced fatal colitis through protecting against inflammation and tissue injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhang Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-21 (miR-21 is overexpressed in most inflammatory diseases, but its physiological role in gut inflammation and tissue injury is poorly understood. The goal of this work is to understand the role of miR-21 in colitis and damage progression of intestine in a genetically modified murine model. METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced in miR-21 KO and wild-type (WT mice by 3.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS administration for 7 days. Disease activity index(DAI, blood parameters, intestinal permeability, histopathologic injury, cytokine and chemokine production, and epithelial cells apoptosis were examined in colons of miR-21 KO and WT mice. RESULTS: miR-21 was overexpressed in intestine of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and acute intestinal obstruction (AIO patients when compared with normal intestinal tissues. Likewise, miR-21 was up-regulated in colon of IL-10 KO mice when compared with control mice. WT mice rapidly lost weight and were moribund 5 days after treatment with 3.5% DSS, while miR-21 KO mice survived for at least 6 days. Elevated leukocytes and more severe histopathology were observed in WT mice when compared with miR-21 KO mice. Elevated levels of TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2(MIP-2 in colon culture supernatants from WT mice exhibited significant higher than miR-21 KO mice. Furthermore, CD3 and CD68 positive cells, intestinal permeability and apoptosis of epithelial cells were significantly increased in WT mice when compared with miR-21 KO mice. Finally, we found that miR-21 regulated the intestinal barrier function through modulating the expression of RhoB and CDC42. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that miR-21 is overexpressed in intestinal inflammation and tissue injury, while knockout of miR-21 in mice improve the survival rate in DSS-induced fatal colitis through protecting against inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, attenuated expression of miR-21 in gut may prevent the onset or

  10. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  11. Early diagnosis improves survival in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2012-02-01

    Kidney cancers account for 2-3% of all adult malignancies in the UK. Men are predominantly affected by renal cancer with an average age at diagnosis of 64 years. Renal (or clear) cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of kidney cancers. Early diagnosis improves survival with five-year survival rates for renal cancer of 70-94% for localised tumours in the UK. RCC should be suspected in the presence of localising symptoms such as flank pain, a loin mass or haematuria; constitutional upset including weight loss, pyrexia and/or night sweats; or with unexplained laboratory tests. Smoking, obesity and hypertension are the most important and most common risk factors. Environmental exposure to asbestos, cadmium and trichloroethylene are less common risk factors. Patients on chronic dialysis and renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of RCC in their native kidneys. If kidney cancer is suspected on history, physical examination or initial screening tests then a red flag ultrasound examination of the renal tracts should be requested. Dipstick urinalysis is of great value as asymptomatic haematuria may be the only abnormal test in the presence of non-specific symptoms such as weight loss or loin pain. Visible or non-visible haematuria, in the absence of proteinuria, suggests an underlying structural abnormality is present in the kidneys, ureters or bladder. Surgical removal of RCCs, where feasible, may result in cure in up to 40-60% of cases. Individuals too frail for major surgery may benefit from thermal ablation and cryotherapy. Agents that target the VEGF and mTOR pathways are considered first line in the treatment of metastatic RCC. Sunitinib, recommended by NICE, is administered orally and acts by inhibiting the VEGF receptor.

  12. Measuring survival rates from sudden cardiac arrest: the elusive definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Michael R; Travers, Andrew H; Daya, Mohamud; Greene, H Leon; Salive, Marcel E; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Craven, Richard A; Groh, William J; Hallstrom, Alfred P

    2004-07-01

    in CPR + AED units (43% versus 55%, odds ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.57-1.07). The study retained sufficient power to permit a statistical analysis of the alternative hypothesis that the CPR + AED method results in twice as many survivors as a CPR-only approach. The result is critically dependent on the denominator used for calculating survival rates; but the analysis does not require a denominator as the numerators will have identical Poisson distributions (counts for rare events) under the null hypothesis since randomization distributes the risk of cardiac arrest evenly between the two arms. Reported OOH-CA rates and survival rates vary widely, depending upon the definitions applied to events. Rigorous assessment of treatments applied to improve survival can be obscured by inappropriate definitions. Large-scale randomized interventions designed to improve survival from OOH-CA can be evaluated based upon the absolute numbers of patients surviving, rather than a change in the proportion surviving.

  13. Improved survival after rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Harling, H; Iversen, L H

    2010-01-01

    treated from 1994 to 2006. Method The study was based on the National Rectal Cancer Registry and the National Colorectal Cancer Database, supplemented with data from the Central Population Registry. The analysis included actuarial overall and relative survival. Results A total of 10 632 patients were......Objective In 1995, an analysis showed an inferior prognosis after rectal cancer in Denmark compared with the other Scandinavian countries. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) was established with the aim of improving the prognosis, and in this study we present a survival analysis of patients...

  14. Improving lung cancer survival; time to move on

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Heuvers (Marlies); J.P.J.J. Hegmans (Joost); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: During the past decades, numerous efforts have been made to decrease the death rate among lung cancer patients. Nonetheless, the improvement in long-term survival has been limited and lung cancer is still a devastating disease.Discussion: With this article we would like to

  15. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Huye District from December 2011 to June 2012, with aiming to investigate the survival rate of trees planted on private and public land from 2007-2011 and underlying factors. Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and ...

  16. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkas, Ghazi Faisal; Arqoub, Kamal H; Khader, Yousef S; Tarawneh, Mohammad R; Nimri, Omar F; Al-Zaghal, Marwan J; Subih, Hadil S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005-2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005-2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005-2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p < 0.005). The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  17. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Faisal Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005–2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005–2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005–2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p<0.005. The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  18. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast cancer , taking adjuvant ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” ...

  19. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  20. Apparent survival rates of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliable estimates of survival rates of southern African bird species are still rare. Yet precise information on life history traits of birds from this southern Mediterranean-type climate would help in evaluating the generality of global patterns of avian life history. We estimated annual survival of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer ...

  1. Childhood cancer survival rates in two South African units | Stones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cancers were leukaemia (25.0%), brain tumours (19.5%), lymphoma (13.0%) and nephroblastoma (10.0%). ... A comparison between ethnic groups showed white children to have the highest survival rate (62.8%); the rate for children of mixed racial origin was 53.8% and that for black children 48.5%.

  2. Interdisciplinary ICU Cardiac Arrest Debriefing Improves Survival Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Heather; Zebuhr, Carleen; Topjian, Alexis A.; Nishisaki, Akira; Niles, Dana E.; Meaney, Peter A.; Boyle, Lori; Giordano, Rita T.; Davis, Daniela; Priestley, Margaret; Apkon, Michael; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Sutton, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In-hospital cardiac arrest is an important public health problem. High-quality resuscitation improves survival but is difficult to achieve. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel, interdisciplinary, postevent quantitative debriefing program to improve survival outcomes after in-hospital pediatric chest compression events. Design, Setting, and Patients Single-center prospective interventional study of children who received chest compressions between December 2008 and June 2012 in the ICU. Interventions Structured, quantitative, audiovisual, interdisciplinary debriefing of chest compression events with front-line providers. Measurements and Main Results Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included survival of event (return of spontaneous circulation for ≥ 20 min) and favorable neurologic outcome. Primary resuscitation quality outcome was a composite variable, termed “excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” prospectively defined as a chest compression depth ≥ 38 mm, rate ≥ 100/min, ≤ 10% of chest compressions with leaning, and a chest compression fraction > 90% during a given 30-second epoch. Quantitative data were available only for patients who are 8 years old or older. There were 119 chest compression events (60 control and 59 interventional). The intervention was associated with a trend toward improved survival to hospital discharge on both univariate analysis (52% vs 33%, p = 0.054) and after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.91–6.8; p = 0.075), and it significantly increased survival with favorable neurologic outcome on both univariate (50% vs 29%, p = 0.036) and multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.01–7.5; p = 0.047). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation epochs for patients who are 8 years old or older during the debriefing period were 5.6 times more likely to meet targets of excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (95% CI, 2.9–10

  3. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  4. The co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia is associated with better hematological indices and lower consultations rate in Cameroonian patients and could improve their survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bibi Rumaney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia was reported to be associated with a delayed age of disease onset among Cameroonian Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA patients. The present study aimed to explore the correlation between α-thalassemia, hematological indices, and clinical events in these patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 161 Cameroonian SCA patients and 103 controls (59.1% HbAA with median ages of 17.5 and 23 years. RFLP-PCR was used to confirm SCA genotype and to describe haplotypes in the HBB-like genes cluster. Multiplex Gap-PCR was performed to investigate the 3.7 kb α-globin gene deletions. SNaPshot PCR, capillary electrophoresis and cycle sequencing were used for the genotyping of 10 SNPs in BCL11A, HMIP1/2, OR51B5/6 and HBG loci, known to influence HbF levels. Generalised linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and SNPs genotypes was used to investigate effects of α-thalassemia on clinical and hematological indices. The median rate of vaso-occlusive painful crisis and hospitalisations was two and one per year, respectively. Stroke was reported in eight cases (7.4%. Benin haplotype was the most prevalent (66.3%; n = 208 chromosomes. Among patients, 37.3% (n = 60 had at least one 3.7 kb deletion, compared to 10.9% (n = 6 among HbAA controls (p<0.001. Among patients, the median RBC count increased with the number of 3.7 kb deletions [2.6, 3.0 and 3.4 million/dl, with no, one and two deletions (p = 0.01]. The median MCV decreased with the number of 3.7 kb deletion [86, 80, and 68fl, with no, one and two deletions (p<0.0001], as well as median WBC counts [13.2, 10.5 and 9.8×109/L (p<0.0001. The co-inheritance of α-thalassemia was associated with lower consultations rate (p = 0.038. CONCLUSION: The co-inheritance of α-thalassemia and SCA is associated with improved hematological indices, and lower consultations rate in this group of patients. This could possibly improve their survival and explain the

  5. Deep brain stimulation improves survival in severe Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoga, Desire; Mitchell, Rosalind; Kausar, Jamilla; Hodson, James; Harries, Anwen; Pall, Hardev

    2014-01-01

    Levodopa and other dopaminergic treatments have not had the expected effect on survival in Parkinson's disease (PD). Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) has been shown to improve motor function, motor fluctuations, health-related quality of life, and to reduce medication usage and drug-induced dyskinesia in patients with severe PD refractory to medical therapy. Little however, has been described on the impact of STN-DBS on the survival of these patients. We aim in this study to examine the impact of STN-DBS on the survival of patients with severe PD. Patients who were eligible for STN-DBS were given the choice of undergoing surgery or continuing on medical treatment. Those who exercised patient choice and preferred to continue with medical treatment formed a control population. All eligible patients seen in a 10-year period are included in this study. Our primary outcome measure is a difference in mortality between the two groups with a secondary measure of admission rates to residential (nursing home) care. 106 patients underwent STN-DBS, and 41 patients exercised patient choice and declined the procedure. The two groups were matched for age, gender, ethnicity, duration of disease, rates of pre-existing depression and Levodopa equivalent doses of anti-Parkinson's medications taken. Patients undergoing STN-DBS had significantly longer survival and were significantly less likely to be admitted to a residential care home than those managed purely medically. The statistical significance of these findings persisted after adjusting for potential confounding factors (survival: p=0.002, HR 0.29 (0.13 to 0.64) (residential care home admission: OR: 0.1 (95% CI 0.0 to 0.3; padvanced PD. The effect of potential bias factors is examined. The survival advantage may arise for several postulated reasons, ranging from improvement in axial functions, such as swallowing, to some as yet unrecognised benefit of reduction in dopaminergic medication. These

  6. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Risk of Survival in Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the risk of survival in acute stroke using the MDRD equation derived estimated glomerular filtration rate. Design: A prospective observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Subjects: Eighty three acute stroke patients had GFR calculated within 48 hours of ...

  7. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  8. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...... the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase...

  9. Association between a Hospital’s Rate of Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Cardiac Arrest Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lena M.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Li, Yan; Chan, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Context National efforts to measure hospital performance for cardiac arrest have focused on case survival, with the hope of improving survival after cardiac arrest. However, it is plausible that hospitals with high case-survival rates do a poor job of preventing cardiac arrests in the first place. Objective To describe the association between inpatient cardiac arrest incidence and survival rates. Design, Setting, and Patients Within a large, national registry, we identified hospitals with at least 50 adult in-hospital cardiac arrest cases between January 1, 2000 and November 30, 2009. We used multivariable hierarchical regression to evaluate the correlation between a hospital’s cardiac arrest incidence rate and its case-survival rate after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Main Outcome Measure The correlation between a hospital’s incidence rate and case-survival rate for cardiac arrest. Results Of 102,153 cases at 358 hospitals, the median hospital cardiac arrest incidence rate was 4.02 per 1000 admissions (IQR: 2.95 to 5.65 per 1000 admissions), and the median hospital case-survival rate was 18.8% (IQR: 14.5% to 22.6%). In crude analyses, hospitals with higher case-survival rates also had lower cardiac arrest incidence (correlation of -0.16; P=0.003). This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics (correlation of -0.15; P=0.004). After adjusting for potential mediators of this relationship (i.e., hospital characteristics), the relationship between incidence and case-survival was attenuated (correlation of -0.07; P=0.18). The one modifiable hospital factor that most attenuated this relationship was a hospital’s nurse-to-bed ratio (correlation of -0.12; P=0.03). Conclusions Hospitals with exceptional rates of survival for in-hospital cardiac arrest are also better at preventing cardiac arrests, even after adjusting for patient case-mix. This relationship is partially mediated by measured hospital attributes

  10. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerni...

  11. Men and women show similar survival rates after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Paulo Franscisco Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Letícia Lima; Costa, Célia Regina; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Bergmann, Anke; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2017-04-01

    To compare the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of men and women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study of patients with breast cancer diagnosed and treated at the Cancer Hospital III of the National Cancer Institute of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1999 and 2013. Male breast cancer cases were matched for age, year of diagnosis, and clinical staging to three female cases (1:3). Patient characteristics were abstracted from hospital records and medical charts. Cases were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and comparisons between the genders were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals. The study population comprised 98 men and 294 women. There were significant differences (p breast surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of palliative bisphosphonate therapy. Five- and 10-year DFS rates were, respectively, 80.0 and 51.4% for men and 71.4 and 63.5% for women (p = 0.245), and 5- and 10-year OS rates were, respectively, 65.0 and 47.5% for men and 56.5 and 41.4% for women (p = 0.221). There was no significant difference in prognosis (DFS and OS rates) between the genders, but significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were detected between male and female breast cancer cases.

  12. Addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin to induction chemotherapy improves survival in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnett, Alan K; Russell, Nigel H; Hills, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    National Cancer Research Institute trials showed significant improvements in relapse (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.93; P = .002) and OS (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.98; P = .02). CONCLUSION Adding GO (3 mg/m(2)) to induction chemotherapy reduces relapse risk and improves survival with little increase......PURPOSE There has been little survival improvement in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the last two decades. Improving induction treatment may improve the rate and quality of remission and consequently survival. In our previous trial, in younger patients, we showed improved...... survival for the majority of patients when adding gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) to induction chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Untreated patients with AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (median age, 67 years; range, 51 to 84 years) were randomly assigned to receive induction chemotherapy with either...

  13. One-year survival rate of renal transplant: factors influencing the outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezapour S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siavash Rezapour,1 Aliasghar Yarmohammadi,1,2 Mahmoud Tavakkoli1,2 1Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 2Urology Department, Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Background: Renal transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, as the procedure not only improves quality of life, but also markedly increases patients’ survival rates. Organ and patient survival rates are important issues of interest post-transplantation. Aim: To determine the 1-year survival rate of renal transplant, we studied graft function, which is a predictor of survival, among those who received a kidney transplant in the time period between February 2012 and February 2013 at Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cohort study planned to determine patient and organ survival rates after kidney transplantation from living and deceased donors during a 1-year period. We also tried to clarify factors resulting in graft loss. Designated variables were collected using checklists and subsequently entered into SPSS software version 17 and analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and descriptive statistics.Results: From 173 patients included in the study, 67.1% (n=116 were female. The mean age of the recipients was 33±12.85 years. In the majority of cases, cause of end-stage renal disease was not clear (n=89, 51.44%. Urinary tract infection (23.1% was the commonest post-operative complication, followed by delayed graft function, which was diagnosed in 22 (12.7% recipients. Seventeen cases of graft rejection (9.8% were recorded and 4 (2.3% of these cases underwent nephrectomy that will be regarded as graft loss in this paper. Therefore, 1-year graft survival was 90.2%. Graft survival in cadaveric and live-donor recipients was 90.8% and 88.7%, respectively. As there was no mortality reported among graft recipients, 1-year patient survival rate

  14. Ten-year survival rate for cantilevered fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D

    2005-01-01

    PubMed (1966-April 2004) provided the primary data source along with the bibliographies from identified articles and reviews. A manual search of two relevant journals (Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry published; published 2001-2003) provided a further source of data. Because there were no randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared fixed partial dentures (FPD) with and without cantilever extensions, other studies were selected if they met the following criteria: were published in the English language; were prospective and retrospective cohort studies; had a mean follow-up of >5 years; included patients who were clinically examined at follow-up; and reported details on suprastructures and described at least one-third of reconstructions as FPD. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and agreement determined by kappa. Two reviewers extracted data on the survival and success of the reconstructions and on biological and technical complications. Failure and complication rates were calculated by dividing the number of events by the total exposure time. Three prospective and 10 retrospective cohort studies incorporating 700 patients and 816 FPD were included. The mean number of cantilever extensions ranged from 1.1 to 6.0. Meta-analyses gave an estimated survival, after 10 years, of 81.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 78.2-84.9] and a proportion success of 63% (95% CI, 54.7-70.2). Considering biological complications using Poisson model analyses, the estimated rate of FPD lost because of caries after 10 years was 3.1% (95%CI, 1.0-8.8) and that for loss of vitality was 32.6% (95% CI, 13.9-64.9). The rate

  15. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  16. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: analysis of epidemiological profile and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana Cardoso; da Silva, Denise Bousfield; Freund, Ana Paula Ferreira; Dacoregio, Juliana Shmitz; Costa, Tatiana El Jaick Bonifácio; Costa, Imaruí; Faraco, Daniel; Silva, Maurício Laerte

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile and the survival rate of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a state reference pediatric hospital. Clinical-epidemiological, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. The study included new cases of patients with AML, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, younger than 15 years. Of the 51 patients studied, 84% were white; 45% were females and 55%, males. Regarding age, 8% were younger than 1 year, 47% were aged between 1 and 10 years, and 45% were older than 10 years. The main signs/symptoms were fever (41.1%), asthenia/lack of appetite (35.2%), and hemorrhagic manifestations (27.4%). The most affected extra-medullary site was the central nervous system (14%). In 47% of patients, the white blood cell (WBC) count was below 10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis. The minimal residual disease (MRD) was less than 0.1%, on the 15th day of treatment in 16% of the sample. Medullary relapse occurred in 14% of cases. When comparing the bone marrow MRD with the vital status, it was observed that 71.42% of the patients with type M3 AML were alive, as were 54.05% of those with non-M3 AML. The death rate was 43% and the main proximate cause was septic shock (63.6%). In this study, the majority of patients were male, white, and older than 1 year. Most patients with WBC count <10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis lived. Overall survival was higher in patients with MRD <0.1%. The prognosis was better in patients with AML-M3. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Global and Regional Improvements in Life Expectancy and in Child, Adult and Senior Survival Slowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, Ryan J.; Verguet, Stéphane; Cheng, Yu-Ling; McGahan, Anita M.; Jha, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in life expectancy have been considerable over the past hundred years. Forecasters have taken to applying historical trends under an assumption of continuing improvements in life expectancy in the future. A linear mixed effects model was used to estimate the trends in global and regional rates of improvements in life expectancy, child, adult, and senior survival, in 166 countries between 1950 and 2010. Global improvements in life expectancy, including both child and adult survival rates, decelerated significantly over the study period. Overall life expectancy gains were estimated to have declined from 5.9 to 4.0 months per year for a mean deceleration of -0.07 months/year2; annual child survival gains declined from 4.4 to 1.6 deaths averted per 1000 for a mean deceleration of -0.06 deaths/1000/year2; adult survival gains were estimated to decline from 4.8 to 3.7 deaths averted per 1000 per year for a mean deceleration of -0.08 deaths/1000/year2. Senior survival gains however increased from 2.4 to 4.2 deaths averted per 1000 per year for an acceleration of 0.03 deaths/1000/year2. Regional variation in the four measures was substantial. The rates of global improvements in life expectancy, child survival, and adult survival have declined since 1950 despite an increase in the rate of improvements among seniors. We postulate that low-cost innovation, related to the last half-century progress in health–primarily devoted to children and middle age, is reaping diminishing returns on its investments. Trends are uneven across regions and measures, which may be due in part to the state of epidemiological transition between countries and regions and disparities in the diffusion of innovation, accessible only in high-income countries where life expectancy is already highest. PMID:25992949

  19. Prospective 5-year survival rate data following open-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerrit; von Heyden, Johanna; Pestka, Jan; Schmal, Hagen; Salzmann, Gian; Südkamp, Norbert; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using internal plate fixation is a well-established and frequently performed treatment option for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) in the young and active patients. The present study provides survival rate and functional outcome preoperatively and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Hypothesis of the authors was high survival rates after 5 years with still remaining satisfying functional results. Sixty-two patients suffering from tibial conditioned knee joint varus deformity and medial compartment OA that underwent high tibial osteotomy using an internal plate fixator (TomoFix™, Synthes) were included. Functional outcome was evaluated prior to surgery and in the further clinical course using standard instruments (IKDC score, Lysholm score). Treatment failure was defined as the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.8 ± 10.2 years) were available at a mean of 60.5 (SD ± 2.5) months (follow-up rate 82.3 %) postoperatively. Sixty-month IKDC (69.4 % SD ± 18.6) and Lysholm (76.6 SD ± 20.5) improved significantly when comparing with preoperative values (IKDC 44.6 SD ± 17.8; Lysholm 52.1 SD ± 20.8). Two of 51 subjects underwent TKA, resulting in a survival rate of 96 % among those patients followed (51 of 60; 85 %). Overall complication rate was 8.6 %. With a survival rate of over 96 % at 5 years, high tibial osteotomy seems to be a reliable treatment option with satisfying clinical outcome. Functional outcome was stable following 60 months. While a delay of the necessity for TKA seems likely with regard to the survival rate demonstrated in this article, possible avoidance needs to be demonstrated by longer follow-up studies. Therapeutic case series, Level IV.

  20. Immunocompetence index selection of broiler chicken lines for disease resistance and their impact on survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-06-01

    could lead to better health status in term of improved survival rate in broiler chicken over the generation of selection and further suggested that index selection for more number of generations coupled with economic traits would seem to be a viable option for development of disease resistant chicken lines.Conclusion: Breeding for overall genetic improvement of immunocompetence status by index selection with all the facets of immune system could lead to better survival rate and development of disease resistant chicken.

  1. Nitrite therapy improves survival postexposure to chlorine gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Oh, Joo-Yeun; Steele, Chad; Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to relatively high levels of chlorine (Cl2) gas can occur in mass-casualty scenarios associated with accidental or intentional release. Recent studies have shown a significant postexposure injury phase to the airways, pulmonary, and systemic vasculatures mediated in part by oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysfunction in endogenous nitric oxide homeostasis pathways. However, there is a need for therapeutics that are amenable to rapid and easy administration in the field and that display efficacy toward toxicity after chlorine exposure. In this study, we tested whether nitric oxide repletion using nitrite, by intramuscular injection after Cl2 exposure, could prevent Cl2 gas toxicity. C57bl/6 male mice were exposed to 600 parts per million Cl2 gas for 45 min, and 24-h survival was determined with or without postexposure intramuscular nitrite injection. A single injection of nitrite (10 mg/kg) administered either 30 or 60 min postexposure significantly improved 24-h survival (from ∼20% to 50%). Survival was associated with decreased neutrophil accumulation in the airways. Rendering mice neutropenic before Cl2 exposure improved survival and resulted in loss of nitrite-dependent survival protection. Interestingly, female mice were more sensitive to Cl2-induced toxicity compared with males and were also less responsive to postexposure nitrite therapy. These data provide evidence for efficacy and define therapeutic parameters for a single intramuscular injection of nitrite as a therapeutic after Cl2 gas exposure that is amenable to administration in mass-casualty scenarios. PMID:25326579

  2. Nitrite therapy improves survival postexposure to chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Jaideep; Doran, Stephen; Oh, Joo-Yeun; Steele, Chad; Matalon, Sadis; Patel, Rakesh P

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to relatively high levels of chlorine (Cl₂) gas can occur in mass-casualty scenarios associated with accidental or intentional release. Recent studies have shown a significant postexposure injury phase to the airways, pulmonary, and systemic vasculatures mediated in part by oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysfunction in endogenous nitric oxide homeostasis pathways. However, there is a need for therapeutics that are amenable to rapid and easy administration in the field and that display efficacy toward toxicity after chlorine exposure. In this study, we tested whether nitric oxide repletion using nitrite, by intramuscular injection after Cl₂ exposure, could prevent Cl₂ gas toxicity. C57bl/6 male mice were exposed to 600 parts per million Cl₂ gas for 45 min, and 24-h survival was determined with or without postexposure intramuscular nitrite injection. A single injection of nitrite (10 mg/kg) administered either 30 or 60 min postexposure significantly improved 24-h survival (from ∼20% to 50%). Survival was associated with decreased neutrophil accumulation in the airways. Rendering mice neutropenic before Cl₂ exposure improved survival and resulted in loss of nitrite-dependent survival protection. Interestingly, female mice were more sensitive to Cl₂-induced toxicity compared with males and were also less responsive to postexposure nitrite therapy. These data provide evidence for efficacy and define therapeutic parameters for a single intramuscular injection of nitrite as a therapeutic after Cl₂ gas exposure that is amenable to administration in mass-casualty scenarios. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Efficacy of monoterpene perillyl alcohol upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Clovis O; Simão, Marcela; Lins, Igor R; Caetano, Regina O; Futuro, Débora; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-02-01

    The monoterpene perillyl alcohol (POH) a Ras inhibitor with potential capacity to arrest gliomagenesis is being used in a phase I/II clinical trial in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intranasal administration of monoterpene POH upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in comparison with historical control group of GBM patients. It was included 89 adults with recurrent GBM receiving daily intranasal administration of 440 mg POH and 52 matched GBM patients as historical control untreated group only with supportive treatment. Patients with recurrent primary GBM treated with POH survived significantly longer (log rank test, P < 0.0001) than untreated group. Patients with recurrent primary GBM in deep location survived significantly longer than with lobar location (log rank test, P < 0.0001). Median survival rate of secondary GBM was 11.2 months, longer (log rank test, P = 0.0366) than primary GBM (5.9 months). Radiographic improvement and reduction of corticosteroid dosage (36%) further associated with a delay towards progression. Intranasal administration of POH increased the overall survival of patients with recurrent GBM in comparison with historical untreated controls, but especially patients with secondary GBM and primary GBM with tumor localized in deep regions of the brain. The side effects of POH treatment were almost nonexistent, even in patients treated for over 4 years.

  4. Comparable cell survival between high dose rate flattening filter free and conventional dose rate irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Wilko F A R; van den Berg, Jaap; Slotman, Ben J; Sminia, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of clonogenic cell survival and cell proliferation following single dose and fractionated delivery of high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation compared to conventional dose rates. The human astrocytoma D384, glioma T98 and lung carcinoma SW1573 cell lines were irradiated using either a single dose (0-12 Gy) or a fractionated protocol of 5 daily fractions of 2 Gy (D384) or 3 Gy (SW1573). Cells were irradiated inside a phantom using fixed gantry beams of a linear accelerator. A sliding window technique created homogeneous dose distributions over the surface of the cell cultures. Irradiations using standard beams (6 MV, 600 MU/min.) and high dose rate FFF beams (10 MV, 2400 MU/min.) were compared. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. In the fractionated irradiation set-up, the number of clonogenic cells was estimated by including tumor cell proliferation during the overall treatment time in the analysis. All cell lines showed equal cell survival following irradiation using either the FFF beams or conventional flattened (FF) beams. This was observed after single dose exposure (0-12 Gy) as well as after fractionated irradiation (p = 0.08 for D384 and 0.20 for SW1373 cell lines). FFF irradiation with a dose rate of 2400 MU/min and four times higher dose per pulse compared to irradiation with FF beams did not change cell survival for three human cancer cell lines up to a fraction dose of 12 Gy compared to irradiation using FF beams.

  5. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

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    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  6. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  7. Asfotase Alfa Treatment Improves Survival for Perinatal and Infantile Hypophosphatasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Ozono, Keiichi; Riese, Richard; Moseley, Scott; Melian, Agustin; Thompson, David D.; Bishop, Nicholas; Hofmann, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn error of metabolism that, in its most severe perinatal and infantile forms, results in 50–100% mortality, typically from respiratory complications. Objectives: Our objective was to better understand the effect of treatment with asfotase alfa, a first-in-class enzyme replacement therapy, on mortality in neonates and infants with severe HPP. Design/Setting: Data from patients with the perinatal and infantile forms of HPP in two ongoing, multicenter, multinational, open-label, phase 2 interventional studies of asfotase alfa treatment were compared with data from similar patients from a retrospective natural history study. Patients: Thirty-seven treated patients (median treatment duration, 2.7 years) and 48 historical controls of similar chronological age and HPP characteristics. Interventions: Treated patients received asfotase alfa as sc injections either 1 mg/kg six times per week or 2 mg/kg thrice weekly. Main Outcome Measures: Survival, skeletal health quantified radiographically on treatment, and ventilatory status were the main outcome measures for this study. Results: Asfotase alfa was associated with improved survival in treated patients vs historical controls: 95% vs 42% at age 1 year and 84% vs 27% at age 5 years, respectively (P < .0001, Kaplan-Meier log-rank test). Whereas 5% (1/20) of the historical controls who required ventilatory assistance survived, 76% (16/21) of the ventilated and treated patients survived, among whom 75% (12/16) were weaned from ventilatory support. This better respiratory outcome accompanied radiographic improvements in skeletal mineralization and health. Conclusions: Asfotase alfa mineralizes the HPP skeleton, including the ribs, and improves respiratory function and survival in life-threatening perinatal and infantile HPP. PMID:26529632

  8. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages.

  9. Effect of increased ovulation rate on embryo and foetal survival as a model for selection by ovulation rate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection for ovulation rate in prolific species has not improved litter size, due to an increase in prenatal mortality, with most mortality observed in the foetal period. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and timing of embryo and early foetal survival in females with high ovulation rate using hormonal treatment as a model for selection by ovulation rate. Two groups of females (treated and untreated were used. Treated females were injected with 50 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin 48 h before mating. Females were slaughtered at 18 d of gestation. Ovulation rate (OR, number of implanted embryos (IE, number of live foetuses at 12 and 18 d (LF12 and LF18, respectively were recorded. In addition, embryo survival (ES=IE/OR, foetal survival at 18 d of gestation (FSLF18=LF18/IE, foetal survival between 12 and 18 d of gestation (FSLF18/LF12=LF18/LF12 and prenatal survival (PSLF18=LF18/OR were estimated. For each female, the mean and variability of the weight for live foetuses (LFWm and LFWv, respectively and their placentas (LFPWm and LFPWv, respectively were calculated. Treated females had a higher ovulation rate (+3.02 ova than untreated females, with a probability of 0.99. An increase in the differences (D between treated and untreated females was observed from implantation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.33, –0.70 and –1.28 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. These differences had a low accuracy and the probability that treated females would have a lower number of foetuses also increased throughout gestation (0.60, 0.70 and 0.86 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. According to the previous results for OR and LF18, treated females showed a lower survival rate from ovulation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.12, P=0.98 for PSLF18. Treated females also had lower embryo and foetal survival (D=–0.10 and P=0.94 for ES and D=–0.08 and P=0.93 for FSLF18. Main differences in foetal survival appeared from 12 to 18 d of gestation (D=–0

  10. Recombinant factor VIIa is associated with an improved 24-hour survival without an improvement in inpatient survival in massively transfused civilian trauma patients

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    Bartolomeu Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa is associated with increased survival and/or thromboembolic complications. INTRODUCTION: Uncontrollable hemorrhage is the main cause of early mortality in trauma. rFVIIa has been suggested for the management of refractory hemorrhage. However, there is conflicting evidence about the survival benefit of rFVIIa in trauma. Furthermore, recent reports have raised concerns about increased thromboembolic events with rFVIIa use. METHODS: Consecutive massively transfused (> 8 units of red blood cells within 12 h trauma patients were studied. Data on demographics, injury severity scores, baseline laboratory values and use of rFVIIa were collected. Rate of transfusion in the first 6 h was used as surrogate for bleeding. Study outcomes included 24-hour and in-hospital survival, and thromboembolic events. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of rFVIIa on 24-hour and in-hospital survival. RESULTS: Three-hundred and twenty-eight patients were massively transfused. Of these, 72 patients received rFVIIa. As expected, patients administered rFVIIa had a greater degree of shock than the non-rFVIIa group. Using logistic regression to adjust for predictors of death in the regression analysis, rFVIIa was a significant predictor of 24-hour survival (odds ratio (OR = 2.65; confidence interval 1.26-5.59; p = 0.01 but not of in-hospital survival (OR = 1.63; confidence interval 0.79-3.37; p = 0.19. No differences were seen in clinically relevant thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being associated with improved 24-hour survival, rFVIIa is not associated with a late survival to discharge in massively transfused civilian trauma patients.

  11. Exsanguination protocol improves survival after major hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydfudim, Victor; Dutton, William D; Feurer, Irene D; Au, Brigham K; Pinson, C Wright; Cotton, Bryan A

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic injury remains an important cause of exsanguination after major trauma. Recent studies have noted a dramatic reduction in mortality amongst severely injured patients when trauma exsanguinations protocols (TEP) are employed. We hypothesised that utilisation of our institution's TEP at the initiation of hospital resuscitation would improve survival in patients with significant hepatic trauma. All patients who (1) sustained intra-abdominal haemorrhage with Grades III-V hepatic injury and (2) underwent immediate operative intervention between February 2004 and January 2008 were included in the study. TEP was instituted in February 2006, and all subsequent patients who met inclusion criteria and were treated with TEP constituted the study group. Patients who met inclusion criteria, were treated before introduction of TEP, and received at least 10 units packed red blood cells in the first 24h constituted pre-TEP comparison group. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluated the effects of TEP on the study population. Seventy-five patients were included in the study: 39 in the pre-TEP cohort (31% 30-day survival) and 36 in the TEP cohort (53% 30-day survival). There were no differences in demographics, extent of hepatic injury, or operative approach between the patient groups (all p > or = 0.27). Injury Severity Scores were significantly higher in the TEP group (41+/-18 vs. 28+/-15, p<0.01). TEP patients received more plasma and platelets during operative intervention and significantly less crystalloid (all p<0.01). Occurrence of cardiac dysfunction and abdominal compartment syndrome was significantly lower in TEP patients who survived 24-h post-injury (both p < or = 0.04). After adjusting for the significant negative effects of Grade V injury and involvement of major hepatic vasculature (both p < or = 0.02), TEP significantly improved 30-day survival: OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.81, p=0.02. TEP allows for an effective use of plasma and platelets during intra

  12. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  13. Multiagent induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation is associated with improved survival in locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgeson, Anna; Lloyd, Shane; Boothe, Dustin; Tao, Randa; Whisenant, Jonathan; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Cannon, George M

    2017-10-01

    The role of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is uncertain after multiple randomized clinical trials have yielded mixed results. The authors used the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to determine whether CRT yields a survival benefit compared with chemotherapy alone (CT). Patients with nonmetastatic LAPC diagnosed during 2004 through 2014 were identified in the NCDB. Patients who received CT were compared with those who received CRT using chi-square analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to compare demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics that were predictive of survival. Propensity score matching and shared frailty analysis were done. Subgroup analyses were undertaken to examine patients who underwent pancreatectomy and cohorts of patients who received different CT or CRT regimens. In total, 8689 patients with LAPC were identified. CRT was associated with improved survival (median survival [MS], 13.5 months) compared with CT (MS, 10.6 months) on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; P chemotherapy before CRT (HR, 0.67; P chemotherapy (HR, 0.72; P chemotherapy had superior MS and pancreatectomy rates (MS, 17.5 months; HR, 0.70; P improved survival (MS, 22 vs 10.6 months; HR, 0.39; P chemotherapy before CRT improved survival compared with CT alone in patients with LAPC. Continued analysis of CRT in properly selected patients after maximized systemic therapy is needed. Cancer 2017;123:3816-24. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Tobacco Cessation May Improve Lung Cancer Patient Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson Amato, Katharine A; Hyland, Andrew; Reed, Robert; Mahoney, Martin C; Marshall, James; Giovino, Gary; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Zevon, Michael A; Cummings, K Michael; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Singh, Anurag K; Chen, Hongbin; Warren, Graham W; Reid, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This study characterizes tobacco cessation patterns and the association of cessation with survival among lung cancer patients at Roswell Park Cancer Institute: an NCI Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center. Lung cancer patients presenting at this institution were screened with a standardized tobacco assessment, and those who had used tobacco within the past 30 days were automatically referred to a telephone-based cessation service. Demographic, clinical information, and self-reported tobacco use at last contact were obtained via electronic medical records and the Roswell Park Cancer Institute tumor registry for all lung cancer patients referred to the service between October 2010 and October 2012. Descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether tobacco cessation and other factors were associated with lung cancer survival through May 2014. Calls were attempted to 313 of 388 lung cancer patients referred to the cessation service. Eighty percent of patients (250 of 313) were successfully contacted and participated in at least one telephone-based cessation call; 40.8% (102 of 250) of persons contacted reported having quit at the last contact. After controlling for age, pack year history, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, time between diagnosis and last contact, tumor histology, and clinical stage, a statistically significant increase in survival was associated with quitting compared with continued tobacco use at last contact (HR = 1.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.82) with a median 9 month improvement in overall survival. Tobacco cessation among lung cancer patients after diagnosis may increase overall survival.

  15. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor. ... The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction.

  16. Improved Survival with Ipilimumab in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodi, F. Stephen; O’Day, Steven J.; McDermott, David F.; Weber, Robert W.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Haanen, John B.; Gonzalez, Rene; Robert, Caroline; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hassel, Jessica C.; Akerley, Wallace; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J.M.; Lutzky, Jose; Lorigan, Paul; Vaubel, Julia M.; Linette, Gerald P.; Hogg, David; Ottensmeier, Christian H.; Lebbé, Celeste; Peschel, Christian; Quirt, Ian; Clark, Joseph I.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Tian, Jason; Yellin, Michael J.; Nichol, Geoffrey M.; Hoos, Axel; Urba, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND An improvement in overall survival among patients with metastatic melanoma has been an elusive goal. In this phase 3 study, ipilimumab — which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 to potentiate an antitumor T-cell response — administered with or without a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptide vaccine was compared with gp100 alone in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. METHODS A total of 676 HLA-A⋆0201–positive patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma, whose disease had progressed while they were receiving therapy for metastatic disease, were randomly assigned, in a 3:1:1 ratio, to receive ipilimumab plus gp100 (403 patients), ipilimumab alone (137), or gp100 alone (136). Ipilimumab, at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight, was administered with or without gp100 every 3 weeks for up to four treatments (induction). Eligible patients could receive reinduction therapy. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS The median overall survival was 10.0 months among patients receiving ipilimumab plus gp100, as compared with 6.4 months among patients receiving gp100 alone (hazard ratio for death, 0.68; P<0.001). The median overall survival with ipilimumab alone was 10.1 months (hazard ratio for death in the comparison with gp100 alone, 0.66; P = 0.003). No difference in overall survival was detected between the ipilimumab groups (hazard ratio with ipilimumab plus gp100, 1.04; P = 0.76). Grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 10 to 15% of patients treated with ipilimumab and in 3% treated with gp100 alone. There were 14 deaths related to the study drugs (2.1%), and 7 were associated with immune-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Ipilimumab, with or without a gp100 peptide vaccine, as compared with gp100 alone, improved overall survival in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. Adverse events can be severe, long-lasting, or both, but most are reversible with appropriate

  17. Combining gene signatures improves prediction of breast cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n = 123 and test set (n = 81, respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p = 0.005; breast cancer death: p = 0.014. Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p = 0.003; breast cancer death: p = 0.001. The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. CONCLUSION: Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves

  18. Intensive Hemodialysis Associates with Improved Survival Compared with Conventional Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robert M.; Cuerden, Meaghan S.; Garg, Amit X.; Port, Friedrich; Austin, Peter C.; Moist, Louise M.; Pierratos, Andreas; Chan, Christopher T.; Zimmerman, Deborah; Lockridge, Robert S.; Couchoud, Cécile; Chazot, Charles; Ofsthun, Norma; Levin, Adeera; Copland, Michael; Courtney, Mark; Steele, Andrew; McFarlane, Philip A.; Geary, Denis F.; Pauly, Robert P.; Komenda, Paul; Suri, Rita S.

    2012-01-01

    Patients undergoing conventional maintenance hemodialysis typically receive three sessions per week, each lasting 2.5–5.5 hours. Recently, the use of more intensive hemodialysis (>5.5 hours, three to seven times per week) has increased, but the effects of these regimens on survival are uncertain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine whether intensive hemodialysis associates with better survival than conventional hemodialysis. We identified 420 patients in the International Quotidian Dialysis Registry who received intensive home hemodialysis in France, the United States, and Canada between January 2000 and August 2010. We matched 338 of these patients to 1388 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study who received in-center conventional hemodialysis during the same time period by country, ESRD duration, and propensity score. The intensive hemodialysis group received a mean (SD) 4.8 (1.1) sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 7.4 (0.87) hours per session; the conventional group received three sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 3.9 (0.32) hours per session. During 3008 patient-years of follow-up, 45 (13%) of 338 patients receiving intensive hemodialysis died compared with 293 (21%) of 1388 patients receiving conventional hemodialysis (6.1 versus 10.5 deaths per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.55 [95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.87]). The strength and direction of the observed association between intensive hemodialysis and improved survival were consistent across all prespecified subgroups and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, there is a strong association between intensive home hemodialysis and improved survival, but whether this relationship is causal remains unknown. PMID:22362910

  19. Growth performance and survival rate of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of aflatoxin- contaminated feed (0% toxigenic maize, 25% toxigenic maize +75% good maize, 50% toxigenic maize+50%good maize, 75% toxigenic maize +25% good maize and 100% toxigenic maize) on growth, survival, haematology and histology ...

  20. [Survival and complication rate of central venous catheters in newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Heladia Josefa; Torres-Yáñez, Héctor Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In the current medical practice, central venous catheters (CVC) are very useful; however, their use involves certain risks, which increase morbidity and mortality, especially in newborns. The aim of this study was to describe both the frequency of complications and survival of CVC placed in newborns hospitalized in a third level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A descriptive, observational and prospective study was carried-out in the NICU from the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Demographic, perinatal and CVC variables were recorded. We included 152 CVCs, which were inserted in 123 newborns. For the CVC insertion, the puncture technique [percutaneous and subclavian] was used in 56.6 % (n = 86). There was at least one complication in 48.7 %.(n = 74). The most frequent complications were colonization 32.4 % (n = 24) and CVC-related bacteremia in 27 % (n = 20). Survival probability for CVC was 93.4 % at 10 days and 91.4 % at 17 days. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated significantly lower survival probability for non-central catheters. Most of CVC complications occurred within the first two weeks after these CVC were installed. Infectious complications were the most frequent.

  1. Survival rates in West African savanna birds | Stevens | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite widespread interest in life histories and the comparison of parameters between tropical and temperate regions, there are still relatively few multispecies studies assessing annual survival in Afrotropical species. We used data from systematic mist-netting of savanna birds in Nigeria, between 2001 and 2008, ...

  2. Hypothyroidism improves random-pattern skin flap survival in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Sina; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Karimian, Negin; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Taleb, Shayandokht; Mirazi, Naser; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    The protective effect of hypothyroidism against ischemic or toxic conditions has been shown in various tissues. We investigated the effect of propylthiouracil (PTU)/methimazole (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism and acute local effect of MMI on the outcome of lethal ischemia in random-pattern skin flaps. Dorsal flaps with caudal pedicles were elevated at midline and flap survival was measured at the seventh day after surgery. The first group, as control, received 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution in the flap before flap elevation. In groups 2 and 3, hypothyroidism was induced by administration of either PTU 0.05% or MMI 0.04% in drinking water. The next four groups received local injections of MMI (10, 20, 50, or 100 μg/flap) before flap elevation. Local PTU injection was ignored due to insolubility of the agent. Hypothyroidism was induced in chronic PTU- and MMI-treated groups, and animals in these groups showed significant increase in their flap survival, compared to control euthyroid rats (79.47% ± 10.49% and 75.48% ± 12.93% versus 52.26% ± 5.75%, respectively, P hypothyroidism improves survival of random-pattern skin flaps in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... rate in the 1st year of life and a much lower rate in the first 3 months of life. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that survival was lower in the winter months for ringing data during 1920–2002 but not for radiotagged owls during 2005–2008 that experienced the highest mortality rates during...

  4. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  5. How to Improve the Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Ischemic Heart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangpeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC is an intensely studied stem cell type applied for cardiac repair. For decades, the preclinical researches on animal model and clinical trials have suggested that MSC transplantation exerts therapeutic effect on ischemic heart disease. However, there remain major limitations to be overcome, one of which is the very low survival rate after transplantation in heart tissue. Various strategies have been tried to improve the MSC survival, and many of them showed promising results. In this review, we analyzed the studies in recent years to summarize the methods, effects, and mechanisms of the new strategies to address this question.

  6. Relation of Mitral Valve Surgery Volume to Repair Rate, Durability, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Joanna; Toyoda, Nana; Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Itagaki, Shinobu; Egorova, Natalia N; Boateng, Percy; El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Adams, David H

    2017-04-24

    Degenerative mitral valve repair rates remain highly variable, despite established benefits of repair over replacement. The contribution of surgeon-specific factors is poorly defined. This study evaluated the influence of surgeon case volume on degenerative mitral valve repair rates and outcomes. A mandatory New York State database was queried and 5,475 patients were identified with degenerative mitral disease who underwent mitral valve operations between 2002 and 2013. Mitral repair rates, mitral reoperations within 12 months of repair, and survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox modeling and restricted cubic spline function. Median annual surgeon volume of any mitral operations was 10 (range 1 to 230), with a mean repair rate of 55% (n = 20,797 of 38,128). In the subgroup of patients with degenerative disease, the mean repair rate was 67% (n = 3,660 of 5,475), with a range of 0% to 100%. Mean repair rates ranged from 48% (n = 179 of 370) for surgeons with total annual volumes of ≤10 mitral operations to 77% (n = 1,710 of 2,216) for surgeons with total annual volumes of >50 mitral operations (p mitral valve disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.13 for every additional 10 mitral operations; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.17; p mitral operations annually; and improved 1-year survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.95 for every additional 10 operations; 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98; p = 0.001). For surgeons with a total annual volume of ≤25 mitral operations, repair rates were higher (63.8%; n = 180 of 282) if they operated in the same institution as a surgeon with total annual mitral volumes of >50 and degenerative mitral valve repair rates of >70%, compared with surgeons operating in the other institutions (51.3%; n = 580 of 1,130) (adjusted OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.60; p mitral repair rates, but also freedom from reoperation, and survival. The data from this study support the guideline's concept of reference referral to experienced mitral

  7. Sex Disparity in Survival of Patients With Uveal Melanoma: Better Survival Rates in Women Than in Men in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, San Jun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Yeon, Bora; Cho, Hyunsoon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with uveal melanoma and sex disparity in this rate in South Korea. We extracted incident uveal melanoma patients using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database, which covered the entire population from 1999 to 2012 in South Korea. We estimated all-cause survival probabilities and cancer-specific survival probabilities of patients with uveal melanoma and compared these probabilities between subgroups (sex, tumor site, age at diagnosis, etc.) using Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank tests. We fitted the Cox-proportional hazards models for all-cause death and cancer death to determine sex disparities in survival. A total of 344 uveal melanoma patients (175 women, 51%) were ascertained. They comprised 283 patients with choroidal melanoma (82%) and 61 patients with ciliary body/iris melanoma (18%). The observed 5-year survival probability from all-cause death was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%-79%); women with uveal melanoma showed higher survival probability (83% [95% CI: 76%-89%]) compared with men (66% [95% CI: 58%-73%], P Korea, which requires further investigation of mechanism of the sex disparity in uveal melanoma.

  8. Does ifosfamide therapy improve survival of patients with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Sun, Tao; Lin, Patrick P; Deavers, Michael; Harun, Nusrat; Lewis, Valerae O

    2014-03-01

    Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma remains a significant therapeutic challenge. Studies performed to date have not identified efficacious chemotherapy regimens for this disease. We sought to (1) evaluate the disease-specific survival at 2 and 5 years of patients with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma; (2) assess the prognostic variables (both patient- and treatment-related), including the use of chemotherapy with ifosfamide, that relate to survivorship; and (3) assess specific toxicities associated with ifosfamide use. Data from 41 patients with dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma diagnosed and treated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1986 to 2010 were analyzed for demographics, treatments, oncologic outcomes, and prognostic variables. There were 14 women and 27 men. The mean age at diagnosis was 58 years (range, 26-86 years). Seven patients presented with metastasis. Surgical resection alone was performed in 11 patients; resection and chemotherapy in 26 patients; resection and radiotherapy in two patients; and resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy in two patients. Ifosfamide-based regimens were used for 16 patients. In general, ifosfamide was used when the tumor was located in the trunk or if cisplatin was discontinued as a result of toxicity. Minimum followup was 8 months (median, 68 months; range, 8-281 months). Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots and analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazards model. Disease-specific survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 33% and 15%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that treatment without ifosfamide-based chemotherapy was the only independent negative prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.92; p = 0.03). Ifosfamide was discontinued in a patient as a result of renal dysfunction and was decreased in dose in another patient who developed encephalopathy. In this small retrospective study, it appeared that ifosfamide

  9. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  10. Survival and Growth Rates of Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis urolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings were fed twice daily using commercial fish feeds (white Rose floating type), initially at a rate of 5% of their total body weight (TBW) and two weeks later at 10% of their TBW. The growth rate (weight and length) was recorded once a week except for handling control fingerlings which were recorded at the beginning ...

  11. Interact to Survive: Phyllobacterium brassicacearum Improves Arabidopsis Tolerance to Severe Water Deficit and Growth Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, Justine; Vasseur, François; Dauzat, Myriam; Labadie, Marc; Varoquaux, Fabrice; Touraine, Bruno; Vile, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic bacteria can alter plant phenotypes and confer new abilities to plants. Some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to improve both plant growth and tolerance to multiple stresses, including drought, but reports on their effects on plant survival under severe water deficits are scarce. We investigated the effect of Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 strain, a PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, on survival, growth and physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to severe water deficits combining destructive and non-destructive high-throughput phenotyping. Soil inoculation with STM196 greatly increased the survival rate of A. thaliana under several scenarios of severe water deficit. Photosystem II efficiency, assessed at the whole-plant level by high-throughput fluorescence imaging (Fv/Fm), was related to the probability of survival and revealed that STM196 delayed plant mortality. Inoculated surviving plants tolerated more damages to the photosynthetic tissues through a delayed dehydration and a better tolerance to low water status. Importantly, STM196 allowed a better recovery of plant growth after rewatering and stressed plants reached a similar biomass at flowering than non-stressed plants. Our results highlight the importance of plant-bacteria interactions in plant responses to severe drought and provide a new avenue of investigations to improve drought tolerance in agriculture. PMID:25226036

  12. Interact to survive: Phyllobacterium brassicacearum improves Arabidopsis tolerance to severe water deficit and growth recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Bresson

    Full Text Available Mutualistic bacteria can alter plant phenotypes and confer new abilities to plants. Some plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve both plant growth and tolerance to multiple stresses, including drought, but reports on their effects on plant survival under severe water deficits are scarce. We investigated the effect of Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 strain, a PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, on survival, growth and physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to severe water deficits combining destructive and non-destructive high-throughput phenotyping. Soil inoculation with STM196 greatly increased the survival rate of A. thaliana under several scenarios of severe water deficit. Photosystem II efficiency, assessed at the whole-plant level by high-throughput fluorescence imaging (Fv/Fm, was related to the probability of survival and revealed that STM196 delayed plant mortality. Inoculated surviving plants tolerated more damages to the photosynthetic tissues through a delayed dehydration and a better tolerance to low water status. Importantly, STM196 allowed a better recovery of plant growth after rewatering and stressed plants reached a similar biomass at flowering than non-stressed plants. Our results highlight the importance of plant-bacteria interactions in plant responses to severe drought and provide a new avenue of investigations to improve drought tolerance in agriculture.

  13. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan

    2007-01-01

    . Further, they may expect to be treated equally with other members of society with respect to access to mortgage, health insurance and life insurance. As the infected population ages, more patients will contract age-related diseases, and the disease burden on some individuals may even come to be dominated......, with lifestyle factors potentially playing a pronounced role. Consequently, an effort to further increase survival must target risk factors for both HIV-related and -unrelated mortality. The continuation of the positive trend may be achieved by increased HIV testing, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy......, improved drug adherence, prevention and treatment of HIV-unrelated co-morbidity and collaboration with other medical specialists to treat an ageing co-morbidity-acquiring HIV population....

  14. Filial cannibalism improves survival and development of beaugregory damselfish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Adam G; Smith, Carl; Campbell, Andrew C

    2002-01-01

    Cannibalism of small numbers of offspring by a parent has been proposed as an adaptive parental strategy, by providing energy to support parental care. However, there are few empirical studies to support this hypothesis. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to investigate partial filial cannibalism in Stegastes leucostictus, a coral reef fish with paternal care. Partial cannibalism was shown to be common, and males were found to remove developing embryos from throughout a clutch in a random pattern, rather than in the more aggregated pattern seen during embryo predation. Males that received a diet supplement grew faster than control males, but did not engage in less cannibalism. Also, males did not concentrate cannibalism on early embryonic stages with the highest energetic value. Experimental reduction of embryo densities was found to significantly increase embryo development rate and survival from egg deposition to hatching, and experimental reduction of oxygen levels significantly increased rates of partial filial cannibalism by males. Artificial spawning sites with low oxygen levels were avoided by spawning females, and cannibalism rates by males were higher. We propose that partial filial cannibalism serves as an adaptive parental strategy to low oxygen levels in S. leucostictus by increasing the hatching success of embryos. PMID:12396483

  15. Advanced Unilateral Retinoblastoma: The Impact of Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery on Enucleation Rate and Patient Survival at MSKCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available To report on the influence of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC on enucleation rates, ocular and patient survival from metastasis and impact on practice patterns at Memorial Sloan Kettering for children with advanced intraocular unilateral retinoblastoma.Single-center retrospective review of all unilateral retinoblastoma patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma treated at MSKCC between our introduction of OAC (May 2006 and December 2014. End points were ocular survival, patient survival from metastases and enucleation rates.156 eyes of 156 retinoblastoma patients were included. Primary enucleation rates have progressively decreased from a rate of >95% before OAC to 66.7% in the first year of OAC use to the present rate of 7.4%. The percent of patients receiving OAC has progressively increased from 33.3% in 2006 to 92.6% in 2014. Overall, ocular survival was significantly better in eyes treated with OAC in the years 2010-2014 compared to 2006-2009 (p = 0.023, 92.7% vs 68.0% ocular survival at 48 months. There have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group but two patients treated with primary enucleation have died of metastatic disease.OAC was introduced in 2006 and its impact on patient management is profound. Enucleation rates have decreased from over 95% to less than 10%. Our ocular survival rate has also significantly and progressively improved since May 2006. Despite treating more advanced eyes rather then enucleating them patient survival has not been compromised (there have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group. In our institution, enucleation is no longer the most common treatment for advanced unilateral retinoblastoma.

  16. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Luisa de Brito, Pacheco; Isabel Cristina, Olegário; Clarissa Calil, Bonifácio; Ana Flávia Bissoto, Calvo; José Carlos Pettorossi, Imparato; Daniela Prócida, Raggio

    2017-11-06

    Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE) and Vitro Molar (DFL). A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%). There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98-2.62, p = 0.058). The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%). Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  17. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  18. Survival Rates in Trauma Patients Following Health Care Reform in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Turner; Glance, Laurent G; Li, Wenjun; Buzas, Jeffery S; Hosmer, David W

    2015-07-01

    Massachusetts introduced health care reform (HCR) in 2006, expecting to expand health insurance coverage and improve outcomes. Because traumatic injury is a common acute condition with important health, disability, and economic consequences, examination of the effect of HCR on patients hospitalized following injury may help inform the national HCR debate. To examine the effect of Massachusetts HCR on survival rates of injured patients. Retrospective cohort study of 1,520,599 patients hospitalized following traumatic injury in Massachusetts or New York during the 10 years (2002-2011) surrounding Massachusetts HCR using data from the State Inpatient Databases. We assessed the effect of HCR on mortality rates using a difference-in-differences approach to control for temporal trends in mortality. Health care reform in Massachusetts in 2006. Survival until hospital discharge. During the 10-year study period, the rates of uninsured trauma patients in Massachusetts decreased steadily from 14.9% in 2002 to 5.0.% in 2011. In New York, the rates of uninsured trauma patients fell from 14.9% in 2002 to 10.5% in 2011. The risk-adjusted difference-in-difference assessment revealed a transient increase of 604 excess deaths (95% CI, 419-790) in Massachusetts in the 3 years following implementation of HCR. Health care reform did not affect health insurance coverage for patients hospitalized following injury but was associated with a transient increase in adjusted mortality rates. Reducing mortality rates for acutely injured patients may require more comprehensive interventions than simply promoting health insurance coverage through legislation.

  19. Improved survival in metastatic colorectal cancer is associated with adoption of hepatic resection and improved chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopetz, Scott; Chang, George J; Overman, Michael J; Eng, Cathy; Sargent, Daniel J; Larson, David W; Grothey, Axel; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Nagorney, David M; McWilliams, Robert R

    2009-08-01

    Fluorouracil/leucovorin as the sole therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) provides an overall survival of 8 to 12 months. With an increase in surgical resections of metastatic disease and development of new chemotherapies, indirect evidence suggests that outcomes for patients are improving in the general population, although the incremental gain has not yet been quantified. We performed a retrospective review of patients newly diagnosed with metastatic CRC treated at two academic centers from 1990 through 2006. Landmark analysis evaluated the association of diagnosis year and liver resection with overall survival. Additional survival analysis of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database evaluated a similar population from 1990 through 2005. Two thousand four hundred seventy patients with metastatic CRC at diagnosis received their primary treatment at the two institutions during this time period. Median overall survival for those patients diagnosed from 1990 to 1997 was 14.2 months, which increased to 18.0, 18.6, and 29.3 months for patients diagnosed in 1998 to 2000, 2001 to 2003, and 2004 to 2006, respectively. Likewise, 5-year overall survival increased from 9.1% in the earliest time period to 19.2% in 2001 to 2003. Improved outcomes from 1998 to 2004 were a result of an increase in hepatic resection, which was performed in 20% of the patients. Improvements from 2004 to 2006 were temporally associated with increased utilization of new chemotherapeutics. In the SEER registry, overall survival for the 49,459 identified patients also increased in the most recent time period. Profound improvements in outcome in metastatic CRC seem to be associated with the sequential increase in the use of hepatic resection in selected patients (1998 to 2006) and advancements in medical therapy (2004 to 2006).

  20. Parathyroid carcinoma survival: improvements in the era of intact parathyroid hormone monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve R. Martinez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH assay is a critical test in the diagnosis and management of PTH-mediated hypercalcemia, including parathyroid carcinoma (PCa. We hypothesized that the survival of patients diagnosed with PCa has improved since adoption of the iPTH assay into clinical practice. We identified all confirmed cases of PCa within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database from 1973 to 2006. Patients were categorized into two eras based upon introduction of the iPTH assay: 1973 to 1997 (era I and 1997 to 2006 (era II, when the iPTH assay was in standard use. We estimated overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences among survival curves assessed via log rank. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models compared the survival rates between treatment eras while controlling for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, tumor size, nodal status, extent of disease, and type of surgery. Multivariate models included patients undergoing potentially curative surgery and excluded those with dis- tant metastases. Risks of overall and disease-specific mortality were reported as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Study criteria were met by 370 patients. Median survival was 15.6 years. Five-year rates of OS and DSS were 78% and 88% for era I and 82% and 96% for era II. On multivariate analysis, age, black race, and unknown extent of disease predicted an increased risk of death from any cause. Treatment era did not predict OS. No factor predicted PCa-specific mortality. In multivariate analysis, neither OS nor DSS have improved in the current era that utilizes iPTH for the detection and management of PCa.

  1. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves survival outcome in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, Byung Hoon [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate survival rates and prognostic factors related to treatment outcomes after bladder preserving therapy including transurethral resection of bladder tumor, radiotherapy (RT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in bladder cancer with a curative intent. We retrospectively studied 50 bladder cancer patients treated with bladder-preserving therapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from January 1999 to December 2010. Age ranged from 46 to 89 years (median, 71.5 years). Bladder cancer was the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage II, III, and IV in 9, 27, and 14 patients, respectively. Thirty patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and 20 patients with RT alone. Nine patients received chemotherapy prior to CCRT or RT alone. Radiation was delivered with a four-field box technique (median, 63 Gy; range, 48.6 to 70.2 Gy). The follow-up periods ranged from 2 to 169 months (median, 34 months). Thirty patients (60%) showed complete response and 13 (26%) a partial response. All patients could have their own bladder preserved. Five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 37.2%, and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 30.2%. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade and CCRT were statistically significant in OS. Tumor grade was a significant prognostic factor related to OS. CCRT is also considered to improve survival outcomes. Further multi-institutional studies are needed to elucidate the impact of RT in bladder cancer.

  2. Have Changes in Systemic Treatment Improved Survival in Patients with Breast Cancer Metastatic to the Brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Nieder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly developed systemic treatment regimens might lead to improved survival also in the subgroup of breast cancer patients that harbour brain metastases. In order to examine this hypothesis, a matched pairs analysis was performed that involved one group of patients, which were treated after these new drugs were introduced, and one group of patients, which were treated approximately 10 years earlier. The two groups were well balanced for the known prognostic factors age, KPS, extracranial disease status, and recursive partitioning analysis class, as well as for the extent of brain treatment. The results show that the use of systemic chemotherapy has increased over time, both before and after the diagnosis of brain metastases. However, such treatment was performed nearly exclusively in those patients with brain metastases that belonged to the prognostically more favourable groups. Survival after whole-brain radiotherapy has remained unchanged in patients without further active treatment. It has improved in prognostically better patients and especially patients that received active treatment, where the 1-year survival rates have almost doubled. As these patient groups were small, confirmation of the results in other series should be attempted. Nevertheless, the present results are compatible with the hypothesis that improved systemic therapy might contribute to prolonged survival in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer.

  3. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo-Yun; Lee, Chung-O; Kim, Jin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982-1996 (256 patients), 1999-2006 (248 patients), and 2007-2011 (196 patients). Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis.

  4. Do evolving practices improve survival in operated lung cancer patients? A biobank may answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Fotis; Lacomme, Stéphanie; Wild, Pascal; Poulain, Stéphane; Siat, Joëlle; Grosdidier, Gilles; du Manoir, Stanislas; Monga, Ben; Hillas, Georgios; Varsovie, Roselyne; Claudot, Frédérique; Marie, Béatrice; Vignaud, Jean Michel; Szymanski, Nadine

    2009-04-01

    Biobanks may play a pivotal role in lung cancer patients' management, research, and health policy. The Nancy "Centre of Biologic Resources" analyzed the evolving profiles of operated lung cancer patients and their management over 20 years. A total of 1259 consecutive patients operated upon from 1988 till 2007 were included. Survival rates were statistically compared before and after 1997. The parameters associated with a significant improvement of survival were determined. After 1997, lung cancer was diagnosed at an earlier stage. For Squamous Cell Lung Cancer (SQCLC), stages IA increased from 5.4 to 19.5% and for Adenocarcinoma (ADC), stage IA increased from 9.9 to 24.7%. More women with stage I ADC were operated upon after 1997 (p = 0.01). More patients with Large Cell Lung Cancer were diagnosed recently. Recent patients received more adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.001) and less radiotherapy (stage I SQCLC: p = 0.019, stage I ADC: p < 0.001). A longer overall patients' survival was observed after 1997 (chi test for SQLC and ADC independently p < or = 0.002). Among SQCLC long survivors, those at stage I-II, below 50 years, were more numerous. A longer survival was associated with early stage in ADC patients. Stage was the single constant factor for overall outcome. Overall and stage-adjusted survival of operated lung cancer patients has been improved in the last decade due mainly to earlier diagnosis. The generalized use of computed tomography scan, chemotherapy, and a collegial management improved patients' survival.

  5. A hemodynamic-directed approach to pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (HD-CPR) improves survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ryan W; Kilbaugh, Todd J; Shoap, Wesley; Bratinov, George; Lin, Yuxi; Hsieh, Ting-Chang; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Berg, Robert A; Sutton, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Most pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) occur in ICUs where invasive hemodynamic monitoring is frequently available. Titrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to the hemodynamic response of the individual improves survival in preclinical models of adult cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to determine if titrating CPR to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CoPP) in a pediatric porcine model of asphyxia-associated ventricular fibrillation (VF) IHCA would improve survival as compared to traditional CPR. After 7min of asphyxia followed by VF, 4-week-old piglets received either hemodynamic-directed CPR (HD-CPR; compression depth titrated to SBP of 90mmHg and vasopressor administration to maintain CoPP ≥20mmHg); or Standard Care (compression depth 1/3 of the anterior-posterior chest diameter and epinephrine every 4min). All animals received CPR for 10min prior to the first defibrillation attempt. CPR was continued for a maximum of 20min. Protocolized intensive care was provided to all surviving animals for 4h. The primary outcome was 4-h survival. Survival rate was greater with HD-CPR (12/12) than Standard Care (6/10; p=0.03). CoPP during HD-CPR was higher compared to Standard Care (point estimate +8.1mmHg, CI95: 0.5-15.8mmHg; p=0.04). Chest compression depth was lower with HD-CPR than Standard Care (point estimate -14.0mm, CI95: -9.6 to -18.4mm; pCPR vs. Standard Care (median 5 vs. 2; pCPR improves short-term survival compared to standard depth-targeted CPR in a porcine model of pediatric asphyxia-associated VF IHCA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is growth rate more important than survival and reproduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic value of a trait was defined as the marginal profit per ewe per year resulting from a unit increase or decrease in the average value of a trait, whilst holding the average levels of all other traits constant, and at a discount rate of 0 and 12.5%. The results of the study indicated that on average, traits associated with ...

  7. Review suggests high survival rates for veneers at five and ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Eileen; Conway, David I

    2013-03-01

    approach 95%. Clinical heterogeneity is associated with differences in reported survival rates. Use of clinically relevant survival definitions and careful reporting of tooth characteristics, censorship, clustering, and precise results in future research would improve meta-analytic estimates and aid treatment decisions.

  8. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  9. Improvement in survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: An international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kowalski, Luiz P; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Clark, Jonathan R; Kreppel, Matthias; Zöller, Joachim; Fridman, Eran; Bolzoni, Villaret A; Shah, Jatin P; Binenbaum, Yoav; Patel, Snehal G; Gil, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    An association between the survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and advancements in diagnosis and therapy has not been established. This was a retrospective, longitudinal, international, population-based study of 2738 patients who underwent resection of OCSCC during 2 different decades. Characteristics of patients from 7 international cancer centers who received treatment between 1990 and 2000 (group A; n = 735) were compared with patients who received treatment between 2001 and 2011 (group B; n = 2003). Patients in group B had more advanced tumors and tended to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients in group A (P = .005). More group B patients underwent selective neck dissection and received adjuvant radiotherapy (P < .001). Outcome analysis revealed a significant improvement in 5-year overall survival, from 59% for group A to 70% for group B (P < .001). There was also a significant improvement in disease-specific survival associated with operations performed before and after 2000 (from 69% to 81%, respectively; P < .001). Surgery after 2000, negative margins, adjuvant treatment, and early stage disease were independent predictors of a better outcome in multivariate analysis. The decade of treatment was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.6). The survival rate of patients with OCSCC improved significantly during the past 2 decades despite older age, more advanced disease stage, and a higher rate of distant metastases. The current results suggest that the prognosis for patients with OCSCC has improved over time, presumably because of advances in imaging and therapy. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. The possible genetic improvement of reproduction and survival rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 2 (1998) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  12. Survival and Recovery Rates of Mallards Banded Postseason in South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a published report on the survival and recovery rates of mallards after they have been banded in South Carolina. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) has...

  13. Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing conditioned pathogens in ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Quan; Gao, Qiao-Ying; Liu, Hong-Bin; Li, Dong-Hua; Wu, Shang-Wei

    2013-07-07

    To investigate the benefits of probiotics treatment in septic rats. The septic rats were induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The animals of control, septic model and probiotics treated groups were treated with vehicle and mixed probiotics, respectively. The mixture of probiotics included Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. We observed the survival of septic rats using different amounts of mixed probiotics. We also detected the bacterial population in ascites and blood of experimental sepsis using cultivation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The severity of mucosal inflammation in colonic tissues was determined. Probiotics treatment improved survival of the rats significantly and this effect was dose dependent. The survival rate was 30% for vehicle-treated septic model group. However, 1 and 1/4 doses of probiotics treatment increased survival rate significantly compared with septic model group (80% and 55% vs 30%, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (5.20 ± 0.57 vs 9.81 ± 0.67, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (33.3% vs 100.0%, P probiotics treated group were decreased significantly compared with that of septic model group (3.93 ± 0.73 vs 8.80 ± 0.83, P probiotics treatment, there was a decrease in the scores of inflammatory cell infiltration into the intestinal mucosa in septic animals (1.50 ± 0.25 vs 2.88 ± 0.14, P Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing these conditioned pathogens.

  14. Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing conditioned pathogens in ascites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Quan; Gao, Qiao-Ying; Liu, Hong-Bin; Li, Dong-Hua; Wu, Shang-Wei

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the benefits of probiotics treatment in septic rats. METHODS: The septic rats were induced by cecal ligation and puncture. The animals of control, septic model and probiotics treated groups were treated with vehicle and mixed probiotics, respectively. The mixture of probiotics included Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. We observed the survival of septic rats using different amounts of mixed probiotics. We also detected the bacterial population in ascites and blood of experimental sepsis using cultivation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The severity of mucosal inflammation in colonic tissues was determined. RESULTS: Probiotics treatment improved survival of the rats significantly and this effect was dose dependent. The survival rate was 30% for vehicle-treated septic model group. However, 1 and 1/4 doses of probiotics treatment increased survival rate significantly compared with septic model group (80% and 55% vs 30%, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (5.20 ± 0.57 vs 9.81 ± 0.67, P probiotics treated group compared with septic model group (33.3% vs 100.0%, P probiotics treated group were decreased significantly compared with that of septic model group (3.93 ± 0.73 vs 8.80 ± 0.83, P probiotics treatment, there was a decrease in the scores of inflammatory cell infiltration into the intestinal mucosa in septic animals (1.50 ± 0.25 vs 2.88 ± 0.14, P Probiotics improve survival of septic rats by suppressing these conditioned pathogens. PMID:23840152

  15. Improving child survival: Malnutrition Task Force and the paediatrician's responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A A; Ashworth, A; Khanum, S

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition (underweight) contributes to approximately 60% of all child deaths, yet health professionals, policy makers, and donor agencies often fail to recognise its relevance to child survival. There is a need for the paediatric community to champion the importance of adequate nutrition for normal growth and development, and of placing sufficient emphasis on the prevention and treatment of malnutrition. Many severely malnourished children die from inappropriate treatment. Case fatality rates of 25–30% are commonly found and in some hospitals as many as 50–70% will die. Many of these deaths are avoidable. Weaknesses in health systems, inappropriate training of doctors and nurses, inadequate supervision, and lack of support for staff all contribute to compromised quality of care. The International Union of Nutritional Sciences, with support from the International Pediatric Association, Launched a global Malnutrition Task Force in 2005. The main objective is to ensure that an integrated system of prevention and treatment of malnutrition is actively supported as a fundamental aspect of care, and becomes an integral part of all training programmes. PMID:16861489

  16. Increasing Calcium Oxide (Cao) to Accelerate Moulting and Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Erlando, Gito; ', Rusliadi; Mulyadi,

    2016-01-01

    The research about the increasing Calcium Oxide (CaO) to accelerate moulting and survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was conducted from Agustus until September 2015 at Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Instalasi Pembenihan Udang (IPU) Gelung, Situbondo Provinsi Jawa Timur. The purpose of this research was to investigate optimum doses calcium oxide to accelerate moulting and the survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vannamei shrimp with size PL25 were used in...

  17. Introduction of a prediction model to assigning periodontal prognosis based on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canut, Pedro; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alvarez-Novoa, Pablo; Alvarez-Novoa, Carmen; Marcos, Ana; Noguerol, Blas; Noguerol, Fernando; Zabalegui, Ion

    2017-09-04

    To develop a prediction model for tooth loss due to periodontal disease (TLPD) in patients following periodontal maintenance (PM), and assess its performance using a multicentre approach. A multilevel analysis of eleven predictors of TLPD in 500 patients following PM was carried out to calculate the probability of TLPD. This algorithm was applied to three different TLPD samples (369 teeth) gathered retrospectively by nine periodontist, associating several intervals of probability with the corresponding survival rates, based on significant differences in the mean survival rates. The reproducibility of these associations was assessed in each sample (One-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison with Bonferroni corrections). The model presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity, with optimal calibration and discrimination measurements. Seven intervals of probability were associated with seven survival rates and these associations contained close to 80% of the cases: the probability predicted the survival rate at this percentage. The model performed well in the three samples, since the mean survival rates of each association were significantly different within each sample, while no significant differences between the samples were found in pair-wise comparisons of means. This model might be useful for predicting survival rates in different TLPD samples This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Özgür Demiralp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P<0.05. Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials.

  19. Time trend analysis of primary tumor resection for stage IV colorectal cancer: less surgery, improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chung-Yuan; Bailey, Christina E; You, Y Nancy; Skibber, John M; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Feig, Barry W; Chang, George J

    2015-03-01

    With the advent of effective modern chemotherapeutic and biologic agents, primary tumor resection for patients with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) may not be routinely necessary. To evaluate the secular patterns of primary tumor resection use in stage IV CRC in the United States. A retrospective cohort study using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results CRC registry. Demographic and clinical factors were compared for 64,157 patients diagnosed with stage IV colon or rectal cancer from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 2010, who had undergone primary tumor resection and those who had not. Rates of primary tumor resection and median relative survival were calculated for each year. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to determine when a significant change in trend in the primary tumor resection rate had occurred. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with primary tumor resection. Difference in primary tumor resection rates over time. Of the 64,157 patients with stage IV CRC, 43,273 (67.4%) had undergone primary tumor resection. The annual rate of primary tumor resection decreased from 74.5% in 1988 to 57.4% in 2010 (Ptrend toward fewer primary tumor resections was seen. Despite the decreasing primary tumor resection rate, patient survival rates improved. However, primary tumor resection may still be overused, and current treatment practices lag behind evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  20. Look Different: Effect of Radiation Hormesis on the Survival Rate of Immunosuppressed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, M; Taeb, S; Okhovat, M A; Atefi, M; Negahdari, F

    2016-09-01

    Hormesis is defined as the bio-positive response of something which is bio-negative in high doses. In the present study, the effect of radiation hormesis was evaluated on the survival rate of immunosuppressed BALB/c mice by Cyclosporine A. We used 75 consanguine, male, BALB/c mice in this experiment. The first group received Technetium-99m and the second group was placed on a sample radioactive soil of Ramsar region (800Bq) for 20 days. The third group was exposed to X-rays and the fourth group was placed on the radioactive soil and then injected Technetium-99m. The last group was the sham irradiated control group. Finally, 30mg Cyclosporine A as the immunosuppressive agent was orally administered to all mice 48 hours after receiving X-rays and Technetium-99m. The mean survival rate of mice in each group was estimated during time. A log rank test was run to determine if there were differences in the survival distribution for different groups and related treatments. According to the results, the survival rate of all pre-irradiated groups was more than the sham irradiated control group (p Ramsar region for 20 days and then injected Technetium-99m. This study confirmed the presence of hormetic models and the enhancement of survival rate in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice as a consequence of low-dose irradiation. It is also revealed the positive synergetic radioadaptive response on survival rate of immunosuppressed animals.

  1. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  2. [Improvement of child survival in Mexico: the diagonal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Jaime; Bustreo, Flavia; Tapia, Roberto; Rivera, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Olaiz, Gustavo; Partida, Virgilio; García-García, Ma de Lourdes; Valdespino, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Public health interventions aimed at children in Mexico have placed the country among the seven countries on track to achieve the goal of child mortality reduction by 2015. We analysed census data, mortality registries, the nominal registry of children, national nutrition surveys, and explored temporal association and biological plausibility to explain the reduction of child, infant, and neonatal mortality rates. During the past 25 years, child mortality rates declined from 64 to 23 per 1000 livebirths. A dramatic decline in diarrhoea mortality rates was recorded. Polio, diphtheria, and measles were eliminated. Nutritional status of children improved significantly for wasting, stunting, and underweight. A selection of highly cost-effective interventions bridging clinics and homes, what we called the diagonal approach, were central to this progress. Although a causal link to the reduction of child mortality was not possible to establish, we saw evidence of temporal association and biological plausibility to the high level of coverage of public health interventions, as well as significant association to the investments in women education, social protection, water, and sanitation. Leadership and continuity of public health policies, along with investments on institutions and human resources strengthening, were also among the reasons for these achievements.

  3. Improvement of child survival in Mexico: the diagonal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Jaime; Bustreo, Flavia; Tapia, Roberto; Rivera, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Oláiz, Gustavo; Partida, Virgilio; García-García, Lourdes; Valdespino, José Luis

    2006-12-02

    Public health interventions aimed at children in Mexico have placed the country among the seven countries on track to achieve the goal of child mortality reduction by 2015. We analysed census data, mortality registries, the nominal registry of children, national nutrition surveys, and explored temporal association and biological plausibility to explain the reduction of child, infant, and neonatal mortality rates. During the past 25 years, child mortality rates declined from 64 to 23 per 1000 livebirths. A dramatic decline in diarrhoea mortality rates was recorded. Polio, diphtheria, and measles were eliminated. Nutritional status of children improved significantly for wasting, stunting, and underweight. A selection of highly cost-effective interventions bridging clinics and homes, what we called the diagonal approach, were central to this progress. Although a causal link to the reduction of child mortality was not possible to establish, we saw evidence of temporal association and biological plausibility to the high level of coverage of public health interventions, as well as significant association to the investments in women education, social protection, water, and sanitation. Leadership and continuity of public health policies, along with investments on institutions and human resources strengthening, were also among the reasons for these achievements.

  4. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  5. Method of freezing living cells and tissues with improved subsequent survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkan, Selim M.; Hirsch, Gerald P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method for freezing red blood cells, ther living cells, or tissues with improved subsequent survival, wherein constant-volume freezing is utilized that results in significantly improved survival compared with constant-pressure freezing; optimization is attainable through the use of different vessel geometries, cooling baths and warming baths, and sample concentrations.

  6. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  7. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  8. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  9. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve (DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites using ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Pr...

  10. Antimicrobial treatment improves mycobacterial survival in nonpermissive growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turapov, Obolbek; Waddell, Simon J; Burke, Bernard; Glenn, Sarah; Sarybaeva, Asel A; Tudo, Griselda; Labesse, Gilles; Young, Danielle I; Young, Michael; Andrew, Peter W; Butcher, Philip D; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Mukamolova, Galina V

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobials targeting cell wall biosynthesis are generally considered inactive against nonreplicating bacteria. Paradoxically, we found that under nonpermissive growth conditions, exposure of Mycobacterium bovis BCG bacilli to such antimicrobials enhanced their survival. We identified a transcriptional regulator, RaaS (for regulator of antimicrobial-assisted survival), encoded by bcg1279 (rv1219c) as being responsible for the observed phenomenon. Induction of this transcriptional regulator resulted in reduced expression of specific ATP-dependent efflux pumps and promoted long-term survival of mycobacteria, while its deletion accelerated bacterial death under nonpermissive growth conditions in vitro and during macrophage or mouse infection. These findings have implications for the design of antimicrobial drug combination therapies for persistent infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis.

  11. Survival Rate of Dental Implants in Patients with History of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Francisco; Gouveia, Sónia; Felino, António Campos; Costa, Ana Lemos; Almeida, Ricardo Faria

    To evaluate the differences between the survival rates of implants placed in patients with no history of periodontal disease (NP) and in patients with a history of chronic periodontal disease (CP). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all consenting patients treated with dental implants in a private clinic in Oporto, Portugal, from November 2, 2002 through February 11, 2011 were included. All patients were treated consecutively by the same experimental operator. This study aimed to analyze how the primary outcomes (presence of disease, time of placement, and time of loading) and the secondary outcomes (severity-generalized periodontitis, brand, implant length, prosthesis type, prosthesis metal-ceramic extension) influence the survival rate of dental implants. The survival analysis was performed through the Kaplan-Meier method, and the equality of survival distributions for all groups was tested with the log-rank test with a significance level of .05 for all comparisons. The sample consisted of 202 patients (47% NP and 53% CP) and 689 implants (31% NP and 69% CP). The survival rate in the NP and CP groups showed no statistically significant differences (95.8% versus 93.1%; P ≥ .05). Implants were lost before loading in 54.9% of the cases. The majority of the implants were lost in the first year and stabilized after the second year. Survival rates in the NP and CP patients showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the following factors: subclassification of the disease, implant brands, implant length (short/standard), type of prosthesis, extension of the prosthesis metal-ceramic, and time of placement and loading (P ≥ .05). This work disclosed no statistically significant differences in terms of survival rates when compared with the control group. Placing implants in patients with a history of periodontal disease appears to be viable and safe.

  12. Ten-year survival and success rate of implant-prosthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ihan Hren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implant-prosthodontic treatment for restoring a single missing tooth, partial edentulism and complete edentulism is a predictive and successful method in terms of both the survival rate of implants and the different parameters which determine the success rate of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year survival and success rates of dental implants, analyze the causes of early and late complications, and assess the type and number of prosthodontic complications.Patients and methods: In 51 patients, 113 titanium dental implants were inserted by one surgeon using a two-stage surgical protocol. The prosthodontic treatment included fixed or removable treatment options. Implant survival and success were evaluated 10 years after the completion of prosthodontic treatment. The evaluation comprised history, clinical examination with assessment of success parameters (prosthesis functionality, peri-implant tissue status, and x-ray assessment of bone loss.Results: Two implants were lost before and two 10 years after the prosthodontic treatment. The survival rate of implants was 96.4 % on the average, 100 % in the lower jaw, and 92.5 % in the upper jaw. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed in 4.5 % of all implants. The success rate was thus 95.5 %. Technical complications occurred in 2.8 % of fixed prostheses and 19 % of removable prostheses.Conclusion: The long-term survival and success rates of dental implants are high. Proper implant prosthodontic treatment planning is crucial to achieving high survival and success rates of implant treatment. Bone quality has to be taken into account when implant treatment is performed. Peri-implantitis is rarely observed, and prosthodontic complications are uncommon. On completion of the surgical and prosthetic phases of treatment, patients must be followed at regular intervals to ensure timely management of complications.

  13. Factors Influencing the Cure Rate in the Corneal Graft Rejection with Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feizi S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Immunologic rejection of the transplanted cornea is the major cause of human allograft failure with several risk factors contributing to it. Since in the corneal graft, most individuals do not reject the graft, we used the survival analysis with cure rate for the assessment of the factors influencing the cure rate at the time of data analysis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the cure rate and assess the risk factors for corneal graft rejection in the keratoconus disease in Labafinejad Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: This was a routine data base study in which the data were gathered from keratoconus patients’ files that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty operation. In the survival analysis, individuals who didn’t reject corneal were considered cured. To study the factors influencing the cure rate, we used the Weibull distribution for survival function and the logistic link function for the cure rate because of their tractability and accuracy.Results: Out of 119 patients 31 patients (26% rejected grafts. Among the factors influencing cure rate, only in vascularization and in persons older than 25 years of age was ameaningful effect on decreasing cure rate. With this cure model, the expected cure rate in the non-vascularization and less than 25 year- old patients was 81, in non-vascularization and more than 25 year- olds it is 64, in the vascularization and less than 25 year- olds, the cure rate is 19 and in the vascularization and more than 25 years of age, the cure rate is 9 percent and the observed cure rate for Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator was 79, 61, 27 and 0 percent, respectively. The results showed that the estimate of cure rate in the survival analysis was near the Kaplan-Meier product-limits estimator.Conclusion: One of the benefits of modeling is its ability to generalize the results; using them in the prediction. According to the results obtained from the fitting cure model

  14. Heat adaptation towards improve survival of Bifidobacterium longum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the survival of Bifidobacterium longum BB 536 following the spray drying and during the storage of Medida, a fermented Sudanese cereal porridge. Medida was produced using 225 g flour of two days malted brown rice; blended in 0.405 L distilled water and cooked in 1 L boiling water. 150 g skim milk ...

  15. Heat adaptation towards improve survival of Bifidobacterium longum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... 150 g skim milk was added followed by sterilization; and the mixture was inoculated with B. longum. BB536 and incubated until the biomass reached approximately 9 Log CFU/ml. Spray drying inlet temperature was regulated at 160oC. The strain BB536 survivability at different outlet temperatures (95,.

  16. The Clinicopathologic Characteristics and 5-year Survival Rate of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Bashardust, Nasrollah; Zakerian, Neda; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignancy in women, the most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths, and most patients have advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 5-year survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer based on age, tumor histology, stage of disease, and type of treatment. This study was conducted on 120 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer referred to Shahid Sadoughi hospital and Shah Vali oncology clinic of Yazd from 2006 to 2012. Demographic data and patient records were studied to evaluate the treatment outcome, pathology of the tumor, and stage of disease. Finally, the overall survival rate and tumor-free survival of patients was assessed. The mean patient age was 53.87± 14.11 years. Most participants had stage I (36.7%) or stage II (35%) disease. Serous adenocarcinoma (57.6%) was the most common pathology found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The overall survival of patients in this study was significantly associated with the histological tumor type (p = 0.000) and disease stage (p = 0.0377). Stage I (84.18%) and serous adenocarcinoma (72.81%) demonstrated the best survival. The tumor-free survival rates were not associated with histology types (p = 0.079), surgical procedure (p = 0.18), or chemotherapy (p = 0.18). The survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly associated with disease stage. Serous adenocarcinoma also had the best prognosis among the pathologies studied. Therefore, early detection of ovarian cancer can substantially increase the survival rate.

  17. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  18. Improving Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function After Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This application proposes to help improve survival, decrease early dependence on mechanical ventilation, and restore breathing after cervical spinal...complications. This application proposes to help improve survival, decrease early dependence on mechanical ventilation, and restore breathing after...training as cervical SCI is a complicated and difficult surgery and much practice is needed in order to produce consistent injury outcomes

  19. HAG regimen improves survival in adult patients with hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weijun; Wang, Libing; Gao, Lei; Lü, Shuqin; Xi, Hao; Qiu, Huiying; Chen, Li; Chen, Jie; Ni, Xiong; Xu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Weiping; Yang, Jianmin; Wang, Jianmin; Song, Xianmin

    2016-01-19

    Hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia (Hypo-AML) is a rare disease entity. Studies investigating the biological characteristics of hypo-AML have been largely lacking. We examined the clinical and biological characteristics, as well as treatment outcomes of hypo-AML in our institutes over a seven years period. We retrospectively analyzed data on 631 adult AML patients diagnosed according to the French-American-British (FAB) classification and WHO classification of tumors of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue, including 43 patients with hypo-AML. Biological variables, treatment outcomes and follow-up data on hypo-AML patients were analyzed. Out of 631 AML patients, 47 (7.4%) were diagnosed as hypo-AML, out of which 43 patients were evaluable. Compared with non-hypocellular AML, hypo-AML patients tended to be older (P = 0.05), more likely to present with leukocytopenia (P < 0.01) and anterior hematological diseases (P = 0.02). The overall complete remission (CR) rate, disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in hypo-AML patients were comparable to those in non-hypo AML patients. Twenty-seven (62.8%) patients with hypocellular AML were treated with the standard regimen of anthracyclines and cytarabine (XA) (associated CR rate: 51.9%; median OS: 7 months; median DFS: 6.5 months). Sixteen (37.2%) patients were treated with a priming regimen containing homoharringtonine, cytarabine and G-CSF (HAG) (associated CR rate: 81.25%; median OS: 16 months; median DFS: 16 months). The overall prognosis of hypo-AML was not inferior to that of non-hypo AML. HAG regimen might increase response rates and improve survival in hypo-AML patients.

  20. Membrane based macroencapsulation devices for improved pancreatic islet survival and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzypek, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is about the development of novel membrane based macroencapsulation devices for improved pancreatic islet survival and function. To improve pancreatic islets functionality by avoiding their aggregation within macroencapsulation devices, we developed a novel

  1. Interdependence of response rates, survival rates, stage and histology after radio-/chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schratter, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Szalay, S.; Janisch, H.

    1982-11-01

    Between February 1977 and February 1981, 55 patients with ovarian cancer (45 at stage III and 10 at stage IV) underwent simultaneous radio-/chemotherapy and early therapeutic second-look operation. The overall response rate amounts to 94%, 63% of which are complete and 31% are partial emissions. Stage III comprises 74% complete and 26% partial remissions. Patients with complete remission at stage III have a significantly longer tumor-free survival time than patients with partial remission (median 16 vs. 8 months). A longer overall survival time (median 30 vs. 16 months) is also significant. At stage III there have been 74% successful therapeutic second operations. In all patients with residual tumors above 2 cm in diameter after primary operation a response rate of 92% could be achieved, 52% showed complete remissions. The survival time proved to be independent of both histological parameter and age. The remaining residual tumor above or under 2 cm in diameter in any single location is, however, a significant prognostic factor for long-time survival. Possible curative chances for patients with stage III disease are only to be expected through interdisciplinary oncological cooperation.

  2. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    groups.In CHF group the electrolyte disturbance recovered gradually and reached normal level at 180min after shock,while it did not recover in HS group.The levels of serum sodium,chlorine and potassium in HS group were significantly higher than those in CHF group at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.The median survival time of CHF group(180 minutes was significantly longer than that of HS group(75 minutes,χ2=6.929,P=0.008.Conclusion CHF could improve the prognosis of severe heatstroke dogs with shock,prolong the survival time and reduce the fatality rate.The mechanism may be associated with fast cooling at early stage,maintenance of hemodynamic stability,and correction the acid-base imbalance and electrolyte disturbance.

  3. Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Troisi, Rebecca J; Savage, Sharon A

    2009-04-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents, but there is a second incidence peak among individuals aged > 60 years. Most osteosarcoma epidemiology studies have been embedded in large analyses of all bone tumors or focused on cases occurring in adolescence. Detailed descriptions of osteosarcoma incidence and survival with direct comparisons among patients of all ages and ethnicities are not available. Frequency, incidence, and survival rates for 3482 patients with osteosarcoma from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2004 were investigated by age (ages 0-24 years, 25-59 years, and 60 to > or = 85 years), race, sex, pathology subtype, stage, and anatomic site. There were large differences in incidence and survival rates by age. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma among patients with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. Tumor site differences among age groups were noted. Survival rates varied by anatomic site and disease stage and did not improve significantly from 1984 to 2004. This comprehensive, population-based description of osteosarcoma, identified important differences in incidence, survival, pathologic subtype, and anatomic site among age groups, and quantified the impact of osteosarcoma in patients with Paget disease or as a second cancer on incidence and mortality rates. These findings may have implications in understanding osteosarcoma biology and epidemiology. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society

  4. Moderate exercise training improves survival and ventricular remodeling in an animal model of left ventricular volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Dominic; Plante, Eric; Bouchard-Thomassin, Andrée-Anne; Champetier, Serge; Roussel, Elise; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Arsenault, Marie; Couet, Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Exercise training has beneficial effects in patients with heart failure, although there is still no clear evidence that it may impact on their survival. There are no data regarding the effects of exercise in subjects with chronic left ventricular (LV) volume overload. Using a rat model of severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR), we studied the effects of long-term exercise training on survival, development of heart failure, and LV myocardial remodeling. One hundred sixty male adult rats were divided in 3 groups: sham sedentary (n=40), AR sedentary (n=80), and AR trained (n=40). Training consisted in treadmill running for up to 30 minutes, 5 times per week for 9 months, at a maximal speed of 20 m/minute. All sham-operated animals survived the entire course of the protocol. After 9 months, 65% of trained animals were alive compared with 46% of sedentary ones (P=0.05). Ejection fractions remained in the normal range (all above 60%) and LV masses between AR groups were similar. There was significantly less LV fibrosis in the trained group and lower LV filling pressures and improved echocardiographic diastolic parameters. Heart rate variability was also improved by exercise. Our data show that moderate endurance training is safe, does not increase the rate of developing heart failure, and most importantly, improves survival in this animal model of chronic LV volume overload. Exercise improved LV diastolic function, heart rate variability, and reduced myocardial fibrosis.

  5. Improvements in logistics could increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömsöe, A; Afzelius, S; Axelsson, C; Södersved Källestedt, M L; Enlund, M; Svensson, L; Herlitz, J

    2013-06-01

    In a review based on estimations and assumptions, to report the estimated number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and to speculate about possible future improvements in Sweden. An observational study. All ambulance organisations in Sweden. Patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry who suffered an OHCA between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Approximately 80% of OHCA cases in Sweden in which CPR was started are included. None In 11 005 patients, the 1-month survival rate was 9.4%. There are approximately 5000 OHCA cases annually in which CPR is started and 30-day survival is achieved in up to 500 patients yearly (6 per 100 000 inhabitants). Based on findings on survival in relation to the time to calling for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and the start of CPR and defibrillation, it was estimated that, if the delay from collapse to (i) calling EMS, (ii) the start of CPR, and (iii) the time to defibrillation were reduced to <2 min, <2 min, and <8 min, respectively, 300-400 additional lives could be saved. Based on findings relating to the delay to calling for the EMS and the start of CPR and defibrillation, we speculate that 300-400 additional OHCA patients yearly (4 per 100 000 inhabitants) could be saved in Sweden. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Laparoscopic colectomy for cancer: Improved compliance with guidelines for chemotherapy and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Kavanaugh, Mindie M; Caldito, Gloria C

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer has been demonstrated in clinical trials to have short-term benefits when compared to the open surgical approach. Guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend that patients with stage III or high-risk stage II colon cancer undergo adjuvant chemotherapy. We hypothesized that laparoscopic colectomy is associated with increased compliance to recommendations for chemotherapy, a lesser time to start of chemotherapy, and increased overall survival. The National Cancer Data Base was queried to identify patients with stage III or high-risk stage II colon cancer (T4, positive margins, chemotherapy, time from diagnosis and date of operation to start of chemotherapy, and overall survival were compared. A total of 48,257 patients were included for analysis; 18,801 patients underwent laparoscopic colectomy and 29,456 underwent open colectomy. Laparoscopic colectomy patients received adjuvant chemotherapy at a somewhat greater rate than open colectomy (66.2% vs 59.4%, P chemotherapy, mean time to start of chemotherapy after definitive resection was somewhat less for laparoscopic colectomy than open colectomy (48.7 vs 52.7 days, P chemotherapy for stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer, as well as a slightly lesser time to start of chemotherapy and improved overall survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aortic root surgery improves long-term survival after acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Ilir; Juthier, Francis; Fabre, Olivier; Fouquet, Olivier; Rousse, Natacha; Banfi, Carlo; Pinçon, Claire; Prat, Alain; Vincentelli, André

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to analyze the long term survival of patient operated on for acute type A aortic dissection. Between 1990 and 2010, 226 patients underwent emergency surgical operation for acute type A aortic dissection. We have followed the long-term outcomes. 144 patients were operated on with a supracommissural replacement of the ascending aorta (SCR) and 82 with an aortic root surgery (ARS, including 77 Bentall procedures and 5 Tirone David operations). Aortic cross-clamp was longer in ARS group (150.8 vs. 103.6 min, p<0.0001). Overall in-hospital mortality was lower in ARS group (20% vs. 34%, p 0.03). Median follow-up was 11.6 years. 10-year survival was higher in ARS group (85.7% vs. 65.9%, p 0.03) and 10-year freedom from aortic root reoperation was significantly lower in ARS group (93.4% vs. 82.9%, p 0.02). In a multivariate analysis aortic root surgery was an independent protective factor for proximal reoperations OR 0.393, CI 95% [0.206-0.748], p=0.005. Our study suggests that complete aortic root replacement in type A aortic dissection does not burden short-term outcomes, improves long-term survivals and decreases the rate of late reoperation. Whether this approach has to be preferred in younger patient has to be demonstrated in further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  9. Pyruvate oral rehydration solution improved visceral function and survival in shock rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; Hu, Sen; Xie, Zhi-Yi; He, Zhi-Jie; Luo, Hong-Min; Lin, Hong-Yuan; Zhou, Fang-Qiang; Sheng, Zhi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings showed advantages of a novel pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution (Pyr-ORS) in resuscitation of burns. This study focused on effects of Pyr-ORS on the visceral blood perfusion (VBP), gastrointestinal function, and survival rate, compared with the bicarbonate-based World Health Organization-guided oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS), during intragastric rehydration of lethal hemorrhagic shock in rats. Sixty adult rats were subjected to 45% total blood volume loss and were randomly allocated to the following three groups (n = 20): group NR (no fluid resuscitation), group PORS (oral Pyr-ORS rehydration), and group BORS (oral WHO-ORS rehydration), respectively. Other 10 rats were served as group NH (the sham group). Enteral rehydration lasted for 4 h after hemorrhage. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), VBP, and plasma enzymes activities of heart, liver, and kidney, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein were measured. Liver, kidney, and ileum were harvested for the evaluation of activities of oxidative enzymes and intestinal barrier protein (ZO-1). Other 84 rats with identical procedures without sampling were observed for their 24-h survival rates. Pyr-ORS was more effective in enhancing the MAP and VBP, inhibiting tissue oxidative damage, and improving organ function, compared with WHO-ORS. Hypoxic lactic acidosis was fully corrected in group PORS in 4 h, whereas it worsened in group BORS, and the 24-h survival rate was twice higher in group PORS than in group BORS (45.8 versus 20.8%, P rehydration of lethal hemorrhagic shock. The Pyr-ORS may be an ideal oral fluid in resuscitation of hypovolemic shock, especially in prehospital and resource-poor settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altwegg Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers.

  11. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  12. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  13. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  14. Retrospective Study of the Survival Rates of Indirect Pulp Therapy Versus Different Pulpotomy Medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Patrice Barsamian; Kuhnen, Marissa M; Best, Al M; Brickhouse, Tegwyn H

    2016-10-15

    The purposes of this retrospective chart review were to determine: (1) how primary molars in need of vital pulp therapy (VPT) have been treated over a period of four years at a university-based pediatric dental practice (UBP); and which treatments-indirect pulp therapy (IPT), formocresol pulpotomy (FCP), and ferric sulfate pulpotomy (FSP)-have been successful. Electronic patient records (axiUm) that contained the procedure codes D3120 (pulp cap-indirect) or D3220 (therapeutic pulpotomy) were totaled by year. Visit records were queried again to identify treatment failures (i.e., extractions [D7140] or pulpectomy [D3221/D3240]). A total of 2,001 primary molar teeth were included in the study. Success was compared using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. At the three-year follow-up, IPT had a 96.2 percent survival rate, FCP had a 65.8 percent survival rate, and FSP had a 62.9 percent survival rate (P<.0001). Over a four-year period of time, IPT became the more commonly used vital pulp therapy treatment at a university-based pediatric dental practice and had a significantly better survival rate than FCP or FSP.

  15. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...

  16. The effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of | Makhafola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of cryopreserved cock semen. Semen from three cock breeds; White Leghorn (WL), Ovambo (OV) and Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) was collected by means of the abdominal massage technique. Following semen collection, sperm were analyzed for ...

  17. Survival and growth rate of coastal water Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salt concentration on the survival and growth rate of Escherichia coli isolated from Lagos Lagoon surface water was investigated. This was necessitated to ascertain the suitability of using E. coli as feacal pollution indicator in this water body which experiences fluctuation in salinity values. The salinity during the ...

  18. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  19. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  20. Survival Rate of Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Charmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran, 2000- 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M vakili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Cancers are the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases globally. Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. This cancer is the third leading cause of death in America and one of the most prevalent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. Methods: The present observational (the analytical type study was conducted using the longitudinal and survival study methods. The population study included all patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. The samples were selected by the census method and all the patients diagnosed with colorectal between the years 2000 to 2010 (estimated to be about 452 cases. After collecting the data and coding them, they were inserted into the SPSS 16 and STATA 12 software. To investigate the survival and the factors influencing the survival time of patients which was the main objective of this study, the Kaplan-Meier method was used. In order to compare the survival function in different subgroups, the log rank test or generalized Wilcoxon test was used. Results: From the total 452 patients with colorectal cancer, 232 cases were male (51.3% and 220 were females (48.7%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.12 ±19.99 years at the time of diagnosis. The median age of patients was 60 years. The probability of survival at 1, 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of colorectal cancer in both sexes using the Kaplan-Meier was 85.7%, 71.9,% 52.5% respectively. Conclusion: Although the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province was at a desirable level, the need for further studies to identify prognostic factors is essential.

  1. How to improve survival in geriatric peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    Recently, more elderly patients who are independent or able to live at home with the support of family are opting for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). At the end of 2005, the annual statistical survey conducted by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy indicated that the mean age of patients at initiation of dialysis treatment is 66.2 years. Only 3.6% of the overall end-stage renal disease population were treated with CAPD, and this small number of elderly patients was treated with CAPD despite the many merits of peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the elderly. In the present study, we reviewed our experience with patients 65 years of age and older at the start of PD and the results from two multicenter studies on PD treatment in elderly patients in Japan. Study 1: Of 313 PD patients at Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital between January 1991 and June 2006, 166 patients 65 years of age and older were studied. The characteristics of these elderly PD patients were reviewed to determine which elderly patients can continue PD for more than 5 years, and what the causes of death and the effects of icodextrin were in elderly PD patients. Study 2: A multicenter study of 421 patients introduced to PD from April 2000 to December 2004 in Japan was carried out by the Japanese Society for Elderly Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis to retrospectively analyze patient survival and technique survival and to find factors that have the potential to influence prognosis in these patients. Study 3: A review of the PD management and nursing-care insurance system (long-term care insurance) targeted patients 65 years of age and older who were initiated onto PD from January 2000 to June 2002 at 82 centers in Japan. The review found 765 patients under the age of 65 years (62.6%), and 458 patients 65 years of age and over (37.4%). Data on 409 elderly PD patients from 73 centers were analyzed. Study 1: In 166 elderly patients, 27 (16.3%; 18 women, 9 men) continued PD for more than 5

  2. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating......Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  3. A clinical study on survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Sami; Güven, Orhan; Gllareva, Enis; Prekazi, Mergime; Salihu, Leminot

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo and to see the effect of stage of disease on the success of surgical treatment. 789 patients with SCCLL who were referred to the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, were examined during a period of 20 years (between 1993 and 2013). 614 (77.82%) of these patients received treatment and have regularly visited the department once every 3 months for post-operative controls. Data have been collected from these 614 patients for 10 years; thus the follow-up period lasts for 10 years for every patient under control. The collected data were analysed using Chi square test. Patients were classified by sex, aetiology, stage of the disease, location of the disease, the treatment patients received, metastasis rate and survival rate. The most susceptible patients were those at ages between 50 and 70. The youngest patient was 8 years old whereas the oldest was 92. The male-female ratio was 5:1. 57% of the patients had been working outdoors and had been exposed to sunlight. Ten years survival rate for the Stages I, II, III and IV was 91.7%, 83.7%, 28% and 11.4% respectively. It was found that the success of the surgery was closely related with the stage of disease and early diagnosis. Training the relevant parties (i.e., the people, family doctors etc.) on early diagnosis would improve the survival rate. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-Rated Air Force Line Officer Attrition Rates Using Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    priority for the project: schedule or cost [15]. A study conducted by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency ( NIMA ) used the concept of stocks and flows...quantity–such as food in a grocery store–and flows are rates at which the inventory flows into or out of stocks. NIMA is also a government entity, and is

  5. Metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: are survival rates excellent only within the stringent framework of clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, A; Agodi, A; Balaguer, J; Garaventa, A; Barchitta, M; Segura, V; Bianchi, M; Castel, V; Castellano, A; Cesaro, S; Couselo, J M; Cruz, O; D'Angelo, P; De Bernardi, B; Donat, J; de Andoin, N G; Hernandez, M I; La Spina, M; Lillo, M; Lopez-Almaraz, R; Luksch, R; Mastrangelo, S; Mateos, E; Molina, J; Moscheo, C; Mura, R; Porta, F; Russo, G; Tondo, A; Torrent, M; Vetrella, S; Villegas, J A; Viscardi, E; Zanazzo, G A; Cañete, A

    2017-01-01

    SIOPEN INES protocol yielded excellent 5-year survival rates for MYCN-non-amplified metastatic neuroblastoma. Patients deemed ineligible due to lack or delay of MYCN status or late registration were treated, but not included in the study. Our goal was to analyse survival at 10 years among the whole population. Italian and Spanish metastatic INES patients' data are reported. SPSS 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Among 98 infants, 27 had events and 19 died, while 79 were disease free. Five- and 10-year event-free survival (EFS) were 73 and 70 %, and overall survival (OS) was 81 and 74 %, respectively. MYCN status was significant for EFS, but not for OS in multivariate analysis. The survival rates of patients who complied with all the inclusion criteria for INES trials are higher compared to those that included also not registered patients. Five-year EFS and OS for INES 99.2 were 87.8 and 95.7 %, while our stage 4s population obtained 78 and 87 %. Concerning 99.3, 5-year EFS and OS were 86.7 and 95.6 %, while for stage 4 we registered 61 and 68 %. MYCN amplification had a strong impact on prognosis and therefore we consider it unacceptable that many patients were not studied for MYCN and probably inadequately treated. Ten-year survival rates were shown to decrease: EFS from 73 to 70 % and OS from 81 to 74 %, indicating a risk of late events, particularly in stage 4s. Population-based registries like European ENCCA WP 11-task 11 will possibly clarify these data.

  6. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  7. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-18

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate(ASR) in DNNR(52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan(13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR(26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan(3.2%). The daily survival rate(DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources.

  8. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  9. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  10. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  11. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  12. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Troyer

    Full Text Available Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor, using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960 than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920, while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106 than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067. Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004, indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  13. The Evaluation of More Lymph Nodes in Colon Cancer Is Associated with Improved Survival in Patients of All Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter B Aan de Stegge

    Full Text Available Improvement in survival of patients with colon cancer is reduced in elderly patients compared to younger patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the removal of ≥ 12 lymph nodes can explain differences in survival rates between elderly and younger patients diagnosed with colon cancer.In a population-based cohort study, all patients (N = 41,074 diagnosed with colon cancer stage I to III from 2003 through 2010 from the Netherlands Cancer Registry were included. Age groups were defined as 75 years of age. Main outcome measures were overall and relative survival, the latter as a proxy for disease specific survival.Over an eight years time period there was a 41.2% increase in patients with ≥ 12 lymph nodes removed, whereas the percentage of patients with the presence of lymph node metastases remained stable (35.7% to 37.5%. After adjustment for patient and tumour characteristics and adjuvant chemotherapy, it was found that for patients in which ≥ 12 lymph nodes were removed compared to patients with 75: HR: 0.734 (95% CI, 0.700-0.771 and relative survival ( 75: RER: 0.621 (95% CI, 0.567-0.681 in all three age groups.The removal of ≥ 12 lymph nodes is associated with an improvement in both overall and relative survival in all patients. This association was stronger in the elderly patient. The biology of this association needs further clarification.

  14. Improved survival of cardiac transplantation candidates with implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: role of beta-blocker or amiodarone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, Cengiz; Zadeii, Gino; Zhu, Alan X; Fabian, William; Collins, Joanne; Lurie, Keith G; Sakaguchi, Scott; Benditt, David G

    2003-06-01

    Survival in patients awaiting cardiac transplantation is poor due to the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia. The potential role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in this group of patients has been the subject of increasing interest. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether ICDs improve the survival rate of patients on the waiting list for cardiac transplantation and whether any improvement is independent of concomitant beta-blocker or amiodarone therapy. Data comprised findings from 310 consecutive patients at a single center who were evaluated and deemed suitable for cardiac transplantation and placed on the waiting list. Kaplan-Meier actuarial approach was used for survival analysis. Survival analysis censored patients at time of transplantation or death. Of the 310 patients, 111 (35.8%) underwent successful cardiac transplantation and 164 (52.9%) died while waiting; 35 patients remain on the waiting list. Fifty-nine (19%) patients had ICD placement for ventricular arrhythmias prior to or after being listed. Twenty-nine (49.1%) ICD patients survived until cardiac transplantation, 13 (22%) patients died, and 17 (28.8%) remain on the waiting list. Among non-ICD patients, 82 (32.7%) received transplants, 151 (60.2%) died, and 18 (7.2%) remain on the waiting list. Survival rates at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were better for all ICD patients compared to non-ICD patients (log-rank x2, P = 0.0001). By multivariate analysis, ICD therapy and beta-blocker treatment were the strongest predictors of survival. Further, ICD treatment was associated with improved survival independent of concomitant treatment with beta-blocker or amiodarone. Among ICD and non-ICD patients treated with a beta-blocker or amiodarone, survivals at the 1 and 4 years were 93% vs 69% and 57% vs 32%, respectively (log-rank x2, P = 0.003). ICD therapy is associated with improved survival in high-risk cardiac transplant

  15. Does social feeding improve larval survival of the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael P; Burt, Charles R; Whitney, Thomas D; Hastings, Steven A; Chang, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    Lady beetles typically lay eggs in clusters, and clutch-mates that emerge near to each other might benefit in multiple ways. For example, lady beetle larvae are attracted to the pheromone released by aphids under attack. Thus, one potential advantage to larvae emerging as a group is if one larva captures an aphid, others can share in consuming the same aphid. Sharing a meal likely reduces the per capita food intake of a hatchling, but it might also provide enough nutrition to prevent death by starvation during a particularly vulnerable stage. In an assay of the behavior of two-spotted lady beetles (Adalia bipunctata), larvae were attracted to chemical cues from damaged aphids, corroborating previous research. Densities of A. bipunctata hatchlings were then manipulated to test whether the presence of clutch-mates increasesed the probability of capturing prey, and the survivorship of hatchlings. In one experiment, a single aphid was placed with a number of lady beetle hatchlings ranging from 1 to 10 in a small arena for 72 hours to evaluate prey capture effectiveness and hatchling survival. As the initial density of lady beetle hatchlings increased, their prey capture rate increased. At the same time, survival of the hatchlings was not affected by their initial density. Five experiments were performed on individual fava bean plants by varying densities of aphids and lady beetle hatchlings to evaluate lady beetle survivorship measured after five days. In all five on-plant experiments, increasing the initial number of lady beetle larvae did not improve their survival. Lady beetle larvae shared meals during the small scale experiments, but that behavior did not improve their survivorship under any of the experimental conditions.

  16. Improving free-flap survival using intra-operative heparin: Ritualistic practice or evidence-base medicine? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C; Rem, K; Guillier, D; Moris, V; Revol, M; Cristofari, S

    2017-10-10

    The failure rate of free flaps is approximately 5%, mostly due to thrombosis of microvascular anastomosis. A number of pharmacological agents have been tested in order to enhance the patency of microvascular anastomosis and so to as extend the survival of free flaps. One of them is heparin, a very commonly used anticoagulant. However, there exists no consensus on its use in microsurgery as concerns time of introduction (pre-, intra- or post-operative), recommended dosage, or duration of utilization. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the use of intra-operative heparin, in its systemic or topical forms, can bring about improved survival of free flaps, and if and when it should be recommended in microsurgery. A systematic review on the PUBMED database enabled us to identify articles evaluating the benefits of intra-operative heparin with regard to free-flap survival. All in all, fifteen articles in animal and human research were selected. As far as animal research is concerned, 9 studies out of 11 showed the superiority of topical intra-operative heparin compared to saline in improving free-flap survival rates through improved patency of the anastomosis. As regards systemic intra-operative heparin, on the other hand, only two trials out of four yielded favorable results. In clinical research in humans, there has been no prospective randomized trial studying the action of topical intra-operative heparin in vessel irrigation of ex-vivo free flaps before vascular repermeabilisation. However, the preliminary results of four trials seem to provide positive arguments for this practice. The use of systemic per-operative heparin (intravenous injection) does not improve the survival of free flaps in either animal models or humans. In animal models, however, the use of topical intra-operative heparin (vessel irrigation) has been shown to improve the free-flap survival rate by avoiding thrombosis of microvascular anastomosis. Finally, in clinical studies

  17. Data Fusion for Improved Respiration Rate Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra Atul; Nemati Shamim; Clifford GariD

    2010-01-01

    We present an application of a modified Kalman-Filter (KF) framework for data fusion to the estimation of respiratory rate from multiple physiological sources which is robust to background noise. A novel index of the underlying signal quality of respiratory signals is presented and then used to modify the noise covariance matrix of the KF which discounts the effect of noisy data. The signal quality index, together with the KF innovation sequence, is also used to weight multiple independent e...

  18. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  19. Liposomal amphotericin B, and not amphotericin B deoxycholate, improves survival of diabetic mice infected with Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Avanessian, Valentina; Spellberg, Brad; Edwards, John E

    2003-10-01

    The efficacies of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB) were compared in a diabetic murine model of hematogenously disseminated Rhizopus oryzae infection. At 7.5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (b.i.d.), LAmB significantly improved overall survival compared to the rates of survival in both untreated control mice (P = 0.001) and mice treated with 0.5 mg of AmB per kg b.i.d. (P = 0.047). These data indicate that high-dose LAmB is more effective than AmB in treating murine disseminated zygomycosis.

  20. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  1. Occurrence of complications and survival rates in elderly with neurological disorders undergoing enteral nutrition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Rezende, Nilton Alves de; Torres, Henrique Oswaldo da Gama

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of complications, as well as the survival rates, in elderly people having neurological diseases and undergoing enteral nutrition therapy (ENT). Patients aged over 60 years, assisted by a home medical service from a healthcare plan in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were thoroughly evaluated. The mentioned evaluation occurred at their homes after hospital discharge with enteral nutrition (EN) after a three-month period, a six-month period, and at the end of the study. A nutritional assessment was performed along with data collection performed on the patients' electronic medical records, and interviews performed with patients' family members and caregivers. Seventy-nine patients aged 82.9 ± 10.4 years old were evaluated; of these, 49.4% presented dementia, and 50.6% presented other neurological diagnoses. 100% of patients presented a high dependence level, assessed by the Katz index. The majority of patients (91.2%) presented some complications such as: pneumonia, catheter loss, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, fluid leakage, periostotomy, tube obstruction, reflux, and myiasis. Pneumonia was the most frequent complication, occurring in 55.9% of cases. The mortality rates were 15.2% at a three-month period, 22.8% at a six-month period, and 43% at the end of study. The median survival after starting EN was 364 days. Differences among the mortality rate and neurological diagnosis, EN routes of access, and complications were not observed. The survival rate was lower in patients having inadequate nutritional status and albumin levels nutritional status according to the clinical assessment and albumin levels lower than 3.5 mg/dL significantly influenced the survival rates.

  2. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Daily survival rate and habitat characteristics of nests of Wilson's Plover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Elizabeth; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed habitat characteristics and measured daily survival rate of 72 nests of Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) during 2012 and 2013 on South Island and Sand Island on the central coast of South Carolina. At both study areas, nest sites were located at slightly higher elevations (i.e., small platforms of sand) relative to randomly selected nearby unused sites, and nests at each study area also appeared to be situated to enhance crypsis and/or vigilance. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests ranged from 0.969 to 0.988 among study sites and years, and the probability of nest survival ranged from 0.405 to 0.764. Flooding and predation were the most common causes of nest failure at both sites. At South Island, DSR was most strongly related to maximum tide height, which suggests that flooding and overwash may be common causes of nest loss for Wilson's Plovers at these study sites. The difference in model results between the 2 nearby study sites may be partially due to more-frequent flooding at Sand Island because of some underlying yet unmeasured physiographic feature. Remaining data gaps for the species include regional assessments of nest and chick survival and habitat requirements during chick rearing.

  4. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    is associated with a decrease in the probability of performing a C-section from 2.3 to 3.7 percentage points (7–11.6%) with no consequences for medical complications or neonatal outcomes. The impact can be explained by a reduction in the discretion of obstetric decision-making rather than by patient cream......Using inpatient discharge records from the Italian region of Piedmont, we estimate the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure brought about by experience-rated liability insurance on obstetric practices. Our identification strategy exploits the exogenous location of public hospitals in court...

  5. Reducing macrophages to improve bone marrow stromal cell survival in the contused spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, G.J.; Nandoe, R.D.S.; Rahiem, S.T.; Hurtado, A.; Roos, R.A.; Grotenhuis, A.; Oudega, M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether reducing macrophage infiltration would improve the survival of allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted in the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Treatment with cyclosporine, minocycline, or methylprednisolone all resulted in a significant decrease in

  6. Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: improved survival with combined pulsed chemotherapy and irradiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafoor, S Y; Dudgeon, J

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of embryonal orbital rhabdomyosarcoma are presented in which two cases had intracranial extension. All three are alive and well on follow-up several years after completing a 12-month course of combined pulsed chemotherapy and irradiation. The improved prognosis even in parameningeal involvement is emphasised.

  7. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-04-18

    Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts--Cohort I 1890-1919; Cohort II 1920-1959--and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, DN; Adarsha, MS; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2–10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. Materials and Methods This study evaluated the existing literature – survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The

  9. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, Dn; Adarsha, Ms; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2-10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. This study evaluated the existing literature - survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The weighted mean was computed. The study found that the window preparation was of the

  10. Survival of women with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and liver metastases: is it improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Eliyaz; Short, Dee; North, Bernard; Savage, Philip M; Seckl, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether survival outcomes of women with liver metastases from gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) have improved from the previous finding of 27% at 5 years. The Charing Cross GTN database was searched for patients with liver metastases treated between 1975 and 2007. Prognostic variables were recorded and analyzed for effect on survival. Thirty-eight (1.8%) of 2,100 GTN patients had liver metastases. One patient with placental site trophoblastic tumor was excluded. In the remaining 37 cases the overall survival was 48% at 5 years. Seven patients with very advanced disease died survival was 68%. No prognostic variable was significant on univariate analysis. However, patients presenting >2.8 years and survival, respectively. The prognosis of patients with liver metastases from GTN has improved. Outcome may be best in those patients presenting within 2.8 years of the causative pregnancy and without very large volumes of disease.

  11. The "two-week wait" referral pathway is not associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Imran; Chaudhri, Sanjay; Singh, Baljit; Jameson, John Stuart

    2017-07-01

    To improve survival rates in patients diagnosed with cancer in the UK, a two-week wait (2ww) referral to first appointment target and a 62 day referral to treatment target were introduced in 2004. This study analyses survival rates for patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) by mode of referral and referral to treatment time. A prospectively maintained database of CRC outcomes at the University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust was analysed. Data for patients diagnosed with CRC was analysed for survival. Comparisons were made by mode of referral (2ww, urgent, routine, emergency, national bowel cancer screening programme (NBCSP) and other screening pathways). In addition, this study assessed referral to initial treatment times for patients undergoing cancer resection (62days group). Inter-group comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney-U-test. Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates were calculated for overall survival and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival distributions in different groups. Overall survival (median time) was significantly lower for patients referred by the '2ww' pathway (3.5 years, 95% CI: 2.7-4.30), in comparison to the 'routine' (5.4 years, 95% CI: 4.5-6.6) pathway (p 62days group (7.1 vs. 6.54, p = 0.620). Patients diagnosed with CRC by the 2ww pathway had shorter survival times than those referred by a routine pathway. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival Rates Using Individualized Bioselection Treatment Methods in Patients with Advanced Laryngeal Cancer : The University of Michigan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gregory T.; Bellile, Emily; Eisbruch, Avraham; Urba, Susan; Bradford, Carol R.; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark E.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; McLean, Scott A.; Moyer, Jeffery; Taylor, Jeremy MG; Worden, Francis P.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of chemoradiation for advanced laryngeal cancer led to a major paradigm shift in treatment as an alternative to laryngectomy. Despite widespread adoption, survival rates have not improved and the original premise of matching neoadjuvant chemotherapy tumor response to determine subsequent treatment has not been followed. A unique approach incorporating a single cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to select patients with advanced disease for either laryngectomy or concurrent chemoradiation was studied to determine if improved survival could be achieved. Design From 2002–2012, we treated an unselected cohort of 247 patients with laryngeal cancer in an academic institution. Interventions Limited disease patients (n=94) underwent endoscopic resection (n=33; 35%), radiation (n=50; 53%) or chemoradiation for deeply invasive T2 lesions (n=11; 12%). For advanced disease (n=153), neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treatment selection (n=71; 46%), concurrent chemoradiation (n=50; 33%) or primary surgery (n=32; 21%) was recommended. Outcomes Propensity for treatment selection in advanced patients was modeled using logistic regression. Overall (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models stratified by propensity score. Median follow was 48 months. Results Five-year OS and DSS was 75% (95% C.I. 68–81%) and 83% (77–88%), respectively for the entire cohort. DSS was 92% (83–97%) for patients with Stage I, II and 78% (69–84%) for patients with Stage III, IV disease. For advanced disease patients, 5-year OS (and DSS) ranged from 78% (91%) for surgery to 76% (79%) for neoadjuvant bioselection and 61% (66%) for primary chemoradiation. Propensity-adjusted multivariable Cox models controlling for known prognostic factors showed DSS was significantly improved in the neoadjuvant group compared to definitive chemoradiation [Hazard ratio 0.48, 95%CI: (0.29, 0.80), p=0.005]. DSS for the definitive surgery group was

  13. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas.

  14. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. Materials and Methods: A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. Results: In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). Conclusion: OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas. PMID:23814575

  15. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identified by the introduction of experience-rated malpractice liability insurance. Our identification...... in the probability of performing a C-section from 2.3 to 3.7 percentage points (7% to 11.6% at the mean value of C-section) with no consequences for a broadly defined measure of complications or neonatal outcomes. We show that these results are robust to the different methodologies and can be explained...... by a reduction in the discretion of obstetric decision making rather than by patient cream skimming.Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identified...

  16. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    Using data from 2002 to 2009 inpatient discharge records on deliveries in the Italian region of Piedmont, we assess the impact of an increase in malpractice pressure on obstetric practices, as identied by the introduction of experience-rated malpractice liability insurance. Our identication...... in the probability of performing a C-section from 2.3 to 3.7 percentage points (7% to 11.6% at the mean value of C-section) with no consequences for a broadly defined measure of complications or neonatal outcomes. We show that these results are robust to the different methodologies and can be explained...... by a reduction in the discretion of obstetric decision making rather than by patient cream skimming....

  17. Advancements in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: increasing circulation and improving survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Philip T; Maxwell, Robert A

    2009-05-01

    Clinicians, as well as lay people, have realized the importance of resuscitative maneuvers throughout recorded history. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation has evolved from a relatively primitive technique to one now dictated by data from evidence based medicine. Recent advancements include changes in life support guidelines, the development of an impedance threshold device, and the initiation of therapeutic hypothermia. We can only expect continued advancements in cardiopulmonary resuscitation through new technology with resultant improved outcomes.

  18. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  19. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste

    OpenAIRE

    Quirynen, Marc; De Soete, Marc; Pauwels, M.; Goossens, K.; Teughels, Wim; Van Eldere, Johan; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND, AIMS: Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Ea...

  20. Microcalcification-Associated Breast Cancer: Presentation, Successful First Excision, Long-Term Recurrence and Survival Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Marga B; Steinmetz, Carolin; Westerman, Ronny; Ramaswamy, Annette; Albert, Ute-Susann

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluated mammographic, histological and immunohistochemical findings for microcalcification-associated breast cancer with regards to breast-conserving therapy, recurrence and survival rate. We retrospectively analyzed 99 consecutive, non-palpable and microcalcification-associated breast cancers (94 women) that were treated surgically between January 2002 and December 2003 at a national academic breast cancer center. Calcifications were classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Descriptors, surgical outcome and histological findings were assessed. Recurrences and survival rates were evaluated based on medical records, standardized patient questionnaires and/or contacting the physician. 42 of the 99 lesions (42.4%) were invasive carcinomas, 57 (57.6%) were pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). 6 out of 99 (6.1%) lesions were triple negative, and 29 (29.3%) were HER2/neu positive. Successful first excision rate was 76/99 lesions (76.8%). Breast conservation was achieved in 73.7% (73/99). 10 women showed local recurrences without negatively impacting survival. The recurrences included round/punctate, amorphous, fine pleomorphic, and fine linear or fine-linear branching descriptors. The breast cancer-specific long-term survival rate was 91/94 (96.8%) for a mean follow-up of 81.4 months. The 3 patients who died due to breast carcinoma showed fine pleomorphic calcifications, and had nodal-positive invasive carcinoma at diagnosis. Microcalcification-associated breast cancers are frequently treated with breast-conserving therapy. Continuous clinical and mammographic follow-up is recommended for all descriptors.

  1. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Hesse, Daniela; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel; Bönecker, Marcelo; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; van Amerongen, W Evert

    2013-09-01

    Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of the restoration. Because the use of a flowable GIC layer seemed to improve its adaptation in approximal restorations in vitro, we evaluated whether the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer would improve the SR of approximal-ART restorations. A total of 208 children (6-7 years old) with at least one occluso-proximal carious lesion in a primary molar were selected and randomly allocated to two groups: G1, conventional technique, one-layer GIC (powder/liquid ratio 1:1); and G2, two-layer technique, consisting of a first layer of GIC with a flowable consistency (powder/liquid ratio 1:2) and a second layer of a regular consistency. Restorations were made by final-year students and evaluated after 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival and logrank test. Poisson regression analyses (α = 5) were used to verify the influence of factors such as insertion technique, restoration surface and operators. The overall SR of the restorations after 18 months was 68 %. There was no difference in SR between the techniques, neither did the other factors influence the SR. Over 18 months, the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer in approximal-ART restorations does not improve the restoration survival. This study suggests that the two-layer technique is not the answer for increasing approximal-ART restoration longevity.

  2. Preoperative Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Independently Predicts Overall Survival in Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma following Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Cross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the relationship between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and overall survival in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC following nephrectomy. Methods. 167 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized RCC had ESR levels measured preoperatively. Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were used to determine Area Under the Curve and relative sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ESR in predicting overall survival. Cut-offs for low (0.0–20.0 mm/hr, intermediate (20.1–50.0 mm/hr, and high risk (>50.0 mm/hr groups were created. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the univariate impact of these ESR-based groups on overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential of these groups to predict overall survival, adjusting for other patient and tumor characteristics. Results. Overall, 55.2% were low risk, while 27.0% and 17.8% were intermediate and high risk, respectively. Median (95% CI survival was 44.1 (42.6–45.5 months, 35.5 (32.3–38.8 months, and 32.1 (25.5–38.6 months, respectively. After controlling for other patient and tumor characteristics, intermediate and high risk groups experienced a 4.5-fold (HR: 4.509, 95% CI: 0.735–27.649 and 18.5-fold (HR: 18.531, 95% CI: 2.117–162.228 increased risk of overall mortality, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperative ESR values represent a robust predictor of overall survival following nephrectomy in localized RCC.

  3. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  4. Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Cimino Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies that can reduce the global disease burden at manageable costs must be developed. Polysaccharopeptide (PSP is the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Studies indicate PSP has in vitro antitumor activities and inhibits the growth of induced tumors in animal models. Clear evidence of clinically relevant benefits of PSP in cancer patients, however, is lacking. The investment of resources required to complete large-scale, randomized controlled trials of PSP in cancer patients is more easily justified if antitumor and survival benefits are documented in a complex animal model of a naturally occurring cancer that parallels human disease. Because of its high metastatic rate and vascular origin, canine hemangiosarcoma is used for investigations in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic therapies. In this double-blind randomized multidose pilot study, high-dose PSP significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma. These data suggest that, for those cancer patients for whom advanced treatments are not accessible, PSP as a single agent might offer significant improvements in morbidity and mortality.

  5. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 500 unselected patients with primary urinary bladder tumours the influence of urothelial atypia on the 5 years survival-rate was examined. All tumours were transitional-cell tumours categorized according to the T-classification. Mucosal biopsies from 7 pre-selected sites...... worse than those with normal bladder mucosa (5 years survival 42% versus 62%). This difference in survival-rate became apparent first after two years of observation. Grade II atypia in the bladder mucosa and grade III (carcinoma in situ) had equal significance assessed by the survival-rates....

  6. Combined modality treatment improves tumor control and overall survival in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed A; Brillant, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    . We thus performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma with respect to response rate, tumor control and overall survival (OS). We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library....... These trials underlined the results of the main analysis. In conclusion, adding radiotherapy to chemotherapy improves tumor control and OS in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma....

  7. Nanoparticle tumor localization, disruption of autophagosomal trafficking, and prolonged drug delivery improve survival in peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Colby, Aaron H; Gilmore, Denis; Schulz, Morgan; Zeng, Jialiu; Padera, Robert F; Shirihai, Orian; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-09-01

    The treatment outcomes for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma are poor and associated with high co-morbidities due to suboptimal drug delivery. Thus, there is an unmet need for new approaches that concentrate drug at the tumor for a prolonged period of time yielding enhanced antitumor efficacy and improved metrics of treatment success. A paclitaxel-loaded pH-responsive expansile nanoparticle (PTX-eNP) system is described that addresses two unique challenges to improve the outcomes for peritoneal mesothelioma. First, following intraperitoneal administration, eNPs rapidly and specifically localize to tumors. The rate of eNP uptake by tumors is an order of magnitude faster than the rate of uptake in non-malignant cells; and, subsequent accumulation in autophagosomes and disruption of autophagosomal trafficking leads to prolonged intracellular retention of eNPs. The net effect of these combined mechanisms manifests as rapid localization to intraperitoneal tumors within 4 h of injection and persistent intratumoral retention for >14 days. Second, the high tumor-specificity of PTX-eNPs leads to delivery of greater than 100 times higher concentrations of drug in tumors compared to PTX alone and this is maintained for at least seven days following administration. As a result, overall survival of animals with established mesothelioma more than doubled when animals were treated with multiple doses of PTX-eNPs compared to equivalent dosing with PTX or non-responsive PTX-loaded nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improved Survival Among Children with Spina Bifida in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyong; Kucik, James E.; Siffel, Csaba; Lu, Chengxing; Shaw, Gary M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate trends in survival among children with spina bifida by race/ethnicity and possible prognostic factors in 10 regions of the United States. Study design A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 5165 infants with spina bifida born during 1979-2003, identified by 10 birth defects registries in the United States. Survival probabilities and adjusted hazard ratios were estimated for race/ethnicity and other characteristics using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results During the study period, the 1-year survival probability among infants with spina bifida showed improvements for whites (from 88% to 96%), blacks (from 79% to 88%), and Hispanics (from 88% to 93%). The impact of race/ethnicity on survival varied by birth weight, which was the strongest predictor of survival through age 8. There was little racial/ethnic variation in survival among children born of very low birth weight. Among children born of low birth weight, the increased risk of mortality to Hispanics was approximately 4-6 times that of whites. The black-white disparity was greatest among children born of normal birth weight. Congenital heart defects did not affect the risk of mortality among very low birth weight children but increased the risk of mortality 4-fold among children born of normal birth weight. Conclusions The survival of infants born with spina bifida has improved; however, improvements in survival varied by race/ethnicity, and blacks and Hispanics continued to have poorer survival than whites in the most recent birth cohort from 1998-2002. Further studies are warranted to elucidate possible reasons for the observed differences in survival. PMID:22727874

  9. High survival and hatching rates following vitrification of embryos at blastocyst stage: a bovine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Y J; Chung, Jin-Tae; Tan, Seang Lin; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Cryopreservation of embryos at the blastocyst stage may provide an effective method to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate for each treatment cycle of ovarian-stimulated IVF. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and hatching rate of bovine blastocysts following vitrification using a method designed for oocytes, with a view to introducing this methodology into human assisted reproduction technology and reproductive medicine. Bovine blastocysts were produced from abattoir materials subjected to in-vitro maturation and in-vitro fertilization. Survival rate of the bovine blastocysts was 100% (94/94) following vitrification using a method designed for oocyte cryopreservation. There was no difference in the hatching rate of the bovine blastocysts between control (62.5%: 60/96) and vitrified (61.7%: 58/94) groups. The number of dead cells in the blastocysts was not significantly different between control (5.0 +/- 2.9) and vitrified (9.5 +/- 4.0) groups. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that bovine blastocysts can be vitrified successfully using a procedure designed for oocyte cryopreservation. It is possible that this method may also be successful for the cryopreservation of human embryos. A further study into this is currently being organized.

  10. Trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Moon, E K; Park, J Y; Jung, K W; Oh, C M; Kong, H J; Won, Y J

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population. Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry were extracted for 10,282 patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer (C01-C06) between 1999 and 2010 to evaluate the age-standardised incidence rate, annual percentage change (APC) and 5-year relative survival rate (RSR) according to gender and age. In males, the incidence rate slightly decreased [APC of -0.2% (P = 0.6427)]; in females, the incidence rate increased [APC of 3.1% (P oral tongue cancer (C02) significantly increased [APC of 2.2% and 4.1%, respectively (P oral tongue cancer incidence was most prominent in the younger age group (cancer increased only among males [APC of 4.8% (P oral cavity cancer in females increased, whereas it stabilised or decreased in males. However, the incidence of oral tongue cancer increased in both males and females, especially in the younger age group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Auto-SCT improves survival in systemic light chain amyloidosis: a retrospective analysis with 14-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, S; Kongtim, P; Champlin, R; Dinh, Y; Elgharably, Y; Wang, M; Bashir, Q; Shah, J J; Shah, N; Popat, U; Giralt, S A; Orlowski, R Z; Qazilbash, M H

    2014-08-01

    Optimal treatment approach continues to remain a challenge for systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL). So far, Auto-SCT is the only modality associated with long-term survival. However, failure to show survival benefit in randomized study raises questions regarding its efficacy. We present a comparative outcome analysis of Auto-SCT to conventional therapies (CTR) in AL patients treated over a 14-year period at our institution. Out of the 145 AL amyloidosis patients, Auto-SCT was performed in 80 patients with 1-year non-relapse mortality rate of 12.5%. Novel agents were used as part of induction therapy in 56% of transplant recipients vs 46% of CTR patients. Hematological and organ responses were seen in 74.6% and 39% in the Auto-SCT arm vs 53% and 12% in the CTR arm, respectively. The projected 5-year survival for Auto-SCT vs CTR was 63% vs 38%, respectively. Landmark analysis of patients alive at 1-year after diagnosis showed improved 5-year OS of 72% with Auto-SCT vs 65% in the CTR arm. In the multivariate analysis, age Auto-SCT were associated with improved survival. In conclusion, Auto-SCT is associated with long-term survival for patients with AL amyloidosis.

  12. Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonist Mitigates Hematopoietic Radiation Syndrome and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation Followed by Wound Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation combined with trauma tissue injury (combined injury, CI results in greater mortality and H-ARS than radiation alone (radiation injury, RI, which includes thrombocytopenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether increases in numbers of thrombocytes would improve survival and mitigate H-ARS after CI. We observed in mice that WBC and platelets remained very low in surviving RI animals that were given 9.5 Gy 60Co-γ-photon radiation, whereas only lymphocytes and basophils remained low in surviving CI mice that were irradiated and then given skin wounds. Numbers of RBC and platelets, hemoglobin concentrations, and hematocrit values remained low in surviving RI and CI mice. CI induced 30-day mortality higher than RI. Radiation delayed wound healing by approximately 14 days. Treatment with a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, Alxn4100TPO, after CI improved survival, mitigated body-weight loss, and reduced water consumption. Though this therapy delayed wound-healing rate more than in vehicle groups, it greatly increased numbers of platelets in sham, wounded, RI, and CI mice; it significantly mitigated decreases in WBC, spleen weights, and splenocytes in CI mice and decreases in RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit values, and splenocytes and splenomegaly in RI mice. The results suggest that Alxn4100TPO is effective in mitigating CI.

  13. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  15. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (pworking memory (pnutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Artificial insemination technology for the emu--improving sperm survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Irek A; Sood, Sushil; Tawang, Alene; Martin, Graeme B

    2011-12-01

    For the emu, where monogamous mating is normal, artificial insemination (AI) promises much faster genetic improvement and a considerable reduction in production costs by reducing the number of male birds needed for mating. Semen collection is now a routine procedure so the next step is to develop successful protocols for sperm storage. In this paper, we briefly overview our recent progress on the development of protocols for liquid storage and cryopreservation of emu spermatozoa. We have shown that emu semen can be stored at 10 °C for up to 48 h with a minimal loss of viability, and that cryopreservation with dimethylacetamide (DMA) as a cryoprotectant is feasible because we have observed no adverse effects of this cryoprotectant on the emu sperm membrane integrity, morphology and motility. We now need to establish the predictability of the various tests in vivo, but the proportions of live normal and motile sperm with good egg membrane penetration potential suggest that acceptable numbers of competent sperm are preserved and that this will be sufficient for AI.

  17. Cholecystectomy Reduces Recurrent Pancreatitis and Improves Survival After Endoscopic Sphincterotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shih-Hao; Peng, Yen-Ling; Lin, Xi-Hsuan; Chen, Yung-Tai; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Wang, Yen-Po; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cholecystectomy can decrease the recurrent pancreatitis in the elderly patients who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and successful clearance of bile duct (BD) stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. We analyzed data from National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Elderly patients (age ≧70 years old) who had gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and underwent successful EST with BD stones clearance were eligible for enrollment. This nationwide, population-based, propensity score (PS)-matched cohort study involved two cohorts: (1) patients who underwent cholecystectomy after ERCP with BD stone clearance as study group and (2) those who adopted wait-and-see strategy (without cholecystectomy) after ERCP with BD stone clearance as control group. The primary and secondary endpoints were recurrent acute pancreatitis and all-cause mortality, respectively. During the study period, a total of 670 elderly patients (male 291, female 379) with a mean age of 79.1 was enrolled for analysis after PS matching. The incidence rate of recurrent acute pancreatitis was 12.39 per 1000 person-years in the cholecystectomy cohort and 23.94 per 1000 person-years in the PS-matched control cohort. The risk of recurrent acute pancreatitis was significantly lower in the cholecystectomy cohort (HR, 0.56; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.91; P = 0.021). The HR for all-cause mortality among the cholecystectomy cohort was 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.59-0.95; P = 0.016) compared with the control cohort. Cholecystectomy decreased the subsequent recurrent acute pancreatitis and the all-cause mortality in elderly patients with EST and clearance of BD stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

  18. Survival rate and pressure ulcer prevalence in patients with and without dementia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, E; Rosenzweig, J P; Meiron, O

    2017-07-02

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in older patients with advanced dementia versus older patients without dementia but with other comorbidities, such as diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PUs were thought to be more prevalent and to present a higher risk of mortality in patients with dementia. PUs were assessed on admission using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) staging system. Patients were classified as either with or without dementia according to Reisberg's functional assessment staging test (FAST). The prevalence of PUs and the survival rates were analysed and compared in both groups. The combined effect of PUs and dementia on survival was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The median survival rate of patients with PUs and dementia was 63 days, significantly lower than in patients with PUs without dementia 117 days. Both groups had similar other comorbidities. These findings underscore the requirement for geriatricians and health professionals to be more vigilant in examining PUs as dementia progresses.

  19. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  20. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  1. Lung Cancer in a Rural Area of China: Rapid Rise in Incidence and Poor Improvement in Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Ding, Lu-Lu; Kensler, Thomas W; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a major health problem in developed countries for several decades, and has emerged recently as the leading cause of cancer death in many developing countries. The incidence of lung cancer appears to be increasing more rapidly in rural than in urban areas of China. This paper presents the trends of lung cancer incidence and survival derived from a 40-year population-based cancer monitoring program in a rural area, Qidong, China. The Qidong cancer registration data of 1972- 2011 were used to calculate the crude rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR), birth cohort rates, and other descriptive features. Active and passive methods were used to construct the data set, with a deadline of the latest follow-up of April 30, 2012. The total number of lung cancer cases was 15,340, accounting for 16.5% of all sites combined. The crude incidence rate, CASR and WASR of this cancer were 34.1, 15.7 and 25.4 per 100,000, respectively. Males had higher crude rates than females (49.7 vs 19.0). Rapidly increasing trends were found in annual percent change resulting in lung cancer being a number one cancer site after year 2010 in Qidong. Birth cohort analysis showed incidence rates have increased for all age groups over 24 years old. The 5 year observed survival rates were 3.55% in 1973-1977, 3.92 in 1983-1987, 3.69% in 1993-1997, and 6.32% in 2003-2007. Males experienced poorer survival than did females. Lung cancer has become a major cancer-related health problem in this rural area. The rapid increases in incidence likely result from an increased cigarette smoking rate and evolving environmental risk factors. Lung cancer survival, while showing some improvement in prognosis, still remains well below that observed in the developed areas of the world.

  2. Pioglitazone Improves Survival In Patients With Cancer: The Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banshi Saboo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone is currently the only thiazolidinedione approved by regulatory agencies worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The use of pioglitazone in patients with T2DM has been limited because earlier studies showed moderate weight gain and an increased incidence of heart failure, osteoporotic fractures, and bladder cancer. However, new studies have shown that pioglitazone improves both systolic and diastolic left ventricular function and that there is no association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer. Furthermore, pioglitazone is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality in patients with T2DM. Pioglitazone was also found to reduce the incidence of lung, head and neck, breast, colorectal, and hepatocellular cancer. There is tremendous preclinical evidence that links thiazolidinediones with anti-cancer effects. Three possible mechanisms of anti-proliferative effects induced by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARG agonists emerge: 1 activation of PPARG and epidermal growth factor receptor, which actives several intracellular pathways involved in carcinogenesis; 2 increase in serum adiponectin levels and decrease in serum leptin levels, which are associated with lower cancer risk and more favorable outcomes in patients with cancer; 3 modulate insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 receptor signaling by decreasing IGF-1 levels and increasing the expression of IGF binding protein 1. To date, there are no prospective, placebo-controlled trials that have analyzed the efficacy of pioglitazone in chemotherapy and chemoprevention. Only one ongoing study has shown that pioglitazone has an excellent capability of eradicating quiescent leukemia stem cells in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and achieving a complete molecular response. Current evidence supports our theory that future case-control studies examining pioglitazone as chemotherapy, or adjuvant chemotherapy, should be performed in

  3. Long-Term Survival Rate in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Treated With Noninvasive Ventilation in Ordinary Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Bocchino, Speranza; Lembo, Rosalba; Monti, Giacomo; Greco, Massimiliano; Zambon, Massimo; Colombo, Sergio; Pasin, Laura; Beretta, Luigi; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation is a life-saving technique increasingly used to treat acute respiratory failure. Noninvasive ventilation has been applied mostly in ICUs, but several reasons brought to an increasing application of noninvasive ventilation in ordinary wards. Few articles evaluated the outcomes of patients receiving noninvasive ventilation including long-term follow-up. The aim of the present study was to assess 1-year survival rate of patients treated with noninvasive ventilation outside the ICU for acute respiratory failure of heterogeneous causes and to identify the predictors of long-term mortality. Prospective, observational, pragmatic study. Ordinary wards of a teaching hospital. Consecutive patients treated with noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. None. Two-hundred and twenty-patients were enrolled. Mortality rates at 30-day, 90-days, and 1-year follow-up were 20%, 26%, and 34%. When excluding patients with "do-not-resuscitate" status, mortality rates were 13%, 19%, and 28%. The multivariate analyses identified solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic patients, and do-not-resuscitate status as independent predictors of mortality with postoperative acute respiratory failure associated with improved survival. The same predictors were confirmed when excluding do-not-resuscitate patients from the analyses. Noninvasive ventilation applied in ordinary wards was effective, with long-term outcomes not different from those reported for ICU settings. Solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic malignancies, and do-not-resuscitate status predicted mortality, whereas patients with postoperative acute respiratory failure had the best survival rate. Additional studies are required to evaluate noninvasive ventilation efficacy in the wards compared with ICU.

  4. Working to improve survival and health for babies born very preterm: the WISH project protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa F; Bain, Emily; Ashwood, Pat; Bubner, Tanya; Flenady, Vicki; Morris, Jonathan; McIntyre, Sarah

    2013-12-19

    Babies born very preterm (before 30 weeks gestation) are at high risk of dying in their first weeks of life, and those who survive are at risk of developing cerebral palsy in childhood. Recent high-quality evidence has shown that giving women magnesium sulphate immediately prior to very early birth can significantly increase the chances of their babies surviving free of cerebral palsy. In 2010 Australian and New Zealand clinical practice guidelines recommended this therapy. The WISH (Working to Improve Survival and Health for babies born very preterm) Project aims to bi-nationally improve and monitor the use of this therapy to reduce the risk of very preterm babies dying or having cerebral palsy. The WISH Project is a prospective cohort study. The 25 Australian and New Zealand tertiary level maternity hospitals will be provided with a package of active implementation strategies to guide the introduction and local adaptation of guideline recommendations. Surveys will be conducted at individual hospitals to evaluate outcomes related to local implementation progress and the use and value of the WISH implementation strategies. For the hospitals participating in the 'WISH audit of uptake and health outcomes data collection', the primary health outcomes (assessed through case note review, and 24 month corrected age questionnaires) will be: the proportion of eligible women receiving antenatal magnesium sulphate; and rates of death prior to primary hospital discharge and cerebral palsy at two years corrected age in infants born to eligible mothers. For hospitals wishing to assess factors influencing translation locally, barriers and facilitators will be measured through interviews with health care professionals, to further guide implementation strategies. Study outcomes for the early phase of the project (Year 1) will be compared with the later intervention phase (Years 2 and 3). The WISH Project will offer insight into the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation

  5. Effect of nitric oxide on spinal evoked potentials and survival rate in rats with decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Broholm, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have, in experimental settings, been shown to decrease intravascular nitrogen bubble formation and to increase the survival rate during decompression sickness (DCS) from diving. The effect has been ascribed to a possible removal of preexisting micronuclei...... evaluated by means of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs). Anesthetized rats were decompressed from a 1-h hyperbaric air dive at 506.6 kPa (40 m of seawater) for 3 min and 17 s, and spinal cord conduction was studied by measurements of SEPs. Histological samples of the spinal cord were analyzed for lesions...... GTN (group 6) during the dive, before decompression. In all groups, decompression caused considerable intravascular bubble formation. The ISMN groups showed no difference compared with the control group, whereas the GTN groups showed a tendency toward faster SEP disappearance and shorter survival...

  6. Effect of culture system on survival rate of vitrified bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Nazari, H; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B; Shams-Esfandabadi, N

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of in vitro culture system on bovine blastocyst yield and quality after vitrification. In Experiment 1, IVM/IVF zygotes were allocated to three culture conditions: (I) Oviductal cells-SOF (OCM-SOF); (II) Oviductal cells-TCM (OCM-TCM); and (III) SOF for 8 days. There was no significant difference between blastocyst rates among groups. In Experiment 2, the IVP-blastocysts in three above culture conditions were vitrified within groups segregated according to age (Day 7 and 8) and blastocoelic cavity size (early and expanded blastocysts). A trend of higher survival rate was obtained in vitrified/warmed early blastocysts compared with expanded ones, so that the difference in OCM-TCM group was significant (P<0.001). Higher survival and hatching rates (P<0.001) were obtained in OCM-SOF and OCM-TCM groups (co-culture) compared with SOF group and the age of blastocyst had no effect on post-thaw survival and hatching rates. In Experiment 3, after staining of blastocysts, in fresh blastocysts the highest number of trophectoderm cells was observed in OCM-TCM group and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) was higher in co-culture groups than SOF group (P<0.001). In vitrified/warmed blastocysts the number of ICM and trophectoderm cells in co-culture groups was higher than SOF group (P<0.001) except for the ICM of expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, in our culture conditions, the blastocyst yield is not influenced by culture system, while the cryotolerance of IVP-blastocysts is positively influenced by the presence of somatic cells. Moreover, the expanded blastocysts are more susceptible to cryoinjury than early blastocysts.

  7. Survival Rates of Teeth with Primary Endodontic Treatment after Core/Post and Crown Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kandace; Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Stover, Sheila; Eichmiller, Frederick; Hashimoto, Lance; MacDonald, Scott; Barkley, Gordon

    2017-12-08

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of delayed placement of the core/post and crown on the outcomes of nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). According to the Delta Dental of Wisconsin claims database, 160,040 NSRCTs were completed with a core/post and a crown placed before the end of the continuous coverage period or occurrence of an untoward event. Untoward events were defined as a retreatment, apicoectomy, or extraction as defined by the Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature. Statistical analysis was performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The survival rate from the time of crown placement to an untoward event was 99.1% at 1 year, 96.0% at 3 years, 92.3% at 5 years, and 83.8% at 10 years. Failure rates were greater when a core/post was placed more than 60 days after the NSRCT (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.08) and when the crown was placed more than 60 days after the core/post placement (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14). Overall, the survival rates of NSRCT were greater when performed by an endodontist versus other providers. On the basis of the information available from insurance claims data, this study shows that the long-term survival rates of initial endodontic therapy are adversely affected by the delayed placement of the final restoration and full coverage crown. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Escin Increases the Survival Rate of LPS-Induced Septic Mice Through Inhibition of HMGB1 Release from Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have described the effects of Escin on improving the survival rate of endotoxemic animals. The purpose of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of this potentially beneficial treatment. Methods: First, the survival rate of endotoxemic mice was monitored for up to 2 weeks after Escin pretreatment, Escin post-treatment, or Escin post-treatment + rHMGB1. The effects of Escin on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in the serum of endotoxemic mice and LPS-induced macrophages were evaluated by ELISA. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of HMGB1 in LPS-induced macrophages were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Additionally, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 was evaluated by ELISA in rHMGB1-induced macrophages. Finally, the protein levels and the activity of NF-κB in macrophages were checked by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Results: Both pretreatment and post-treatment with Escin could improve the survival rate of endotoxemic mice, while exogenous rHMGB1 reversed this effect. In addition, Escin decreased the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in endotoxemic mice and in LPS-induced macrophages. Escin could also inhibit the mRNA levels and activity of HMGB1. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 could be suppressed in rHMGB1-induced macrophages by Escin. Finally, Escin could suppress the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced macrophages. Conclusion: Escin could improve the survival of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. This effect maybe meditated by reducing the release of HMGB1, resulting in the suppression of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Higher survival rates of chronic hemodialysis patients on anti-hypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, K; Shoji, T; Nakai, S; Watanabe, Y; Akiba, T; Tsubakihara, Y

    2009-01-01

    The effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on survival have not been examined in a large cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. We examined the relationship between blood pressure, anti-hypertensive drug therapy, and survival using the nationwide HD registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Outcomes were confirmed using the coded ID numbers of the 2005 and 2006 registries. Logistic analyses were performed to determine the effect of anti-hypertensive drug therapy on survival. A total of 163,668 patients (50.6% men; 31.5% with diabetes mellitus; mean age 63.6 years) on HD 3 times a week in 2005 were studied. Mean (SD) levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 153.4 (24.1) and 78.7 (13.7) mm Hg, respectively, before the HD session. Two-thirds of the HD patients were prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and the numbers of anti-hypertensive medications were: 1 in 26.8%, 2 in 24.4%, and 3 or more in 14.5% of the total patients. The 1-year mortality rate was 6.6% overall: 8.5% in patients not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and 5.6% among those prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the 1-year mortality rate was 0.724 (0.681-0.770, p anti-hypertensive drugs, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, HD duration, serum albumin, and systolic blood pressure. Survival was better in patients prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs, particularly renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, than in those not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The causality on this association remained to be determined and prospective studies on blood pressure target levels and the effects of anti-hypertensive drug class in HD patients are warranted. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Antibody/doxycycline combined therapy for pulmonary ricinosis: Attenuation of inflammation improves survival of ricin-intoxicated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a highly toxic plant-derived toxin, is considered a potential weapon in biological warfare due to its high availability and ease of preparation. Pulmonary exposure to ricin results in the generation of an acute edematous inflammation followed by respiratory insufficiency and death. Passive immunization with polyclonal anti-ricin antibodies conferred protection against pulmonary ricinosis, however, at clinically-relevant time points for treatment, survival rates were limited. In this study, intranasal instillation of a lethal dose of ricin to mice, served as a lung challenge model for the evaluation and comparison of different therapeutic modalities against pulmonary ricinosis. We show that treatment with doxycycline resulted in a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, markers of oxidative stress and capillary permeability in the lungs of the mice. Moreover, survival rates of mice intoxicated with ricin and treated 24 h later with anti-ricin antibody were significantly improved by co-administration of doxycycline. In contrast, co-administration of the steroid drug dexamethasone with anti-ricin antibodies did not increase survival rates when administered at late hours after intoxication, however dexamethasone did exert a positive effect on survival when applied in conjunction with the doxycycline treatment. These studies strongly suggest that combined therapy, comprised of neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies and an appropriate anti-inflammatory agent, can promote high-level protection against pulmonary ricinosis at clinically-relevant time points post-exposure.

  11. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  12. Improved survival with early adjuvant chemotherapy after colonic resection for stage III colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Azaquoun, Najah; Jensen, Benny Vittrup

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: The final population included 1,827 patients scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant therapy started within 4 and 8 weeks improved survival when compared to start later than 8 weeks (HR [95%CI]: 1.7 [1.1-2.6]; P = 0.024 and 1.4 [1.07-1.8]; P = 0.013, respectively), whereas......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In stage III colonic cancer, time from surgery to start of adjuvant chemotherapy may influence survival. In this study, we evaluated the effect of timing of adjuvant therapy on survival. METHODS: Database study from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's national database...

  13. Five-year survival rates of melanoma patients treated by diet therapy after the manner of Gerson: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, G L; Hildenbrand, L C; Bradford, K; Cavin, S W

    1995-09-01

    Compare 5-year melanoma survival rates to rates in medical literature. Retrospective. Hospital in Tijuana, Mexico. White adult patients (N = 153) with superficial spreading and nodular melanoma, aged 25-72 years. Gerson's diet therapy: lactovegetarian; low sodium, fat and (temporarily) protein; high potassium, fluid, and nutrients (hourly raw vegetable/fruit juices). Metabolism increased by thyroid; calorie supply limited to 2600-3200 calories per day. Coffee enemas as needed for pain and appetite. 5-year survival rates by stage at admission. Of 14 patients with stages I and II (localized) melanoma, 100% survived for 5 years, compared with 79% of 15,798 reported by Balch. Of 17 with stage IIIA (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 82% were alive at 5 years, in contrast to 39% of 103 from Fachklinik Hornheide. Of 33 with combined stages IIIA + IIIB (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 70% lived 5 years, compared with 41% of 134 from Fachklinik Hornheide. We propose a new stage division: IVA (distant lymph, skin, and subcutaneous tissue metastases), and IVB (visceral metastases). Of 18 with stage IVA melanoma, 39% were alive at 5 years, compared with only 6% of 194 from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Survival impact was not assessed for stage IVB. Male and female survival rates were identical for stages I-IIIB, but stage IVA women had a strong survival advantage. The 5-year survival rates reported here are considerably higher than those reported elsewhere. Stage IIIA/B males had exceptionally high survival rates compared with those reported by other centers.

  14. Quality Rating and Improvement System State Evaluations and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a method used by states and local jurisdictions to assess the level of quality of child care and early education programs, improve quality, and convey quality ratings to parents and other consumers. A typical QRIS incorporates the following components: quality standards for participating providers;…

  15. Growing body of evidence on survival rates of implant-supported fixed prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Elliot

    2008-01-01

    the study-specific event rates, the Spearman goodness-of fit statistics and associated probability value were calculated. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate formally whether event rates varied by crown material (metal-ceramic vs all-ceramic) or crown design (cemented vs screw-retained). Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Survival of implants supporting SC was 96.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 95.9-97.6%] after 5 years. The survival rate of SC supported by implants was 94.5% (95% CI, 92.5-95.9%) after 5 years of function. The survival rate of metal-ceramic crowns, 95.4% (95% CI, 93.6-96.7%), was significantly higher (P 0.005) than the survival rate (91.2%; 95% CI, 86.8-94.2%), of all-ceramic crowns. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications occurred adjacent to 9.7% of the SC and 6.3% of the implants had bone loss exceeding 2 mm over the 5-year observation period. The cumulative incidence of implant fractures after 5 years was 0.14%. After 5 years, the cumulative incidence of screw or abutment loosening was 12.7%, and was 0.35% for screw or abutment fracture. For suprastructure-related complications, the cumulative incidence of ceramic or veneer fractures was 4.5%. An observation period of 5 years allows the conclusion that high survival rates of implants and implant-supported SC can be expected, but biological and, particularly, technical complications are frequent.

  16. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Freire, Gabriela Mesquita Lopes; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, Jo E

    2017-05-04

    The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR) sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6-7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  17. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirynen, M; de Soete, M; Pauwels, M; Goossens, K; Teughels, W; van Eldere, J; van Steenberghe, D

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Each time brushes were rinsed with tap water and stored dry at room temperature. At different time intervals an interdental brush or 4 tufts from a toothbrush were processed for vitality staining and selective and non-selective culturing procedures. Immediately after rinsing, a toothbrush without toothpaste harboured 10(7), 10(8) and 10(7) colony forming units (CFU) of respectively aerobic, anaerobic and black pigmented species. An insignificant decrease occurred the first 24 hours and after 48 hours still 10(4) CFU of aerobic and anaerobic species could be cultured. No periodontopathogen remained detectable at 8 hours, except for Fusobacterium nucleatum. The proportion of vital bacteria decreased in 48 hours from 50% to 30%. Comparable results were obtained for interdental brushes. The bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes was significantly reduced by the use of a detergent containing toothpaste by 2 log at baseline, another 2 log at 4 hours and an extra log more at 8 hours for aerobic and anaerobic species. A toothpaste without detergent only had an insignificant bactericidal effect. Toothpaste detergents decrease the survival rate of pathogenic species on a toothbrush and can thus limit the risk for bacterial translocation.

  18. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Augusto HILGERT

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6–7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  19. Prescription dose and fractionation predict improved survival after stereotactic radiotherapy for brainstem metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeman Jonathan E

    2012-07-01

    nausea (n = 1 and headaches (n = 2 that resolved with a short-course of dexamethasone. Conclusion SRT/SRS for brainstem metastases is safe and achieves a high rate of local control. We found higher GPA as well as greater number of treatment fractions and higher prescription dose to be correlated with improved overall survival. Despite this approach, prognosis remains poor and distant intracranial control remains an issue, even in patients previously treated with WBRT.

  20. Increasing Calcium Carbonate (Caco3) To Growt And Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Heriadi, Unggul Fitrah; ', Mulyadi; Putra, Iskandar

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in March 2016 - April 2016 for 21 days at the NationalBroodstock Center For Shrimp and Mollusk Karangasem Bali. The purpose of this study todetermine the effect of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the growth and survival rate vanameishrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei). Vanamei shrimp size PL25 were used in the research. Thecontainer used fiber tub with capacity 250 liters and the volume of water used is 100 liters.The treatment is giving of calcium carbonate 20 mg, 35mg, 50m...

  1. Survival Rate and its Related Factors in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghaffarian Shirazi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been noted that the myocardial infarction is an increasing episode in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help to reduce the number of death from this ongoing event. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and its association with different variables. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study evaluates 111 cases of acute myocardial infarction admitted in Yasuj Imam Sajjad hospital during the year 2004 and 2005. Data were collected using a questionnaire which was completed through direct interviewing by trained personnel. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of patients was 57± 12 years. The mean time of having access to physician after MI was 4 ± 2.2 hours. The mean time of reaching hospital after physician order was 5 ± 4.9 hours. The mean time of hospitalization was 4 ± 1.67 days. Considering the past history of these patients revealed that 31 percent were smokers, 16 percent had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 63 percent had hypertension, 8 percent had diabetes mellitus, 95 percent had clip I, 95 percent had no previous block, 82 percent had MI with Q wave. The survival rate in our study was found to be 0.91 in the first 10 hours, 0.847 in the first day, 0.829 in the first 28 days, 0.820 in the first third months, 0.792 in the first six months and 0.771 in the first 10 months of disease. Conclusion: The mortality rate during the first month among the patients with heart failure turned out to be higher than that of the other similar studies performed in other parts of the country however, the annual survival rate proved to be less. The most important causes of survival after the stroke are being single, smoking, fatness and angina pain

  2. Brachytherapy Improves Survival in Stage III Endometrial Cancer With Cervical Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Orton, Andrew; Boothe, Dustin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Stoddard, Greg [Division of Epidemiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Huang, Y. Jessica; Gaffney, David K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Poppe, Matthew M., E-mail: Matthew.poppe@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival benefit of adding vaginal brachytherapy (BT) to pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in women with stage III endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients with stage III endometrial cancer from 2004 to 2013. Only women who received adjuvant EBRT were analyzed. Women were grouped according to receipt of BT. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify predictors of receiving BT. Log–rank statistics were used to compare survival outcomes. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the effect of BT on survival. A propensity score–matched analysis was also conducted among women with cervical involvement. Results: We evaluated 12,988 patients with stage III endometrial carcinoma, 39% of whom received EBRT plus BT. Women who received BT were more likely to have endocervical or cervical stromal involvement (odds ratios 2.03 and 1.77; P<.01, respectively). For patients receiving EBRT alone, the 5-year survival was 66% versus 69% with the addition of BT at 5 years (P<.01). Brachytherapy remained significantly predictive of decreased risk of death (hazard ratio 0.86; P<.01) on multivariate Cox regression. The addition of BT to EBRT did not affect survival among women without cervical involvement (P=.84). For women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion, the addition of BT significantly improved survival (log–rank P<.01). Receipt of EBRT plus BT was associated with improved survival in women with positive and negative surgical margins, and receiving chemotherapy did not alter the benefit of BT. Propensity score–matched analysis results confirmed the benefit of BT among women with cervical involvement (hazard ratio 0.80; P=.01). Conclusions: In this population of women with stage III endometrial cancer the addition of BT to EBRT was associated with an improvement in survival for women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion.

  3. Stadium IB - IIA cervical cancer patient’s survival rate after receiving definitive radiation and radical operation therapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy along with analysis of factors affecting the patient’s survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslim, S. K.; Purwoto, G.; Widyahening, I. S.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and overall survival rates of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IB-IIA) patients who receive definitive radiation therapy and those who are prescribed adjuvant postoperative radiation and to conduct a factors analysis of the variables that affect the overall survival rates in both groups of therapy. The medical records of 85 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stages IB-IIA who were treated at the Department of Radiotherapy of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were reviewed and analyzed to determine their overall survival and the factors that affected it between a definitive radiation group and an adjuvant postoperative radiation group. There were 25 patients in the definitive radiation and 60 patients in the adjuvant radiation group. The overall survival rates in the adjuvant radiation group at years one, two, and three were 96.7%, 95%, and 93.3%, respectively. Negative lymph node metastasis had an average association with overall survival (p 12 g/dl was a factor with an average association with the overall survival (p cervical cancer FIGO stage IB-IIA patients who received definitive radiation or adjuvant postoperative radiation. Negative lymph node metastasis had an effect on the overall survival rate in the adjuvant postoperative radiation group, while a preradiation Hb level >12 g/dl tended to affect the overall survival in the definitive radiation group patients.

  4. Interleukin-7 ameliorates immune dysfunction and improves survival in a 2-hit model of fungal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsinger, Jacqueline; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Morre, Michel; Prakash, Priya S; Caldwell, Charles C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2012-08-15

    Secondary hospital-acquired fungal infections are common in critically-ill patients and mortality remains high despite antimicrobial therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent immunotherapeutic agent that improves host immunity and has shown efficacy in bacterial and viral models of infection. This study examined the ability of IL-7, which is currently in multiple clinical trials (including hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), to improve survival in a clinically relevant 2-hit model of fungal sepsis. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce peritonitis. Four days later, surviving mice had intravenous injection with Candida albicans. Following Candida infection, mice were treated with IL-7 or saline control. The effect of IL-7 on host immunity and survival was recorded. IL-7 ameliorated the loss of immune effector cells and increased lymphocyte functions, including activation, proliferation, expression of adhesion molecules, and interferon-γ production. These beneficial effects of IL-7 were associated with an increase in global immunity as reflected by an enhanced delayed type hypersensitivity response and a 1.7-fold improvement in survival. The present findings showing that IL-7 improves survival in fungal sepsis, together with its previously reported efficacy in bacterial and viral infectious models, further supports its use as a novel immunotherapeutic in sepsis.

  5. Oocyte pre-IVM with caffeine improves bovine embryo survival after vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Ulloa, Sandra Milena; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Herrmann, Doris; Hadeler, Klaus-Gerd; Aldag, Patrick; Baulain, Ulrich; Niemann, Heiner

    2016-09-15

    Cryopreservation of in vitro produced bovine embryos is associated with significantly reduced survival rates, mainly due to insufficient quality of the embryos. Caffeine supplementation during IVM has been used to delay meiotic resumption and concomitantly also increased embryo quality. Here, we investigated the influence of pre-IVM with caffeine on oocyte maturation, intraoocyte cAMP concentration, developmental competence after IVF, and blastocyst cryotolerance. Oocytes were obtained by slicing of ovaries and were submitted to either 2 hours culture before IVM with or without caffeine (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 mM), or standard IVM (no pre-IVM). Oocytes were in vitro matured and fertilized and zygotes were cultured under standard in vitro conditions until Day 8. Expanded blastocysts derived from either standard control or the 10-mM caffeine treatments were submitted to vitrification. Caffeine delayed meiotic resumption after 9-hour IVM in a concentration-dependent manner. The cAMP levels were similar before and after IVM. Matured oocytes, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were reduced in the 30-mM caffeine concentration and were similar among the other treatment groups. Number and proportion of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells in blastocysts did not differ among treatments. Forty-eight hours after thawing, hatching rates were higher in the 10-mM caffeine group (73.8%) compared with the standard control (59.7%). Reexpansion rates and total number of cells after 48 hours were similar in both treatments. The ratio of live/total cells was higher in the caffeine treatment. These results suggest that caffeine supplementation before IVM delayed meiotic resumption and improved blastocyst quality shown in higher cryotolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving survival of children with cancer worldwide: the St. Jude International Outreach Program approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the St. Jude International Outreach Program (IOP) is to improve the survival rate of children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases worldwide, through the sharing of knowledge, technology, and organizational skills. There are an estimated 160,000 newly diagnosed cases of childhood cancer worldwide each year, and cancer is emerging as a major cause of childhood death in the developing regions of Asia, South and Central America, northwest Africa, and the Middle East. Over the past 30 years improved therapy has dramatically increased survival rates for children with cancer, but still more than 70% of the world's children with cancer lack access to modern treatment. Although sick children from around the world have traveled to our hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, since its inception, treating children in their own countries is more efficient and less disruptive for them and their families. In the context of St. Jude's culture of sharing knowledge about the management of children with cancer, we now use modern technology to reach far more children than would ever be able to come to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. St. Jude strives to address the needs of those children in countries that lack sufficient resources and to help them manage their own burden of cases effectively. By sharing knowledge and technology with the local governments, health care providers, and the private sector in these countries, St. Jude is improving diagnoses and treatments to increase the survival rates of children all across the globe. In addition to training medical teams locally, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital hosts many visiting fellows at our campus in Memphis. St. Jude helps partner medical institutions develop tailored evidence-based protocols for treating children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases. St. Jude physicians serve as mentors to physicians at our partner sites and consult on difficult cases. Nurses are trained on best practices in

  7. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  8. A long-term retrospective analysis of survival rates of implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Stein, Brett E; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the survival rate of endosseous dental implants placed in the edentulous or partially edentulous mandible over a long-term follow-up period of 10 years or more. The charts of patients who underwent mandibular implant placement at a private prosthodontics practice and received follow-up care for 10 years or more were included in this study. Implants were examined according to the following study variables: patient sex, patient age, degree of edentulism (fully vs partially edentulous), implant location, time of loading (delayed vs immediate), implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of other implants during placement. The study sample was composed of 2,394 implants placed in 470 patients with 10 to 27 years of follow-up. Of these 2,394 implants, 176 failed, resulting in an overall cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 92.6%. A total of 1,482 implants were placed in edentulous mandibles, and 912 implants were placed in partially edentulous mandibles, with CSRs of 92.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Comparisons of the study variables with respect to CSR were largely nonsignificant. However, there were significant differences in CSRs between anterior vs posterior locations and rough- vs smooth-surfaced implants in addition to some prosthesis types, ages, and bone qualities. The overall CSR of 92.6% in the present study is high and comparable to survival rates observed in previous long-term analyses of mandibular implants. The significant differences observed between implant locations, patient age groups, bone qualities, and prostheses were not suggestive of any remarkable trends. Patient sex, age, degree of edentulism, implant location, time of loading, implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of multiple implants did not result in any significant effect on long-term implant survival. The CSR observed after 10 to 27 years of follow-up in a single private prosthodontic center was high (92

  9. Parasitic infection improves survival from septic peritonitis by enhancing mast cell responses to bacteria in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Sutherland

    Full Text Available Mammals are serially infected with a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites. Each infection reprograms the immune system's responses to re-exposure and potentially alters responses to first-time infection by different microorganisms. To examine whether infection with a metazoan parasite modulates host responses to subsequent bacterial infection, mice were infected with the hookworm-like intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, followed in 2-4 weeks by peritoneal injection of the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Survival from Klebsiella peritonitis two weeks after parasite infection was better in Nippostrongylus-infected animals than in unparasitized mice, with Nippostrongylus-infected mice having fewer peritoneal bacteria, more neutrophils, and higher levels of protective interleukin 6. The improved survival of Nippostrongylus-infected mice depends on IL-4 because the survival benefit is lost in mice lacking IL-4. Because mast cells protect mice from Klebsiella peritonitis, we examined responses in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice, in which parasitosis failed to improve survival from Klebsiella peritonitis. However, adoptive transfer of cultured mast cells to Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice restored survival benefits of parasitosis. These results show that recent infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis protects mice from Klebsiella peritonitis by modulating mast cell contributions to host defense, and suggest more generally that parasitosis can yield survival advantages to a bacterially infected host.

  10. Improved survival for patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the era of chemo-immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, C; Simonsen, J; Rostgaard, K

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is in rapid transition, and during recent decades both combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy have been introduced. To evaluate the effects of this development, we identified all CLL patients registered in the nation-wide Danish Cancer...... diagnosed in 1978-1984 and 2006-2013, respectively. The improved survival corresponded to a decreasing risk of death from malignant hematological diseases, whereas the risk of death from infections was stable during the study period. These population-based data substantiate the improved survival...

  11. Shorter survival rate in varus-aligned knees after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shang, Ping; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    One long-held tenet of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is that post-operative neutral limb alignment promotes implant durability. Recently, the concept of generic safe zone (0° ± 3°) has been challenged. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether neutral alignment was superior to malalignment in long-term survival of TKAs. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Chinese Periodical, Google and reference lists of all the included studies were searched. Of the 1512 studies initially identified, ten met the eligibility criteria, including eight case-control studies and two cohort trials. Relative risks of implant failure were compared between post-operative neutrally aligned and malaligned knees. Post-operative malalignment showed higher failure rate of knee implants compared with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.00-1.88, P = 0.05). Failure rate in knees with varus alignment was significantly higher than with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.07-2.55, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of implant failure between knees with valgus and neutral alignment (95 % CI 0.78-2.41, n.s.). No significant difference of failure rate was noted between neutral alignment and malalignment for fixed-bearing prothesis (95 % CI 0.94-1.95, n.s.) or rotating-platform prothesis (95 % CI 0.75-2.73, n.s.). There was no significant difference of failure rate between knees with neutral alignment and malalignment for studies with a mean follow-up of more than 10 years (95 % CI 0.81-2.01, n.s.) or studies using long-leg weight-bearing radiographs (95 % CI 0.79-1.79, n.s.). Post-operative varus alignment results in shorter survival rate after TKA. Not only neutral limb alignment but also the valgus alignment promotes implant durability. Neutral or valgus alignment rather than varus alignment is essential to achieve long-term survival of TKAs and patient satisfaction. III.

  12. Time to adjuvant chemotherapy following colorectal cancer resection is associated with an improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A R; Middleton, G; Smith, R V P; Jourdan, I C; Rockall, T A

    2014-05-01

    Multicentre randomized trials have demonstrated equivalent long-term outcomes for open and laparoscopic resection of colon cancer. Some studies have indicated a possible survival advantage in certain patients undergoing laparoscopic resection. Patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy in improved survival. Data were collated for patients having an elective laparoscopic or open resection for non-metastatic colorectal cancer between October 2003 and December 2010 and subsequently having adjuvant chemotherapy. Survival analysis was conducted. In all, 209 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy following open (n = 76) or laparoscopic (n = 133) surgery. Median length of stay was 3 days with laparoscopic resection and 6 days with open resection (P chemotherapy was 52 with laparoscopic resection and 58 with open resection (P = 0.008). The 5-year overall survival was 89.6% in patients receiving chemotherapy in chemotherapy chemotherapy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. The Effect of Weaning Tecnique to Survival Rate and Height Growth of Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical rehabilitation planning of BPDAS Tondano on coastal area has reached 10,000 hectares, thus require many seedlings. Nyamplung has potential as rehabilitation plant in coastal at the same time it can support national demand of biofuel. However the nurseries of nyamplung in North Sulawesi are not optimal and need appropriate information of weaning method. This research used completely randomized design with three treatment factors, namely 1 Cutting the leaves consist of two levels ie D1 (pair leaves and D2 (intact leaf; 2 Cutting intact seeds, consists of two levels i.e B1 (removed seed and B2 (intact seeds; and 3 Cutting the roots lenght consist of three levels i.e A1 (5 cm, A2 (10 cm and A3 (15 cm. There were 180 seedlings taken from seed that germinated using cocopeat media. Results of variance analysis showed that the applied treatment only affect the heigth growth. The survival rate is not affected by all treatments or in the other words survival rate reached 100 %. The treatments on leaves and seeds gave significant effect, on the contrary with root treatment. The treatment of intact leaf (D2 and intact seeds (B2 produced the best height growth responses i.e 4.60 cm and 4.63 cm.

  14. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls.

  15. Use of alpaca seminal plasma on ovulation rate and embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The South American camelids are a domesticated species adapted to the high Andes, they are considered as a species of induced ovulation. In these species, so that the release of the oocyte occurs, a neuroendocrine interaction and stimulation during intercourse (which have to lasts on average 18 minutes is necessary. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of an inducing factor for the ovulation found in the seminal plasma of the male that is crucial for ovulation to occurs in camelids. From 1968 researches were initiated to confirm and determine the inductor factor. The works have shown that ovulation in alpacas occurs after intramuscular and intravaginal application of seminal plasma. Recent studies showed the luteotropic effect of this factor, which is evidenced by the increase and retention of circulating concentrations of LH, the rapid change in the vascularization of the pre-ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum development, this contributes to the increase of the embryonic survival rate, due to the stimulus that causes this hormone in the pituitary to release LH, triggering an additional luteotropic effect on the corpus luteum with increased secretion of progesterone. At the field, level the results are not as manifest in relation to the results obtained when the ultrasound monitoring is performed. However, the work done by different research groups confirm the contribution of seminal plasma in increasing fertility rates and embryonic survival in domestic camelids such as alpaca and llama.

  16. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (pyogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  17. Radiotherapy combined with intracavitary irradiation for uterine cervical cancer. Study of survival rate, patterns of recurrence and complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuda, Junko; Mizutani, Yoshiyuki; Yoshino, Ayako; Takayama, Makoto; Furuya, Yoshiro (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Takei, Ryoji

    1994-09-01

    Survival rates and patterns of recurrence in 137 patients with uterine cervical cancer were determined. These patients were treated by radiotherapy with high-dose rate intracavitary irradiation using remote afterloading system (RALS) at Kyorin University Hospital from Oct. 1987 to Dec. 1992. Age range was from 29 to 87 years. According to clinical staging of UICC, stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 29, 62, 33, and 13 cases respectively. Cumulative 5-year survival rate of all cases was 72%. Cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for stage I, 81% for stage II, 38% for stage III, and 27% for stage IV. Cumulative 5-year survival rates of the postoperative radiotherapy and radical radiotherapy groups were 75% and 90% respectively. There was significant difference of survival rates between the postoperative radiotherapy group and the radical radiotherapy group. As patterns of recurrence, extrapelvic metastasis was more frequent than local recurrence. In stages II and III, recurrent patterns were extrapelvic matastasis in most cases. Of 18 cases with extrapelvic metastasis, there were 10 cases of paraaortic lymph node metastasis. With increase in the control rate of parraortic lymph node metastasis, survival rate of patients with uterine cervical cancer increased. Four of 5 cases with local recurrence controled by intracavitary irradiation is effective for local recurrence control. Rectal and bladder complications following radiotherapy were observed in 25 cases. However, all cases with complication after radiotherapy were treated conservatively, excluding 1 case (vasicorectal fistula). (author).

  18. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Reduced in-hospital survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; Warnier, M J; Bardai, A

    2013-01-01

    with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have a lower survival rate after OHCA than non-OPD patients. METHODS: We performed a community-based cohort study of 1172 patients with non-traumatic OHCA with ECG-documented VT/VF between 2005 and 2008. We compared survival to emergency room (ER), to hospital admission...

  20. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  1. Beta-blocker use is associated with improved relapse-free survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem-Bertrandt, Amal; Chavez-Macgregor, Mariana; Lei, Xiudong; Brown, Erika N; Lee, Richard T; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Sood, Anil K; Conzen, Suzanne D; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana-Maria

    2011-07-01

    To examine the association between beta-blocker (BB) intake, pathologic complete response (pCR) rates, and survival outcomes in patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 1,413 patients with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 1995 and 2007. Patients taking BBs at the start of neoadjuvant therapy were compared with patients with no BB intake. Rates of pCR between the groups were compared using a χ² test. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to determine the association between BB intake, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Patients who used BBs (n = 102) were compared with patients (n = 1,311) who did not. Patients receiving BBs tended to be older and obese (P cancer (TNBC; n = 377), BB intake was associated with improved RFS (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.87;P = .027) but not OS (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.00;P = .05). In this study, BB intake was associated with improved RFS in all patients with breast cancer and in patients with TNBC. Additional studies evaluating the potential benefits of beta-adrenergic blockade on breast cancer recurrence with a focus on TNBC are warranted.

  2. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  3. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  4. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepods, Acartia spinicauda (Acartiidae) and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Diaptomidae) in order to determine food preference and survival rates respectively. Adults of A. spinicauda were fed monocultures...

  5. Providing supplemental milk to piglets preweaning improves the growth but not survival of gilt progeny compared with sow progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Y J; Collins, A M; Smits, R J; Thomson, P C; Holyoake, P K

    2012-12-01

    Gilt progeny have lighter weaning weights and greater postweaning medication and mortality rates compared with the progeny of older parity sows. Because weaning weight has been positively correlated with postweaning survival, this study aimed to determine whether the provision of supplemental milk preweaning could improve weaning weight and subsequent weights as well as postweaning survival of gilt progeny. The study was replicated in summer and winter as the effects of supplemental milk were expected to vary with season. The progeny of 80 gilts (parity 0) and 80 sows (parity 2 to 5) were allocated to both treatments: with or without supplemental milk in these 2 seasons with 5 sheds/season. Litter size was standardized (10 to 11 piglets) and each piglet was weighed at birth, d 21, weaning (4 wk), and 10 wk of age. Medications and mortalities were recorded both preweaning and postweaning. Pigs were housed within treatment groups postweaning, and ADFI and G:F were measured. Gilt progeny were 200 g lighter at birth in both replicates (P gilt and sow progeny by 800 g in summer (P gilts or sows (P > 0.05). Supplemental milk disappearance (the daily difference between the volume of milk provided and the residue left in the drinker) was greater in summer than winter (by 130 mL/piglet d(-1); P gilt progeny reached or exceeded that of nonsupplemented sow progeny. Gilt progeny had greater postweaning mortality (2.6%) and medication rates (6.2%) than sow progeny (1 and 2.2%, respectively; both P Gilt progeny also had less postweaning ADFI than sow progeny in winter (528 and 636 g, respectively; P 0.05). The hypothesis that supplemental milk provision did increase gilt progeny weaning weight was supported (especially in summer) but the supplementation had no effect on postweaning weights and survival. Efforts to improve gilt progeny postweaning growth and survival need to be aimed at improving health and immunity, not just weaning weight.

  6. Long-term survival in advanced melanoma patients using repeated therapies: successive immunomodulation improving the odds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coventry BJ

    2015-04-01

    had died. Published studies of melanoma therapies were tabled for comparison. Conclusion: The fact that 18 cases of exceptional survival in advanced melanoma were identified is remarkable in itself. Even with recent therapies, the factors for improved survival remain enigmatic; however, one apparent common denominator in most cases was the persistent use of repeated therapies to reduce tumor bulk, induce tumor necrosis, and/or cause immunostimulation. These cases are instructive, suggesting manipulation of an established, endogenous, existing immune response. These observations provide practical evidence that the course for any patient with advanced melanoma at the outset should be considered unpredictable, open to immunomanipulation, and thus not uniformly fatal. The findings were compared and interpreted with reported newer immunotherapeutic approaches. Keywords: advanced melanoma, clinical responses, immunotherapy, prolonged survival

  7. Growth and Survival Rate of Redclaw Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus Reared with Different Density in Recirculation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the growth and survival rate of redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus reared in recirculation system with density 20, 30, 40 and 50 m-2. Lobster with 6.02 ± 0.13 cm length and 6.23 ± 0.51 gram initial body weights were cultured in 60 x 30 x 40 cm aquarium and compiled in recirculation system, for 42 days. Result of research showed that there are statistically difference at growth rate daily weight, coefficient of variances and feed efficiency (p0.05. From this research it can be concluded that the best density for freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus was 50 m-2.Keywords: density, growth, survival rate, redclaw crayfish,  Cherax quadricarinatus ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup lobster capit merah (Cherax quadricarinatus yang dipelihara pada sistem resirkulasi dengan kepadatan 20, 30, 40 dan 50 ekor/m2. Benih lobster yang digunakan memiliki panjang awal rata-rata 6,02 ± 0,13 cm dan berat 6,23 ± 0,51 gram, dipelihara pada akuarium dengan ukuran 60 x 30 x 40 cm yang diisi air setinggi 20 cm dan disusun dalam sistem resirkulasi, selama 42 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata pada laju pertumbuhan bobot harian, koefisien keragaman dan efisiensi pakan (p0,05. Dari hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa padat penebaran yang dapat memberikan hasil maksimum adalah 50 ekor/m2.Kata kunci: padat penebaran, pertumbuhan, kelangsungan hidup, lobster capit merah, Cherax quadricarinatus

  8. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ascencio-Montiel, Iv?n de Jes?s; Kumate-Rodr?guez, Jes?s; Borja-Aburto, V?ctor Hugo; Fern?ndez-Garate, Jos? Esteban; Konik-Comonfort, Selene; Mac?as-P?rez, Oliver; Campos-Hern?ndez, ?ngel; Rodr?guez-V?zquez, H?ctor; L?pez-Rold?n, Ver?nica Miriam; Zitle-Garc?a, Edgar Jes?s; Sol?s-Cruz, Mar?a del Carmen; Vel?zquez-Ram?rez, Ismael; Aguilar-Jim?nez, Miriam; Villa-Caballero, Leonel; Cisneros-Gonz?lez, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,01...

  9. [Impact of ishemia-reperfusion injury on long survival rate in intestinal transplantation in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausada, Natalia; Stringa, Pablo; Cabanne, Ana; Ramisch, Diego; Machuca, Mariana; Galvao, Flavio; Coronato, Silvia; Raimondi, Jorge Clemente; Gondolesi, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    The intestine is a highly sensitive tissue to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury that will early respond increasing its permeability. Later this response is translated in morphologic and histological changes that reveal the degree of damage. The heterotopic intestinal transplantation model in rats allows to evaluate the evolution of intestinal tissue injury after ischemia-reperfusion without affecting the long survival rate. The aim of this paper is to establish a relationship between the ischemic reperfusion injury with the long-term survival Ten intestinal transplants were analyzed in adult, Wistar, inbred, male rats. Light microscopical examination was performed on intestine graft: 1) immediately post-dissection, 2) at the end of cold isquemia, 3) 30 min, 4) 48hs and 5) 5 days post-transplant procedure, respectively. Biopsies were reported according to Park's classification and extension of staining using immunohistochemestry to malondialdehyde (MDA) products. The Park's classification indexes reported in samples were 1) 0,57 +/- 1,13 (N=10); 2) 2,71 +/- 1,25 (N=10); 3) 4,14 +/- 0,89 (N=10); 4) 1,0 +/- 0,81 (N=7); 5) 0 (N=7). The highest levels of immunohistochemical detection of MDA were observed thirty minutes post-reperfusion (extension of staining between 51% to 75%). Three animals died when they were sampled at 48 hours, and the biopsies had Park's classification > or = 4 at 30 minutes post-reperfusion and endotoxemic signology. The highest degree of mucosal damage was observed immediately post-reperfusion. At 48hs the graft tended to be normalized Failure to repair the immediately I-R injury signficantly affects the long term survival.

  10. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and...

  11. Improved survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using new guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, Jacob; Barnung, S.; Nielsen, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that the implementations of 2005 European Resuscitation Council resuscitation guidelines were associated with improved 30-day survival after OHCA. METHODS: We prospectively recorded data on all...

  12. Does hydroxyapatite coating of uncemented cups improve long-term survival?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarinis, Stergios; Mäkelä, Keijo T; Eskelinen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether hydroxyapatite (HA) coating of uncemented cups used in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) improves bone ingrowth and reduces the risk of aseptic loosening. We therefore investigated survival of different uncemented cups that were available with or without HA...

  13. Prior Infection Does Not Improve Survival against the Amphibian Disease Chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashins, Scott D.; Grogan, Laura F.; McFadden, Michael; Hunter, David; Harlow, Peter S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2013-01-01

    Many amphibians have declined globally due to introduction of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Hundreds of species, many in well-protected habitats, remain as small populations at risk of extinction. Currently the only proven conservation strategy is to maintain species in captivity to be reintroduced at a later date. However, methods to abate the disease in the wild are urgently needed so that reintroduced and wild animals can survive in the presence of Bd. Vaccination has been widely suggested as a potential strategy to improve survival. We used captive-bred offspring of critically endangered booroolong frogs (Litoria booroolongensis) to test if vaccination in the form of prior infection improves survival following re exposure. We infected frogs with a local Bd isolate, cleared infection after 30 days (d) using itraconazole just prior to the onset of clinical signs, and then re-exposed animals to Bd at 110 d. We found prior exposure had no effect on survival or infection intensities, clearly showing that real infections do not stimulate a protective adaptive immune response in this species. This result supports recent studies suggesting Bd may evade or suppress host immune functions. Our results suggest vaccination is unlikely to be useful in mitigating chytridiomycosis. However, survival of some individuals from all experimental groups indicates existence of protective innate immunity. Understanding and promoting this innate resistance holds potential for enabling species recovery. PMID:23451076

  14. Prior infection does not improve survival against the amphibian disease Chytridiomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Cashins

    Full Text Available Many amphibians have declined globally due to introduction of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Hundreds of species, many in well-protected habitats, remain as small populations at risk of extinction. Currently the only proven conservation strategy is to maintain species in captivity to be reintroduced at a later date. However, methods to abate the disease in the wild are urgently needed so that reintroduced and wild animals can survive in the presence of Bd. Vaccination has been widely suggested as a potential strategy to improve survival. We used captive-bred offspring of critically endangered booroolong frogs (Litoria booroolongensis to test if vaccination in the form of prior infection improves survival following re exposure. We infected frogs with a local Bd isolate, cleared infection after 30 days (d using itraconazole just prior to the onset of clinical signs, and then re-exposed animals to Bd at 110 d. We found prior exposure had no effect on survival or infection intensities, clearly showing that real infections do not stimulate a protective adaptive immune response in this species. This result supports recent studies suggesting Bd may evade or suppress host immune functions. Our results suggest vaccination is unlikely to be useful in mitigating chytridiomycosis. However, survival of some individuals from all experimental groups indicates existence of protective innate immunity. Understanding and promoting this innate resistance holds potential for enabling species recovery.

  15. Dampak Stres Salinitas Terhadap Prevalensi White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV dan Survival Rate Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Pada Kondisi Terkontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attabik Mukhammad Amrillah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome (WSS adalah penyakit yang secara signifikan menyebabkan tingginya mortalitas dan kerusakan parah pada budidaya udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak stres salinitas terhadap prevalensi WSSV dan survival rate udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini menggunakan udang vannamei ukuran PL 40 yang diinfeksi WSSV dengan konsentrasi virus 20 μg/ml pada tiga rentang salinitas yang berbeda 0-10 ppt, 11-20 ppt, 21–30 ppt dan di rendam selama 4 jam kemudian dilakukan pengamatan selama 7 hari pasca infeksi dan diukur survival rate dan kuaitas airnya. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel terinfeksi oleh WSSV, ditunjukkan hasil analisa PCR dan gejala klinis yang timbul. Salinitas 0-10 ppt memberikan hasil persentase survival rate terendah jika dibandingkan dengan rentang salinitas yang lainnya yaitu sebesar 7 ekor atau 33% dari jumlah total sampel yang digunakan. Persentase survival rate udang tertinggi pasca infeksi virus WSSV terdapat pada perlakuan salinitas 21-30 ppt yaitu sebesar 13 ekor atau 63% dari jumlah total individu, dan salinitas 11-20 ppt memiliki persentase survival rate medium yaitu sebesar 10 ekor atau 49% dari jumlah total sampel. Stres salinitas mempengaruhi prevalensi WSSV dengan semakin tingginya tingkat infeksi seiring menurunnya rentang salinitas, akan tetapi survival rate semakin tinggi seiring dengan bertambahnya rentang salinitas.

  16. Interleukin-7 Ameliorates Immune Dysfunction and Improves Survival in a 2-Hit Model of Fungal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Unsinger, Jacqueline; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Morre, Michel; Prakash, Priya S.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Dunne, W. Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Secondary hospital-acquired fungal infections are common in critically-ill patients and mortality remains high despite antimicrobial therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent immunotherapeutic agent that improves host immunity and has shown efficacy in bacterial and viral models of infection. This study examined the ability of IL-7, which is currently in multiple clinical trials (including hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), to improve survival in a clinically relevant 2-...

  17. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  18. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  19. The genotoxin colibactin exacerbates lymphopenia and decreases survival rate in mice infected with septicemic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Ingrid; Martin, Patricia; Payros, Delphine; Cuevas-Ramos, Gabriel; Boury, Michèle; Watrin, Claude; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Olier, Maïwenn; Oswald, Eric

    2014-07-15

    Sepsis is a life-threatening infection. Escherichia coli is the first known cause of bacteremia leading to sepsis. Lymphopenia was shown to predict bacteremia better than conventional markers of infection. The pks genomic island, which is harbored by extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and encodes the genotoxin colibactin, is epidemiologically associated with bacteremia. To investigate a possible relationship between colibactin and lymphopenia, we examined the effects of transient infection of lymphocytes with bacteria that were and those that were not producing the genotoxin. A mouse model of sepsis was used to compare the virulence of a clinical ExPEC isolate with its isogenic mutant impaired for the production of colibactin. We observed that colibactin induced double-strand breaks in the DNA of infected lymphocytes, leading to cell cycle arrest and to cell death by apoptosis. E. coli producing colibactin induced a more profound lymphopenia in septicemic mice, compared with the isogenic mutant unable to produce colibactin. In a sepsis model in which the mice were treated by rehydration and antibiotics, the production of colibactin by the bacteria was associated with a significantly lower survival rate. In conclusion, we demonstrate that production of colibactin by E. coli exacerbates lymphopenia associated with septicemia and could impair the chances to survive sepsis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Improved survival of colorectal cancer in Denmark during 2001-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Green, Anders; Ingeholm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) established a national clinical database in 2001 with the aim to monitor and improve outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Since 2000 several national initiatives have been taken to improve cancer outcome. In the present study we used DCCG data...... The Danish efforts to improve outcome of cancer have succeeded with improved outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer....... to evaluate mortality and survival of CRC patients with focus on comorbidity, stage, and perioperative treatment. Material and methods Patients notified to the DCCG database from 2001 to 2012 were included. Patients with primary cancer of the colon and rectum were analyzed separately. Analyses were stratified...

  1. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Joffres, Michel [Department of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC (Canada); Khaira, Mandip; Kwan, Winkle [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Fraser Valley Centre, Surrey, BC (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Pickles, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51-176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%-94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%-71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%-100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%-91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Biochemical control translates into improved overall survival in patients with high or intermediate risk disease and an estimated 10-year overall survival of >90%.

  2. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  3. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    carcinogenicity (Meyer and Jorgenson 1984,. Fitzpatrick et al, 1995) and / or mutagenic properties. (Marking et al, 1994), its use was limited to the treatment of non-food ... effective anti fungal agents used to control fungal infections on eggs and improves hatching rate. Formalin effectively kills parasites on gills, skin and fins.

  4. Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Statistical Confirmation of Improved Survival in Responders by Landmark Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ahsun; Gabr, Ahmed; Abouchaleh, Nadine; Ali, Rehan; Alasadi, Ali; Mora, Ronald; Kulik, Laura; Desai, Kush; Thornburg, Bartley; Mouli, Samdeep; Hickey, Ryan; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Ganger, Daniel; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2017-08-18

    Does imaging response predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? We studied the ability of post-therapeutic imaging response to predict overall survival. Over 14 years, 948 HCC patients were treated with radioembolization. Patients with baseline metastases, vascular invasion, multifocal disease, Child-Pugh>B7 and transplanted/resected were excluded. This created our homogenous study cohort of 134 Child-Pugh≤B7 patients with solitary HCC. Response (using European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL] and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 [RECIST 1.1] criteria) was associated with survival using Landmark and risk-of-death methodologies after reviewing 960 scans. In a sub-analysis, survival times of responders were compared to those of patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Uni/multivariate survival analyses were performed at each Landmark. At the 3-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR:0.46; CI:0.26-0.82; P=0.002) but not RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR:0.70; CI:0.37-1.32; P=0.32). At the 6-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR:0.32; CI:0.15-0.77; P<0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR:0.50; CI:0.29-0.87; P=0.021). At the 12-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR:0.34; CI:0.15-0.77; P<0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR:0.52;CI 0.27-0.98; P=0.049). At 6 months, risk of death was lower for responders by EASL (P<0.001) and RECIST 1.1 (P=0.0445). In sub-analyses, responders lived longer than patients with SD or PD. EASL response was a significant predictor of survival at 3, 6, and 12 month Landmarks on uni/multivariate analyses. Response to radioembolization in patients with solitary HCC can prognosticate improved survival. EASL necrosis criteria outperformed RECIST 1.1 size criteria in predicting survival. The therapeutic objective of radioembolization should be radiologic response and not solely to prevent progression

  5. Increased rate of survival in Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats treated with the new immunomodulator Pidotimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, R; Condorelli, F; Girardello, R; Uslenghi, C; Chisari, G; di Mauro, M; Speciale, A M; Meroni, P L; Nicoletti, F

    1992-01-01

    Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (type III ATCC) rapidly develop an acute form of experimental lobar pneumonia (ELP) with death of 80-90% of the animals by 6 days after the infection. Prophylactic treatment of these animals with the novel immunomodulator Pidotimod, at the dose of 25 mg/kg bw, significantly increased their rate of survival as compared to the control group (50 vs. 90% respectively). Recovery from the infection appeared definitive since all the Pidotimod-treated survivors were alive and in good condition at the end of the observation period (45 days post infection). Prophylactic treatment with higher or lower doses of the drug was ineffective. Therapy with Pidotimod was not effective. This preliminary study suggests that Pidotimod may have contributed to activation of specific and non-specific immune effectors involved in the host response to S. pneumoniae infection.

  6. Higher flow rates improve heating during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Matthew J; Picotte, Robert J; Wante, Mark J; Rajeshkumar, Barur R; Whalen, Giles F; Lambert, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) kills cancer cells via thermal injury and improved chemotherapeutic cytotoxicity. We hypothesize that higher HIPEC flow rates improve peritoneal heating and HIPEC efficacy. (1) A HIPEC-model (30.8 L cooler with attached extracorporeal pump) was filled with 37°C water containing a suspended 1 L saline bag (SB) wrapped in a cooling sleeve, creating a constant heat sink. (2) HIPECs were performed in a swine model. Inflow, outflow, and peritoneal temperatures were monitored as flow rates varied. (3) Flow rates and temperatures during 20 HIPECs were reviewed. Higher flow rates decreased time required to increase water bath (WB) and SB temperature to 43°C. With a constant heat sink, the minimum flow rate required to reach 43°C in the WB was 1.75 L/min. Higher flow rates lead to greater temperature gradients between the WB and SB. In the swine model, the minimum flow rate required to reach 43°C outflow was 2.5-3.0 L/min. Higher flows led to more rapid heating of the peritoneum and greater peritoneal/outflow temperature gradients. Increased flow during clinical HIPEC suggested improved peritoneal heating with lower average visceral temperatures. There is a minimum flow rate required to reach goal temperature during HIPEC. Flow rate is an important variable in achieving and maintaining goal temperatures during HIPEC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hydroxyapatite coating does not improve uncemented stem survival after total hip arthroplasty!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailer, Nils P; Lazarinis, Stergios; Mäkelä, Keijo T

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - It is still being debated whether HA coating of uncemented stems used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) improves implant survival. We therefore investigated different uncemented stem brands, with and without HA coating, regarding early and long-term survival. Patients...... to diagnoses other than osteoarthritis or pediatric hip disease, and procedures with missing information on the type of coating. 22 stem brands remained (which were used in 116,069 procedures) for analysis of revision of any component. 79,192 procedures from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden were analyzed...

  8. Reporting quality of survival analyses in medical journals still needs improvement. A minimal requirements proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraira, Víctor; Muriel, Alfonso; Emparanza, José I; Pijoan, José I; Royuela, Ana; Plana, María Nieves; Cano, Alejandra; Urreta, Iratxe; Zamora, Javier

    2013-12-01

    We reviewed publications with two main objectives: to describe how survival analyses are reported across medical journal specialties and to evaluate changes in reporting across periods and journal specialties. Systematic review of clinical research articles published in 1991 and 2007, in 13 high-impact medical journals. The number of articles performing survival analysis published in 1991 (104) and 2007 (240) doubled (17% vs. 33.5%; P = 0.000), although not uniformly across specialties. The percentage of studies using regression models and the number of patients included also increased. The presentation of results improved, although only the reporting of precision of effect estimates reached satisfactory levels (53.1% in 1991 vs. 94.2% in 2007; P = 0.000). Quality of reporting also varied across specialties; for example, cardiology articles were less likely than oncology ones to discuss sample size estimation (odds ratio = 0.12; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.30). We also detected an interaction effect between period and specialty regarding the likelihood of reporting precision of curves and precision of effect estimates. The application of survival analysis to medical research data is increasing, whereas improvement in reporting quality is slow. We propose a list of minimum requirements for improved application and description of survival analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments.

  10. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick J Larabee

    Full Text Available Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation has been co-opted for another (defense.

  11. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Fredrick J; Suarez, Andrew V

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense).

  12. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, Arthur Musakulu; van Amerongen, Willem Evert

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary molars, participated. Over a 3-week period, three 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' operators randomly paired with four 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' assistants, made the restorations at site using hand instruments. They randomly used Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Easymix and Ketac Molar Aplicap glass ionomer cements to restore the cavities, under randomly selected rubber dam and cotton roll isolation methods. The fillings were independently evaluated by nine trained and calibrated evaluators. After 1 year, the survival rate of the fillings evaluated in the study was 44.8%. Irrespective of the other factors involved, restorations with the highest survival rate were of size between 2 and 3 mm (mesio-distal, bucco-lingual, and depth) or volumes 10.0-19.9 mm(3) (Chi-square, P = 0.002, KM mean survival of 345 days). While the survival rates for class II ART restorations were still low, the choice of medium-sized proximal cavities gave better survival rates for this technique.

  13. Aspirin Is Associated with Improved Survival in Severely Thrombocytopenic Cancer Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Attila; Kampaktsis, Polydoros N; Parameswaran, Rekha; Stein, Eytan M; Steingart, Richard; Gupta, Dipti

    2017-02-01

    Patients with hematologic malignancies are at risk for severe thrombocytopenia (sTP). The risk and benefit of aspirin are not known in thrombocytopenic cancer patients experiencing acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Medical records of patients with hematologic malignancies diagnosed with AMI at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center during 2005-2014 were reviewed. sTP was defined as a platelet count aspirin as a treatment for AMI. Compared with patients without sTP with AMI, patients with sTP with AMI were less likely to receive aspirin (83% vs. 43%; p = .0001) and thienopyridine treatment (27% vs. 3%; p = .0005). During median follow-up of 3.7 years after AMI, survival was lower in patients with sTP than in those with no sTP (23% vs. 50% at 1 year; log rank p = .003). Patients with sTP who received aspirin for AMI had improved survival compared with those who did not (92% vs. 70% at 7 days, 72% vs. 33% at 30 days, and 32% vs. 13% at 1 year; log rank p = .008). In multivariate regression models, aspirin use was associated with improved 30-day survival both in the overall patient cohort and in sTP patients. No fatal bleeding events occurred. Major bleeding was not associated with sTP or aspirin use. Treatment of AMI with aspirin in patients with hematologic malignancies and sTP is associated with improved survival without increase in major bleeding. The Oncologist 2017;22:213-221Implications for Practice: In patients with hematologic malignancies and acute myocardial infarction with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count aspirin therapy was associated with improved survival without an increase in major bleeding in this high-risk patient cohort. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  14. Factors Affecting the Survival Rate of Dental Implants: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikar, Sonal; Talukdar, Pratim; Kumari, Sarala; Panda, Sangram Kumar; Oommen, Vinni Mary; Prasad, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Dental implants have emerged as new treatment modality for the majority of patients and are expected to play a significant role in oral rehabilitation in the future. The present study was conducted to assess various factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants. The present retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics. In this study, 5200 patients with dental implants which were placed during June 2008-April 2015 were included. Exclusion criteria were patients with hormonal imbalance, patients with chronic infectious disease, patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, pregnant women, drug and alcohol addicts, and patients with severe periodontal diseases. Parameters such as name, age, gender, length of implant, diameter of implant, location of implant, and bone quality were recorded. Data were tabulated and statistically evaluated with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0., IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA. Out of 5200 patients, 2800 were males and 2400 females. Maximum implants failures (55) were seen in age group above 60 years of age (males - 550, females -700). Age group 11.5 mm (40/700) followed by implants with 4.5 mm (16/1600) and implants with diameter 3.75-4.5 mm (50/2600). The Chi-square test showed significant results ( P < 0.05). Mandibular posterior showed 3.3% implants failure, maxillary posterior revealed 2.2%, maxillary anterior showed 2.1%, and mandibular anterior showed 1% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Type I bone showed 0.3% implant failure, Type II showed 1.95%, Type III showed 3%, and Type IV revealed 0.8% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Age, length of implant, diameter of implant, bone quality, and region of implant are factors determining the survival rate of implants. We found that implant above 11.5 mm length, and with diameter <3.75 mm, placed in the mandibular posterior region, in Type III bone showed maximum failures.

  15. Increased Lymph Node Yield Is Associated with Improved Survival in Rectal Cancer Irrespective of Neoadjuvant Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jakob; Jess, Per; Roikjaer, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the lymph node yield achieved during rectal cancer resection is associated with survival. It is debated whether a high lymph node yield improves survival, per se, or whether it does so by diminishing the International Union Against Cancer stage drifting effect....... OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implications of the lymph node yield in curative resected rectal cancer. DESIGN: This study was based on data from a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer database. SETTINGS: This was a national cohort study. PATIENTS: All 6793...... patients in Denmark who were diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage I to III adenocarcinoma of the rectum and so treated in the period from 2003 to 2011 were included in the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was overall survival. RESULTS: The observed percentages...

  16. Improvements in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survival from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Woodin, Jeff A; Gibo, Koichiro; Zive, Dana M; Daya, Mohamud R

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health burden. Aggregate OHCA survival to hospital discharge has reportedly remained unchanged at 7.6% for almost 30 years from 1970 to 2008. We examined the trends in adult OHCA survival over a 16-year period from 1998 to 2013 within a single EMS agency. Observational cohort study of adult OHCA patients treated by Tualatin Valley Fire & Rescue (TVF&R) from 1998 to 2013. This is an ALS first response fire agency that maintains an active Utstein style cardiac arrest registry and serves a population of approximately 450,000 in 9 incorporated cities in Oregon. Primary outcomes were survival to hospital discharge in all patients and in the subgroup with witnessed ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT). The impact of key covariates on survival was assessed using univariate logistic regression. These included patient factors (age and sex), event factors (location of arrest, witnessed status, and first recorded cardiac arrest rhythm), and EMS system factors (response time interval, bystander CPR, and non-EMS AED shock). We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the impact of year increment on survival after multiple imputation for missing data. Sensitivity analysis was performed with complete cases. During the study period, 2,528 adult OHCA had attempted field resuscitation. The survival rate for treated cases increased from 6.7% to 18.2%, with witnessed VF/VT cases increasing from 14.3% to 31.4% from 1998 to 2013. Univariate analysis showed that younger age, male sex, public location of arrest, bystander or EMS witnessed event, initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity (PEA) or VF/VT, bystander CPR, non-EMS AED shock, and a shorter EMS response time were independently associated with survival. After adjustment for covariates, the odds of survival increased by 9% (OR 1.09, 95%CI: 1.05-1.12) per year in all treated cases, and by 6% (OR 1.06, 95% 1.01-1.10) per year in

  17. Multimodal and sequential treatment improves survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Thomas; Graf, Dirk; Hosnowsky, Christina; Blondin, Dirk; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Häussinger, Dieter; Erhardt, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims  Therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly depends on tumor stage and liver function. The aim of this study was to identify additional predictors of overall survival in HCC patients with a particular attention to multimodal therapies. Methods  Six hundred and seven consecutive HCC-patients treated in a tertiary center between 1988 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed by logistic and Cox-regression, overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan Meier statistics. Results  In comparison to unimodal therapies, multimodal treatment increased overall survival in BCLC-A patients from 16 to 26 months (p multimodal therapy irrespective of alfa-fetoprotein levels. Comparing the time span 1988 - 1999 with 2000 - 2011, the rate of multimodal/sequential treatment increased from 12.3 % to 30 % (p multimodal treatment was shown to be an independent predictor for overall survival besides elevated alfa-fetoprotein, Child Pugh score, and BCLC stage. Conclusion  Multimodal therapies increase overall survival in HCC patients and should be considered in patients with HCC if practicable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Does a third arterial conduit to the right coronary circulation improve survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suvitesh; Leiva-Juárez, Miguel M; Matuszewski, Maciej; Morgan, Ian S; Billing, John S

    2018-03-01

    The long-term benefits of a third arterial conduit to the right circulation in triple-vessel disease remain debatable. This retrospective, single-center, propensity-matched study investigates the impact of a third arterial conduit to the right circulation on early and intermediate survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Data were retrospectively collected from 2004 to 2014 for all surgical revascularizations for triple-vessel disease with at least 2 arterial conduits to the left circulation and a third arterial or venous conduit to the right circulation. A total of 167 pairs were propensity matched to arterial versus venous third conduit to right circulation. Hazard functions were obtained with Cox multivariate regression and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared between the matched cohorts. Extracardiac arteriopathy, logistic euroSCORE, and left main stem disease were significant predictors of adverse survival. A third arterial conduit to the right circulation was not a significant predictor of improved survival in multivariate analysis (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.34-1.55; P = .411). 30-day mortality was 0.6% in both groups. There was no significant difference in early or intermediate survival in the propensity-matched groups (venous vs arterial, 99.2% vs 99.2%; P = 1.000 at 1 year; 85.2% vs 88.8%; P = .248 at 5 years and 69.2% vs 88.8%; P = .297 at 7 years) CONCLUSIONS: The use of a third arterial versus a venous conduit to the right circulation does not improve early or intermediate survival up to 7 years in triple-vessel coronary artery disease in this study. Longer follow-up and larger cohorts may be needed for differences to emerge. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Survival in pediatric medulloblastoma: a population-based observational study to improve prognostication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alexander G; Wang, Anthony C; Westwick, Harrison J; Ibrahim, George M; Ariani, Rojine T; Crevier, Louis; Perreault, Sebastien; Davidson, Tom; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fallah, Aria

    2017-03-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common form of brain malignancy of childhood. The mainstay of epidemiological data regarding childhood medulloblastoma is derived from case series, hence population-based studies are warranted to improve the accuracy of survival estimates. To utilize a big-data approach to update survival estimates in a contemporary cohort of children with medulloblastoma. We performed a population-based retrospective observational cohort study utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database that captures all children, less than 20 years of age, between 1973 and 2012 in 18 geographical regions representing 28% of the US population. We included all participants with a presumed or histologically diagnosis of medulloblastoma. The main outcome of interest is survivors at 1, 5 and 10 years following diagnosis. A cohort of 1735 children with a median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis of 7 (4-11) years, with a diagnosis of medulloblastoma were identified. The incidence and prevalence of pediatric medulloblastoma has remained stable over the past 4 decades. There is a critical time point at 1990 when the overall survival has drastically improved. In the contemporary cohort (1990 onwards), the percentage of participants alive was 86, 70 and 63% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Multivariate Cox-Regression model demonstrated Radiation (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.30-0.46, p medulloblastoma survival. In contrast to previous reports, the majority of patients survive in the modern era, and those alive 8 years following initial diagnosis are likely a long-term survivor. The importance of minimizing treatment-related toxicity is increasingly apparent given the likelihood of long-term survival.

  20. Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jodi M; Martinez, Steve R; Bold, Richard J; Chen, Steven L

    2010-09-15

    The role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast remains unclear. We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database for patients with breast ACC resected between 1988 and 2005, and divided patients based on the receipt of RT. Univariate and multivariate survival comparisons were made for overall and disease-specific survival. Three hundred seventy six patients met criteria for inclusion. Demographics and staging were similar between groups. Univariate analysis revealed an absolute overall and cause-specific survival benefit of 21% and 7% at 10 years (P = 0.005 and P = 0.12 respectively). In the multivariate analysis, RT was a significant predictor of overall and cause-specific survival with hazard ratios of 0.44 (95% Confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.88) and 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01-0.88), respectively. RT after local surgical therapy for ACC of the breast improved both cause-specific and overall survival. Use of RT in this rare tumor should be considered in patients otherwise eligible for RT. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Improved Survival in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Is Associated With Adoption of Hepatic Resection and Improved Chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Kopetz; George J. Chang; Michael J. Overman; Cathy Eng; Daniel J. Sargent; David W. Larson; Axel Grothey; Jean-Nicolas Vauthey; David M. Nagorney; Robert R. McWilliams

    2009-01-01

    .... With an increase in surgical resections of metastatic disease and development of new chemotherapies, indirect evidence suggests that outcomes for patients are improving in the general population...

  2. A Systematic Case Study of the Course, Offshore Survival Systems Training, To Improve the Practice of Marine Survival Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Franco

    A major applied research project evaluated the effectiveness of a novel course, Offshore Survival Systems Training. The major course outcome that was evaluated was the increase in frequency with which offshore personnel correctly launched the covered powered survival craft on offshore drilling rigs. The evaluation methodology included the 628…

  3. Improving the Prediction of Survival in Cancer Patients by Using Machine Learning Techniques: Experience of Gene Expression Data: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Azadeh; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Safdari, Reza; Shahmoradi, Leila; Ehtesham, Hamide

    2017-02-01

    Today, despite the many advances in early detection of diseases, cancer patients have a poor prognosis and the survival rates in them are low. Recently, microarray technologies have been used for gathering thousands data about the gene expression level of cancer cells. These types of data are the main indicators in survival prediction of cancer. This study highlights the improvement of survival prediction based on gene expression data by using machine learning techniques in cancer patients. This review article was conducted by searching articles between 2000 to 2016 in scientific databases and e-Journals. We used keywords such as machine learning, gene expression data, survival and cancer. Studies have shown the high accuracy and effectiveness of gene expression data in comparison with clinical data in survival prediction. Because of bewildering and high volume of such data, studies have highlighted the importance of machine learning algorithms such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to find out the distinctive signatures of gene expression in cancer patients. These algorithms improve the efficiency of probing and analyzing gene expression in cancer profiles for survival prediction of cancer. By attention to the capabilities of machine learning techniques in proteomics and genomics applications, developing clinical decision support systems based on these methods for analyzing gene expression data can prevent potential errors in survival estimation, provide appropriate and individualized treatments to patients and improve the prognosis of cancers.

  4. Serum free embryo culture medium improves in vitro survival of bovine blastocysts to vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, E; Rodríguez, A; Muñoz, M; Caamaño, J N; Hidalgo, C O; Morán, E; Facal, N; Díez, C

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of co-culture with Vero cells during the in vitro maturation (IVM) and three culture media, B2+5% fetal calf serum (FCS) on Vero cells, synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF)+5% FCS, and SOF+20 gL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the developmental competence of the embryos and their ability to survive vitrification/warming. We also tested the effect of morphological quality and the age of the embryo on its sensitivity to vitrification. The IVM system neither affects the embryo development up to Day 7 nor survival rates after vitrification. The culture of embryos in SOF+FCS and in Vero cells+B2 allowed obtaining more Day 6 and Day 7 blastocysts, and a higher % of Day 7 blastocysts vitrified than culture in SOF+BSA. Contrarily, on Day 8, more blastocysts were vitrified in SOF+BSA than in SOF+FCS. Blastocysts quality affected development after vitrification/warming, and Day 7 embryos showed higher survival rates than their Day 8 counterparts. Day 7 blastocysts produced in Vero cells or in SOF+BSA survived at higher rates than those produced in SOF+FCS at 24 and 48 h after warming. Embryo culture with BSA allows obtaining hatching rates after vitrification/warming higher than those obtained after co-culture with Vero cells in B2 and FCS. Moreover, this system provides hatching rates from Day 8 blastocysts comparable to those obtained on Day 7 in Vero cells. Further studies, including embryo transfer to recipients, are needed to clarify factors affecting the freezability of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

  5. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  6. Survival rates of short-span implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L

    2010-01-01

    Publications were sought using Medline, and searches were made by hand of the journals Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, along with reference lists of identified articles. Titles and abstracts were initially screened by two independent reviewers to identify prospective or retrospective longitudinal cohort studies or controlled studies reporting on implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses (ICFDP) with a mean followup period of at least 5 years. A clinical examination had to be performed at the end of the followup. For multiple publications reporting on the same population, only the most recent report was included. Data for the meta-analysis were extracted by two independent reviewers. Information regarding survival and complication rates of both implants and ICFDP were extracted. Implant survival was considered if the implant was present at the followup examination; ICFDP survival was considered if the prosthesis was present at the followup visit without any modifications. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications were included in the category of biological complications. As for technical complications, all the events affecting the implant and/ or the meso- and/ or the suprastructures' integrity were considered. Among them, the following categories were defined: implant fractures, veneer fractures, framework fractures, abutment or screw fractures, loss of retention and screw loosening. The five studies included in the meta-analysis yielded an estimated 5- and 10-year ICFDP cumulative survival rate of 94.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84.1-98%] and 88.9% (95% CI, 70.8- 96.1%), respectively. Five-year estimates for peri-implantitis were 5.4% (95% CI, 2.0-14.2%) and 9.4% (95% CI, 3.3-25.4%) at implant and prosthesis levels, respectively. Veneer fracture (5-year

  7. Macrophages improve survival, proliferation and migration of engrafted myogenic precursor cells into MDX skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-François Lesault

    Full Text Available Transplantation of muscle precursor cells is of therapeutic interest for focal skeletal muscular diseases. However, major limitations of cell transplantation are the poor survival, expansion and migration of the injected cells. The massive and early death of transplanted myoblasts is not fully understood although several mechanisms have been suggested. Various attempts have been made to improve their survival or migration. Taking into account that muscle regeneration is associated with the presence of macrophages, which are helpful in repairing the muscle by both cleansing the debris and deliver trophic cues to myoblasts in a sequential way, we attempted in the present work to improve myoblast transplantation by coinjecting macrophages. The present data showed that in the 5 days following the transplantation, macrophages efficiently improved: i myoblast survival by limiting their massive death, ii myoblast expansion within the tissue and iii myoblast migration in the dystrophic muscle. This was confirmed by in vitro analyses showing that macrophages stimulated myoblast adhesion and migration. As a result, myoblast contribution to regenerating host myofibres was increased by macrophages one month after transplantation. Altogether, these data demonstrate that macrophages are beneficial during the early steps of myoblast transplantation into skeletal muscle, showing that coinjecting these stromal cells may be used as a helper to improve the efficiency of parenchymal cell engraftment.

  8. Overall survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer improved with an increase in second-line chemotherapy after gemcitabine-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan Dong; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Zhi Min; Ma, Wen; Zhou, Si Wei; Xie, De Rong

    2011-03-09

    In the last decade, gemcitabine-based regimen as first-line therapy has demonstrated low efficacy regarding overall survival benefit for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore a new strategy, such as an increased second-line chemotherapy rate, in order to improve overall survival. Retrospective data analysis. The data in the literature on gemcitabine-based therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer were collected by searching databases, such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, and EBM Reviews (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews). Linear regression was used to explore the relationship between overall survival and second-line chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival and residual survival. Ten randomized controlled trials, involving 2,679 patients, were included in the present study. The results indicated that overall survival was positively correlated with a combination of chemotherapy, stage of disease and second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (r = 0.753; P = 0.003). Meanwhile median overall survival would be prolonged about 1.56 days if second-line chemotherapy was increased by 1% (t = 4.33; P = 0.001). Progression-free survival was not significantly correlated with second-line chemotherapy (r = 0.092; P = 0.701); in contrast, residual survival was positively correlated with second-line chemotherapy (r = 0.717; P chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer; more attention should be paid after first-line therapy which must be administered skillfully in order to improve overall survival, and this is worthy of further study.

  9. A novel pharmacological strategy by PTEN inhibition for improving metabolic resuscitation and survival after mouse cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Huashan; Zhong, Qiang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Chen, Sy-Jou; Qian, Yuanyu; Costakis, Jim; Bunney, Gabrielle; Beiser, David G.; Leff, Alan R.; Lewandowski, E. Douglas; ÓDonnell, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite return of spontaneous circulation, patients die due to post-SCA syndrome that includes myocardial dysfunction, brain injury, impaired metabolism, and inflammation. No medications improve SCA survival. Our prior work suggests that optimal Akt activation is critical for cooling protection and SCA recovery. Here, we investigate a small inhibitor of PTEN, an Akt-related phosphatase present in heart and brain, as a potential therapy in improving cardiac and neurological recovery after SCA. Anesthetized adult female wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomized to pretreatment of VO-OHpic (VO) 30 min before SCA or vehicle control. Mice underwent 8 min of KCl-induced asystolic arrest followed by CPR. Resuscitated animals were hemodynamically monitored for 2 h and observed for 72 h. Outcomes included heart pressure-volume loops, energetics (phosphocreatine and ATP from 31P NMR), protein phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phospholamban, circulating inflammatory cytokines, plasma lactate, and glucose as measures of systemic metabolic recovery. VO reduced deterioration of left ventricular maximum pressure, maximum rate of change in the left ventricular pressure, and Petco2 and improved 72 h neurological intact survival (50% vs. 10%; P cardiac phospholamban phosphorylation while reducing p-PDH. Moreover, VO improved cardiac bioenergetic recovery. We concluded that pharmacologic PTEN inhibition enhances Akt activation, improving metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurologic recovery with increased survival after SCA. PTEN inhibitors may be a novel pharmacologic strategy for treating SCA. PMID:25795713

  10. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  12. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  13. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  14. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  15. Suspension Matrices for Improved Schwann-Cell Survival after Implantation into the Injured Rat Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Joseph, Gravil; Patel, Amit; Patel, Samik; Bustin, Devin; Mawson, David; Tuesta, Luis M.; Puentes, Rocio; Ghosh, Mousumi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord produces endogenously irreversible tissue and functional loss, requiring the application of therapeutic approaches to achieve meaningful restoration. Cellular strategies, in particular Schwann-cell implantation, have shown promise in overcoming many of the obstacles facing successful repair of the injured spinal cord. Here, we show that the implantation of Schwann cells as cell suspensions with in-situ gelling laminin:collagen matrices after spinal-cord contusion significantly enhances long-term cell survival but not proliferation, as well as improves graft vascularization and the degree of axonal in-growth over the standard implantation vehicle, minimal media. The use of a matrix to suspend cells prior to implantation should be an important consideration for achieving improved survival and effectiveness of cellular therapies for future clinical application. PMID:20144012

  16. Encapsulated Whole Bone Marrow Cells Improve Survival in Wistar Rats after 90% Partial Hepatectomy

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    Carolina Uribe-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The use of bone marrow cells has been suggested as an alternative treatment for acute liver failure. In this study, we investigate the effect of encapsulated whole bone marrow cells in a liver failure model. Methods. Encapsulated cells or empty capsules were implanted in rats submitted to 90% partial hepatectomy. The survival rate was assessed. Another group was euthanized at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after hepatectomy to study expression of cytokines and growth factors. Results. Whole bone marrow group showed a higher than 10 days survival rate compared to empty capsules group. Gene expression related to early phase of liver regeneration at 6 hours after hepatectomy was decreased in encapsulated cells group, whereas genes related to regeneration were increased at 12, 24, and 48 hours. Whole bone marrow group showed lower regeneration rate at 72 hours and higher expression and activity of caspase 3. In contrast, lysosomal-β-glucuronidase activity was elevated in empty capsules group. Conclusions. The results show that encapsulated whole bone marrow cells reduce the expression of genes involved in liver regeneration and increase those responsible for ending hepatocyte division. In addition, these cells favor apoptotic cell death and decrease necrosis, thus increasing survival.

  17. Enhancing the Survival Rate of Sand Goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr., Larvae with Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPenicillin G and streptomycin sulphate were administered for 18 days of rearing of sand goby larvae. 7'wo-days larvae (3,37-3,41 mm were reared in 160 1 aerated water at stocking density of 50 fish/1.  Until 17 days of rearing period, the larvae were fed plankton (50-300 gm at stocking density of 20-30 individual/mi, and at day 13-I8, were fed Artemia sp. (1-2 individual/ml.  During first seven days, penicillin G and streptomycin sulphate (1.000 IU/1 and 10 mg/1, respectively were applied daily, and there after once every three days.  The fry which reared in media containing antibiotics exhibited higher survival rate (28,09%, compared to 3,3 1 %, than the control, whereas their growth was similar (1,09-1,53 mm. Keywords :  Antibiotics, survival rate, sand goby fish, Oxyeleotris marmorata  ABSTRAKAntibiotik penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat telah digunakan dalam pemeliharaan larva ikan betutu selama 18 hari.  Larva umur 2 hari (3,37-3,41 mm dipelihara dalain tangki berisi air sebanyak 160 1 yang diaerasi halus, dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/1.  Antibiotik diberikan kepada media pemeliharaan larva setiap hari pada 7 hari pertarna pemeliharaan dan selanjutnya setiap 3 hari sekaii hingga akhir pemeliharaan, sebanyak 1.000 IU/1 dan 10 mg/1 masing-masing untuk penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat.  Pada hari pertama hingga ke- 1 7, larva diberi makan plankton berukuran 50-300 gm sebanyak 20-30 individu/ml, hari ke- 13 sampai 18 diberi Artemia sp. sebanyak 1-2 ekor/ml.  Larva yang dipelihara pada media berantibiotik memiliki kelangsungan hidup (28,09% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanpa antibiotik (3,31%, sedangkan pertumbuhan panjang mutlaknya sama yaitu 1,09-1,53 mm.Kata kunci :  Antibiotik, kelangsungan hidup, ikan betutu, Oxyeleotris marmorata

  18. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  19. Opioid growth factor improves clinical benefit and survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jill P Smith1, Sandra I Bingaman1, David T Mauger2, Harold H Harvey1, Laurence M Demers3, Ian S Zagon41Departments of Medicine, 2Public Health Sciences, 3Pathology, and 4Neurosciences and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USABackground: Advanced pancreatic cancer carries the poorest prognosis of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Once the tumor has spread beyond the margins of the pancreas, chemotherapy is the major treatment modality offered to patients; however, chemotherapy does not significantly improve survival.Objective: Opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin is a natural peptide that has been shown to inhibit growth of pancreatic cancer in cell culture and in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of OGF biotherapy on subjects with advanced pancreatic cancer who failed chemotherapy.Methods: In a prospective phase II open-labeled clinical trial, 24 subjects who failed standard chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer were treated weekly with OGF 250 μg/kg intravenously. Outcomes measured included clinical benefit, tumor response by radiographic imaging, quality of life, and survival.Results: Clinical benefit response was experienced by 53% of OGF-treated patients compared to historical controls of 23.8% and 4.8% for gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, respectively. Of the subjects surviving more than eight weeks, 62% showed either a decrease or stabilization in tumor size by computed tomography. The median survival time for OGF-treated patients was three times that of untreated patients (65.5 versus 21 days, p < 0.001. No adverse effects on hematologic or chemistry parameters were noted, and quality of life surveys suggested improvement with OGF. Limitations: Measurements other than survival were not allowed in control patients, and clinical benefit comparisons were made to historical controls.Conclusion: OGF biotherapy improves the

  20. Effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery on survival rate of patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery

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    LI Huan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery, a type of stereotactic body radiotherapy, in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer after resection or ablation, as well as the effect of clinical factors on survival rate. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 34 patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery who were treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery. The patients′ survival rate and survival time after radiotherapy were calculated, and the influencing factors for survival were analyzed. The gross tumor volume of tumor target was 1.475-1082.075 cm3 (median 162.99 cm3. The fraction dose was 7-20 Gy (median 9 Gy, the number of times of irradiation was 2-8 times (median 5 times, and the tumor dose was 24-60 Gy (median 45 Gy once a day. The major indices for observation were short-term outcome, toxic and side effects, and long-term outcome. The log-rank test was used to analyze the surviral-related factors. The chi-square test and fisher test were used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy were 91.2%, 70.6%, and 44.1%, respectively, and the median survival time was 34 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival rates were 55.9%, 38.2%, and 29.4%, respectively. There were no significant differences in 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy between the ≤1-year (early postoperative group and the >1-year (late postoperative group (89%/73.7%/57.9% vs 93%/73.3%/33.3%, χ2=0.354, P=0.368. The univariate analyses showed that sex, age, time to postoperative recurrence, diameter and number of recurrent lesions, liver function classification, alpha-fetoprotein level, and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with patients' survival after radiotherapy. ConclusionCyberKnife radiosurgery is safe and effective in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer, with the

  1. Improved survival for sequentially as opposed to concurrently delivered neoadjuvant chemotherapy in non-metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, B E P J; Vriens, I J H; Aarts, M J B; van Gastel, S M; van den Berkmortel, F W P J; Smilde, T J; van Warmerdam, L J C; van Spronsen, D J; Peer, P G M; de Boer, M; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G

    2017-07-03

    The INTENS study was designed to determine whether delivering neoadjuvant chemotherapy at a higher dose in a shorter period of time improves outcome of breast cancer patients. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (AC 60/600-T 100 mg/m(2)) or six cycles of TAC as triplet chemotherapy (75/50/500 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks. The primary outcome was the pathologic complete response (pCR), with disease-free and overall survival as secondary endpoints. In total, 201 patients were included. The pCR rates were 28% for patients treated with AC-T and 19% for patients treated with TAC, with an odds ratio of 1.60 (95% CI 0.90-3.21). With a median follow-up of 6 years (range 0.04-8.41 years), the five-year disease-free survival was 81% for patients treated with sequentially AC-T and 71% for patients treated with concurrent triplet TAC chemotherapy with a stratified hazard ratio (HR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.29-0.86). Five-year overall survival was 84% versus 76%, respectively, with a stratified HR of 0.55 (95% CI 0.29-1.03). No differences were observed between the two treatment arms with respect to pCR rate, but the sequentially delivered chemotherapy outperformed the triplet combination chemotherapy in terms of survival, despite a lower cumulative dose per agent. GOV nr NCT00314977.

  2. Nutrition and Hydration Status of Aircrew Members Consuming The Food Packet, Survival, General Purpose, Improved During A Simulated Survival Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    over hilly terrain without packs to identify edible plants, shelter sites, water sources, and other materials to be used for survival purposes. The...snake, squirrel, trout, frog , venison, snail and numerous plant foods. In order to give the survival school students the same amount of kilocalories...dishes, Chinese or other ethnic foods, other fruits or vegetables, as well as nutritional supplements (bran, etc.). Please take a look at the list of

  3. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival after esophagectomy without induction therapy for node-positive adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Paul J; Englum, Brian R; Ganapathi, Asvin M; Mulvihill, Michael S; Hartwig, Matthew G; Onaitis, Mark W; D'Amico, Thomas A; Berry, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) use after esophagectomy without induction therapy for node-positive (pN+) adenocarcinoma using the National Cancer Database, including the impact of complications related to surgery (CRS) on outcomes. Predictors of AC use in 1694 patients in the National Cancer Data Base who underwent R0 esophagectomy from 2003-2011 without induction therapy for pN+ adenocarcinoma of the middle or lower esophagus and survived more than 30 days were identified with multivariable logistic regression. The impact of AC on survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox-proportional hazards methods. AC was given to 874 of 1694 (51.6%) patients; 618 (70.7%) AC patients received radiation. Older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58/decade, p improved survival in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.67, p = 0.008). Receiving radiation in addition to AC did not improve survival (p = 0.35). Although CRS was associated with worse survival, patients who had CRS but received AC had superior survival compared to patients who did not have CRS or get AC (p = 0.016). AC after esophagectomy is associated with improved survival but was only used in half of patients with pN+ esophageal adenocarcinoma. We also found that the addition of radiation to AC was not associated with a survival benefit. CRS predict worse long-term survival and lower the chance of getting AC, but even patients with CRS had improved survival when given AC.

  5. [Multi-disciplinary treatment increases the survival rate of late stage pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers treated by free jejunal flap reconstruction after cancer resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Zhang, H; Ni, S; Wang, J; Li, D Z; Liu, S Y

    2016-05-23

    To investigate the survival status of patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers, who received free jejunal flap (FJF) to repair the defects following tumor resection, and to analyze the effect of multi-disciplinary treatment on their survival. Fifty-eight patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancer underwent free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction after cancer resection between 2010 and 2013. All their clinical records were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of flap transplantation was 91.4% (53/58). The 2-year overall survival rates (OSR) of cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer patients were 67.5% and 49.3%, respectively, both were significantly better than that of laryngeal cancer. The main causes of death were local recurrence and distant metastases. The group with no short-term complications had a better two-year OSR (59.0%) than the group with short-term complications (46.6%), however, the difference between them was not significant (P=0.103). The 2-year survival rate of the initial treatment group was 65.0%, better than that of the salvage treatment group (49.4%), but the difference was not significant (P=0.051). For the stage III and IV patients, the multi-disciplinary treatment group had a significantly better 2-year OSR (64.7%) than the single or sequential treatment group (37.0%, P=0.016). Free jejunal flap reconstruction is an ideal option for repairing the cervical digestive tract circumferential defects caused by tumor resection with a high success rate and a low mortality. Compared with the single or sequential treatment, multi-disciplinary treatment can significantly improve the survival rate of late-stage hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer patients.

  6. [Analysing heart rate variability to improve the monitoring of pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butruille, Laura; De Jonckheere, Julien; Jeanne, Mathieu; Tavernier, Benoît; Logier, Régis

    2016-12-01

    An innovative technique based on the analysis of instantaneous heart rate variability helps to improve the prevention and management of pain and discomfort. Simple to implement, this non-invasive technique is based on the continuous recording of the electrocardiograph signal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality Rating and Improvement Systems and Children's Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing enriched learning environments is important to stimulating children's development in early childhood. Early child-care policymakers in many states in the US have adopted Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) as a way to verify quality of child care and to support children's school readiness. Objective: The purpose of…

  8. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival to discharge. RESULTS: Overall the proportion of this very preterm cohort who survived to discharge from neonatal care was 89.5%, varying from 93.2% to 74.8% across the regions. Less than 2% of infants

  9. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  10. Melanoma tumors frequently acquire LRP2/megalin expression, which modulates melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Hammer, Katrine; Hager, Henrik; Christensen, Julie N; Ludvigsen, Maja; Honoré, Bent; Thomsen, Mai-Britt H; Madsen, Mette

    2015-05-01

    We show that the multiligand receptor megalin, known to mediate uptake and trafficking of nutrients and signaling molecules, is frequently expressed in malignant melanoma samples. Expression of megalin-encoding mRNA was investigated in 65 samples of nevi, melanomas, and melanoma metastases and was observed in more than 60% of the malignant samples, while only in 20% of the benign counterparts. Megalin expression in nevus and melanoma samples was additionally investigated by immunohistochemistry, which confirmed our mRNA-based observations. We furthermore show that a panel of tumor-derived melanoma cell lines express LRP2/megalin endogenously. In these cells, megalin is internalized from the cell surface and localizes extensively to intracellular vesicles, confirming receptor activity and pointing toward association with the endocytic apparatus. Groundbreaking, our results indicate that sustained megalin expression in melanoma cells is crucial for cell maintenance, as siRNA-mediated reduction in melanoma cell expression of LRP2/megalin significantly decreases melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Recurrent and de novo glomerulonephritis following renal transplantation: higher rates of rejection and lower graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirioglu, Safak; Caliskan, Yasar; Goksoy, Yagmur; Gulcicek, Sibel; Ozluk, Yasemin; Sarihan, Irem; Seyahi, Nurhan; Kilicaslan, Isin; Turkmen, Aydin; Sever, Mehmet Sukru

    2017-12-01

    In this retrospective study with case-control design, we aimed to determine the clinical and pathological characteristics of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (GN), and their effects on transplant recipients. One hundred and twenty renal transplant recipients with biopsy-proven recurrent or de novo primary GN were compared with two matched control groups including 120 transplant recipients with nonrecurrent primary GN (nonrecurrent GN group) and 120 transplant recipients with non-GN etiology (non-GN group). Primary outcome was allograft loss, and secondary outcomes were biopsy-confirmed cellular or antibody-mediated rejection. In recurrent/de novo GN, nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups, 54.2% (n = 65), 16.7% (n = 20) and 8.3% (n = 10) of patients reached primary outcome after a median follow-up of 96 (IQR: 56-149) months, respectively. Allograft loss was significantly higher in recurrent/de novo GN group compared to nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups (p < 0.001). At 10 years, allograft loss rates in recurrent/de novo GN group were 54.2% for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 53.2% for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and 33.4% for IgA nephropathy cases. Biopsy-confirmed rejection rate was significantly higher in the recurrent/de novo GN group (n = 25, 20.8%) compared to non-GN (n = 8, 6.7%) group (p = 0.001). Recurrent/de novo GN is associated with higher risk of rejection and worse allograft survival.

  12. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  13. Rac1 selective activation improves retina ganglion cell survival and regeneration.

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    Erika Lorenzetto

    Full Text Available In adult mammals, after optic nerve injury, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs do not regenerate their axons and most of them die by apoptosis within a few days. Recently, several strategies that activate neuronal intracellular pathways were proposed to prevent such degenerative processes. The rho-related small GTPase Rac1 is part of a complex, still not fully understood, intracellular signaling network, mediating in neurons many effects, including axon growth and cell survival. However, its role in neuronal survival and regeneration in vivo has not yet been properly investigated. To address this point we intravitreally injected selective cell-penetrating Rac1 mutants after optic nerve crush and studied the effect on RGC survival and axonal regeneration. We injected two well-characterized L61 constitutively active Tat-Rac1 fusion protein mutants, in which a second F37A or Y40C mutation confers selectivity in downstream signaling pathways. Results showed that, 15 days after crush, both mutants were able to improve survival and to prevent dendrite degeneration, while the one harboring the F37A mutation also improved axonal regeneration. The treatment with F37A mutant for one month did not improve the axonal elongation respect to 15 days. Furthermore, we found an increase of Pak1 T212 phosphorylation and ERK1/2 expression in RGCs after F37A treatment, whereas ERK1/2 was more activated in glial cells after Y40C administration. Our data suggest that the selective activation of distinct Rac1-dependent pathways could represent a therapeutic strategy to counteract neuronal degenerative processes in the retina.

  14. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  15. Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: seperating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kenneth C; Lamar, Charisee A; Freeman, Harold P

    2003-06-01

    Black females have lower breast carcinoma survival rates compared with white females. One possible reason is that black females have more advanced-stage breast disease. Another factor may be racial differences in the utilization of cancer treatments. The authors determined racial differences in 6-year stage specific survival rates, adjusting for age and treatments (using estrogen receptor [ER] status), to determine whether there were racial differences in treatment. Racial differences in the stage distributions of breast disease were used to examine the impact of racial factors on breast carcinoma diagnosis. For all breast carcinoma cases, the stage specific 6-year survival rates, in general, were significantly lower for black females for all stages combined and for Stages I-III in every age group. However, examination by different treatments, as measured by ER status, revealed some different results. Only black women younger than age 50 years with ER-positive tumors and women younger than age 65 years with ER-negative tumors had significantly lower stage-specific survival rates. In addition, the stage distribution analyses showed that black females of every age group had less Stage I breast disease. For younger black women (younger than age 50 years), there was evidence of racial differences in treatment for both women with ER-positive tumors and women with ER-negative tumors, as indicated by their lower stage-specific survival rates. In contrast, for black females age 65 years or older with ER-positive or ER-negative tumors, the lack of a significant difference in the stage-specific survival rate suggests that Medicare may help to alleviate racial disparities in cancer treatment. Furthermore, racial differences in the stage distributions indicated the need for earlier diagnosis for black females of every age. Published 2003 American Cancer Society.

  16. PPARγ agonists improve survival and neurocognitive outcomes in experimental cerebral malaria and induce neuroprotective pathways in human malaria.

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    Lena Serghides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is associated with a high mortality rate, and long-term neurocognitive impairment in approximately one third of survivors. Adjunctive therapies that modify the pathophysiological processes involved in CM may improve outcome over anti-malarial therapy alone. PPARγ agonists have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects in a variety of disease models. Here we report that adjunctive therapy with PPARγ agonists improved survival and long-term neurocognitive outcomes in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA experimental model of CM. Compared to anti-malarial therapy alone, PPARγ adjunctive therapy administered to mice at the onset of CM signs, was associated with reduced endothelial activation, and enhanced expression of the anti-oxidant enzymes SOD-1 and catalase and the neurotrophic factors brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in the brains of infected mice. Two months following infection, mice that were treated with anti-malarials alone demonstrated cognitive dysfunction, while mice that received PPARγ adjunctive therapy were completely protected from neurocognitive impairment and from PbA-infection induced brain atrophy. In humans with P. falciparum malaria, PPARγ therapy was associated with reduced endothelial activation and with induction of neuroprotective pathways, such as BDNF. These findings provide insight into mechanisms conferring improved survival and preventing neurocognitive injury in CM, and support the evaluation of PPARγ agonists in human CM.

  17. A specialized home care intervention improves survival among older post-surgical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, R; Strumpf, N E; Nuamah, I F; Adler, D C; Cooley, M E; Jepson, C; Lusk, E J; Torosian, M

    2000-12-01

    intervention group, compared with 52 (28%) in the usual care group. Stage of disease at diagnosis differed between the two groups at baseline (38% late stage patients in the intervention group compared with 26% in the control group, P = .01), so stratified analysis was performed. Overall, the specialized home care intervention group was found to have increased survival (P = .002 using stratified log-rank test). Among early stage patients only, there was no difference in survival between the intervention and control groups. Among late stage patients, there was improved survival in the intervention group. For example, 2-year survival among late stage intervention group cases was 67% compared with 40% among control cases. When Cox's proportional hazard model was used to adjust for significant baseline covariates, the relative hazard of death in the usual care group was 2.04 (CI: 1.33 to 3.12; P = .001) after adjusting for stage of disease and surgical hospitalization length of stay. This is the first empirical study of post-surgical cancer patients to link a specialized home care intervention by advanced practice nurses with improved survival. Additional research is needed to test home care interventions aimed at maintaining quality of life outcomes and their effects on survival of post-surgical cancer patients.

  18. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19.  Alkaline phosphatase normalization is a biomarker of improved survival in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Moira; Enders, Felicity B; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D; Tabibian, James H

    2016-01-01

     Introduction. Recent studies suggest that serum alkaline phosphatase may represent a prognostic biomarker in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. However, this association remains poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance and clinical correlates of alkaline phosphatase normalization in primary sclerosing cholangitis. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with a new diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis made at an academic medical center. The primary endpoint was time to hepatobiliaryneoplasia, liver transplantation, or liver-related death. Secondary endpoints included occurrence of and time to alkaline phosphatase normalization. Patients who did and did not achieve normalization were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and endpoint-free survival, and the association between normalization and the primary endpoint was assessed with univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards analyses. Eighty six patients were included in the study, with a total of 755 patient-years of follow-up. Thirty-eight patients (44%) experienced alkaline phosphatase normalization within 12 months of diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase normalization was associated with longer primary endpoint-free survival (p = 0.0032) and decreased risk of requiring liver transplantation (p = 0.033). Persistent normalization was associated with even fewer adverse endpoints as well as longer survival. In multivariate analyses, alkaline phosphatase normalization (adjusted hazard ratio 0.21, p = 0.012) and baseline bilirubin (adjusted hazard ratio 4.87, p = 0.029) were the only significant predictors of primary endpoint-free survival. Alkaline phosphatase normalization, particularly if persistent, represents a robust biomarker of improved long-term survival and decreased risk of requiring liver transplantation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  20. The Influence of Zusanli and Nonmeridian Acupuncture Points on the Survival Rate and Intestinal Tissue Features after Fatal Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

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    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: (a control group (HS; (b Immediate rehydration group (IFR; (c ST36 electroacupuncture (EA delay rehydration group (EA/DFR: EA at ST36 immediately after blood loss with infusion 3 h later; (d EA nonmeridian rehydration group (SEA/DFR: EA at nonacupuncture sites with rehydration similar to EA/DFR; (e ST36 EA group (EA: EA at ST36 immediately after blood loss with no rehydration. Forty-five percent of the entire blood volume was taken out to make lethal hemorrhagic shock models. We recorded the survival rate, intestinal tissue DAO content, and microcirculation. The survival rate of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than that of the other three groups (P<0.05. Twelve hours after blood loss, intestinal tissue DAO content of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than that of the SEA/DFR group, EA group, and HS group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The mucosal blood flow of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05 each. We conclude that EA improves the blood pressure and raises the early survival rate of hemorrhagic shock rats, maintains the intestinal barrier function, and improves the degree of intestinal ischemia.

  1. A Hyaluronan-Based Injectable Hydrogel Improves the Survival and Integration of Stem Cell Progeny following Transplantation

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    Brian G. Ballios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of stem cells and their progeny in adult transplantation models has been limited by poor survival and integration. We designed an injectable and bioresorbable hydrogel blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC and tested it with two cell types in two animal models, thereby gaining an understanding of its general applicability for enhanced cell distribution, survival, integration, and functional repair relative to conventional cell delivery in saline. HAMC improves cell survival and integration of retinal stem cell (RSC-derived rods in the retina. The pro-survival mechanism of HAMC is ascribed to the interaction of the CD44 receptor with HA. Transient disruption of the retinal outer limiting membrane, combined with HAMC delivery, results in significantly improved rod survival and visual function. HAMC also improves the distribution, viability, and functional repair of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs. The HAMC delivery system improves cell transplantation efficacy in two CNS models, suggesting broad applicability.

  2. Modelling p-value distributions to improve theme-driven survival analysis of cancer transcriptome datasets

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    Brors Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theme-driven cancer survival studies address whether the expression signature of genes related to a biological process can predict patient survival time. Although this should ideally be achieved by testing two separate null hypotheses, current methods treat both hypotheses as one. The first test should assess whether a geneset, independent of its composition, is associated with prognosis (frequently done with a survival test. The second test then verifies whether the theme of the geneset is relevant (usually done with an empirical test that compares the geneset of interest with random genesets. Current methods do not test this second null hypothesis because it has been assumed that the distribution of p-values for random genesets (when tested against the first null hypothesis is uniform. Here we demonstrate that such an assumption is generally incorrect and consequently, such methods may erroneously associate the biology of a particular geneset with cancer prognosis. Results To assess the impact of non-uniform distributions for random genesets in such studies, an automated theme-driven method was developed. This method empirically approximates the p-value distribution of sets of unrelated genes based on a permutation approach, and tests whether predefined sets of biologically-related genes are associated with survival. The results from a comparison with a published theme-driven approach revealed non-uniform distributions, suggesting a significant problem exists with false positive rates in the original study. When applied to two public cancer datasets our technique revealed novel ontological categories with prognostic power, including significant correlations between "fatty acid metabolism" with overall survival in breast cancer, as well as "receptor mediated endocytosis", "brain development", "apical plasma membrane" and "MAPK signaling pathway" with overall survival in lung cancer. Conclusions Current methods of theme

  3. Hydroxyapatite coating does not improve uncemented stem survival after total hip arthroplasty!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailer, Nils P; Lazarinis, Stergios; Mäkelä, Keijo T

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose - It is still being debated whether HA coating of uncemented stems used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) improves implant survival. We therefore investigated different uncemented stem brands, with and without HA coating, regarding early and long-term survival. Patients...... and methods - We identified 152,410 THA procedures using uncemented stems that were performed between 1995 and 2011 and registered in the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) database. We excluded 19,446 procedures that used stem brands less than 500 times in each country, procedures performed due...... to diagnoses other than osteoarthritis or pediatric hip disease, and procedures with missing information on the type of coating. 22 stem brands remained (which were used in 116,069 procedures) for analysis of revision of any component. 79,192 procedures from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden were analyzed...

  4. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization in Preterm Infants With Sepsis Is Associated With Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavashi, Vahid; Asadian, Simin; Taheri-Asl, Masoud; Keshavarz, Samaneh; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    Microvascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathology of sepsis, leading to multi-organ failure, and death. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) are critically involved in the maintenance of the vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathological contexts. In this study, concentration of cEPCs in preterm infants with sepsis was determined to recognize whether the EPC mobilization would affect the clinical outcome of infantile sepsis. One hundred and thirty-three preterm infants (81 with sepsis and 52 without sepsis) were enrolled in this study. The release of EPCs in circulation was first quantified. Thereafter, these cells were cultivated and biological features of these cells such as, proliferation and colony forming efficiency were analyzed. The levels of chemoattractant cytokines were also measured in infants. In mouse models of sepsis, effects of VEGF and SDF-1 as well as anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 were evaluated in order to shed light upon the role which the EPC mobilization plays in the overall survival of septic animals. Circulating EPCs were significantly higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in the non-sepsis group. Serum levels of VEGF, SDF-1, and Angiopoietin-2 were also higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in control non-sepsis. In the animal experiments, injection of VEGF and SDF-1 prompted the mobilization of EPCs, leading to an improvement in survival whereas injection of anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 was associated with significant deterioration of survival. Overall, our results demonstrated the beneficial effects of EPC release in preterm infants with sepsis, with increased mobilization of these cells was associated with improved survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3299-3307, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Do Increased Doses to Stem-Cell Niches during Radiation Therapy Improve Glioblastoma Survival?

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    Sebastian Adeberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. The reasons for the inevitable glioblastoma recurrence are yet understood. However, recent data suggest that tumor cancer stem cells (CSCs in the stem-cell niches, with self-renewing capacities, might be responsible for tumor initiation, propagation, and recurrence. We aimed to analyze the effect of higher radiation doses to the stem-cell niches on progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in glioblastoma patients. Materials and Methods. Sixty-five patients with primary glioblastoma treated with radiation therapy were included in this retrospective analysis. The SVZ and DG were segmented on treatment planning magnetic resonance imaging, and the dose distributions to the structures were calculated. The relationship of dosimetry data and survival was evaluated using the Cox regression analysis. Results. Conventionally fractionated patients (n=54 who received higher doses (Dmean ≥ 40 Gy to the IL SVZ showed improved PFS (8.5 versus 5.2 months; p=0.013. Furthermore, higher doses (Dmean ≥ 30 Gy to the CL SVZ were associated with increased PFS (10.1 versus 6.9 months; p=0.025. Conclusion. Moderate higher IL SVZ doses (≥40 Gy and CL SVZ doses (≥30 Gy are associated with improved PFS. Higher doses to the DG, the second stem-cell niche, did not influence the survival. Targeting the potential cancer stem cells in the SVZ might be a promising treatment approach for glioblastoma and should be addressed in a prospective randomized trial.

  6. Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improved survival in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadaban, Leigh; Rauscher, Garth; Aklilu, Mebea; Villenes, Dana; Freels, Sally; Maker, Ajay V

    2016-11-15

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer remains to be elucidated and its use varies between patients and institutions. Currently, clinical guidelines suggest discussing adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk stage II disease in the absence of conclusive randomized controlled trial data. To further investigate this relationship, the objective of the current study was to determine whether an association exists between overall survival (OS) and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients stratified by age and pathological risk features. Data from the National Cancer Data Base were analyzed for demographics, tumor characteristics, management, and survival of patients with stage II colon cancer who were diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with survival information through 2011. Pearson Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to analyze disease and demographic data. Survival analysis was performed with the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Propensity score weighting was used to match cohorts. Among 153,110 patients with stage II colon cancer, predictors of receiving chemotherapy included age Improved and clinically relevant OS was associated with the receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy in all patient subgroups regardless of high-risk tumor pathologic features (poor or undifferentiated histology, chemotherapy regimen, even after adjustment for covariates and propensity score weighting (hazard ratio, 0.76; Pchemotherapy regimens. In what to the authors' knowledge is the largest group of patients with stage II colon cancer evaluated to date, improved OS was found to be associated with adjuvant chemotherapy regardless of treatment regimen, patient age, or high-risk pathologic risk features. Cancer 2016;122:3277-3287. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Prior exercise improves survival, infarct healing, and left ventricular function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; Duncker, Dirk J

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary wheel running before an acute myocardial infarction (MI) on survival, left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction and whether exercise before and after MI provides superior protection compared with either exercise intervention alone. After 2 wk of voluntary wheel running or sedentary housing, MI was induced in C57Bl/6 mice, after which exercise was stopped (EX-MI-SED and SED-MI-SED groups, where EX is exercise and SED is sedentary) or continued (EX-MI-EX and SED-MI-EX groups) for a period of 8 wk. Exercise after MI in SED-MI-EX mice had no effect on survival, the area of infarction, and global LV remodeling, but attenuated fibrosis and apoptosis in the remote myocardium and blunted LV dysfunction and pulmonary congestion compared with SED-MI-SED mice. Exercise before MI in both EX-MI-SED and EX-MI-EX mice decreased post-MI mortality compared with both SED-MI-SED and SED-MI-EX mice. Furthermore, in both pre-MI exercise groups, the infarct area was thicker, whereas interstitial fibrosis and apoptosis in the remote LV myocardium were blunted. In contrast, the ameliorating effects of either pre-MI or post-MI exercise alone on LV dysfunction were lost in EX-MI-EX mice, which may in part be related to the increased daily exercise distance in the first week post-MI in EX-MI-EX versus SED-MI-EX mice. In conclusion, exercise before or after MI blunted LV dysfunction, whereas only exercise before MI improved survival. These findings suggest that even when regular physical activity fails to prevent an acute MI, it can still act to improve cardiac function and survival after MI.

  8. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

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    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  9. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

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    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  10. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2...... or were euthanized (CI: 19 – 32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68 – 81%). Conclusions: The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  11. Time trends in incidence rates and survival of newly diagnosed stage IV breast cancer by tumor histology: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meglio, Antonio; Freedman, Rachel A; Lin, Nancy U; Barry, William T; Metzger-Filho, Otto; Keating, Nancy L; King, Tari A; Sertoli, Mario Roberto; Boccardo, Francesco; Winer, Eric P; Vaz-Luis, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Few contemporary data are available that compare incidence and survival of metastatic breast cancer between ductal and lobular carcinomas. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 registries, we identified 10,639 patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 2011. Annual age-adjusted incidence rates and annual percent changes (APCs) were analyzed. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the impact of year of diagnosis and histology on overall survival. 9250 (86.9 %) patients had ductal and 1389 (13.1 %) had lobular carcinomas. Metastatic breast cancer incidence increased slightly over time for ductal (APC = +1.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = +1.0 to +2.4) and lobular carcinomas (APC = +3.0, 95 % CI = +1.8 to +4.3). Median overall survival was 22 months among the whole cohort. More recent year of diagnosis was associated with better overall survival only for patients with ductal carcinomas (interaction p value = 0.006), with an adjusted hazard ratio of death for every five-year increment in the date of diagnosis of 0.93 (95 % CI =  0.91-0.95) among ductal carcinomas, compared with 1.05 (95 % CI = 0.95-1.10) among lobular carcinomas. Overall survival was longer for lobular versus ductal carcinomas (28 versus 21 months, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio of death = 0.93, 95 % CI = 0.87-0.99), but the magnitude of this effect was attenuated among the cohort restricted to hormone receptor-positive tumors. In this population-based analysis, incidence rates of metastatic breast cancer at presentation increased slightly over time for both histologies, and particularly for lobular tumors. A modest improvement in metastatic breast cancer median overall survival was observed, but was apparently limited to ductal carcinomas.

  12. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  13. Association of Compliance With Process-Related Quality Metrics and Improved Survival in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboyes, Evan M; Gross, Jennifer; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F; Al-Gilani, Maha; Stadler, Michael E; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Quality metrics for patients with head and neck cancer are available, but it is unknown whether compliance with these metrics is associated with improved patient survival. To identify whether compliance with various process-related quality metrics is associated with improved survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who receive definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center among 192 patients with previously untreated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who underwent definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2010. Data analysis was performed from January 26 to August 7, 2015. Surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. Compliance with a collection of process-related quality metrics possessing face validity that covered pretreatment evaluation, treatment, and posttreatment surveillance was evaluated. Association between compliance with these quality metrics and overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival was calculated using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. Among 192 patients, compliance with the individual quality metrics ranged from 19.7% to 93.6% (median, 82.8%). No pretreatment or surveillance metrics were associated with improved survival. Compliance with the following treatment-related quality metrics was associated with improved survival: elective neck dissection with lymph node yield of 18 or more, no unplanned surgery within 14 days of the index surgery, no unplanned 30-day readmissions, and referral for adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologic stage III or IV disease. Increased compliance with a "clinical care signature" composed of these 4 metrics was associated with improved overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival on univariable analysis (log-rank test; P metrics was associated with improved overall survival (100

  14. Improved Survival in Patients with Recurrent Wilms Tumor: the Experience of the Seoul National University Children's Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun Sil; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2006-01-01

    The survival in cases with relapsed Wilms tumor is dismal. Recently, however the introduction of new therapeutic agents and experimental strategies has improved the survival. We analysed the survival of patients with relapsed Wilms tumor according to the treatment period. During the early period 1983-1993, patients who had received two drugs were treated with doxorubicin and the others were treated with cisplatin and etoposide, whereas during the late period 1994-2004, patients were treated w...

  15. [Improvement strategy to increase vaccination rates in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggendorf, H; Freynik, P; Hofmann, F

    2011-08-01

    Vaccination rates in adolescents in Germany are not sufficient. An intervention programme, which has been launched by the community health centre in Essen, should significantly increase vaccination coverage. In 2001 the Children and Youth Health Service at the Community Health Centre in Essen implemented a specific strategy to improve vaccination rates in adolescents. Vaccination rates were determined by control of vaccination certificates of all 6 (th) graders in Essen (n=5 589). After control of vaccination records the parents got a written, individual vaccination counselling for their child as well as a referral to the paediatrician to get the missing vaccinations. After 6 months the vaccination certificates were looked at again and vaccination coverage was determined. At the initial vaccination record control of 6 (th) graders in 2001 only 15% of the students, who presented their vaccination certificate, had an appropriate age related immunisation status. 84% of the students had had the tetanus/diphtheria and polio booster. But only 43% had been given a second measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation and only 24% had a complete hepatitis B coverage. The intervention programme (e. g., individual vaccination counselling) improved vaccination rates for hepatitis B and MMR by 16%. From 2001 to 2008 vaccination coverage in this age group could be improved from 43% to 87% for the second MMR vaccination and from 24% to 85% for hepatitis B. A remarkable improvement in vaccination coverage in children and adolescents could be achieved by a single, individual, written vaccination reminder. As a prerequisite a good cooperation between schools/paediatricians and the health authorities is needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata Sugiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.

  17. Temperature- and age-dependent survival, development, and oviposition rates of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had...

  18. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim.  To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Design.  A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary

  19. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Opinya, G.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical

  20. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; de Oliveira Rocha, R.; Bönecker, M.; Raggio, D.P.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of

  1. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijan, M.; Amorim, R.G. de; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Oliveira, L.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment

  2. Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1 Improves Survival in a Murine Cardiac Arrest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Willard W.; Beiser, David G.; Fang, Yong Hu; Han, Mei; Piao, Lin; Varughese, Justin; Archer, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Survival following sudden cardiac arrest is poor despite advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of therapeutic hypothermia. Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), a regulator of mitochondrial fission, is an important determinant of reactive oxygen species generation, myocardial necrosis, and left ventricular function following ischemia/reperfusion injury, but its role in cardiac arrest is unknown. We hypothesized that Drp1 inhibition would improve survival, cardiac hemodynamics, and mitochondrial function in an in vivo model of cardiac arrest. Design Laboratory investigation. Setting University laboratory Interventions Anesthetized and ventilated adult female C57BL/6 wild-type mice underwent an 8-min KCl induced cardiac arrest followed by 90 seconds of CPR. Mice were then blindly randomized to a single intravenous injection of Mdivi-1 (0.24 mg/kg), a small molecule Drp1 inhibitor or vehicle (DMSO). Measurements and Main Results Following resuscitation from cardiac arrest, mitochondrial fission was evidenced by Drp1 translocation to the mitochondrial membrane and a decrease in mitochondrial size. Mitochondrial fission was associated with increased lactate and evidence of oxidative damage. Mdivi-1 administration during CPR inhibited Drp1 activation, preserved mitochondrial morphology, and decreased oxidative damage. Mdivi-1 also reduced the time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) 116±4 vs. 143±7 sec (pcardiac arrest. Conclusions Post cardiac arrest inhibition of Drp1 improves time to ROSC and myocardial hemodynamics resulting in improved survival and neurological outcomes in a murine model of cardiac arrest. Pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial fission may be a promising therapy for cardiac arrest. PMID:25599491

  3. IL-7 promotes T cell viability, trafficking, and functionality and improves survival in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsinger, Jacqueline; McGlynn, Margaret; Kasten, Kevin R; Hoekzema, Andrew S; Watanabe, Eizo; Muenzer, Jared T; McDonough, Jacquelyn S; Tschoep, Johannes; Ferguson, Thomas A; McDunn, Jonathan E; Morre, Michel; Hildeman, David A; Caldwell, Charles C; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2010-04-01

    Sepsis is a highly lethal disorder characterized by widespread apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and the development of a profound immunosuppressive state. IL-7 is a potent antiapoptotic cytokine that enhances immune effector cell function and is essential for lymphocyte survival. In this study, recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) efficacy and potential mechanisms of action were tested in a murine peritonitis model. Studies at two independent laboratories showed that rhIL-7 markedly improved host survival, blocked apoptosis of CD4 and CD8 T cells, restored IFN-gamma production, and improved immune effector cell recruitment to the infected site. Importantly, rhIL-7 also prevented a hallmark of sepsis (i.e., the loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity), which is an IFN-gamma- and T cell-dependent response. Mechanistically, rhIL-7 significantly increased the expression of the leukocyte adhesion markers LFA-1 and VLA-4, consistent with its ability to improve leukocyte function and trafficking to the infectious focus. rhIL-7 also increased the expression of CD8. The potent antiapoptotic effect of rhIL-7 was due to increased Bcl-2, as well as to a dramatic decrease in sepsis-induced PUMA, a heretofore unreported effect of IL-7. If additional animal studies support its efficacy in sepsis and if current clinical trials continue to confirm its safety in diverse settings, rhIL-7 should be strongly considered for clinical trials in sepsis.

  4. Michigan oncology practices showed varying adherence rates to practice guidelines, but quality interventions improved care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Douglas W; Severson, Jane; Martin, C Jane; Kadlubek, Pamela; Ruane, Thomas; Harrison, Kimberley

    2012-04-01

    Despite improvements in care for patients with cancer, and in their survival rates, it is not clear that best practices are uniformly delivered to patients. We measured the quality of outpatient cancer care, using validated quality measures, in a consortium of thirty-six outpatient oncology practices in Michigan. We discovered that throughout the measurement period, for breast and colorectal cancer care, there was a more than 85 percent rate of adherence to quality care processes. For end-of-life care processes, the adherence rate was 73 percent, and for symptom and toxicity management care processes, adherence was 56 percent. In particular, we found variations in care around the fundamental oncologic task of management of cancer pain. To address quality gaps, we developed interventions to improve adherence to treatment guidelines, improve pain management, and incorporate palliative care into oncology practice. We concluded that statewide consortia that assume much of the cost burden of quality improvement activities can bring together oncology providers and payers to measure quality and design interventions to improve care.

  5. Resveratrol improves survival, hemodynamics and energetics in a rat model of hypertension leading to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Ruiz, Matthieu; Piquereau, Jérôme; Mateo, Philippe; Fortin, Dominique; Veksler, Vladimir; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by contractile dysfunction associated with altered energy metabolism. This study was aimed at determining whether resveratrol, a polyphenol known to activate energy metabolism, could be beneficial as a metabolic therapy of HF. Survival, ventricular and vascular function as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism were assessed in a hypertensive model of HF, the Dahl salt-sensitive rat fed with a high-salt diet (HS-NT). Resveratrol (18 mg/kg/day; HS-RSV) was given for 8 weeks after hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were established (which occurred 3 weeks after salt addition). Resveratrol treatment improved survival (64% in HS-RSV versus 15% in HS-NT, phypertension or hypertrophy. Moreover, aortic endothelial dysfunction present in HS-NT was prevented in resveratrol-treated rats. Resveratrol treatment tended to preserve mitochondrial mass and biogenesis and completely protected mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) expression. We conclude that resveratrol treatment exerts beneficial protective effects on survival, endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation and cardiac contractile and mitochondrial function, suggesting that resveratrol or metabolic activators could be a relevant therapy in hypertension-induced HF.

  6. The Green Roof Microbiome: Improving Plant Survival for Ecosystem Service Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fulthorpe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are key contributors to ecosystem services delivered by green roofs in cities including stormwater capture, temperature regulation, and wildlife habitat. As a result, current research has primarily focused on their growth in relationship to extensive green roof (e.g., substrates <15 cm depth ecosystem services. Green roofs are exposed to a variety of harsh abiotic factors such as intense solar radiation, wind, and isolation from ground-level habitats, making survival exceedingly difficult. Plants in natural habitats benefit from a variety of interactions with fungi and bacteria. These plant-microbial interactions improve mechanisms of survival and productivity; however, many green roof substrates are sterilized prior to installation and lack microbial communities with unstudied consequences for green roof plant health and subsequent survival and performance. In this paper, we present six hypotheses on the positive role of microbes in green roof applications. In natural and experimental systems, microbial interactions have been linked to plant (1 drought tolerance, (2 pathogen protection, (3 nutrient availability, (4 salt tolerance, (5 phytohormone production, and (6 substrate stabilization, all of which are desirable properties of green roof ecosystems. As few studies exist that directly examine these relationships on green roofs, we explore the existing ecological literature on these topics to unravel the mechanisms that could support more complex green roof ecosystem and lead to new insight into the design, performance, and broader applications in green infrastructure.

  7. The Hartford Consensus to improve survivability in mass casualty events: Process to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lenworth; Burns, Karyl J

    2014-01-01

    The Joint Committee to Create a National Policy to Enhance Survivability from Mass Casualty Shooting Events was formed to make recommendations to improve survival from intentional mass casualty incidents. This article describes the development of the Hartford Consensus and the process used to disseminate and implement its findings. Members of the Committee included individuals from select public safety organizations. The first meeting of the Committee was held on April 2, 2013, and a second meeting was held on July 11, 2013. Attendance at the second meeting was enlarged and included representatives from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Security Staff of the Office of the President. The results of these meetings became known as the Hartford Consensus. The ideas generated at the meetings produced two documents, one from each meeting. These are referred to as Hartford Consensus I and II. Hartford Consensus I is a concept document and Hartford Consensus II is a call to action that no one should die from uncontrolled bleeding. The recommendations are being incorporated into training programs and have been endorsed by many organizations whose members are involved in the response to mass casualty incidents. The Joint Committee to Create a National Policy to Enhance Survivability from Mass Casualty Shooting Events was successful in stimulating policy to bring about change. Training and resources including tourniquets and hemostatic dressing are being directed to help ameliorate the unfortunate reality of intentional mass injury.

  8. Resveratrol improves survival, hemodynamics and energetics in a rat model of hypertension leading to heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Rimbaud

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is characterized by contractile dysfunction associated with altered energy metabolism. This study was aimed at determining whether resveratrol, a polyphenol known to activate energy metabolism, could be beneficial as a metabolic therapy of HF. Survival, ventricular and vascular function as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism were assessed in a hypertensive model of HF, the Dahl salt-sensitive rat fed with a high-salt diet (HS-NT. Resveratrol (18 mg/kg/day; HS-RSV was given for 8 weeks after hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were established (which occurred 3 weeks after salt addition. Resveratrol treatment improved survival (64% in HS-RSV versus 15% in HS-NT, p<0.001, and prevented the 25% reduction in body weight in HS-NT (P<0.001. Moreover, RSV counteracted the development of cardiac dysfunction (fractional shortening -34% in HS-NT as evaluated by echocardiography, which occurred without regression of hypertension or hypertrophy. Moreover, aortic endothelial dysfunction present in HS-NT was prevented in resveratrol-treated rats. Resveratrol treatment tended to preserve mitochondrial mass and biogenesis and completely protected mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α expression. We conclude that resveratrol treatment exerts beneficial protective effects on survival, endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation and cardiac contractile and mitochondrial function, suggesting that resveratrol or metabolic activators could be a relevant therapy in hypertension-induced HF.

  9. Resveratrol Improves Survival, Hemodynamics and Energetics in a Rat Model of Hypertension Leading to Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Ruiz, Matthieu; Piquereau, Jérôme; Mateo, Philippe; Fortin, Dominique; Veksler, Vladimir; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is characterized by contractile dysfunction associated with altered energy metabolism. This study was aimed at determining whether resveratrol, a polyphenol known to activate energy metabolism, could be beneficial as a metabolic therapy of HF. Survival, ventricular and vascular function as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism were assessed in a hypertensive model of HF, the Dahl salt-sensitive rat fed with a high-salt diet (HS-NT). Resveratrol (18 mg/kg/day; HS-RSV) was given for 8 weeks after hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were established (which occurred 3 weeks after salt addition). Resveratrol treatment improved survival (64% in HS-RSV versus 15% in HS-NT, p<0.001), and prevented the 25% reduction in body weight in HS-NT (P<0.001). Moreover, RSV counteracted the development of cardiac dysfunction (fractional shortening −34% in HS-NT) as evaluated by echocardiography, which occurred without regression of hypertension or hypertrophy. Moreover, aortic endothelial dysfunction present in HS-NT was prevented in resveratrol-treated rats. Resveratrol treatment tended to preserve mitochondrial mass and biogenesis and completely protected mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) expression. We conclude that resveratrol treatment exerts beneficial protective effects on survival, endothelium–dependent smooth muscle relaxation and cardiac contractile and mitochondrial function, suggesting that resveratrol or metabolic activators could be a relevant therapy in hypertension-induced HF. PMID:22028869

  10. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-03-01

    European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. A total of 14 countries. Consensus groups of PCPs. Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = -0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = -0.57, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.12; ovary: r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.62). There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a "PCP-as-gatekeeper" system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. KEY POINTS European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European countries show a wide variation in the probability of initial presentation to a PCP. The degree to

  11. Improving inferior vena cava filter retrieval rates with the define, measure, analyze, improve, control methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Patrick D; Reis, Stephen P; McKune, Angie; Ravanzo, Maria; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Pillai, Anil K

    2015-04-01

    To design a sustainable process to improve optional inferior vena cava (IVC) filter retrieval rates based on the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) methodology of the Six Sigma process improvement paradigm. DMAIC, an acronym for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control, was employed to design and implement a quality improvement project to increase IVC filter retrieval rates at a tertiary academic hospital. Retrievable IVC filters were placed in 139 patients over a 2-year period. The baseline IVC filter retrieval rate (n = 51) was reviewed through a retrospective analysis, and two strategies were devised to improve the filter retrieval rate: (a) mailing of letters to clinicians and patients for patients who had filters placed within 8 months of implementation of the project (n = 43) and (b) a prospective automated scheduling of a clinic visit at 4 weeks after filter placement for all new patients (n = 45). The effectiveness of these strategies was assessed by measuring the filter retrieval rates and estimated increase in revenue to interventional radiology. IVC filter retrieval rates increased from a baseline of 8% to 40% with the mailing of letters and to 52% with the automated scheduling of a clinic visit 4 weeks after IVC filter placement. The estimated revenue per 100 IVC filters placed increased from $2,249 to $10,518 with the mailing of letters and to $17,022 with the automated scheduling of a clinic visit. Using the DMAIC methodology, a simple and sustainable quality improvement intervention was devised that markedly improved IVC filter retrieval rates in eligible patients. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Embryo survival and birth rate after minimum volume vitrification or slow freezing of in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Cuadro, F; Barrera, N; Crispo, M; Menchaca, A

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and birth rate of in vivo derived vs. in vitro produced ovine embryos submitted to different cryopreservation methods. A total of 197 in vivo and 240 in vitro produced embryos were cryopreserved either by conventional freezing, or by vitrification with Cryotop or Spatula MVD methods on Day 6 after insemination/fertilization. After thawing/warming and transfer, embryo survival rate on Day 30 of gestation was affected by the source of the embryos (in vivo 53.3%, in vitro 20.8%; P vitro produced embryos, survival rate was 7.3% for conventional freezing, 38.7% for Cryotop, and 11.4% for Spatula MVD. Fetal loss from Day 30 to birth showed a tendency to be greater for in vitro (15.0%) rather than for in vivo produced embryos (5.7%), and was not affected by the cryopreservation method. Gestation length, weight at birth and lamb survival rate after birth were not affected by the source of the embryo, the cryopreservation method or stage of development (average: 150.5 ± 1.8 days; 4232.8 ± 102.8 g; 85.4%; respectively). This study demonstrates that embryo survival and birth rate of both in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos are improved by vitrification with the minimum volume Cryotop method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  14. The dwell time and survival rates of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty in patient with unexpected central venous obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Yim, Younghee

    2016-09-21

    To evaluate the dwell time and actual survival rates of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements after balloon angioplasty in patients with unexpected central venous obstructions. Data were obtained on all PICC insertions performed in a tertiary care hospital from August 2008 to December 2013. Thirty-five PICCs attempted after balloon angioplasty in 25 patients (15 male and 10 female patients; mean age, 63 years). Fisher's exact test was used to test for differences in reasons for catheter removal between the groups of patients with stenosis or obstructions. Survival curves for PICC dwell time of all patients, stenosis group, and obstruction group were generated separately using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with log-rank tests. There were a total 21 obstructions and 14 stenoses. The overall technical success rate of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty was 94% (33 of 35 procedures). The PICC dwell time was determined for 27 PICCs and ranged from 4 to 165 days (mean, 39.6 days). Among all PICCs, 16 were removed early, resulting in an actual survival rate of 40.7% (11 of 27 PICCs). There were no significant differences in reasons for catheter removal between the stenosis and obstruction groups (p = 0.24). The dwell times for both groups were not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.54). PICC placement after balloon angioplasty is a good treatment option for patients with unexpected central venous lesions, and offers high technical success rates. The actual survival rate was relatively lower (40.7%) than that from previous studies.

  15. Crocetin Reduces Activation of Hepatic Apoptotic Pathways and Improves Survival in Experimental Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongjie; Vernon, Kathy; Thomas, Ann; Morrison, David; Qureshi, Nilofer; Van Way, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock results in cellular damage and cell death. A primary mechanism is cellular apoptosis from mitochondrial damage. This study demonstrated that administration of crocetin to experimental animals during resuscitation from shock significantly improved postshock survival and reduced apoptosis. Crocetin is a component of saffron and has long been used in traditional medicine in Asia. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350 ± 30g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 8 animals. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood until the mean arterial pressure was 35–40 mm Hg, and blood pressure was maintained at that level for 60 minutes with further withdrawals as needed. Resuscitation was carried out by administration of 21 mL/kg lactated Ringer’s solution and return of shed blood, with or without concurrent administration of crocetin (2 mg/kg). Control animals were sham-treated with surgical preparation, without shock or resuscitation, and with and without crocetin. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after completion of resuscitation. The extent of activation of hepatic apoptosis was established by measuring levels of hepatic cytosolic cytochrome c, caspase-3, and bcl-2. A separate group of 53 animals treated identically was used to assess survival. Results Crocetin administration during resuscitation resulted in less extensive activation of hepatic apoptosis and significantly increased survival relative to controls. Conclusions Crocetin administration to experimental animals during resuscitation post hemorrhage increased survival, at least in part by protecting the liver from activation of apoptotic cell death. This agent continues to show promise as a potential treatment strategy for hemorrhagic shock. PMID:21224437

  16. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  17. Hydroxocobalamin and epinephrine both improve survival in a swine model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Dixon, Patricia S; Valtier, Sandra; Esquivel, Luis; Bush, Anneke; Little, Charles M

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether hydroxocobalamin will improve survival compared with epinephrine and saline solution controls in a model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest. Forty-five swine (38 to 42 kg) were tracheally intubated, anesthetized, and central venous and arterial continuous cardiovascular monitoring catheters were inserted. Potassium cyanide was infused until cardiac arrest developed, defined as mean arterial pressure less than 30 mm Hg. Animals were treated with standardized mechanical chest compressions and were randomly assigned to receive one of 3 intravenous bolus therapies: hydroxocobalamin, epinephrine, or saline solution (control). All animals were monitored for 60 minutes after cardiac arrest. Additional epinephrine infusions were used in all arms of the study after return of spontaneous circulation for systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg. A sample size of 15 animals per group was determined according to a power of 80%, a survival difference of 0.5, and an α of 0.05. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. Baseline weight, time to arrest, and cyanide dose at cardiac arrest were similar in the 3 groups. Coronary perfusion pressures with chest compressions were greater than 15 mm Hg in both treatment groups indicating sufficient compression depth. Zero of 15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0% to 25%) animals in the control group, 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the hydroxocobalamin group, and 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the epinephrine group survived to the conclusion of the study (Pcyanide levels in the hydroxocobalamin group were also lower than that of the epinephrine group from cardiac arrest through the conclusion of the study. Intravenous hydroxocobalamin and epinephrine both independently improved survival compared with saline solution control in our swine model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest. Hydroxocobalamin improved mean arterial pressure and pH, decreased

  18. Effect of team training on improving MRI study completion rates and no-show rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbash, Alexander; Yucel, Kent; Yuh, William; Doros, Gheorghe; Ajam, Amna; Lang, Elvira; Pauker, Stephen; Mayr, Nina

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a high-cost imaging modality, and an optimized encounter ideally provides high-quality care, patient satisfaction, and capacity utilization. Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of team training and its impact on patient show-up and completion rates for their MRI examinations. A total of 97,712 patient visits from three tertiary academic medical centers over 1-year intervals were evaluated, totaling 49,733 visits at baseline and 47,979 after training. Each center's MRI team received team training skill training including advanced communication and team training techniques training. This training included onsite instruction including case simulation with scenarios requiring appropriate behavioral and communicative interventions. Orientation and training also utilized customized online tools and proctoring. The study completion rate and patient show-up rate during consecutive year-long intervals before and after team training were compared to assess its effectiveness. Two-sided chi-square tests for proportions using were applied at a 0.05 significance level. Despite differing no-show rates (5-22.2%) and study incompletion rates (0.7-3.7%) at the three academic centers, the combined patients' data showed significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in the patients' no-show rates (combined decreases from 11.2% to 8.7%) and incompletion rates (combined decreases from 2.3% to 1.4%). Our preliminary results suggest training of the imaging team can improve the no-show and incompletion rates of the MRI service, positively affecting throughput and utilization. Team training can be readily implemented and may help address the needs of the current cost-conscious and consumer-sensitive healthcare environment. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:1040-1047. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Plasma Resuscitation Improved Survival in a Cecal Ligation and Puncture Rat Model of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ronald; Holcomb, John B; Johansson, Par I; Pati, Shibani; Schreiber, Martin A; Wade, Charles E

    2017-06-06

    The paradigm shift from crystalloid to plasma resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhagic shock has improved patient outcomes due in part to plasma-mediated reversal of catecholamine and inflammation-induced endothelial injury, decreasing vascular permeability and attenuating organ injury. Since sepsis induces a similar endothelial injury as seen in hemorrhage, we hypothesized that plasma resuscitation would increase 48-hour survival in a rat sepsis model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (375-425 g) were subjected to 35% cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (t = 0 h). Twenty-two hours post-CLP and prior to resuscitation (t = 22 h), animals were randomized to resuscitation with normal saline (NS, 10 cc/kg/hr) or pooled rat fresh frozen plasma (FFP, 3.33 cc/kg/hr). Resuscitation under general anesthesia proceeded for the next six hours (t = 22 h to t = 28 h); lactate was checked every 2 hours, and fluid volumes were titrated based on lactate clearance. Blood samples were obtained before (t = 22 h) and after resuscitation (t = 28 h), and at death or study conclusion. Lung specimens were obtained for calculation of wet-to-dry weight ratio. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the primary outcome of 48-hour survival. ANOVA with repeated measures was used to analyze the effect of FFP versus NS resuscitation on blood gas, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, catecholamines, and syndecan-1 (marker for endothelial injury). A two-tailed alpha level of dry weight ratio (5.28 vs 5.94) (all p < 0.05). Compared to crystalloid, plasma resuscitation increased 48-hour survival in a rat sepsis model, improved pulmonary function and decreased pulmonary edema, and attenuated markers for inflammation, endothelial injury, and catecholamines.

  20. Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2014-02-15

    This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1 h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135 mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400 mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI.

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine as adjunctive therapy improves the long-term survival of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yueh-Hsiang; Li, Chia-Ing; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2017-12-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is one of the popular alternative treatments for cancer, mainly enhancing host immune response and reducing adverse effect of chemotherapy. This study first explored traditional Chinese medicine treatment effect on long-term survival of lung cancer patients. This study evaluated whether traditional Chinese medicine combined with conventional cancer treatment improved overall survival of lung cancer patients. We had conducted a retrospective cohort study on 111,564 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients in 2000-2009 from National Health Insurance Program database. A total of 23,803 (21.31%) patients used traditional Chinese medicine for lung cancer care. Eligible participants were followed up until 2011 with a mean follow-up period of 1.96 years (standard deviation 2.55) for non-TCM users and 3.04 years (2.85) for traditional Chinese medicine users. Patients with traditional Chinese medicine utilization were significantly more likely to have a 32% decreased risk of death [hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval = 0.61-0.63], compared with patients without traditional Chinese medicine utilization after multivariate adjustment. We also observed a similar significant reduction risk across various subgroups of chronic lung diseases. Qing Zao Jiu Fei Tang was the most effective traditional Chinese medicine agent for mortality reduction both in the entire lung cancer (0.81; 0.72-0.91) and matched populations (0.86; 0.78-0.95). This study demonstrated adjunctive therapy with traditional Chinese medicine may improve overall survival of lung cancer patients. This study also suggested traditional Chinese medicine may be used as an adjunctive therapy for cancer treatment. These observational findings need being validated by future randomized controlled trials to rule out the possibility of effect due to holistic care.

  2. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  3. Quantifying and Improving International Space Station Survivability Following Orbital Debris Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamsen, Joel; Evans, Hilary; Bohl, Bill; Evans, Steven; Parker, Nelson (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The increase of the orbital debris environment in low-earth orbit has prompted NASA to develop analytical tools for quantifying and lowering the likelihood of crew loss following orbital debris penetration of the International Space Station (ISS). NASA uses the Manned Spacecraft and Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) computer program to simulate the events that may cause crew loss following orbital debris penetration of ISS manned modules, including: (1) critical cracking (explosive decompression) of the module; (2) critical external equipment penetration (such as hydrazine and high pressure tanks); (3) critical internal system penetration (guidance, control, and other vital components); (4) hazardous payload penetration (furnaces, pressure bottles, and toxic substances); (5) crew injury (from fragments, overpressure, light flash, and temperature rise); (6) hypoxia from loss of cabin pressure; and (7) thrust from module hole causing high angular velocity (occurring only when key Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) equipment is damaged) and, thus, preventing safe escape vehicle (EV) departure. MSCSurv is also capable of quantifying the 'end effects' of orbital debris penetration, such as the likelihood of crew escape, the probability of each module depressurizing, and late loss of station control. By quantifying these effects (and their associated uncertainties), NASA is able to improve the likelihood of crew survivability following orbital debris penetration due to improved crew operations and internal designs.

  4. Anti-inflammatory thalidomide improves islet grafts survival and functions in a xenogenic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Chen

    Full Text Available Thalidomide possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. This study investigates its potential application in islet transplantation with a xenogenic transplantation model. Transplantation was performed using C57Bl/6 mice and NMRI nu/nu mice as recipients of porcine islets. Moreover, islet graft vasculature and inflammation were investigated to identify the mechanisms of thalidomide action. In the immunocompetent environment of C57Bl/6 mice, a fast graft rejection was observed. The group treated with thalidomide 200 mg/kg BW per day achieved and maintained euglycemia in the complete observation period for 42 days. The treated mice had more functional islet graft mass with less leukocyte infiltration. The pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha and VEGF content in islet grafted kidneys was significantly lowered by the treatment. By comparison, thalidomide was not effective in improving graft survival in immunocompromised nude mice. It strongly inhibited the VEGF and TNF-alpha-induced endothelial proliferation of isolated pig islets in a dose dependent manner. The magnitude of thalidomide's inhibitory effect was nearly identical to the effect of VEGF- receptor 2 inhibitor SU416 and anti-TNF-receptor 1 neutralizing antibody, and was reversed by sphingosine-1-phosphate. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide improved islet graft survival and function in a transplantation model with a maximum immune barrier.

  5. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  6. Oxygen Administration Improves Survival but Worsens Cardiopulmonary Functions in Chlorine-exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okponyia, Obiefuna C; McGraw, Matthew D; Dysart, Marilyn M; Garlick, Rhonda B; Rioux, Jacqueline S; Murphy, Angela L; Roe, Gates B; White, Carl W; Veress, Livia A

    2018-01-01

    Chlorine is a highly reactive gas that can cause significant injury when inhaled. Unfortunately, its use as a chemical weapon has increased in recent years. Massive chlorine inhalation can cause death within 4 hours of exposure. Survivors usually require hospitalization after massive exposure. No countermeasures are available for massive chlorine exposure and supportive-care measures lack controlled trials. In this work, adult rats were exposed to chlorine gas (LD 58-67 ) in a whole-body exposure chamber, and given oxygen (0.8 Fi O 2 ) or air (0.21 Fi O 2 ) for 6 hours after baseline measurements were obtained. Oxygen saturation, vital signs, respiratory distress and neuromuscular scores, arterial blood gases, and hemodynamic measurements were obtained hourly. Massive chlorine inhalation caused severe acute respiratory failure, hypoxemia, decreased cardiac output, neuromuscular abnormalities (ataxia and hypotonia), and seizures resulting in early death. Oxygen improved survival to 6 hours (87% versus 42%) and prevented observed seizure-related deaths. However, oxygen administration worsened the severity of acute respiratory failure in chlorine-exposed rats compared with controls, with increased respiratory acidosis (pH 6.91 ± 0.04 versus 7.06 ± 0.01 at 2 h) and increased hypercapnia (180.0 ± 19.8 versus 103.2 ± 3.9 mm Hg at 2 h). In addition, oxygen did not improve neuromuscular abnormalities, cardiac output, or respiratory distress associated with chlorine exposure. Massive chlorine inhalation causes severe acute respiratory failure and multiorgan damage. Oxygen administration can improve short-term survival but appears to worsen respiratory failure, with no improvement in cardiac output or neuromuscular dysfunction. Oxygen should be used with caution after massive chlorine inhalation, and the need for early assisted ventilation should be assessed in victims.

  7. Adolescent Vaccines: Latest Recommendations, Addressing Barriers, and Improving Vaccine Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kathleen C

    2017-07-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that the Tdap, HPV, and meningitis vaccines be administered to youth beginning between the ages of 11 and 12. The school nurse, knowledgeable about vaccine schedules and the rationale for the schedules, is in a unique position to advocate for all adolescent vaccines and their timely administration through addressing parent-guardian concerns and supporting other healthcare providers in completing the adolescent vaccines. This article reviews current recommendations for adolescent vaccinations and the actions needed to improve vaccination rates with a focus on Human Papillomavirus vaccine, the vaccine with the lowest completion rates among this age group. Additionally, school nurses are introduced to Middle School Health Starts Here, a program for school nurses designed to address the whole child as students progress from 5th grade to middle school. Public policy issues including school mandates, along with possible barriers to vaccine completion in adolescents, are discussed.

  8. Improvements in plant growth rate using underwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, K.; Takahata, J.; Watanabe, S.; Satta, N.; Yamada, O.; Fujio, T.; Sasaki, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The drainage water from plant pots was irradiated by plasma and then recycled to irrigate plants for improving the growth rate by supplying nutrients to plants and inactivating the bacteria in the bed-soil. Brassica rapa var. perviridis (Chinese cabbage; Brassica campestris) plants were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included the use of chicken droppings as a fertiliser. The water was recycled once per day from a drainage water pool and added to the bed-soil in the pots. A magnetic compression type pulsed power generator was used to produce underwater discharge with repetition rate of 250 pps. The plasma irradiation times were set as 10 and 20 minutes per day over 28 days of cultivation. The experimental results showed that the growth rate increased significantly with plasma irradiation into the drainage water. The growth rate increased with the plasma irradiation time. The nitrogen concentration of the leaves increased as a result of plasma irradiation based on chlorophyll content analysis. The bacteria in the drainage water were inactivated by the plasma irradiation.

  9. Sales Growth Rate Forecasting Using Improved PSO and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of the sales growth rate plays a decisive role in determining the amount of advertising investment. In this study, we present a preclassification and later regression based method optimized by improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO for sales growth rate forecasting. We use support vector machine (SVM as a classification model. The nonlinear relationship in sales growth rate forecasting is efficiently represented by SVM, while IPSO is optimizing the training parameters of SVM. IPSO addresses issues of traditional PSO, such as relapsing into local optimum, slow convergence speed, and low convergence precision in the later evolution. We performed two experiments; firstly, three classic benchmark functions are used to verify the validity of the IPSO algorithm against PSO. Having shown IPSO outperform PSO in convergence speed, precision, and escaping local optima, in our second experiment, we apply IPSO to the proposed model. The sales growth rate forecasting cases are used to testify the forecasting performance of proposed model. According to the requirements and industry knowledge, the sample data was first classified to obtain types of the test samples. Next, the values of the test samples were forecast using the SVM regression algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model has good forecasting performance.

  10. Radiotherapy may improve overall survival of patients with T3/T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy, the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unknown. Methods We treated 133 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis or ureter at our institution between 1998 and 2008. The 67 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery were assigned to the radiation group (RT). The clinical target volume included the renal fossa, the course of the ureter to the entire bladder, and the paracaval and para-aortic lymph nodes, which were at risk of harbouring metastatic disease in 53 patients. The tumour bed or residual tumour was targeted in 14 patients. The median radiation dose administered was 50 Gy. The 66 patients who received intravesical chemotherapy were assigned to the non-radiation group (non-RT). Results The overall survival rates for the RT and non-RT groups were not significantly different (p = 0.198). However, there was a significant difference between the survival rates for these groups based on patients with T3/T4 stage cancer. A significant difference was observed in the bladder tumour relapse rate between the irradiated and non-irradiated bladder groups (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis indicated that improved overall survival was associated with age grade 3) hematologic symptoms also occurred. Conclusion EBRT may improve overall survival for patients with T3/T4 cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour recurrence in all patients. PMID:21756352

  11. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  12. Antiviral therapy improves overall survival in hepatitis C virus-infected patients who develop diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosry, Jeff; Mahale, Parag; Turturro, Francesco; Miranda, Roberto N; Economides, Minas P; Granwehr, Bruno P; Torres, Harrys A

    2016-12-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Several studies have demonstrated regression of indolent lymphoma with antiviral therapy (AVT) alone. However, the role of AVT in HCV-infected patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unclear. We therefore analyzed AVT's impact on oncologic outcomes of HCV-infected patients (cases) who developed DLBCL. Cases seen at our institution (June 2004-May 2014) were matched with uninfected counterparts (controls) and then divided according to prior AVT consisting of interferon-based regimens. We studied 304 patients (76 cases and 228 controls). More cases than controls had extranodal (79% vs. 72%; p = 0.07) and upper gastrointestinal (GI; 42% vs. 24%; p = 0.004) involvement. Cases never given AVT had DLBCL more refractory to first-line chemotherapy than that in the controls (33% vs. 17%; p = 0.05) and exhibited a trend toward more progressive lymphoma at last examination compared to controls (50% vs. 32%; p = 0.09) or cases given AVT (50% vs. 27%; p = 0.06). Cases never given AVT had worse 5-year overall survival (OS) rates than did the controls (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.01-5.3]; p = 0.04). Furthermore, AVT improved 5-year OS rates among cases in both univariate (median [Interquartile range]: 39 [26-56] vs. 16 [6-41] months, p = 0.02) and multivariate analyses (HR = 0.21 [95% CI, 0.06-0.69]; p = 0.01). This study highlights the negative impact of chronic HCV on survival of DLBCL patients and shows that treatment of HCV infection is associated with a better cancer response to chemotherapy and improves 5-year OS. © 2016 UICC.

  13. Fasudil improves survival and promotes skeletal muscle development in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowerman Melissa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the leading genetic cause of infant death. It is caused by mutations/deletions of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene and is typified by the loss of spinal cord motor neurons, muscular atrophy, and in severe cases, death. The SMN protein is ubiquitously expressed and various cellular- and tissue-specific functions have been investigated to explain the specific motor neuron loss in SMA. We have previously shown that the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK pathway is misregulated in cellular and animal SMA models, and that inhibition of ROCK with the chemical Y-27632 significantly increased the lifespan of a mouse model of SMA. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the clinically approved ROCK inhibitor fasudil. Methods Fasudil was administered by oral gavage from post-natal day 3 to 21 at a concentration of 30 mg/kg twice daily. The effects of fasudil on lifespan and SMA pathological hallmarks of the SMA mice were assessed and compared to vehicle-treated mice. For the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the log-rank test was used and survival curves were considered significantly different at P t test for paired variables and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to test for differences between samples and data were considered significantly different at P Results Fasudil significantly improves survival of SMA mice. This dramatic phenotypic improvement is not mediated by an up-regulation of Smn protein or via preservation of motor neurons. However, fasudil administration results in a significant increase in muscle fiber and postsynaptic endplate size, and restores normal expression of markers of skeletal muscle development, suggesting that the beneficial effects of fasudil could be muscle-specific. Conclusions Our work underscores the importance of muscle as a therapeutic target in SMA and highlights the beneficial potential of ROCK inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for SMA

  14. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warattama Suksaphar; Danuchit Banomyong; Titalee Jirathanyanatt; Yaowaluk Ngoenwiwatkul

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations...

  15. Survival rates of immature Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks estimated using field-placed enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Holmes, Elizabeth A; Foley, Janet E

    2010-06-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and Lyme borreliosis are emerging tick-borne diseases caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, and maintained in rodent-Ixodes spp. tick cycles, including I. pacificus in the western U.S. Ixodes pacificus has a multiple-year life cycle and B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum are transstadially, but not transovarially, transmitted within ticks, thus ticks function importantly in maintaining infection in nature. In this study, the survival of larval and nymphal I. pacificus was determined using ticks placed in tubes in leaf litter from June 2005 to September 2006 at two field sites in the California northern coast range mountains and a laboratory control. In all three sites, nymphal and larval survival ranged from 90-400 d, with differences in mean survival among sites. Fewer ticks died in the autumn in the moister field sites compared with the drier incubator control treatment. The first large die-off event in late autumn occurred at all sites shortly before relative humidity increased from 80-100% and temperature declined from approximately 22-15 degrees C. The concurrent die-off in the incubator population, subject to relative humidity and temperature regimes that were invariant, suggests that survival time was dependent on other factors in addition to environmental conditions. These results suggested that many ticks exhausted resources or tolerance for relatively low humidity within six months of questing, and that higher humidity prolonged survival. Based on observed longevity, humans and other animals could acquire A. phagocytophilum infection from adult I. pacificus that were infected up to three years earlier.

  16. Do female cancer patients display better survival rates compared with males? Analysis of the Korean National Registry data, 2005-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Won Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences have been reported in the prognosis of certain cancers. In this study, we investigated whether Korean females display better survival rates compared with male patients for solid tumor sites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database from 599,288 adult patients diagnosed with solid cancers between 2005 and 2009. Patients were followed until December 2010. We applied a relative excess risk (RER model adjusting for year of follow-up, age at diagnosis, and stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: For all solid cancer sites combined, women displayed an 11% lower risk of death compared to men (RER 0.89; 95% CI 0.88-0.90 after adjusting for year of follow-up, age, stage, and case mix. Women showed significantly lower RERs for the following sites: head/neck, esophagus, small intestine, liver, nasal cavities, lung, bone/cartilages, melanoma of skin, soft tissue, brain and CNS, and thyroid. In contrast, women displayed a poorer prognosis than did men for colorectal, laryngeal, kidney and bladder cancer. However, the survival gaps between men and women narrowed by increase in age; female patients over 75 years of age displayed a 3% higher RER of death compared with males in this age group. CONCLUSIONS: Female cancer patients display an improved survival for the majority of solid tumor sites, even after adjustment for age and stage. Age at diagnosis was the major contributor to the women's survival advantage.

  17. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  18. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijan, Maite; de Amorim, Rodrigo Guedes; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Mulder, Jan; Oliveira, Luciana; Creugers, Nico H J; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment (UCT) protocol after 3.5 years. Cavitated primary molars were treated according to CRT, ART, and UCT (small cavities were restored with ART and medium/large cavities were daily cleaned with toothpaste/toothbrush under supervision). Molar extractions resulting from toothache, sepsis, or pulp exposure were failures. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival curves. The numbers of treated teeth, among the 302 6-7-year-old children, were 341 (CRT), 244 (ART), and 281 (for UCT group: 109 small ART, 166 open cavities, and 6 combinations). Protocol groups were similar at baseline regarding gender and mean decayed missing filled tooth score, but not regarding age and type of surface. The numbers of molars extracted were 22 (CRT), 16 (ART), and 26 (UCT). Fistulae were most often recorded. After 3.5 years, the cumulative survival rate ± standard error for all molars treated was 90.9 ± 2.0 % with CRT, 90.4 ± 2.4 % with ART, and 88.6 ± 1.9 % with UCT (p = 0.13). Only a type of surface effect was observed over the 3.5-year period: survival rates for molars were higher for single- than for multiple-surface cavities. There was no difference in the cumulative survival rates of primary molars treated according to the CRT, ART, and UCT protocols over a 3.5-year period. Keeping cavities in primary molars biofilm-free might be another treatment option alongside restoring such cavities through conventional and ART protocols.

  19. Worse Long-term Patient Survival and Higher Cancer Rates in Liver Transplant Recipients With a History of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, Richard S; Fridell, Jonathan A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Loeffler, Amanda L; Krause, Audrey A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Tiwari, Sarika; Tector, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This study is a retrospective review of liver transplant (LT) recipients to determine the impact of tobacco exposure on 10-year survival and de novo cancer (CA) incidence. The records of 1275 consecutive LT patients were reviewed (2001 to 2011). Patients were categorized as current, previous, or never smokers (NS) at listing for LT. Additionally, smokers were stratified by pack-years of tobacco exposure. Events included patient death, cardiovascular events, and de novo cancers. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate survival. A complete cause of death analysis is provided, as well as a detailed tumor registry. Current (n = 279) and previous smokers (n = 323) were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at transplant (25%, 29% vs 18% [NS], P history of smoking, and the risk of negative events increases with increasing tobacco use. Smokers have higher rates of HCC and recurrence, de novo cancer, and worse long-term survival. This study summarizes the clinical outcomes for 1275 LT patients over 10 years, analyzing the impact of pre transplant recipient tobacco use. There are 47% of patients with a history of smoking. Because of demonstrated higher cancer rates and decreased survival, patients with a significant smoking history should be carefully scrutinized for liver transplantation.

  20. Dental Implant Survival and Complication Rate over 2 Years for Individuals with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskow, Caroline C; Oates, Thomas W

    2017-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that implant therapy may be a viable option for diabetic individuals with elevated glycemic levels. The purpose of this 2 year observational study was to evaluate survival and clinical complications of dental implants following placement in type 2 diabetes individuals having poor glycemic control. Adult participants (n = 24) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (8.0% ≤ HbA1c ≤ 12.0%) received two or more transgingival dental implants. Survival was evaluated after 1 (23 participants, 72 implants) and 2 (20 participants, 59 implants) years. Clinical complications were evaluated in 18 participants (52 implants) after 21-34 months. Relationships between complications and stratified HbA1c levels were assessed using Pearson's correlation test. Survival rates were 98.6% (71/72 implants) after 1 year and 96.6% (57/59 implants) after 2 years. Complications were identified in 29% of participants with peri-implant mucositis, the most common event. Complications correlated directly with number of implants across HbA1c strata (0.42, R2  = 0.66). There was no correlation between HbA1c and the occurrences of complications or mucositis. This 2-year evaluation supports the broader application of implant therapy in type 2 diabetes individuals with poor glycemic control in demonstrating high survival rates with limited complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Trends in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-year survival rates of beta-thalassemia patients in Southern Iran, 1995-2016: A retrospective cohort study

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    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Results: Five and 10-year survival rates remained unchanged since 1995-2016. Overall, 20- and 30-year survival rates were lower in younger birth cohorts than older ones. A declining trend was found in 20-year survival rate from 1995 to 2000 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was stable from 2001 to 2016. In addition, there was a declining trend in 30-year survival rate from 1995 to 2008 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was an increased trend from 2009 to 2016. Conclusion: Over the past two decades and in recent birth cohorts, the 20- and 30-year survival rates has declined. In other words, declining survival trends in the birth cohorts may be associated with some different causes of mortality such as exposure to the toxic effects of iron over time and the occurrence of diseaserelated mortality.

  2. Focal Radiation Therapy Dose Escalation Improves Overall Survival in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy and Consolidative Chemoradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Sunil, E-mail: skrishnan@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chadha, Awalpreet S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Hsiang-Chun [Department of Biostatistics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Das, Prajnan; Minsky, Bruce D.; Mahmood, Usama; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Sawakuchi, Gabriel O. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Beddar, Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Katz, Matthew H.; Fleming, Jason B. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Javle, Milind M.; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Wolff, Robert A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To review outcomes of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients treated with dose-escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A total of 200 patients with LAPC were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation between 2006 and 2014. Of these, 47 (24%) having tumors >1 cm from the luminal organs were selected for dose-escalated IMRT (biologically effective dose [BED] >70 Gy) using a simultaneous integrated boost technique, inspiration breath hold, and computed tomographic image guidance. Fractionation was optimized for coverage of gross tumor and luminal organ sparing. A 2- to 5-mm margin around the gross tumor volume was treated using a simultaneous integrated boost with a microscopic dose. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), local-regional and distant RFS, and time to local-regional and distant recurrence, calculated from start of chemoradiation, were the outcomes of interest. Results: Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (BED = 59.47 Gy) with a concurrent capecitabine-based (86%) regimen. Patients who received BED >70 Gy had a superior OS (17.8 vs 15.0 months, P=.03), which was preserved throughout the follow-up period, with estimated OS rates at 2 years of 36% versus 19% and at 3 years of 31% versus 9% along with improved local-regional RFS (10.2 vs 6.2 months, P=.05) as compared with those receiving BED ≤70 Gy. Degree of gross tumor volume coverage did not seem to affect outcomes. No additional toxicity was observed in the high-dose group. Higher dose (BED) was the only predictor of improved OS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Radiation dose escalation during consolidative chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy for LAPC patients improves OS and local-regional RFS.

  3. Cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: inequities in access exist despite improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish I; Beattie, Kieran; Bang, Albert; Gurney, Howard; Smith, David P

    2017-10-01

    The use of cytoreductive nephrectomy (CRN) in the targeted therapy era is still debated. We aimed to determine factors associated with reduced use of CRN and determine the effect of CRN on overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). All advanced RCC diagnosed between 2001 and 2009 in New South Wales, Australia, were identified from the Central Cancer Registry. Records of treatment and death were electronically linked. Follow-up was to the end of 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with the receipt of CRN. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine factors associated with survival. A total of 1062 patients were identified with metastatic RCC of whom 289 (27%) received CRN. There was no difference in the use of CRN over the time period of the study. Females (OR 0.68 (95% CI: 0.48-0.96)), unmarried individuals (OR 0.68 (95% CI: 0.48-0.96)), treatment in a nonteaching hospital (OR 0.26 (95% CI: 0.18-0.36)) and individuals without private insurance (OR 0.29 (95% CI: 0.20-0.41)) all had reduced likelihood of receiving CRN. On multivariable analysis, not receiving CRN resulted in a 90% increase in death (HR 1.90 (95% CI: 1.61-2.25)). In addition, increasing age (P < 0.001), increasing Charlson comorbidity status (P = 0.002) and female gender also had a significant independent association with death. Despite a strong association with improved survival, individuals who are elderly, female, have treatment in a nonteaching facility or have no private insurance have a reduced likelihood of receiving CRN. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Improvement Screening for Ultra-High Dimensional Data with Censored Survival Outcomes and Varying Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Mu; Li, Jialiang

    2017-05-18

    Motivated by risk prediction studies with ultra-high dimensional bio markers, we propose a novel improvement screening methodology. Accurate risk prediction can be quite useful for patient treatment selection, prevention strategy or disease management in evidence-based medicine. The question of how to choose new markers in addition to the conventional ones is especially important. In the past decade, a number of new measures for quantifying the added value from the new markers were proposed, among which the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) stand out. Meanwhile, C-statistics are routinely used to quantify the capacity of the estimated risk score in discriminating among subjects with different event times. In this paper, we will examine these improvement statistics as well as the norm-based approach for evaluating the incremental values of new markers and compare these four measures by analyzing ultra-high dimensional censored survival data. In particular, we consider Cox proportional hazards models with varying coefficients. All measures perform very well in simulations and we illustrate our methods in an application to a lung cancer study.

  5. End-Tidal CO2-Guided Chest Compression Delivery Improves Survival in a Neonatal Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Justin T; Hamrick, Jennifer L; Bhalala, Utpal; Armstrong, Jillian S; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Lee, Jennifer K; Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Koehler, Raymond C; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Shaffner, Donald H

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery improves survival over standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged asphyxial arrest. Preclinical randomized controlled study. University animal research laboratory. 1-2-week-old swine. After undergoing a 20-minute asphyxial arrest, animals received either standard or end-tidal CO2-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the standard group, chest compression delivery was optimized by video and verbal feedback to maintain the rate, depth, and release within published guidelines. In the end-tidal CO2-guided group, chest compression rate and depth were adjusted to obtain a maximal end-tidal CO2 level without other feedback. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation included 10 minutes of basic life support followed by advanced life support for 10 minutes or until return of spontaneous circulation. Mean end-tidal CO2 at 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 34 ± 8 torr in the end-tidal CO2 group (n = 14) and 19 ± 9 torr in the standard group (n = 14; p = 0.0001). The return of spontaneous circulation rate was 7 of 14 (50%) in the end-tidal CO2 group and 2 of 14 (14%) in the standard group (p = 0.04). The chest compression rate averaged 143 ± 10/min in the end-tidal CO2 group and 102 ± 2/min in the standard group (p CO2-guided chest compression delivery. The response of the relaxation arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure to the initial epinephrine administration was greater in the end-tidal CO2 group than in the standard group (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). The prevalence of resuscitation-related injuries was similar between groups. End-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery is an effective resuscitation method that improves early survival after prolonged asphyxial arrest in this neonatal piglet model. Optimizing end-tidal CO2 levels during cardiopulmonary resuscitation required that chest compression delivery rate exceed current guidelines. The

  6. Adding Erlotinib to Chemoradiation Improves Overall Survival but Not Progression-Free Survival in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko, E-mail: rkomaki@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Wei, Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Blumenschein, George R. [Department of Thoracic Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tang, Ximing [Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, J. Jack [Department of Biostatatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wistuba, Ignacio I. [Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Diane D. [Department of Biostatatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hong, Waun Ki [Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To test, in a single-arm, prospective, phase 2 trial, whether adding the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for previously untreated, locally advanced, inoperable non-small cell lung cancer would improve survival and disease control without increasing toxicity. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients with previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer received intensity modulated radiation therapy (63 Gy/35 fractions) on Monday through Friday, with chemotherapy (paclitaxel 45 mg/m², carboplatin area under the curve [AUC] = 2) on Mondays, for 7 weeks. All patients also received the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib (150 mg orally 1/d) on Tuesday-Sunday for 7 weeks, followed by consolidation paclitaxel–carboplatin. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), toxicity, response, and disease control and whether any endpoint differed by EGFR mutation status. Results: Of 46 patients evaluable for response, 40 were former or never-smokers, and 41 were evaluable for EGFR mutations (37 wild-type [WT] and 4 mutated [all adenocarcinoma]). Median time to progression was 14.0 months and did not differ by EGFR status. Toxicity was acceptable (no grade 5, 1 grade 4, 11 grade 3). Twelve patients (26%) had complete responses (10 WT, 2 mutated), 27 (59%) partial (21 WT, 2 mutated, 4 unknown), and 7 (15%) none (6 WT, 2 mutated, 1 unknown) (P=.610). At 37.0 months' follow-up (range, 3.6-76.5 months) for all patients, median OS time was 36.5 months, and 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates were 82.6%, 67.4%, and 35.9%, respectively; none differed by mutation status. Twelve patients had no progression, and 34 had local and/or distant failure. Eleven of 27 distant failures were in the brain (7 WT, 3 mutated, 1 unknown). Conclusions: Toxicity and OS were promising, but time to progression did not meet expectations. The prevalence of

  7. Imatinib improves survival of CML patients in accelerated phase: A 48-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Todaro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical evolution of chronic myeloidleukemia patients who had received Imatinib, 48 months after thebeginning of a study carried out at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein.Methods: The progress of the disease of 66 patients that enrolled inan expanded access program was evaluated and the treatmentresponses were monitored by the hematological and cytogeneticresponses. Of these patients, 28 (42.42% were in chronic phase, 23(38.85% in accelerated phase, and 15 (22.75% in blast crisis. Theywere contacted 24 months after the end of the study and inquiredabout the use of the medication, as well as about symptoms relatedto toxicity and results of the last hemogram and cytogenetic tests.Results: After 36 months of the beginning of the treatment, 41patients (62.12% were alive (25 in chronic phase, 15 in acceleratedphase, and 1 in blasr crisis. Thirty seven patients could be contacted37 to 48 months after the beginning of the treatment. One of themdropped out. Of the remaining, 21 belonged to the chronic phasegroup, 14 to the accelerated phase group, and one to the blast crisisgroup. Conclusion: The follow-up of patients using Imatinib shows aimprove on the survival rates of patients with chronic myeloidleukemia, particularly during the acute phase, in which a goodhematological and cytogenetic response was observed in over 65%of the patients, after 4 years of acceleration of the disease. Thisstudy shows that an additional 3-years’ survival with good quality oflife was achieved by those patients.

  8. Policy considerations for improving influenza vaccination rates among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Elizabeth K; Guenzel, Nicholas; Brown, Peggy A; Keeler, Heidi J; Cramer, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Influenza exposure during pregnancy can cause severe health problems for both the mother and her offspring, including an increased risk of mortality. Influenza vaccination during all trimesters of pregnancy is safe and effective, and recommended by professional organizations such as the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Despite these recommendations, the U.S. vaccination rates remain low in this high-risk population. A policy analysis based on the five-part method identified by Teitelbaum and Wilensky () addresses factors to consider in identifying the best voluntary policy options to improve the vaccination rates. The authors provide discussion of the background, landscape, and stakeholder interests and the pros and cons of two voluntary policy options to increase vaccination. The policy options include: (a) financial incentives for providers and (b) an education emphasis for providers and staff. The authors conclude that based on considerations of cost, provider preference, and practicality of implementation, a continuing educational intervention is the preferred policy venue to increase vaccination rates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. No survival improvement for patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma over the past two decades: a population-based study of 1207 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Xu

    Full Text Available Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL is a rare lymphoid malignancy with dismal prognosis. We conducted a large population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database (1973-2010 to determine the temporal survival trends and prognostic factors of AITL patients. A total of 1207 patients with AITL were included in this study, with a median age at diagnosis of 69 years. At presentation, most patients (79.5% had an advanced-stage disease. Overall survival (OS probabilities at 2, 5 and 10 years were 46.8%, 32.9%, and 21.9% respectively. Two-year, 5-year, and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS rates were 56.1%, 44.0%, and 35.9% respectively.On multivariate analysis, age older than 70 years, advanced-stage disease and male sex were identified adverse predictors for OS and DSS. We failed to find any survival differences among subgroups diagnosed in the 5 periods studied (1992 to 1998, 1999 to 2001, 2002 to 2004, 2005 to 2007, and 2008 to 2010. The current study represents the largest specific series of patients with AITL and the first investigation on temporal changes in survival of AITL patients. There has been no survival improvement for AITL patients over the past two decades. Further investigations are warranted to develop more effective treatment for AITL.

  10. Increasing fMRI sampling rate improves Granger causality estimates.

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    Fa-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Estimation of causal interactions between brain areas is necessary for elucidating large-scale functional brain networks underlying behavior and cognition. Granger causality analysis of time series data can quantitatively estimate directional information flow between brain regions. Here, we show that such estimates are significantly improved when the temporal sampling rate of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is increased 20-fold. Specifically, healthy volunteers performed a simple visuomotor task during blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast based whole-head inverse imaging (InI. Granger causality analysis based on raw InI BOLD data sampled at 100-ms resolution detected the expected causal relations, whereas when the data were downsampled to the temporal resolution of 2 s typically used in echo-planar fMRI, the causality could not be detected. An additional control analysis, in which we SINC interpolated additional data points to the downsampled time series at 0.1-s intervals, confirmed that the improvements achieved with the real InI data were not explainable by the increased time-series length alone. We therefore conclude that the high-temporal resolution of InI improves the Granger causality connectivity analysis of the human brain.

  11. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

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    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  12. Differences in treatment and survival rates of non-small-cell lung cancer in three regions of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosclaude, P; Galat, J P; Macé-Lesech, J; Roumagnac-Machelard, M; Mercier, M; Robillard, J

    1995-11-01

    Treatment and survival rates of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were compared between three French Cancer Registries (Calvados, Doubs, Tarn). The methodological issues in such comparisons are discussed. The treatments for NSCLC differed between the regions: radiotherapy tended to be preferred in Calvados (73% vs 21.3% surgery), whereas surgery was more frequently employed in Doubs and Tarn (27.7% and 37% respectively). The percentage of cases receiving no therapeutic treatment ranged from 7.8% (Calvados) to 26% (Tarn). Despite the differences in treatment, the overall survival rates were similar in the three regions. Adjustment for treatment in such a descriptive study may be misleading since different therapeutic strategies in different regions may lead to selection of patients of systematically better or poorer prognosis in the various treatment groups.

  13. Effect of antibiotics selection on survival rate of nodal explant and gene transformation in Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of hygromycin antibiotic supplemented in modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS on the survival rate of nodal explant of Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate were determined.The use of hygromycin at 50 mg/l caused absolute death of nodal tissue after 4 weeks of culture. Dipping nodal explant with agrobacterium, EHA 105 containing pCAMBIA1301 for 15 min followed by co-cultureon filter paper laid on MMS with 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA, 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ and 200 mg/l cefotaxime for 2 days then transferring the explant to culture on MMS supplemented with the abovephytohormones and 50 mg/l hygromycin resulted in the highest survival rate at 26.6% with 4 shoots/callus. Histochemical analysis of gus activity was found in callus after 6 weeks of nodal culture and in leaf fromshoot derived from the callus.

  14. Survival and progression rates of large European silver eel Anguilla anguilla in late freshwater and early marine phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Thorstad, Eva B.; Koed, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The population of European silver eel Anguilla anguilla has declined tremendously in the last decades. The cause of this decline is unknown, and it is necessary to investigate the migratory behaviour and survival rates of silver eels during the reproductive migration in order to understand...... was high in fresh water. However, 60% of eels were lost in the inner and outer fjord, supporting the hypothesis that mortality is large in the early phase of the marine migration and that fishing may be a major cause of mortality of silver eels. There was no indication that the slowest-migrating...... if the decline is related to factors acting during that migration. We estimated survival and progression rates of European silver eel migrating in the lower part of the River Gudenaa and during the first phase of the marine migration in the Randers Fjord in Denmark. Fifty migrating silver eel (total body length...

  15. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  16. Decoy Receptor 3 Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis by Suppressing the Inflammatory Response and Lymphocyte Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongYu Liang

    Full Text Available Unbalanced inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis is associated with high mortality in septic patients. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic factor. Recently, DcR3 expression was found to be increased in septic patients. This study evaluated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of DcR3 on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP-induced sepsis in mice.C57BL/6 mice were subjected to CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. DcR3 Fc was intravenously injected 30 min before and 6 h after CLP. Bacterial clearance, cytokine production, histology, lymphocyte apoptosis and survival were evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the systemic effects of DcR3 in in vitro lymphocyte apoptosis regulation.Our results demonstrated that DcR3 protein treatments significantly improved survival in septic mice (p <0.05. Treatment with DcR3 protein significantly reduced the inflammatory response and decreased lymphocyte apoptosis in the thymus and spleen. Histopathological findings of the lung and liver showed milder impairment after DcR3 administration. In vitro experiments showed that DcR3 Fc inhibited Fas-FasL mediated lymphocyte apoptosis.Treatment with the DcR3 protein protects mice from sepsis by suppressing the inflammatory response and lymphocyte apoptosis. DcR3 protein may be useful in treatment of sepsis.

  17. Going the Extra Mile: Improved Survival for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Traveling to High-volume Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsky, Michael E; Sun, Zhifei; Nussbaum, Daniel P; Adam, Mohamed A; Speicher, Paul J; Blazer, Dan G

    2017-08-01

    This study compares outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients treated at local, low-volume centers and those traveling to high-volume centers. Although outcomes for PD are superior at high-volume institutions, not all patients live in proximity to major medical centers. Theoretical advantages for undergoing surgery locally exist. The 1998 to 2012 National Cancer Data Base was queried for T1-3N0-1M0 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent PD. Travel distances to treatment centers were calculated. Overlaying the upper and lower quartiles of travel distance with institutional volume established short travel/low-volume (ST/LV) and long travel/high-volume (LT/HV) cohorts. Overall survival was evaluated. Of 7086 patients, 773 ST/LV patients traveled ≤6.3 (median 3.2) miles to centers performing ≤3.3 PDs yearly, and 758 LT/HV patients traveled ≥45 (median 97.3) miles to centers performing ≥16 PDs yearly. LT/HV patients had higher stage disease (P travel to a high-volume center remained associated with reduced long-term mortality (hazard ratio 0.75, P travel burden, patients treated at high-volume centers had improved perioperative outcomes, short-term mortality, and overall survival. These data support ongoing efforts to centralize care for patients undergoing PD.

  18. Short-term starvation of immune deficient Drosophila improves survival to gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Brown

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are inborn errors of immunity that lead to life threatening conditions. These predispositions describe human immunity in natura and highlight the important function of components of the Toll-IL-1- receptor-nuclear factor kappa B (TIR-NF-kappaB pathway. Since the TIR-NF-kappaB circuit is a conserved component of the host defence in higher animals, genetically tractable models may contribute ideas for clinical interventions.We used immunodeficient fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster to address questions pertaining to survival following bacterial infection. We describe here that flies lacking the NF-kappaB protein Relish, indispensable for countering Gram-negative bacteria, had a greatly improved survival to such infections when subject to dietary short-term starvation (STS prior to immune challenge. STS induced the release of Nitric Oxide (NO, a potent molecule against pathogens in flies, mice and humans. Administering the NO Synthase-inhibitory arginine analog N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl-Ester (L-NAME but not its inactive enantiomer D-NAME increased once again sensitivity to infection to levels expected for relish mutants. Surprisingly, NO signalling required the NF-kappaB protein Dif, usually needed for responses against Gram-positive bacteria.Our results show that NO release through STS may reflect an evolutionary conserved process. Moreover, STS could be explored to address immune phenotypes related to infection and may offer ways to boost natural immunity.

  19. Myoinositol administration improves survival and reduces myelinolysis after rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Stephen M; Schroeder, Barbara M; Sterns, Richard H; Rojiani, Amyn M

    2006-01-01

    When chronic hyponatremia is rapidly corrected, reaccumulation of brain organic osmolytes is delayed and brain cell shrinkage occurs, leading to the osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). We hypothesized that treatment with myoinositol, a major organic osmolyte, could prevent ODS. Severe hyponatremia was induced in adult male rats by administration of arginine vasopressin and intravenous infusion of dextrose and water. Sixty-four hours after induction of hyponatremia, all animals underwent rapid correction of hyponatremia with infusion of hypertonic saline over 4 hours, increasing the serum sodium from 105 to 135 mM; half of the animals were also given myoinositol intravenously beginning 20 minutes before correction and continuing for 28 hours. Serum sodium concentrations were equivalent in both groups at all time points. At 7 days, 7 of 8 animals that received myoinositol survived compared with one of the 9 control animals (p myoinositol. Animals were killed 96 hours after correction of hyponatremia was begun. Myoinositol-treated animals had significantly fewer demyelinating lesions than mannitol (2.25 +/- 1.1 versus 6.42 +/- 1.4 lesions/brain, p myoinositol administration improves survival and reduces myelinolysis after rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia in rats.

  20. Angiotensin AT2-receptor stimulation improves survival and neurological outcome after experimental stroke in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwengel, Katja; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    /BL6J or AT2R-knockout mice (AT2-KO) underwent MCAO for 30 min followed by reperfusion. Starting 45 min after MCAO, mice were treated once daily for 4 days with either vehicle or C21 (0.03 mg/kg ip). Neurological deficits were scored daily. Infarct volumes were measured 96 h post-stroke by MRI. C21......This study investigated the effect of post-stroke, direct AT2-receptor (AT2R) stimulation with the non-peptide AT2R-agonist compound 21 (C21) on infarct size, survival and neurological outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and looked for potential underlying mechanisms. C57...... significantly improved survival after MCAO when compared to vehicle-treated mice. C21 treatment had no impact on infarct size, but significantly attenuated neurological deficits. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) (receptor for BDNF) and growth...

  1. Exploring survival rates of companies in the UK video-games industry: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cabras, I.; Goumagias, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Cowling, P.; Li, F.; Kudenko, D.; Devlin, S.; Nucciarelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates companies operating in the UK video-game industry with regard to their levels of survivability. Using a unique dataset of companies founded between 2009 and 2014, and combining elements and theories from the fields of Organisational Ecology and Industrial Organisation, the authors develop a set of hierarchical logistic regressions to explore and examine the effects of a range of variables such as industry concentration, market size and density on...

  2. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  3. 24 Hour Survival Rate and its Determinants in Patients with Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Movahedi; Ali Kavosi; Hamidreza Behnam Vashani; Gholamreza Mohammadi; Hasan Mehrad Majd; Javad Malekzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims The main cause of death in the adult population in the industrialized world is sudden cardiac arrest. The first purpose of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is return of spontaneous circulation. Post cardiopulmonary resuscitation cares are fifth stage of American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation that less take into consideration. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of “24 Hour Survival Rate and it’s determinants in patients w...

  4. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  5. One-Year Multicenter Prospective Evaluation of Survival Rates and Bone Resorption in One-Piece Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleh Golab, Kaveh; Balouch, Amir; Mirtorabi, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported the efficiency of immediate loading techniques. The aim of this multicenter prospective study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the one-piece screw (OPS) implants used by general dentists. A total of 272 patients were treated with 533 implants at five dental clinics by five general dentists. Some implants were provided with provisional restoration. Implants in partially edentulous spaces were splinted with acryl, composite, and intraoral welding. The implant survival rates, bone resorption, plaque accumulation, and soft tissue health were evaluated after 3, 6, and 12 months. The final restorations were cemented in the maxilla after 6 months and in the mandible after 3 months. Twelve implants failed (98% survival rate) after 12 months. None of the splinted implants failed during the follow-ups. There were five failures in unsplinted partial cases. The average amounts of bone loss around the implants were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm, 0.56 ± 0.41 mm, and 0.59 ± 0.41 mm after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Visible plaque was registered in 18% of the implants, and bleeding on probing was observed in 17% of the implants after 12 months. High survival rates and favorable host tissue responses support the clinical performance of OPS implants. This study demonstrated that one-piece implants can be efficiently used by well-trained general dentists. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nutrition management for head and neck cancer patients improves clinical outcome and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Richter, Urs; Betz, C; Hartmann, S; Brands, R C

    2017-12-01

    Up to 80% of patients with head and neck cancers are malnourished because of their lifestyle and the risk factors associated with this disease. Unfortunately, nutrition management systems are not implemented in most head and neck cancer clinics. Even worse, many head and neck surgeons as well as hospital management authorities disregard the importance of nutrition management in head and neck cancer patients. In addition, the often extensive resection and reconstruction required for tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract pose special challenges for swallowing and sufficient food intake, placing special demands on nutrition management. This article presents the basics of perioperative metabolism and nutrition management of head and neck cancer patients and makes recommendations for clinical practice. Implementing a nutrition management system in head and neck cancer clinics will improve the clinical outcome and the survival of the patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Social, economic, and political factors in progress towards improving child survival in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykens, Kristine; Singh, Karan P; Ndukwe, Elewichi; Bae, Sejong

    2009-01-01

    Child mortality is a persistent health problem faced by developing nations. In 2000 the United Nations (UN) established a set of high priority goals to address global problems of poverty and health, the Millennium Development Goals, which address extreme poverty, hunger, primary education, child mortality, maternal health, infectious diseases, environmental sustainability, and partnerships for development. Goal 4 aims to reduce by two thirds, between 2000 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa from 2000 to 2006 these rates have only been reduced from 167 per 1,000 live births to 157, and 27 nations in this region have made no progress towards the goal. A country-specific database was developed from the UN Millennium Development Goal tracking project and other international sources which include age distribution, under-nutrition, per capita income, government expenditures on health, external resources for health, civil liberties, and political rights. A multiple regression analysis examined the extent to which these factors explain the variance in child mortality rates in developing countries. Nutrition, external resources, and per capita income were shown to be significant factors in child survivability. Policy options include developed countries' renewed commitment of resources, and developing nations' commitments towards governance, development, equity, and transparency.

  8. Gacyclidine improves the survival and reduces motor deficits in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Nicolas Gerber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder typified by a massive loss of motor neurons with few therapeutic options. The exact cause of neuronal degeneration is unknown but it is now admitted that ALS is a multifactorial disease with several mechanisms involved including glutamate excitotoxicity. More specifically, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-mediated cell death and impairment of the glutamate-transport has been suggested to play a key role in ALS pathophysiology. Thus, evaluating NMDAR antagonists is of high therapeutic interest. Gacyclidine, also named GK11, is a high affinity non-competitive NMDAR antagonist that may protect against motor neuron death in an ALS context. Moreover, GK11 presents a low intrinsic neurotoxicity and has already been used in two clinical trials for CNS lesions. In the present study, we investigated the influence of chronic administration of two doses of GK11 (0.1 and 1 mg/kg on the survival and the functional motor activity of hSOD1G93A mice, an animal model of ALS. Treatment started at early symptomatic age (60 days and was applied bi-weekly until the end stage of the disease. We first confirmed that functional alteration of locomotor activity was evident in the hSOD1G93A transgenic female mice by 60 days of age. A low dose of GK11 improved the survival of the mice by 4.3% and partially preserved body weight. Improved life span was associated with a delay in locomotor function impairment. Conversely, the high dose treatment worsened motor functions. These findings suggest that chronic administration of GK11beginning at early symptomatic stage may be beneficial for patients with ALS.

  9. Can survival prediction be improved by merging gene expression data sets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Yasrebi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-throughput gene expression profiling technologies generating a wealth of data, are increasingly used for characterization of tumor biopsies for clinical trials. By applying machine learning algorithms to such clinically documented data sets, one hopes to improve tumor diagnosis, prognosis, as well as prediction of treatment response. However, the limited number of patients enrolled in a single trial study limits the power of machine learning approaches due to over-fitting. One could partially overcome this limitation by merging data from different studies. Nevertheless, such data sets differ from each other with regard to technical biases, patient selection criteria and follow-up treatment. It is therefore not clear at all whether the advantage of increased sample size outweighs the disadvantage of higher heterogeneity of merged data sets. Here, we present a systematic study to answer this question specifically for breast cancer data sets. We use survival prediction based on Cox regression as an assay to measure the added value of merged data sets. RESULTS: Using time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic-Area Under the Curve (ROC-AUC and hazard ratio as performance measures, we see in overall no significant improvement or deterioration of survival prediction with merged data sets as compared to individual data sets. This apparently was due to the fact that a few genes with strong prognostic power were not available on all microarray platforms and thus were not retained in the merged data sets. Surprisingly, we found that the overall best performance was achieved with a single-gene predictor consisting of CYB5D1. CONCLUSIONS: Merging did not deteriorate performance on average despite (a The diversity of microarray platforms used. (b The heterogeneity of patients cohorts. (c The heterogeneity of breast cancer disease. (d Substantial variation of time to death or relapse. (e The reduced number of genes in the merged data

  10. Sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: incidence rate, risk factors and its effect on survival risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongqi; Gong, Dehua; Jia, Fengyu; Xu, Bin; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a degenerative syndrome mainly characterized by the atrophy of skeletal muscle, along with the decrease of muscle strength and function. However, there are currently few studies concerning sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis dialysis (MHD). This study was aimed to investigate the incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients and its influencing factors, as well as its impact on survival risk. All 131 MHD patients enrolled in our study were tested with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and grip strength. Demographic data was collected and anthropometric measurement and laboratory examination were conducted. The total incidence of sarcopenia within the 131 MHD patients was 13.7% and the incidence of sarcopenia in patients over 60 years was 33.3%. The dialysis duration, with or without diabetes, serum phosphorus and pre-albumin levels of sarcopenic patients were significantly different from those of non-sarcopenicones; the modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) scores of sarcopenic patients were higher than those without sarcopenia. Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis duration, diabetes and serum phosphorus level were independent risk factors for sarcopenia in MHD patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a one-year survival of 88.9% in sarcopenic patients, which was significantly lower than non-sarcopenic patients. The incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients was high and increased gradually with age. Dialysis duration, diabetes, serum phosphorus level and malnutrition predisposed the patients to sarcopenia. One-year follow-up found that the mortality risk of sarcopenic patients was higher than that of non-sarcopenic patients.

  11. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R. [Georgia Univ., Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d{sup -1} for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to {sup 137}Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d{sup -1}. Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  12. How to improve the success rate of mouse cloning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Nguyen Van; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-02-01

    It has now been 13 years since the first cloned mammal Dolly the sheep was generated from somatic cells using nuclear transfer (SCNT). Since then, this technique has been considered an important tool not only for animal reproduction but also for regenerative medicine. However, the success rate is still very low and the mechanisms involved in genomic reprogramming are not yet clear. Moreover, the NT technique requires donated fresh oocyte, which raises ethical problems for production of human cloned embryo. For this reason, the use of induced pluripotent stem cells for genomic reprogramming and for regenerative medicine is currently a hot topic in this field. However, we believe that the NT approach remains the only valid way for the study of reproduction and basic biology. For example, only the NT approach can reveal dynamic and global modifications in the epigenome without using genetic modification, and it can generate offspring from a single cell or even a frozen dead body. Thanks to much hard work by many groups, cloning success rates are increasing slightly year by year, and NT cloning is now becoming a more applicable method. This review describes how to improve the efficiency of cloning, the establishment of clone-derived embryonic stem cells and further applications.

  13. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  14. Influenza vaccination of healthcare workers: institutional strategies for improving rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonsson, Kristina; Summers-Bean, Chris; Connolly, Allison

    2004-01-01

    The nosocomial transmission of influenza has been well documented since the 1970s with both direct and indirect effects of outbreaks in healthcare settings. Outbreaks can directly increase morbidity among patients and residents of long-term care facilities. Indirect effects include disruption of normal operations of healthcare institutions, shortages of healthcare workers (HCWs), fewer elective admissions, and income loss due to absenteeism. Influenza vaccination of United States HCWs remains below 40% despite the availability of a safe, effective vaccine and a long-standing recommendation for vaccination of HCWs. New strategies to improve the rate of influenza vaccination among HCWs are needed as the percentage of those receiving yearly vaccination has changed little in the past 20 years. Increasing HCW influenza vaccination coverage calls for a paradigm shift, institutions should view vaccination of HCWs as a crucial part of a comprehensive infection control program designed to protect patients and staff. Administrators of hospitals, long-term care facilities, and other health agencies should respond to this challenge by developing programs to improve yearly influenza vaccination of their staff Such efforts would put these employees into compliance with national recommendations and also benefit the institution by reducing absenteeism, nosocomial influenza transmission, and the associated economic losses and disruption of routine operations.

  15. Xuebijing injection reduces organ injuries and improves survival by attenuating inflammatory responses and endothelial injury in heatstroke mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiulin; Liu, Jingxian; Guo, Xiaohua; Tang, Youqing; Zhou, Gengbiao; Liu, Yanan; Huang, Qiaobing; Geng, Yan; Liu, Zhifeng; Su, Lei

    2015-02-05

    The pathogenesis of heatstroke is a multi-factorial process involved with an interplay among subsequent inflammation, endothelial injury and coagulation disturbances, which makes pharmacological therapy of heatstroke a challenging problem. Xuebijing injection (XBJ), a traditional Chinese medicine used to sepsis, has been reported to suppress inflammatory responses and restore coagulation disturbances. However, little is known about the role of XBJ in heatstroke. Mice were treated with indicated dose of XBJ before and/or after the induction of heatstroke. Serum inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and endothelial markers, von Willebrand Factor (vWF) and E-selectin, were measured by ELISA. Liver, kidney and heart profiles including alanine aminotransferase, aspartic aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and lactate dehydrogenase, were evaluated by UniCel DxC 800 Synchron Clinical Systems, and troponin was measured by ELISA. Coagulation profiles, including thrombin time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, and fibrinogen were examined by STA Compact® Hemostasis System. Jejunum injury was evaluated with H&E staining. Changes in mitochondrial structure in cardiac tissue were assesed by electron microscopy. Pretreatment with XBJ decreased serum pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6, as well as endothelial injury markers, vWF and E-selectin, in a dose-dependent manner in heatstroke mice. Similar protective effects were observed when XBJ was administered after, or both before and after heat insult. These protective effects lasted for over 12 h in mice receiving XBJ before and after heat insult. XBJ also improved survival rates in heatstroke mice, ameliorated liver, heart, and kidney injuries, including mitochondrial damage to the heart, and reduced coagulation disturbances. XBJ prevents organ injuries and improves survival in heatstroke mice by

  16. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,014 Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes during the years 2000–2013 at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Methods A cross-sectional analysis study was conducted using national administrative records data from the entire country, regarding permanent occupational disability medical certification, pension payment and vital status. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI in order to assess the cohort characteristics and all-cause mortality risk. Total expenses derived from pension payments for the period were accounted for in U.S. dollars (USD, 2013. Results There were 12,917 deaths in 142,725.1 person-years. Median survival time was 7.26 years. After multivariate adjusted analysis, males (HR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 1.29–1.50, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers (HR, 1.41; 95 % CI, 1.15–1.73 and renal complications (HR, 3.49; 95 % CI, 3.18–3.83 had the highest association with all-cause mortality. The all-period expenses derived from pension payments amounted to $777.78 million USD (2013, and showed a sustained increment: from $58.28 million USD in 2000 to $111.62 million USD in 2013 (percentage increase of 91.5 %. Conclusions Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes had a median survival of 7.26 years, and those

  17. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  18. Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production but fail to improve survival in experimental staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hani; Darwish, Ilyse; Monroy, Maria-Fernanda; Prockop, Darwin J; Liles, W Conrad; Kain, Kevin C

    2014-01-14

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by an overwhelming host-mediated response to bacterial superantigens produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. TSS is characterized by aberrant activation of T cells and excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines ultimately resulting in capillary leak, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality rates. No therapeutic or vaccine has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for TSS, and novel therapeutic strategies to improve clinical outcome are needed. Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) are stromal cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Moreover, MSCs have immunomodulatory properties, including profound effects on activities of T cells and macrophages in specific contexts. Based on the critical role of host-derived immune mediators in TSS, we hypothesized that MSCs could modulate the host-derived proinflammatory response triggered by Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and improve survival in experimental TSS. Effects of MSCs on proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood were measured in wild-type C57BL/6 mice injected with 50 μg of SEB. Effects of MSCs on survival were monitored in fatal experimental TSS induced by consecutive doses of D-galactosamine (10 mg) and SEB (10 μg) in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Despite significantly decreasing serum levels of IL-2, IL-6 and TNF induced by SEB in wild-type mice, human MSCs failed to improve survival in experimental TSS in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Similarly, a previously described downstream mediator of human MSCs, TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6), did not significantly improve survival in experimental TSS. Furthermore, murine MSCs, whether unstimulated or pre-treated with IFNγ, failed to improve survival in experimental TSS. Our results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are insufficient to rescue mice from experimental TSS, and that mediators other than IL-2, IL-6 and TNF are likely to play

  19. Prenatal Stress Exposure Generates Higher Early Survival and Smaller Size without Impacting Developmental Rate in a Pacific Salmon.

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    Capelle, Pauline M; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Sopinka, Natalie M; Heath, John W; Love, Oliver P

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring. Specifically, we measured early survival, rate of development, and multiple measures of morphology. Low and high cortisol dosing of eggs resulted in significantly higher survival compared to controls (37% and 24% higher, respectively). Fish reared from high dose eggs were structurally smaller compared to control fish, but despite this variation in structural size, exposure to elevated cortisol did not impact developmental rate. These results demonstrate that elevations in egg cortisol can positively influence offspring fitness through an increase in early survival while also altering phenotype at a critical life-history stage. Overall, these results suggest that exposure to prenatal stress may not always produce apparently negative impacts on offspring fitness and further proposes that complex phenotypic responses should be examined in relevant environmental conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Survival rate variation with different histological subtypes of poor prognostic male anal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kelash; Vikash, Sindhu; Chen, Liaobin; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The prognosis of male anal squamous cell carcinoma (MASCC) and female anal squamous cell carcinoma (FASCC) is variable. The influence of tumor subtype on the survival rate and gender is poorly known. Our study is the largest population-based study and aims to outline the difference in survival between MASCC and FASCC patients. Methods A retrospective population-based study was performed to compare the disease-specific mortalities (DSMs) between genders related to the tumor subtypes. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database was employed to obtain the data from January 1988 to December 2014. Results A total of 4,516, (3,249 males and 1,267 females), patients with anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) were investigated. The 5-year DSMs were 24.18% and 18.08% for men and women, respectively. The univariate analysis of the male basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and cloacogenic carcinoma (CC) patients demonstrated higher DSMs (P <0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, BSCC and CC were associated with soaring DSMs in male patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the cohort of BSCC and CC patients, male patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in survival rate compared to females. A more precise classification of ASCC and individualized management for MASCC are warranted. PMID:29137429

  1. Remission of Hematuria Improves Renal Survival in IgA Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Angel M; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Yuste, Claudia; Cavero, Teresa; Mérida, Evangelina; Rodríguez, Paola; García, Ana; Morales, Enrique; Fernández, Cristina; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Moreno, Juan Antonio; Praga, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Hematuria is a cardinal symptom in IgA nephropathy, but its influence on the risk of disease progression has been scarcely investigated. We followed a cohort of 112 patients with IgA nephropathy for a mean±SEM period of 14±10.2 years, during which clinical and analytic risk factors (including urine sediment examination) were regularly recorded. According to the magnitude of time-averaged hematuria, we classified patients as those with persistent hematuria and those with negative or minimal hematuria. We also classified patients according to the magnitude of time-averaged proteinuria (>0.75 or ≤0.75 g/d). The proportion of patients reaching ESRD or a 50% reduction of renal function was significantly greater among patients with persistent hematuria than patients with minimal or negative hematuria (30.4% and 37.0% versus 10.6% and 15.2%, respectively; P=0.01). Multivariable analysis revealed time-averaged hematuria, time-averaged proteinuria, renal function at baseline, and the presence of tubulointerstitial fibrosis on renal biopsy as independent predictors of ESRD. After hematuria disappearance, which occurred in 46% of the patients, the rate of renal function decline changed from -6.45±14.66 to -0.18±2.56 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year (P=0.001). Patients with time-averaged proteinuria >0.75 g/d had significantly poorer renal survival than those with time-averaged proteinuria ≤0.75 g/d. However, on further classification by time-averaged hematuria, only those patients with time-averaged proteinuria >0.75 g/d and persistent hematuria had significantly worse renal survival than those in the other three groups. In conclusion, remission of hematuria may have a significant favorable effect on IgA nephropathy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Syzygium jambolanum treatment improves survival in lethal sepsis induced in mice

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    Amaral Flávia MM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and the fruits from Syzygium jambolanum DC.(Myrtaceae, a plant known in Brazil as sweet olive or 'jambolão', have been used by native people to treat infectious diseases, diabetes, and stomachache. Since the bactericidal activity of S. jambolanum has been confirmed in vitro, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the prophylactic treatment with S. jambolanum on the in vivo polymicrobial infection induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in mice. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were treated by the subcutaneous route with a hydroalcoholic extract from fresh leaves of S. jambolanum (HCE. After 6 h, a bacterial infection was induced in the peritoneum using the lethal CLP model. The mice were killed 12 h after the CLP induction to evaluate the cellular influx and local and systemic inflammatory mediators' production. Some animals were maintained alive to evaluate the survival rate. Results The prophylactic HCE treatment increased the mice survival, the neutrophil migration to infectious site, the spreading ability and the hydrogen peroxide release, but decreased the serum TNF and nitrite. Despite the increased migration and activation of peritoneal cells the HCE treatment did not decrease the number of CFU. The HCE treatment induced a significant decrease on the bone marrow cells number but did not alter the cell number of the spleen and lymph node. Conclusion We conclude that the treatment with S. jambolanum has a potent prophylactic anti-septic effect that is not associated to a direct microbicidal effect but it is associated to a recruitment of activated neutrophils to the infectious site and to a diminished systemic inflammatory response.

  3. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... rate or glomerular filtration barrier and occurrence of stroke. Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 934-938. 2. Matsushita K,Mahmoodi BK, Woodward M,. Emberson JR, Jafar TH, Jee SH et al. Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the. MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  4. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  5. Club cell secretory protein improves survival in a murine obliterative bronchiolitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Christine; Tram, Kevin; Price, Andrew; England, Kristen; Stiehm, Andrew; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2013-11-01

    Club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is an indirect phospholipase A2 inhibitor with some immunosuppressive and antiproliferative properties that is expressed in bronchiolar Club cells. In our murine bone marrow transplant (BMT) model of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), CCSP is diminished; however, its role is unknown. To determine the role of CCSP, B6 wild-type (WT) or CCSP-deficient (CCSP(-/-)) mice were lethally conditioned and given allogeneic bone marrow with a sublethal dose of allogeneic splenic T cells to induce OB. We found that CCSP(-/-) mice demonstrated a higher mortality following BMT-induced OB compared with WT mice. Mice were analyzed 60 days post-BMT for protein expression, pulmonary function, and histology. CCSP levels were reduced in WT mice with BMT-induced OB, and lower levels correlated to decreased lung compliance. CCSP(-/-) had a higher degree of injury and fibrosis as measured by hydroxy proline, along with an increased lung resistance and the inflammatory markers, leukotriene B4 and CXCL1. Replacement with recombinant intravenous CCSP partially reversed the weight loss and improved survival in the CCSP(-/-) mice. In addition, CCSP replacement improved histology and decreased inflammatory cells and markers. These findings indicate that CCSP has a regulatory role in OB and may have potential as a preventive therapy.

  6. Pharmacologic cholinesterase inhibition improves survival in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebrunner, Niels; Mogler, Carolin; Vittas, Spiros; Hoyler, Birgit; Sandig, Catharina; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Eisenbach, Christoph

    2014-08-19

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic pharmaceutical substances in the world and accounts for most cases of drug induced liver injury resulting in acute liver failure. Acute liver failure initiates a sterile inflammatory response with release of cytokines and innate immune cell infiltration in the liver. This study investigates, whether pharmacologic acetylcholinesterase inhibition with neostigmine diminishes liver damage in acute liver failure via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Acute liver failure was induced in BALB/c mice by a toxic dose of acetaminophen (APAP). Neostigmine and/or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) were applied therapeutically at set time points and the survival was investigated. Liver damage was assessed by serum parameters, histopathology and serum cytokine assays 12 h after initiation of acute liver failure. Serum parameters, histopathology and serum cytokine assays showed pronounced features of acute liver failure 12 h after application of acetaminophen (APAP). Neostigmine treatment led to significant reduction of serum liver enzymes (LDH (47,147 ± 12,726 IU/l vs. 15,822 ± 10,629 IU/l, p = 0.0014) and ALT (18,048 ± 4,287 IU/l vs. 7,585 ± 5,336 IU/l, p = 0.0013), APAP-alone-treated mice vs. APAP + neostigmine-treated mice), inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β (147 ± 19 vs. 110 ± 25, p = 0.0138) and TNF-α (184 ± 23 vs. 130 ± 33, p = 0.0086), APAP-alone-treated mice vs. APAP + neostigmine-treated mice) and histopathological signs of damage.Animals treated with NAC in combination with the peripheral cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine showed prolonged survival and improved outcome. Neostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that ameliorates the effects of APAP-induced acute liver failure in the mouse and therefore may provide new treatment options for affected patients.

  7. Abandoning Peracetic Acid-Based Dialyzer Reuse Is Associated with Improved Survival

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    Wang, Weiling; Mooney, Ann; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, J. Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher mortality risk reported with reuse versus single use of dialyzers is potentially related to reuse reagents that modify membrane surface characteristics and the blood-membrane interface. A key mechanism may involve stimulation of an inflammatory response. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a prospective crossover design, laboratory markers and mortality from 23 hemodialysis facilities abandoning reuse with peracetic acid mixture were tracked. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin, and prealbumin were measured for 2 consecutive months before abandoning reuse and subsequently within 3 and 6 months on single use. Survival models were utilized to compare the 6-month period before abandoning reuse (baseline) and the 6-month period on single use of dialyzers after a 3-month “washout period.” Results Patients from baseline and single-use periods had a mean age of approximately 63 years; 44% were female, 54% were diabetic, 60% were white, and the mean vintage was approximately 3.2 years. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death was 0.70 and after case-mix adjustment was 0.74 for single use compared with reuse. Patients with CRP ≥ 5 mg/L during reuse (mean CRP = 26.6 mg/ml in April) declined on single use to 20.2 mg/L by August and 20.4 mg/L by November. WBC count declined slightly during single use, but nutritional markers were unchanged. Conclusions Abandonment of peracetic-acid-based reuse was associated with improved survival and lower levels of inflammatory but not nutritional markers. Further study is needed to evaluate a potential link between dialyzer reuse, inflammation, and mortality. PMID:20947788

  8. Long-term regional chemotherapy for patients with epithelial malignant peritoneal mesothelioma results in improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, P H; Chang, D

    2017-07-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease with about 300 new cases per year in the USA. Its natural history is described as local progression within the peritoneal space in the absence of liver metastases or systemic disease. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is a series of peritonectomy procedures and visceral resections with a goal of complete removal of all visible disease from the abdomen and pelvis. Over 20 years, three protocols investigating increasing efficacy of additional chemotherapy treatments added to CRS have been initiated. Initially, hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) with doxorubicin and cisplatin was used in the operating room. Then, early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) with paclitaxel was added for the first 5 days after CRS. The third protocol employed HIPEC, then EPIC, and then long-term intraperitoneal (IP) paclitaxel or IP pemetrexed plus intravenous (IV) cisplatin as a adjuvant normothermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (NIPEC). The 5-year survival of 42 patients treated with CRS and HIPEC was 44%, for 58 patients treated with EPIC and HIPEC was 52% and 29 patients who received HIPEC, EPIC, and NIPEC was 75% (p = 0.0374). Prognostic variables of age, gender, treatment administered, peritoneal cancer index (PCI) and completeness of cytoreduction were significant by univariate analysis and treatments administered and completeness of cytoreduction significant by multivariate analysis. Long-term regional chemotherapy was associated with improved survival in patients with MPM. In this rare disease, additional phase 2 investigations are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. Salidroside, A Natural Antioxidant, Improves β-Cell Survival and Function via Activating AMPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Ju

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The enhanced oxidative stress contributes to progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and induces β-cell failure. Salidroside is a natural antioxidant extracted from medicinal food plant Rhodiola rosea. This study was aimed to evaluate protective effects of salidroside on β-cells against diabetes associated oxidative stress.Methods and Results: In diabetic db/db and high-fat diet-induced mice, we found salidroside ameliorated hyperglycemia and relieved oxidative stress. More importantly, salidroside increased β-cell mass and β-cell replication of diabetic mice. Mechanism study in Min6 cells revealed that, under diabetic stimuli, salidroside suppressed reactive oxygen species production and restore mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm via reducing NOX2 expression and inhibiting JNK–caspase 3 apoptotic cascade subsequently to protect β-cell survival. Simultaneously, diabetes associated oxidative stress also activated FOXO1 and triggered nuclear exclusion of PDX1 which resulted in β-cell dysfunction. This deleterious result was reversed by salidroside by activating AMPK-AKT to inhibit FOXO1 and recover PDX1 nuclear localization. The efficacy of salidroside in improving β-cell survival and function was further confirmed in isolated cultured mouse islets. Moreover, the protective effects of salidroside on β-cells against diabetic stimuli can be abolished by an AMPK inhibitor compound C, which indicated functions of salidroside on β-cells were AMPK activation dependent.Conclusion: These results confirmed beneficial metabolic effects of salidroside and identified a novel role for salidroside in preventing β-cell failure via AMPK activation. Our finding highlights the potential value of Rhodiola rosea as a dietary supplement for diabetes control.

  10. Salidroside, A Natural Antioxidant, Improves β-Cell Survival and Function via Activating AMPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Linjie; Wen, Xiaohua; Wang, Chunjun; Wei, Yingjie; Peng, Yunru; Ding, Yongfang; Feng, Liang; Shu, Luan

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The enhanced oxidative stress contributes to progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and induces β-cell failure. Salidroside is a natural antioxidant extracted from medicinal food plant Rhodiola rosea. This study was aimed to evaluate protective effects of salidroside on β-cells against diabetes associated oxidative stress. Methods and Results: In diabetic db/db and high-fat diet-induced mice, we found salidroside ameliorated hyperglycemia and relieved oxidative stress. More importantly, salidroside increased β-cell mass and β-cell replication of diabetic mice. Mechanism study in Min6 cells revealed that, under diabetic stimuli, salidroside suppressed reactive oxygen species production and restore mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) via reducing NOX2 expression and inhibiting JNK-caspase 3 apoptotic cascade subsequently to protect β-cell survival. Simultaneously, diabetes associated oxidative stress also activated FOXO1 and triggered nuclear exclusion of PDX1 which resulted in β-cell dysfunction. This deleterious result was reversed by salidroside by activating AMPK-AKT to inhibit FOXO1 and recover PDX1 nuclear localization. The efficacy of salidroside in improving β-cell survival and function was further confirmed in isolated cultured mouse islets. Moreover, the protective effects of salidroside on β-cells against diabetic stimuli can be abolished by an AMPK inhibitor compound C, which indicated functions of salidroside on β-cells were AMPK activation dependent. Conclusion: These results confirmed beneficial metabolic effects of salidroside and identified a novel role for salidroside in preventing β-cell failure via AMPK activation. Our finding highlights the potential value of Rhodiola rosea as a dietary supplement for diabetes control.

  11. Unreported births and deaths, a severe obstacle for improved neonatal survival in low-income countries; a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve child survival there is a need to target neonatal mortality. In this pursuit, valid local and national statistics on child health are essential. We analyze to what extent births and neonatal deaths are unreported in a low-income country and discuss the consequences at local and international levels for efforts to save newborn lives. Methods Information on all births and neonatal deaths in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam in 2005 was ascertained by systematic inventory through group interviews with key informants, questionnaires and examination of health facility records. Health care staff at 187 Community Health Centers (CHC and 18 hospitals, in addition to 1372 Village Health Workers (VHW, were included in the study. Results were compared with the official reports of the Provincial Health Bureau. Results The neonatal mortality rate (NMR was 16/1000 (284 neonatal deaths/17 519 births, as compared to the official rate of 4.2/1000. The NMR varied between 44/1000 and 10/1000 in the different districts of the province. The under-reporting was mainly attributable to a dysfunctional reporting system and the fact that families, not the health system, were made responsible to register births and deaths. This under-reporting has severe consequences at local, national and international levels. At a local level, it results in a lack of awareness of the magnitude and differentials in NMR, leading to an indifference towards the problem. At a national and international level the perceived low mortality rate is manifested in a lack of investments in perinatal health programs. Conclusion This example of a faulty health information system is reportedly not unique in low and middle income countries where needs for neonatal health reforms are greatest. Improving reporting systems on births and neonatal deaths is a matter of human rights and a prerequisite for reducing neonatal mortality in order to reach the fourth

  12. Losartan improves heart rate variability and heart rate turbulence in heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Arslan, Uğur; Türkoğlu, Sedat; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence are known to be disturbed and associated with excess mortality in heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether losartan, when added on top of beta-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy, could improve these indices in patients with systolic heart failure. Seventy-seven patients (mean age 60.4 +/- 8.0, 80.5% male) with ischemic cardiomyopathy (mean ejection fraction 34.5 +/- 4.4%) and New York Heart Association Class II-III heart failure symptoms, already receiving a beta-blocker and an ACEI, were randomly assigned to either open-label losartan (losartan group) or no additional drug (control group) in a 2:1 ratio and the patients were followed for 12 weeks. The HRV and heart rate turbulence indices were calculated from 24-hour Holter recordings both at the beginning and at the end of follow-up. The baseline clinical characteristics, HRV, and heart rate turbulence indices were similar in the 2 groups. At 12 weeks of follow-up, all HRV parameters except pNN50 increased (SDNN: 113.2 +/- 34.2 versus 127.8 +/- 24.1, P = .001; SDANN: 101.5 +/- 31.7 versus 115.2 +/- 22.0, P = .001; triangular index: 29.9 +/- 11.1 versus 34.2 +/- 7.9, P = .008; RMSSD: 29.1 +/- 20.2 versus 34.3 +/- 23.0, P = .009; NN50: 5015.3 +/- 5554.9 versus 6446.7 +/- 6101.1, P = .024; NN50: 5.65 +/- 6.41 versus 7.24 +/- 6.99, P = .089; SDNNi: 45.1 +/- 13.3 versus 50.3 +/- 14.5, P = .004), turbulence onset decreased (-0. 61 +/- 1.70 versus -1.24 +/- 1.31, P = .003) and turbulence slope increased (4.107 +/- 3.881 versus 5.940 +/- 4.281, P = .004) significantly in the losartan group as compared with controls. A 12-week-long losartan therapy significantly improved HRV and heart rate turbulence in patients with Class II-III heart failure and ischemic cardiomyopathy already on beta-blockers and ACEI.

  13. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.