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Sample records for survival rate log-rank

  1. Adaptive designs for the one-sample log-rank test.

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    Schmidt, Rene; Faldum, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert

    2017-09-22

    Traditional designs in phase IIa cancer trials are single-arm designs with a binary outcome, for example, tumor response. In some settings, however, a time-to-event endpoint might appear more appropriate, particularly in the presence of loss to follow-up. Then the one-sample log-rank test might be the method of choice. It allows to compare the survival curve of the patients under treatment to a prespecified reference survival curve. The reference curve usually represents the expected survival under standard of the care. In this work, convergence of the one-sample log-rank statistic to Brownian motion is proven using Rebolledo's martingale central limit theorem while accounting for staggered entry times of the patients. On this basis, a confirmatory adaptive one-sample log-rank test is proposed where provision is made for data dependent sample size reassessment. The focus is to apply the inverse normal method. This is done in two different directions. The first strategy exploits the independent increments property of the one-sample log-rank statistic. The second strategy is based on the patient-wise separation principle. It is shown by simulation that the proposed adaptive test might help to rescue an underpowered trial and at the same time lowers the average sample number (ASN) under the null hypothesis as compared to a single-stage fixed sample design. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Permutational distribution of the log-rank statistic under random censorship with applications to carcinogenicity assays.

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    Heimann, G; Neuhaus, G

    1998-03-01

    In the random censorship model, the log-rank test is often used for comparing a control group with different dose groups. If the number of tumors is small, so-called exact methods are often applied for computing critical values from a permutational distribution. Two of these exact methods are discussed and shown to be incorrect. The correct permutational distribution is derived and studied with respect to its behavior under unequal censoring in the light of recent results proving that the permutational version and the unconditional version of the log-rank test are asymptotically equivalent even under unequal censoring. The log-rank test is studied by simulations of a realistic scenario from a bioassay with small numbers of tumors.

  3. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

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    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  4. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  5. Heart Rate Recovery After 6-Min Walk Test Predicts Survival in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

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    Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Swick, Jeff; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Sprunger, David; du Bois, Roland; Fischer, Aryeh; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Frankel, Stephen K.; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R.; Kervitsky, Dolly; Brown, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), our objectives were to identify predictors of abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) at 1 min after completion of a 6-min walk test (6MWT) [HRR1] and 2 min after completion of a 6MWT (HRR2), and to determine whether abnormal HRR predicts mortality. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, we identified IPF patients who had been evaluated at our center (n = 76) with a pulmonary physiologic examination and the 6MWT. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of abnormal HRR, the product-limit method to compare survival in the sample stratified on HRR, and Cox proportional hazards analysis to estimate the prognostic capability of abnormal HRR. Results: Cutoff values were 13 beats for abnormal HRR1 and 22 beats for HRR2. In a multivariable model, predictors of abnormal HRR1 were diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (odds ratio [OR], 0.4 per 10% predicted; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 0.7; p = 0.003), change in heart rate from baseline to maximum (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8 to 0.97; p = 0.01), and having a right ventricular systolic pressure > 35 mm Hg as determined by transthoracic echocardiogram (OR, 12.7; 95% CI, 2.0 to 79.7; p = 0.01). Subjects with an abnormal HRR had significantly worse survival than subjects with a normal HRR (for HRR1, p = 0.0007 [log-rank test]; for HRR2, p = 0.03 [log-rank test]); these results held for the subgroup of 30 subjects without resting pulmonary hypertension (HRR1, p = 0.04 [log-rank test]). Among several candidate variables, abnormal HRR1 appeared to be the most potent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 15.2; p = 0.004). Conclusion: Abnormal HRR after 6MWT predicts mortality in IPF patients. Research is needed to confirm these findings prospectively and to examine the mechanisms of HRR in IPF patients. PMID:19395579

  6. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

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    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  7. [Survival rate for breast cancer in Rabat (Morocco) 2005-2008].

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    Mechita, Nada Bennani; Tazi, Mohammed Adnane; Er-Raki, Abdelouahed; Mrabet, Mustapha; Saadi, Asma; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Razine, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem in Morocco. This study aims to estimate the survival rate for patients with breast cancer living in Rabat. We conducted a prognostic study of female patients with breast cancer diagnosed during 2005-2008, living in Rabat and whose data were recorded in the Rabat Cancer Registry. The date of inclusion in this study corresponded with the date on which cancer was histologically confirmed. Survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the comparison between the different classes of a variable was made using the log rank test. The study of factors associated with survival was performed using the Cox model. During the study period 628 cases of breast cancer were collected. Mortality rate was 19.9%. Overall 1-year survival rate was 97.1%, 89.2% at 3 years and 80.6% at 5 years. In multivariate analysis, breast cancer survival was statistically lower in patients over 70 years of age (p <0.001) with large tumor size (p < 0.001), advanced-stage adenopathies (p = 0.007), metastases (p < 0.001) and not using hormone therapy (p = 0.002). Large tumor size and metastases are poor prognostic factors in breast cancer, hence the need to strengthen screening programs.

  8. Ten-year survival rates of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces.

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    Aquilino, S A; Shugars, D A; Bader, J D; White, B A

    2001-05-01

    Failure to replace a single missing posterior tooth may lead to a variety of dental problems, which may ultimately result in tooth loss. However, little is known about the fate of the adjacent teeth if a missing posterior tooth is not replaced. This retrospective study evaluated the survival of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces. Data were obtained from electronic treatment records from the Kaiser Permanente Dental Care Program, Portland, Ore. A final sample of 317 patients who met the study inclusion criteria was identified. Each bounded edentulous space was placed in 1 of 3 treatment categories: untreated, restored with a fixed partial denture, or restored with a removable partial denture. Subsequent treatment and the status of the teeth adjacent to the bounded edentulous space were followed through December 1999. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for each treatment group, and differences in survival were evaluated with the log-rank chi-square test (alpha=.05). There was a significant difference in survival among the 3 treatment categories (P=.005). Spaces restored with a fixed partial denture had longer 10-year survival estimates (92%) than those that remained untreated (81%). Spaces restored with a removable partial denture had the poorest 10-year survival rate (56%). Under the conditions and selection bias associated with this retrospective study, the survival of teeth adjacent to a single posterior edentulous space was negatively associated with removable partial denture placement compared with no treatment or the use of a fixed partial denture.

  9. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

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    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  10. Survival Rate of Dental Implants in Patients with History of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Correia, Francisco; Gouveia, Sónia; Felino, António Campos; Costa, Ana Lemos; Almeida, Ricardo Faria

    To evaluate the differences between the survival rates of implants placed in patients with no history of periodontal disease (NP) and in patients with a history of chronic periodontal disease (CP). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all consenting patients treated with dental implants in a private clinic in Oporto, Portugal, from November 2, 2002 through February 11, 2011 were included. All patients were treated consecutively by the same experimental operator. This study aimed to analyze how the primary outcomes (presence of disease, time of placement, and time of loading) and the secondary outcomes (severity-generalized periodontitis, brand, implant length, prosthesis type, prosthesis metal-ceramic extension) influence the survival rate of dental implants. The survival analysis was performed through the Kaplan-Meier method, and the equality of survival distributions for all groups was tested with the log-rank test with a significance level of .05 for all comparisons. The sample consisted of 202 patients (47% NP and 53% CP) and 689 implants (31% NP and 69% CP). The survival rate in the NP and CP groups showed no statistically significant differences (95.8% versus 93.1%; P ≥ .05). Implants were lost before loading in 54.9% of the cases. The majority of the implants were lost in the first year and stabilized after the second year. Survival rates in the NP and CP patients showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the following factors: subclassification of the disease, implant brands, implant length (short/standard), type of prosthesis, extension of the prosthesis metal-ceramic, and time of placement and loading (P ≥ .05). This work disclosed no statistically significant differences in terms of survival rates when compared with the control group. Placing implants in patients with a history of periodontal disease appears to be viable and safe.

  11. Has prenatal screening influenced the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome and subsequent survival rates?

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    Halliday, Jane; Collins, Veronica; Riley, Merilyn; Youssef, Danielle; Muggli, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    With this study we aimed to compare survival rates for children with Down syndrome in 2 time periods, 1 before prenatal screening (1988-1990) and 1 contemporaneous with screening (1998-2000), and to examine the frequency of comorbidities and their influence on survival rates. Record-linkage was performed between the population-based Victorian Birth Defects Register and records of deaths in children up to 15 years of age collected under the auspice of the Consultative Council on Obstetric and Pediatric Mortality and Morbidity. Cases of Down syndrome were coded according to the presence or absence of comorbidities by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision classification of birth defects. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and log rank tests for equality of survival distributions were performed. Of infants liveborn with Down syndrome in 1998-2000, 90% survived to 5 years of age, compared with 86% in the earlier cohort. With fetal deaths excluded, the proportion of isolated Down syndrome cases in the earlier cohort was 48.7% compared with 46.1% in the most recent cohort. In 1988-1990 there was at least 1 cardiac defect in 41.1% of cases and in 45.4% in 1998-2000. There was significant variation in survival rates for the different comorbidity groupings in the 1988-1990 cohort, but this was not so evident in the 1998-2000 cohort. Survival of children with Down syndrome continues to improve, and there is an overall survival figure of 90% to at least 5 years of age. It is clear from this study that prenatal screening technologies are not differentially ascertaining fetuses with Down syndrome and additional defects, because there has been no proportional increase in births of isolated cases with Down syndrome.

  12. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

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    Fatemeh Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011 among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and "charity for kidney patients" of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients′ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.47 (1.02-2.13]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered.

  13. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Gastric Cancer using a Random Survival Forest

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    Adham, Davoud; Abbasgholizadeh, Nategh; Abazari, Malek

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third top cause of cancer related death with about 1 million new cases and 700,000 deaths in 2012. The aim of this investigation was to identify important factors for outcome using a random survival forest (RSF) approach. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 128 gastric cancer patients through a historical cohort study in Hamedan-Iran from 2007 to 2013. The event under consideration was death due to gastric cancer. The random survival forest model in R software was applied to determine the key factors affecting survival. Four split criteria were used to determine importance of the variables in the model including log-rank, conversation?? of events, log-rank score, and randomization. Efficiency of the model was confirmed in terms of Harrell’s concordance index. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 63 ±12.57 and mean and median survival times were 15.2 (95%CI: 13.3, 17.0) and 12.3 (95%CI: 11.0, 13.4) months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, and three-year rates for survival were 51%, 13%, and 5%, respectively. Each RSF approach showed a slightly different ranking order. Very important covariates in nearly all the 4 RSF approaches were metastatic status, age at diagnosis and tumor size. The performance of each RSF approach was in the range of 0.29-0.32 and the best error rate was obtained by the log-rank splitting rule; second, third, and fourth ranks were log-rank score, conservation of events, and the random splitting rule, respectively. Conclusion: Low survival rate of gastric cancer patients is an indication of absence of a screening program for early diagnosis of the disease. Timely diagnosis in early phases increases survival and decreases mortality. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. A Comparative Study of Survival Rate in High Grade Glioma Tumors Being Treated by Radiotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiation With Nitrosourea.

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    Houshyari, Mohammad; Hajalikhani, Farzaneh; Rakhsha, Afshin; Hajian, Parastoo

    2015-03-25

    In adults, malignant glioma (high-grade glioma) is one of the most common brain tumors. In spite of different types of treatment, the outcome is still not likely to be favorable. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between survival rate in adult patients with high grade glioma treated by radiotherapy only and those treated by a combination of radiotherapy and nitrosurea-based chemotherapy. This study was conducted using the records of 48 patients with grade 3 or 4 of glial brain tumor referred to the radiation-oncology ward of Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2005 to 2012. The patients had undergone radiotherapy alone or adjuvant chemoradiation with nitrosourea. The median survival of patients after receiving the different types of treatment were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log -rank exam. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis for median survival regarding to the patients' age, gender, extent of surgery, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank exam. We used the Cox-model for multivariate analysis. Records of 48 patients were studied (34 men and 14 women). The mean survival were 18 months for men and 15.2 months for women (P=0.05). Around 58% (28 patients) were more than 50 years old, and 42% (20 patients) were less than 50, and mean survival for the two age groups were 13 and 20 months, respectively (P<0.001). Then, the patients were divided into three groups according to the extent of surgery, i.e., excisional biopsy (11 patients), stereotactic biopsy (22 patients), and resection (15 patients), and the mean survival for the three groups were 14.7, 17.3, and 18.8 months, respectively. There was no significant statistical difference for mean survival between the three groups (P=0.23). The KPS was greater than 70% in 23 patients and less than 70% in 21 patients, and the mean survival for the former and latter groups were 17.6 and 16 months, respectively (P=0

  15. External and intraoperative radiotherapy for resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer: analysis of survival rates and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Hosotani, Ryo; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kokubo, Masaki; Kanamori, Shuichi; Sasai, Keisuke; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ohshio, Gakuji; Imamura, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaji; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and/or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for both resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer were analyzed. Methods and Materials: Between 1980 and 1995, 332 patients with pancreatic cancer were treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy (RT). Of the 332 patients, 157 patients were treated with surgical resection of pancreatic tumor, and the remaining 175 patients had unresectable pancreatic tumors. Among the 157 patients with resected pancreatic cancer, 62 patients were not treated with RT, while 40 patients were treated with EBRT alone (mean RT dose; 46.3 Gy) and 55 patients with IORT (25.2 Gy) ± EBRT (44.0 Gy). On the other hand, among the 175 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, 58 patients were not treated with RT, 46 patients were treated with EBRT alone (39.2 Gy), and the remaining 71 patients with IORT (29.3 Gy) ± EBRT (41.2 Gy). Results: For 87 patients with curative resection, the median survival times (MSTs) of the no-RT, the EBRT, and the IORT ± EBRT groups were 10.4, 13.0, and 15.5 months, respectively, without significant difference. For 70 patients with non curative resection, the MSTs of the no-RT, the EBRT, and the IORT ± EBRT groups were 5.3, 8.7, and 6.5 months, respectively. When the EBRT and the IORT ± EBRT groups were combined, the survival rate was significantly higher than that of the no RT group for non curatively resected pancreatic cancers (log rank test; p = 0.028). The 2-year survival probability of the IORT ± EBRT group (16%) was higher than that of the EBRT group (0%). For unresectable pancreatic cancer, the MSTs of 52 patients without distant metastases were 6.7 months for palliative surgery alone, 7.6 months for EBRT alone, and 8.2 months for IORT ± EBRT. The survival curve of the IORT ± EBRT group was significantly better than that of the no-RT group (p 2 years) were obtained by IORT ± EBRT for non curatively resected and unresectable pancreatic

  16. Perioperative Blood Transfusion as a Significant Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence and Survival after Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer.

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    Jung Kwon Kim

    Full Text Available There have been conflicting reports regarding the association of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT with oncologic outcomes including recurrence rates and survival outcomes in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate whether perioperative blood transfusion (PBT affects biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and overall survival (OS following radical prostatectomy (RP for patients with prostate cancer.A total of 2,713 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed a comparative analysis based on receipt of transfusion (PBT group vs. no-PBT group and transfusion type (autologous PBT vs. allogeneic PBT. Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to evaluate variables associated with BRFS, CSS, and OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival estimates for BRFS, CSS, and OS, and log-rank test was used to conduct comparisons between the groups.The number of patients who received PBT was 440 (16.5%. Among these patients, 350 (79.5% received allogeneic transfusion and the other 90 (20.5% received autologous transfusion. In a multivariate analysis, allogeneic PBT was found to be statistically significant predictors of BRFS, CSS, and OS; conversely, autologous PBT was not. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year BRFS (79.2% vs. 70.1%, log-rank, p = 0.001, CSS (98.5% vs. 96.7%, log-rank, p = 0.012, and OS (95.5% vs. 90.6%, log-rank, p < 0.001 in the allogeneic PBT group compared to the no-allogeneic PBT group. In the autologous PBT group, however, none of these were statistically significant compared to the no-autologous PBT group.We found that allogeneic PBT was significantly associated with decreased BRFS, CSS, and OS. This provides further support for the immunomodulation hypothesis for allogeneic PBT.

  17. Nesting success and survival rates of suburban Olive Thrushes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive rate, clutch size, nesting success and survival rate of dependent fledglings were estimated from breeding records in the Eastern Cape. These data were used to estimate survival rate of independent fledglings. The estimated adult survival rate in this region was high and the clutch size was small, compared to ...

  18. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

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    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  19. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van; Royen, E.A. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer's disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.)

  20. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

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    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  1. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and there is need to understand why and propose adequate solutions to improve survival rate of trees in plantation. The study was conducted in three sectors of Huye District namely Mukura, Tumba and Ngoma ...

  2. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  3. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  4. Nonsurgical factors of digital replantation and survival rate A metaanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the association between nonsurgical factors and survival rate of digital replantation. A computer search of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE and CNKI databases was conducted to identify literatures for digital replantation, with the keywords of "digit," "finger" and "replantation" from their inception to June 10, 2014. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted independently by two authors using piloted forms. Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data analysis. The effect of some nonsurgical factors (gender, age, amputated finger, injury mechanisms, ischemia time and the way of preservation on the survival rate of digital replantation was assessed. The metaanalysis result suggested that gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation. However, the survival rate of digital replantation of adults was significantly higher than that of children. The guillotine injury of a finger was easier to replant successfully than the crush and avulsion. The little finger was more difficult for replantation than thumb. Survival rate of fingers stored in low temperature was higher than that in common temperature. The present metaanalysis suggested that age, injury mechanism, amputated finger and the way of preservation were significantly associated with the survival rate of digital replantation.

  5. Ten-year survival and complication rates of lithium-disilicate (Empress 2) tooth-supported crowns, implant-supported crowns, and fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Maren; Göckler, Fabian; Weber, Volker; Yildirim, Murat; Wolfart, Stefan; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the clinical long-term outcome of tooth-supported crowns (SCs), implant-supported crowns (ISCs), and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) made of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic framework material (IPS Empress 2). Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 184 restorations (106 SCs, 32 ISCs, 33 FDPs, and 13 diverse restorations) were placed in 73 patients. Kaplan-Meier estimation was applied for survival and chipping-free rates. Inter-group comparison of both rates was realized by a log rank test and a 2×2 contingency table. Also, SCs and FDPs were compared regarding adhesive vs. conventional cementation, and anterior vs. posterior positioning, for impact on survival. Due to 14 dropouts (34 restorations) and reasonable exclusion of 19 other restorations, the final dataset included: i) 87 SCs [37 patients, mean observation time 11.4 (±3.8)years]; ii) 17 ISCs [12 patients, mean observation time 13.3 (±2.3)years; and iii) 27 FDPs [19 patients, mean observation time 8.9 (±5.4)years]. The 10-year survival rate/chipping-free rate for SCs were 86.1%/83.4%, for ISCs 93.8%/94.1%, and for FDPs were 51.9%/90.8%. Both ISCs and SCs had a significantly higher survival than FDPs (ISCs vs. FDPs: both tests p=0.001; SCs vs. FDPs: p=0.001 and p=0.005). Differences in the chipping-free rates did not reach significance. Also, neither the cementation mode nor positioning of the restoration had an impact on survival. SCs had a slightly lower outcome than can generally be expected from single crowns. In contrast, ICSs had a favorable outcome and the FDPs predominantly failed. The practitioner's choice of dental materials is based (at best) on long-term experience. The present 10-year results are based on comprehensive data analyses and show the high potential of lithium-disilicate as a reliable material, especially for single-unit restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Body Mass Index on Tumor Pathology and Survival in Uterine Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Kristensen, Anne; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Høgdall, Claus Kim

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on endometrial tumor pathology, stage and complication rate and to identify individual prognostic factors, such as BMI, in types I and II endometrial cancer. DESIGN: Register study included all Danish women who underwent surgery...... I and II endometrial cancer were retrieved. Kaplan-Meier plot was used to illustrate differences in survival in relation to BMI. Log-rank test was used to demonstrate difference between the curves. Cox regression hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of the effect of BMI on overall...

  7. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  8. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  9. Survival rates in bankruptcy systems : overlooking the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar

    2001-01-01

    Extensive research on bankruptcy still has not made it possible to end the efficiency discussion concerning the need for a reorganization provision in bankruptcy laws. In this paper, I discuss the pervasiveness of asset sales in bankruptcy procedures and the effect it has on survival rates. Without

  10. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asad; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Sharef, Sharef W.; Fazalullah, Muhammad; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Khan, Ashfaq A.; Ahmad, Masood; Kripail, Mathew; Abuanza, Mazen; Bataclan, Flordeliza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%), retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%), intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9%) and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4%) were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants. PMID:26357555

  11. Cross-validation and Peeling Strategies for Survival Bump Hunting using Recursive Peeling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J. Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a framework to build a survival/risk bump hunting model with a censored time-to-event response. Our Survival Bump Hunting (SBH) method is based on a recursive peeling procedure that uses a specific survival peeling criterion derived from non/semi-parametric statistics such as the hazards-ratio, the log-rank test or the Nelson--Aalen estimator. To optimize the tuning parameter of the model and validate it, we introduce an objective function based on survival or prediction-error statistics, such as the log-rank test and the concordance error rate. We also describe two alternative cross-validation techniques adapted to the joint task of decision-rule making by recursive peeling and survival estimation. Numerical analyses show the importance of replicated cross-validation and the differences between criteria and techniques in both low and high-dimensional settings. Although several non-parametric survival models exist, none addresses the problem of directly identifying local extrema. We show how SBH efficiently estimates extreme survival/risk subgroups unlike other models. This provides an insight into the behavior of commonly used models and suggests alternatives to be adopted in practice. Finally, our SBH framework was applied to a clinical dataset. In it, we identified subsets of patients characterized by clinical and demographic covariates with a distinct extreme survival outcome, for which tailored medical interventions could be made. An R package PRIMsrc (Patient Rule Induction Method in Survival, Regression and Classification settings) is available on CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) and GitHub. PMID:27034730

  12. Statistical inference methods for two crossing survival curves: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huimin; Han, Dong; Hou, Yawen; Chen, Huilin; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A common problem that is encountered in medical applications is the overall homogeneity of survival distributions when two survival curves cross each other. A survey demonstrated that under this condition, which was an obvious violation of the assumption of proportional hazard rates, the log-rank test was still used in 70% of studies. Several statistical methods have been proposed to solve this problem. However, in many applications, it is difficult to specify the types of survival differences and choose an appropriate method prior to analysis. Thus, we conducted an extensive series of Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the power and type I error rate of these procedures under various patterns of crossing survival curves with different censoring rates and distribution parameters. Our objective was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of tests in different situations and for various censoring rates and to recommend an appropriate test that will not fail for a wide range of applications. Simulation studies demonstrated that adaptive Neyman's smooth tests and the two-stage procedure offer higher power and greater stability than other methods when the survival distributions cross at early, middle or late times. Even for proportional hazards, both methods maintain acceptable power compared with the log-rank test. In terms of the type I error rate, Renyi and Cramér-von Mises tests are relatively conservative, whereas the statistics of the Lin-Xu test exhibit apparent inflation as the censoring rate increases. Other tests produce results close to the nominal 0.05 level. In conclusion, adaptive Neyman's smooth tests and the two-stage procedure are found to be the most stable and feasible approaches for a variety of situations and censoring rates. Therefore, they are applicable to a wider spectrum of alternatives compared with other tests.

  13. Data on empirically estimated corporate survival rate in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Evgeny A

    2018-02-01

    The article presents data on the corporate survival rate in Russia in 1991-2014. The empirical survey was based on a random sample with the average number of non-repeated observations (number of companies) for the survey each year equal to 75,958 (24,236 minimum and 126,953 maximum). The actual limiting mean error ∆ p was 2.24% with 99% integrity. The survey methodology was based on a cross joining of various formal periods in the corporate life cycles (legal and business), which makes it possible to talk about a conventionally active time life of companies' existence with a number of assumptions. The empirical survey values were grouped by Russian regions and industries according to the classifier and consolidated into a single database for analysing the corporate life cycle and their survival rate and searching for deviation dependencies in calculated parameters. Preliminary and incomplete figures were available in the paper entitled "Survival Rate and Lifecycle in Terms of Uncertainty: Review of Companies from Russia and Eastern Europe" (Kuzmin and Guseva, 2016) [3]. The further survey led to filtered processed data with clerical errors excluded. These particular values are available in the article. The survey intended to fill a fact-based gap in various fundamental surveys that involved matters of the corporate life cycle in Russia within the insufficient statistical framework. The data are of interest for an analysis of Russian entrepreneurship, assessment of the market development and incorporation risks in the current business environment. A further heuristic potential is achievable through an ability of forecasted changes in business demography and model building based on the representative data set.

  14. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  15. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: analysis of epidemiological profile and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana Cardoso; da Silva, Denise Bousfield; Freund, Ana Paula Ferreira; Dacoregio, Juliana Shmitz; Costa, Tatiana El Jaick Bonifácio; Costa, Imaruí; Faraco, Daniel; Silva, Maurício Laerte

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile and the survival rate of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a state reference pediatric hospital. Clinical-epidemiological, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. The study included new cases of patients with AML, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, younger than 15 years. Of the 51 patients studied, 84% were white; 45% were females and 55%, males. Regarding age, 8% were younger than 1 year, 47% were aged between 1 and 10 years, and 45% were older than 10 years. The main signs/symptoms were fever (41.1%), asthenia/lack of appetite (35.2%), and hemorrhagic manifestations (27.4%). The most affected extra-medullary site was the central nervous system (14%). In 47% of patients, the white blood cell (WBC) count was below 10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis. The minimal residual disease (MRD) was less than 0.1%, on the 15th day of treatment in 16% of the sample. Medullary relapse occurred in 14% of cases. When comparing the bone marrow MRD with the vital status, it was observed that 71.42% of the patients with type M3 AML were alive, as were 54.05% of those with non-M3 AML. The death rate was 43% and the main proximate cause was septic shock (63.6%). In this study, the majority of patients were male, white, and older than 1 year. Most patients with WBC count <10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis lived. Overall survival was higher in patients with MRD <0.1%. The prognosis was better in patients with AML-M3. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Survival Time of Tooth Color Dental Materials in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat-Al-Molook Ajami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In restorative dentistry, selecting the proper material is an important factor for clinical success. The objective of this study was clinical evaluation of survival time of three tooth color materials in primary anterior teeth. Methods: In this interventional clinical trial study, 94 deciduous anterior teeth (36 teeth in boys, 58 teeth in girls belonging to 3-5 year old children in Pediatric Department of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry, Iran were selected. Selective dental materials included compoglass, glass-ionomer Fuji II LC, and composite resin. The data were analyzed with Kaplan–Meyer and Log rank test. Results: compoglass had the highest survival time in comparison with composite and glass-ionomer. Nine months retention rate for teeth restored with compoglass, composite resin and glass-ionomer were estimated: 95%, 21%, and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Compoglass can be a suitable material for anterior primary teeth restoration

  17. Evaluation of Survival Time of Tooth Color Dental Materials in Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In restorative dentistry, selecting the proper material is an important factor for clinical success. The objective of this study was clinical evaluation of survival time of three tooth color materials in primary anterior teeth. Methods: In this interventional clinical trial study, 94 deciduous anterior teeth (36 teeth in boys, 58 teeth in girls belonging to 3-5 year old children in Pediatric Department of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry, Iran were selected. Selective dental materials included compoglass, glass-ionomer Fuji II LC, and composite resin. The data were analyzed with Kaplan–Meyer and Log rank test. Results: compoglass had the highest survival time in comparison with composite and glass-ionomer. Nine months retention rate for teeth restored with compoglass, composite resin and glass-ionomer were estimated: 95%, 21%, and 12.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Compoglass can be a suitable material for anterior primary teeth restoration.

  18. Outcomes of chronic dialysis in Korean children with respect to survival rates and causes of death

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hye Jin; Han, Kyoung Hee; Cho, Min Hyun; Park, Young Seo; Kang, Hee Gyung; Cheong, Hae Il; Ha, Il Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adult Korean patients on chronic dialysis have a 9-year survival rate of 50%, with cardiovascular problems being the most significant cause of death. The 2011 annual report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies group reported 3-year survival rates of 93.4% and relatively poorer survival in younger patients. Methods In this study, we have reviewed data from Korean Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Registry from 2002 to 2010 to assess survival rates and c...

  19. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  20. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells. PMID:28120926

  1. Survival analysis of dialysis patients in selected hospitals of lahore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Shahzad, I.

    2015-01-01

    There are several reasons which are directly or indirectly relate to affect the survival time of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients. This study was done to analyse the survival rate of ESRD patients in Lahore city, and to evaluate the influence of various risk factors and prognostic factors on survival of these patients. Methods: A sample of 40 patients was taken from the Jinnah Hospital Lahore and Lahore General Hospital by using the convenience sampling technique. The Log Rank Test was used to determine the significant difference between the categories of qualitative variables of ESRD patients. Multivariate Cox Regression Analysis was used to analyse the effect of different clinical and socio-economic variables on the survival time of these patients. Results: Different qualitative variables like: age, marital status, BMI, comorbid factors, diabetes type, gender, income level, place, risk factor like diabetes, ischemic heart disease, hypertension and Hepatitis status were analysed on the basis of Log Rank Test. While age and comorbid factors were found to be statistically significant which showed that the distribution of age and comorbid factors were different. By using the Cox Regression analysis the coefficient of Mass, serum albumin and family history of diabetes were found to be significant. Conclusions: There were some of the factors which had been taken for the analysis came out less or more significant in patients of ESRD. So it was concluded that mostly clinical factors which were Mass of the Patient, Serum Albumin and Family History of Diabetes made significant contribution towards the survival status of patients. (author)

  2. Cancer survival for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a national study of survival rates and excess mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Baade, Peter; Griffiths, Kalinda; Cunningham, Joan; Roder, David M; Coory, Michael; Jelfs, Paul L; Threlfall, Tim

    2014-01-31

    National cancer survival statistics are available for the total Australian population but not Indigenous Australians, although their cancer mortality rates are known to be higher than those of other Australians. We aimed to validate analysis methods and report cancer survival rates for Indigenous Australians as the basis for regular national reporting. We used national cancer registrations data to calculate all-cancer and site-specific relative survival for Indigenous Australians (compared with non-Indigenous Australians) diagnosed in 2001-2005. Because of limited availability of Indigenous life tables, we validated and used cause-specific survival (rather than relative survival) for proportional hazards regression to analyze time trends and regional variation in all-cancer survival between 1991 and 2005. Survival was lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians for all cancers combined and for many cancer sites. The excess mortality of Indigenous people with cancer was restricted to the first three years after diagnosis, and greatest in the first year. Survival was lower for rural and remote than urban residents; this disparity was much greater for Indigenous people. Survival improved between 1991 and 2005 for non-Indigenous people (mortality decreased by 28%), but to a much lesser extent for Indigenous people (11%) and only for those in remote areas; cancer survival did not improve for urban Indigenous residents. Cancer survival is lower for Indigenous than other Australians, for all cancers combined and many individual cancer sites, although more accurate recording of Indigenous status by cancer registers is required before the extent of this disadvantage can be known with certainty. Cancer care for Indigenous Australians needs to be considerably improved; cancer diagnosis, treatment, and support services need to be redesigned specifically to be accessible and acceptable to Indigenous people.

  3. Predictors of survival in surgically treated patients of spinal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Padalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spinal metastasis occurs in up to 40% of cancer patient. We compared the Tokuhashi and Tomita scoring systems, two commonly used scoring systems for prognosis in spinal metastases. We also assessed the different variables separately with respect to their value in predicting postsurgical life expectancy. Finally, we suggest criteria for selecting patients for surgery based on the postoperative survival pattern. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients who had been operated for metastatic disease of the spine. Predictive scoring was done according to the scoring systems proposed by Tokuhashi and Tomita. Overall survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Using the log rank test and Cox regression model we assessed the value of the individual components of each scoring system for predicting survival in these patients. Result: The factors that were most significantly associated with survival were the general condition score (Karnofsky Performance Scale (P=.000, log rank test, metastasis to internal organs (P=.0002 log rank test, and number of extraspinal bone metastases (P=.0058. Type of primary tumor was not found to be significantly associated with survival according to the revised Tokuhashi scoring system (P=.9131, log rank test. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that the Tomita score correlated more closely with survival than the Tokuhashi score. Conclusion: The patient′s performance status, extent of visceral metastasis, and extent of bone metastases are significant predictors of survival in patients with metastatic disease. Both revised Tokuhashi and Tomita scores were significantly correlated with survival. A revised Tokuhashi score of 7 or more and a Tomita score of 6 or less indicated >50% chance of surviving 6 months postoperatively. We recommend that the Tomita score be used for prognostication in patients who are contemplating surgery, as it is simpler to score and has a higher

  4. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: Clinical features, prognostic factors and survival with RCHOP in Arab patients in the PET scan era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shemmari, Salem; Sankaranarayanan, Sreedharan P; Krishnan, Yamini

    2014-07-01

    PMBCL is a distinct type of nonhodgkins lymphoma with specific clinicopathological features. To clarify clinical features, treatment alternatives and outcomes, we evaluated 28 Arab patients treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy between 2006 and 2011. PMBCL lymphoma patients identified according to WHO classification and treated at KCCC between 2006 and 2011 were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data are presented as means or medians. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival rates were compared using the log-rank test. A P lymphoma entity seen in the young with good survival. The role of PET scan for response evaluation and the type of consolidation therapy needs to be further clarified.

  5. Comparison of colorectal and gastric cancer: Survival and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Safaee, Azadeh; Zali, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    Gastric and colorectal cancers are the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in Iran. We aim to compare the survival rates and prognostic factors between these two cancers. We studied 1873 patients with either gastric or colorectal cancer who were registered in one referral cancer registry center in Tehran, Iran. All patients were followed from their time of diagnosis until December 2006 (as failure time). Survival curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier Method and compared by the Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 1873 patients, there were 746 with gastric cancer and 1138 with colorectal cancer. According to the Kaplan-Meier method 1, 3, 5, and 7-year survival rates were 71.2, 37.8, 25.3, and 19.5%, respectively, in gastric cancer patients and 91.1, 73.1, 61, and 54.9%, respectively, in patients with colorectal cancer. Also, univariate analysis showed that age at diagnosis, sex, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis were of prognostic significance in both cancers ( P < 0.0001). However, in multivariate analysis, only distant metastasis in colorectal cancer and age at diagnosis, grade of tumor, and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer were identified as independent prognostic factors influencing survival. According to our findings, survival is significantly related to histological differentiation of tumor and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer patients and only to distant metastasis in gastric cancer patients. (author)

  6. Survival and mortality rates among Danes with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, Egon; Hansen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Long-term survival and trends in overall and cause-specific excess mortality among people with MS have been studied using the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, which contains information about all Danish MS patients since the mid-20th Century. A total of 4254 deaths among approximately 10......,000 people with MS, representing more than 200,000 person-years of observation, have been analysed. Overall, mortality was almost three times higher and life expectancy 10 years less among people with MS than for the general population. However, excess mortality has declined significantly since 1950....

  7. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  8. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  9. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

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    Bernt Rønning

    Full Text Available The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR, as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1. Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  10. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (PBMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  11. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330

  13. Primary localization and tumor thickness as prognostic factors of survival in patients with mucosal melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mehra

    Full Text Available Data on survival with mucosal melanoma and on prognostic factors of are scarce. It is still unclear if the disease course allows for mucosal melanoma to be treated as primary cutaneous melanoma or if differences in overall survival patterns require adapted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, this investigation is the first to present 10-year survival rates for mucosal melanomas of different anatomical localizations.116 cases from Sep 10 1984 until Feb 15 2011 retrieved from the Comprehensive Cancer Center and of the Central Register of the German Dermatologic Society databases in Tübingen were included in our analysis. We recorded anatomical location and tumor thickness, and estimated overall survival at 2, 5 and 10 years and the mean overall survival time. Survival times were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival times by localizations and by T-stages.We found a median overall survival time of 80.9 months, with an overall 2-year survival of 71.7%, 5-year survival of 55.8% and 10-year survival of 38.3%. The 10-year survival rates for patients with T1, T2, T3 or T4 stage tumors were 100.0%, 77.9%, 66.3% and 10.6% respectively. 10-year survival of patients with melanomas of the vulva was 64.5% in comparison to 22.3% of patients with non-vulva mucosal melanomas.Survival times differed significantly between patients with melanomas of the vulva compared to the rest (p = 0.0006. It also depends on T-stage at the time of diagnosis (p < 0.0001.

  14. SURVIVAL RATES IN ORAL CANCER PATIENTS – A 10-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Tonchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and presents a serious health problem in countries with higher alcohol consumption and smoking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the survival rates of patients with oral cancer diagnosed at a single center in Bulgaria. The clinical records of patients with oral cancer admitted to the Clinic of Maxillofacial surgery, University Hospital “St. George”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, from 2004 till 2013 were reviewed. Additional information about follow-up was obtained from the Regional Complex Oncological Centre (RCOC. Data about patient and tumor characteristics – age, sex, site of cancer, stage, degree of differentiation and survival rates were analyzed. The overall 5-year survival rate was 36% while the disease-specific survival rate was 45%. The highest chance for survival was for upper lip (66% while the lowest was for retromolar trigone (0%. Overall survival rate depended also on the stage and grade of differentiation of the tumor. The study confirmed that oral cancer remains serious problem in terms of risk factors, delayed diagnosis, and overall survival rates.

  15. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  16. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... the breeding season. In radio-tagged adults and fledged juveniles, accidents in buildings and other human infrastructures were responsible for two-thirds of all fatalities. Anthropogenic habitats currently comprise the nesting and roosting habitats for the last Danish Little Owls. The accidental deaths...

  17. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Dose-rate dependent stochastic effects in radiation cell-survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.K.; Hlatky, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    When cells are subjected to ionizing radiation the specific energy rate (microscopic analog of dose-rate) varies from cell to cell. Within one cell, this rate fluctuates during the course of time; a crossing of a sensitive cellular site by a high energy charged particle produces many ionizations almost simultaneously, but during the interval between events no ionizations occur. In any cell-survival model one can incorporate the effect of such fluctuations without changing the basic biological assumptions. Using stochastic differential equations and Monte Carlo methods to take into account stochastic effects we calculated the dose-survival rfelationships in a number of current cell survival models. Some of the models assume quadratic misrepair; others assume saturable repair enzyme systems. It was found that a significant effect of random fluctuations is to decrease the theoretically predicted amount of dose-rate sparing. In the limit of low dose-rates neglecting the stochastic nature of specific energy rates often leads to qualitatively misleading results by overestimating the surviving fraction drastically. In the opposite limit of acute irradiation, analyzing the fluctuations in rates merely amounts to analyzing fluctuations in total specific energy via the usual microdosimetric specific energy distribution function, and neglecting fluctuations usually underestimates the surviving fraction. The Monte Carlo methods interpolate systematically between the low dose-rate and high dose-rate limits. As in other approaches, the slope of the survival curve at low dose-rates is virtually independent of dose and equals the initial slope of the survival curve for acute radiation. (orig.)

  19. Survival behavior in the cyclic Lotka-Volterra model with a randomly switching reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Mobilia, Mauro; Rucklidge, Alastair M.

    2018-02-01

    We study the influence of a randomly switching reproduction-predation rate on the survival behavior of the nonspatial cyclic Lotka-Volterra model, also known as the zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, used to metaphorically describe the cyclic competition between three species. In large and finite populations, demographic fluctuations (internal noise) drive two species to extinction in a finite time, while the species with the smallest reproduction-predation rate is the most likely to be the surviving one (law of the weakest). Here we model environmental (external) noise by assuming that the reproduction-predation rate of the strongest species (the fastest to reproduce and predate) in a given static environment randomly switches between two values corresponding to more and less favorable external conditions. We study the joint effect of environmental and demographic noise on the species survival probabilities and on the mean extinction time. In particular, we investigate whether the survival probabilities follow the law of the weakest and analyze their dependence on the external noise intensity and switching rate. Remarkably, when, on average, there is a finite number of switches prior to extinction, the survival probability of the predator of the species whose reaction rate switches typically varies nonmonotonically with the external noise intensity (with optimal survival about a critical noise strength). We also outline the relationship with the case where all reaction rates switch on markedly different time scales.

  20. Survival behavior in the cyclic Lotka-Volterra model with a randomly switching reaction rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Mobilia, Mauro; Rucklidge, Alastair M

    2018-02-01

    We study the influence of a randomly switching reproduction-predation rate on the survival behavior of the nonspatial cyclic Lotka-Volterra model, also known as the zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, used to metaphorically describe the cyclic competition between three species. In large and finite populations, demographic fluctuations (internal noise) drive two species to extinction in a finite time, while the species with the smallest reproduction-predation rate is the most likely to be the surviving one (law of the weakest). Here we model environmental (external) noise by assuming that the reproduction-predation rate of the strongest species (the fastest to reproduce and predate) in a given static environment randomly switches between two values corresponding to more and less favorable external conditions. We study the joint effect of environmental and demographic noise on the species survival probabilities and on the mean extinction time. In particular, we investigate whether the survival probabilities follow the law of the weakest and analyze their dependence on the external noise intensity and switching rate. Remarkably, when, on average, there is a finite number of switches prior to extinction, the survival probability of the predator of the species whose reaction rate switches typically varies nonmonotonically with the external noise intensity (with optimal survival about a critical noise strength). We also outline the relationship with the case where all reaction rates switch on markedly different time scales.

  1. Chest compression rates and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahamed H; Guffey, Danielle; Pepe, Paul E; Brown, Siobhan P; Brooks, Steven C; Callaway, Clifton W; Christenson, Jim; Davis, Daniel P; Daya, Mohamud R; Gray, Randal; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Larsen, Jonathan; Lin, Steve; Menegazzi, James J; Sheehan, Kellie; Sopko, George; Stiell, Ian; Nichol, Graham; Aufderheide, Tom P

    2015-04-01

    Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions/min. A recent clinical study reported optimal return of spontaneous circulation with rates between 100 and 120/min during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the relationship between compression rate and survival is still undetermined. Prospective, observational study. Data is from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Prehospital Resuscitation IMpedance threshold device and Early versus Delayed analysis clinical trial. Adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical service providers. None. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings for the first five minutes of emergency medical service cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression assessed odds ratio for survival by compression rate categories (compression fraction and depth, first rhythm, and study site. Compression rate data were available for 10,371 patients; 6,399 also had chest compression fraction and depth data. Age (mean±SD) was 67±16 years. Chest compression rate was 111±19 per minute, compression fraction was 0.70±0.17, and compression depth was 42±12 mm. Circulation was restored in 34%; 9% survived to hospital discharge. After adjustment for covariates without chest compression depth and fraction (n=10,371), a global test found no significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p=0.19). However, after adjustment for covariates including chest compression depth and fraction (n=6,399), the global test found a significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p=0.02), with the reference group (100-119 compressions/min) having the greatest likelihood for survival. After adjustment for chest compression fraction and depth, compression rates between 100 and 120 per minute were associated with greatest survival to hospital discharge.

  2. SURVIVAL RATE PENYANDANG HIPERTENSI DENGAN KONSUMSI NATRIUM RENDAH TERHADAP KEJADIAN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekowati Rahajeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Several studies have shown that stroke can be prevented through modifiable risk factors. The adequate treatment of hypertension may reduce the risk of stroke. Lifestyle modification such as reducing salt intake in hypertension management have demonstrated lowering blood pressure, enhancing the effectiveness of antihypertension drugs and also reducing stroke risk. This study aims to verify the survival rate of hypertension with lower sodium intake (<2000 mg per day on the incidence of stroke. The study was conducted through a prospective cohort study (4 years of follow-up in 1082 people with confirmed hypertension. Stroke were confirmed by neurologist. The consumption of sodium, sugar and fat were collected through 24-hour dietary recall. Hypertension survival rate was calculated using Life Table Survival analysis. This study has demonstrated evidence of the higher survival rate of hypertension with low sodium intake on the incidence of stroke, with the difference 2-year survival rate is 3 percent higher and 4-year survival rate is 5 percent higher. Sodium consumption of <2000 mg per day in people with hypertension has prevented a 78 percent incidence of stroke. Therefore, the intervention programs to reduce of the consumption of salt or sodium in Indonesia should be prioritized.

  3. Comparison of survival rates among different treatment methods of transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Yong Woon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Do Yun; Jun, Pyoung Jun; Chang, So Yong [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    To compare the survival rates of patients with hepatoma using different methods of transcatheter arterial chemoemblization(THAE). Four hundred and eighty three patients with hepatoma diagnosed by biopsy, serum alpha-fetoprotein, abdominal CT scan, abdominal ultrasonography or hepatic angiography were included, but not all had received surgical treatment. They were divided onto two groups according to Child's classification and into subgroups according to different methods of THAE. Five-tear survival rates among these groups were retrospectively compared. The patients were aged between 24 and 85(mean, 58) ; male to female ratio was 324 : 61 for those who received THAE (369 : 87 when only hepatic angiography was considered.). In the group with more than a single episode of chemoembolization, regardless of Child's classification, a better survival rate compared to the other groups with or without concommitant radiotherapy or without chemoembolization was noted. There was no difference in the survival rate of patients with multiple chemoembolization. moreover, no difference in this rate was observed no matter what chemotherapeutic agents, including Adriamycin, Cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum of I-131-Lipiodol, were used. Amortization by gelfoam in conjuction with Adriamycin resulted in no difference in survival rate regardless of frequency of chemoembolization. An improved survival rate was seen when multiple episodes of chemoembolization were applied, but no difference was seen when there was concomitant application of either gelfoam or radiotherapy. Two different chemotherapeutic agents, Adriamycin and Cis-Diaminedichloroplatinum, were used, but there was no difference between them in their effect on survival rates.

  4. The survival rate of self-immolators in Kermanshah Province 2010- 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Najafi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-immolation is one of the most violent methods of suicide, which is spreading in Iran. The highest rate of deaths due to committing suicide and self-immolation in Iran is observed in Kermanshah province. This research was conducted to study the survival rate and the factors that influence survival among the ones who commit self-immolation in Kermanshah province. Methods: In this study, all the cases who did not survive, as well as all the ones who were hospitalized due to self-immolation in Kermanshah province during 2010 and 2011 were examined. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival function, and in order to do the comparisons, Logrank test and Cox Regression were employed using Stata 12 software. Results: The results indicated that during 2010 and 2011, 343 individuals committed self-immolation in Kermanshah Province, while, 288 (84% were women. Also, it was found that 184 (53% did not survive, the mean and median of survival time in those who committed suicide deliberately, were 33±2.6 and 11±2 days respectively. Estimation of survival rate using Logrank test indicated that survival rate had a significant relationship with age, mental disorders, drug addiction, and TBSA (Total Body Surface Area, while it did not suggest a statistically significant relationship with gender, marital status and cause of injury. After multivariate analysis using Cox regression, only two variables of age and TBSA could remain in the model and the other variables were excluded from the model. Conclusion: The death toll due to self-immolation is very high and the mean and median of survival time among the people who committed self-immolation is very low. Therefore, it is recommended that remedial action be performed quickly without wasting time.

  5. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the US. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival. Methods We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate CRC incidence and mortality rates in blacks aged 50 years and older from 1975 to 2007 assuming they had: 1) the same trends in screening rates as whites instead of observed screening rates (incidence and mortality); and 2) the same trends in stage-specific relative CRC survival rates as whites instead of observed (mortality only); and 3) a combination of both. The racial disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates attributable to differences in screening and/or stage-specific relative CRC survival were then calculated by comparing rates from these scenarios to the observed black rates. Results Differences in screening account for 42% of disparity in CRC incidence and 19% of disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. 36% of the disparity in CRC mortality could be attributed to differences in stage-specific relative CRC survival. Together screening and survival explained a little over 50% of the disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Conclusion Differences in screening and relative CRC survival are responsible for a considerable proportion of the observed disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites. Impact Enabling blacks to achieve equal access to care as whites could substantially reduce the racial disparities in CRC burden. PMID:22514249

  6. Dose rate effects on survival of two insect species which commonly infest stored corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, E.; Uribe, R.M.; Watters, F.L.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the dose rate effects on survival of two species of insects which commonly infest commercial maize in Mexico was undertaken using 60 Co γ radiation and 1.0 MeV electrons, to determine whether an optimum dose rate exists for the irradiation of grain infested with these insects. Experiments have shown that the effectiveness of γ and electron irradiation were not influenced by dose rates from 10 to 120 Gy/min for 60 Co and 35 to 300 Gy/min for electrons when the insects were irradiated at 2500 Gy. Survival curves for each species are presented for both types of radiation. (author)

  7. Increasing Winter Maximal Metabolic Rate Improves Intrawinter Survival in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Magali; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Vézina, François

    Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (M s ), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters. Results showed that survival probability was high and constant both within (0.92) and among (0.96) winters. They also showed that while M s , Hct, and BMR had no significant influence, survival was positively related to Msum-following a sigmoid relationship-within but not among winter. Birds expressing an Msum below 1.26 W (i.e., similar to summer levels) had a winter. Our data therefore suggest that black-capped chickadees that are either too slow or unable to adjust their phenotype from summer to winter have little chances of survival and thus that seasonal upregulation of metabolic performance is highly beneficial. This study is the first to document in an avian system the relationship between thermogenic capacity and winter survival, a proxy of fitness.

  8. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  9. Prognostic nutritional index is associated with survival after total gastrectomy for patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Oyama, Yusuke; Abe, Akihito; Tago, Kazuma; Tanaka, Genki; Kubota, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the influence of clinical characteristics including nutritional markers on postoperative survival in patients undergoing total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer (GC). One hundred fifty-four patients were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to explore the most valuable clinical characteristic that was associated with postoperative survival. Multivariate analysis using twelve clinical characteristics selected from univariate analyses revealed that age (≤ 72/>72), carcinoembryonic antigen (≤ 20/>20) (ng/ml), white blood cell count (≤ 9.5/>9.5) (× 10(3)/mm(3)), prognostic nutritional index (PNI) (≤ 45/>45) and lymph node metastasis (negative/positive) were associated with postoperative survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test showed that patients with higher PNI (>45) had a higher postoperative survival rate than those with lower PNI (≤ 45) (p<0.001). PNI is associated with postoperative survival of patients undergoing TG for GC and is able to divide such patients into two independent groups before surgery. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. [Determinants of survival in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilimali, P Z; Mutombo, P B; Kayembe, P K; Kaba, D K; Mapatano, M A

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to identify factors associated with the survival of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. A historic cohort of HIV patients from two major hospitals in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) was followed from 2004 to 2012. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe the probability of survival as a function of time since inclusion into the cohort. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves based on determinants. The Cox regression model identified the determinants of survival since treatment induction. The median follow-up time was 3.56 years (IQR=2.22-5.39). The mortality rate was 40 deaths per 1000 person-years. Male gender (RR: 2.56; 95 %CI 1.66-4.83), advanced clinical stage (RR: 2.12; 95 %CI 1.15-3.90), low CD4 count (CD4 < 50) (RR: 2.05; 95 %CI : 1.22-3.45), anemia (RR: 3.95; 95 %CI 2.60-6.01), chemoprophylaxis with cotrimoxazole (RR: 4.29, 95 % CI 2.69-6.86) and period of treatment initiation (2010-2011) (RR: 3.34; 95 %CI 1.24-8.98) were statistically associated with short survival. Initiation of treatment at an early stage of the disease with use of less toxic molecules and an increased surveillance especially of male patients are recommended to reduce mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival analysis for predictive factors of delay vaccination in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, beside immunization coverage the age appropriate vaccination is another helpful index in public health. Evidences have shown that high immunization coverage rates do not necessarily imply age-appropriate vaccination status. The current study aimed to show the predictive factors of delayed vaccination by survival models. Methods: A historical cohort study conducted on 3610 children aged between 24 and 47 months who was living in the suburbs of five big cities of Iran. Time of delay in vaccination of first dose of mumps-measles-rubella (MMR was calculated from date of vaccination minus age appropriate time according to vaccine card. Kaplan-Maier and Log rank tests were used for comparison the median of delay time. For controlling of confounding variables, multivariate cox model was used and hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% was reported. Results: The mean ± standard deviation and median interquartile range of delay time was 38.34 ± 73.1 and 16 (11-31 days in delayed group. The Log rank test showed that city of living, nationality, parents′ education, and birth order are related with prolonged delay time in MMR vaccination (P 0.05. Cox regression showed that city of living, mother education, and nationality are the most predictive factors of delay time duration in MMR vaccination. Conclusions: Delay time duration of vaccination increased by faring from capital to the east south. Moreover, concentration of foreign immigrants in big cities and low level of mother education are the most predictors of delayed vaccination. Educational intervention should focus on immigrants and mothers with low education level.

  12. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry’s survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  13. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  14. Effects of non-surgical factors on digital replantation survival rate: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z; Guo, F; Qi, J; Xiang, W; Zhang, J

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors affecting survival rate of digital replantation by a meta-analysis. A computer retrieval of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, and CNKI databases was conducted to identify citations for digital replantation with digit or finger or thumb or digital or fingertip and replantation as keywords. RevMan 5.2 software was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios. In total, there were 4678 amputated digits in 2641 patients. Gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation (P > 0.05). Age, injured hand, injury type, zone, and the method of preservation the amputated digit significantly influence the survival rate of digital replantation (P < 0.05). Children, right hand, crush, or avulsion and little finger are the risk factors that adversely affect the outcome. Level 5*. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease: Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Data From NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-term Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S; Leehey, Maureen A; Pontone, Gregory M; Chou, Kelvin L; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2016-03-01

    found that the weight-loss group's mean (SE) motor UPDRS score increased by 1.48 (0.28) (P < .001) more points per visit than the weight-stable group's mean (SE) motor UPDRS score. The weight-gain group's mean (SE) motor UPDRS score decreased by -0.51 (0.24) (P = .03) points per visit, relative to the weight-stable group. While there was an unadjusted difference in survival between the 3 BMI trajectory groups (log-rank P < .001), this was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Change in BMI was inversely associated with change in motor and total UPDRS scores in the NET-PD LS-1. Change in BMI was not associated with survival; however, these results were limited by the low number of deaths in the NET-PD LS-1. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00449865.

  16. Self-rated health as a predictor of survival among patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadbolt, Bruce; Barresi, Jane; Craft, Paul

    2002-05-15

    Evidence is emerging about the strong predictive relationship between self-rated health (SRH) and survival, although there is little evidence on palliative populations where an accurate prediction of survival is valuable. Thus, the relative importance of SRH in predicting the survival of ambulatory patients with advanced cancer was examined. SRH was compared to clinical assessments of performance status, as well as to quality-of-life measures. By use of a prospective cohort design, 181 patients (76% response rate) with advanced cancer were recruited into the study, resurveyed at 18 weeks, and observed to record deaths. The average age of patients was 62 years (SD = 12). The median survival time was 10 months. SRH was the strongest predictor of survival from baseline. Also, a Cox regression comparing changes in SRH over time yielded hazard ratios suggesting the relative risk (RR) of dying was greater for fair ratings at 18 weeks (approximately 3 times) compared with consistent good or better ratings; the RR was even greater (4.2 and 6.2 times) for poor ratings, especially when ratings were poor at baseline and 18 weeks (31 times). Improvement in SRH over time yielded the lowest RR. SRH is valid, reliable, and responsive to change as a predictor of survival of advanced cancer. These qualities suggest that SRH should be considered as an additional tool by oncologists to assess patients. Similarly, health managers could use SRH as an indicator of disease severity in palliative care case mix. Finally, SRH could provide a key to help us understand the human side of disease and its relationship with medicine.

  17. Survival Rate and Associated Factors of Childhood Leukemia in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Veisani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Resent reviews have shown that about 18% of all child cancers are leukemia. Track of the survival rate can help researchers improve quality of life of patients through improving screening or discovery of better treatments. Objectives This review aimed at estimating the 5-year survival rates and associated factors of childhood leukemia in Iran. Data Sources We carried out a systematic review through search of relevant studies published in English (PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, and ISI and Persian databases (Magiran, Medlib, SID, and Iran Medex. Study Selection The study included all epidemiologic studies that estimated survival rate in children with leukemia in Iran during years 2002 to 2015, and a standardized manner was used for extraction of information. Data Extraction The entire text or summary of all searched articles was extracted and then, related articles were selected, and irrelevant ones were excluded. Fixed and random effects models were calculated by the STATA using standard meta-analysis methods. Heterogeneity was assessed by I² statistics. Results The overall 5-year survival rate in patients with childhood leukemia in Iran was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.67, 10 studies, in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL subtype was 71.0% (95% CI: 68.0 to 74.0, and in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML subtype was 46.0%. Results of the meta analysis showed significant poor survival with relapse (heart rate (HR 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.27 to 1.98 and white blood count (WBC counts ≥ 50,000 (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.60. Conclusions The results showed that 5-year survival rates in patients with AML were lower than patients with ALL. The results of this meta analysis strongly support the need for future research, action, and guidance for clinicians to improve health-related quality of life and outcomes for children with leukemia.

  18. Advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Influence of preoperative radiation therapy on toxicity and long-term survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzoni, Carlos Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    The surgical treatment of gastric cancer has better long-term survival rates when performed in patients with early gastric cancer. Worse results are obtained in treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Most patients in west centers are treated in advanced stages. A great number of them go through a surgical treatment unable by itself to cure them. the frequent local recurrence caused by failure of the surgical treatment has been keeping poor survival rates in patients with advanced gastric cancer for decades. The desire of improving survival is the reason of the use of adjuvant therapies. This paper achieved the retrospective study of the influence of preoperative radiation therapy (2000 cGy) in long-term survival rates (120 months) of patients with advanced gastric cancer on stages IIIa, IIIb and IV. The possible injuries caused in the liver and kidney were observed also as well as first group was treated by surgical and radiation therapies and the second received surgical treatment only. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when sex, age, race, occurrence of other diseases, nutritional assessment, TNM stage, occurrence of obstruction or bleeding caused by tumor, surgical procedure and hepatic and renal function were considered. Survival rates and changes on hepatic and renal function were statistically compared. The results showed a statistic improvement on the long-term survival rates of stage IIIa patients treated by preoperative radiation therapy. No statistic difference was observed on hepatic or renal function between the groups. No adverse influence of radiation therapy method was detected by the used parameters. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when immediate surgical complications were considered. (author)

  19. Annual survival rate estimate of satellite transmitter–marked eastern population greater sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, David L.; Andersen, David E.; Hanna, Everett E.; Cooper, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Several surveys have documented the increasing population size and geographic distribution of Eastern Population greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida since the 1960s. Sport hunting of this population of sandhill cranes started in 2012 following the provisions of the Eastern Population Sandhill Crane Management Plan. However, there are currently no published estimates of Eastern Population sandhill crane survival rate that can be used to inform harvest management. As part of two studies of Eastern Population sandhill crane migration, we deployed solar-powered global positioning system platform transmitting terminals on Eastern Population sandhill cranes (n  =  42) at key concentration areas from 2009 to 2012. We estimated an annual survival rate for Eastern Population sandhill cranes from data resulting from monitoring these cranes by using the known-fates model in the MARK program. Estimated annual survival rate for adult Eastern Population sandhill cranes was 0.950 (95% confidence interval  =  0.885–0.979) during December 2009–August 2014. All fatalities (n  =  5) occurred after spring migration in late spring and early summer. We were unable to determine cause of death for crane fatalities in our study. Our survival rate estimate will be useful when combined with other population parameters such as the population index derived from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service fall survey, harvest, and recruitment rates to assess the effects of harvest on population size and trend and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies.

  20. Aplicación y técnicas del análisis de supervivencia en las investigaciones clínicas Application and techniques of survival analysis in clinical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Gramatges Ortiz

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una actualización sobre el análisis de supervivencia en las investigaciones clínicas. Se expusieron algunos de los conceptos más generales sobre este tipo de análisis y las características de los tiempos de supervivencia.Se abordan temas relacionados con los diferentes métodos que facilitan la estimación de las probabilidades de supervivencia para uno o más grupos de individuos, con la ejemplificación del cálculo de las probabilidades para el método de Kaplan-Meier. Se destaca la comparación de la supervivencia de varios grupos atendiendo a distintos factores que los diferencian, así como también se enuncian algunas de las pruebas estadísticas que nos posibilitan la comparación, como son la prueba log rank y la Breslow, como alternativa de esta cuando se evidencia una divergencia del azar proporcional, es decir, cuando las curvas de supe DE SUPERVI rvivencia se cruzanconcepts of this type of analyses and the characteristics of survival times were presented. Aspects related with the different methods facilitating the estimation of survival probabilities for one or more groups of subjects, including the example of calculation of Kaplan Meier method´s probabilities were dealt with . The survival rates of several groups were compared, taking into consideration various factors that differentiate them. Some of the statistical tests making the comparison possible such as log rank test, and the Breslow test as an alternative of the former when there is a proportional random divergence, that is, when survival curves cross were stated

  1. Breast cancer survival rates among Seventh-day Adventists and non-Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, T W; Phillips, R L; Kuzma, J W

    1984-04-01

    Survival rates were compared among 282 Seventh-day Adventists and 1675 other white female cancer cases following diagnosis during the 30-year period, 1946 to 1976, at two California hospitals owned and operated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Adventist women had a more favorable 5-year relative survival pattern than the other women (69.7% vs. 62.9%) as well as a higher probability of not dying of breast cancer. The differences, however, were no longer significant when stage at diagnosis was taken into account. It seems likely that the lower breast cancer death rates reported among Seventh-day Adventist women as compared with the general population result in part from better survival patterns due to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Survival Analysis and its Associated Factors of Beta Thalassemia Major in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zamani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There currently is a lack of knowledge about the long-term survival of patients with beta thalassemia (BT, particularly in regions with low incidence of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the survival rate of the patients with BT major and the factors associated with the survival time. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in Hamadan province, located in the west of Iran. The study included patients that referred to the provincial hospitals during 16 year period from 1997 to 2013. The follow up of each subject was calculated from the date of birth to the date of death. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from patients’ medical records using a checklist. Statistical analysis included the Kaplan-Meier method to analyze survivals, log-rank to compare curves between groups, and Cox regression for multivariate prognostic analysis. Results: A total of 133 patients with BT major were enrolled, 54.9% of whom were male and 66.2% were urban. The 10-, 20- and 30-year survival rate for all patients were 98.3%, 88.4% and 80.5%, respectively. Based on hazard ratio (HR, we found that accompanied diseases (P=0.01, blood type (P=0.03 and residency status (P=0.01 were significant predictors for the survival time of patients. Conclusion: The survival rate of BT patients has improved. Future researches such as prospective designs are required for the estimation of survival rate and to find other prognostic factors, which have reliable sources of data.

  3. On the relationship between tumour growth rate and survival in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh B. Mistry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent question within oncology drug development is predicting phase III outcome for a new treatment using early clinical data. One approach to tackle this problem has been to derive metrics from mathematical models that describe tumour size dynamics termed re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth. They have shown to be strong predictors of overall survival in numerous studies but there is debate about how these metrics are derived and if they are more predictive than empirical end-points. This work explores the issues raised in using model-derived metric as predictors for survival analyses. Re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth were calculated for three large clinical studies by forward and reverse alignment. The latter involves re-aligning patients to their time of progression. Hence, it accounts for the time taken to estimate re-growth rate and time to tumour re-growth but also assesses if these predictors correlate to survival from the time of progression. I found that neither re-growth rate nor time to tumour re-growth correlated to survival using reverse alignment. This suggests that the dynamics of tumours up until disease progression has no relationship to survival post progression. For prediction of a phase III trial I found the metrics performed no better than empirical end-points. These results highlight that care must be taken when relating dynamics of tumour imaging to survival and that bench-marking new approaches to existing ones is essential.

  4. Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae that survive sublethal doses of nucleopolyhedrovirus exhibit high metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Gustav; Nardini, Luisa; Duncan, Frances D

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of sublethal doses of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearSNPV) on the metabolic rate of H. armigera, the respiration rates of third instar H. armigera larvae inoculated with sublethal doses of HearSNPV were evaluated. Respiration rates, measured as the rate of CO(2) production (VCO(2)), were recorded daily using closed-system respirometry. By 4 days post-inoculation (dpi), the metabolic rates of LD(25) or LD(75) survivors were significantly higher than that of uninoculated controls. When dose data were pooled, the VCO(2) values of larvae that survived inoculation (0.0288mlh(-1)), the uninoculated controls (0.0250mlh(-1)), and the larvae that did not survive inoculation (0.0199mlh(-1)) differed significantly from one another. At 4dpi, the VCO(2) of the uninoculated controls were significantly lower than the VCO(2) of inoculation survivors, but significantly higher than the VCO(2) of inoculation non-survivors. Inoculation survivors may have had high metabolic rates due to a combination of viral replication, organ damage, and an energy-intensive induced cellular immune response. The high 4dpi metabolic rate of inoculation survivors may reflect an effective immune response and may be seen as the metabolic signature of larvae that are in the process of surviving inoculation with HearSNPV.

  5. Exploring location influences on firm survival rates using parametric duration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzato, G.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Vries, de B.

    2010-01-01

    Using parametric duration models applied to an office firm dataset, we carried out an exploratory study about the location influences on firm survival rates. Amongst the variables included, we found that accessibility to infrastructure supply, regional effects, demographic and economic aspects, and

  6. Exploring location influences on firm survival rates using parametric duration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzato, G.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Ettema, D.F.

    2011-01-01

    Using parametric duration models applied to an office firm dataset, we carried out an exploratory study about the location influences on firm survival rates. Amongst the variables included, we found that accessibility to infrastructure supply, regional effects, demographic and economic aspects, and

  7. Exploration of location influences on firm survival rates using parametric duration models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzato, G.G.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Ettema, D.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the influences of location on business firm survival rates with the use of parametric duration models applied to a data set. Of the variables included, those found to be the most significant were accessibility to infrastructure supply, regional effects, demographic and economic

  8. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  9. A method for studying post-fledging survival rates using data from ringing recoveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, D.L.; Baillie, S.R.; Peach, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a method for studying post-fledging survival rates from data on national ringing recoveries. The approach extends the classical two-age-class models of Brownie et al. (1985) to include a third age-class of birds ringed as nestlings. The models can incorporate age-class-specific and

  10. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  11. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved pension...

  12. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... ESTIMATED GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE AND RISK OF SURVIVAL IN ACUTE STROKE. E. I. Okaka, MBBS, FWACP, F. A. Imarhiagbe, MBChB, FMCP, F. E. Odiase, MBBS, FMCP, O. C. A. Okoye, MBBS, FWACP,. Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria.

  13. Survival rates in the Czech Republic of introduced plants known as wool aliens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2005), s. 567-576 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/00/1443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : wool aliens * survival rate * naturalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  15. Dental implant survival rate in well-controlled diabetic patients. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental implants have now become one of the most popular options for replacing a missing tooth. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease that affects a large part of the population and is generally considered an absolute or relative contraindication to implant therapy. Aim: To determine the survival rate of dental implants in controlled diabetic patients through a systematic review. Material and methods: A systematic search in Pubmed, SciELO and RedALyC databases was performed. The selection criteria were: studies published in the last 10 years, with at least 20 controlled diabetic patients, reporting survival rate and number of implants placed, with follow-up periods equal to or longer than 1 year, including a control group of healthy patients. Methodological quality was analyzed with the follwing scales: Jadad and Downs & Black’s CMQ. Results: Three articles with a follow-up period between 1 and 12 years were analyzed. The overall survival rate of dental implants in diabetic controlled patients was 97.43%. Conclusion: The reviewed literature suggests that survival rate of dental implants in well-controlled diabetic patients is similar to non-diabetic patients.

  16. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...

  17. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  18. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  19. Impact of periodontal maintenance on tooth survival in patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Sayaka; Allen, Patrick Finbarr; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2015-01-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) may have a negative impact on oral health and have the potential to cause further tooth loss, especially of abutment teeth. However, no evidence indicates the effective interval of regular periodontal maintenance after RPD provision. This practice-based cohort study aimed to examine the impact of regular periodontal maintenance visits on survival of RPD abutment teeth. One hundred and ninety-two patients had been previously provided with 304 new clasp-retained RPDs at Osaka University Dental Hospital, Japan. Using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, 1094 abutments were analysed to illustrate survival curves and to compare each curve. According to the frequency of periodontal maintenance, study samples were divided into three groups; every 3-6 months (3-6M) group, 1-year (1Y) group and no-maintenance (NM) group. Seven-year cumulative survival rates were 83.7% (3-6M), 75.5% (1Y) and 71.9% (NM) respectively. Survival of abutment teeth in the 3-6M group was significantly better than both 1Y (p = 0.005) and NM (p < 0.001) groups. These longitudinal clinical data indicates that periodontal maintenance at least once in 6 months had the most favourable outcome. Frequent periodontal maintenance after RPD provision could be effective in preventing further tooth loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  1. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks: Single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asad; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Sharef, Sharef W; Fazalullah, Muhammad; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Khan, Ashfaq A; Ahmad, Masood; Kripail, Mathew; Abuanza, Mazen; Bataclan, Flordeliza

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23-26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. A total of 81 infants between 23-26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%), retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%), intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9%) and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4%) were the most common morbidities. The overall survival rate of infants between 23-26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  2. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] inference from this model, study designs should seek a minimum of 25 animals of each marking type observed (marked or observed via telemetry) in each time period and geographic stratum.

  3. Androgen Suppression Combined with Elective Nodal and Dose Escalated Radiation Therapy (the ASCENDE-RT Trial): An Analysis of Survival Endpoints for a Randomized Trial Comparing a Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost to a Dose-Escalated External Beam Boost for High- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W. James, E-mail: jmorris@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rodda, Sree [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Halperin, Ross [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Centre for the Southern Interior, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Pai, Howard [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Island Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McKenzie, Michael; Duncan, Graeme [Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morton, Gerard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hamm, Jeremy [Department of Population Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Murray, Nevin [BC Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To report the primary endpoint of biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS) and secondary survival endpoints from ASCENDE-RT, a randomized trial comparing 2 methods of dose escalation for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: ASCENDE-RT enrolled 398 men, with a median age of 68 years; 69% (n=276) had high-risk disease. After stratification by risk group, the subjects were randomized to a standard arm with 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy, pelvic irradiation to 46 Gy, followed by a dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (DE-EBRT) boost to 78 Gy, or an experimental arm that substituted a low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) boost. Of the 398 trial subjects, 200 were assigned to DE-EBRT boost and 198 to LDR-PB boost. The median follow-up was 6.5 years. Results: In an intent-to-treat analysis, men randomized to DE-EBRT were twice as likely to experience biochemical failure (multivariable analysis [MVA] hazard ratio [HR] 2.04; P=.004). The 5-, 7-, and 9-year Kaplan-Meier b-PFS estimates were 89%, 86%, and 83% for the LDR-PB boost versus 84%, 75%, and 62% for the DE-EBRT boost (log-rank P<.001). The LDR-PB boost benefited both intermediate- and high-risk patients. Because the b-PFS curves for the treatment arms diverge sharply after 4 years, the relative advantage of the LDR-PB should increase with longer follow-up. On MVA, the only variables correlated with reduced overall survival were age (MVA HR 1.06/y; P=.004) and biochemical failure (MVA HR 6.30; P<.001). Although biochemical failure was associated with increased mortality and randomization to DE-EBRT doubled the rate of biochemical failure, no significant overall survival difference was observed between the treatment arms (MVA HR 1.13; P=.62). Conclusions: Compared with 78 Gy EBRT, men randomized to the LDR-PB boost were twice as likely to be free of biochemical failure at a median follow-up of 6.5 years.

  4. Effect of the irradiation of bacteria upon their survival rate during conventional methods of meat preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinska, M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the effect of irradiation upon the survival rate of non-sporing bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens) during basic methods of meat preservation. The bacteria were irradiated in broth by X-rays at a dose that destroyed about 90% of the bacteria (D 10 ). The survival rate of unirradiated and irradiated bacteria during cooling and freezing, in solutions of sodium chloride, nitrates and liquid smoke, was defined. The number of microorganisms was determined directly after irradiation as well as 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. The effect of irradiation upon heat resistance of the examined species of bacteria was also defined. The microorganisms were heated in broth, at 70 0 C for 1, 2 and 5 minutes. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. On the basis of the research results, a faster dying rate of irradiated populations of S. aureus and E. coli during any type of preservation treatment, the lack of any reaction to irradiation regarding the survival rate of S. typhimurium, and the lack of any effect of irradiation upon the rate of deterioration of P. fluorescens during freezing and storage in a solution with 10% addition of NaCI, were observed. On the other hand, a pronounced effect of irradiation upon the lowering of the heat resistance of the bacteria, as well as delayed growth in other variants of the experiment, was determined. (author)

  5. Clinical performance of ART restorations in primary teeth: a survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccin, Elise Sasso; Ferreira, Simone Helena; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    To assess the survival of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations in primary teeth performed in a dental clinical setting. One hundred and five single-surface ART restorations placed in 56 preschool children (mean age 31 months) were included. Final-year dental students performed the restorations using standard ART procedures with hand instruments. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M/ESPE) was used as a restorative material. Performances of the restorations were assessed directly by the ART evaluation criteria. Follow-up period ranged from 6 to 48 months. Survival estimates for restoration longevity were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test (P ART restorations were 89%, 85% and 72% in 6 to 11, 12 to 24 and 25 to 48 months of evaluation respectively. Differences in success rates among demographic and clinical characteristics were not statistically significant. High survivals rates of the ART restorations found in this study seem to indicate the reliability of this approach as an appropriate treatment option for primary teeth in a clinical setting.

  6. Prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Tu, Hung-Pin; Ko, Ying-Chin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Min-Shan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chiang, Shang-Lun

    2007-01-01

    In Taiwan, a distinct ethnic group variation in incidence and mortality rates has been suggested for most carcinomas. Our aim is to identify the role of prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Taiwan Cancer Registry records of 9039 subjects diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed. The population was divided into three ethnic groups by residence, which were Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien communities. Five-year survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Ethnic curves differed significantly by log-rank test; therefore separate models for Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien were carried out. The Cox multivariate proportional hazards model was used to examine the role of prognostic factors on ethnic survival. The five-year survival rates of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were significantly poorer for Hokkien community (53.9%) and Taiwanese aborigines community (58.1%) compared with Hakka community (60.5%). The adjusted hazard ratio of Taiwanese aborigines versus Hakka was 1.07 (95%CI, 0.86–1.33) for oral and pharyngeal carcinoma mortality, and 1.16 (95%CI, 1.01–1.33) for Hokkien versus Hakka. Males had significantly poor prognosis than females. Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis. Subjects with verrucous carcinoma had better survival than squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis was the worst in elderly subjects, and subjects who underwent surgery had the highest survival rate. Our study presented that predictive variables in oral and pharyngeal carcinoma survival have been: ethnic groups, period of diagnosis, gender, diagnostic age, anatomic site, morphologic type, and therapy

  7. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannelle Couret

    Full Text Available Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1 diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2 that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.

  8. Survival and Complication Rate of Radiation Therapy in Stage I and II Carcinoma of uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Sun Young; Cho, Heung Lea; Sohn, Seung Chang

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : To analyze survival rate and late rectal and bladder complication for patients with stage with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy. Materials and Methods : Between November 1984 and December 1993, 127 patients with stage I and II carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by radiation alone or combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy. Retrospective analysis for survival rate was carried out on eligible 107 patients and review for complication was possible in 91 patients. The median follow-up was 47 months (range 3-118) and the median age of patients was 56 years (range 31-76). 26 patients were stage IB by FIGO classification. 40 were stage IIA and 41 were stage IIB. 86 cases were treated by radiation alone and 21 were treated by radiation and chemotherapy. 101 patients were treated with intracavitary radiation therapy (ICRT), of these, 80 were received low dose rate (LDR) ICRT and 21 were received high dose rate (HDR) ICRT. Of the patients who received LDR ICRT, 63 were treated by 1 intracavitary insertion and 17 were underwent 2 insertions. And we evaluated the external radiation dose and midline shield. Results : Acturial survival rate at 5 years was 92% for stage IB, 75% for stage IIA, 53% for stage IIB and 69% in all patients. Grade 1 rectal complications were developed in 20 cases(22%), grade 2 were in 22 cases (24%), 22 cases (24%) of grade 1 urinary complications and 17 cases (19%) of grade 2 urinary complications were observed But no patients had severe complications that needed surgical management or admission care. Maximum bladder dose for the group of patients with urinary complications was higher than that for the patients without urinary complications(7608cGy v 6960cGy, p<0.01). Maximum rectal dose for the group of patients with rectal complications was higher than that for the patients without urinary complications (7041cGy v 6269cGy, p<0.01). While there was no significant

  9. Swan-neck versus straight peritoneal dialysis catheter: Long-term effect on patient and method survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiopoulos, V; Biblaki, D; Takouli, L; Dounavis, A; Hadjiyannakos, D; Vlassopoulos, D

    2016-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is limited mainly by a higher technique failure rate as compared to hemodialysis (HD), catheter malfunction being an important reason. Intra- and extra-peritoneal catheter configuration may be associated with mechanical and infectious complications affecting method survival. We report our experience with two extra-peritoneal catheter configurations: the straight and the swan-neck (SN) catheters. A total of 85 consecutive patients, 58 males and 27 females were included in the study. Among them, 26 were diabetics; 52 were treated with automated PD (APD) and 33 with continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD). Straight catheters were used in 38 patients (straight group) and SN catheters in 47 patients (SN group). Straight catheters were mostly used in the first 6-year period while SN catheters in the last 6-year period. The baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. A significantly higher frequency of APD use was observed in SN group. Technique survival was better with SN versus straight (log-rank test, P = 0.01) while patient and catheter survival were similar. A better technique survival is noted in our group of patients with SN catheters. An additional factor could be the significantly higher frequency of APD use in this group. Changes in PD solutions' composition could also contribute to improvement in technique survival. The outcome for patients and catheter types used was similar.

  10. Long-term survival outcomes in patients with surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer and defined human papilloma virus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, O T; Sood, S; Shah, K A; Han, C; Rapozo, D; Mehanna, H; Winter, S C

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated long-term survival outcomes in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients with known human papilloma virus status. A case note review was performed of all patients undergoing primary surgery for oropharyngeal cancer in a single centre over a 10-year period. Human papilloma virus status was determined via dual modality testing. Associations between clinicopathological variables and survival were identified using a log-rank test. Of the 107 cases in the study, 40 per cent (n = 41) were human papilloma virus positive. The positive and negative predictive values of p16 immunohistochemistry for human papilloma virus status were 57 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively. At a mean follow up of 59.5 months, 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates were 78 per cent and 69 per cent, respectively. Human papilloma virus status (p = 0.014), smoking status (p = 0.021) and tumour stage (p = 0.03) were significant prognostic indicators. The long-term survival rates in surgically treated oropharyngeal cancer patients were comparable to other studies. Variables including human papilloma virus status and tumour stage were associated with survival in patients treated with primary surgery; however, nodal stage and presence of extracapsular spread were non-prognostic.

  11. Investigating Rates of Hunting and Survival in Declining European Lapwing Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    Full Text Available Understanding effects of harvest on population dynamics is of major interest, especially for declining species. European lapwing Vanellus vanellus populations increased from the 1960s until the 1980s and declined strongly thereafter. About 400,000 lapwings are harvested annually and it is thus of high conservation relevance to assess whether hunting was a main cause for the observed changes in lapwing population trends. We developed a multi-event cause-specific mortality model which we applied to a long-term ring-recovery data set (1960-2010 of > 360,000 records to estimate survival and cause-specific mortalities. We found no temporal change in survival over the last 50 years for first-year (FY and older birds (after first-year; AFY originating from different ringing areas. Mean survival was high, around 0.60 and 0.80 for FY and AFY individuals, respectively. The proportion of total mortality due to hunting was <0.10 over the study period and the estimated proportion of harvested individuals (kill rate was <0.05 in each year. Our result of constant survival indicates that demographic processes other than survival were responsible for the pronounced change in lapwing population trends in the 1980s. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that hunting was not a significant contributor to the large-scale decline of lapwing populations. To halt the ongoing decline of European lapwing populations management should focus on life history stages other than survival (e.g. productivity. Further analyses are required to investigate the contribution of other demographic rates to the decline of lapwings and to identify the most efficient conservation actions.

  12. Microsatellite instability is associated with reduced disease specific survival in stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, H M; Ryan, E; Balasubramanian, I; Kennelly, R; Geraghty, R; Sclafani, F; Fennelly, D; McDermott, R; Ryan, E J; O'Donoghue, D; Hyland, J M P; Martin, S T; O'Connell, P R; Gibbons, D; Winter, Des; Sheahan, K

    2016-11-01

    Up to 15% of colorectal cancers exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI), where errors in replication go unchecked due to defects in the mismatch repair system. This study aimed to determine survival in a large single-centre series of 1250 consecutive colorectal cancers subjected to universal MSI testing. Clinical and pathological features of patients with colorectal cancer identified on prospectively maintained colorectal and pathology databases at St. Vincent's University Hospital from 2004 to May 2012 were examined. Mismatch repair (MMR) status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier curves, the log-rank test and Cox regression were used to associate survival with clinical and pathological characteristics. Of the 1250 colorectal cancers in the study period, 11% exhibited MSI (n = 138). Patients with MSI tumours had significantly lower rates of lymph node and distant metastases (MSI N+ rate: 24.8% compared with MSS N+ rate: 46.2%, p colon cancer. However, patients with Stage III MSI colon cancers had a worse DSS than those with MSS tumours. Stage III MSI tumours exhibited higher rates of lymphovascular invasion and perineural invasion than Stage I/II MSI tumours. MSI is associated with a reduced risk of nodal and distant metastases, with an improved DSS in Stage I/II colon cancer. However, when MSI tumours progress to Stage III these patients had worse outcomes and pathological features. New strategies for this cohort of patients may be required to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Intraoperative radiotherapy combined with resection for pancreatic cancer. Analysis of survival rates and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Hirotaka; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroaki; Suehara, Nobuhiro; Abe, Yuji; Ihara, Takaaki; Iwashita, Toshimitsu; Mitsuyama, Shoshu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) combined with surgical resection. Subjects were consecutive 69 patients with pancreatic cancer treated with surgery alone (n=31) or surgical resection combined with IORT (n=38) in a 13 year period between 1991 and 2003. We evaluated the effects of IORT against local recurrence of cancer and patients' survival, retrospectively. Furthermore, clinicopathological factors affecting the 5-year survival rate in the two groups were comparatively investigated. The IORT group showed a significantly lower local recurrence rate of cancer than that in the surgery alone group (7.8% and 22.6%, respectively; p<0.05). The 5-year survival probability in the IORT group was significantly higher than that in the surgery alone group (29.9% and 3.4%, respectively; p<0.05). According to the Japanese classification of pancreatic cancer, cancers located in the pancreas body or tail, no local residual cancer post operative procedure (R0), low grade local cancer progression (t1, 2), and low grade intrapancreatic neural invasion (ne0, 1) were significantly better prognostic factors in the IORT group than those in the surgery alone group. There were no significant differences between the both groups in the 5-year survival rate in terms of the sex of the patients, cancer of the pancreas head, histological type, more than R1, the presence of lymph node involvement, ne2-3, and clinical stages. IORT is a useful intraoperative adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer, when the curative resection is achieved. Our data have suggested that IORT suppresses the local recurrence of cancer and provides the significant survival benefit for those patients. (author)

  14. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Longevity of anterior resin-bonded bridges: survival rates of two tooth preparation designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzar, M; Locke, J; Burt, G; Clausen, G; Escobar, K

    2018-04-16

    Significant developments have occurred in the design of resin-bonded bridges (RBB) over the past two decades. They are commonly used as an alternative treatment option for a single missing tooth. The longevity of these bridges needs to be further investigated to evaluate long-term outcomes for this option to remain relevant. A cohort of patients who received anterior resin-bonded bridges (ARBB) over two decades was studied retrospectively. Longevity of 206 ARBB was assessed using Kaplan-Meier probability estimates. The two modified tooth preparation designs investigated were: (A) mesial and distal vertical grooves only; and (B) one proximal groove adjacent to the pontic and two palatal grooves. Age and gender of the patient cohort were also recorded. Overall survival rate of ARBB was 98% at 5 years, 97.2% at 10 years, and 95.1% from 12 years till 21 years. Survival curves showed minor differences when compared for the two designs, age groups and gender of ARBB recipients. Differences in the proportion of surviving bridges for design A (95.96%) and design B (98.13%) were not statistically significant (Fisher's exact test). Anterior RBB with described tooth preparation designs demonstrate a high survival rate. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Daily survival rate and habitat characteristics of nests of Wilson's Plover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Elizabeth; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed habitat characteristics and measured daily survival rate of 72 nests of Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) during 2012 and 2013 on South Island and Sand Island on the central coast of South Carolina. At both study areas, nest sites were located at slightly higher elevations (i.e., small platforms of sand) relative to randomly selected nearby unused sites, and nests at each study area also appeared to be situated to enhance crypsis and/or vigilance. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests ranged from 0.969 to 0.988 among study sites and years, and the probability of nest survival ranged from 0.405 to 0.764. Flooding and predation were the most common causes of nest failure at both sites. At South Island, DSR was most strongly related to maximum tide height, which suggests that flooding and overwash may be common causes of nest loss for Wilson's Plovers at these study sites. The difference in model results between the 2 nearby study sites may be partially due to more-frequent flooding at Sand Island because of some underlying yet unmeasured physiographic feature. Remaining data gaps for the species include regional assessments of nest and chick survival and habitat requirements during chick rearing.

  17. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  18. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  19. Survival after Radiofrequency Ablation in 122 Patients with Inoperable Colorectal Lung Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillams, Alice, E-mail: alliesorting@gmail.com [The London Clinic, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Khan, Zahid [Countess of Chester Hospital (United Kingdom); Osborn, Peter [Queen Alexandra Hospital (United Kingdom); Lees, William [University College London Medical School (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To analyze the factors associated with favorable survival in patients with inoperable colorectal lung metastases treated with percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 398 metastases were ablated in 122 patients (87 male, median age 68 years, range 29-90 years) at 256 procedures. Percutaneous CT-guided cool-tip radiofrequency ablation was performed under sedation/general anesthesia. Maximum tumor size, number of tumors ablated, number of procedures, concurrent/prior liver ablation, previous liver or lung resection, systemic chemotherapy, disease-free interval from primary resection to lung metastasis, and survival from first ablation were recorded prospectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed, and factors were compared by log rank test. Results. The initial number of metastases ablated was 2.3 (range 1-8); the total number was 3.3 (range 1-15). The maximum tumor diameter was 1.7 (range 0.5-4) cm, and the number of procedures was 2 (range 1-10). The major complication rate was 3.9 %. Overall median and 3-year survival rate were 41 months and 57 %. Survival was better in patients with smaller tumors-a median of 51 months, with 3-year survival of 64 % for tumors 2 cm or smaller versus 31 months and 44 % for tumors 2.1-4 cm (p = 0.08). The number of metastases ablated and whether the tumors were unilateral or bilateral did not affect survival. The presence of treated liver metastases, systemic chemotherapy, or prior lung resection did not affect survival. Conclusion. Three-year survival of 57 % in patients with inoperable colorectal lung metastases is better than would be expected with chemotherapy alone. Patients with inoperable but small-volume colorectal lung metastases should be referred for ablation.

  20. Investigation of Prognostic Factors and Survival without Recurrence in Patients with Breast Cancer

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    Ahmad Abdollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the major consequences of breast cancer is the recurrence of the disease. The objective of present study was to estimate the 7-year survival without recurrence as well as the effective prognostic factors in recurrence. Materials and Methods: This historical cohort survival analysis was conducted on 1329 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in Motahari Breast Clinic, Shiraz, Iran between 2004 and 2011. We estimated the rate of survival without recurrence through the Kaplan–Meier method and the difference between the survival curves was investigated using the log-rank test. Furthermore, Cox regression model was used to model the effective factors in local recurrence as well as metastasis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.8 ± 11.4 years. Estrogen receptor positive, progesterone receptor positive, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive were observed in 70.6%, 66.6%, and 34.4% of the cases, respectively. The mean of the follow-up period was 3.7 ± 1.8 years in all patients. The results of the Kaplan–Meier method revealed 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year rate of survival without recurrence as 96.4%, 78.4%, 66.3%, and 54.8%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between survival without recurrence and histology grade (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66, P = 0.009, neural invasion (HR = 1.74, P = 0.006, and progesterone receptors (HR = 0.69, P = 0.031. Conclusion: In this study, the rate of survival without recurrence in breast cancer was 54.8%. Among factors, histology grade and neural involvement at the time of diagnosis increased the chance of recurrence and progesterone receptors caused a longer interval between diagnosis and recurrence.

  1. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoglu, Haldun Onuralp; Uzun, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4%) survived. Ten (66.6%) of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2%) of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100%) and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%). Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%). The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  2. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials and Methods: 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Results: Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4% survived. Ten (66.6% of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2% of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100% and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%. Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%. The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  3. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Dadaci; Bilsev Ince; Zeynep Altuntas; Ozan Bitik; Haldun Onuralp Kamburoglu; Hakan Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials a...

  4. Retrospective analysis of survival rates and marginal bone loss on short implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, Florian G; Sagheb, Keyvan; Baumgardt, Katharina; Kämmerer, Peer W

    2012-09-01

    Short implants have become an interesting alternative to bone augmentation in dental implantology. Design of shorter implants and longer surveillance times are a current research issue. The goal of this study was to show the survival rates of short implants below 9 mm in the partly edentulous mandibular premolar and molar regions with fixed prosthetics. Marginal vertical and 2D bone loss was evaluated additionally. Different implant designs are orientationally evaluated. A total of 247 dental implants with fixed prosthetics (crowns and bridges) in the premolar and molar region of the mandible were evaluated; 47 implants were 9 mm or shorter. Patient data were evaluated to acquire implant survival rates, implant diameter, gender and age. Panoramic X-rays were analysed for marginal bone loss. Average surveillance time was 1327 days. Cumulative survival rate (CSR) of short implants was 98% (1 implants lost) compared to 94% in the longer implants group without significance. Thirty-five of the short implants were Astratech (0 losses) and 12 were Camlog Screw Line Promote Plus (1 loss). Early vertical and two-dimensional marginal bone loss was not significantly different in short and regular length implant group with an average of 0.6 mm and 0.7 mm(2) in short implants over the observation period. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that short implants with a length of 9 mm or less have equal survival rates compared with longer implants over the observation period of 1-3 years. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

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    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  6. Prevalence of sinus floor elevation procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Ozçakır Tomruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sinus-lifting procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla. This retrospective chart review examined consecutive patients with tooth/teeth loss in the posterior maxilla between 2008 and 2012 treated with sinus lift, when needed, and implant insertion. Demographic variables, health status, residual alveolar bone height, augmentation types, the implant position, diameter and height, and implant failure, prosthesis types, and the marginal bone loss were recorded. The study included 302 patients at a mean age of 5.2 years, who received a total of 609 dental implants. A total of 380 (62.3% implants were inserted in native areas, 203 (33.3% ones in external sinus-lifted areas and 26 (4.4% ones in internal lifted areas. The survival rate in native or internal lifted areas were 100% and 95.6% in external sinus lifted ones (10 implant failures/203 implants. Almost half of the implants were examined radiologically with a mean duration of 30 months and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.64 ± 1.2 mm. The results showed that the survival rates of native bone and the internal sinus lifting were slightly higher than that of external sinus lifting. Implants placed with sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants in native bone.

  7. Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Gates, H. River; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bêty, Joël; Boldenow, Megan L.; English, Willow B.; Franks, Samantha E.; Koloski, Laura; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lank, David B.; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; McKinnon, Laura; Nol, Erica; Rausch, Jennie; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Ward, David H.; Woodard, Paul F.; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2018-01-01

    Many Arctic shorebird populations are declining, and quantifying adult survival and the effects of anthropogenic factors is a crucial step toward a better understanding of population dynamics. We used a recently developed, spatially explicit Cormack–Jolly–Seber model in a Bayesian framework to obtain broad-scale estimates of true annual survival rates for 6 species of shorebirds at 9 breeding sites across the North American Arctic in 2010–2014. We tested for effects of environmental and ecological variables, study site, nest fate, and sex on annual survival rates of each species in the spatially explicit framework, which allowed us to distinguish between effects of variables on site fidelity versus true survival. Our spatially explicit analysis produced estimates of true survival rates that were substantially higher than previously published estimates of apparent survival for most species, ranging from S = 0.72 to 0.98 across 5 species. However, survival was lower for the arcticolasubspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola; S = 0.54), our only study taxon that migrates through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Like other species that use that flyway, arcticola Dunlin could be experiencing unsustainably low survival rates as a result of loss of migratory stopover habitat. Survival rates of our study species were not affected by timing of snowmelt or summer temperature, and only 2 species showed minor variation among study sites. Furthermore, although previous reproductive success, predator abundance, and the availability of alternative prey each affected survival of one species, no factors broadly affected survival across species. Overall, our findings of few effects of environmental or ecological variables suggest that annual survival rates of adult shorebirds are generally robust to conditions at Arctic breeding sites. Instead, conditions at migratory stopovers or overwintering sites might be driving adult survival rates and should be the

  8. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Black People: Impact of Ethnicity on Survival and Genetic Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suella Martino

    Full Text Available Black people are at increased risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP. Whether clinical presentation of TTP in Black patients has specific features is unknown. We assessed here differences in TTP presentation and outcome between Black and White patients. Clinical presentation was comparable between both ethnic groups. However, prognosis differed with a lower death rate in Black patients than in White patients (2.7% versus 11.6%, respectively, P = .04. Ethnicity, increasing age and neurologic involvement were retained as risk factors for death in a multivariable model (P < .05 all. Sixty-day overall survival estimated by the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with the Log-Rank test confirmed that Black patients had a better survival than White patients (P = .03. Salvage therapies were similarly performed between both groups, suggesting that disease severity was comparable. The comparison of HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*03 allele frequencies between Black patients and healthy Black individuals revealed no significant difference. However, the protective allele against TTP, HLA-DRB1*04, was dramatically decreased in Black individuals in comparison with White individuals. Black people with TTP may have a better survival than White patients despite a comparable disease severity. A low natural frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in Black ethnicity may account for the greater risk of TTP in this population.

  9. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  10. Survival rate of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer without early postoperative external radiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, H.B.; Lerch, H.; Schober, O.

    1996-01-01

    Results of survival rates in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and comparison with a review of literature are given. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid (354 female, 110 male, range: 6 to 84 years, median: 46.8 years; 275 patients with papillary and 190 with follicular cancer) were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with ablative doses of radioiodine after thyroidectomy including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy in 27 patients. All patients passed an individual systematic follow-up according to risk: 'Low risk' pT≤3NxM0 vs. 'high risk' pT4 and/or M1. Early postoperative radiation was not included even in patients with local invasion (pT4). The corrected 5- and 10-year survival rates for papillary cancer are 0.91 and 0.91, for follicular cancer 0.94 resp. 0.78 (p=0.55), age (≤40 years 0.96 and 0.96, >40 years 0.90 and 0.80; p=0.008), gender (female 0.93 and 0.92, male 0.90 and 0.70; p=0.06) and invasion/distant metastases (pT4 and/or M1 0.83 and 0.71, other 0.97 and 0.97; p=0.0001). A systematic follow-up with an individually adapted standardized scheme is associated with high survival rates in patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Early diagnosis of recurrences, locoregional lymph node and distant metastases with early surgical treatment including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy and radioiodine therapy yield high survival even without external radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  11. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  13. Ovulation rate and early embryonic survival rate in female rabbits of a synthetic line and a local Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Belabbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A higher litter size at birth has been reported in female rabbits from a Synthetic line than in those of the Local Algerian population. The aim of this work was to analyse whether this difference in litter size was due to a higher ovulation rate and/or embryonic survival rate in Synthetic line than in Local Algerian population. In total, 24 multiparous female rabbits from Synthetic line and 23 from Local population were used in this experiment. Litter size at birth was recorded up to the first 3 parities. Litter size was 20% higher in Synthetic line than Local population. At their 4th gestation, the females were euthanized at 72 h post coitum. Synthetic line females had 50% more ova and embryos than those of Local population (+4.42 ova and +3.92 embryos, respectively. Synthetic line displayed a lower percentage of normal embryos and a larger number of unfertilized oocytes than Local population (–2.81% and +0.64 oocytes, respectively, but differences were not relevant. Synthetic line showed a lesser embryonic stage of development at 72 h post coitum, showing a higher percentage of early morulae (31.50 vs. 8.50% and a lower percentage of compact morulae (51.45 vs. 78.65% than Local population. No relevant difference was found for early embryonic survival rate between Synthetic line and Local population. In conclusion, the difference in litter size was mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in the Synthetic line, allowing more embryos to develop in this line.

  14. The impact of lymph vascular space invasion on recurrence and survival in patients with early stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzi, V; Cormio, G; Lorusso, M; Latorre, D; Falagario, M; Demitri, P; Scardigno, D; Selvaggi, L E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine impact of lymph vascular space involvement (LVSI) on recurrence and survival in early stage of endometrial cancer. From 1991 through 2010, all endometrial cancer patients at University Hospital of Bari, Italy were identified. The Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meyer methods were used for time-to-event analysis to evaluate the effects of on lymph vascular space involvement recurrence rate and survival time. Of the 560 endometrial cancer patients, 525 underwent primary surgery. Of those, 399 had early stage disease. Three hundred and forty women were not found to have LVSI, whereas 59 were found to have lymph vascular space involvement. Forty-nine (12%) patients developed a recurrence and 20 of them showed lymph vascular space involvement. The statistical analysis demonstrated that LVSI was strongly associated with a poor survival (P < 0.0001). Lymph vascular space involvement is associated with a high risk of recurrence and poor overall survival in early stage of endometrial cancer; therefore, the clinical decision to decide whether or not a patient with early stage endometrial cancer should receive adjuvant therapy should be included the evaluation of lymph vascular space involvement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Adjuvant brachytherapy removes survival disadvantage of local disease extension in stage IIIC endometrial cancer: a SEER registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Peter J; Jani, Ashesh B; Horowitz, Ira R; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2008-01-01

    To assess the role of radiotherapy (RT) in women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The 17-registry Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched for patients with lymph node-positive non-Stage IV epithelial endometrial cancer diagnosed and treated between 1988 and 1998. Two subgroups were identified: those with organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and those with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. RT was coded as external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). Observed survival (OS) was reported with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up; the survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. The therapy data revealed 611 women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer during this period. Of these women, 51% were treated with adjuvant EBRT, 21% with EBRT and BT, and 28% with no additional RT (NAT). Of the 611 patients, 293 had organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and 318 patients had Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. The 5-year OS rate for all patients was 40% with NAT, 56% after EBRT, and 64% after EBRT/BT. Adjuvant RT improved survival compared with NAT (p primary tumor was present, the addition of BT to EBRT was even more beneficial.

  16. Hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 decreased survival rate of canine lymphoma cells under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroki; Lai, Yu-Chang; Tateno, Morihiro; Setoguchi, Asuka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Nakaichi, Munekazu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Miura, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that hypoxic stimulation enhances growth potentials of canine lymphoma cells by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and that the hypoxia-activated prodrug (TH-302) inhibits growth potentials in the cells. We investigated how hypoxic culture affects the growth rate, chemoresistance, and invasiveness of canine lymphoma cells and doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant lymphoma cells, and influences of TH-302 on survival rate of the cells under hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrated that hypoxic culture upregulated the expression of HIF-1α and its target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and survivin, and enhanced the growth rate, DOX resistance, and invasiveness of the cells. Additionally, TH-302 decreased the survival rate of the cells under hypoxic condition. Our studies suggest that hypoxic stimulation may advance the tumorigenicity of canine lymphoma cells, favoring malignant transformation. Therefore, the data presented may contribute to the development of TH-302-based hypoxia-targeting therapies for canine lymphoma.

  17. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  18. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  19. Risk factors affecting survival in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, L; Cardo, M L; Martínez-Dolz, L; García-Palomar, C; Rueda, J; Zorio, E; Arnau, M A; Osa, A; Palencia, M

    2005-11-01

    Certain cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) patients. The sum of various risk factors may have a large cumulative negative effect, leading to a substantially worse prognosis and the need to consider whether HT is contraindicated. The objective of this study was to determine whether the risk factors usually available prior to HT result in an excess mortality in our setting that contraindicates transplantation. Consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from November 1987 to January 2004 were included. Heart-lung transplants, retransplants, and pediatric transplants were excluded. Of the 384 patients, 89% were men. Mean age was 52 years (range, 12 to 67). Underlying disease included ischemic heart disease (52%), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (36%), valvular disease (8%), and other (4%). Variables considered risk factors were obesity (BMI >25), dyslipidemia, hypertension, prior thoracic surgery, diabetes, and history of ischemic heart disease. Survival curves by number of risk factors using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank for comparison of curves. Overall patient survival at 1, 5, 10, and 13 years was 76%, 68%, 54%, and 47%, respectively. Survival at 10 years, if fewer than two risk factors were present, was 69%; 59% if two or three factors were present; and 37% if more than three associated risk factors were present (P = .04). The presence of certain risk factors in patients undergoing HT resulted in lower survival rates. The combination of various risk factors clearly worsened outcomes. However, we do not believe this should be an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  20. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  1. Overall Survival Benefit From Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Organ-Confined, Margin-Positive Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, Robert O.; Hafer, Russell; Cox, Craig; McClure, Stephanie E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radical prostatectomy for invasive prostate cancer is associated with positive margin rates in 10% to 50% of resected specimens. Postoperative radiation therapy may benefit patients who have organ-confined prostate cancer with positive margins. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis to examine whether adjunctive radiation therapy enhanced long-term survival for prostate cancer patients who underwent prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer but with positive margins. We used the Hoag Cancer Center database to identify patients diagnosed with invasive prostate cancer. Relative and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Among 1,474 patients diagnosed with localized invasive prostate cancer during the years 1990 to 2006 and undergoing prostatectomy, 113 (7.7%) were identified who had positive margins and did not have local extension of disease, positive lymph nodes, or distant metastases. A total of 17 patients received adjunctive radiation therapy (Group A), whereas 96 did not (Group B; 3 received hormonal therapy). Both groups had a median age of 64 years and median follow-up of 7.5 years. In Group A, no patients have died as of last follow-up, but in Group B, 18 have died. Estimated 10-year and 15-year overall survival rates were both 100% for Group A compared with 85% and 57% respectively for Group B (p 2 = 0.050, log rank). Relative 10- and 15 year survival rates were both 100% for Group A compared with 100% and 79% respectively for Group B. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis suggests that prostate cancer patients with localized disease but positive margins do derive a survival benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy.

  2. Stadium IB - IIA cervical cancer patient’s survival rate after receiving definitive radiation and radical operation therapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy along with analysis of factors affecting the patient’s survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslim, S. K.; Purwoto, G.; Widyahening, I. S.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and overall survival rates of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IB-IIA) patients who receive definitive radiation therapy and those who are prescribed adjuvant postoperative radiation and to conduct a factors analysis of the variables that affect the overall survival rates in both groups of therapy. The medical records of 85 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stages IB-IIA who were treated at the Department of Radiotherapy of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were reviewed and analyzed to determine their overall survival and the factors that affected it between a definitive radiation group and an adjuvant postoperative radiation group. There were 25 patients in the definitive radiation and 60 patients in the adjuvant radiation group. The overall survival rates in the adjuvant radiation group at years one, two, and three were 96.7%, 95%, and 93.3%, respectively. Negative lymph node metastasis had an average association with overall survival (p 12 g/dl was a factor with an average association with the overall survival (p cervical cancer FIGO stage IB-IIA patients who received definitive radiation or adjuvant postoperative radiation. Negative lymph node metastasis had an effect on the overall survival rate in the adjuvant postoperative radiation group, while a preradiation Hb level >12 g/dl tended to affect the overall survival in the definitive radiation group patients.

  3. High survival rates and associated factors among ebola virus disease patients hospitalized at donka national hospital, conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chughtai, Morad; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Béavogui, Kézély; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Malik, Ahmed A

    2015-02-01

    Anecdotal reports suggesting that survival rates among hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in Guinea are higher than the 29.2% rate observed in the current epidemic in West Africa. Survival after symptom onset was determined using Kaplan Meier survival methods among patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease treated in Conakry, Guinea from March 25, 2014, to August 5, 2014. We analyzed the relationship between survival and patient factors, including demographics and clinical features. Of the 70 patients analyzed [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 34 ± 14.1; 44 were men], 42 were discharged alive with a survival rate among hospitalized patients of 60% (95% confidence interval, 41.5-78.5%). The survival rate was 28 (71.8%) among 39 patients under 34 years of age, and 14 (46.7%) among 30 patients aged 35 years or greater (p = 0.034). The rates of myalgia (3 of 42 versus 7 of 28, p = 0.036) and hiccups (1 of 42 versus 5 of 28, p = 0.023) were significantly lower among patients who survived. Our results provide insights into a cohort of hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in whom survival is prominently higher than seen in other cohorts of hospitalized patients.

  4. Survival from skin cancer and its associated factors in Kurdistan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Galavizh; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Amani, Saeid; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    We explored survival of skin cancer and its determinants in Kurdistan province of Iran. In a retrospective cohort design, we identified all registered skin cancer patients in Kurdistan Cancer Registry from year 2000 to 2009. Information on time and cause of death were obtained from Registrar's office and information on type, stage and anatomic locations were extracted from patients' hospital records. Additional demographic information was collected via a telephone interview. We calculated the 3 and 5 years survival. Survival experiences in different groups were compared using log rank test. Cox proportional hazard model was built and hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of a total of 1353, contact information for 667 patients were available, all of which were followed up. 472 telephone interviews were conducted. Mean follow-up time was 34 months. We identified 78 deaths in this group of patients and 44 of them were because of skin cancer. After controlling for confounding, tumour type, anatomical location, and diseases stage remained significantly associated with survival. Hazard ratios for death because of squamous cell carcinoma was 74.5 (95%CI: 4.8-1146) and for melanoma was 24.4 (95%CI: 1.3-485) compared with basal cell carcinomas. Hazard ratio for tumours in stage 4 was 16.7 (95%CI: 1.8-156.6) and for stage 3 was 16.8 (95%CI: 1.07-260) compared with stage 1 and 2. Tumour stage is independently associated with survival. Relatively low survival rates suggest delayed diagnosis. Increasing public awareness through media about the warning signs of skin cancers could increase the chance of survival in these patients.

  5. Parathyroid carcinoma survival: improvements in the era of intact parathyroid hormone monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve R. Martinez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH assay is a critical test in the diagnosis and management of PTH-mediated hypercalcemia, including parathyroid carcinoma (PCa. We hypothesized that the survival of patients diagnosed with PCa has improved since adoption of the iPTH assay into clinical practice. We identified all confirmed cases of PCa within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database from 1973 to 2006. Patients were categorized into two eras based upon introduction of the iPTH assay: 1973 to 1997 (era I and 1997 to 2006 (era II, when the iPTH assay was in standard use. We estimated overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences among survival curves assessed via log rank. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models compared the survival rates between treatment eras while controlling for patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, tumor size, nodal status, extent of disease, and type of surgery. Multivariate models included patients undergoing potentially curative surgery and excluded those with dis- tant metastases. Risks of overall and disease-specific mortality were reported as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Study criteria were met by 370 patients. Median survival was 15.6 years. Five-year rates of OS and DSS were 78% and 88% for era I and 82% and 96% for era II. On multivariate analysis, age, black race, and unknown extent of disease predicted an increased risk of death from any cause. Treatment era did not predict OS. No factor predicted PCa-specific mortality. In multivariate analysis, neither OS nor DSS have improved in the current era that utilizes iPTH for the detection and management of PCa.

  6. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  7. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.L.; Xue, J.M.; Lai, J.N.; Wang, J.Y.; Zhang, W.M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.; He, F.; Gu, H.Y.; Wang, Y.G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper

  8. The effect of initial density and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate on classical biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yanni; Tang Sanyi

    2008-01-01

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interaction of a parasitoid and its host. The host-parasitoid systems have identified several important and general factors affecting the long-term dynamics of interacting populations. However, much less is known about how the initial densities of host-parasitoid populations affect the biological control as well as the stability of host-parasitoid systems. To do this, the classical Nicholson-Bailey model with host self-regulation and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate is used to uncover the effect of initial densities on the successful biological control. The results indicate that the simplest Nicholson-Bailey model has various coexistence with a wide range of parameters, including boundary attractors where the parasitoid population is absent and interior attractors where host-parasitoid coexists. The final stable states of host-parasitoid populations depend on their initial densities as well as their ratios, and those results are confirmed by basins of attraction of initial densities. The results also indicate that the parasitoid intergenerational survival rate increases the stability of the host-parasitoid systems. Therefore, the present research can help us to further understand the dynamical behavior of host-parasitoid interactions, to improve the classical biological control and to make management decisions

  9. [Survival rate of IPS-Empress 2 all-ceramic crowns and bridges: three year's results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Doris; Gerds, Thomas; Strub, Jörg R

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to calculate the survival rate of IPS-Empress2 crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPD) over a three-year period. In 43 patients 27 IPS-Empress2 crowns and 31 fixed partial dentures were adhesively luted. Crowns were placed on premolars and molars and FPDs were inserted in the anterior and premolar area. Abutments were prepared with a circular 1.2 mm wide shoulder. The clinical follow-up examination took place after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. After a mean of 38 months, the survival rate (Kaplan-Meier) of all-ceramic crowns was 100% and of the three unit FDP 72.4%. There were a total of six complete failures which occurred only with the three-unit IPS-Empress2 FPDs. Three FPDs exhibited fractures of the framework for which the manufacturer's instructions of connector-dimension was not satisfied, and one FPD exhibited an irreparable incomplete veneer fracture. Further two FPDs showed biological failures. The accuracy of fit and esthetics were clinically satisfactory. The three-year results showed the IPS-Empress2-ceramic as an adequate all-ceramic material for single crowns. The use for FPD needs further critical consideration.

  10. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (pbacteria was found in the samples stored at 6°C (D-10 value = 243.9 h), whereas the highest reduction in the number of the bacteria was observed in the samples stored at 15°C (D-10 value = 87.0 h). The number of L. monocytogenes was correlated with the pH value of the samples (pyogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  11. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, J.N. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, W.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Miao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, S. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, W.J. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, F. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, H.Y. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: ygwang@pku.edu.cn

    2006-04-15

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10{sup 9}-1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  12. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chou, Pesus; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Chien, Sou-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional hazard model, patients with NPC treated by high-volume physicians (caseload ≥ 35) had better survival rates (p = 0.001) after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p < 0.001). Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate

  13. Effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Xinze; Yan Yongtang; Cheng Tianmin; Li Yuan; Wei Shuqing

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined radiation-burn injury on survival rate of allogeneic skin grafts and immune reaction were studied in rats with combined injury of 3-8 Gy 60 Co γ-ray irradiation plus 15% total body surface area full thickness burn induced by exposure to a 5 kw bromotungsten lamp. The allogeneic skin was transplanted 24 hours after injury. It was found that all the skin grafts failed to survive in 10 days and the immune reaction significantly increased in the early stage of burn injury. But the immune reaction was obviously suppressed by the combined radiation-burn injury. The survival rates of skin grafts were 20% and 30% in the combined injury of burn plus 3 and 4 Gy irradiation respectively. When the radiation doses increased to 5,6 and 8 Gy, the survival rates elevated to 69%, 88% and 100% respectively (in the group of 8 Gy, bone marrow transplantation was conducted before receiving skin graft). At day 30 post-transplantation the survival rates were still 36%, 42% and 100% respectively. Compared with burn group, there was a significant difference in survival rate when the radiation doses were higher than 5 Gy. These results indicate that the survival rate of the allogeneic skin graft increases concurrently with the increase in radiation dose and decreases with the elapse of the post-transplantation time

  14. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Retrospective success and survival rates of dental implants placed after a ridge preservation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Peter; Darby, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Ridge preservation is any procedure that takes place at the time of, or shortly after an extraction, to minimise resorption of the ridge and maximise bone formation within the socket. The aim of this project is to investigate the outcome of implant treatment following ridge preservation and compare it to an ungrafted implant control group. Following ethics approval, an electronic and manual search of patient records was conducted, and appropriate cases of implant placement following a ridge preservation procedure were identified. Forty-two patients with 51 implants at ridge-preserved sites were examined by one author (PA) with the following parameters assessed at each implant: pocket probing depth, bleeding on probing, presence/absence of plaque and radiographic bone loss. Clinical and radiographic findings were compared to an ungrafted implant control group and analysed by years in function. There was a 100% survival rate of implants in ridge-preserved sites. In the majority of cases, ridge preservation was performed in the anterior maxilla with a flap raised and the use of deproteinised bovine bone mineral and collagen membrane materials. The mean time in function was 31 (±24) months with a range of 2-102 months. Differences in the mean PPD, BOP, plaque index and radiographic bone loss were not statistically significant between implants at ridge-preserved or ungrafted sites. The overall success rate was around 58% for ungrafted implants and around 51% for implants in ridge-preserved sites. However, this difference was not statistically significant. In this retrospective study, implant placement at ridge-preserved sites was a predictable procedure that led to very high survival rates and similar success rates to implant placement at ungrafted sites. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Six-month bracket failure rate with a flowable composite: A split-mouth randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja Krishnan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The use of flowable composites as an orthodontic bonding adhesive merits great attention because of their adequate bond strength, ease of clinical handling and reduced number of steps in bonding. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this Randomized Controlled Trial was to comparatively evaluate over a 6-month period the bond failure rate of a flowable composite (Heliosit Orthodontic, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan and a conventional orthodontic bonding adhesive (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek. METHODS: 53 consecutive patients (23 males and 30 females who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. A total of 891 brackets were analyzed, where 444 brackets were bonded using Heliosit Orthodontic and 447 brackets were bonded using Transbond XT. The survival rates of brackets were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Bracket survival distributions for bonding adhesives, tooth location and dental arch were compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: The failure rates of the Transbond XT and the Heliosit Orthodontic groups were 8.1% and 6% respectively. No significant differences in the survival rates were observed between them (p= 0.242. There was no statistically significant difference in the bond failure rates when the clinical performance of the maxillary versus the mandibular arches and the anterior versus the posterior segments were compared. CONCLUSIONS: Both systems had clinically acceptable bond failure rates and are adequate for orthodontic bonding needs.

  17. Sparing Sphincters and Laparoscopic Resection Improve Survival by Optimizing the Circumferential Resection Margin in Rectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Metin; Bayraktar, Adem; Sivirikoz, Emre; Yegen, Gülcin; Karip, Bora; Saglam, Esra; Bulut, Mehmet Türker; Balik, Emre

    2016-02-01

    The goal of rectal cancer treatment is to minimize the local recurrence rate and extend the disease-free survival period and survival. For this aim, obtainment of negative circumferential radial margin (CRM) plays an important role. This study evaluated predictive factors for positive CRM status and its effect on patient survival in mid- and distal rectal tumors.Patients who underwent curative resection for rectal cancer were included. The main factors were demographic data, tumor location, surgical technique, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor diameter, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, mesorectal integrity, CRM, the rate of local recurrence, distant metastasis, and overall and disease-free survival. Statistical analyses were performed by using the Chi-squared test, Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test and the Mantel-Cox log-rank sum test.A total of 420 patients were included, 232 (55%) of whom were male. We observed no significant differences in patient characteristics or surgical treatment between the patients who had positive CRM and who had negative CRM, but a higher positive CRM rate was observed in patients undergone abdominoperineal resection (APR) (P CRM status. Logistic regression analysis revealed that APR (P CRM status. Moreover, positive CRM was associated with decreased 5-year overall and disease-free survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004, respectively).This large single-institution series demonstrated that APR and open resection were independent predictive factors for positive CRM status in rectal cancer. Positive CRM independently decreased the 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates.

  18. Impact of retropharyngeal adenopathy on distant control and survival in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Spector, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Mohannad; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Tao, Yebin; Schipper, Matthew; Worden, Francis; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Retropharyngeal adenopathy (RPA) is poor prognostic factor in head and neck (HN) cancer. However, the prognostic significance of RPA in Human Papillomavirus-related (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is unknown. Patients and methods: 185 patients with HPV + OPC were assessed. Pre-therapy images reviewed by a HN radiologist to determine presence of RPA. Doses to the RPAs were determined from treatment plans. Outcomes analyzed using Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank tests, and correlations determined using Spearman’s rank analyses. Results: 29 (16%) of the HPV + patients had RPA. At median follow-up 49 months, 5-year overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and distant failure-free survival (DFFS) were 57% vs. 81% (P = 0.02), 63% vs 80% (P = 0.015) and 70% vs 91% (P = 0.002) for patients with/without RPA, respectively. No differences observed in local/ regional control rates, exceeding 90% in both groups, and No RPA recurrences were observed. In multivariable analysis, stages T4 or N3, and RPA, were independently, statistically significantly associated with both OS and distant failure, while N2c, age, disease site, and smoking status, were not. Conclusion: RPA in HPV + OPC is an independent prognostic factor for distant failure, translating into worse OS. Patients with RPA may not be suitable candidates for trials of systemic treatment de-escalation

  19. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  20. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  1. A survival analysis of GBM patients in the West of Scotland pre- and post-introduction of the Stupp regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Mario; Martin, Sean; Owusu-Agyemang, Kevin; Nowicki, Stefan; Clark, Brian; Mackinnon, Mairi; Stewart, Willie; Paul, James; St George, Jerome

    2014-06-01

    It is now accepted that the concomitant administration of temozolomide with radiotherapy (Stupp regime), in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), significantly improves survival and this practice has been adopted locally since 2004. However, survival outcomes in cancer can vary in different population groups, and outcomes can be affected by a number of local factors including socioeconomic status. In the West of Scotland, we have one of the worse socioeconomic status and overall health record for a western European country. With the ongoing reorganisation and rationalisation in the National Health Service, the addition of prolonged courses of chemotherapy to patients' management significantly adds to the financial burden of a cash stripped NHS. A survival analysis in patients with GBM was therefore performed, comparing outcomes of pre- and post-introduction of the Stupp regime, to justify the current practice. Prospectively collected clinical data were analysed in 105 consecutive patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy (Stupp regime) following surgical treatment of GBM between December 2004 and February 2009. This was compared to those of 106 consecutive GBM patients who had radical radiotherapy (pre-Stupp regime) post-surgery between January 2001 and February 2006. The median overall survival for the post-Stupp cohort was 15.3 months (range, 2.83-50.5 months), with 1-year and 2-year overall survival rates of 65.7% and 19%, respectively. This was in comparison with the median overall pre-Stupp survival of 10.7 months, with 1-year and 2-year survival rates of 42.6% and 12%, respectively (log-rank test, p GBM patients in the West of Scotland.

  2. Survival in Malnourished Older Patients Receiving Post-Discharge Nutritional Support; Long-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelemaat, F; van Keeken, S; Langius, J A E; de van der Schueren, M A E; Thijs, A; Bosmans, J E

    2017-01-01

    Previous analyses have shown that a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention had positive effects on body weight, lean body mass, functional limitations and fall incidents in malnourished older patients. However, the impact of this intervention on survival has not yet been studied. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to examine the effect of a post-discharge individualized nutritional intervention on survival in malnourished older patients. Malnourished older patients, aged ≥ 60 years, were randomized during hospitalization to a three-months post-discharge nutritional intervention group (protein and energy enriched diet, oral nutritional supplements, vitamin D3/calcium supplement and telephone counseling by a dietitian) or to a usual care regimen (control group). Survival data were collected 4 years after enrollment. Survival analyses were performed using intention-to-treat analysis by Log-rank tests and Cox regression adjusted for confounders. The study population consisted of 94 men (45%) and 116 women with a mean age of 74.5 (SD 9.5) years. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics. Survival data was available in 208 out of 210 patients. After 1 and 4 years of follow-up, survival rates were respectively 66% and 29% in the intervention group (n=104) and 73% and 30% in the control group (n=104). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between the two groups 1 year (HR= 0.933, 95% CI=0.675-1.289) and 4 years after enrollment (HR=0.928, 95% CI=0.671-1.283). The current study failed to show an effect of a three-months post-discharge multi-component nutritional intervention in malnourished older patients on long-term survival, despite the positive effects on short-term outcome such as functional limitations and falls.

  3. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  4. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  5. Prognostic factors and survival in primary malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord: a population-based analysis from 1973 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hadie; Avendaño, Javier; Raza, Shaan M; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Jallo, George I; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2012-05-20

    Observational cross-sectional study. Using data from the population-based cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, we analyzed demographic features, tumor and treatment characteristics, as well as survival rates in patients with primary malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord (PMASC). PMASC is a rare neoplasm and is considered to carry the same dismal outcome as their cerebral counterparts. Our current knowledge is incomplete, and understanding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and optimal treatment still poses challenges. The SEER data from 1973 to 2007 were reviewed for pathologically confirmed primary anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and glioblastomas of the spinal cord (C72.0). We compared the clinical features and outcomes of the cohort in uni- and multivariate fashion. Survival was calculated and compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank analysis. Our search criteria retrieved 135 patients diagnosed with PMASC. The median survival for PMASC was 13 months with 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates of 51.8%, 32.2%, and 18.7%. Patient diagnosed with AA had a median survival time of 17 months versus 10 months in patients diagnosed with glioblastomas. Adult patients observed markedly prolonged survival compared with the pediatric group, with a 16-month versus 9-month median survival, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed age at diagnosis, pediatric and adult age groups, sex, tumor histology, and extent of resection as significant predictors of survival. Interestingly, outcomes did not significantly change throughout the last decades or by receiving radiotherapy. Outcome for patients diagnosed with PMASC remains poor and presents an ongoing challenge for professionals in the field of neurospinal medicine and surgery. In our analyses of AA, adult patients, males, and patients undergoing radical resections were associated with increased survival. However, incidence of these lesions is low; hence, building strong

  6. Survival rate and prognostic factors of conventional osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand: A series from Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Arpornchayanon, Olarn; Uttamo, Nantawat; Leerapun, Taninnit; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2015-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common and aggressive primary malignant bone tumor occurring in children and adolescents. It is one of the most aggressive human cancers and the most common cause of cancer-associated limb loss. As treatment in Thailand has produced a lower survival rate than in developed countries; therefore, this study identified survival rate and the poor prognostic factors of osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand. The retrospective cases of osteosarcoma, diagnosis between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2013, were evaluated. Five and ten year overall survival rates were analyzed using time-to-event analysis. Potential prognostic factors were identified by multivariate regression analysis. There were 208 newly diagnosed osteosarcomas during that period, and 144 cases met the criteria for analysis. The majority of the osteosarcoma cases (78.5%) were aged 0-24 years. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 37.9% and 33.6%, respectively. Presence of metastasis at initial examination, delayed and against treatment co-operation, and axial skeletal location were identified as independent prognostic factors for survival, with hazard ratios of 4.3, 2.5 and 3.8, and 3.1, respectively. This osteosarcoma cohort had a relatively poor overall survival rate. The prognostic factors identified would play a critical role in modifying survival rates of osteosarcoma patients; as rapid disease recognition, a better treatment counselling, as well as improving of chemotherapeutic regimens were found to be important in improving the overall survival rate in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. P-cadherin expression and survival rate in oral squamous cell carcinoma:an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laino Gregorio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P-cadherin (P-cad is a transmembrane molecule involved in the cell-cell adhesion and similar to E-cadherin (E-cad, but less investigated in oncology, especially in in vivo studies. Aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of P-cad expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and to verify whether P-cad can be considered a marker of prognosis in patients with OSCC. Methods In a retrospective study, a cohort of 67 OSCC patients was investigated for P-cad expression and its cellular localization by immunohistochemistry; some respective healthy margins of resection were similarly investigated as standard controls. After grouping for P-cad expression, OSCCs were statistically analyzed for the variables age, gender, histological grading (G, TNM, Staging, and overall survival rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results 37 cases (55.2% of OSCC showed membranous/cytoplasmic positivity for P-cad, whereas 30 (44.8 % were negative. Although with some differences in membranous vs cytoplasmic localization of P-cad in OSCC with different G, no statistical association was found between P-cad expression and any variables considered at baseline. In terms of prognostic significance, P-cad non expression was found to have an independent association with poorer overall survival rate than P-cad expressing group (P = 0.056; moreover, among P-cad +ve patients the best prognosis was for those OSCC with membranous (P Conclusion On the basis of these results, it is possible to suggest P-cad as an early marker of poor prognosis. The abnormal or lack of P-cad expression could constitute an hallmark of aggressive biological behavior in OSCC

  8. Volume of high-risk intratumoral subregions at multi-parametric MR imaging predicts overall survival and complements molecular analysis of glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yi; Li, Ruijiang [Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hokkaido University, Global Station for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido (Japan); Ren, Shangjie [Tianjin University, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin Shi (China); Tha, Khin Khin; Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University, Global Station for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Wu, Jia [Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2017-09-15

    To develop and validate a volume-based, quantitative imaging marker by integrating multi-parametric MR images for predicting glioblastoma survival, and to investigate its relationship and synergy with molecular characteristics. We retrospectively analysed 108 patients with primary glioblastoma. The discovery cohort consisted of 62 patients from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Another 46 patients comprising 30 from TCGA and 16 internally were used for independent validation. Based on integrated analyses of T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (T1-c) and diffusion-weighted MR images, we identified an intratumoral subregion with both high T1-c and low ADC, and accordingly defined a high-risk volume (HRV). We evaluated its prognostic value and biological significance with genomic data. On both discovery and validation cohorts, HRV predicted overall survival (OS) (concordance index: 0.642 and 0.653, P < 0.001 and P = 0.038, respectively). HRV stratified patients within the proneural molecular subtype (log-rank P = 0.040, hazard ratio = 2.787). We observed different OS among patients depending on their MGMT methylation status and HRV (log-rank P = 0.011). Patients with unmethylated MGMT and high HRV had significantly shorter survival (median survival: 9.3 vs. 18.4 months, log-rank P = 0.002). Volume of the high-risk intratumoral subregion identified on multi-parametric MRI predicts glioblastoma survival, and may provide complementary value to genomic information. (orig.)

  9. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  10. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  11. In vitro chemo-sensitivity assay guided chemotherapy is associated with prolonged overall survival in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udelnow, Andrej; Schönfęlder, Manfred; Würl, Peter; Halloul, Zuhir; Meyer, Frank; Lippert, Hans; Mroczkowski, Paweł

    2013-06-01

    The overall survival (OS) of patients suffering From various tumour entities was correlated with the results of in vitro-chemosensitivity assay (CSA) of the in vivo applied drugs. Tumour specimen (n=611) were dissected in 514 patients and incubated for primary tumour cell culture. The histocytological regression assay was performed 5 days after adding chemotherapeutic substances to the cell cultures. n=329 patients undergoing chemotherapy were included in the in vitro/in vivo associations. OS was assessed and in vitro response groups compared using survival analysis. Furthermore Cox-regression analysis was performed on OS including CSA, age, TNM classification and treatment course. The growth rate of the primary was 73-96% depending on tumour entity. The in-vitro response rate varied with histology and drugs (e.g. 8-18% for methotrexate and 33-83% for epirubicine). OS was significantly prolonged for patients treated with in vitro effective drugs compared to empiric therapy (log-rank-test, p=0.0435). Cox-regression revealed that application of in vitro effective drugs, residual tumour and postoperative radiotherapy determined the death risk independently. When patients were treated with drugs effective in our CSA, OS was significantly prolonged compared to empiric therapy. CSA guided chemotherapy should be compared to empiric treatment by a prospective randomized trial.

  12. Everolimus plus exemestane in postmenopausal patients with HR(+) breast cancer: BOLERO-2 final progression-free survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Denise A; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Burris, Howard A; Baselga, José; Gnant, Michael; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Campone, Mario; Pistilli, Barbara; Piccart, Martine; Melichar, Bohuslav; Petrakova, Katarina; Arena, Francis P; Erdkamp, Frans; Harb, Wael A; Feng, Wentao; Cahana, Ayelet; Taran, Tetiana; Lebwohl, David; Rugo, Hope S

    2013-10-01

    Effective treatments for hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)) breast cancer (BC) following relapse/progression on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) therapy are needed. Initial Breast Cancer Trials of OraL EveROlimus-2 (BOLERO-2) trial data demonstrated that everolimus and exemestane significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus exemestane alone in this patient population. BOLERO-2 is a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, international trial comparing everolimus (10 mg/day) plus exemestane (25 mg/day) versus placebo plus exemestane in postmenopausal women with HR(+) advanced BC with recurrence/progression during or after NSAIs. The primary endpoint was PFS by local investigator review, and was confirmed by independent central radiology review. Overall survival, response rate, and clinical benefit rate were secondary endpoints. Final study results with median 18-month follow-up show that median PFS remained significantly longer with everolimus plus exemestane versus placebo plus exemestane [investigator review: 7.8 versus 3.2 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.38-0.54); log-rank P NSAIs. These results further support the use of everolimus plus exemestane in this patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00863655.

  13. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will OM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Olga Maria Will,1,* Nicolai Purcz,2,* Athena Chalaris,3 Carola Heneweer,4,5 Susann Boretius,1 Larissa Purcz,2 Lila Nikkola,6 Nureddin Ashammakhi,6 Holger Kalthoff,7 Claus-Christian Glüer,1 Jörg Wiltfang,2 Yahya Açil,2 Sanjay Tiwari1 1Section Biomedical Imaging, Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, MOIN CC, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, 3Institute of Biochemistry, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 4Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, 5Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 6Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland; 7Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1 no treatment, 2 implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3 implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4 diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal

  14. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of continuous hemofiltration(CHF on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock.Methods Sixteen healthy male dogs were randomly divided into heatshock group(HS group,n=8 and continuous hemofiltration group(CHF group,n=8.Severe heatstroke model was established by applying high temperature to whole body,and then the animals were removed from the heating cabin as soon as they presented manifestations of shock.Dogs of HS group were put into an ordinary environment,while dogs of CHF group received CHF treatment.The core temperature(Tc,mean arterial pressure(MAP,blood gas analysis,serum electrolytes and survival rate of dogs in two groups were observed.Results The time from heat exposure to shock was 107.0±28.5min and 111.4±22.2min in HS group and CHF group respectively(t=-0.354,P=0.729.The Tc in CHF group declined to normal level 15 to 30 minitues after CHF treatment,while the Tc in HS group remained at a level higher than that before heat exposure at 90min after shock.The Tc of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.01.The MAP of both groups was obviously lowered than that before heatstroke.The MAP of CHF group raised gradually 30 min after treatment,while the MAP of HS group rose very slowly,and it was significantly lower than that of CHF group at each time point after 45min(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.All the dogs in both groups manifested hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis when shock appeared.After shock,respiratory alkalosis in HS group gradually became metabolic acidosis,with some animals manifested combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis because of respiratory decompensation,while the blood gas levels in CHF group recovered to normal gradually.The blood gas levels of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.Hypernatremia,hyperchloraemia and hyperpotassaemia were found in all animals of both

  15. Reduced in-hospital survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; Warnier, M J; Bardai, A

    2013-01-01

    ) had comparable survival to ER (75% vs. 78%, OR 0.9 [95% CI: 0.6-1.3]) and to hospital admission (56% vs. 57%, OR 1.0 [0.7-1.4]). However, survival to hospital discharge was significantly lower among OPD patients (21% vs. 33%, OR 0.6 [0.4-0.9]). Multivariate regression analysis among patients who were...... with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have a lower survival rate after OHCA than non-OPD patients. METHODS: We performed a community-based cohort study of 1172 patients with non-traumatic OHCA with ECG-documented VT/VF between 2005 and 2008. We compared survival to emergency room (ER), to hospital admission...... admitted to hospital (OPD: n=100, no OPD: n=561) revealed that OPD was an independent determinant of reduced 30-day survival rate (39% vs. 59%, adjusted OR 0.6 [0.4-1.0, p=0.035]). CONCLUSION: OPD-patients had lower survival rates after OHCA than non-OPD patients. Survival to ER and to hospital admission...

  16. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  17. Survival and growth rates of juvenile salmonids reared in lowland streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golski Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of propagating juvenile trout, Salmo trutta L. in small lowland streams and to evaluate the impact of the environmental conditions in the streams on the juvenile fish. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario and sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta early fry fed under controlled conditions were used to stock third-order lowland streams. During summer, fall, and spring catches, fry were counted, measured, and weighed. The following parameters were calculated using the data collected: fry stocking density (ind. m-2; survival; specific mortality rate (SMR; length range; mean specimen length; body weight; mean body weight; specific growth rate (SGR; body condition (Fulton’s index. The ichthyological studies were accompanied by simultaneous analyses of environmental conditions that were performed monthly, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in spring and fall. No differences were observed in the biological parameters analyzed between sea trout and brown trout. Variability in environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygenation, conductivity, and stream width and depth were associated with differentiation in the biological parameters of the fry. The results clearly indicate that the considerable potential of small lowland streams for the propagation of salmonid juvenile stages is currently underexploited.

  18. Survival benefits of remote ischemic conditioning in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Khalil, Mazhar; Hashmi, Ammar; Hecker, Louise; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Friese, Randall S; Rhee, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the surgical intensive care unit. Prior studies have demonstrated a survival benefit of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in many disease states. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of RIC on survival in sepsis in an animal model and to assess alterations in inflammatory biochemical profiles. We hypothesized that RIC alters inflammatory biochemical profiles resulting in decreased mortality in a septic mouse model. Eight to 12 week C57BL/6 mice received intra-peritoneal injection of 12.5-mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Septic animals in the experimental group underwent RIC at 0, 2, and 6 h after LPS by surgical exploration and alternate clamping of the femoral artery. Six 4-min cycles of ischemia-reperfusion were performed. Primary outcome was survival at 5-d after LPS injection. Secondary outcome was to assess the following serum cytokine levels: interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFα) at the baseline before LPS injection, 0 hour after LPS injection, and at 2, 4, 24 hours after induction of sepsis (RIC was performed at 2 h after LPS injection). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test were used. ANOVA test was used to compare cytokine measurements. We performed experiments on 44 mice: 14 sham and 30 RIC mice (10 at each time point). Overall survival was higher in the experimental group compared to the sham group (57% versus 21%; P = 0.02), with the highest survival rate observed in the 2-hour post-RIC group (70%). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, 2-h post-RIC group had increased survival at 5 days after LPS (P = 0.04) with hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval = 0.09-0.98). In the RIC group, serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα peaked at 2 h after LPS and then decreased significantly over 24 hours (P sepsis and has the potential for implementation in the clinical practice. Early implementation of RIC may play an

  19. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  20. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  2. Comparative effectiveness and survival of infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis patients in the Hellenic Registry of Biologics: Low rates of remission and 5-year drug survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Irini; Markatseli, Theodora E; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Boki, Kyriaki A; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Settas, Loukas; Zisopoulos, Dimitrios; Skopouli, Fotini N; Iliopoulos, Alexios; Bertsias, George K; Geborek, Pierre; Drosos, Alexandros A; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos

    2014-02-01

    To compare effectiveness, drug survival, and safety between infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, in a nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. This study is a prospective cohort study of 1208 active RA patients. Effectiveness, drug survival, and serious adverse events during entire follow-up (median 2.9 years) were monitored. EULAR and CDAI responses were comparable between the three agents (EULAR good/moderate responses at 12 months ranged 76-79%). At 12 months, 15-23% achieved remission. For adalimumab and etanercept, adjusted hazard rate (HR) for EULAR/ACR remission (reference: infliximab) was 2.7 and 2.1 (95% confidence interval was 1.7-4.1 and 1.3-3.4, respectively); males (HR 1.6; 1.1-2.4), use of glucocorticoids (HR 2.0; 1.3-3.0), and swollen joint count >7 (HR 0.36; 0.24-0.55) were independent predictors. Five-year drug survival was 31%, 43%, and 49% for infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, respectively (p = 0.010). Infliximab was associated with significantly more withdrawals due to adverse events. Disease activity, CRP, and use of glucocorticoids predicted efficacy-related drug survival; age, use of methotrexate, and prior DMARDs failures predicted safety-related survival. Risk for serious infections was lower with adalimumab (odds ratio [OR] 0.62; 0.38-1.00) or etanercept (OR 0.39; 0.21-0.72) than infliximab, independent of the effects of age (OR 1.65; 1.37-2.00 per 10 years), tender joint count >10 (OR 1.86; 1.21-2.86), and glucocorticoids >35mg/week (OR 1.83; 1.12-2.99). Response rates were comparable among anti-TNF agents. Overall, 5-year drug survival was below 50%, with infliximab demonstrating increased safety-related discontinuations. Remission rates are low in clinical practice. Strategies to increase effectiveness and long-term survival of anti-TNF agents in RA are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi A Kwee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hexokinase-2 (HK2 and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers. This study examines the protein expression of HK2 and CKA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in association with patient survival and other clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis for HK2 and CKA expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 157 HCC tumor samples. Results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program registries. Mortality rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared using log-rank tests. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HK2 and CKA was detected in 71 (45% and 55 (35% tumor samples, respectively. Differences in tumor HK2 expression were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.008 and cancer stage (p = 0.001, while CKA expression differed significantly only across cancer stage (p = 0.048. Increased mortality was associated with tumor HK2 expression (p = 0.003 as well as CKA expression (p = 0.03 with hazard ratios of 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.83 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.41, respectively. Similar effects on overall survival were noted in a subset analysis of early stage (I and II HCC. Tumor HK2 expression, but not CKA expression, remained a significant predictor of survival in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: HK2 and CKA expression may have biologic and prognostic significance in HCC, with tumor HK2 expression being a potential independent predictor of survival.

  4. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions : the MOSAIC birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A. C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    Objective: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. Design: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. Participants:

  5. Reporting and methodological quality of survival analysis in articles published in Chinese oncology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobin; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Xiao; Liu, Haihua; Zhang, Yingying

    2017-12-01

    Survival analysis methods have gained widespread use in the filed of oncology. For achievement of reliable results, the methodological process and report quality is crucial. This review provides the first examination of methodological characteristics and reporting quality of survival analysis in articles published in leading Chinese oncology journals.To examine methodological and reporting quality of survival analysis, to identify some common deficiencies, to desirable precautions in the analysis, and relate advice for authors, readers, and editors.A total of 242 survival analysis articles were included to be evaluated from 1492 articles published in 4 leading Chinese oncology journals in 2013. Articles were evaluated according to 16 established items for proper use and reporting of survival analysis.The application rates of Kaplan-Meier, life table, log-rank test, Breslow test, and Cox proportional hazards model (Cox model) were 91.74%, 3.72%, 78.51%, 0.41%, and 46.28%, respectively, no article used the parametric method for survival analysis. Multivariate Cox model was conducted in 112 articles (46.28%). Follow-up rates were mentioned in 155 articles (64.05%), of which 4 articles were under 80% and the lowest was 75.25%, 55 articles were100%. The report rates of all types of survival endpoint were lower than 10%. Eleven of 100 articles which reported a loss to follow-up had stated how to treat it in the analysis. One hundred thirty articles (53.72%) did not perform multivariate analysis. One hundred thirty-nine articles (57.44%) did not define the survival time. Violations and omissions of methodological guidelines included no mention of pertinent checks for proportional hazard assumption; no report of testing for interactions and collinearity between independent variables; no report of calculation method of sample size. Thirty-six articles (32.74%) reported the methods of independent variable selection. The above defects could make potentially inaccurate

  6. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  7. Evaluation of the Survival Rate and Bone Loss of Implants with Various Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Rokn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The replacement of missing teeth with implant-associated restorations has become a widely used treatment modality in recent years. The length of dental implants may be a critical factor in achieving and maintaining osseointegration.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and bone loss of dental implants with different lengthsMaterials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 60 ITI-system implants, evenly distributed into three groups including 8, 10 and 12 mm high implants in the posterior segments of both jaws. Demographic information, oral hygiene,cigarette smoking, implant length, duration of implant placement (at least 24 months,bleeding on probing index and pocket probing depth were recorded for all participants.Bone loss was calculated using pre- and post-operative panoramic radiographs.Results: The mean rate of bone loss was different among the three groups and were found to be 0.21 (0.45, 0.3 (0.41 and 0.43 (0.55 mm in the 8, 10, and 12 mm high implants, respectively. Neither mean bone loss nor bleeding on probing index showed significant differences with implant length. A significant correlation was found between implant length and pocket probing depth (P<0.0001.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both short (8 mm high and long (10 or 12 mm high implants may be used with nearly equal success rates in the posterior segments of the jaws.

  8. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  9. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, K.J., E-mail: kevincoakley@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Dewey, M.S.; Huber, M.G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Huffer, C.R.; Huffman, P.R. [North Carolina State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, 116 Science Drive, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Marley, D.E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); North Carolina State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Mumm, H.P. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); O' Shaughnessy, C.M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 120 E. Cameron Ave., CB #3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, 116 Science Drive, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Schelhammer, K.W. [North Carolina State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, 116 Science Drive, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Thompson, A.K.; Yue, A.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8461, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  10. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.J.; Dewey, M.S.; Huber, M.G.; Huffer, C.R.; Huffman, P.R.; Marley, D.E.; Mumm, H.P.; O'Shaughnessy, C.M.; Schelhammer, K.W.; Thompson, A.K.; Yue, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  11. Brachytherapy Boost Utilization and Survival in Unfavorable-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Skyler B; Lester-Coll, Nataniel H; Kelly, Jacqueline R; Kann, Benjamin H; Yu, James B; Nath, Sameer K

    2017-11-01

    There are limited comparative survival data for prostate cancer (PCa) patients managed with a low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-B) boost and dose-escalated external-beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) alone. To compare overall survival (OS) for men with unfavorable PCa between LDR-B and DE-EBRT groups. Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified men with unfavorable PCa treated between 2004 and 2012 with androgen suppression (AS) and either EBRT followed by LDR-B or DE-EBRT (75.6-86.4Gy). Treatment selection was evaluated using logistic regression and annual percentage proportions. OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards, and propensity score matching. We identified 25038 men between 2004 and 2012, during which LDR-B boost utilization decreased from 29% to 14%. LDR-B was associated with better OS on univariate (7-yr OS: 82% vs 73%; pLDR-B boost (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.89). The OS benefit of LDR-B boost persisted when limited to men aged LDR-B boost utilization declined and was associated with better OS compared to DE-EBRT alone. LDR-B boost is probably the ideal treatment option for men with unfavorable PCa, pending long-term results of randomized trials. We compared radiotherapy utilization and survival for prostate cancer (PCa) patients using a national database. We found that low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-B) boost, a method being used less frequently, was associated with better overall survival when compared to dose-escalated external-beam radiotherapy alone for men with unfavorable PCa. Randomized trials are needed to confirm that LDR-B boost is the ideal treatment. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Firms Started As Franchises Have Lower Survival Rates Than Independent Small Business Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Bates

    1994-01-01

    Aspiring entrepreneurs choosing to become franchisees certainly expect to improve their chances of survival during the turbulent early years of business startup and operation. Alignment with a franchiser parent company offers the franchisee managerial assistance, access to financial capital, and access to markets via the right to utilize the parent company trademark. This study examines survival patterns among franchise and nonfranchise small firms started between 1984 and 1987: survival thro...

  13. Egg Hatch Rate and Nymphal Survival of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) After Exposure to Insecticide Sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, K R; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Bridges, W C; Ellis, B R

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the efficacy of insecticides used against eggs and first-instar nymphs of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insect eggs are often resistant to insecticides; therefore, information on which products are effective is important. We evaluated the efficacy of four commonly used insecticide sprays applied directly to bed bug eggs. We also evaluated the efficacy of these insecticides to first-instar nymphs exposed to residuals resulting from directly spraying eggs. Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin, imidacloprid) was the most effective insecticide at preventing egg hatch (13% hatch rate) for pyrethroid-resistant, field-strain (Jersey City) bed bugs compared with a control (water [99% hatch rate]), Bedlam (MGK-264, sumithrin [84% hatch rate]), Demand CS (lambda-cyhalothrin [91% hatch rate]), and Phantom SC (chlorfenapyr [95% hatch rate]). Demand CS and Temprid SC were most effective at preventing egg hatch (0%) for an insecticide-susceptible (Harold Harlan) strain, followed by Bedlam (28%). Phantom SC produced a hatch rate similar to the control (97% and 96%, respectively). Harold Harlan-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control but 0% survival for Bedlam and Phantom SC. Jersey City-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control, 99% survival for Bedlam, 0% survival for Demand CS, 4% survival for Phantom SC, and 38% survival for Temprid SC. Demand CS was less effective at preventing hatch (91% hatch rate) of Jersey City-strain nymphs but was the only product to kill all nymphs (0% survival). One of the least effective products for preventing Jersey City-strain egg hatch (Phantom SC, 95% hatch rate) was the second most effective at killing nymphs, leaving only six of 141 alive. These findings indicate that survival of directly sprayed eggs and residually exposed, first-instar nymphs varies by strain, life stage, and product used. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological

  14. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  15. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  16. Temozolomide during radiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme. Daily administration improves survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachbichler, Silke Birgit; Schupp, Gabi; Ballhausen, Hendrik; Niyazi, Maximilian; Belka, Claus [LMU Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Temozolomide-(TMZ)-based chemoradiotherapy defines the current gold standard for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Data regarding the influence of TMZ dose density during chemoradiotherapy are currently not available. We retrospectively compared outcomes in patients receiving no TMZ, TMZ during radiotherapy on radiotherapy days only, and TMZ constantly 7 days a week. From 2002-2012, a total of 432 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma received radiotherapy in our department: 118 patients had radiotherapy alone, 210 had chemoradiotherapy with TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}) daily (7/7), and 104 with TMZ only on radiotherapy days (5/7). Radiotherapy was applied to a total dose of 60 Gy. Median survival after radiotherapy alone was 9.1 months, compared to 12.6 months with 5/7-TMZ and to 15.7 months with 7/7-TMZ. The 1-year survival rates were 33, 52, and 64%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant improvement of TMZ-7/7 vs. 5/7 (p = 0.01 by the log-rank test), while 5/7-TMZ was still superior to no TMZ at all (p = 0.02). Multivariate Cox regression showed a significant influence of TMZ regimen (p = 0.009) on hazard rate (+58% between groups) even in the presence of confounding factors age, sex, resection status, and radiotherapy dose concept. Our results confirm the findings of the EORTC/NCIC trial. It seems that also a reduced TMZ scheme can at first prolong the survival of glioblastoma patients, but not as much as the daily administration. (orig.) [German] Eine Temozolomid-(TMZ-)basierte Radiochemotherapie ist der gegenwaertige Goldstandard in der Behandlung von neu diagnostizierten Glioblastomen. Daten bezueglich des Einflusses der TMZ-Dosisdichte waehrend der Radiochemotherapie sind derzeit nicht vorhanden. Wir haben retrospektiv die Ergebnisse von Patienten verglichen, die entweder kein TMZ, TMZ zur Strahlentherapie nur an Bestrahlungstagen oder TMZ konstant 7 Tage/Woche erhalten hatten. Von 2002-2012 bekamen insgesamt 432 Patienten mit

  17. CASAS: Cancer Survival Analysis Suite, a web based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupji, Manali; Zhang, Xinyan; Kowalski, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    We present CASAS, a shiny R based tool for interactive survival analysis and visualization of results. The tool provides a web-based one stop shop to perform the following types of survival analysis:  quantile, landmark and competing risks, in addition to standard survival analysis.  The interface makes it easy to perform such survival analyses and obtain results using the interactive Kaplan-Meier and cumulative incidence plots.  Univariate analysis can be performed on one or several user specified variable(s) simultaneously, the results of which are displayed in a single table that includes log rank p-values and hazard ratios along with their significance. For several quantile survival analyses from multiple cancer types, a single summary grid is constructed. The CASAS package has been implemented in R and is available via http://shinygispa.winship.emory.edu/CASAS/. The developmental repository is available at https://github.com/manalirupji/CASAS/.

  18. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Schemmer, P.; Duex, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  19. Severe Obesity Impacts Recurrence-Free Survival of Women with High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of a French Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Raimond, Emilie; Graesslin, Olivier; Hudry, Delphine; Coutant, Charles; Touboul, Cyril; Bleu, Géraldine; Collinet, Pierre; Darai, Emile; Ballester, Marcos

    2015-08-01

    Studies focusing on the impact of obesity on survival in endometrial cancer (EC) have reported controversial results and few data exist on the impact of obesity on recurrence rate and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of obesity on surgical staging and RFS in EC according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) risk groups. Data of 729 women with EC who received primary surgical treatment between January 2000 and December 2012 were abstracted from a multicenter database. RFS distributions according to body mass index (BMI) in each ESMO risk group were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival was evaluated using the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine influence of multiple variables. Distribution of the 729 women with EC according to BMI was BMI women with a BMI ≥ 35 (72 %) than for those with a BMI obese women in the low-/intermediate-risk groups, but a BMI ≥ 35 was independently correlated to a poorer RFS (hazard ratio 12.5; 95 % confidence interval 3.1-51.3) for women in the high-risk group. Severe obesity negatively impacts RFS in women with high-risk EC, underlining the importance of complete surgical staging and adapted adjuvant therapies in this subgroup of women.

  20. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  1. Fingertip Replantation Without and With Palmar Venous Anastomosis: Analysis of the Survival Rates and Vein Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Alper; Gungor, Melike; Sir, Emin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of fingertip replantations without (artery anastomosis only replantations) and with venous anastomosis (replantations in which both arterial and palmar venous anastomoses were performed). Also, distribution of the veins used for anastomosis was analyzed retrospectively. First 53 digits (47 patients) received only arterial anastomosis (group 1). For relieving venous congestion, external bleeding method was used. Last 41 digits (38 patients) received both arterial and palmar venous anastomoses without external bleeding (group 2). There was statistical significance of the survival rate between group 1 [77.3% (41/53)] and group 2 [92.6% (38/41)] (P = 0.039). Venous congestion was encountered at 10 digits in group 1 (all underwent necrosis totally) and at 3 digits in group 2 (both were moderate and could be salvaged partially) (P = 0.094, no statistical significance). There was statistical significance of the mean operation time for single-fingertip replantation between group 1 (80 ± 7.8 minutes) and group 2 (105 ± 14.5 minutes) (P replantations with palmar venous anastomosis have simpler postoperative care and lower drawbacks as compared with artery anastomosis-only replantations.

  2. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  3. Survival pathological prognosis factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Longoria Boada, Lourdes B.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and longitudinal study of 273 women with breast cancer belonging to Granma province was carried out from 2003 to 2004, in order to analyze the survival of this female population, reason why the method of Kaplan Meier was used for the calculation of the mentioned variable and the Log Rank test was used for the comparison of curves. Patients with higher survival at 5 years were those who had tumors of 2 cm or less (87.5%), histological grade I (90.3%), nuclear grade I (88.3%), as well as the absence of vascular, lymphatic or lymph node invasion (with 80.6; 74.9 and 6.1% respectively). Also, tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, nodal status, as well as lymphatic and vascular invasion constituted prognosis factors, which favored the individualization of therapeutic behaviors

  4. Does accelerometer feedback on high-quality chest compression improve survival rate? An in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Hee; Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Chang, Wen Joen

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether visual feedback from an accelerometer device facilitated high-quality chest compressions during an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation using a manikin. Thirty health care providers participated in an in-hospital cardiac arrest simulation with 1 minute of continuous chest compressions. Chest compressions were performed on a manikin lying on a bed according to visual feedback from an accelerometer feedback device. The manikin and accelerometer recorded chest compression data simultaneously. The simulated patient was deemed to have survived when the chest compression data satisfied all of the preset high-quality chest compression criteria (depth ≥51 mm, rate >100 per minute, and ≥95% full recoil). Survival rates were calculated from the feedback device and manikin data. The survival rate according to the feedback device data was 80%; however, the manikin data indicated a significantly lower survival rate (46.7%; P = .015). The difference between the accelerometer and manikin survival rates was not significant for participants with a body mass index greater than or equal to 20 kg/m(2) (93.3 vs 73.3%, respectively; P = .330); however, the difference in survival rate was significant in participants with body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2) (66.7 vs 20.0%, respectively; P = .025). The use of accelerometer feedback devices to facilitate high-quality chest compression may not be appropriate for lightweight rescuers because of the potential for compression depth overestimation. Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001449). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  6. Repair or Replacement for Isolated Tricuspid Valve Pathology? Insights from a Surgical Analysis on Long-Term Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mina; Arif, Rawa; Sabashnikov, Anton; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Szabó, Gábor; Karck, Matthias; Weymann, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-term follow-up data concerning isolated tricuspid valve pathology after replacement or reconstruction is limited. Current American Heart Association guidelines equally recommend repair and replacement when surgical intervention is indicated. Our aim was to investigate and compare operative mortality and long-term survival in patients undergoing isolated tricuspid valve repair surgery versus replacement. Material/Methods Between 1995 and 2011, 109 consecutive patients underwent surgical correction of tricuspid valve pathology at our institution for varying structural pathologies. A total of 41 (37.6%) patients underwent tricuspid annuloplasty/repair (TAP) with or without ring implantation, while 68 (62.3%) patients received tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) of whom 36 (53%) were mechanical and 32 (47%) were biological prostheses. Results Early survival at 30 days after surgery was 97.6% in the TAP group and 91.1% in the TVR group. After 6 months, 89.1% in the TAP group and 87.8% in the TVR group were alive. In terms of long-term survival, there was no further mortality observed after one year post surgery in both groups (Log Rank p=0.919, Breslow p=0.834, Tarone-Ware p=0.880) in the Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis. The 1-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 85.8% for TAP and 87.8% for TVR group. Conclusions Surgical repair of the tricuspid valve does not show survival benefit when compared to replacement. Hence valve replacement should be considered generously in patients with reasonable suspicion that regurgitation after repair will reoccur. PMID:28236633

  7. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Blake

    Full Text Available Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02 when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72 and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases. Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  8. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  9. A Systemic Review of Autologous Fat Grafting Survival Rate and Related Severe Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Ze Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical application of autologous fat grafting (AFG is quickly expanding. Despite the widely acceptance, long-term survival rate (SR of AFG remains a question not yet solved. Meanwhile, although rare, severe complications related to AFG including vision loss, stroke even death could be seen in the literature. Data Sources: A comprehensive research of PubMed database to June 2013 was performed according to guidelines of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force Assessment Methodology. Articles were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study Selection: Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical technique, donor site, recipient site, graft amount, and quantified measurement methods. Patient cohorts were pooled, and SR was calculated. All the severe complications were also summarized according to the different clinical characteristics. Results: Of 550 articles, 16 clinical articles and 10 animal studies met the inclusion criteria and provided quantified measurement methods. Totally, 596 patients were included. SR varied from 34% to 82% in breast and 30-83% in the facial area. Nude mice were applied to investigate human fat grafting SR (38.3-52.5% after 15 weeks. Rabbits were commonly used to study animal AFG SR (14.00-14.56% after 1-year. Totally, 21 severe complications were reported, including death (2, stroke (10, vision loss (11, 8 of which accompanied with stroke, sepsis (3, multiple abscess (1 and giant fat necrotic cyst (2. Ten of these complications happened within 10 years. Conclusions: There is no unified measurement method to evaluate fat graft SR until now and no clinical evidence to show better SR according to different donor and recipient cite. Body mass index change between pre- and postoperation may be the bias factor in evaluating fat SR. Fat embolisms of the ophthalmic artery and the middle cerebral artery are the most severe complication of AFG and still lack

  10. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  11. Effects of non-implantation factors on survival rate of microbe irradiated by low-energy N+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianyou; Chen Linhai; Qin Guangyong; Li Zongwei; Su Mingjie; Wang Yanping; Chang Shenghe; Huo Yuping; Li Zongyi

    2006-01-01

    The effects of non-implantation factors, such as drying, vacuum and the staying time of the E.coli LE392 culture, on survival rate of E.coli LE392 were studied when E.coli LE392 was irradiated by the low-energy N + . The results show that the survival rate of E.coli LE392 does not reduce steadily all the time but rapidly drops sometime during drying. The survival rate of E.coli LE392 declines sharply as the samples are placed in vacuum, then falls in distinctively with increasing of time. the tolerance of E.coli LE392 towards vacuum increasingly strengthens when the E.coli LE392 culture is placed at room temperature. Preparing the culture in batchs can ensure the consistency of the irradiated samples and avoid errors caused by the inconsistent samples. When the non-implantation factors are controlled, E.coli is implanted by 30 kev N + of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 and 3 x 10 15 cm -2 , respectively. And the results show no difference in the E.coli's survival rates between batchs at the same dose. (authors)

  12. Effects of carbon ion irradiation on survival rate, catalase and peroxidase activity of alfalfa M1 under low temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyang; Li Jinghua; Jiang Boling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three kinds of alfalfa including Zhonglan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng were treated with different doses of "1"2C"6"+ (75 keV) heavy ion radiation, and then the influence of survival rate, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity of M1 with low temperature stress were tested. The results showed that under the condition of 400 Gy radiation dose, the survival rate and CAT activity of Zhonglan 1 under low temperature stress have increased by 33.3%, 56.3% respectively compared with those of the control group, while there was no difference in POD activity between those two groups. The survival rate, CAT and POD activity of BC-04-477 treated with low temperature have been improved by 33.3%, 69.2%, 5.1% respectively compared with those of the control group when the radiation dose was 400 Gy. Compared with those of the control group, the survival rate, CAT and POD activity of Ta Cheng under low temperature stress have been improved by 25%, 26%,22.8% respectively when the radiation dose was 800 Gy. These results indicate that the viability and the cold resistance ability of Zhong Lan 1, BC-04-477 and Ta Cheng can be improved by "1"2C"6"+ radiation. (authors)

  13. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim.  To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Design.  A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary

  14. Long-term survival rate of implant-supported overdentures with various attachment systems: A 20-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Sheng Chang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The overall survival rate of dental implants with overdenture rehabilitation was 95.3% (91.3% in maxillae vs. 96.4% in mandibles within the past 20 years. With careful treatment planning, implant-supported overdenture is an interesting treatment alternative with better esthetic, retention, stability, and good hygienic maintenance for patients with severe ridge resorption.

  15. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  16. Perioperative survival rates after surgery for diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats: 92 cases (1990-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Thomas W G; Brisson, Brigitte A; Sears, William

    2005-07-01

    To determine the survival rates of dogs and cats that underwent surgical treatment for traumatic diaphragmatic hernia within 24 hours of admission and determine whether timing of surgery affected perioperative survival rate. Retrospective study. 63 dogs and 29 cats treated surgically for traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. Medical records were reviewed to evaluate associations between perioperative survival rates and variables including timing of surgery in relation to admission and acute versus chronic diaphragmatic hernia. Among the 92 animals, 82 (89.1%) were discharged alive after surgery. Sixty-four (69.6%) patients received surgical intervention within 12 hours of admission, and 84 (91.3%) received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission. Median time from admission to discharge was 4 days (2 to 33 days). Data for acute cases (68 dogs and cats) were analyzed separately. Sixty-three (92.6%) patients with acute diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission to the hospital, and 59 (93.7%) of these patients were discharged alive. Twenty-nine (42.6%) patients with acute diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention within 24 hours of trauma, and 26 of 29 (89.7%) patients were discharged alive. An overall acute and chronic perioperative survival rate of 89.7% was observed in dogs and cats that received surgical intervention within 24 hours of admission. Results in 68 dogs and cats that underwent surgery within 24 hours of admission suggested that early surgical intervention for acute diaphragmatic hernia was associated with good perioperative survival rates.

  17. Prolonged Elevated Heart Rate and 90-Day Survival in Acutely Ill Patients: Data From the MIMIC-III Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Veit; Johnson, Alistair E W; Kunz, Lauren M; Vargas, Jose D; Rosing, Douglas R

    2018-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the association of prolonged elevated heart rate (peHR) with survival in acutely ill patients. We used a large observational intensive care unit (ICU) database (Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III [MIMIC-III]), where frequent heart rate measurements were available. The peHR was defined as a heart rate >100 beats/min in 11 of 12 consecutive hours. The outcome was survival status at 90 days. We collected heart rates, disease severity (simplified acute physiology scores [SAPS II]), comorbidities (Charlson scores), and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis information in 31 513 patients from the MIMIC-III ICU database. Propensity score (PS) methods followed by inverse probability weighting based on the PS was used to balance the 2 groups (the presence/absence of peHR). Multivariable weighted logistic regression was used to assess for association of peHR with the outcome survival at 90 days adjusting for additional covariates. The mean age was 64 years, and the most frequent main disease category was circulatory disease (41%). The mean SAPS II score was 35, and the mean Charlson comorbidity score was 2.3. Overall survival of the cohort at 90 days was 82%. Adjusted logistic regression showed a significantly increased risk of death within 90 days in patients with an episode of peHR ( P < .001; odds ratio for death 1.79; confidence interval, 1.69-1.88). This finding was independent of median heart rate. We found a significant association of peHR with decreased survival in a large and heterogenous cohort of ICU patients.

  18. Survival and metamorphosis rate of swimming crab Portunus pelagicus larvae with the use of phytoecdysteroid in the artificial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Nikhlani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The survival rate of blue swimming crabs and the larval metamorphosis processes are still low in hatcheries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different phytoecdysteroids doses on both the survival and the rate of Blue swimmer crab larvae metamorphosis. The study consisted of four different phytoecdysteroids treatments, namely: control (0 mg/100 g of feed, 1 mg/100 g of feed, 2 mg/100 g of feed, and 4 mg/100 g of feed. Each treatment was replicated three times. The survival rate of the larvae was analyzed through analysis of variance, while the rate of larval metamorphosis was descriptively analyzed. The results showed that the dose of phytoecdysteroid of 2 mg/100 g of artificial feed resulted in the highest survival and the fastest metamorphosis speed of crab larvae for zoea-2 and zoea-3, and the dose of 4 mg/100 g of artificial feed for stadia megalopa and crablet. Keywords: phytoecdysteroids, survival rate, metamorphosis, blue swimming crab  ABSTRAK Kelangsungan hidup rajungan dalam pembenihan masih rendah, dan proses metamorfosis larva masih lambat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pemberian fitoekdisteroid dosis berbeda terhadap kelangsungan hidup dan kecepatan metamorfosis larva rajungan. Penelitian ini terdiri atas empat perlakuan dosis fitoekdisteroid yang berbeda, yaitu: kontrol (0 mg/100 g pakan, 1 mg/100 g pakan, 2 mg/100 g pakan, dan 4 mg/100 g pakan dengan masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan tiga kali ulangan. Kelangsungan hidup larva dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam, sedangkan kecepatan metamorfosis larva dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis fitoekdisteroid sebanyak 2 mg/100 g pakan buatan menghasilkan kelangsungan hidup tertinggi dan proses metamorfosis larva rajungan tercepat untuk stadia zoea-2 dan zoea-3, serta  dosis 4 mg/100 g pakan buatan untuk stadia megalopa dan crablet. Kata kunci: fitoekdisteroid, kelangsungan

  19. Survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout kelts Salmo trutta during downstream migration in freshwater and at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik; Thorstad, EB

    2015-01-01

    The marine migration of post-spawning anadromous fish remains poorly understood. The present study examined survival and progression rates of anadromous brown trout Salmo trutta L. after spawning (kelts) during downriver, fjord, and sea migration. Kelts (n = 49) were captured in the Danish River...... completing the reach within 4 d, suggesting that the kelts spent limited time foraging after returning to the fjord. The total survival during the entire marine migration, including the fjord, was a minimum of 29%. Our study provides data that are important for management of anadromous brown trout...

  20. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  1. Limnology of nine small lakes, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, and the survival and growth rates of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The survival and growth rates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnieri) were concurrently measured with selected limnological characteristics in nine small (surface area Gasterosteus aculeatus) also influenced survival of rainbow trout but their effects were overshadowed by winterkill. Predictive capability was also reduced because of inconsistencies in rankings generated by each of the four limnological variables chosen as indicators of potential biological productivity. A lake ranked low in productivity by one variable was commonly ranked high in productivity by another variable. The survivability of rainbow trout stocked in lakes such as these nine may be a more important indicator of potential biomass production than are indicators of lake fertility. Assessments of a lake 's susceptibility to winterkill and the degree of competition with threespine stickleback are suggested as important topics for additional research. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Comparison of hypertabastic survival model with other unimodal hazard rate functions using a goodness-of-fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M Ramzan; Tran, Quang X; Nikulin, Mikhail S

    2017-05-30

    We studied the problem of testing a hypothesized distribution in survival regression models when the data is right censored and survival times are influenced by covariates. A modified chi-squared type test, known as Nikulin-Rao-Robson statistic, is applied for the comparison of accelerated failure time models. This statistic is used to test the goodness-of-fit for hypertabastic survival model and four other unimodal hazard rate functions. The results of simulation study showed that the hypertabastic distribution can be used as an alternative to log-logistic and log-normal distribution. In statistical modeling, because of its flexible shape of hazard functions, this distribution can also be used as a competitor of Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions. The results for the real data application are shown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Water Replacement rate on Growth and Survival of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of frequency of water replacement on growth performance and survival of the Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus fry of mean 1.14g + 0.00 of the same brood stock reared in a static culture was investigated in the laboratory over a period of forty-two days. There were five treatments namely, treatment A = daily ...

  4. Do pathological fractures influence survival and local recurrence rate in bony sarcomas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, J. A. M.; Abudu, A. A.; Grimer, R. J.; Carter, S. R.; Tillman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of pathological fracture on surgical management, local recurrence and survival was established in patients with high grade, localised, extremity osteosarcoma (n=484), chondrosarcoma (n=130) and Ewing's sarcoma (n=156). Limb salvage was possible in 79% of patients with a fracture

  5. Enhancing tumor apparent diffusion coefficient histogram skewness stratifies the postoperative survival in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patients undergoing salvage surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Linn, Jennifer; Podlesek, Dino; Sitoci Ficici, Kerim Hakan; Kitzler, Hagen H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B; Rieger, Bernhard; Krex, Dietmar

    2016-05-01

    Objective To determine the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters for the prediction of individual survival in patients undergoing surgery for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in a retrospective cohort study. Methods Thirty-one patients who underwent surgery for first recurrence of a known GBM between 2008 and 2012 were included. The following parameters were collected: age, sex, enhancing tumor size, mean ADC, median ADC, ADC skewness, ADC kurtosis and fifth percentile of the ADC histogram, initial progression free survival (PFS), extent of second resection and further adjuvant treatment. The association of these parameters with survival and PFS after second surgery was analyzed using log-rank test and Cox regression. Results Using log-rank test, ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing tumor was significantly associated with both survival (p = 0.001) and PFS after second surgery (p = 0.005). Further parameters associated with prolonged survival after second surgery were: gross total resection at second surgery (p = 0.026), tumor size (0.040) and third surgery (p = 0.003). In the multivariate Cox analysis, ADC histogram skewness was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for survival after second surgery. Conclusion ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing lesion, enhancing lesion size, third surgery, as well as gross total resection have been shown to be associated with survival following the second surgery. ADC histogram skewness was an independent prognostic factor for survival in the multivariate analysis.

  6. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy; Langzeitergebnisse der interventionellen Therapie von grossen, inoperablen hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen (HCC): signifikanter Ueberlebensvorteil von transarterieller Chemoembolisation (TACE) und perkutaner Ethanolinjektion (PEI) gegenueber der TACE-Monotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Schemmer, P. [Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Duex, M. [Radiologisches Zentralinstitut Krankenhaus Nordwest Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  8. Toxicity of mercury (Hg on survival and growth rate, hemato- and histopathological parameters ofOreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are serious pollutants of the aquatic environment because of their environmental persistence and ability to be accumulated by aquatic organisms. Oreochromis niloticus exposed to 0, 0.16, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm Hg for 30 days. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of mercury in water on survival rate, growth rates, hematological, and histological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus. This study was conducted from Mei to June 2009. The experimental design was arranged in completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications. Stock density was 8 fish/aquarium with mean initial body weight was 15.70±1.13 g. Growth and survival rates of test fish were decreased with increasing the Hg concentration. Red blood cell (RBC count, haematocrit content, and haemoglobin content decreased when compared to the control. The number of white blood cells (WBC increased in mercuric treated fish. The results are statistically significant at p<0.05 level. Keywords:mercury, survival and growth rate, hematology, histopathology, Oreochromis niloticus

  9. The Survival of Morse Cone-Connection Implants with Platform Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Michele; Di Mambro, Alfonso; Giansanti, Matteo; Brandetti, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the survival up to 5 years of Morse cone-connection implants with platform switch considering the influence of biologically relevant, anatomical, and stress-related variables. STROBE guidelines were followed. Seven hundred forty-eight implants were inserted in 350 patients. Follow-up visits were scheduled at the time of stagetwo surgery (2 months later) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months. All implants were initially loaded with a cemented provisional acrylic restoration. The definitive metal-ceramic restorations were cemented at the 6-month follow-up. Implant cumulative survival rates (CSRs) were calculated using life table actuarial method. Survival data were also analyzed by the log-rank test and Cox regression. The statistical analysis was conducted at the patient level. P ≤ .05 was considered as an indicator of statistical significance. During the follow-up (mean: 40 months; SD: 20.27), 28 patients were considered failed (8%). The CSR and its standard error (SE) was 92% ± 2.17%. Patients with implant-supported single crowns had a CSR of 90%, whereas those with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses had a CSR of 93%. The implant diameter (P = .0399) and implant length (P = .0441) were statistically significant. The probability of failure was almost 75% lower for patients with wide rather than standard implants, 91% lower for patients with long implants, and 69% lower for patients with standard implants compared with short implants. The use of Morse cone-connection implants with platform switch is a safe and reliable treatment method. Stress-related variables influence the risk of failure confirming the importance of biomechanical factors in the longevity of osseointegrated implants; thus, the clinician may obtain better results if attention is paid to these factors.

  10. Biostatistics series module 9: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is concerned with “time to event“ data. Conventionally, it dealt with cancer death as the event in question, but it can handle any event occurring over a time frame, and this need not be always adverse in nature. When the outcome of a study is the time to an event, it is often not possible to wait until the event in question has happened to all the subjects, for example, until all are dead. In addition, subjects may leave the study prematurely. Such situations lead to what is called censored observations as complete information is not available for these subjects. The data set is thus an assemblage of times to the event in question and times after which no more information on the individual is available. Survival analysis methods are the only techniques capable of handling censored observations without treating them as missing data. They also make no assumption regarding normal distribution of time to event data. Descriptive methods for exploring survival times in a sample include life table and Kaplan–Meier techniques as well as various kinds of distribution fitting as advanced modeling techniques. The Kaplan–Meier cumulative survival probability over time plot has become the signature plot for biomedical survival analysis. Several techniques are available for comparing the survival experience in two or more groups – the log-rank test is popularly used. This test can also be used to produce an odds ratio as an estimate of risk of the event in the test group; this is called hazard ratio (HR. Limitations of the traditional log-rank test have led to various modifications and enhancements. Finally, survival analysis offers different regression models for estimating the impact of multiple predictors on survival. Cox's proportional hazard model is the most general of the regression methods that allows the hazard function to be modeled on a set of explanatory variables without making restrictive assumptions concerning the

  11. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of localised prostate cancer in men with a high risk of disease relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Robert; Uribe, Jennifer; Uribe-Lewis, Santiago; Money-Kyrle, Julian; Perna, Carla; Chintzoglou, Stylianos; Khaksar, Sara; Langley, Stephen E M

    2018-04-01

    To report clinical outcomes of 125 I low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) as monotherapy or combined with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and/or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in high-risk localised prostate cancer. Analysis of clinical outcomes from a prospective cohort of patients treated with LDR-PB alone or combined treatment in a single institution. Men with a high risk of disease relapse were identified by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) criteria or by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria. Relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and metastases-free survival (MFS), were analysed together with patient-reported symptom scores and physician-reported adverse events. The NICE and NCCN criteria identified 267 and 202 high-risk patients, respectively. NICE-defined patients had significantly lower pre-treatment PSA levels, Gleason scores LDR-PB monotherapy. At 9 years after implantation RFS was 89% and 87% in the NICE and NCCN groups, respectively (log-rank P = 0.637), and OS 93% and 94%, respectively (log-rank P = 0.481). All of the survival estimates were similar between LDR-PB monotherapy and combined therapies. Cox proportional hazards regression confirmed RFS was similar between the treatment types. Treatment-related toxicity was also similar between the treatment methods. LDR-PB is effective at controlling localised prostate cancer in patients with a high risk of disease relapse. As the present study was not randomised, it is not possible to define those patients who need the addition of ADT and/or EBRT. However, the NICE criteria appear suitable to define treatment options where patients could benefit from LDR-PB as monotherapy or combined treatment. This choice should be discussed with the patient taking into account comorbidities and presence of multiple high-risk factors. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International

  12. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  13. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  15. The mass effect model of the survival rate's dose effect of organism irradiated with low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Gui Qifu; Yu Zengliang

    1995-01-01

    The main characteristic of the low energy ions mutation is its mass deposition effect. Basing on the theory of 'double strand breaking' and the 'mass deposition effect', the authors suggests that the mass deposition products can repair or further damage the double strand breaking of DNA. According to this consideration the dose effect model of the survival rate of organism irradiated by low energy of N + ion beam is deduced as: S exp{-p[αφ + βφ 2 -Rφ 2 exp(-kφ)-Lφ 3 exp(-kφ)]}, which can be called 'mass effect model'. In the low energy ion beam mutation, the dose effects of many survival rates that can not be imitated by previous models are successfully imitated by this model. The suitable application fields of the model are also discussed

  16. Micronucleus formation compared to the survival rate of human melanoma cells after X-ray and neutron irradiation and hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Beuningen, D.; Streffer, C.; Bertholdt, G.

    1981-09-01

    After neutron and X-ray irradiation and combined X-ray irradiation and hyperthermia (3 hours, 42/sup 0/C), the survival rate of human melanoma cells was measured by means of the colony formation test and compared to the formation of micronuclei. Neutrons had a stronger effect on the formation of micronuclei than the combination of X-rays and hyperthermia. X-rays had the lowest effect. The dose effect curve showed a break at that dose level at which a reduction of cells was observed in the cultures. A good relation between survival rate and formation of micronuclei was found for the X-ray irradiation, but not for the neutron irradiation and the combined treatment. These observations are discussed. At least for X-rays, the micronucleus test has turned out to be a good screening method for the radiosensitivity of a biologic system.

  17. Prognostic factors and survival of colorectal cancer in Kurdistan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Moradi, Ghobad; Roshani, Daem; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghaytasi, Bahman

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival varies at individual and geographically level. This population-based study aimed to evaluating various factors affecting the survival rate of CRC patients in Kurdistan province. In a retrospective cohort study, patients diagnosed as CRC were collected through a population-based study from March 1, 2009 to 2014. The data were collected from Kurdistan's Cancer Registry database. Additional information and missing data were collected reference to patients’ homes, medical records, and pathology reports. The CRC survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis to the date of cancer-specific death or the end of follow-up (cutoff date: October 2015). Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used for the univariate analysis of survival in various subgroups. The proportional-hazard model Cox was also used in order to consider the effects of different factors on survival including age at diagnosis, place of residence, marital status, occupation, level of education, smoking, economic status, comorbidity, tumor stage, and tumor grade. A total number of 335 patients affected by CRC were assessed and the results showed that 1- and 5-year survival rate were 87% and 33%, respectively. According to the results of Cox's multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly related to CRC survival: age at diagnosis (≥65 years old) (HR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.17–3.71), single patients (HR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10–2.40), job (worker) (HR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.22–3.58), educational level: diploma or below (HR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39–0.92), wealthy economic status (HR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31–0.82), tumor grade in poorly differentiated (HR 2.25, 95% CI: 1.37–3.69), and undifferentiated/anaplastic grade (HR 2.90, 95% CI: 1.67–4.98). We found that factors such as low education, inappropriate socioeconomic status, and high tumor grade at the time of disease diagnosis were effective in the poor survival of CRC patients in Kurdistan province; this

  18. Survival and Predictive Factors of Lethality in Hemodyalisis: D/I Polymorphism of The Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme and of the Angiotensinogen M235T Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Mauro, E-mail: malves@cardiol.br; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; Salis, Lucia Helena Alvares; Pereira, Basilio de Bragança; Godoy, Paulo Henrique; Nascimento, Emília Matos do [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Mario Franco [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    End-stage kidney disease patients continue to have markedly increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Analysis of genetic factors connected with the renin-angiotensin system that influences the survival of the patients with end-stage kidney disease supports the ongoing search for improved outcomes. To assess survival and its association with the polymorphism of renin-angiotensin system genes: angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion and angiotensinogen M235T in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Our study was designed to examine the role of renin-angiotensin system genes. It was an observational study. We analyzed 473 chronic hemodialysis patients in four dialysis units in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between the curves were evaluated by Tarone-Ware, Peto-Prentice, and log rank tests. We also used logistic regression analysis and the multinomial model. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The local medical ethics committee gave their approval to this study. The mean age of patients was 45.8 years old. The overall survival rate was 48% at 11 years. The major causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (34%) and infections (15%). Logistic regression analysis found statistical significance for the following variables: age (p = 0.000038), TT angiotensinogen (p = 0.08261), and family income greater than five times the minimum wage (p = 0.03089), the latter being a protective factor. The survival of hemodialysis patients is likely to be influenced by the TT of the angiotensinogen M235T gene.

  19. Survival and Predictive Factors of Lethality in Hemodyalisis: D/I Polymorphism of The Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme and of the Angiotensinogen M235T Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: End-stage kidney disease patients continue to have markedly increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Analysis of genetic factors connected with the renin-angiotensin system that influences the survival of the patients with end-stage kidney disease supports the ongoing search for improved outcomes. Objective: To assess survival and its association with the polymorphism of renin-angiotensin system genes: angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion and angiotensinogen M235T in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: Our study was designed to examine the role of renin-angiotensin system genes. It was an observational study. We analyzed 473 chronic hemodialysis patients in four dialysis units in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between the curves were evaluated by Tarone-Ware, Peto-Prentice, and log rank tests. We also used logistic regression analysis and the multinomial model. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The local medical ethics committee gave their approval to this study. Results: The mean age of patients was 45.8 years old. The overall survival rate was 48% at 11 years. The major causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (34% and infections (15%. Logistic regression analysis found statistical significance for the following variables: age (p = 0.000038, TT angiotensinogen (p = 0.08261, and family income greater than five times the minimum wage (p = 0.03089, the latter being a protective factor. Conclusions: The survival of hemodialysis patients is likely to be influenced by the TT of the angiotensinogen M235T gene.

  20. Survival and Predictive Factors of Lethality in Hemodyalisis: D/I Polymorphism of The Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme and of the Angiotensinogen M235T Genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Mauro; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; Salis, Lucia Helena Alvares; Pereira, Basilio de Bragança; Godoy, Paulo Henrique; Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Oliveira, Jose Mario Franco

    2014-01-01

    End-stage kidney disease patients continue to have markedly increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Analysis of genetic factors connected with the renin-angiotensin system that influences the survival of the patients with end-stage kidney disease supports the ongoing search for improved outcomes. To assess survival and its association with the polymorphism of renin-angiotensin system genes: angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion and angiotensinogen M235T in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Our study was designed to examine the role of renin-angiotensin system genes. It was an observational study. We analyzed 473 chronic hemodialysis patients in four dialysis units in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between the curves were evaluated by Tarone-Ware, Peto-Prentice, and log rank tests. We also used logistic regression analysis and the multinomial model. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The local medical ethics committee gave their approval to this study. The mean age of patients was 45.8 years old. The overall survival rate was 48% at 11 years. The major causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (34%) and infections (15%). Logistic regression analysis found statistical significance for the following variables: age (p = 0.000038), TT angiotensinogen (p = 0.08261), and family income greater than five times the minimum wage (p = 0.03089), the latter being a protective factor. The survival of hemodialysis patients is likely to be influenced by the TT of the angiotensinogen M235T gene

  1. One-year results of maxillary overdentures supported by 2 titanium-zirconium implants - implant survival rates and radiographic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Tahmaseb, Ali; Jung, Ronald E; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    To assess implant survival rates and peri-implant bone loss of 2 titanium-zirconium implants supporting maxillary overdentures at 1 year of loading. Twenty maxillary edentulous patients (5 women and 15 men) being dissatisfied with their complete dentures were included. In total, 40 diameter-reduced titanium-zirconium implants were placed in the anterior maxilla. Local guided bone regeneration (GBR) was allowed if the treatment did not compromise implant stability. Following 3 to 5 months of healing, implant-supported overdentures were inserted on two ball anchors. Implants and overdentures were assessed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implant insertion and 2, 4, and 12 months after insertion of overdentures (baseline). Standardized radiographs were taken at implant loading and 1 year. Implant survival rates and bone loss were the primary outcomes. Nineteen patients (1 dropout) with 38 implants were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 1.1 years (range 1.0-1.7 years). One implant failed resulting in an implant survival rate of 97.3%. There was a significant peri-implant bone loss of the implants at 1 year of function (mean, 0.7 mm, SD = 1.1 mm; median: 0.48 mm, IQR = 0.56 mm). There was a high 1-year implant survival rate for edentulous patients receiving 2 maxillary implants and ball anchors as overdenture support. However, several implants exhibited an increased amount of bone loss of more than 2 mm. Overdentures supported by 2 maxillary implants should thus be used with caution as minimally invasive treatment for specific patients encountering problems with their upper dentures until more long-term data is available. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the metabolic rate, hematological response, and survival of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Mejía-Ruiz, Claudio Humberto; Díaz, Fernando; Reyna-Verdugo, Horacio; Re, Ana Denisse; Vazquez-Felix, Edgar F; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Pestryakov, Alexey; Bogdanchikova, Nina

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival rate of juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) after the intramuscular administration of AgNPs. For this, different concentrations of metallic AgNPs and PVP alone were injected into the organisms. After 96 h of administration, shrimp survival was more than 90% for all treatments. The oxygen consumption routine rate and total hemocyte count remained unaltered after AgNP injection, reflecting no stress caused. We evaluated whether AgNPs had an antiviral effect in shrimps infected with WSSV. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps after AgNP administration was 80%, whereas the survival rate of untreated organisms was only 10% 96 h after infection. These results open up the possibility to explore the potential use of AgNPs as antiviral agents for the treatment of diseases in aquaculture organisms, particularly the WSSV in shrimp culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotti, Daria; Raffetti, Elena; Albini, Laura; Sighinolfi, Laura; Maggiolo, Franco; Di Filippo, Elisa; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Angarano, Gioacchino; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Pan, Angelo; Esposti, Anna Degli; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Focà, Emanuele; Scalzini, Alfredo; Donato, Francesco; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) diagnosis in the modern cART era. Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51%) were ADCs and 431 (49%) were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; pcancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14%) than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%), liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4%) or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%). Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  4. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Gotti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC diagnosis in the modern cART era. METHODS: Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51% were ADCs and 431 (49% were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; p<0.001. Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14% than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%, liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4% or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%. Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. CONCLUSIONS: cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  5. The Effect of Vitamin E on the Survival Rate of unc-13 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants under Oxidative Stress

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    Jessica Porcelan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13 mutants express decreased neuronal activity and thus are a good model strain for examining defective nervous systems. These unc-13 mutants as well as wild type N2 strains, show rapid mortality when under oxidative stress. However, the antioxidant vitamin E may prolong survival in unc-13 mutant and N2 strains under oxidative stress. The addition of vitamin E to organisms under oxidative stress has a protective effect in both N2 and unc-13 C. elegans strains. Interestingly, vitamin E resulted in a greater increase in survival rate in N2 worms than with unc-13 mutant worms. While both strains displayed lower mortality rates with the addition of vitamin E, this finding suggests that vitamin E more efficiently increases survival rates of C. elegans with typical nervous system function. The efficacy of vitamin E implies that use of antioxidants may lessen the damage caused by oxidative stress in both N2 and mutant worms.

  6. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  7. Impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Volkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the impact of surgical volume on functional results and cardiospecific survival rates in patients with clinically localized renal carcinoma.Subjects and methods. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with pT1–3aN0M0 renal cell carcinoma and normally functioning secondkidney who had undergone radical nephrectomy (n = 226 (49.9 % or kidney resection (n = 227 (50.1 % were selected for the investigation. The patient groups who had undergone different-volume operations were matched for gender, age, body mass index (BMI, side of involvement, tumor sizes, and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR (p > for all. The median baseline Charlson index and the rate of ASA classes III–IV operative risk were significantly higher in candidates for radical nephrectomy (p < 0.05 for all, the rate of diseases affecting kidney function, pT1a category, and G1 anaplasia were higher in the kidney resection group (p < 0.0001. The median follow-up was 50 (12–224 months.Results. Within 28 days postsurgery, the rate of acute renal dysfunction (ARD was 36.2 %. The independent risk factors of ARD were kidney resection (risk ratio (RR = 0.210; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.115–0.288; р < 0.0001 and ischemia time (RR = 0.012; 95 % CI 0.004–0.021; p = 0.004. The degree of ARD after kidney resection was significantly lower than that following radical nephrectomy (p < 0.0001. In the late postoperative period, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD Stage ≥ III was 38.4 %. Its independent risk factors were low baseline GFR (RR = 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002–0.005; p < 0.0001, radical nephrectomy (RR = 0.195; 95 % CI 0.093–0.298; p < 0.0001, and ARD (RR = 0.281; 95 % CI 0.187–0.376; p = 0.0001. Ten-year specific and cardiospecific survival rates in all the patients were 98.5 and 94.9 %, respectively, and unrelated to surgical volume. The independent predictors of poor cardiospecific survival were BMI, Charlson index, and ASA risk

  8. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  9. Self-rated health supersedes patient satisfaction with service quality as a predictor of survival in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Digant; Patel, Kamal; Lis, Christopher G

    2015-09-04

    We have previously reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS) with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we argued that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH), a recognized predictor of cancer survival. We therefore investigated whether SRH can supersede patient satisfaction as a predictor of survival in prostate cancer. Nine hundred seventeen prostate cancer treated at four Cancer Treatment Centers of America(®) hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into two categories: top box response (7) versus all others (1-6). Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates. The response rate for this study was 72%. Majority of patients (n = 517) had stage II disease. Seven hundred eighty-seven (85.8%) patients were "completely satisfied". Three hundred nineteen (34.8%) patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between satisfaction and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.18; p < 0.001). On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.25-0.85; p = 0.01). Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.12-0.79; p = 0.01) while patient satisfaction was not (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.40-1.5; p = 0.40). SRH supersedes patient satisfaction with service quality as a predictor of survival in prostate cancer. SRH should be used as a control variable in analyses involving patient satisfaction as a

  10. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS......: All deliveries from 22+0 to 31+6 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All outcomes of pregnancy by gestational age group, including termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies and other reasons, ante-partum stillbirth, intra-partum stillbirth, labour ward death, death after admission...

  11. Overall Survival of Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated with Nimotuzumab in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell, Yaimarelis; Sanchez, Lizet; González, Sandra; Ortiz, Ramón; Medina, Edadny; Galán, Yaima; Lage, Agustin

    2017-12-01

    Despite improvements in surgical techniques and treatments introduced into clinical practice, the overall survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma remains low. Several epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are being evaluated in the context of clinical trials, but there is little evidence of effectiveness in real-world conditions. This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of nimotuzumab combined with onco-specific treatment in Cuban real-life patients with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A comparative and retrospective effectiveness study was performed. The 93 patients treated with nimotuzumab were matched, with use of propensity score matching, with patients who received a diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in three Cuban provinces reported between 2011 and 2015 to the National Cancer Registry. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate event-time distributions. Log-rank statistics were used for comparisons of overall survival between groups. A two-component mixture model assuming a Weibull distribution was fitted to assess the effect of nimotuzumab on short-term and long-term survival populations. There was an increase in median overall survival in patients treated with nimotuzumab (11.9 months versus 6.5 months without treatment) and an increase in the 1-year survival rate (54.0% versus 21.9% without treatment). The 2-year survival rates were 21.1% for patients treated with nimotuzumab and 0% in the untreated cohort. There were statistically significant differences in survival between groups treated and not treated with nimotuzumab, both in the short-term survival population (6.0 months vs 4.0 months, p = 0.009) and in the long-term survival population (18.0 months vs 11.0 months, p = 0.001). Our study shows that nimotuzumab treatment concurrent with chemoradiotherapy increases the survival of real-world patients with locally advanced

  12. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  13. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R.

    2004-01-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d -1 for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to 137 Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d -1 . Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  14. Correlation between the CT manifestations and post-operative survival time in patients with thymic epithelial tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Juan; Tan Ye; Wang Xiangyang; Du Jun; Pan Jishu; Wei Jiahu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the CT manifestations of thymic epithelial tumor and explore the correlation between CT findings and post-operative tumor-related survival time. Methods: Ninety-one patients who underwent CT scan before operation were reviewed retrospectively. All cases had operation and were classified according to the WHO classification. The size, contour, shape, density and enhancement of the tumors on CT were assessed. Presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, great vessel invasion, metastasis to the lung or plural, myasthenia gravis (MG) were also analyzed. The survival rate was obtained using, the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox model was applied to determine the factors affecting the tumor-related survivals. Chi square test was used to analyze the relationship between CT findings and WHO classification. Results: Two patients were excluded because of dying of myocardial infarction and colon cancer. The total 5-year survival rate was 84.3% (n=75). Eighty-nine patients had total 91 tumors. Tumors with diameter larger than 5 cm, lobular contour, heterogenous density, and presence of great vessel invasion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and metastasis were adverse factors which could significantly affect the survival time. Five-year survival rates of these factors were 72.7%, 77.3%, 76.7%, 73.8%, 30.0%, and 68.8%, respectively. Presence of MG was a favorable factor which also significantly affected the survival time (P 0.05). The result of the Cox multivariate analysis was consistent with that of the Log-rank test. For different WHO classification, there were significant different among the size or contour of the tumors, presence of great vessel invasion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and metastasis (χ 2 value were 6.598, 5.737, 18.307, 8.465, and 15.608, respectively P<0.05). Conclusions: CT findings may be served as predictors of clinical prognosis of the thymic epithelial tumors. Adverse factors for survival time are the size of the tumors and presence of

  15. Effect of temperature on growth, survival and respiratory rate of larval allis shad Alosa alosa

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    Hundt M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior species distribution models identified temperature as one of the most important environmental variables defining the present and future distribution of anadromous allis shad (Alosa alosa. The current study analysed effects of temperature on the recruitment-potential of allis shad by investigating growth and survival at 16, 20, 24 and 28 °C during a ten day rearing trial and by measuring mass-specific respiration. Highest growth in length was at 28 °C; growth at 16 °C was minimal. At the end of the rearing-period, no significant differences in survival between tested rearing-temperatures were found. Exposure to temperatures of 13 to 30 °C and subsequent measurement of mass-specific respiration revealed tolerance of temperatures up to 30 °C and a lower temperature limitation close to 16 °C. After acclimatization of larvae to temperatures ranging from 16−28 °C for 10 days, Q10-values of mass-specific respiration indicated a high adaptive capacity to increasing temperatures, but also the ability to adapt to temperatures as low as 16 °C. Our results indicate that the predicted temperature sensitivity of A. alosa cannot be explained by a direct physiological relationship. The obtained results can help to improve predictive modelling and the conservation of allis shad throughout its current distribution range.

  16. Effect of Salinity Adaptation Technique on Survival and Growth Rate of Patin Catfish, Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nirmala

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of salinity adaptation techniques on growth and survival of patin catfish Pangasius sp. fry.  Fry of 1.5-2.0 inch in length were reared in the water with different of the initial salinity of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ppt.  Salinity was then daily increased by duplicated the initial water salinity until fish died.  The results of study showed that fry could survive by initial salinity adaptation of 1 ppt and then increasing the salinity by 1 ppt/day to reach 27 ppt.  In the other treatments, all fry died after the salinity reach 18-25 ppt. Keywords: patin catfish, Pangasius, adaptation, salinity   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik adaptasi salinitas terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan patin Pangasius sp.  Benih patin ukuran 1,5-2 inci dipelihara pada salinitas awal berbeda, yaitu 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 ppt. Salinitas air pemeliharaan ditingkatkan kelipatan dari salinitas awal setiap hari hingga ikan mati.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa adaptasi salinitas awal 1 ppt dan peningkatan sebesar 1ppt/hari menyebabkan ikan dapat bertahan hidup sampai pada salinitas 27 ppt. Pada perlakuan lainnya, benih ikan mengalami kematian masal ketika salinitas mencapai 18-25 ppt. Kata kunci: ikan patin, Pangasius, adaptasi, salinitas

  17. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

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    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  18. Long-Term Survival of Dialysis Patients with Bacterial Endocarditis Undergoing Valvular Replacement Surgery in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leither, Maxwell D.; Shroff, Gautam R.; Ding, Shu; Gilbertson, David T.; Herzog, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial endocarditis in dialysis patients is associated with high mortality rates. The literature is limited regarding long-term outcomes of valvular replacement surgery and choice of prosthesis in dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis. Methods and Results Dialysis patients hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis, 2004-2007, were studied retrospectively using data from the US Renal Data System. Long-term survival of patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with tissue or non-tissue valves was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valvular replacement surgery. During the study period, 11,156 dialysis patients were hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis and 1267 (11.4%) underwent valvular replacement surgery (tissue valve 44.3%, non-tissue valve 55.7%). In the valve replacement cohort, 60% were men, 50% white, 54% aged 45-64 years, and 36% diabetic. Estimated survival with tissue and non-tissue valves, respectively, at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 years was 59% and 60%, 48% and 50%, 35% and 37%, and 25% and 30% (log rank P = 0.42). Staphylococcus was the predominant organism (66% of identified organisms). Independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery included older age, diabetes as cause of end-stage renal disease, surgery during index hospitalization, staphylococcus as the causative organism, and dysrhythmias as a comorbid condition. Conclusions Valve replacement surgery is appropriate for well-selected dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis, but is associated with high mortality rates. Survival does not differ with tissue or non-tissue prosthesis. PMID:23785002

  19. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... for NIC. For babies rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  20. Dose-rate effects on the cell cycle and survival of S3 HeLa and V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; Bedford, J.S.; Bailey, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of continuous irradiation at different dose rates on the cell cycle and on cell survival were studied using synchronized S3 HeLa and V79 cells. The minimum dose rate necessary to stop cell division was found to be approximately 23 rad/hr for HeLa cells and 270 rad/hr for V79 cells. For dose rates that stop cell division, cells progress through G 1 and S, with a small delay in the S phase, and are blocked in G 2 . Appreciable mitotic accumulation was observed for HeLa cells at dose rates which stopped cell division. By comparison, much less mitotic accumulation was observed for V79 cells over a range of dose rates from 37 to 270 rad/hr. Minimum mitotic delays for a variety of dose rates were determined for both cell lines. S3 HeLa cells are much more sensitive in this respect than V79 cells; however, it appeared that for higher dose rates the minimum mitotic delay in HeLa cells asymptotically approached a value of about 35 hr. In addition to the qualitative differences observed for the two cell lines in regard to mitotic accumulation, HeLa cells accumulated for prolonged periods in the presence of colcemid while V79 cells were blocked for only a few hours, HeLa cells show a dramatic effect of redistribution of cells into sensitive phases of the cell cycle during exposure, which was reflected in the survival curves at low dose rate. More cell killing per unit dose was observed at 37 than at 74 rad/hr

  1. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Araújo, Márcio SS; Costa-Neto, João M; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Barrouin-Melo, Stella M; Cardoso, Sergio V; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Serakides, Rogéria; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4 + (≥ 66.7%) or CD8 + T-cells (<33.3%) were not associated with worse survival rate. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only lymphocytic infiltrate intensity ≥ 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P < 0.05). The relative percentage of CD4 + T-cells was significantly greater in metastasized tumors (both MC-BMT and MC), (P < 0.05) while the proportion of CD8 + T-cells was higher in MC-BMT without

  2. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999–1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  3. Influence of complete administration of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles on overall and disease-free survival in locally advanced rectal cancer: post hoc analysis of a randomized, multicenter, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra-Petrescu, Flavius; Herrle, Florian; Burkholder, Iris; Kienle, Peter; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2018-04-03

    A randomized trial demonstrated that capecitabine is at least as effective as fluorouracil in the adjuvant treatment of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, not all patients receive all planned cycles of chemotherapy. Therefore it is of interest how complete or partial administration of chemotherapy influences oncological outcome. A post hoc analysis of a trial with 401 randomized patients, nine being excluded because of missing data, was performed. 392 patients (197 - capecitabine, 195 - fluorouracil) could be analyzed regarding the number of administered adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. In the subgroup of 361 patients with an overall survival of at least six months, five-year overall and disease-free survival were analyzed in respect to completion (complete vs. incomplete) of chemotherapy cycles. Survival rates and curves were calculated and compared using the log-rank test. The effect of completion of chemotherapy was adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Two hundred fifty-one (64.0%) of analyzed patients received all postoperative scheduled cycles. Five-year overall survival was significantly better in these patients compared to the incomplete group (76.0 vs. 60.6%, p cycles. Five-year overall survival was also significantly better than in the incomplete group (76.0 vs. 66.4%, p = 0.0073). Five-year disease free survival was numerically better (64.9 vs. 58.7%, p = 0.0646; HR [not all cycles vs. all cycles] = 1.42 95% CI: [0.98, 2.07]). Cox regression models show a non-significant better OS (p = 0.061) and DFS (p = 0.083), if chemotherapy cycles were administered completely. Complete administration of chemotherapy cycles was associated with improved five-year overall and disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

  4. The Effect of Coexistence of a Pair of Mutated Oncogenes on the Survival Rate of Invasive Breast Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of two mutated oncogenes on the survival rate from invasive breast carcinoma when in comparison to the mutation of a single oncogene on the survival rate. An oncogene is defined as a gene, that when mutated, can lead to cancer. The two oncogenes used in this project were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and c-myc (MYC). HER2 and MYC are both oncogenes that contribute to the formation of cancer. HER2 proteins are receptors on breast cells, and when the HER2 gene is mutated, there is an overexpression of HER2 protein on the breast cell. This makes the breast cells proliferate uncontrollably. MYC is a gene that codes for a transcription factor that plays a role in cell cycle progression. The overexpression of MYC also leads to the proliferation of cells. I hypothesized that if there is a mutation in both the MYC and HER2 genes, then the survival rate of invasive breast carcinoma patients will be lower compared to patients with the mutations of only MYC or HER2. To test this hypothesis, we conducted individual gene searches in CBioPortal for HER2 in the datasets from the studies titled TCGA Nature 2012, TCGA Cell 2015, and TCGA Provisional. We conducted individual gene searches in CBioPortal for MYC in the same datasets. The survival rate data was then exported and analyzed for patients with mutations of either HER2 or MYC and with mutations of both genes. To determine the cases that had both HER2 and MYC mutations, we found the overlapping cases in both HER2 and MYC groups for all three datasets. We calculated the median of the survival data for cases where either HER2 or MYC was mutated and cases where both MYC and HER2 were mutated. From the first dataset, the median of MYC data was 95.53, HER2 data was 95.83, and both HER2 and MYC data was 91.24. In the second dataset, the median of MYC data was 92.17 , HER2 data was 93.5, and both HER2 and MYC data was 87.95 . In the third dataset, the median

  5. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  6. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.

  7. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana; Silva, Luanna R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of 60 Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD 50 obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  8. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  9. The expression of FAT1 is associated with overall survival in children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianzhong; Li, Hao

    2017-01-21

    The FAT1 gene is involved in some cancers; however, its role in medulloblastoma is less clear. This study investigated the effects of FAT1 expression on the prognosis of medulloblastoma patients. Whole exome sequencing was undertaken in 40 medulloblastoma patient samples. FAT1 mRNA and protein expression levels in normal and brain tumor tissues were determined by fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The association of FAT1 expression with overall survival (OS) was examined by Kaplan-Meier curve analysis with a log-rank test. Following lentiviral-mediated FAT1 knockdown using shRNA in Daoy cells, proliferation, Wnt signaling, and β-catenin protein expression were determined. Eight FAT1 missense mutations were detected in 7 patients. FAT1 mRNA expression in tumors was significantly lower than in adjacent normal tissue (p = 0.043). The OS of patients with high FAT1 protein expression was significantly longer than that of patients with low FAT1 protein expression (median survival time: 24.3 vs 4.8 months, respectively; p = 0.002). shFAT1 cells had significantly higher proliferation rates than shControl cells (p≤0.028). Furthermore, the mRNA expression of LEF1, β-catenin, and cyclin D1 was significantly upregulated in shFAT1-Daoy cells (p≤0.018). Low FAT1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in children with medulloblastoma. Furthermore, FAT1 may act on Wnt signaling pathway to exert its antitumor effect.

  10. Survival of tumor bearing mice by sequencing of low dose rate (LDR) neutron and photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onomura, C.I.; Feola, J.M.; Maruyama, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Cf-252 neutron radiation (NT) has been shown to be effective therapy for bulky, hypoxic human tumor and to produce consistent rapid clearance and 5 year cures. NT has been found to be more or less effective depending upon the schedule in which it is used and upon mixing with photon radiation. In an effort to study this scheduling and photon effect, LSA tumor was irradiated in vivo in a hypoxic, advanced state, in different schedules in combination of NT with Co-60 photons. The LSA lymphoma of C57BL/ym mice represents an accurate system to assess dose-response of tumor cells in vivo. Mean survival time was used as endpoint. A high RBE for LDR Cf-252 NT was observed with a RBE(n) of -- 5.0. The effect was not greatly sensitive to sequence in which photons were used. Comparison studies were also tested relative to LDR Cs-137 photon radiation. The results support the high efficacy of LDR NT for destruction of hypoxic tumor in vivo

  11. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  12. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  13. Comparison of peritonitis rates and patient survival in automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama

    2016-09-01

    Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.

  14. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  15. Lovastatin delays infection and increases survival rates in AG129 mice infected with dengue virus serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that treatment of DENV-infected cultures with Lovastatin (LOV, can affect viral assembly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LOV on the survival rate and viremia levels of DENV-2-infected AG129 mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were inoculated with 1 × 10(6 plaque-forming units (PFU/ml of DENV-2 and treated with LOV (200 mg/kg/day. Pre-treatment with one or three doses of LOV increased the survival rate compared to untreated mice (7.3 and 7.1 days, respectively, compared to 4.8 days. Viremia levels also decreased by 21.8% compared to untreated mice, but only in the group administered three doses prior to inoculation. When LOV was administered after viral inoculation, the survival rate increased (7.3 days in the group treated at 24 hpi, 6.8 days in the group treated at 48 hpi and 6.5 days in the group treated with two doses compared to the untreated group (4.8 days. Interestingly, the serum viral titer increased by 24.6% in mice treated at 48 hpi with a single dose of LOV and by 21.7% in mice treated with two doses (at 24 and 48 hpi of LOV compared to untreated mice. Finally histopathological changes in the liver and spleen in infected and untreated mice included massive extramedullary erythropoiesis foci and inflammatory filtration, and these characteristics were decreased or absent in LOV-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the effect of LOV on viremia depends on the timing of treatment and on the number of doses administered. We observed a significant increase in the survival rate in both schemes due to a delay in the progression of the disease. However, the results obtained in the post-treatment scheme must be handled carefully because this treatment scheme increases viremia and we do not know how this increase could affect disease progression in humans.

  16. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and World War I veterans. The applicable maximum annual rate payable to a Mexican border period or World War I veteran under this section shall be increased by the amount specified in 38 U.S.C. 1521(g...(d)) (3) Veterans who are housebound. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1521(e)) (4) Two veterans married to one...

  17. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.; Kremer, Shelly R.; Mason, Corey D.; Peterson, Markus J.; Calhoun, Kirby W.

    2012-01-01

    the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band

  18. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  19. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1, and 1000 mgl-1 of formalin resulted in total egg mortality (0% hatching rate). In the definitive ... treatment of fish disease, particularly fungi, as in this study, where it effectively reduced fungi on eggs and larvae of ... salmon held for spawning).

  20. Impact of point A asymmetry on local control and survival for low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfermann, Krisha J; Wahlquist, Amy; Watkins, John; Kohler, Matthew; Jenrette, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether Point A asymmetry in low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy is associated with local control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS) and/or overall survival (OS). A retrospective analysis of disease control and survival outcomes was conducted for patients who underwent LDR brachytherapy for advanced cervical cancer. Institutional protocol entailed concurrent chemotherapy and whole pelvis radiotherapy (WPRT) over 5 weeks, followed by placement of Fletcher-Suit tandem and colpostat applicators at weeks 6 and 8. Objective Point A doses, 80-85 Gy, were accomplished by placement of Cesium-137 (Cs-137) sources. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between disease control and survival endpoints with variables of interest. The records of 50 patients with FIGO stage IB1-IVA cervical cancer undergoing LDR brachytherapy at our institution were identified. Thirty of these patients had asymmetry > 2.5%, and 11 patients had asymmetry > 5%. At a median survivor follow-up of 20.25 months, 15 patients had experienced disease failure (including 5 cervical/vaginal apex only failures and 2 failures encompassing the local site). Right/left dose asymmetry at Point A was associated with statistically significantly inferior LC (p = 0.035) and inferior DFS (p = 0.011) for patients with mean Point A dose of > 80 Gy. Insufficient evidence existed to conclude an association with OS. LDR brachytherapy may be associated with clinically significant dose asymmetry. The present study demonstrates that patients with Point A asymmetry have a higher risk of failure for DFS and LC.

  1. Comparative Study of Inguinal Hernia Repair Rates After Radical Prostatectomy or External Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lughezzani, Giovanni; Sun, Maxine; Perrotte, Paul; Alasker, Ahmed; Jeldres, Claudio; Isbarn, Hendrik; Budaeus, Lars; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Valiquette, Luc; Benard, Francois; Saad, Fred; Graefen, Markus; Montorsi, Francesco; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that patients treated for localized prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy (RP) have a higher risk of requiring an inguinal hernia (IH) repair than their counterparts treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Within the Quebec Health Plan database, we identified 6,422 men treated with RP and 4,685 men treated with EBRT for localized prostate cancer between 1990 and 2000, in addition to 6,933 control patients who underwent a prostate biopsy. From among that population, we identified patients who underwent a unilateral or bilateral hernia repair after either RP or EBRT. Kaplan-Meier plots showed IH repair-free survival rates. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models tested the predictors of IH repair after RP or EBRT. Covariates consisted of age, year of surgery, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: IH repair-free survival rates at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years were 96.8, 94.3, 90.5, and 86.2% vs. 98.9, 98.0, 95.4, and 92.2%, respectively, in RP vs. EBRT patients (log-rank test, p < 0.001). IH repair-free survival rates in the biopsy population were 98.3, 97.1, 94.9, and 90.2% at the same four time points. In multivariable Cox regression models, RP predisposed to a 2.3-fold higher risk of IH repair than EBRT (p < 0.001). Besides therapy type, patient age (p < 0.001) represented the only other independent predictor of IH repair. Conclusions: RP predisposes to a higher rate of IH repair relative to EBRT. This observation should be considered at informed consent.

  2. Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast has a better long-term survival than invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast in spite of its aggressive clinical presentations: a comparison based on large population database and case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongliang; Wu, Kejin; Wang, Maoli; Wang, Fuwen; Zhang, Mingdi; Zhang, Peng

    2017-12-01

    There are controversies in the comparison of overall survival between invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast (IMPC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The objective of this study was to compare the long-term survival outcome between non-metastatic IMPC and IDC. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was searched to identify women with non-metastatic IMPC and IDC diagnosed between 2001 and 2013. Comparisons of patient and tumor characteristics were performed using Pearson's chi-square. The propensity score matching method was applied with each IMPC matched to one IDC. Breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and compared across groups using the log-rank statistic. Multivariate analysis was performed through Cox models. IMPC was presented with aggressive clinical presentations such as larger tumor, more positive lymph nodes, and more advanced stage compared with IDC. A higher rate of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) positivity was also observed in IMPC. With a median follow-up of 64 months, IMPC had a better BCSS (P = 0.031) and OS (P = 0.012) compared with IDC. In a case-control analysis IMPC was still an independent favorable prognostic factor for BCSS (HR = 0.410, P analysis, IMPC always showed a better survival outcome compared with IDC except in AJCC stage I and histologic grade I disease. IMPC has a better long-term survival outcome compared with IDC in spite of its highly aggressive clinical presentation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Different Feed and Stocking Densities on Growth And Survival Rate Of Blue Swimming Crablets (Portunus pelagicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyati, R. W.; Rejeki, S.; Bosma, R. H.

    2018-02-01

    Blue swimming crab is targeted by commercial fisheries because of the high economic value, good taste, and attractive colors. As a result, the stock is overexploited and fisherman catch market also juveniles. The most sustainable solution would be to stop fishing for commercial trade and to culture this crab from brood to market size. This study aimed to find the best feed and stocking density for the on-growing of crablets. In 20 tanks juvenile crabs with a carapace width±1 cm were stocked in three densities; 40, 60 and 80 crablets / m2, and fed ad-libitum twice a day with either trash fish or pellets of shrimp feed, for 8 weeks. The circular (ᴓ 1.6 m x 1 m) tanks with 1 m3 of water were aerated, and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH recorded daily. In the end, growth and survival rates were determined. In general, feeding the crablets at a density of 40 m-2 gave the highest growth. For crablest fed with pellets, the density of 40 m-2 gave significantly better growth than 80 m-2. The crablets at a density 40 m-2 having a fish diet with the density 40 m-2 grew better than 60 and 80 m-2. There was no significant difference between fed used among different densities. The lower densities resulted in higher survival, either on crablets fed with pellets or fish. But, crablets fed the fish diet and cultured in the lowest density (40 m-2) had the highest survival rate.

  4. Effect of low-energy coherent radiation with lambda=6328 A on the survival rate of Saccharomyces cerevisial of strain 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the continuous monochromatic coherent laser radiation on the survival rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae of strain 14 is studied. The effect of laser radiation is judged by the change in the survival rate of the yeast culture before and after the irradiation. The decrease of the number of the yeast cells in the initial moments of the irradiation was observed as a result of the laser irradiation. Then the rapid decrease of the number of cells with time changes into their constant number. It is established that the low-energy coherent radiation decreases the survival rate by 30-40%

  5. Prognostic factors and survival of colorectal cancer in Kurdistan province, Iran: A population-based study (2009-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Moradi, Ghobad; Roshani, Daem; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghaytasi, Bahman

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival varies at individual and geographically level. This population-based study aimed to evaluating various factors affecting the survival rate of CRC patients in Kurdistan province.In a retrospective cohort study, patients diagnosed as CRC were collected through a population-based study from March 1, 2009 to 2014. The data were collected from Kurdistan's Cancer Registry database. Additional information and missing data were collected reference to patients' homes, medical records, and pathology reports. The CRC survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis to the date of cancer-specific death or the end of follow-up (cutoff date: October 2015). Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for the univariate analysis of survival in various subgroups. The proportional-hazard model Cox was also used in order to consider the effects of different factors on survival including age at diagnosis, place of residence, marital status, occupation, level of education, smoking, economic status, comorbidity, tumor stage, and tumor grade.A total number of 335 patients affected by CRC were assessed and the results showed that 1- and 5-year survival rate were 87% and 33%, respectively. According to the results of Cox's multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly related to CRC survival: age at diagnosis (≥65 years old) (HR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.17-3.71), single patients (HR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10-2.40), job (worker) (HR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.22-3.58), educational level: diploma or below (HR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39-0.92), wealthy economic status (HR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31-0.82), tumor grade in poorly differentiated (HR 2.25, 95% CI: 1.37-3.69), and undifferentiated/anaplastic grade (HR 2.90, 95% CI: 1.67-4.98).We found that factors such as low education, inappropriate socioeconomic status, and high tumor grade at the time of disease diagnosis were effective in the poor survival of CRC patients in Kurdistan province; this, which need more attention.

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  7. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI, survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p=0.230. The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.. Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor.

  8. Patients with brain metastases from gastrointestinal tract cancer treated with whole brain radiation therapy:Prognostic factors and survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Bartelt; Felix Momm; Christian Weissenberger; Johannes Lutterbach

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the prognostic factors with regard to survival for patients with brain metastasis from primary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.METHODS: Nine hundred and sixteen patients with brain metastases, treated with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) between January 1985 and December 2000 at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg, were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients presented with a primary tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (esophagus: n = 0, stomach:n = 10, colorectal: n = 47). Twenty-six patients had a solitary brain metastasis, 31 patients presented with multiple brain metastases. Surgical resection was performed in 25 patients.WBRTwas applied with daily fractions of 2 Gray (Gy) or 3 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy or 30 Gy, respectively. The interval between diagnoses of the primary tumors and brain metastases was 22.6 mo vs8.0 mo for patients with primary tumors of the colon/rectum vs other primary tumors,respectively (P<0.01, log-rank). Median overall survival for all patients with brain metastases (n = 916) was 3.4 mo and 3.2 mo for patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms.Patients with gastrointestinal primary tumors presented significantly more often with a solitary brain metastasis than patients with other primary tumors (P<0.05, log-rank). In patients with gastrointestinal neoplasms (n = 57), the median overall survival was 5.8 mo for patients with solitary brain metastasis vs 2.7 mo for patients with multiple brain metastases (P<0.01, log-rank). The median overall survival for patients with a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥70was 5.5 mo vs2.1 mo for patients with KPS <70 (P<0.01,log-rank). At multivariate analysis (Cox Model) the performance status and the number of brain metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival.CONCLUSION: Brain metastases occur late in the course of gastrointestinal tumors. Pretherapeutic variables like KPS and the

  9. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the LD 50 in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD 50 s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively

  10. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L 50 in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD 50 s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively

  11. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Susanne; Hable, Volker; Greubel, Christoph; Drexler, Guido A; Schmid, Thomas E; Belka, Claus; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2011-01-01

    Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >10 9 Gy s -1 may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly

  12. [Treatment outcome, survival and their risk factors among new tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV during the Ebola outbreak in Conakry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, A; Sow, M S; Touré, A; Diallo, O H; Kaba, I; Bah, B; Diallo, T H; Diallo, M S; Guilavogui, T; Sow, O Y

    2017-11-01

    Mortality among TB/HIV co-infected patients remains high in Africa. The study aimed to estimate survival and associated factors in a cohort of TB/HIV co-infected patients who started tuberculosis treatment during the Ebola outbreak in Conakry, Guinea. A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2015. TB patients with HIV co-infection were enrolled at the University Hospital of Conakry. Survival and risk factors were analyzed according to Kaplan-Meier's method, log-rank test and Cox's regression. Data from 573 patients were analyzed. From these, 86 (15.0%) died before the end of treatment, 52% occurring within eight weeks of treatment onset. Survival at 4, 12 and 24 weeks after the beginning of the TB treatment was 92%, 86% and 83%, respectively. Independent risk factors associated with death were in the cell CD4 <200 cells/mm 3 [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 2.25; 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.16-4.37], opportunistic infections other than TB [AHR: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.39-6.02], and comorbidities [AHR: 4.12; 95% CI: 2.10-8.10]. An increase of one unit in hemoglobin [AHR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75-0.91] was protective of death. TB/HIV co-infected patients had a higher fatality rate during treatment of tuberculosis. Prevention of opportunistic infections, anemia and proper management of tuberculosis treatment in early comorbidities may improve survival for TB/HIV co-infected patients in restoring immune function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  14. Improved overall survival after early recurrence of lung cancer following the introduction of CT-based follow-up for patients initially treated with curative intent by (chemo)radiotherapy (CRT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Chr. G.; Laursen, Christian B.; Jeppesen, Stefan S.

    2017-01-01

    years after the introduction of CT-based follow-up. The difference between the periods is statistically significant (p = 0.009, log rank test).View this table:Conclusion: The CT-based follow-up program has most likely contributed to the improved survival as the survival difference between the periods......Background: After introduction in July 2010 of follow-up by contrast enhanced CT of thorax and upper abdomen every 3 months for two years and then every 6 months for three years we found improved survival after early recurrence in patients initially treated by surgery (Eur Respir J 2015; 46 suppl...

  15. Survival benefit of TIPS versus serial paracentesis in patients with refractory ascites: a single institution case-control propensity score analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaba, R.C.; Parvinian, A.; Casadaban, L.C.; Couture, P.M.; Zivin, S.P.; Lakhoo, J.; Minocha, J.; Ray, C.E.; Knuttinen, M.G.; Bui, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the impact of covered stent-graft transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus serial paracentesis on survival of patients with medically refractory ascites. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, cirrhotic patients who underwent covered stent-graft TIPS for refractory ascites from 2003–2013 were compared with similar patients who underwent serial paracentesis during 2009–2013. Demographic and liver disease data, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, and survival outcomes were obtained from hospital electronic medical records and the social security death index. After propensity score weighting to match study group characteristics, survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan–Meier statistics with log-rank analysis. Results: Seventy TIPS (70% men, mean age 55.7 years, mean MELD 15.1) and 80 paracentesis (58% men, mean age 53.5 years, mean MELD 22.5) patients were compared. The TIPS haemodynamic success rate was 100% (mean portosystemic pressure gradient reduction 13 mmHg). Paracentesis patients underwent a mean of 7.9 procedures. After propensity score weighting to balance group features, TIPS patients showed a trend toward enhanced survival compared with paracentesis patients (median survival 1037 versus 262 days, p = 0.074). TIPS conferred a significant increase or trend toward improved survival compared with paracentesis at 1 (66% versus 44%, p = 0.018), 2 (56% versus 38%, p = 0.057), and 3 year (49% versus 32%, p = 0.077) time points. Thirty and 90 day mortality rates were not statistically increased by TIPS. Conclusion: Covered stent-graft TIPS improves intermediate- to long-term survival without significantly increasing short-term mortality of ascites patients, and suggests a greater potential role for TIPS in properly selected ascitic patients when medical management fails. - Highlights: • The survival benefit of TIPS for patients with refractory ascites remains unproven. • A case

  16. WATER QUALITY AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE OF LOBSTER REARED IN FLOATING NET CAGE IN EKAS BAY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Junaidi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of lobster farming in floating net cage in Ekas Bay caused an environmental degradation such as decrease water quality due to some aquaculture wastes. The purposes of this study were to determine the status of water quality and their effect on growth and survival rate of lobster reared in floating net cages (FNC in the Ekas Bay, West Nusa Tenggara Province. Water sample collection and handling referred to the APHA (1992. Analyses of water quality data were conducted using Principal Component Analysis. Determination of the water quality status of Ekas Bay was performed with STORET system. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the relationship between water quality, growth, and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Results showed that Ekas Bay water quality status was categorized in class C (medium contaminated, which exceeded some quality standard parameters such as ammonia (0.3 mg/l, nitrate (0.008 mg/l, and phosphate (0.015 mg/l. During lobster farming activities feeding with trash fish for 270 days, we obtained daily growth rate of  0.74% (lower than normal growth rate of 0.86%, survival rate of 66% (lower than normal survival rate of 86.7%, and feed conversion ratio of 11.15. Ammonia was found as a dominant factor reducing growth  and survival rate of lobster reared in FNC. Keywords: water quality, lobsters, growth, survival, Ekas Bay

  17. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear...... thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  18. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegwin Bonar

    Full Text Available In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149-4160 proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19. We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43 and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134. For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01. The predicted distributions of calf

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: pathologic complete response rate, predictive and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.C. Buzatto

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the pathologic complete response (pCR rate from patients (n=86 with stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution from 2008 to 2013 and to determine possible predictive and prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry for hormone receptors and Ki-67 was carried out. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed as predictive factors of response to therapy. For survival analysis, we used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate 5-year survival rates and the log-rank test to compare the curves. The addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved pCR rate from 4.8 to 46.8%, regardless of the number of preoperative trastuzumab cycles (P=0.0012. Stage II patients achieved a higher response rate compared to stage III (P=0.03. The disease-free and overall survivals were not significantly different between the group of patients that received trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting (56.3 and 70% at 5 years, respectively and the group that initiated it post-operatively (75.8 and 88.7% at 5 years, respectively. Axillary pCR post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR=0.34; P=0.03 and death (HR=0.21; P=0.02. In conclusion, we confirmed that trastuzumab improves pCR rates and verified that this improvement occurs even with less than four cycles of the drug. Hormone receptors and Ki-67 expressions were not predictive of response in this subset of patients. Axillary pCR clearly denotes prognosis after neoadjuvant target therapy and should be considered to be a marker of resistance, providing an opportunity to investigate new strategies for HER2-positive treatment.

  20. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  1. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  2. Effect of clearcutting operations on the survival rate of a small mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín A H Escobar

    Full Text Available Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis, a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g., higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc.

  3. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  4. Effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of human Y79 cells after down-regulation of Mcl-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of Y79 after down-regulation of Mcl-1 by SiRNA. METHODS: Y79 cells were cultured in RPMI1640. The cultured cells were stimulated with 0.25μmol/L of oxaliplatin. The expression of Mcl-1 protein was detected by Western blot after 6, 16 and 24h respectively. Cells in logarithmic phase were collected and used for single-cell suspension. Then they were transfected with empty plasmid, Mcl-1-homo-991, Mcl-1-homo-1114 and Mcl-1-homo-1235. After 6h, fluorescence microscope was used to observe the transfection efficiency and the optimal one was selected. The cells were divided into Group A and transfected with empty plasmids. The cells transfected with Mcl-1 were divided into Group B and Group C. Group A and Group C were treated with 0.25μmol/L oxaliplatin for stimulating induction, and the apoptotic rate was compared after 24h.RESULTS: The expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 stimulated by oxaliplatin was the most after 24h of culture. Mcl-1-homo-991 significantly inhibited the expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 after transfection. There was no significant difference in the apoptosis rate in Group A(11.1%±1.2%and in the control group(6.1%±0.6%(P>0.05. The apoptotic rate of Group C(49.2%±2.7%was significantly higher than that of Group B(20.8%±1.9%. At the same time, the apoptotic rates of these two groups were significantly higher than those of Group A and control group, the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Downregulation of Mcl-1 by siRNA can reduce the drug resistance of Y79, thereby enhancing the apoptosis of Y79, and reducing the survival rate of Y79.

  5. A genetic polymorphism in TOX3 is associated with survival of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

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    Xiaojing Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recently, genetic polymorphism (rs3803662C>T in TOX3 was reported to induce the risk of breast cancer. In this study, we hypothesized that rs3803662 could influence gastric cancer survival outcomes. METHODS: With multiplex SNaPshot method, we genotyped TOX3 rs3803662 in 880 gastric patients with surgical resection. The association between genotype and survival outcomes was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression analysis models and the log-rank test. RESULTS: There was no association in the analyses of rs3803662 and survival of gastric cancer. However, the stratified analysis by histology showed that rs3803662 CT/TT genotype was associated with a significantly better survival for diffuse-type gastric cancer (log-rank p = 0.030, hazard ratio [HR]  = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]  = 0.46-0.96, than the CC genotype. In addition, this favorable effect was especially obvious among gastric cancer patients with tumor size >5 cm, T3 and T4 depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, no drinking, no distant metastasis, no chemotherapy and gastric cardia cancer. CONCLUSIONS: TOX3 rs3803662 might play an important role in the prognostic outcome and treatment of gastric cancer, especially perhaps further help in explaining the reduced risk of death associated with diffuse-type gastric cancer.

  6. Prevalence and severity of hepatopulmonary syndrome and its influence on survival in cirrhotic patients evaluated for liver transplantation.

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    Pascasio, J M; Grilo, I; López-Pardo, F J; Ortega-Ruiz, F; Tirado, J L; Sousa, J M; Rodriguez-Puras, M J; Ferrer, M T; Sayago, M; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Grilo, A

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and its influence on survival before and after liver transplantation (LT) remain controversial. Additionally, the chronology of post-LT reversibility is unclear. This study prospectively analyzed 316 patients with cirrhosis who were evaluated for LT in 2002-2007; 177 underwent LT at a single reference hospital. HPS was defined by a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) position and positive contrast echocardiography. The prevalence of HPS was 25.6% (81/316 patients), and most patients (92.6%) had mild or moderate HPS. High Child-Pugh scores and the presence of ascites were independently associated with HPS. Patients with and without HPS did not significantly differ in LT waiting list survival (mean 34.6 months vs. 41.6 months, respectively; log-rank, p = 0.13) or post-LT survival (mean 45 months vs. 47.6 months, respectively; log-rank, p = 0.62). HPS was reversed in all cases within 1 year after LT. One-fourth of the patients with cirrhosis who were evaluated for LT had HPS (mostly mild to moderate); the presence of HPS did not affect LT waiting list survival. HPS was always reversed after LT, and patient prognosis did not worsen. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. The effect of retraining of nurses on cardiopulmonary resuscitationsuccess rate and short-term and long-term survival in patients revived

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    Dahi M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is performed in order to restore the functioning of two most important body organs the heart and brain. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retraining of nurses on CPR success rate and short-term and long-term CPR survival. Materials and Method: The study population of the present quasi-experimental study consisted of all nurses of Taleghani Hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The study subjects (n = 400 were selected using convenience and purposive sampling method. The patient survival rate during the first 24 hours (short-term survival and discharge from the hospital (long-term survival after CPR were reported. Then, the study subjects, in groups of 20, participated in CPR training courses. Short-term (24 hours and long-term (discharge from hospital in good mental status survival subsequent to CPR were reevaluated and compared with pre-training results. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20, and t-test and chi-square test. Results: Retraining promoted CPR success rates. This increase in the short-term success rate was not significant, but the increase in long-term success rate was statistically significant (P = 0.007. Conclusion: Periodic retraining of nurses may improve CPR success rate particularly long-term survival or discharge from hospital. Therefore, further studies on long-term success of CPR considering confounding factors are recommended

  8. PENGARUH VARIASI PERSENTASE EKSTRAK JANGKRIK (Gryllus sp Walk YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP TINGKAT SURVIVAL RATE BENIH IKAN MAS KOKI (Carrasius auratus L

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    Elrifadah Elrifadah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study Aims to Determine the effect of different variations on survival seed cicada goldfish. The method used in this study is completely randomized design with 3 treatments (A = 3%, B = 5%, and C = 7% and three replications. From these results Obtained survival rate to 83.0% Obtained treatment A, B Obtained 88.33% and 80.0% Obtained C treatment. Then the results of analysis of variance accept the hypothesis Ho that the percentage variation of different cicada extract (3%, 5% and 7% did not Affect the survival rate of seedlings goldfish. During the last condition of water quality research support for seed viability parameters goldfish.

  9. Solitary plasmacytoma: population-based analysis of survival trends and effect of various treatment modalities in the USA.

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    Thumallapally, Nishitha; Meshref, Ahmed; Mousa, Mohammed; Terjanian, Terenig

    2017-01-05

    Solitary plasmacytoma (SP) is a localized neoplastic plasma cell disorder with an annual incidence of less than 450 cases. Given the rarity of this disorder, it is difficult to conduct large-scale population studies. Consequently, very limited information on the disorder is available, making it difficult to estimate the incidence and survival rates. Furthermore, limited information is available on the efficacy of various treatment modalities in relation to primary tumor sites. The data for this retrospective study were drawn from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, which comprises 18 registries; patient demographics, treatment modalities and survival rates were obtained for those diagnosed with SP from 1998 to 2007. Various prognostic factors were analyzed via Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test, with 5-year relative survival rate defined as the primary outcome of interest. Cox regression analysis was employed in the multivariate analysis. The SEER search from 1998 to 2007 yielded records for 1691 SP patients. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. The patient cohort was 62.4% male, 37.6% female, 80% Caucasian, 14.6% African American and 5.4% other races. Additionally, 57.8% had osseous plasmacytoma, and 31.9% had extraosseous involvement. Unspecified plasmacytoma was noted in 10.2% of patients. The most common treatment modalities were radiotherapy (RT) (48.8%), followed by combination surgery with RT (21.2%) and surgery alone (11.6%). Univariate analysis of prognostic factors revealed that the survival outcomes were better for younger male patients who received RT with surgery (p multiple myeloma (MM) was noted in 551 patients. Age >60 years was associated with a lower 5-year survival in patients who progressed to MM compared to those who were diagnosed initially with MM (15.1 vs 16.6%). Finally, those who received RT and progressed to MM still had a higher chance of survival than those who were diagnosed with MM initially and

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

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    Alena JEŽKOVÁ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts, sperm motility (SM during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval, open days (SP, inseminations number for pregnancy (index, and pregnancy rates (PR in Holstein cows (n=284. Signifi cant differences of interval, SP and index were detected also in relation to number of AI and day of lactation (P < 0.001. Cows without reproduction diseases (healthy had better results of interval, SP (P < 0.01, index and PR. Pregnancy rate of healthy cows was by 11.43% higher, but without statistical signifi cance. The higher results of PR (62.74% were discovered in relation to ferny-like crystallization of cervical mucus (P < 0.001. CMC affected results of cervical mucus survival test, the highest motility of sperms after the 60 and 90 minutes was assumed in the case of club moss – ferny (14.80% and 7.96% and ferny-like crystallization (13.82% and 8.47% with statistical signifi cance (P < 0.05. The choice of these characteristics and defi nition of their relations allows assuming their using for detailed study and determination of the cows´ biological ability to conceive, the one of the main components of effi ciency of cows´ reproduction.

  11. Improved survival and complete response rates in patients with advanced melanoma treated with concurrent ipilimumab and radiotherapy versus ipilimumab alone.

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    Koller, Kristian M; Mackley, Heath B; Liu, Jason; Wagner, Henry; Talamo, Giampaolo; Schell, Todd D; Pameijer, Colette; Neves, Rogerio I; Anderson, Bryan; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Mallon, Carol A; Drabick, Joseph J

    2017-01-02

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the synergistic roles of radiotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of malignancy. Published case studies of the abscopal effect have been reported with the use of ipilimumab and radiotherapy in metastatic melanoma, but evidence supporting the routine use of this combination of therapy is limited. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate patients treated with ipilimumab for advanced melanoma at a single institution from May 2011 to June 2015. Patients were grouped into those who had received concurrent radiotherapy while on ipilimumab (Ipi-RT), and those who did not. We then evaluated the treatment response following completion of ipilimumab. A total of 101 patients received ipilimumab in the prespecified time frame. 70 received Ipi-RT and 31 received ipilimumab without concurrent radiotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly increased in the concurrent Ipi-RT arm at 19 months vs. 10 months for ipilimumab alone (p = 0.01). Median progression free survival (PFS) was marginally increased in the Ipi-RT group compare with the ipilimumab alone group (5 months vs. 3 months, p = 0.20). Rates of complete response (CR) were significantly increased in the Ipi-RT group vs. ipilimumab alone (25.7% vs. 6.5%; p = 0.04), and rates of overall response (OR) in the groups were 37.1% vs. 19.4% (p = 0.11). No increase in toxicities was observed in the Ipi-RT group compare with ipilimumab alone. Prospective trials are needed to further clarify the role of radiotherapy with ipilimumab, but these encouraging preliminary observations suggest that this combination can induce more durable responses to immunotherapy.

  12. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and analysis of survival

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    Lustosa de Sousa, Daniel Willian; de Almeida Ferreira, Francisco Valdeci; Cavalcante Félix, Francisco Helder; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Vinicios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and laboratory features of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated at three referral centers in Ceará and evaluate prognostic factors for survival, including age, gender, presenting white blood cell count, immunophenotype, DNA index and early response to treatment. Methods Seventy-six under 19-year-old patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância – acute lymphoblastic leukemia-93 and -99 protocols between September 2007 and December 2009 were analyzed. The diagnosis was based on cytological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic criteria. Associations between variables, prognostic factors and response to treatment were analyzed using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Overall and event-free survival were estimated by Kaplan–Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent prognostic factors. Results The average age at diagnosis was 6.3 ± 0.5 years and males were predominant (65%). The most frequently observed clinical features were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Central nervous system involvement and mediastinal enlargement occurred in 6.6% and 11.8%, respectively. B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia was more common (89.5%) than T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A DNA index >1.16 was found in 19% of patients and was associated with favorable prognosis. On Day 8 of induction therapy, 95% of the patients had lymphoblast counts <1000/μL and white blood cell counts <5.0 × 109/L. The remission induction rate was 95%, the induction mortality rate was 2.6% and overall survival was 72%. Conclusion The prognostic factors identified are compatible with the literature. The 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were lower than those reported for developed countries. As shown by the multivariate analysis, age and baseline white

  13. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and analysis of survival

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    Daniel Willian Lustosa de Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and laboratory features of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated at three referral centers in Ceará and evaluate prognostic factors for survival, including age, gender, presenting white blood cell count, immunophenotype, DNA index and early response to treatment.METHODS: Seventy-six under 19-year-old patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with the Grupo Brasileiro de Tratamento de Leucemia da Infância - acute lymphoblastic leukemia-93 and -99 protocols between September 2007 and December 2009 were analyzed. The diagnosis was based on cytological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic criteria. Associations between variables, prognostic factors and response to treatment were analyzed using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Overall and event-free survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent prognostic factors.RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 6.3 ± 0.5 years and males were predominant (65%. The most frequently observed clinical features were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Central nervous system involvement and mediastinal enlargement occurred in 6.6% and 11.8%, respectively. B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia was more common (89.5% than T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A DNA index >1.16 was found in 19% of patients and was associated with favorable prognosis. On Day 8 of induction therapy, 95% of the patients had lymphoblast counts <1000/µL and white blood cell counts <5.0 Ã- 109/L. The remission induction rate was 95%, the induction mortality rate was 2.6% and overall survival was 72%.CONCLUSION: The prognostic factors identified are compatible with the literature. The 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were lower than those reported for developed countries. As shown by the multivariate analysis, age

  14. Multivariate analyses to assess the effects of surgeon and hospital volume on cancer survival rates: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

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    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive results between caseloads and outcomes have been validated in several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is limited information available on the combined effects of surgeon and hospital caseloads. We used nationwide population-based data to explore the association between surgeon and hospital caseloads and survival rates for major cancers. METHODOLOGY: A total of 11,677 patients with incident cancer diagnosed in 2002 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity scores were used to assess the relationship between 5-year survival rates and different caseload combinations. RESULTS: Based on the Cox proportional hazard model, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer survival rates, and hazard ratios ranged from 1.3 in head and neck cancer to 1.8 in lung cancer after adjusting for patients' demographic variables, co-morbidities, and treatment modality. When analyzed using the propensity scores, the adjusted 5-year survival rates were poorer for patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals, compared to those treated by high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals (P<0.005. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for differences in the case mix, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer 5-year survival rates. Payers may implement quality care improvement in low-volume surgeons.

  15. Implant and prosthodontic survival rates with implant fixed complete dental prostheses in the edentulous mandible after at least 5 years: a systematic review.

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    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Mokti, Muizzaddin; Chen, Chun-Jung; Benic, Goran I; Gallucci, German O; Chronopoulos, Vasilios

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of mandibular edentulism with implant fixed complete dental prostheses (IFCDPs) is a routinely used treatment option. The study aims to report the implant and prosthodontic survival rates associated with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible after an observation period of a minimum 5 years. An electronic MEDLINE/PubMED search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible. Clinical studies with at least 5-year follow-up were selected. Pooled data were statistically analyzed and cumulative implant- and prosthesis survival rates were calculated by meta-analysis, regression, and chi-square statistics. Implant-related and prosthesis-related factors were identified and their impact on survival rates was assessed. Seventeen prospective studies, including 501 patients and 2,827 implants, were selected for meta-analysis. The majority of the implants (88.5% of all placed implants) had been placed in the interforaminal area. Cumulative implant survival rates for rough surface ranged from 98.42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.98-98.86) (5 years) to 96.86% (95% CI: 96.00-97.73) (10 years); smooth surface implant survival rates ranged from 98.93% (95% CI: 98.38-99.49) (5 years) to 97.88% (95% CI: 96.78-98.98) (10 years). The prosthodontic survival rates for 1-piece IFCDPs ranged from 98.61% (95% CI: 97.80-99.43) (5 years) to 97.25% (95% CI: 95.66-98.86) (10 years). Treatment with mandibular IFCDPs yields high implant and prosthodontic survival rates (more than 96% after 10 years). Rough surface implants exhibited cumulative survival rates similar to the smooth surface ones (p > .05) in the edentulous mandible. The number of supporting implants and the antero-posterior implant distribution had no influence (p > .05) on the implant survival rate. The prosthetic design and veneering material, the retention type, and the loading protocol (delayed, early, and immediate) had no

  16. EGFR and AKT1 overexpression are mutually exclusive and associated with a poor survival in resected gastric adenocarcinomas.

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    Petrini, Iacopo; Lencioni, Monica; Vasile, Enrico; Fornaro, Lorenzo; Belluomini, Lorenzo; Pasquini, Giulia; Ginocchi, Laura; Caparello, Chiara; Musettini, Gianna; Vivaldi, Caterina; Caponi, Sara; Ricci, Sergio; Proietti, Agenese; Fontanini, Gabriella; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Nardini, Vincenzo; Santi, Stefano; Falcone, Alfredo

    2018-02-14

    The evaluation of molecular targets in gastric cancer has demonstrated the predictive role of HER2 amplification for trastuzumab treatment in metastatic gastric cancer. Besides HER2, other molecular targets are under evaluation in metastatic gastric tumors. However, very little is known about their role in resected tumors. We evaluated the expression of HER2, EGFR, MET, AKT1 and phospho-mTOR in resected stage II-III adenocarcinomas. Ninety-two patients with resected stomach (63%) or gastro-esophageal adenocarcinomas (27%) were evaluated. Antibodies anti-HER2, EGFR, MET, AKT1 and phospho-mTOR were used for immunostaining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded slides. Using FISH, HER2 amplification was evaluated in cases with an intermediate (+2) staining. EGFR overexpression (11%) was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (3-year OS: 47% vs 77%; Log-Rank p= 0.033). MET overexpression (36%) was associated with a trend for a worse survival (3-year OS: 65% vs 77%; Log-Rank p= 0.084). HER2 amplification/overexpression and mTOR hyper-phosphorylation were observed in 13% and 48% of tumors, respectively. AKT1 overexpression (8%) was not a prognostic factor by itself (p= 0.234). AKT1 and EGFR overexpression was mutually exclusive and patients with EGFR or AKT1 overexpression experienced a poor prognosis (3-year OS: 52% vs. 79%, Log-Rank p= 0.005). EGFR is confirmed a poor prognostic factor in resected gastric cancers. We firstly describe a mutually exclusive overexpression of EGFR and AKT1 with potential prognostic implications, suggesting the relevance of this pathway for the growth of gastric cancers.

  17. Diabetes mellitus may affect the long-term survival of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients after liver transplantation.

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    Zhang, Qing; Deng, Yong-Lin; Liu, Chang; Huang, Li-Hong; Shang, Lei; Chen, Xin-Guo; Wang, Le-Tian; Du, Jin-Zan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Pei-Xiao; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2016-11-21

    To determine whether diabetes mellitus (DM) affects prognosis/recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A retrospective study was conducted between January 2000 and August 2013 on 1631 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent LT with antiviral prophylaxis. Patient data were obtained from the China Liver Transplant Registry (https://www.cltr.org/). To compare the outcomes and tumor recurrence in the HBV-related HCC patients with or without DM, statistical analyses were conducted using χ 2 tests, Mann-Whitney tests, the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests and multivariate step-wise Cox regression analysis. Univariate analysis of 1631 patients who underwent LT found overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 79%, 73% and 71% respectively in the DM patients, and 84%, 78% and 76% in the non-DM patients respectively. Overall survival rate differences after LT between the two groups were significant ( P = 0.041), but recurrence-free survival rates were not ( P = 0.096). By stratified analysis, the overall survival rates in DM patients for age > 50 years ( P = 0.002), the presence of vascular invasion ( P = 0.096), tumors ≤ 3 cm ( P = 0.047), two to three tumor nodules ( P = 0.007), Child-Pugh grade B ( P = 0.018), and pre-LT alanine aminotransferase levels between 40 and 80 IU/L ( P = 0.017) were significantly lower than in non-DM patients. Additionally, serum α-fetoprotein level > 2000 ng/mL ( P = 0.052) was associated with a significant survival difference trend between DM and non-DM patients. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of DM ( P < 0.001, HR = 1.591; 95%CI: 1.239-2.041) was an independent predictor associated with poor survival after LT. HBV-related HCC patients with DM have decreased long-term overall survival and poor LT outcomes. Prevention strategies for HCC patients with DM are recommended.

  18. Long-term trends and survival analysis of esophageal and gastric cancer in Yangzhong, 1991-2013.

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    Zhaolai Hua

    Full Text Available To describe the long-term trends of the incidence, mortality and survival of upper digestive tract cancers in a high-risk area of China.We extracted esophageal and gastric cancer cases diagnosed from 1991 to 2013 through the Yangzhong Cancer Registry and calculated the crude and age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Cancer trends were calculated using the Joinpoint Regression Program and were reported using the annual percentage change (APC. The cancer-specific survival rates were evaluated and compared between groups using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.The age-standardized incidence rate of esophageal cancer declined from 107.06 per 100,000 person-years (male: 118.05 per 100,000 person-years; female: 97.42 per 100,000 person-years in 1991 to 37.04 per 100,000 person-years (male: 46.43 per 100,000 person-years; female: 27.26 per 100,000 person-years in 2013, with an APC of -2.5% (95% confidence interval (CI: -3.4%, -1.5% for males and -4.9% (95% CI:-5.8%, -3.9% for females. The age-standardized incidence rate of gastric cancer was 165.11 per 100,000 person-years (male: 225.39 per 100,000 person-years; female: 113.34 per 100,000 person-years in 1991 and 53.46 per 100,000 person-years (male: 76.51 per 100,000 person-years; female: 32.43 per 100,000 person-years in 2013, with the APC of -3.6% (95% CI: -4.5%, -2.7% for males and -4.8% (95% CI: -5.7%, -3.9% for females. The median survival time was 3.0 years for patients with esophageal or gastric cancer. Cancer cases detected after 2004 had a better prognosis.The age-standardized incidence rates of both esophageal and gastric cancer continuously decreased since 1991 through 2013, whereas the mortality rate remained stable before 2004 and significantly declined following the massive endoscopic screening program initiated in 2004. The survival probability of patients with esophageal and gastric cancer has improved obviously in recent decades.

  19. Effect of a Shortened Duration of FOLFOX Chemotherapy on the Survival Rate of Patients with Stage II and III Colon Cancer.

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    Ji, Woong Bae; Hong, Kwang Dae; Kim, Jung-Sik; Joung, Sung-Yup; Um, Jun Won; Min, Byung-Wook

    2018-01-01

    FOLFOX chemotherapy is widely used as an adjuvant treatment for advanced colon cancer. The duration of adjuvant chemotherapy is usually set to 6 months, which is based on a former study of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin chemotherapy. However, the FOLFOX regimen is known to have complications, such as peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study was to compare the survival rates and complications experienced by patients receiving either 4 or 6 months of FOLFOX chemotherapy. Retrospective data analysis was performed for stage II and III patients who underwent radical resection of colon cancer. We compared the 5-year survival rates and the occurrence of complications in patients who completed only 8 cycles of FOLFOX chemotherapy with patients who completed 12 cycles of chemotherapy. Among 188 patients who underwent adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy for stage II or III colon cancer, 83 (44.1%) completed 6 months of FOLFOX chemotherapy and 64 (34.0%) patients discontinued after 4 months of chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates did not show a significant difference. Patients in the 6-month group had peripheral neuropathy more frequently (p = 0.028). Five-year overall and disease-free survival were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Large-scale prospective studies are necessary for the analysis of complications and survival rates. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Radiation therapy improves survival in rectal small cell cancer - Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data.

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    Modrek, Aram S; Hsu, Howard C; Leichman, Cynthia G; Du, Kevin L

    2015-04-24

    Small cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare neoplasm with scant literature to guide treatment. We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to investigate the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of this cancer. The SEER database (National Cancer Institute) was queried for locoregional cases of small cell rectal cancer. Years of diagnosis were limited to 1988-2010 (most recent available) to reduce variability in staging criteria or longitudinal changes in surgery and radiation techniques. Two month conditional survival was applied to minimize bias by excluding patients who did not survive long enough to receive cancer-directed therapy. Patient demographics between the RT and No_RT groups were compared using Pearson Chi-Square tests. Overall survival was compared between patients who received radiotherapy (RT, n = 43) and those who did not (No_RT, n = 28) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate important covariates. Median survival was significantly longer for patients who received radiation compared to those who were not treated with radiation; 26 mo vs. 8 mo, respectively (log-rank P = 0.009). We also noted a higher 1-year overall survival rate for those who received radiation (71.1% vs. 37.8%). Unadjusted hazard ratio for death (HR) was 0.495 with the use of radiation (95% CI 0.286-0.858). Among surgery, radiotherapy, sex and age at diagnosis, radiation therapy was the only significant factor for overall survival with a multivariate HR for death of 0.393 (95% CI 0.206-0.750, P = 0.005). Using SEER data, we have identified a significant survival advantage with the use of radiation therapy in the setting of rectal small cell carcinoma. Limitations of the SEER data apply to this study, particularly the lack of information on chemotherapy usage. Our findings strongly support the use of radiation therapy for patients with locoregional small cell rectal cancer.

  1. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: Clinical features, prognostic factors and survival with RCHOP in Arab patients in the PET scan era

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    Salem Al Shemmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: PMBCL is a distinct type of nonhodgkins lymphoma with specific clinicopathological features. To clarify clinical features, treatment alternatives and outcomes, we evaluated 28 Arab patients treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy between 2006 and 2011. Patients and Methods: PMBCL lymphoma patients identified according to WHO classification and treated at KCCC between 2006 and 2011 were included in this study. Demographic and clinical data are presented as means or medians. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival rates were compared using the log-rank test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The median age of the patients was 31 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. Majority of the patients (75% presented with stage I/II disease. Most had features of local extension like pleural effusion (18% and SVCO (39%. Only 11% of the patients had bone marrow involvement at presentation. 96% of the patients required biopsy from the mediastinal mass either by image guided core biopsy (75% or by surgical biopsy. Most patients were treated by RCHOP and involved field radiotherapy. Patients with positive PET scan after RCHOP chemotherapy received salvage chemotherapy and BEAM autologous marrow transplant. The five year OS for the entire group was 85% while the PFS was 73%. Patients who had PET scan for response evaluation had better OS [P = 0.013] and PFS [P = 0.039] when compared with those patients who received only radiotherapy based on CT scan evaluation. Conclusion: PMBCL is a specific lymphoma entity seen in the young with good survival. The role of PET scan for response evaluation and the type of consolidation therapy needs to be further clarified

  2. Nuclear TK1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for survival in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; He, Cheng; Li, Ling; Lin, An; Zheng, Xiongwei; He, Ellen; Skog, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a proliferation biomarker that has been found useful for prognostication in cancer patients. Here we investigate for the first time the use of TK1 expression as a prognostic factor for patients with premalignant and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix. TK1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), n = 216; invasive cervical carcinoma, n = 84). TK1 and Ki-67 expressions and pathological/FIGO stages and age were correlated with 5-year survival by Kaplan-Meier, log rank and COX hazard uni- and multivariate analyses. TK1 labeling index (LI) was significantly correlated with CIN grades and invasive cervical carcinoma stages, while TK1 labeling intensity was only correlated to CIN grades. TK1 LI was significantly higher compared with Ki-67 LI. TK1 LI correlated significantly to 5-year survival in patients with invasive cervical carcinoma, particularly nuclear TK1 LI. In a multivariate analysis, nuclear TK1 expression was independent prognostic factor in patients with in situ/invasive cervical carcinoma or in invasive cervical carcinoma alone. Interestingly, in invasive cervical carcinoma patients with advanced tumors, nuclear TK1 expression could identify patients with significantly better survival rates (80%), while Ki-67 could not. Nuclear TK1 expression in early grade CIN predicts risk for progression to malignancy. Nuclear TK1 expression is also a prognostic factor for treatment outcome, particularly in patients with advanced cervical carcinomas. Nuclear TK1 expression is more useful than Ki-67 and pathological/FIGO stages

  3. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Gac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1–5.4 years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3–5.9 years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland. In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5% and 23 TST implants (1.5% failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  4. Six-Year Survival and Early Failure Rate of 2918 Implants with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Enossal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gac, Olivier Le; Grunder, Ueli

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this chart review was to obtain an objective, quantitative assessment of the clinical performance of an implant line used in an implantological office setting. Implants with hydrophilic (INICELL) and hydrophobic (TST; both: Thommen Medical AG, Grenchen, Switzerland) enossal surfaces were compared and the cumulative implant survival rate was calculated. The data of 1063 patients that received 2918 implants (1337 INICELL, 1581 TST) was included. The average follow up time was 2.1 (1.1-5.4) years for INICELL and 4.5 (1.3-5.9) years for TST implants (Thommen Medical AG, Switzerland). In the reported period 7 implants with INICELL (0.5%) and 23 TST implants (1.5%) failed. This difference was statistically significant. The analysis of cases treated and followed up in a single implantological office for 6 years confirmed the very good clinical outcome that was achieved with both used implant lines. Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the overall early failure rate of the hydrophilic implants was significantly lower than that of hydrophobic implants. The use of hydrophilic implants allows the clinician to obtain less early failures, hence the interest of an up-to-date surface for the daily work of an implant practice.

  5. Oral intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 enhances the survival rate of mice lethally infected with influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hee Joo; Hong, Seong Keun; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Sang Won; Song, Chang Seon; Kim, Ki Taek; Choi, In Soo; Lee, Joong Bok; Park, Seung Yong

    2016-02-01

    Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory disease. Because of the high genetic variability of viruses, effective vaccines and antiviral agents are limited. Considering the fact that the site of influenza virus entry is the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, probiotics that can enhance mucosal immunity as well as systemic immunity could be an important source of treatment against influenza infection. Mice were fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus M21 or skim milk and were challenged with influenza virus. The resulting survival rate, lung inflammation, and changes in the cytokine and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels were examined. Because of infection (influenza virus), all the mice in the control group and 60% of the mice in the L. rhamnosus M21 group died; however, the remaining 40% of the mice fed with L. rhamnosus M21 survived the infection. Pneumonia was severe in the control group but moderate in the group treated with L. rhamnosus M21. Although there were no significant changes in the proinflammatory cytokines in the lung lysates of mice collected from both groups, levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-2, which are representative cytokines of type I helper T cells, were significantly increased in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. An increase in sIgA as well as the diminution of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also observed in the L. rhamnosus M21-treated group. These results demonstrate that orally administered L. rhamnosus M21 activates humoral as well as cellular immune responses, conferring increased resistance to the host against influenza virus infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effects of low dose rate γ-rays on cell proliferation and survival in exponentially growing and plateau phase cultures of normal rat kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays on cell clonogenicity and cell proliferation were examined in NRK cells in exponential and plateau growth phases during and after irradiation at various dose rates. The typical dese rate effect for the survival responses was observed between acute irradiation and continuous irradiation at dose rates of 9.6-44 rads/h. Similar dose rate effect for the perturbation of the proliferation was observed in exponentially growing cells during irradiation. Some differences were found in survival when the cells were exposed to γ-rays at 9.6 rads/h or at 13.7 rads/h. The survival curves of exponential phase cells irradiated at these dose rates showed a shape different from that observed in plateau phase cells. Namely, a steady state of survival appeared around an accumulated dose of 1000 rads (dose-rate of 9.6 rads/h) and an accumulated dose of 1500 rads (dose-rate of 13.7 rads/h) in the exponential phase cells, while such a steady state of survival was not detected in plateau phase cells after similar conditions of irradiation. Moreover, the extrapolation number of the survival curve was much larger at the lower dose rate in exponential phase cells, in contrast to a value of the unity oberved in plateau phase cells, The radiosensitivity of plateau phase cells was somewhat lower compared to exponential phase cells over the range of accumulated doses at the dose rates used. These differences in cellular responses to the radiation between the two phases could be explained by changes in cell proliferation, the redistribution of the cell cycle compartments and the repair capacity of cellular damage during irradiation. (author)

  7. Survival Rates from Fracture of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Full-coverage Crowns or Direct Resin Composite Restorations: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Banomyong, Danuchit; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the survival rates against fracture of premolar endodontically treated teeth (ETT) restored with resin composite or crowns and to identify risk factors associated with the fracture. Data from dental records and radiographs of premolar ETT with postendodontic restorations (ie, resin composite or crowns) were collected between 2012 and 2016 and selected following selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tooth location, type of restoration, number of proximal contacts, and amount of tooth surface loss were recorded. The incidence and restorability of postendodontic fractures were identified. Survival rates against fracture of the 2 restoration types were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Any potential factors associated with fractures were identified using Cox proportional hazards models. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns (95.1%) was higher than resin composite (77.0%). ETT restored with resin composite with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts had a high survival rate of 88.5% that was not significantly different from ETT with crowns. A higher incidence of restorability after fracture was observed in teeth restored with resin composite than crowns. The type of restoration and number of proximal contacts were identified as potential risk factors associated with fracture incidence. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns was higher than resin composite. However, ETT with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts and restored with resin composite showed a high survival rate that was comparable with ETT restored with crowns. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  9. Impact of T and N substage on survival and disease relapse in adjuvant rectal cancer: a pooled analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tepper, Joel E.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Allmer, Cristine; Smalley, Steven R.; Martenson, James A.; Haller, Daniel G.; Mayer, Robert J.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Macdonald, John S.; Goldberg, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of survival and disease control by TNM and MAC stage in three randomized North American rectal adjuvant studies. Materials and Methods: Data were merged from 2551 eligible patients on NCCTG 79-47-51 (n=200), NCCTG 86-47-51 (n=656), and INT 114 (n=1695). All patients received postoperative radiation, and 96% were randomized to receive concomitant and maintenance chemotherapy. Five-year follow-up was available in 94% of patients and 7-yr follow-up in 84%. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the distribution of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), and p values were derived using the log-rank test. Time to local and distant relapse was estimated using cumulative incidence methodology. Analyses were adjusted for treatment effect using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: OS and DFS were dependent on both TN stage and NT stage (N substage within T stage and T substage within N stage). Even among N2 patients (4 or more LN+), T stage influenced 5-yr OS (T1-2, 69%; T3, 48%; T4, 38%). Three risk groups of patients were defined: (1) intermediate: T3N0, T1-2N1; (2) moderately high: T4N0, T1-2N2, T3N1; and (3) high: T3N2, T4N1, T4N2. For Group 1, 5-yr OS was 74% and 81%, and 5-yr DFS was 66% and 74%. For Group 2, 5-yr OS ranged from 61% to 69%, and for Group 3, OS ranged from 33% to 48%. Cumulative incidence rates of local relapse and distant metastases revealed similar differences by TN and NT stage, as seen in the survival analyses. Conclusion: Patients with a single high-risk factor of either extension beyond the rectal wall (T3N0) or nodal involvement (T1-2N1) have improved OS, DFS, and disease control when compared to those with both high risk factors. Different treatment strategies may be indicated for intermediate- (T3N0, T1-2N1) vs. moderately high or high-risk patients in view of differential survival and rates of relapse. For future trial design, it may be preferable to perform separate studies, or a planned

  10. Reintroduction of the highly endangered mollusk Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 in an MPA: A novel approach to achieve high survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Anis; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Espinosa, Free

    2018-03-01

    Patella ferruginea is the most endangered marine invertebrate of western Mediterranean rocky shores. After a study of one of its most important populations in the Zembra Archipelago National Park (Tunisia), a new protocol for the translocation of the species (size: 4-8 cm) was adopted. The first translocation was made in June 2014 in the same archipelago, where 94 specimens were moved from Zembretta to Zembra Island and marked (62 protected by cages, 20 with no cages and 60 as controls). The second translocation was performed in August 2014 (110 specimens) from Zembra to La Galite Island (185 km away). High mortality was registered during transport. The remaining individuals (39) were marked and placed in cages on the rocky shores of Galite Island, then monitored until November 2015. Growth and survival rates were measured in both translocated and control populations. The highest mortality rates were observed during the initial three days after translocation, especially for individuals with no cage protection. After a 697-day survey on Zembra Island, survival rates of 58%, 25% and 85% were observed for cage, no-cage and control populations, respectively. After a 457-day survey on La Galite Island, the survival rate was 18%. Limpets>6 cm in size had the highest survival rate among Zembra-translocated populations, whereas translocated limpets of 4-6 cm in size showed the highest survival rate in La Galite. The growth rates for both translocated populations were higher than the rate observed for controls. Our translocation experiment shows the importance of cage protection and initial limpet size for survival.

  11. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  12. Stereotactic radiosurgery improves the survival in patients with solitary brain metastasis: a reasonable alternative to surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, H. Cho; Hall, Walter A.; Lee, Andrew K.; Gerbi, Bruce J.; Higgins, Patrick D.; Nussbaum, Eric S.; Chung, K.K. Lee; Bohen, Marva; Clark, H. Brent

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with solitary brain metastasis from extracranial primary cancer and to compare the outcome with that of external whole brain irradiation with or without surgical resection. Materials and Methods: Between September 1970 and November, 1995, 231 patients with solitary brain metastasis were treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Hospital. One hundred twenty six patients (56%) were treated with external whole brain irradiation (WBI) only (Group 1), seventy three (32%) underwent surgical resection prior to WBI (Group 2) and thirty two (14%) underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with WBI (Group 3). Lung (38%) was the most common site of primary cancer, followed by breast (15%), unknown primary (12%), gastro-intestinal tract (10%), skin (malignant melanoma: 9%), kidney (renal cell carcinoma: 8%) and others (9%). The median dose to the whole brain was 3750 cGy in 15 fractions (ranges from 2000 cGy to 5000 cGy). The median radiosurgical dose of 17.5 Gy (range, 12-40 Gy) was delivered to the 40%-90% isodose line encompassing the target. Eighteen patients were treated with SRS for recurrent or persistent disease following WBI and 14 patients received SRS as a boost in conjunction with WBI. Actuarial survival was calculated from the date of treatment according to the Kaplan-Meier method and statistical significance was assessed with the log-rank test. Results: The actuarial median survivals were 3.8 months for Group 1 (ranges from 1 to 84 months), 10.5 months for Group 2 (ranges from 1 to 125 months) and 9.8 months for Group 3 (ranges from 1 to 36 months). The survivals at one and two years were 19% and 6% for Group 1, 47% and 19% for Group 2, and 44% and 21% for Group 3, respectively. The survival advantage of Groups 2 or 3 over Group 1 was statistically significant (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). There was no survival advantage of surgery (Group 2) over SRS

  13. Active smoking may negatively affect response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p 3 (HR: 2.95, p smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC.

  14. Effects of growth rate, size, and light availability on tree survival across life stages: a demographic analysis accounting for missing values and small sample sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Evans, Matthew R

    2015-02-28

    Plant survival is a key factor in forest dynamics and survival probabilities often vary across life stages. Studies specifically aimed at assessing tree survival are unusual and so data initially designed for other purposes often need to be used; such data are more likely to contain errors than data collected for this specific purpose. We investigate the survival rates of ten tree species in a dataset designed to monitor growth rates. As some individuals were not included in the census at some time points we use capture-mark-recapture methods both to allow us to account for missing individuals, and to estimate relocation probabilities. Growth rates, size, and light availability were included as covariates in the model predicting survival rates. The study demonstrates that tree mortality is best described as constant between years and size-dependent at early life stages and size independent at later life stages for most species of UK hardwood. We have demonstrated that even with a twenty-year dataset it is possible to discern variability both between individuals and between species. Our work illustrates the potential utility of the method applied here for calculating plant population dynamics parameters in time replicated datasets with small sample sizes and missing individuals without any loss of sample size, and including explanatory covariates.

  15. Decrease in Survival Rate of Colorectal Cancer Patients Due to Insertion of a Single Guanine Base in Promoter Sequences of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Gene (in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hojati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion or deletion of a guanine in -1607 at promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-1 enzyme creates two allelic types for this gene in the population: 2G and 1G, respectively. 2G allele contains an extra binding site for ETS transcription factors that this may increase the level of gene expression. Therefore, aim of this study was investigation of the single Guanine insertion in the promoter gene and its association with colorectal cancer patient survival rate and tumor progression. Methods: Blood samples from 150 colorectal patients and 100 cases were extracted. The mean follow-up was 25 months (12-36 months. Cases and patients were genotyped using genomic DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP. Results: Colorectal cancer patients were divided in two groups; with activity of metastasis (M+ and without activity of metastasis (M-. 2G allele in metastasis group (55% showed more frequency rather than controls (23%. Survival analyses showed that 3 years survival patients rate in the patients without metastasis activity carrying 1G allele (homo and heterozygote was 81% and for 2G homozygote is 66% (p=0.04. The survival rate dependent to cancer was 90% and 71%, respectively (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that patients carrying 1G allele show a better survival rate dependent on cancer as compared to patients who do not carry this allele.

  16. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  17. Real-life 10-year retention rate of first-line anti-TNF drugs for inflammatory arthritides in adult- and juvenile-onset populations: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Pontikaki, Irene; Becciolini, Andrea; Biggioggero, Martina; Ughi, Nicola; Romano, Micol; Crotti, Chiara; Gattinara, Maurizio; Gerloni, Valeria; Marchesoni, Antonio; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze 10-year drug survival of first-line TNF inhibitor (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, comparing withdrawal rates and discontinuation pattern between adult- and juvenile-onset populations. RA, AS, PsA, and JIA patients treated with infliximab, etanercept, or adalimumab as first TNFi between 1999 and 2015 were extracted from a local registry. Drug survival up to 10-year follow-up was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to age (adult vs juvenile onset), TNFi agent, and discontinuation reason by a stratified log-rank test. Three hundred sixty JIA (205 etanercept, 66 adalimumab, and 89 infliximab) and 951 (607 RA, 188 AS, and 156 PsA) adult patients (464 infliximab, 262 adalimumab, and 225 etanercept) were included. After exclusion of systemic-onset JIA (18.5%), overall 10-year retention rate was 31.8%, with no difference between adult- and juvenile-onset patients (32.1 and 30.2%, respectively; HR 0.938 [95% CI 0.782-1.125]). Etanercept showed the highest drug survival in adult-onset population (p adult population (29.75%) with a significantly higher risk of discontinuation than in juvenile-onset subgroup (HR 1.390 [95% CI 1.060-1.824]). Serious infections and malignancies caused TNFi withdrawal only in adult whereas gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, and ocular complications quite only in juvenile patients. Despite a similar 10-year drug survival, adult- and juvenile-onset subpopulations showed a significantly different pattern of TNFi reasons for discontinuation.

  18. Poor survival in rheumatoid arthritis associated with bronchiectasis: a family-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Puéchal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diffuse bronchiectasis (DB may occur in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations predispose RA patients to DB, but the prognosis of RA-associated DB (RA-DB is unclear. METHODS: We report long-term mortality data from a nationwide family-based association study of patients with RA only, DB only or RA-DB. We assessed mortality as a function of clinical characteristics and CF/CFTR-RD (CFTR-related disorders mutations in 137 subjects from 24 kindreds. Potential risk factors were investigated by Cox proportional-hazard analysis with shared Gaussian random effects to account for within-family correlations. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years after inclusion, 18 patients died, mostly from cardiorespiratory causes. Survival was significantly lower for RA-DB patients than for unaffected relatives and for patients with RA or DB only. RA patients with DB had also a poorer prognosis in terms of survival after RA diagnosis (HR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.5-48.2; P = 0.014 and from birth (HR, 9.6; 95% CI, 1.1-81.7; P = 0.039. Early onset of DB (HR, 15.4; 95% CI, 2.1-113.2; P = 0.007 and CF/CFTR-RD mutation (HR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.4-37.1; P = 0.018 were associated with poorer survival in patients with RA-DB. Thus, CF/CFTR-RD mutations in RA patients with early-onset DB defined a subgroup of high-risk patients with higher mortality rates (log-rank test P = 1.28×10(-5. CONCLUSION: DB is associated with poorer survival in patients with RA. Early-onset DB and CFTR mutations are two markers that identify RA patients at a high risk of death, for whom future therapeutic interventions should be designed and evaluated.

  19. Whole body irradiation in paediatrics: in vivo dose heterogeneity and relationship with survival and the complications rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoli, J.B.; Pignon, T.; Porcheron, D.; Juin, P.; Coze, C.; Bernard, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    No relationship has been found between the in vivo measured dose and the survival, neither relationship between the measured dose and the toxicity. The only organ for which an inter patients heterogeneity has been found was the lung. The reduction of the lung radiation dose allows to avoid any interstitial pneumopathy, but is significantly associated to a shortening of the survival. (N.C.)

  20. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  1. Epidemiologic study on survival of chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with BCR-ABL T315I mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolini, Franck E; Mauro, Michael J; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The BCR-ABL T315I mutation represents a major mechanism of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The objectives of this retrospective observational study were to estimate overall and progression-free survival for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic-phase (CP), accelerated-phase (AP......), or blastic-phase (BP) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph)(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with T315I mutation. Medical records of 222 patients from 9 countries were reviewed; data were analyzed using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models. Median age at T315I mutation...

  2. Low local recurrence rate without postmastectomy radiation in node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm and larger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, Scott R.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Raad, Rita Abi; Oswald, Mary J.; Sullivan, Timothy; Strom, Eric A.; Powell, Simon N.; Katz, Angela; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the need for adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with node-negative breast tumors 5 cm or larger. Methods and Materials: Between 1981 and 2002, a total of 70 patients with node-negative breast cancer and tumors 5 cm or larger were treated with mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapies but without radiotherapy at three institutions. We retrospectively assessed rates and risk factors for locoregional failure (LRF), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) in these patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 85 months, the 5-year actuarial LRF rate was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 3%-16%). LRF was primarily in the chest wall (4/5 local failures), and lymphatic-vascular invasion (LVI) was statistically significantly associated with LRF risk by the log-rank test (p = 0.017) and in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p 0.038). The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 83% and 86% respectively. LVI was also significantly associated with OS and DFS in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This series demonstrates a low LRF rate of 7.6% among breast cancer patients with node-negative tumors 5 cm and larger after mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapy. Our data indicate that further adjuvant radiation therapy to increase local control may not be indicated by tumor size alone in the absence of positive lymph nodes. LVI was significantly associated with LRF in our series, indicating that patients with this risk factor require careful consideration with regard to further local therapy

  3. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  4. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  5. Better rooting procedure to enhance survival rate of field grown malaysian eksotika papaya transformed with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid oxidase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets.

  6. (+)-Nootkatone and (+)-valencene from rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus increase survival rates in septic mice due to heme oxygenase-1 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoyi, Konstantin; Jang, Hwa Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Dong-Ung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2011-10-11

    The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus have been used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which extract of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (ECR) elicits anti-inflammation has not been extensively investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to test whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction is involved in the anti-inflammatory action of ECR. Induction of HO-1 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/NO production by ECR and its 12 constituents (3 monoterpenes, 5 sesquiterpenes, and 4 aromatic compounds) were investigated using RAW264.7 cells in vitro. In addition, anti-inflammatory action of ECR and its two active ingredients (nookkatone, valencene) were confirmed in sepsis animal model in vivo. ECR increased HO-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, which was correlated with significant inhibition of iNOS/NO production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Among 12 compounds isolated from ECR, mostly sesquiterpenes induced stronger HO-1 expression than monoterpenes in macrophage cells. Nootkatone and valencene (sesquiterpenes) significantly inhibited iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-simulated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of iNOS expression by nootkatone, valencene, and ECR were significantly reduced in siHO-1 RNA transfected cells. Furthermore, all three showed marked inhibition of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in LPS-activated macrophages and increased survival rates in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Taken together, we concluded that possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ECR is, at least, due to HO-1 induction, in which sesquiterpenes such as nootkatone and valencene play a crucial role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for early hepatocellular carcinoma: Risk factors for survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Luciana; Menezes, Marcos; Chagas, Aline L; Tani, Claudia M; Alencar, Regiane SSM; Diniz, Marcio A; Alves, Venâncio AF; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Carrilho, Flair José

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and identify survival- and recurrence-related factors. METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with early HCC by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (single nodule of ≤ 5 cm, or multi- (up to 3) nodules of ≤ 3 cm each) and who underwent RFA treatment with curative intent between January 2010 and August 2011 at the Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, Brazil were enrolled in the study. RFA of the liver tumors (with 1.0 cm ablative margin) was carried out under CT-fluoro scan and ultrasonic image guidance of the percutaneous ablation probes. Procedure-related complications were recorded. At 1-mo post-RFA and 3-mo intervals thereafter, CT and MRI were performed to assess outcomes of complete response (absence of enhancing tissue at the tumor site) or incomplete response (enhancing tissue remaining at the tumor site). Overall survival and disease-free survival rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log rank test or simple Cox regression. The effect of risk factors on survival was assessed by the Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: A total of 38 RFA sessions were performed during the study period on 34 patients (age in years: mean, 63 and range, 49-84). The mean follow-up time was 22 mo (range, 1-33). The study population showed predominance of male sex (76%), less severe liver disease (Child-Pugh A, n = 26; Child-Pugh B, n = 8), and single tumor (65%). The maximum tumor diameters ranged from 10 to 50 mm (median, 26 mm). The initial (immediately post-procedure) rate of RFA-induced complete tumor necrosis was 90%. The probability of achieving complete response was significantly greater in patients with a single nodule (vs patients with multi-nodules, P = 0.04). Two patients experienced major complications, including acute pulmonary edema (resolved with intervention) and intestinal perforation

  8. Retrospective comparative ten-year study of cumulative survival rates of remaining teeth in large edentulism treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures or removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Seiya; Arakawa, Hikaru; Maekawa, Kenji; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Noda, Kinji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Sonoyama, Wataru; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the survival rates of remaining teeth between implant-supported fixed dentures (IFDs) and removable partial dentures (RPDs) in patients with large edentulous cases. The second goal was to assess the risk factors for remaining tooth loss. The study subjects were selected among those who received prosthodontic treatment at Okayama University Dental Hospital for their edentulous space exceeding at least four continuous missing teeth. Twenty-one patients were included in the IFD group and 82 patients were included in the RPD group. Survival rates of remaining teeth were calculated in three subcategories: (1) whole remaining teeth, (2) adjacent teeth to intended edentulous space, and (3) opposing teeth to intended edentulous space. The ten-year cumulative survival rate of the whole remaining teeth was significantly higher in the IFD group (40.0%) than in the RPD group (24.4%). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between two groups in the survival rate of teeth adjacent or opposing to intended edentulous space. A Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RPD restoration and gender (male) were the significant risk factors for remaining tooth loss (whole remaining teeth). These results suggest that IFD treatment can reduce the incidence of remaining tooth loss in large edentulous cases. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  10. Anti-PD-1 Blockade and Stereotactic Radiation Produce Long-Term Survival in Mice With Intracranial Gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Jing; See, Alfred P.; Phallen, Jillian; Jackson, Christopher M.; Belcaid, Zineb; Ruzevick, Jacob; Durham, Nicholas; Meyer, Christian; Harris, Timothy J.; Albesiano, Emilia; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ford, Eric; Wong, John; Hammers, Hans-Joerg; Mathios, Dimitris; Tyler, Betty; Brem, Henry; Tran, Phuoc T.; Pardoll, Drew; Drake, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, and radiation is one of the main treatment modalities. However, cure rates remain low despite best available therapies. Immunotherapy is a promising modality that could work synergistically with radiation, which has been shown to increase antigen presentation and promote a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment. Programmed-death-1 (PD-1) is a surface receptor expressed on activated and exhausted T cells, which mediate T cell inhibition upon binding with its ligand PD-L1, expressed on many tumor types including human GBMs. We tested the combination of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy with stereotactic radiosurgery in a mouse orthotopic GBM model. Methods and Materials: We performed intracranial implantation of mouse glioma cell line GL261 transfected with luciferase into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were stratified into 4 treatment groups: (1) control; (2) radiation only; (3) anti-PD-1 antibody only; and (4) radiation plus anti-PD-1 antibody. Overall survival was quantified. The mice were killed on day 21 after implantation to assess immunologic parameters in the brain/tumor, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen. Results: Improved survival was demonstrated with combination anti-PD-1 therapy plus radiation compared with either modality alone: median survival was 25 days in the control arm, 27 days in the anti-PD-1 antibody arm, 28 days in the radiation arm, and 53 days in the radiation plus anti-PD-1 therapy arm (P<.05 by log-rank Mantle-Cox). Long-term survival was seen only in the combined treatment arm, with a fraction (15%-40%) of animals alive at day 180+ after treatment. Immunologic data on day 21 after implantation showed increased tumor infiltration by cytotoxic T cells (CD8+/interferon-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α+) and decreased regulatory T cells (CD4+/FOXP3) in the combined treatment group compared with the single modality arms. Conclusions: The combination of PD-1 blockade and localized

  11. Surgery for left ventricular aneurysm: early and late survival after simple linear repair and endoventricular patch plasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Runar; Abdelnoor, Michel; Svennevig, Jan Ludvig

    2004-09-01

    Simple linear resection and endoventricular patch plasty are alternative techniques to repair postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm. The aim of the study was to compare these 2 methods with regard to early mortality and long-term survival. We retrospectively reviewed 159 patients undergoing operations between 1989 and 2003. The epidemiologic design was of an exposed (simple linear repair, n = 74) versus nonexposed (endoventricular patch plasty, n = 85) cohort with 2 endpoints: early mortality and long-term survival. The crude effect of aneurysm repair technique versus endpoint was estimated by odds ratio, rate ratio, or relative risk and their 95% confidence intervals. Stratification analysis by using the Mantel-Haenszel method was done to quantify confounders and pinpoint effect modifiers. Adjustment for multiconfounders was performed by using logistic regression and Cox regression analysis. Survival curves were analyzed with the Breslow test and the log-rank test. Early mortality was 8.2% for all patients, 13.5% after linear repair and 3.5% after endoventricular patch plasty. When adjusted for multiconfounders, the risk of early mortality was significantly higher after simple linear repair than after endoventricular patch plasty (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-17.8). Mean follow-up was 5.8 +/- 3.8 years (range, 0-14.0 years). Overall 5-year cumulative survival was 78%, 70.1% after linear repair and 91.4% after endoventricular patch plasty. The risk of total mortality was significantly higher after linear repair than after endoventricular patch plasty when controlled for multiconfounders (relative risk, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-9.7). Linear repair dominated early in the series and patch plasty dominated later, giving a possible learning-curve bias in favor of patch plasty that could not be adjusted for in the regression analysis. Postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm can be repaired with satisfactory early and late results. Surgical

  12. Anti-PD-1 Blockade and Stereotactic Radiation Produce Long-Term Survival in Mice With Intracranial Gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); See, Alfred P.; Phallen, Jillian; Jackson, Christopher M.; Belcaid, Zineb; Ruzevick, Jacob [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Durham, Nicholas [Department of Immunology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Meyer, Christian [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Harris, Timothy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Albesiano, Emilia; Pradilla, Gustavo [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric; Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hammers, Hans-Joerg [Department of Immunology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Mathios, Dimitris; Tyler, Betty; Brem, Henry [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pardoll, Drew; Drake, Charles G. [Department of Immunology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutes, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, and radiation is one of the main treatment modalities. However, cure rates remain low despite best available therapies. Immunotherapy is a promising modality that could work synergistically with radiation, which has been shown to increase antigen presentation and promote a proinflammatory tumor microenvironment. Programmed-death-1 (PD-1) is a surface receptor expressed on activated and exhausted T cells, which mediate T cell inhibition upon binding with its ligand PD-L1, expressed on many tumor types including human GBMs. We tested the combination of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy with stereotactic radiosurgery in a mouse orthotopic GBM model. Methods and Materials: We performed intracranial implantation of mouse glioma cell line GL261 transfected with luciferase into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were stratified into 4 treatment groups: (1) control; (2) radiation only; (3) anti-PD-1 antibody only; and (4) radiation plus anti-PD-1 antibody. Overall survival was quantified. The mice were killed on day 21 after implantation to assess immunologic parameters in the brain/tumor, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen. Results: Improved survival was demonstrated with combination anti-PD-1 therapy plus radiation compared with either modality alone: median survival was 25 days in the control arm, 27 days in the anti-PD-1 antibody arm, 28 days in the radiation arm, and 53 days in the radiation plus anti-PD-1 therapy arm (P<.05 by log-rank Mantle-Cox). Long-term survival was seen only in the combined treatment arm, with a fraction (15%-40%) of animals alive at day 180+ after treatment. Immunologic data on day 21 after implantation showed increased tumor infiltration by cytotoxic T cells (CD8+/interferon-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α+) and decreased regulatory T cells (CD4+/FOXP3) in the combined treatment group compared with the single modality arms. Conclusions: The combination of PD-1 blockade and localized

  13. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients. Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age (P<0.05 for all. With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (P=1.519. Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.

  14. Estimating Probability of Default on Peer to Peer Market – Survival Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Andrija

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Arguably a cornerstone of credit risk modelling is the probability of default. This article aims is to search for the evidence of relationship between loan characteristics and probability of default on peer-to-peer (P2P market. In line with that, two loan characteristics are analysed: 1 loan term length and 2 loan purpose. The analysis is conducted using survival analysis approach within the vintage framework. Firstly, 12 months probability of default through the cycle is used to compare riskiness of analysed loan characteristics. Secondly, log-rank test is employed in order to compare complete survival period of cohorts. Findings of the paper suggest that there is clear evidence of relationship between analysed loan characteristics and probability of default. Longer term loans are more risky than the shorter term ones and the least risky loans are those used for credit card payoff.

  15. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich; Jansen, Jens Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Application of the principles of total mesorectal excision to colon cancer by undertaking complete mesocolic excision (CME) has been proposed to improve oncological outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether implementation of CME improved disease-free survival compared with conventional...... consisted of patients who underwent CME surgery in a centre validated to perform such surgery; the control group consisted of patients undergoing conventional colon resection in three other hospitals. Data were collected from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database and medical charts. Patients...... updated by the National Central Office of Civil Registration. FINDINGS: The CME group consisted of 364 patients and the non-CME group consisted of 1031 patients. For all patients, 4-year disease-free survival was 85.8% (95% CI 81.4-90.1) after CME and 75.9% (72.2-79.7) after non-CME surgery (log-rank p=0...

  16. Does tumour location influence postoperative long-term survival in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Zhang, Kun; Niu, Zhong-Xi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Gao, Qiang; Chen, Long-Qi

    2015-08-01

    The seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system introduced tumour location for the first time as an determinant of stage grouping in pathological T2N0M0 and T3N0M0 (pT2-3N0M0) oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the new modification remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumour location and postoperative long-term survival in patients with OSCC in China. The clinicopathological data and over 10 years of follow-up results from a large cohort of 988 patients with OSCC undergoing radical-intent oesophagectomy from 1984 to 1995 without preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy were reviewed, in which 632 patients were staged as pT2-3N0M0. Tumour location was redefined according to the seventh edition of the AJCC staging system. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method; univariate log-rank and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to further determine the impact of tumour location on long-term survival. Univariate analysis showed that OSCC tumour location was closely associated with long-term survival for the entire cohort of 988 patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.67-0.99; P = 0.049), and for pT2-3N0M0 patients (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.48-0.84; P = 0.001). The median survival times for patients with pT2-3N0M0 OSCC in the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus were 38.1, 46.6 and 66.0 months, respectively, with corresponding 5-year survival rates of 40.0, 51.8 and 66.2%, respectively. Overall survival rates among three categories of patients according to tumour location in the pT2-3N0M0 patients were statistically different (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumour location was a significant independent predictor of long-term survival for pT2-3N0M0 patients (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.42-0.67; P = 0.0001), but not for the entire cohort of 988 patients (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.79-1.23; P

  17. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (pceramic and zirconia crowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (pceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (pceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival rates of most types of all-ceramic SCs were similar to those reported for metal-ceramic SCs, both in anterior and posterior regions. Weaker feldspathic/silica-based ceramics should be limited to applications in the anterior region. Zirconia-based SCs should not be considered as primary option due to their high incidence of technical problems. Copyright © 2015 Academy

  18. [The survival prediction model of advanced gallbladder cancer based on Bayesian network: a multi-institutional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z H; Geng, Z M; Chen, C; Si, S B; Cai, Z Q; Song, T Q; Gong, P; Jiang, L; Qiu, Y H; He, Y; Zhai, W L; Li, S P; Zhang, Y C; Yang, Y

    2018-05-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of Bayesian network in predicting survival of patients with advanced gallbladder cancer(GBC)who underwent curative intent surgery. Methods: The clinical data of patients with advanced GBC who underwent curative intent surgery in 9 institutions from January 2010 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively.A median survival time model based on a tree augmented naïve Bayes algorithm was established by Bayesia Lab software.The survival time, number of metastatic lymph nodes(NMLN), T stage, pathological grade, margin, jaundice, liver invasion, age, sex and tumor morphology were included in this model.Confusion matrix, the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve were used to evaluate the accuracy of the model.A priori statistical analysis of these 10 variables and a posterior analysis(survival time as the target variable, the remaining factors as the attribute variables)was performed.The importance rankings of each variable was calculated with the polymorphic Birnbaum importance calculation based on the posterior analysis results.The survival probability forecast table was constructed based on the top 4 prognosis factors. The survival curve was drawn by the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences in survival curves were compared using the Log-rank test. Results: A total of 316 patients were enrolled, including 109 males and 207 females.The ratio of male to female was 1.0∶1.9, the age was (62.0±10.8)years.There was 298 cases(94.3%) R0 resection and 18 cases(5.7%) R1 resection.T staging: 287 cases(90.8%) T3 and 29 cases(9.2%) T4.The median survival time(MST) was 23.77 months, and the 1, 3, 5-year survival rates were 67.4%, 40.8%, 32.0%, respectively.For the Bayesian model, the number of correctly predicted cases was 121(≤23.77 months) and 115(>23.77 months) respectively, leading to a 74.86% accuracy of this model.The prior probability of survival time was 0.503 2(≤23.77 months) and 0.496 8

  19. Additional androgen deprivation makes the difference. Biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer patients after HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffmann, Jonas; Tennstedt, Pierre; Beyer, Burkhard; Boehm, Katharina; Tilki, Derya; Salomon, Georg; Graefen, Markus; Lesmana, Hans; Platz, Volker; Petersen, Cordula; Kruell, Andreas; Schwarz, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The role of additional androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with combined HDR brachytherapy (HDR-BT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is still unknown. Consecutive PCa patients classified as D'Amico intermediate and high-risk who underwent HDR-BT and EBRT treatment ± ADT at our institution between January 1999 and February 2009 were assessed. Multivariable Cox regression models predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) were performed. BCR-free survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analyses. Overall, 392 patients were assessable. Of these, 221 (56.4 %) underwent trimodality (HDR-BT and EBRT and ADT) and 171 (43.6 %) bimodality (HDR-BT and EBRT) treatment. Additional ADT administration reduced the risk of BCR (HR: 0.4, 95 % CI: 0.3-0.7, p < 0.001). D'Amico high-risk patients had superior BCR-free survival when additional ADT was administered (log-rank p < 0.001). No significant difference for BCR-free survival was recorded when additional ADT was administered to D'Amico intermediate-risk patients (log-rank p = 0.2). Additional ADT administration improves biochemical control in D'Amico high-risk patients when HDR-BT and EBRT are combined. Physicians should consider the oncological benefit of ADT administration for these patients during the decision-making process. (orig.) [de

  20. RBE comparison between rapid electrons of 20 MeV and 45 MeV with survival rate, DNA synthesis, DNA reparation and nucleoid sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alth, G.; Weniger, P.; Turtzer, K.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Lainz; Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf G.m.b.H. Inst. fuer Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    In order to find out possible differences of the biologic efficacy of rapid electrons of different energies, the authors examined the influence of rapid electrons of 20 MeV and 45 MeV upon the survival rate of Hela cells S3, their cell growth, DNA synthesis, DNA reparation, and sedimentation of nucleoids. The results show a difference only for the nucleoid sedimentation, i.e. there are more fractured DNA cords after 45 MeV irradiation. No significant differences could be demonstrated for the parameters of the survival curve, DNA synthesis and DNA reparation. Four double tests were carried out corresponding to the indicated types of examination. (orig.) [de

  1. Main Clinical Outcomes of Feldspathic Porcelain and Glass-Ceramic Laminate Veneers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Survival and Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Susana; Albanesi, Rafael Borges; Sesma, Newton; Agra, Carlos Martins; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis based on clinical trials that evaluated the main outcomes of glass-ceramic and feldspathic porcelain laminate veneers. A systematic search was carried out in Cochrane and PubMed databases. From the selected studies, the survival rates for porcelain and glass-ceramic veneers were extracted, as were complication rates of clinical outcomes: debonding, fracture/chipping, secondary caries, endodontic problems, severe marginal discoloration, and influence of incisal coverage and enamel/dentin preparation. The Cochran Q test and the I(2) statistic were used to evaluate heterogeneity. Out of the 899 articles initially identified, 13 were included for analysis. Metaregression analysis showed that the types of ceramics and follow-up periods had no influence on failure rate. The estimated overall cumulative survival rate was 89% (95% CI: 84% to 94%) in a median follow-up period of 9 years. The estimated survival for glass-ceramic was 94% (95% CI: 87% to 100%), and for feldspathic porcelain veneers, 87% (95% CI: 82% to 93%). The meta-analysis showed rates for the following events: debonding: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 4%); fracture/chipping: 4% (95% CI: 3% to 6%); secondary caries: 1% (95% CI: 0% to 3%); severe marginal discoloration: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 10%); endodontic problems: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 3%); and incisal coverage odds ratio: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.33 to 4.73). It was not possible to perform meta-analysis of the influence of enamel/dentin preparation on failure rates. Glass-ceramic and porcelain laminate veneers have high survival rates. Fracture/ chipping was the most frequent complication, providing evidence that ceramic veneers are a safe treatment option that preserve tooth structure.

  2. Extremely low-frame-rate digital fluoroscopy in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: A comparison of 2 versus 4 frame rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jun; Kim, Minsu; Hwang, Jongmin; Hwang, You Mi; Kang, Joon-Won; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Despite the technological advance in 3-dimensional (3D) mapping, radiation exposure during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) continues to be a major concern in both patients and physicians. Previous studies reported substantial radiation exposure (7369-8690 cGy cm) during AF catheter ablation with fluoroscopic settings of 7.5 frames per second (FPS) under 3D mapping system guidance. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a low-frame-rate fluoroscopy protocol for catheter ablation for AF.Retrospective analysis of data on 133 patients who underwent AF catheter ablation with 3-D electro-anatomic mapping at our institute from January 2014 to May 2015 was performed. Since January 2014, fluoroscopy frame rate of 4-FPS was implemented at our institute, which was further decreased to 2-FPS in September 2014. We compared the radiation exposure quantified as dose area product (DAP) and effective dose (ED) between the 4-FPS (n = 57) and 2-FPS (n = 76) groups.The 4-FPS group showed higher median DAP (599.9 cGy cm; interquartile range [IR], 371.4-1337.5 cGy cm vs. 392.0 cGy cm; IR, 289.7-591.4 cGy cm; P FPS group. No major procedure-related complications such as cardiac tamponade were observed in either group. Over follow-up durations of 331 ± 197 days, atrial tachyarrhythmia recurred in 20 patients (35.1%) in the 4-FPS group and in 27 patients (35.5%) in the 2-FPS group (P = .96). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed no significant different between the 2 groups (log rank, P = .25).In conclusion, both the 4-FPS and 2-FPS settings were feasible and emitted a relatively low level of radiation compared with that historically reported for DAP in a conventional fluoroscopy setting.

  3. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2012-03-01

    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze-thaw treatments, and evaluated the influence of these treatments on the mechanical properties of tendons. After a single freeze-thaw cycle, most cells isolated from frozen bone appeared morphologically as osteocytes and expressed both osteoblast- and osteocyte-related genes. Transmission electron microscopic observation of frozen cells using freeze-substitution revealed that a small number of osteocytes maintained large nuclei with intact double membranes, indicating that these osteocytes in bone matrix were resistant to ice crystal formation. We found that tendon cells were completely killed by a single freeze-thaw cycle, whereas bone cells exhibited a relatively high survival rate, although survival was significantly reduced after three freeze-thaw cycles. In patella tendons, the ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and strain at failure showed no significant differences between untreated tendons and those subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, we identified that cells surviving after freeze-thaw treatment of rat bones were predominantly osteocytes. We propose that repeated freeze-thaw cycles could be applied for processing bone-tendon constructs prior to grafting as the treatment did not affect the mechanical property of tendons and drastically reduced surviving osteocytes, thereby potentially decreasing allograft immunogenecity.

  4. A mathematical model resolving normal human blood lymphocyte population X-ray survival curves into six components: radiosensitivity, death rate and size of two responding sub-populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, A.E.R.; Vaughan-Smith, S.; Peel, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis was based on observations of survival decrease as a function of dose (range 0-5 Gy (= 500 rad)) and time after irradiation in vitro. Since lymphocyte survival is also sensitive to culture conditions the effects of radiation were examined daily up to 3 days only, while survival of control cells remained ca. 90 per cent. The time-dependent changes were resolved as the death rates (first-order governed) of lethally-hit cells (apparent survivors), so rendering these distinguishable from the morphologically identical, true (ultimate) survivors. For 12 blood donors the estimated dose permitting 37 per cent ultimate survival (D 37 value) averaged 0.72 +- 0.18 (SD) Gy for the more radiosensitive lymphocyte fraction and 2.50 +- 0.67 Gy for the less radiosensitive, each fraction proving homogeneously radiosensitive and the latter identifying substantially in kind with T-type (E-rosetting lymphocytes). The half-life of lethally-hit members of either fraction varied widely among the donors (ranges, 25-104 hours and 11-40 hours, respectively). Survival curves reconstructed by summating the numerical estimates of the six parameters according to the theoretical model closely matched those observed experimentally (ranged in multiple correlation coefficient, 0.9709-0.9994) for all donors). This signified the absence of any additional, totally radioresistant cell fraction. (author)

  5. Edge Contrast of the FLAIR Hyperintense Region Predicts Survival in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas following Treatment with Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, N; Piccioni, D; Karunamuni, R; Chang, Y-H; White, N; Delfanti, R; Seibert, T M; Hattangadi-Gluth, J A; Dale, A; Farid, N; McDonald, C R

    2018-04-05

    Treatment with bevacizumab is standard of care for recurrent high-grade gliomas; however, monitoring response to treatment following bevacizumab remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantifying the sharpness of the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense border using a measure derived from texture analysis-edge contrast-improves the evaluation of response to bevacizumab in patients with high-grade gliomas. MRIs were evaluated in 33 patients with high-grade gliomas before and after the initiation of bevacizumab. Volumes of interest within the FLAIR hyperintense region were segmented. Edge contrast magnitude for each VOI was extracted using gradients of the 3D FLAIR images. Cox proportional hazards models were generated to determine the relationship between edge contrast and progression-free survival/overall survival using age and the extent of surgical resection as covariates. After bevacizumab, lower edge contrast of the FLAIR hyperintense region was associated with poorer progression-free survival ( P = .009) and overall survival ( P = .022) among patients with high-grade gliomas. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that edge contrast cutoff significantly stratified patients for both progression-free survival (log-rank χ 2 = 8.3, P = .003) and overall survival (log-rank χ 2 = 5.5, P = .019). Texture analysis using edge contrast of the FLAIR hyperintense region may be an important predictive indicator in patients with high-grade gliomas following treatment with bevacizumab. Specifically, low FLAIR edge contrast may partially reflect areas of early tumor infiltration. This study adds to a growing body of literature proposing that quantifying features may be important for determining outcomes in patients with high-grade gliomas. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  7. Metformin Use and Endometrial Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Van Arsdale, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Moadel, Alyson; Kaur, Gurpreet; Frimer, Marina; Conroy, Erin; Goldberg, Gary L.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are risk factors for the development of uterine cancer. Although greater progression free survival among diabetic patients with ovarian and breast cancer using metformin have been reported, no studies have assessed the association of metformin use with survival in women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We conducted a single-institution retrospective cohort study of all patients treated for uterine cancer from January 1999 through December 2009. Demographic, medical, social, and survival data were abstracted from medical records and the national death registry. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox models were utilized for multivariate analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 985 patients, 114 (12%) had diabetes and were treated with metformin, 136 (14%) were diabetic but did not use metformin, and 735 (74%) had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Greater OS was observed in diabetics with non-endometrioid EC who used metformin than in diabetic cases not using metformin and non-endometrioid EC cases without diabetes (log rank test (p=0.02)). This association remained significant (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.97, p<0.04) after adjusting for age, clinical stage, grade, chemotherapy treatment, radiation treatment and presence of hyperlipidemia in multivariate analysis. No association between metformin use and OS in diabetics with endometrioid histology was observed. Conclusion Diabetic EC patients with non-endometrioid tumors who used metformin had lower risk of death than women with EC who did not use metformin. These data suggest that metformin might be useful as adjuvant therapy for non-endometrioid EC. PMID:24189334

  8. Survival outcome of malignant minor salivary tumors in Pakistani population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malignant tumors of minor salivary glands (MSG are rare. Survival outcome in Pakistani population with malignant MSG tumors remains to be defined. The objective of this study was to report the clinical presentation, treatment modalities, and survival outcome of radically treated malignant tumors of MSG in Pakistani population. Materials and Methods: Between April 2003 and March 2011, 45 patients with malignant tumors of MSG were treated at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital and included in the study. Patient characteristics and treatment modalities were assessed and local, regional, and distant failures determined. Relapse-free (RFS and overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier curves, and log-rank test was used to determine significance. Results: Median age was 40 (17-83 years. Male to female ratio was 1.25:1. Most common site was hard palate in 31 (69% patients. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (51% was the most common histological diagnosis. Nine patients (20% underwent surgery as the only treatment modality, six patients received (13% radiotherapy alone, and 30 patients (67% had surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Eight patients developed recurrence (four local, two regional, one locoregional, and one distant. The 5-year actuarial overall OS and RFS was 77 and 66%, respectively. Age, T-stage, and treatment modality were significant for RFS, whereas T-stage and treatment modality were significant factors for OS. Conclusion: Surgery as single modality or combined with radiation therapy resulted in acceptable survival in Pakistani population with malignant minor salivary tumors.

  9. Decreased survival in patients with carcinoma of axillary tail versus upper outer quadrant breast cancers: a SEER population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gou ZC

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zong-Chao Gou,1,2,* Xi-Yu Liu,1,2,* Yi Xiao,1,2 Shen Zhao,1,2 Yi-Zhou Jiang,1,2 Zhi-Ming Shao1–3 1Department of Breast Surgery, Cancer Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Carcinoma of the axillary tail of Spence (CATS is a poorly studied type of breast cancer. The clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic features of CATS are unclear. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 149,026 patients diagnosed with upper outer quadrant breast cancer (UOBC (n=146,343 or CATS (n=2,683. The median follow-up was 88 months. The primary and secondary outcomes were breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS and overall survival. The survival outcomes of UOBC and CATS were compared using competing risks analysis, log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards regression model, and propensity score matching method. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to present the relationship between CATS and lymph node (LN metastasis. Results: CATS presented a higher grade, higher negative hormone receptor rate, and more positive nodal metastasis. The 10-year BCSS rate was worse for CATS than for UOBC (85.1% vs 87.3%, P=0.001. The multivariate Cox analysis showed a higher hazard ratio (HR for CATS over UOBC (BCSS: HR =1.20, P=0.001; overall survival: HR =1.11, P=0.019. The difference in the BCSS was also observed in a 1:1 matched cohort (BCSS P=0.019. A subgroup analysis revealed the inferior outcomes of CATS in the metastatic LN subgroup and the hormone receptor-negative subgroup. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that CATS is an independent contributing factor to LN metastasis. Conclusion: CATS

  10. Assessment of predictors of response and long-term survival of patients with neuroendocrine tumour treated with peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, G.; Thompson, M.; Johnston, V.; Eu, P. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Collins, M.; Herschtal, A. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hofman, M.S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Michael, M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Medicine, Neuroendocrine Tumour Unit, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    To review the response and outcomes of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate chemoradionuclide therapy (LuTate PRCRT) in patients with neuroendocrine tumour (NET) expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors with uncontrolled symptoms or disease progression. A total of 68 patients (39 men; 17 - 76 years of age) who had completed an induction course of at least three cycles of LuTate PRCRT between January 2006 and June 2010 were reviewed. Ten patients were treated for uncontrolled symptoms and 58 had disease progression despite conventional treatment. The majority had four induction LuTate cycles (median treatment duration 5 months and cumulative activity 31 GBq), and 63 patients had concomitant 5-FU radiosensitizing infusional chemotherapy. Factors predicting overall survival were assessed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Of those treated for uncontrolled symptoms, 70 % received benefit maintained for at least 6 months after treatment. Among patients with progressive disease 68 % showed stabilization or regression on CT, 67 % on molecular imaging and 56 % biochemically up to 12 months after treatment; 32 patients died. Overall survival rates at 2 and 5 year were 72.1 % and 52.1 %, respectively. Median overall survival was not estimable at a median follow-up of 60 months (range 5 - 86 months). Nonpancreatic primary sites, dominant liver metastases, lesion size <5 cm and the use of 5-FU chemotherapy were statistically significantly associated with objective response. A disseminated pattern and a high disease burden (whole-body retention index) were associated with an increased risk of death. Objective biochemical, molecular imaging and CT responses were all associated with longer overall survival. A high proportion of patients with progressive NET or uncontrolled symptoms received therapeutic benefit from LuTate with concomitant 5-FU chemotherapy. The achievement of objective biochemical, molecular or CT responses within 12 months was

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ; Luděk STÁDNÍK; Mojmír VACEK; František LOUDA

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts), sperm motility (SM) during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC) and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval), open days (SP), inseminations number for pregnancy (index), an...

  12. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  13. Effects of copper on development and survival rate of Paphia malabarica Chemnitz larvae under low saline condition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gireesh, R.; Gopinathan, C.P.

    -mail: girmsr@gmail.com Introduction Salinity is an important abiotic factor that lim- its growth and survival of marine organisms, es- pecially in coastal waters where light dependant sessile invertebrates inhabits. Copper is an anthro- pogenic pollutant known... to be harmful in aquatic environment and several sources such as coastal runoffs and anti-fouling paint affects non-target organisms (Peters et al. 1997). Short neck clam, Paphia malabarica (Family: Veneridae) is widely distributed in the Vembanad Lake...

  14. Comparative Survival Rates of Human-Derived Probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei and L. salivarius Strains during Heat Treatment and Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, G. E.; O'Sullivan, E.; Kelly, J.; Auty, M. A. E.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Collins, J. K.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, C.

    2000-01-01

    Spray drying of skim milk was evaluated as a means of preserving Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC 118, which are human-derived strains with probiotic potential. Our initial experiments revealed that NFBC 338 is considerably more heat resistant in 20% (wt/vol) skim milk than UCC 118 is; the comparable decimal reduction times were 11.1 and 1.1 min, respectively, at 59°C. An air outlet temperature of 80 to 85°C was optimal for spray drying; these conditions resulted in powders with moisture contents of 4.1 to 4.2% and viable counts of 3.2 × 109 CFU/g for NFBC 338 and 5.2 × 107 CFU/g for UCC 118. Thus, L. paracasei NFBC 338 survived better than L. salivarius UCC 118 during spray drying; similar results were obtained when we used confocal scanning laser microscopy and LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability staining. In addition, confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the probiotic lactobacilli were located primarily in the powder particles. Although both spray-dried cultures appeared to be stressed, as shown by increased sensitivity to NaCl, bacteriocin production by UCC 118 was not affected by the process, nor was the activity of the bacteriocin peptide. The level of survival of NFBC 338 remained constant at ∼1 × 109 CFU/g during 2 months of powder storage at 4°C, while a decline in the level of survival of approximately 1 log (from 7.2 × 107 to 9.5 × 106 CFU/g) was observed for UCC 118 stored under the same conditions. However, survival of both Lactobacillus strains during powder storage was inversely related to the storage temperature. Our data demonstrate that spray drying may be a cost-effective way to produce large quantities of some probiotic cultures. PMID:10831444

  15. Robust estimates of environmental effects on population vital rates: an integrated capture–recapture model of seasonal brook trout growth, survival and movement in a stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Benjamin H.; Schueller, Paul; Bassar, Ronald D.; Nislow, Keith H.; Coombs, Jason A.; Sakrejda, Krzysztof; Morrissey, Michael; Sigourney, Douglas B.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Dubreuil, Todd L.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the effects of environmental change on populations is a key challenge for ecologists, particularly as the pace of change increases. Currently, modelling efforts are limited by difficulties in establishing robust relationships between environmental drivers and population responses.We developed an integrated capture–recapture state-space model to estimate the effects of two key environmental drivers (stream flow and temperature) on demographic rates (body growth, movement and survival) using a long-term (11 years), high-resolution (individually tagged, sampled seasonally) data set of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from four sites in a stream network. Our integrated model provides an effective context within which to estimate environmental driver effects because it takes full advantage of data by estimating (latent) state values for missing observations, because it propagates uncertainty among model components and because it accounts for the major demographic rates and interactions that contribute to annual survival.We found that stream flow and temperature had strong effects on brook trout demography. Some effects, such as reduction in survival associated with low stream flow and high temperature during the summer season, were consistent across sites and age classes, suggesting that they may serve as robust indicators of vulnerability to environmental change. Other survival effects varied across ages, sites and seasons, indicating that flow and temperature may not be the primary drivers of survival in those cases. Flow and temperature also affected body growth rates; these responses were consistent across sites but differed dramatically between age classes and seasons. Finally, we found that tributary and mainstem sites responded differently to variation in flow and temperature.Annual survival (combination of survival and body growth across seasons) was insensitive to body growth and was most sensitive to flow (positive) and temperature (negative

  16. IV. Effect of 60Co gamma rays on survival rate of China aster plants (Callistephus chinensis Nees in M1 generations - under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wosińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were undertaken on the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on survival rate of plants (germinated from irradiated seeds for 5 China aster varieties specified at florescence time. During their growth under field conditions (from planting time to blooming lethal effect of the radiation occurred in plants of all varieties and its level depended on dose and variety. Effect of 3 kR and 6 kR doses differed depending on variety and was not always harmful, but following irradiation with doses exceeding 6 kR a considerable decrease in survival rate was observed. Radioresistance of studied varieties - measured both: by LD50 and LDl00 - differed; depending on variety, LD50 and LDl00 values fluctuated: from 6 to 9 kR and 12 to 15 kR respectively.

  17. Effects of feeding frequency on growth, survival rate and body composition in sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed a commercial diet under laboratory condition

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, survival rate and body composition of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed commercial diet, reared under laboratory condition. The average initial weight of fish was 4.59 g and its initial total length of 7.11 cm was determined for the conditions factors. Ten fish were stocked in each 12 - 100 L conical fiberglass tanks filled with 90 L seawater at three replicates ...

  18. Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty for Failed Penetrating Keratoplasty: Influence of the Graft-Host Junction on the Graft Survival Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Takashi; Sakisaka, Toshihiro; Toyono, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Junko; Shirakawa, Rika; Miyai, Takashi; Yamagami, Satoru; Usui, Tomohiko

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the clinical results of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) for failed penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and the influence of the graft-host junction (GHJ) on the graft survival rate. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, visual outcomes, complications, and graft survival rate for 17 eyes of 16 patients who underwent DSAEK for failed PK. The graft survival rate was compared between the eyes when divided into a bump group and a well-aligned group according to the shape of the GHJ detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The most common indication for initial PK was bullous keratopathy after glaucoma surgery (35.3%). Seven eyes (41.2%) were classified into the bump group and 10 eyes (58.8%) into the well-aligned group. The mean best-ever documented visual acuity (BDVA) after DSAEK was 0.33 logMAR. Postoperatively, almost 70% of eyes achieved a BDVA that was within 0.2 logMAR of their preoperative BDVA. Graft detachment occurred in 29.4% of eyes and primary graft failure in 17.6%. All primary failures occurred in the bump group. The cumulative graft survival rate was 82.3% at 1 year, 73.2% at 2 years, and 58.6% at 3 years. Graft failure was more likely in eyes in the bump group than in those in the well-aligned group (P = 0.037, Wilcoxon test). DSAEK for failed PK had a favorable outcome in this study. However, the GHJ should be assessed carefully before performing the procedure.

  19. Physical condition and stress levels during early development reflect feeding rates and predict pre- and post-fledging survival in a nearshore seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Juliet S; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Jodice, Patrick G R

    2016-01-01

    The effects of acute environmental stressors on reproduction in wildlife are often difficult to measure because of the labour and disturbance involved in collecting accurate reproductive data. Stress hormones represent a promising option for assessing the effects of environmental perturbations on altricial young; however, it is necessary first to establish how stress levels are affected by environmental conditions during development and whether elevated stress results in reduced survival and recruitment rates. In birds, the stress hormone corticosterone is deposited in feathers during the entire period of feather growth, making it an integrated measure of background stress levels during development. We tested the utility of feather corticosterone levels in 3- to 4-week-old nestling brown pelicans ( Pelecanus occidentalis ) for predicting survival rates at both the individual and colony levels. We also assessed the relationship of feather corticosterone to nestling body condition and rates of energy delivery to nestlings. Chicks with higher body condition and lower corticosterone levels were more likely to fledge and to be resighted after fledging, whereas those with lower body condition and higher corticosterone levels were less likely to fledge or be resighted after fledging. Feather corticosterone was also associated with intracolony differences in survival between ground and elevated nest sites. Colony-wide, mean feather corticosterone predicted nest productivity, chick survival and post-fledging dispersal more effectively than did body condition, although these relationships were strongest before fledglings dispersed away from the colony. Both reproductive success and nestling corticosterone were strongly related to nutritional conditions, particularly meal delivery rates. We conclude that feather corticosterone is a powerful predictor of reproductive success and could provide a useful metric for rapidly assessing the effects of changes in environmental

  20. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival Rate without Brain Abnormalities on Postnatal Ultrasonography among Monochorionic Twins after Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction with Concomitant Oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keisuke; Wada, Seiji; Takano, Mayumi; Nakata, Masahiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2018-02-20

    We aimed to clarify the survival rate without brain abnormalities (BA) after fetoscopic laser photoco-agulation (FLP) for monochorionic diamniotic twin gestations (MCDA) with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) accompanied by abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler waveforms and isolated oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin. This retrospective study included 52 cases that underwent FLP. The main outcome was survival rate without BA of the twins at age 28 days. BA was defined as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia on postnatal ultrasonography. Median gestational age at FLP was 20 (16-24) weeks. Ten cases were classified as type III based on Doppler for the UA. For all cases, including 20 cases of anterior placenta, FLP was completed without major intraoperative complications. Amnioinfusion was required in 49 cases for better fetoscopic visualization. Fetal loss occurred in 29 sIUGR twins and two larger twins, whereas one larger twin experienced neonatal death. Survival rates without BA were 44% (n = 23) for sIUGR twins and 94% (n = 49) for the larger twins. FLP for MCDA with sIUGR presenting with oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin might be considered a prenatal treatment option. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warattama Suksaphar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations. Literature search were performed using keywords. Publications from 1980 to 2016 were searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS. Included studies were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three clinical studies were included: 1 randomized controlled trial and 1 prospective and 1 retrospective cohort studies. Pooled survival rates ranged from 94%–100% and 91.9%–100% for crowns and resin composite, respectively. The majority of teeth had no more than 3 surface loss of tooth structure. The studies included were heterogeneous, and were not appropriate for further meta-analysis. Current evidence suggested that the survival rates against the fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composites were not significantly different in the teeth with minimum to moderate loss of tooth structure.

  3. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  4. Graft shrinkage and survival rate of implants after sinus floor elevation using a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in silica gel matrix: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage, Marc; Abi Najm, Semaan; Bischof, Mvark; Nedir, Rabah; Carrel, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the vertical shrinkage percentage of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in silica gel used for maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and (2) to determine the survival rate of the implants 1 year after placement in the healed grafted sinuses. Eleven maxillary sinuses were augmented in eight patients with NanoBone. After a healing period averaging 14.42 months, 19 implants were placed and followed up with clinical and radiographic evaluation. Panoramic radiographs were taken immediately after SFE and at 12 months after grafting. Measurements of changes in height were made by a computerized measuring technique using an image editing software. The mean graft height shrinkage percentage at 12 months after surgery was 8.84% (±5.32). One implant was lost before loading. All the 18 remaining osseointegrated implants received the prosthetic rehabilitation and were controlled after 3 months of functional loading. The implant survival rate at the 1-year interval was 94.74%. A 100% NanoBone alloplastic graft used in lateral SFE procedures presented limited height shrinkage. Implants placed in these grafted sinuses showed survival rates similar to those found in published data. These results should be interpreted cautiously considering the study's reduced sample size.

  5. The impact of autonomic dysfunction on survival in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia.

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    Kajsa Stubendorff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Autonomic dysfunction is a well-known feature in neurodegenerative dementias, especially common in α-synucleinopathies like dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia. The most common symptoms are orthostatic hypotension, incontinence and constipation, but its relevance in clinical practice is poorly understood. There are no earlier studies addressing the influence of autonomic dysfunction on clinical course and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the three most common features of autonomic dysfunction and analyze how it affects survival. METHODS: Thirty patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease with dementia were included in this prospective, longitudinal follow-up study. Presence of incontinence and constipation was recorded at baseline. Blood pressure was measured at baseline, after 3 months and after 6 months according to standardized procedures, with 5 measurements during 10 minutes after rising. Orthostatic hypotension was defined using consensus definitions and persistent orthostatic hypotension was defined as 5 or more measurements with orthostatic hypotension. Difference in survival was analyzed 36 months after baseline. RESULTS: There was a high frequency of persistent orthostatic blood pressure (50%, constipation (30% and incontinence (30%. Patients with persistent orthostatic hypotension had a significantly shorter survival compared to those with no or non-persistent orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 4.47, p = 0.034. Patients with constipation and/or urinary incontinence, in addition to persistent orthostatic hypotension, had a poorer prognosis compared to those with isolated persistent orthostatic hypotension or no orthostatic hypotension (Log rank x(2 = 6.370, p = 0.041. DISCUSSION: According to our findings, the identification of autonomic dysfunction seems to be of great importance in clinical practice, not only to

  6. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

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    Christopher G Lis

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH, a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7 versus all others (1-6. Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates.74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1% patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7% patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001. On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04. Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007 while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32. Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each

  7. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Christopher G; Patel, Kamal; Gupta, Digant

    2015-01-01

    Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS) with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH), a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years) treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7) versus all others (1-6). Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates. 74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1%) patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7%) patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001). On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04). Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007) while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32). Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each other

  8. Estimating survival rates of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis veliger larvae under summer and autumn temperature regimes in residual water of trailered watercraft at Lake Mead, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 6 January 2007, invasive quagga mussels [Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897] were discovered in the Boulder Basin ofLake Mead, Nevada, a popular site for recreational boating in the southwestern United States. Recreational watercraft are considered aprimary vector for overland dispersal of quagga mussel veliger larvae between water bodies. Thus, effective decontamination of veligers inresidual water carried by trailered recreation boats is critical to controlling this species’ spread. The survival rate of quagga mussel veligerswas measured during exposure to environmental temperature conditions mimicking those experienced in the residual water of traileredvessels during warm summer and cooler autumn months in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Under warm summer conditions,quagga mussel veligers survived approximately five days while under cooler autumn conditions they survived 27 days. When tested underautumn temperature conditions veliger survival times increased with increased level of larval development. The results suggested a greaterlikelihood of veliger transport in the residual water of trailered watercraft during autumn months. The results indicated that presentlyrecommended vessel quarantine times to kill all externally attached juvenile and adult dreissenid mussels prior to launching in an uninfested water body should be increased to generate 100% veliger mortality in residual water unable to be fully drained from the internal areas of watercraft.

  9. The influence of anti-predator training, personality and sex in the behavior, dispersion and survival rates of translocated captive-raised parrots

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    Alice R.S. Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main factors responsible for the failure of reintroduction/translocation programs. Animal's personality and sex can also influence key behaviors for survival and reproduction. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of anti-predator training, personality and sex on the survival and behaviors of translocated blue-fronted Amazon parrots. Thirty-one captive-raised parrots were translocated to a Cerrado area in Brazil. Parrots were separated into two groups: anti-predator trained group (ATG and control group (CG. Personality tests were performed with individuals of the ATG group. Data were collected using focal sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every minute. Anti-predator training, personality and sex did not influenced parrots' survival after release. However, anti-predator training proved to be efficient in eliciting more natural behaviors in parrots after release. Shy individuals and males showed to be more sociable than bold individuals and females. Personality and sex did not influence behavior exhibition. Parrots interacted more, positively or negatively, with individuals of its own group. Training session closer to the release date should be tried. Behavioral data and not just survival rates should be used to evaluate the efficiency of the techniques, because behavior can give clues about the adaptation of the individuals to the new habitat, increasing the success of the conservation program.

  10. Do female cancer patients display better survival rates compared with males? Analysis of the Korean National Registry data, 2005-2009.

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    Kyu-Won Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences have been reported in the prognosis of certain cancers. In this study, we investigated whether Korean females display better survival rates compared with male patients for solid tumor sites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database from 599,288 adult patients diagnosed with solid cancers between 2005 and 2009. Patients were followed until December 2010. We applied a relative excess risk (RER model adjusting for year of follow-up, age at diagnosis, and stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: For all solid cancer sites combined, women displayed an 11% lower risk of death compared to men (RER 0.89; 95% CI 0.88-0.90 after adjusting for year of follow-up, age, stage, and case mix. Women showed significantly lower RERs for the following sites: head/neck, esophagus, small intestine, liver, nasal cavities, lung, bone/cartilages, melanoma of skin, soft tissue, brain and CNS, and thyroid. In contrast, women displayed a poorer prognosis than did men for colorectal, laryngeal, kidney and bladder cancer. However, the survival gaps between men and women narrowed by increase in age; female patients over 75 years of age displayed a 3% higher RER of death compared with males in this age group. CONCLUSIONS: Female cancer patients display an improved survival for the majority of solid tumor sites, even after adjustment for age and stage. Age at diagnosis was the major contributor to the women's survival advantage.

  11. Socioeconomic Status, Not Race, Is Associated With Reduced Survival in Esophagectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhunmwunsee, Loretta; Gulack, Brian C; Rushing, Christel; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-07-01

    Black patients with esophageal cancer have worse survival than white patients. This study examines this racial disparity in conjunction with socioeconomic status (SES) and explores whether race-based outcome differences exist using a national database. The associations between race and SES with overall survival of patients treated with esophagectomy for stages I to III esophageal cancer between 2003 and 2011 in the National Cancer Data Base were investigated using the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards analyses. Median income by zip code and proportion of the zip code residents without a high school diploma were grouped into income and education quartiles, respectively and used as surrogates for SES. The association between race and overall survival stratified by SES is explored. Of 11,599 esophagectomy patients who met study criteria, 3,503 (30.2%) were in the highest income quartile, 2,847 (24.5%) were in the highest education quartile, and 610 patients (5%) were black. Before adjustment for SES, black patients had worse overall survival than white patients (median survival 23.0 versus 34.7 months, log rank p race was not. Prior studies have suggested that survival of esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy is associated with race. Our study suggests that race is not significantly related to overall survival when adjusted for other prognostic variables. Socioeconomic status, however, remains significantly related to overall survival in our model. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic classification index in Iranian colorectal cancer patients: Survival tree analysis

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    Amal Saki Malehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic index for separating homogenous subgroups in colorectal cancer (CRC patients based on clinicopathological characteristics using survival tree analysis. Methods: The current study was conducted at the Research Center of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Shahid Beheshti Medical University in Tehran, between January 2004 and January 2009. A total of 739 patients who already have been diagnosed with CRC based on pathologic report were enrolled. The data included demographic and clinical-pathological characteristic of patients. Tree-structured survival analysis based on a recursive partitioning algorithm was implemented to evaluate prognostic factors. The probability curves were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method, and the hazard ratio was estimated as an interest effect size. Result: There were 526 males (71.2% of these patients. The mean survival time (from diagnosis time was 42.46± (3.4. Survival tree identified three variables as main prognostic factors and based on their four prognostic subgroups was constructed. The log-rank test showed good separation of survival curves. Patients with Stage I-IIIA and treated with surgery as the first treatment showed low risk (median = 34 months whereas patients with stage IIIB, IV, and more than 68 years have the worse survival outcome (median = 9.5 months. Conclusion: Constructing the prognostic classification index via survival tree can aid the researchers to assess interaction between clinical variables and determining the cumulative effect of these variables on survival outcome.

  13. Preoperative Chemoembolization in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Liver Transplantation: Influence of Emergent Versus Elective Procedures on Patient Survival and Tumor Recurrence Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockland, A. H.; Walser, E. M.; Paz-Fumagalli, R.; McKinney, J. M.; May, G. R.

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the recurrence rate and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had elective transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), immediate preoperative TACE, or no treatment prior to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A total of 132 patients with HCC had TACE prior to OLT. Eighteen patients had no TACE before OLT and functioned as a control group. The urgent group included 35 patients embolized less than 24 h before OLT and the elective group included 97 patients embolized greater than 1 day before transplantation. These groups were compared with regard to tumor staging, hepatic synthetic function, and post-TACE tumor necrosis and survival and recurrence rates.Patients were followed for a mean of 780 days post OLT (1-2912 days). The tumor staging was similar between groups but the Childs-Pugh score in the urgent and untreated group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The degree of necrosis at explant was also significantly different between the two treated groups, with an average 35% necrosis in the patients embolized less than 24 h before OLT vs 77% in the elective group (p < 0.002). Recurrence rate in the urgent group was 8 of 35 (23%) in a median of 580 days, 20 of 97 (21%) in a median of 539 days in the elective group, and 2 of 18 (11%) in a median of 331 days in the no-TACE group. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 91%, 80%, and 72% in the elective group, 79%, 58%, and 39% in the urgent group, and 69%, 61%, and 41% in the no-TACE group, respectively. The urgent and no-TACE groups had significantly worse survival compared with the other groups; however, the tumor recurrence rates were statistically the same among all three groups. TACE within 24 h of OLT causes an average of 35% necrosis and elective TACE increases necrosis further to 77%. Despite this difference, the tumor recurrence rate in the three groups is equivalent and no different from that in the group that received no treatment before OLT

  14. The small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor, UTL-5g, delays deaths and increases survival rates for mice treated with high doses of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick

    2013-09-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and body weights were monitored. UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150 % of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200 % of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight loss induced by cisplatin, indicating that body weight may not be a sensitive-enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin, indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted.

  15. High-dose-rate versus low-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer: analysis of tumor recurrence - the University of Wisconsin experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petereit, Daniel G.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Potter, David M.; Schink, Julian C.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the clinical outcome for cervical cancer patients treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) vs. low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred ninety-one LDR patients were treated from 1977 to 1988 and compared to 173 HDR patients treated from 1989 to 1996. Patients of similar stage and tumor volumes were treated with identical external beam fractionation schedules. Brachytherapy was given in either 1 or 2 LDR implants for the earlier patient cohort, and 5 HDR implants for the latter cohort. For both patient groups, Point A received a minimum total dose of 80 Gy. The linear-quadratic formula was used to calculate the LDR dose-equivalent contribution to Point A for the HDR treatments. The primary endpoints assessed were survival, pelvic control, relapse-free survival, and distant metastases. Endpoints were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparisons between treatment groups were performed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The median follow-up was 65 months (2 to 208 months) in the LDR group and 22 months (1 to 85 months) in the HDR group. For all stages combined there was no difference in survival, pelvic control, relapse-free survival, or distant metastases between LDR and HDR patients. For Stage IB and II HDR patients, the pelvic control rates were 85% and 80% with survival rates of 86% and 65% at 3 years, respectively. In the LDR group, Stage IB and II patients had 91% and 78% pelvic control rates, with 82% and 58% survival rates at 3 years, respectively. No difference was seen in survival or pelvic control for bulky Stage I and II patients combined (> 5 cm). Pelvic control at 3 years was 44% (HDR) versus 75% (LDR) for Stage IIIB patients (p = 0.002). This difference in pelvic control was associated with a lower survival rate in the Stage IIIB HDR versus LDR population (33% versus 58%, p = 0.004). The only major difference, with regard to patient characteristics

  16. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival rate of cultured corals and photosynthetic efficiency of zooxanthellae in coral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanui, Pataporn; Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Omori, Makoto; Lin, Chiahsin

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on growth, survival, and photosynthetic efficiency of three coral species, namely, Pocillopora damicornis, Acropora millepora and Platygyra sinensis of different ages (6 and 18 months old). The experimental corals were cultivated via sexual propagation. Colonies were exposed to 5 different temperatures (18, 23, 28, 33, and 38°C) and 5 different salinities (22, 27, 32, 37, and 42 psu). Results showed that temperature significantly affected photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) (p < 0.05) compared to salinity. The maximum quantum yield of corals decreased ranging from 5% to 100% when these corals were exposed to different temperatures and salinities. Temperature also significantly affected coral growth and survival. However, corals exposed to changes in salinity showed higher survivorship than those exposed to changes in temperature. Results in this study also showed that corals of different ages and of different species did not display the same physiological responses to changes in environmental conditions. Thus, the ability of corals to tolerate salinity and temperature stresses depends on several factors.

  17. Counterbalancing angiogenic regulatory factors control the rate of cancer progression and survival in a stage-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liang; Duncan, Michael B; Pahler, Jessica; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Martino, Margot; Lively, Julie; Mundel, Thomas; Soubasakos, Mary; Rubin, Kristofer; Takeda, Takaaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Lawler, Jack; Hynes, Richard O; Hanahan, Douglas; Kalluri, Raghu

    2011-06-14

    Whereas the roles of proangiogenic factors in carcinogenesis are well established, those of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors (EAIs) remain to be fully elaborated. We investigated the roles of three EAIs during de novo tumorigenesis to further test the angiogenic balance hypothesis, which suggests that blood vessel development in the tumor microenvironment can be governed by a net loss of negative regulators of angiogenesis in addition to the well-established principle of up-regulated angiogenesis inducers. In a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer, administration of endostatin, thrombospondin-1, and tumstatin peptides, as well as deletion of their genes, reveal neoplastic stage-specific effects on angiogenesis, tumor progression, and survival, correlating with endothelial expression of their receptors. Deletion of tumstatin and thrombospondin-1 in mice lacking the p53 tumor suppressor gene leads to increased incidence and reduced latency of angiogenic lymphomas associated with diminished overall survival. The results demonstrate that EAIs are part of a balance mechanism regulating tumor angiogenesis, serving as intrinsic microenvironmental barriers to tumorigenesis.

  18. Counterbalancing angiogenic regulatory factors control the rate of cancer progression and survival in a stage-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liang; Duncan, Michael B.; Pahler, Jessica; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Martino, Margot; Lively, Julie; Mundel, Thomas; Soubasakos, Mary; Rubin, Kristofer; Takeda, Takaaki; Inoue, Masahiro; Lawler, Jack; Hynes, Richard O.; Hanahan, Douglas; Kalluri, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the roles of proangiogenic factors in carcinogenesis are well established, those of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors (EAIs) remain to be fully elaborated. We investigated the roles of three EAIs during de novo tumorigenesis to further test the angiogenic balance hypothesis, which suggests that blood vessel development in the tumor microenvironment can be governed by a net loss of negative regulators of angiogenesis in addition to the well-established principle of up-regulated angiogenesis inducers. In a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer, administration of endostatin, thrombospondin-1, and tumstatin peptides, as well as deletion of their genes, reveal neoplastic stage-specific effects on angiogenesis, tumor progression, and survival, correlating with endothelial expression of their receptors. Deletion of tumstatin and thrombospondin-1 in mice lacking the p53 tumor suppressor gene leads to increased incidence and reduced latency of angiogenic lymphomas associated with diminished overall survival. The results demonstrate that EAIs are part of a balance mechanism regulating tumor angiogenesis, serving as intrinsic microenvironmental barriers to tumorigenesis. PMID:21622854

  19. Comparison of the effect of endodontic-periodontal combined lesion on the outcome of endodontic microsurgery with that of isolated endodontic lesion: survival analysis using propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Kang, Minji; Kang, Dae Ryong; Jung, Hoi In; Kim, Euiseong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the effect of lesion types related to endodontic microsurgery on the clinical outcome. Patients who underwent endodontic microsurgery between March 2001 and March 2014 with a postoperative follow-up period of at least 1 year were included in the study. Survival analyses were conducted to compare the clinical outcomes between isolated endodontic lesion group (endo group) and endodontic-periodontal combined lesion group (endo-perio group) and to evaluate other clinical variables. To reduce the effect of selection bias in this study, the estimated propensity scores were used to match the cases of the endo group with those of the endo-perio group. Among the 414 eligible cases, the 83 cases in the endo-perio group were matched to 166 out of the 331 cases in the endo group based on propensity score matching (PSM). The cumulated success rates of the endo and endo-perio groups were 87.3 and 72.3%, respectively. The median success period of the endo-perio group was 12 years (95% CI: 5.507, 18.498). Lesion type was found to be significant according to both Log-rank test (P = 0.002) and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis (P = 0.001). Among the other clinical variables, sex (female or male), age, and tooth type (anterior, premolar, or molar) were determined to be significant in Cox regression analysis (P lesions had a negative effect on the clinical outcome based on an analysis that utilized PSM, a useful statistical matching method for observational studies. Lesion type is a significant predictor of the outcome of endodontic microsurgery.

  20. High survival rates of Campylobacter coli under different stress conditions suggest that more rigorous food control measures might be needed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina N; Passaglia, Jaqueline; Vilela, Felipe P; Pereira da Silva, Fátima M H S; Duque, Sheila S; Falcão, Juliana P

    2018-08-01

    Campylobacter spp. have been the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in many countries. Consumption of improperly prepared poultry meat has been the main transmission route of Campylobacter spp. Although Brazil is the largest exporter of poultry meat in the world, campylobacteriosis has been a neglected disease in the country. The aim of this study was to characterize 50 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from different sources in Brazil regarding the frequency of 16 virulence genes and their survival capability under five different stress conditions. All strains studied presented the cadF, flaA, and sodB genes that are considered essential for colonization. All strains grew at 4 °C and 37 °C after 24 h. High survival rates were observed when the strains were incubated in BHI with 7.5% NaCl and exposed to acid and oxidative stress. In conclusion, the pathogenic potential of the strains studied was reinforced by the presence of several important virulence genes and by the high growth and survival rates of the majority of those strains under different stress conditions. The results enabled a better understanding of strains circulating in Brazil and suggest that more rigorous control measures may be needed, given the importance of contaminated food as vehicles for Campylobacter coli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survival analysis in patients with metastatic spinal disease: the influence of surgery, histology, clinical and neurologic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spine is the most common site for skeletal metastasis in patients with malignancy. Vertebral involvement quantification, neurological status, general health status and primary tumor histology are factors to set surgical planning and therapeutic targets. We evaluated the impact of general clinical and neurological status, histologic type and surgery in survival. Method : The study sample consisted of consecutive patients admitted from July 2010 to January 2013 for treatment. Results : Sixty eight patients were evaluated. 23 were female and 45 were male. Main primary neoplasic sites were: breast, prostate, lung/pleura and linfoproliferative. Thirty three out of 68 received surgical treatment, 2 received percutaneous biopsy and 33 had nonsurgical treatment. Survival : Log Rank curves revealed no statistical significant difference according to histological type, surgical approach and Frankel Score. Karnofsky Score was statistically different. Conclusion : Histological type and clinical status were statistically associated with life expectancy in vertebral metastatic disease.

  2. Improved Metastasis- and Disease-Free Survival With Preoperative Sequential Short-Course Radiation Therapy and FOLFOX Chemotherapy for Rectal Cancer Compared With Neoadjuvant Long-Course Chemoradiotherapy: Results of a Matched Pair Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovina, Stephanie; Youssef, Fady; Roy, Amit; Aggarwal, Sonya; Khwaja, Shariq; DeWees, Todd; Tan, Benjamin; Hunt, Steven; Myerson, Robert J; Chang, Daniel T; Parikh, Parag J; Olsen, Jeffrey R

    2017-10-01

    To compare treatment and toxicity outcomes between a phase 2 institutional trial of near total neoadjuvant therapy (nTNT) for locally advanced rectal cancer and a similar historical control cohort treated at Washington University in St. Louis with the current US standard of care, defined as neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT), total mesorectal excision (TME), and adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy; to expand the comparison to an additional institution, patients treated with similar NCRT at Stanford University were included. Sixty-nine patients with cT3-4N0-2M0 rectal adenocarcinoma enrolled on the Washington University in St. Louis phase 2 study of nTNT were included for analysis. Patients treated at the same institution with conventional NCRT and adjuvant FOLFOX were matched for exact cTNM stage. Forty-one patients treated with NCRT at Stanford University were included in a second analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to compare local control, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Median follow-up was 49 and 54 months for nTNT and NCRT, respectively. Pathologic complete response and T-downstaging rates were 28% versus 16% (P=.21) and 75% versus 41% (P<.001) in the nTNT and NCRT cohorts, respectively. Three-year disease-free survival (85% vs 68%, P=.032) was significantly better in the nTNT group. Actuarial 3-year local control (92% vs 96%, P=.36) and overall survival (96% vs 88%, P=.67) were similar. The Stanford cohort had significantly lower clinical stage. After controlling for clinical stage, age, tumor location, institution, and number of chemotherapy cycles, nTNT treatment remained significantly associated with lower risk of recurrence (P=.006). Patients treated with nTNT had higher T-downstaging and superior distant metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival compared with conventional NCRT when matched for tumor location and exact cTNM stage. Near total neoadjuvant therapy remained a

  3. Two-year survival of Ahmed valve implantation in the first 2 years of life with and without intraoperative mitomycin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mobarak, Faisal; Khan, Arif O

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of intraoperative mitomycin-C (MMC) on polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) survival 2 years after implantation during the first 2 years of life. Retrospective institutional comparative series (1995-2005). Thirty-one eyes of 27 patients (23 unilateral, 4 bilateral; 16 boys, 11 girls) undergoing AGV implantation at a mean age of 11.1 months (standard deviation [SD], 5.46), all of which had 2 years of regular postoperative follow-up. MMC was applied intraoperatively in those cases in the area of AGV implantation in 16 (52%) and was not applied in 15 (48%). In some eyes, MMC was applied intraoperatively in cases done by the surgeons who routinely used MMC for all AGV implantation in young children. Failure was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) > 22 mmHg with or without glaucoma medications, the need for an additional procedure for IOP control, or the occurrence of significant complications (e.g., endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, persistent hypotony [IOP < 5 mmHg]). Survival was the absence of failure. Failure or significant complications as defined. Mean survival for the non-MMC eyes (22.15 months; standard error [SE], 1.93) was significantly longer than survival for the MMC eyes (16.25 months; SE, 2.17) by the log-rank test (P = 0.025). The difference in cumulative survival at 2 years was also significantly different by log-rank test (P = 0.001): 80.0% (SE 10.3) and 31.3% (SE 11.6), respectively. Rather than improved survival, intraoperative use of MMC was associated with shorter survival 2 years after AGV implantation during the first 2 years of life. We speculate that MMC-induced tissue death can stimulate a reactive fibrosis around the AGV in very young eyes.

  4. Prognostic and survival analysis of 837 Chinese colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Li, Mo-Dan; Hu, Han-Guang; Dong, Cai-Xia; Chen, Jia-Qi; Li, Xiao-Fen; Li, Jing-Jing; Shen, Hong

    2013-05-07

    To develop a prognostic model to predict survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Survival data of 837 CRC patients undergoing surgery between 1996 and 2006 were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model to reveal the prognostic factors for CRC. All data were recorded using a standard data form and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, United States). Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess differences in survival. Univariate hazard ratios and significant and independent predictors of disease-specific survival and were identified by Cox proportional hazard analysis. The stepwise procedure was set to a threshold of 0.05. Statistical significance was defined as P analysis suggested age, preoperative obstruction, serum carcinoembryonic antigen level at diagnosis, status of resection, tumor size, histological grade, pathological type, lymphovascular invasion, invasion of adjacent organs, and tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging were positive prognostic factors (P analysis showed a significant statistical difference in 3-year survival among these groups: LNR1, 73%; LNR2, 55%; and LNR3, 42% (P analysis results showed that histological grade, depth of bowel wall invasion, and number of metastatic lymph nodes were the most important prognostic factors for CRC if we did not consider the interaction of the TNM staging system (P < 0.05). When the TNM staging was taken into account, histological grade lost its statistical significance, while the specific TNM staging system showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). The overall survival of CRC patients has improved between 1996 and 2006. LNR is a powerful factor for estimating the survival of stage III CRC patients.

  5. Survival rate of Saccharomyces boulardii adapted to a functional freeze-dried yoghurt, related to processing, storage and digestion by experimental Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tranquilino-Rodriguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saccharomycesboulardiiis a probiotic clinically effective inthe prevention and treatment of antibiotic induced diarrheain both children and adults, Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the microorganisms need to survive the gastrointestinal transit and arrive to their action site alive in order to exert their beneficial effects. Microencapsulation is an alternative to improve the viability of probiotic in foods which can also survive in the gastrointestinal conditions. Freeze--drying is a method of dehydration that does not affect nutrients and bioactive compounds,such as probiotics contained in foods.All of them will increase the survival rate of S.boulardii.Purpose of this study:This study focused on formulae freeze-dried yogurt containing inulin, vegetable palm oil,and S.boulardii, both asfree cells and in microencapsulated form.Also,the effect of ampicillin associated S.boulardii. Methods. Yogurts were given to an “in vivo” digestion process, using male Wistar rats.The survival of S. boulardiiwas subsequently evaluated in colon and feces.For this study, six treatmentsof four of rats were used:i control rats ii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiias free cells, iii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiiinmicro-encapsulated form, iv control rats fed with penicillin,v rats fed with ampicillin plus yogurtcontaining S. boulardiias free cells, and vi rats fed with penicillin plus yogurt containing S. boulardiiin micro-encapsulated form. Results:The study demonstrated it was feasible to freeze-drythe S. boulardiiand incorporate it into a yogurtmade with skim milk,inulin, and unsaturated vegetable oil.The freeze-drying process not affected thesurvival of the S. boulardii(p<0.05. Microencapsulation increased the survival of S. boulardii on 1.77-Log CFU/g, and the presence of S. boulardii was only detected in colon and fecesof those rats which

  6. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidin Muchlisin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the optimum level of papain in the diet of keureling fish (Tor tambra. The complete random design was utilized in this study. Six levels of papain dosage were tested in triplicates, i.e. 0 (control; 17.5 mg kg-1,  20.0 mg kg-1, 22.5 mg kg-1, 25.0 mg kg-1 and 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish were fed the experimental diet two times a day at 8 AM and 5 PM at feeding level of 5% body weight for 90 days. The Anova test result showed that papain enzyme  gave a significant effect on the weight gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency (P<0.05. The Duncan multi-rage test result showed that the higher values for all measured parameters were obtained at the dosage of 27.5 mg kg-1. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimum dosage of papain enzyme for keureling fish was 27.5 mg kg-1 of feed.How to CiteMuchlisin, Z. A., Afrido, F., Murda, T., Fadli, N., Muhammadar, A. A., Jalil, Z., & Yulvizar, C. (2016. The Effectiveness of Experimental Diet with Varying Levels of Papain on The Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Keureling Fish (Tor tambra. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 172-177.

  7. Analyzing a Lung Cancer Patient Dataset with the Focus on Predicting Survival Rate One Year after Thoracic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Hachesu, Peyman; Moftian, Nazila; Dehghani, Mahsa; Samad Soltani, Taha

    2017-06-25

    Background: Data mining, a new concept introduced in the mid-1990s, can help researchers to gain new, profound insights and facilitate access to unanticipated knowledge sources in biomedical datasets. Many issues in the medical field are concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on tests conducted on individuals at risk. Early diagnosis and treatment can provide a better outcome regarding the survival of lung cancer patients. Researchers can use data mining techniques to create effective diagnostic models. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns existing in risk factor data of for mortality one year after thoracic surgery for lung cancer. Methods: The dataset used in this study contained 470 records and 17 features. First, the most important variables involved in the incidence of lung cancer were extracted using knowledge discovery and datamining algorithms such as naive Bayes, maximum expectation and then, using a regression analysis algorithm, a questionnaire was developed to predict the risk of death one year after lung surgery. Outliers in the data were excluded and reported using the clustering algorithm. Finally, a calculator was designed to estimate the risk for one-year post-operative mortality based on a scorecard algorithm. Results: The results revealed the most important factor involved in increased mortality to be large tumor size. Roles for type II diabetes and preoperative dyspnea in lower survival were also identified. The greatest commonality in classification of patients was Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), based on levels of which patients could be classified into different categories. Conclusion: Development of a questionnaire based on calculations to diagnose disease can be used to identify and fill knowledge gaps in clinical practice guidelines. Creative Commons Attribution License

  8. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta survival, recovery, and harvest rates derived from 55 years of banding in Prairie Canada, 1960-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake A. Bartzen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Pintail (Anas acuta; hereafter pintail experienced a significant population decline in North America in the 1980s but did not rebound to the previous population level the way that other prairie dabbling duck species (Anas spp. did once habitat conditions improved. Although the population decline occurred throughout the breeding range of pintails, the decline was most pronounced and sustained in Prairie Canada, i.e., southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Thus, we estimated and examined annual survival, recovery, and harvest rates of pintails banded in Prairie Canada from 1960-2014. Annual survival rates varied by sex but were relatively high compared to those of other dabbling duck species and increased slightly over the study period to end at 0.64 ± 0.13 (SE and 0.74 ± 0.10 for females and males, respectively. Recovery and harvest rates varied over time but generally declined in the 1980s and increased from the early 1990s until the end of the study period. There was no clear evidence that hunting bag limit restrictions affected annual survival, recovery, or harvest rates. In addition, we could find no compelling evidence that harvest mortality was substantially additive to nonharvest mortality for pintails. However, we could not definitively ascertain the effects of the restrictions, and we suggest that a trial basis of liberalized hunting bag limits would do much to improve the understanding of harvest and population dynamics of pintails and pose little risk to the population. Based on our results, we believe that measures other than harvest restrictions will likely have to be taken to elevate the pintail population to the North American Waterfowl Management Plan objective.

  9. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra...... Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis...

  10. Post-treatment changes of tumour perfusion parameters can help to predict survival in patients with high-grade astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Marti-Bonmati, Luis [Hospital Quironsalud Valencia, Radiology Department, Valencia (Spain); Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Grupo de Investigacion Biomedica en Imagen, Valencia (Spain); Revert-Ventura, Antonio J.; Salame-Gamarra, Fares [Hospital de Manises, Radiology Department, Manises (Spain); Garcia-Marti, Gracian [Hospital Quironsalud Valencia, Radiology Department, Valencia (Spain); Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Grupo de Investigacion Biomedica en Imagen, Valencia (Spain); CIBER-SAM, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Perez-Girbes, Alexandre [Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Grupo de Investigacion Biomedica en Imagen, Valencia (Spain); Molla-Olmos, Enrique [Hospital La Ribera, Radiology Department, Alzira (Spain)

    2017-08-15

    Vascular characteristics of tumour and peritumoral volumes of high-grade gliomas change with treatment. This work evaluates the variations of T2*-weighted perfusion parameters as overall survival (OS) predictors. Forty-five patients with histologically confirmed high-grade astrocytoma (8 grade III and 37 grade IV) were included. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment T2*-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Tumour, peritumoral and control volumes were segmented. Relative variations of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), K{sup trans-T2*}, k{sub ep-T2*}, v{sub e-T2*} and v{sub p-T2*} were calculated. Differences regarding tumour grade and surgical resection extension were evaluated with ANOVA tests. For each parameter, two groups were defined by non-supervised clusterisation. Survival analysis were performed on these groups. For the tumour region, the 90th percentile increase or stagnation of CBV was associated with shorter survival, while a decrease related to longer survival (393 ± 189 vs 594 ± 294 days; log-rank p = 0.019; Cox hazard-ratio, 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.74). K{sup trans-T2*} showed similar results (414 ± 177 vs 553 ± 312 days; log-rank p = 0.037; hazard-ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.03-4.65). The peritumoral area values showed no relationship with OS. Post-treatment variations of the highest CBV and K{sup trans-T2*} values in the tumour volume are predictive factors of OS in patients with high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  11. Cross-Validation of Survival Bump Hunting by Recursive Peeling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Choe, Michael; LeBlanc, Michael; Rao, J Sunil

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a survival/risk bump hunting framework to build a bump hunting model with a possibly censored time-to-event type of response and to validate model estimates. First, we describe the use of adequate survival peeling criteria to build a survival/risk bump hunting model based on recursive peeling methods. Our method called "Patient Recursive Survival Peeling" is a rule-induction method that makes use of specific peeling criteria such as hazard ratio or log-rank statistics. Second, to validate our model estimates and improve survival prediction accuracy, we describe a resampling-based validation technique specifically designed for the joint task of decision rule making by recursive peeling (i.e. decision-box) and survival estimation. This alternative technique, called "combined" cross-validation is done by combining test samples over the cross-validation loops, a design allowing for bump hunting by recursive peeling in a survival setting. We provide empirical results showing the importance of cross-validation and replication.

  12. A generalised formulation of the 'incomplete-repair' model for cell survival and tissue response to fractionated low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.; Joiner, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    A generalized equation for cell survival or tissue effects after fractionated low dose-rate irradiations, when there is incomplete repair between fractions and significant repair during fractions, is derived in terms of the h- and g-functions of the 'incomplete-repair' (IR) model. The model is critically dependent on α/β, repair half-time, treatment time and interfraction interval, and should therefore be regarded primarily as a tool for the analysis of fractionation and dose-rate effects in carefully designed radiobiological experiments, although it should also be useful in exploring, in a general way, the feasibility of clinical treatment protocols using fractionated low dose-rate treatments. (author)

  13. Survival of bonded lingual retainers with chemical or photo polymerization over a 2-year period: a single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Kloukos, Dimitrios; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this trial was to compare the survival rates of mandibular lingual retainers bonded with either chemically cured or light-cured adhesive after orthodontic treatment. Patients having undergone orthodontic treatment at a private orthodontic office were randomly allocated to fixed retainers placed with chemically cured composite or light-cured composite. Eligibility criteria included no active caries, restorations, or fractures on the mandibular anterior teeth, and adequate oral hygiene. The main outcome was any type of first-time lingual retainer breakage; pattern of failure (adapted adhesive remnant index scores) was a secondary outcome. Randomization was accomplished with random permuted blocks of 20 patients with allocation concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Blinding was applicable for outcome assessment only. Patients were reviewed at 1, 3, and 6 months and then every 6 months after placement of the retainer until completion of the study. Data were analyzed using survival analysis including Cox regression; sensitivity analysis was carried out after data imputation for subjects lost to follow-up. Two hundred twenty patients (median age, 16 years; interquartile range, 2; range, 12-47 years) were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either chemical or light curing. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, the median follow-up period was 2.19 years (range, 0.003-3.64 years), and 16 patients were lost to follow-up. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 47 of 110 (42.7%) and 55 of 110 (50.0%) retainers had some type of failure with chemically cured and light-cured adhesive, respectively (log-rank test, P = 0.35). Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.70; P = 0.47). There was weak evidence that age is a significant predictor for lingual retainer failures (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00; P = 0.08). Adhesive remnant index scoring was

  14. Survival rates of IPS empress 2 all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures: results of a 5-year prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Pascal; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the survival rates of IPS Empress 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent) all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) after an observation period of up to 5 years. Forty-three patients (19 women and 24 men) were included in this study. The patients were treated with a total of 58 adhesive bonded IPS Empress 2 restorations. A total of 27 single crowns were placed on molars and premolars, and 31 three-unit FPDs were placed in the anterior and premolar regions. Clinical follow-up examinations took place at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after insertion. Statistical analysis of the data was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results of the 50-month analysis (interquartile range, 33 to 61 months) showed that the survival rate was 100% for crowns and 70% for FPDs. Six failures that occurred exclusively in the three-unit FPDs were observed. Framework fractures were recorded in three FPD units where the connector dimensions did not meet the manufacturer specifications. Only one FPD exhibited an irreparable partial veneer fracture, and 2 FPDs showed evidence of biologic failures. The accuracy of fit and esthetic parameters were clinically satisfactory for crowns and FPDs. The results of this 5-year clinical evaluation suggest that IPS Empress 2 ceramic is an appropriate material for the fabrication of single crowns. Because of the reduced survival rates, strict conditions should be considered before the use of IPS Empress 2 material for the fabrication of three-unit FPDs.

  15. A comparative study of survival rates after treatment with induction chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Yukihiro; Kou, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 our treatment approach for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has involved comprehensive treatment with chemotherapy, radiation followed by surgery, if needed. Between 1989 and 2005 chemotherapy using fluorouracil and carboplatin div was administered as induction chemotherapy (ICT), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered more recently between 2006 and 2011. In this study we compared the statistical difference in 3-year survival rates between the ICT group and CCRT group. The number of target patients was 137, all of which were previously untreated and suffered from locoregionally advanced HNSCC: 52 with Stage III, 78 with Stage IVA, 7 with Stage IVB. In the ICT and CCRT groups, 3-year cause-specific survival rates were 68.2% and 76.3% respectively, both of which were statistically not recessive compared to those in the other issues. Furthermore, the rate between the two groups was identified as significant for Stage III and not significant for Stage IV. In conclusion, the addition of new modalities for the treatment of far-advanced HNSCC should be mandatory. (author)

  16. Adjuvant Medications That Improve Survival after Locoregional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, F Edward; Ziv, Etay; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Brown, Karen T; Erinjeri, Joseph P; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Harding, James J; Solomon, Stephen B

    2017-07-01

    To determine if outpatient medications taken at the time of liver tumor embolization or ablation affect survival. A retrospective review was done of 2,032 liver tumor embolization, radioembolization, and ablation procedures performed in 1,092 patients from June 2009 to April 2016. Pathology, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer), neuroendocrine tumor (NET) grade, initial locoregional therapy, overall survival after initial locoregional therapy, Child-Pugh score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and outpatient medications taken at the time of locoregional therapy were analyzed for each patient. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for patients taking 29 medications or medication classes (including prescription and nonprescription medications) for reasons unrelated to their primary cancer diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were compared using the log-rank test. For patients with HCC initially treated with embolization (n = 304 patients), the following medications were associated with improved survival when taken at the time of embolization: beta-blockers (P = .0007), aspirin (P = .0008) and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (P = .009), proton pump inhibitors (P = .004), and antivirals for hepatitis B or C (P = .01). For colorectal liver metastases initially treated with ablation (n = 172 patients), beta-blockers were associated with improved survival when taken at the time of ablation (P = .02). Aspirin and beta-blockers are associated with significantly improved survival when taken at the time of embolization for HCC. Aspirin was not associated with survival differences after locoregional therapy for NET or colorectal liver metastases, suggesting an HCC-specific effect. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survival outcomes post percutaneous coronary intervention: Why the hype about stent type? Lessons from a healthcare system in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Duggal

    Full Text Available A prospective, multicenter study was initiated by the Government of Maharashtra, India, to determine predictors of long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI for coronary artery disease, and to compare the effectiveness of drug-eluting stents (DESs and bare-metal stents (BMSs in patients undergoing PCI under government-funded insurance. The present analysis included 4595 patients managed between August 2012 and November 2016 at any of 110 participating centers. Using the classical multivariable regression and propensity-matching approach, we found age to be the most important predictor of 1-year mortality and target lesion revascularization at 1 year post-PCI. However, using machine learning methods to account for unmeasured confounders and bias in this large observational study, we determined total stent length and number of stents deployed as the most important predictors of 1-year survival, followed by age and employment status. The unadjusted death rates were 5.0% and 3.8% for the BMS and DES groups, respectively (p = 0.185, log-rank test. The rate of re-hospitalization (p<0.001 and recurrence of unstable angina (p = 0.08 was significantly lower for DESs than for BMSs. Increased use of DES after 2015 (following establishment of a price cap on DESs was associated with a sharp decrease in adjusted hazard ratios of DESs versus BMSs (from 0.94 in 2013 to 0.58 in 2016, suggesting that high price was limiting DES use in some high-risk patients. Since stented length and stent number were the most important predictors of survival outcomes, adopting an ischemia-guided revascularization strategy is expected to help improve outcomes and reduce procedural costs. In the elderly, PCI should be reserved for cases where the benefits outweigh the higher risk of the procedure. As unemployed patients had poorer long-term outcomes, we expect that implementation of a post-PCI cardiovascular rehabilitation program may improve long-term outcomes.

  18. Low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) as monotherapy for early stage prostate cancer in Italy: practice and outcome analysis in a series of 2237 patients from 11 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellin, Giovanni; Mirri, Maria A; Santoro, Luigi; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Divan, Claudio; Mussari, Salvatore; Ziglio, Francesco; La Face, Beniamino; Barbera, Fernando; Buglione, Michela; Bandera, Laura; Ghedi, Barbara; Di Muzio, Nadia G; Losa, Andrea; Mangili, Paola; Nava, Luciano; Chiarlone, Renato; Ciscognetti, Nunzia; Gastaldi, Emilio; Cattani, Federica; Spoto, Ruggero; Vavassori, Andrea; Giglioli, Francesca R; Guarneri, Alessia; Cerboneschi, Valentina; Mignogna, Marcello; Paoluzzi, Mauro; Ravaglia, Valentina; Chiumento, Costanza; Clemente, Stefania; Fusco, Vincenzo; Santini, Roberto; Stefanacci, Marco; Mangiacotti, Francesco P; Martini, Marco; Palloni, Tiziana; Schinaia, Giuseppe; Lazzari, Grazia; Silvano, Giovanni; Magrini, Stefano; Ricardi, Umberto; Santoni, Riccardo; Orecchia, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) in localized prostate cancer is available since 15 years in Italy. We realized the first national multicentre and multidisciplinary data collection to evaluate LDR-BT practice, given as monotherapy, and outcome in terms of biochemical failure. Between May 1998 and December 2011, 2237 patients with early-stage prostate cancer from 11 Italian community and academic hospitals were treated with iodine-125 ((125)I) or palladium-103 LDR-BT as monotherapy and followed up for at least 2 years. (125)I seeds were implanted in 97.7% of the patients: the mean dose received by 90% of target volume was 145 Gy; the mean target volume receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100) was 91.1%. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test and multivariable Cox regression were used to evaluate the relationship of covariates with outcomes. Median follow-up time was 65 months. 5- and 7-year DSS, OS and BFFS were 99 and 98%, 94 and 89%, and 92 and 88%, respectively. At multivariate analysis, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network score (p LDR-BT. This first multicentre Italian report confirms LDR-BT as an excellent curative modality for low-/intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Multidisciplinary teams may help to select adequately patients to be treated with brachytherapy, with a direct impact on the implant quality and, possibly, on outcome.

  19. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0–2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  20. Neoadjuvant TACE before laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) in the treatment of non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases: Feasibility and survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Kreutzträger, Martin; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate safety, feasibility and overall survival rates for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone or combined with MR-guided laser-induced-thermotherapy (LITT) in liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin. Methods and materials: Included were patients with unresectable non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases with progression under systemic chemotherapy. Excluded were patients with Karnofsky score ≤70, respiratory, renal and cardiovascular failure, and general TACE contraindications. TACE using Mitomycin alone, Mitomycin–Gemcitabine or Mitomycin–Gemcitabine–Cisplatin was performed to all patients. After TACE 146 metastases were ablated with MR-guided LITT. To be eligible for LITT metastases should be <5 cm in size and ≤5 in number. Tumor response was evaluated using MRI according to RECIST. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: A total of 110 patients (mean age 59.2 years) with 371 metastases received TACE (mean 5.4 sessions/patient, n = 110) with 76 (69%) receiving LITT (mean 1.6 session/patient) afterwards. TACE resulted in a mean decrease of mean maximum diameter of 52% ± 26.6 and volume change of −68.5% ± 22.9 in the 25 patients (23%) with partial response. Stable disease (n = 59, 54%). Progressive disease (n = 26, 23%). The RECIST outcome after LITT showed complete response (n = 13, 17%), partial response (n = 1, 1%), stable situation (n = 41, 54%) and progressive disease (n = 21, 28%). The mean time to progression (TTP) was 8.6 months. Median survival of all patients was 21.1 months. Conclusion: TACE with different protocols alone and in combination with LITT is a feasible palliative treatment option resulting in a median survival of 21.1 months for unresectable liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin.

  1. Improved Survival and Cure Rates With Concurrent Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, James C M; Shah, N Sarita; Mlisana, Koleka; Moodley, Pravi; Allana, Salim; Campbell, Angela; Johnson, Brent A; Master, Iqbal; Mthiyane, Thuli; Lachman, Simlatha; Larkan, Lee-Megan; Ning, Yuming; Malik, Amyn; Smith, Jonathan P; Gandhi, Neel R

    2018-04-03

    Mortality in multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection has historically been high, but most studies predated the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We prospectively compared survival and treatment outcomes in MDR tuberculosis-HIV-coinfected patients on ART to those in patients with MDR tuberculosis alone. This observational study enrolled culture-confirmed MDR tuberculosis patients with and without HIV in South Africa between 2011 and 2013. Participants received standardized MDR tuberculosis and HIV regimens and were followed monthly for treatment response, adverse events, and adherence. The primary outcome was survival. Among 206 participants, 150 were HIV infected, 131 (64%) were female, and the median age was 33 years (interquartile range [IQR], 26-41). Of the 191 participants with a final MDR tuberculosis outcome, 130 (73%) were cured or completed treatment, which did not differ by HIV status (P = .50). After 2 years, CD4 count increased a median of 140 cells/mm3 (P = .005), and 64% had an undetectable HIV viral load. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants had high rates of survival (86% and 94%, respectively; P = .34). The strongest risk factor for mortality was having a CD4 count ≤100 cells/mm3 (adjusted hazards ratio, 15.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-55.6). Survival and treatment outcomes among MDR tuberculosis-HIV individuals receiving concurrent ART approached those of HIV-uninfected patients. The greatest risk of death was among HIV-infected individuals with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/mm3. These findings provide critical evidence to support concurrent treatment of MDR tuberculosis and HIV.

  2. Progression-free survival results in postmenopausal Asian women: subgroup analysis from a phase III randomized trial of fulvestrant 500 mg vs anastrozole 1 mg for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (FALCON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Ellis, Matthew J; Robertson, John F R; Thirlwell, Jackie; Fazal, Mehdi; Shao, Zhimin

    2018-05-01

    The international, phase III FALCON study (NCT01602380) in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive, locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer (LA/MBC) who had not received prior endocrine therapy, demonstrated statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) for patients who received fulvestrant 500 mg vs anastrozole 1 mg. This subgroup analysis evaluated PFS in Asian (randomized in China, Japan, or Taiwan) and non-Asian patients from the FALCON study. Eligible patients (estrogen receptor- and/or progesterone receptor-positive LA/MBC; World Health Organization performance status 0-2; ≥ 1 measurable/non-measurable lesion[s]) were randomized. PFS was assessed via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1.1, surgery/radiotherapy for disease worsening, or death (any cause). Secondary endpoints included: objective response rate, clinical benefit rate, duration of response, and duration of clinical benefit. Consistency of effect across subgroups was assessed via hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a log-rank test. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. Of the 462 randomized patients, the Asian and non-Asian subgroups comprised 67 and 395 patients, respectively. In the Asian subgroup, median PFS was 16.6 and 15.9 months with fulvestrant and anastrozole, respectively (hazard ratio 0.81; 95% CI 0.44-1.50). In the non-Asian subgroup, median PFS was 16.5 and 13.8 months, respectively (hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.62-1.01). Secondary outcomes were numerically improved with fulvestrant vs anastrozole in both subgroups. AE profiles were generally consistent between Asian and non-Asian subgroups. Results of this subgroup analysis suggest that treatment effects in the Asian patient subgroup are broadly consistent with the non-Asian population.

  3. Systemic immune–inflammation index as a useful prognostic indicator predicts survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Chen,1,* Ying Yan,2,* Lihua Zhu,3 Xiliang Cong,1 Sen Li,1 Shubin