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  1. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  2. Bayesian Analysis for Dynamic Generalized Linear Latent Model with Application to Tree Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-sheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression model is the most popular regression technique, available for modeling categorical data especially for dichotomous variables. Classic logistic regression model is typically used to interpret relationship between response variables and explanatory variables. However, in real applications, most data sets are collected in follow-up, which leads to the temporal correlation among the data. In order to characterize the different variables correlations, a new method about the latent variables is introduced in this study. At the same time, the latent variables about AR (1 model are used to depict time dependence. In the framework of Bayesian analysis, parameters estimates and statistical inferences are carried out via Gibbs sampler with Metropolis-Hastings (MH algorithm. Model comparison, based on the Bayes factor, and forecasting/smoothing of the survival rate of the tree are established. A simulation study is conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and a pika data set is analyzed to illustrate the real application. Since Bayes factor approaches vary significantly, efficiency tests have been performed in order to decide which solution provides a better tool for the analysis of real relational data sets.

  3. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  4. Apparent survival rates of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliable estimates of survival rates of southern African bird species are still rare. Yet precise information on life history traits of birds from this southern Mediterranean-type climate would help in evaluating the generality of global patterns of avian life history. We estimated annual survival of Cape Sugarbirds Promerops cafer ...

  5. Acute traumatic coagulopathy decreased actual survival rate when compared with predicted survival rate in severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Gap Su; Moon, Sung Woo; Choi, Sung Hyuck; Hong, Yun Sik

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) should be combined with the trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) to predict outcome in severe trauma patients and investigate effects of the change in coagulation state during early resuscitation on the actual survival rate. This was a retrospective study. Significant variables that affected 28-day mortality were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Study patients were classified into three groups: no coagulopathy, mild coagulopathy or severe coagulopathy. Concordance between actual and predicted survival rates were compared for each group. The predicted survival rate was calculated using the TRISS method. The study also determined whether changes in the coagulation state during inhospital resuscitation affected the relationship between actual and predicted survival in patients who had rechecked coagulation profile within 12 h after presentation. Data from a total of 336 patients were analysed. At presentation, 20.8% of the study patients had mild coagulopathy, whereas 7.7% had severe coagulopathy. Age, injury severity score, revised trauma score and presence of ATC at presentation were independently associated with 28-day mortality. Actual survival was significantly lower than predicted survival in the mild and severe coagulopathy groups. Aggravation of coagulation state from normal or mild to severe coagulopathy or persistent severe coagulopathy during inhospital resuscitation mainly contributed to the discrepancy between actual and predicted survival. ATC decreased actual survival more than expected. ATC should be combined with TRISS to predict trauma outcome in severely injured patients. Improvement in coagulopathy during resuscitation may reduce the incidence of preventable death after trauma.

  6. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  7. Investigation of survival rate of trees planted in agroforestry and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in Huye District from December 2011 to June 2012, with aiming to investigate the survival rate of trees planted on private and public land from 2007-2011 and underlying factors. Low survival rate of trees planted during annual planting campaigns is often reported in many parts of the country and ...

  8. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkas, Ghazi Faisal; Arqoub, Kamal H; Khader, Yousef S; Tarawneh, Mohammad R; Nimri, Omar F; Al-Zaghal, Marwan J; Subih, Hadil S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005-2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005-2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005-2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p < 0.005). The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  9. Colorectal Cancer in Jordan: Survival Rate and Its Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Faisal Sharkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC and determine its predictors among Jordanian patients who were diagnosed in the period of 2005–2010. Methods. This study was based on Jordan cancer registry. All CRC cases that were registered in cancer registry during 2005–2010 were analyzed using the survival analysis. The last date for follow-up was 1st Oct 2016. Results. A total of 3005 patients with CRC were registered during 2005–2010. The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates for patients with CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate decreased significantly from 60.4% for the age <50 years to 49.3% for the age ≥70 years (p<0.005. The 5-year survival rate was 72.1% for the localized stage, 53.8% for the regional stage, and 22.6% for the distant metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the only factors that were significantly associated with survival were age, grade, stage, and location of tumor. Conclusions. The overall 5-year and ten-year survival rates for CRC were 58.2% and 51.8%, respectively. Increased age, poor differentiation, advanced cancer stage, and right-sided cancers were associated with lower survival rates. Screening strategies are needed for early detection of colon adenomas and colorectal cancer in Jordan.

  10. Survival Rate of Limb Replantation in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Masahiro; Urata, Shiro; Tanaka, Kenji; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Takeda, Shinsuke; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Revascularization of damaged limbs/digits is technically feasible, but indications for surgical replantation remain controversial. The authors analyzed the survival rate of upper limb amputations and the associated factors in different age groups. They grouped 371 limb/digit amputees (average age, 44 years; range, 2-85 years) treated in their hospital during the past 10 years into three groups based on age (young, ≤ 15 years, n  = 12; adult, 16-64 years, n  = 302; elderly, ≥ 65 years, n  = 57) and analyzed their injury type (extent of injury and stump status), operation method, presence of medical complications (Charlson comorbidity index), and survival rate. There were 168 replantations, and the overall replantation survival rate was 93%. The Charlson comorbidity index of the replantation patients was 0 in 124 cases; 1 in 32; 2 in 9; and 3 in 3, but it did not show any significant difference in survival rate after replantation. Eight elderly patients (14%) did not opt for replantation. Younger patients tended to undergo replantation, but they had lower success rates due to their severe injury status. The results of this study show that the survival rate of replantation in elderly patients is equal to that in adults. Stump evaluation is important for survival, but the presence of medical complications is not associated with the overall survival rate.

  11. Childhood cancer survival rates in two South African units | Stones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cancers were leukaemia (25.0%), brain tumours (19.5%), lymphoma (13.0%) and nephroblastoma (10.0%). ... A comparison between ethnic groups showed white children to have the highest survival rate (62.8%); the rate for children of mixed racial origin was 53.8% and that for black children 48.5%.

  12. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity... OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General...

  13. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  14. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Risk of Survival in Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the risk of survival in acute stroke using the MDRD equation derived estimated glomerular filtration rate. Design: A prospective observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Medical wards of a tertiary care hospital. Subjects: Eighty three acute stroke patients had GFR calculated within 48 hours of ...

  15. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  16. Measuring survival rates from sudden cardiac arrest: the elusive definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Michael R; Travers, Andrew H; Daya, Mohamud; Greene, H Leon; Salive, Marcel E; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Craven, Richard A; Groh, William J; Hallstrom, Alfred P

    2004-07-01

    Measuring survival from sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) is often used as a benchmark of the quality of a community's emergency medical service (EMS) system. The definition of OOH-CA survival rates depends both upon the numerator (surviving cases) and the denominator (all cases). The purpose of the public access defibrillation (PAD) trial was to measure the impact on survival of adding an automated external defibrillator (AED) to a volunteer response system trained in CPR. This paper reports the definition of OOH-CA developed by the PAD trial investigators, and it evaluates alternative statistical methods used to assess differences in reported "survival." Case surveillance was limited to the prospectively determined geographic boundaries of the participating trial units. The numerator in calculating a survival rate should include only those patients who survived an event but who otherwise would have died except for the application of some facet of emergency medical care-in this trial a defibrillatory shock. Among denominators considered were: total population of the study unit, all deaths within the study unit, and documented ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests. The PAD classification focused upon cases that might have benefited from the early use of an AED, in addition to the likely benefit from early recognition of OOH-CA, early access of EMS, and early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Results of this classification system were used to evaluate the impact of the PAD definition on the distribution of cardiac arrest case types between CPR only and CPR + AED units. Potential OOH-CA episodes were classified into one of four groups: definite, probable, uncertain, or not an OOH-CA. About half of cardiac arrests in the PAD units were judged to be definite OOH-CA events and therefore potentially treatable with an AED. However, events that occurred in CPR-only units were less likely to be classified as definite or probable OOH-CA events than those

  17. The survival of Class V restorations in general dental practice: part 3, five-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, D; Creanor, S; Thornley, P; Bigg, T; Bromage, C; Browne, A; Cottam, D; Dalby, D; Gilmour, J; Horton, J; Roberts, E; Westoby, L; Burke, T

    2012-05-11

    To evaluate the survival over five years of Class V restorations placed by UK general practitioners, and to identify factors associated with increased longevity. Prospective longitudinal cohort multi-centre study. UK general dental practices. Ten general dental practitioners each placed 100 Class V restorations of varying sizes, using a range of materials and recorded selected clinical information at placement and recall visits. After five years the data were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests and Cox regressions models to identify significant associations between the time to restoration failure and different clinical factors. After five years 275/989 restorations had failed (27.8%), with 116 (11.7%) lost to follow-up. Cox regression analysis identified that, in combination, the practitioner, patient age, cavity size, moisture contamination and cavity preparation were found to influence the survival of the restorations. At least 60.5% of the restorations survived for five years. The time to failure of Class V restorations placed by this group of dentists was reduced in association with the individual practitioner, smaller cavities, glass ionomer restorations, cavities which had not been prepared with a bur, moisture contamination, increasing patient age, cavities confined to dentine and non-carious cavities.

  18. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved pension...

  19. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3...

  20. Rating scales in general practice depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to investigate to what extent the Clinical Interview for Depression (CID) used in the general practice setting covers clinically valid subscales (depression, anxiety, and apathy) which can measure outcome of antidepressant therapy as well as identifying subsyndromes...... within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale......׳s psychometric adequacy) of the subscales, and principal component analysis was used to identify subsyndromes with the symptoms of major depression according to DSM-5 or ICD-10. RESULTS: Whereas the HAM-D17 was found not to have an acceptable scalability, the three brief CID subscales for depression (six items...

  1. Men and women show similar survival rates after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Paulo Franscisco Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Letícia Lima; Costa, Célia Regina; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Bergmann, Anke; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2017-04-01

    To compare the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of men and women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study of patients with breast cancer diagnosed and treated at the Cancer Hospital III of the National Cancer Institute of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1999 and 2013. Male breast cancer cases were matched for age, year of diagnosis, and clinical staging to three female cases (1:3). Patient characteristics were abstracted from hospital records and medical charts. Cases were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and comparisons between the genders were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals. The study population comprised 98 men and 294 women. There were significant differences (p breast surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of palliative bisphosphonate therapy. Five- and 10-year DFS rates were, respectively, 80.0 and 51.4% for men and 71.4 and 63.5% for women (p = 0.245), and 5- and 10-year OS rates were, respectively, 65.0 and 47.5% for men and 56.5 and 41.4% for women (p = 0.221). There was no significant difference in prognosis (DFS and OS rates) between the genders, but significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were detected between male and female breast cancer cases.

  2. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  3. Ten-year survival rate for cantilevered fixed partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James D

    2005-01-01

    PubMed (1966-April 2004) provided the primary data source along with the bibliographies from identified articles and reviews. A manual search of two relevant journals (Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry published; published 2001-2003) provided a further source of data. Because there were no randomised controlled trials (RCT) that compared fixed partial dentures (FPD) with and without cantilever extensions, other studies were selected if they met the following criteria: were published in the English language; were prospective and retrospective cohort studies; had a mean follow-up of >5 years; included patients who were clinically examined at follow-up; and reported details on suprastructures and described at least one-third of reconstructions as FPD. Two independent reviewers screened articles for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion and agreement determined by kappa. Two reviewers extracted data on the survival and success of the reconstructions and on biological and technical complications. Failure and complication rates were calculated by dividing the number of events by the total exposure time. Three prospective and 10 retrospective cohort studies incorporating 700 patients and 816 FPD were included. The mean number of cantilever extensions ranged from 1.1 to 6.0. Meta-analyses gave an estimated survival, after 10 years, of 81.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 78.2-84.9] and a proportion success of 63% (95% CI, 54.7-70.2). Considering biological complications using Poisson model analyses, the estimated rate of FPD lost because of caries after 10 years was 3.1% (95%CI, 1.0-8.8) and that for loss of vitality was 32.6% (95% CI, 13.9-64.9). The rate

  4. Survival Rate of Dental Implants in Patients with History of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Francisco; Gouveia, Sónia; Felino, António Campos; Costa, Ana Lemos; Almeida, Ricardo Faria

    To evaluate the differences between the survival rates of implants placed in patients with no history of periodontal disease (NP) and in patients with a history of chronic periodontal disease (CP). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all consenting patients treated with dental implants in a private clinic in Oporto, Portugal, from November 2, 2002 through February 11, 2011 were included. All patients were treated consecutively by the same experimental operator. This study aimed to analyze how the primary outcomes (presence of disease, time of placement, and time of loading) and the secondary outcomes (severity-generalized periodontitis, brand, implant length, prosthesis type, prosthesis metal-ceramic extension) influence the survival rate of dental implants. The survival analysis was performed through the Kaplan-Meier method, and the equality of survival distributions for all groups was tested with the log-rank test with a significance level of .05 for all comparisons. The sample consisted of 202 patients (47% NP and 53% CP) and 689 implants (31% NP and 69% CP). The survival rate in the NP and CP groups showed no statistically significant differences (95.8% versus 93.1%; P ≥ .05). Implants were lost before loading in 54.9% of the cases. The majority of the implants were lost in the first year and stabilized after the second year. Survival rates in the NP and CP patients showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the following factors: subclassification of the disease, implant brands, implant length (short/standard), type of prosthesis, extension of the prosthesis metal-ceramic, and time of placement and loading (P ≥ .05). This work disclosed no statistically significant differences in terms of survival rates when compared with the control group. Placing implants in patients with a history of periodontal disease appears to be viable and safe.

  5. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  6. Factors Influencing the Cure Rate in the Corneal Graft Rejection with Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feizi S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Immunologic rejection of the transplanted cornea is the major cause of human allograft failure with several risk factors contributing to it. Since in the corneal graft, most individuals do not reject the graft, we used the survival analysis with cure rate for the assessment of the factors influencing the cure rate at the time of data analysis. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the cure rate and assess the risk factors for corneal graft rejection in the keratoconus disease in Labafinejad Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: This was a routine data base study in which the data were gathered from keratoconus patients’ files that had undergone penetrating keratoplasty operation. In the survival analysis, individuals who didn’t reject corneal were considered cured. To study the factors influencing the cure rate, we used the Weibull distribution for survival function and the logistic link function for the cure rate because of their tractability and accuracy.Results: Out of 119 patients 31 patients (26% rejected grafts. Among the factors influencing cure rate, only in vascularization and in persons older than 25 years of age was ameaningful effect on decreasing cure rate. With this cure model, the expected cure rate in the non-vascularization and less than 25 year- old patients was 81, in non-vascularization and more than 25 year- olds it is 64, in the vascularization and less than 25 year- olds, the cure rate is 19 and in the vascularization and more than 25 years of age, the cure rate is 9 percent and the observed cure rate for Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator was 79, 61, 27 and 0 percent, respectively. The results showed that the estimate of cure rate in the survival analysis was near the Kaplan-Meier product-limits estimator.Conclusion: One of the benefits of modeling is its ability to generalize the results; using them in the prediction. According to the results obtained from the fitting cure model

  7. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: analysis of epidemiological profile and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Mariana Cardoso; da Silva, Denise Bousfield; Freund, Ana Paula Ferreira; Dacoregio, Juliana Shmitz; Costa, Tatiana El Jaick Bonifácio; Costa, Imaruí; Faraco, Daniel; Silva, Maurício Laerte

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiological profile and the survival rate of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a state reference pediatric hospital. Clinical-epidemiological, observational, retrospective, descriptive study. The study included new cases of patients with AML, diagnosed between 2004 and 2012, younger than 15 years. Of the 51 patients studied, 84% were white; 45% were females and 55%, males. Regarding age, 8% were younger than 1 year, 47% were aged between 1 and 10 years, and 45% were older than 10 years. The main signs/symptoms were fever (41.1%), asthenia/lack of appetite (35.2%), and hemorrhagic manifestations (27.4%). The most affected extra-medullary site was the central nervous system (14%). In 47% of patients, the white blood cell (WBC) count was below 10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis. The minimal residual disease (MRD) was less than 0.1%, on the 15th day of treatment in 16% of the sample. Medullary relapse occurred in 14% of cases. When comparing the bone marrow MRD with the vital status, it was observed that 71.42% of the patients with type M3 AML were alive, as were 54.05% of those with non-M3 AML. The death rate was 43% and the main proximate cause was septic shock (63.6%). In this study, the majority of patients were male, white, and older than 1 year. Most patients with WBC count <10,000/mm(3) at diagnosis lived. Overall survival was higher in patients with MRD <0.1%. The prognosis was better in patients with AML-M3. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Dying like rabbits: general determinants of spatio-temporal variability in survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy; Palomares, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    1. Identifying general patterns of how and why survival rates vary across space and time is necessary to truly understand population dynamics of a species. However, this is not an easy task given the complexity and interactions of processes involved, and the interpopulation differences in main survival determinants. 2. Here, using European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a model and information from local studies, we investigated whether we could make inferences about trends and drivers of survival of a species that are generalizable to large spatio-temporal scales. To do this, we first focused on overall survival and then examined cause-specific mortalities, mainly predation and diseases, which may lead to those patterns. 3. Our results show that within the large-scale variability in rabbit survival, there exist general patterns that are explained by the integration of factors previously known to be important at the local level (i.e. age, climate, diseases, predation or density dependence). We found that both inter- and intrastudy survival rates increased in magnitude and decreased in variability as rabbits grow old, although this tendency was less pronounced in populations with epidemic diseases. Some causes leading to these higher mortalities in young rabbits could be the stronger effect of rainfall at those ages, as well as, other death sources like malnutrition or infanticide. 4. Predation is also greater for newborns and juveniles, especially in population without diseases. Apart from the effect of diseases, predation patterns also depended on factors, such as, density, season, and type and density of predators. Finally, we observed that infectious diseases also showed general relationships with climate, breeding (i.e. new susceptible rabbits) and age, although the association type varied between myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease. 5. In conclusion, large-scale patterns of spatio-temporal variability in rabbit survival emerge from the combination

  10. Survival Rate of Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Charmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran, 2000- 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M vakili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Cancers are the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases globally. Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. This cancer is the third leading cause of death in America and one of the most prevalent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. Methods: The present observational (the analytical type study was conducted using the longitudinal and survival study methods. The population study included all patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. The samples were selected by the census method and all the patients diagnosed with colorectal between the years 2000 to 2010 (estimated to be about 452 cases. After collecting the data and coding them, they were inserted into the SPSS 16 and STATA 12 software. To investigate the survival and the factors influencing the survival time of patients which was the main objective of this study, the Kaplan-Meier method was used. In order to compare the survival function in different subgroups, the log rank test or generalized Wilcoxon test was used. Results: From the total 452 patients with colorectal cancer, 232 cases were male (51.3% and 220 were females (48.7%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.12 ±19.99 years at the time of diagnosis. The median age of patients was 60 years. The probability of survival at 1, 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of colorectal cancer in both sexes using the Kaplan-Meier was 85.7%, 71.9,% 52.5% respectively. Conclusion: Although the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province was at a desirable level, the need for further studies to identify prognostic factors is essential.

  11. Comparable cell survival between high dose rate flattening filter free and conventional dose rate irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbakel, Wilko F A R; van den Berg, Jaap; Slotman, Ben J; Sminia, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of clonogenic cell survival and cell proliferation following single dose and fractionated delivery of high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation compared to conventional dose rates. The human astrocytoma D384, glioma T98 and lung carcinoma SW1573 cell lines were irradiated using either a single dose (0-12 Gy) or a fractionated protocol of 5 daily fractions of 2 Gy (D384) or 3 Gy (SW1573). Cells were irradiated inside a phantom using fixed gantry beams of a linear accelerator. A sliding window technique created homogeneous dose distributions over the surface of the cell cultures. Irradiations using standard beams (6 MV, 600 MU/min.) and high dose rate FFF beams (10 MV, 2400 MU/min.) were compared. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay. In the fractionated irradiation set-up, the number of clonogenic cells was estimated by including tumor cell proliferation during the overall treatment time in the analysis. All cell lines showed equal cell survival following irradiation using either the FFF beams or conventional flattened (FF) beams. This was observed after single dose exposure (0-12 Gy) as well as after fractionated irradiation (p = 0.08 for D384 and 0.20 for SW1373 cell lines). FFF irradiation with a dose rate of 2400 MU/min and four times higher dose per pulse compared to irradiation with FF beams did not change cell survival for three human cancer cell lines up to a fraction dose of 12 Gy compared to irradiation using FF beams.

  12. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  13. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages.

  14. Bayesian Analysis of the Survival Function and Failure Rate of Weibull Distribution with Censored Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bambey Guure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival function of the Weibull distribution determines the probability that a unit or an individual will survive beyond a certain specified time while the failure rate is the rate at which a randomly selected individual known to be alive at time will die at time (. The classical approach for estimating the survival function and the failure rate is the maximum likelihood method. In this study, we strive to determine the best method, by comparing the classical maximum likelihood against the Bayesian estimators using an informative prior and a proposed data-dependent prior known as generalised noninformative prior. The Bayesian estimation is considered under three loss functions. Due to the complexity in dealing with the integrals using the Bayesian estimator, Lindley’s approximation procedure is employed to reduce the ratio of the integrals. For the purpose of comparison, the mean squared error (MSE and the absolute bias are obtained. This study is conducted via simulation by utilising different sample sizes. We observed from the study that the generalised prior we assumed performed better than the others under linear exponential loss function with respect to MSE and under general entropy loss function with respect to absolute bias.

  15. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, DN; Adarsha, MS; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2–10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. Materials and Methods This study evaluated the existing literature – survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The

  16. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, Dn; Adarsha, Ms; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2-10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. This study evaluated the existing literature - survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The weighted mean was computed. The study found that the window preparation was of the

  17. Growth performance and survival rate of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of aflatoxin- contaminated feed (0% toxigenic maize, 25% toxigenic maize +75% good maize, 50% toxigenic maize+50%good maize, 75% toxigenic maize +25% good maize and 100% toxigenic maize) on growth, survival, haematology and histology ...

  18. [Survival and complication rate of central venous catheters in newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Heladia Josefa; Torres-Yáñez, Héctor Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In the current medical practice, central venous catheters (CVC) are very useful; however, their use involves certain risks, which increase morbidity and mortality, especially in newborns. The aim of this study was to describe both the frequency of complications and survival of CVC placed in newborns hospitalized in a third level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A descriptive, observational and prospective study was carried-out in the NICU from the Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Demographic, perinatal and CVC variables were recorded. We included 152 CVCs, which were inserted in 123 newborns. For the CVC insertion, the puncture technique [percutaneous and subclavian] was used in 56.6 % (n = 86). There was at least one complication in 48.7 %.(n = 74). The most frequent complications were colonization 32.4 % (n = 24) and CVC-related bacteremia in 27 % (n = 20). Survival probability for CVC was 93.4 % at 10 days and 91.4 % at 17 days. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated significantly lower survival probability for non-central catheters. Most of CVC complications occurred within the first two weeks after these CVC were installed. Infectious complications were the most frequent.

  19. Survival rates in West African savanna birds | Stevens | Ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite widespread interest in life histories and the comparison of parameters between tropical and temperate regions, there are still relatively few multispecies studies assessing annual survival in Afrotropical species. We used data from systematic mist-netting of savanna birds in Nigeria, between 2001 and 2008, ...

  20. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...... the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... rate in the 1st year of life and a much lower rate in the first 3 months of life. Furthermore, the analyses indicated that survival was lower in the winter months for ringing data during 1920–2002 but not for radiotagged owls during 2005–2008 that experienced the highest mortality rates during...

  1. General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.

  2. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  3. Sex Disparity in Survival of Patients With Uveal Melanoma: Better Survival Rates in Women Than in Men in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, San Jun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Yeon, Bora; Cho, Hyunsoon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with uveal melanoma and sex disparity in this rate in South Korea. We extracted incident uveal melanoma patients using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database, which covered the entire population from 1999 to 2012 in South Korea. We estimated all-cause survival probabilities and cancer-specific survival probabilities of patients with uveal melanoma and compared these probabilities between subgroups (sex, tumor site, age at diagnosis, etc.) using Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank tests. We fitted the Cox-proportional hazards models for all-cause death and cancer death to determine sex disparities in survival. A total of 344 uveal melanoma patients (175 women, 51%) were ascertained. They comprised 283 patients with choroidal melanoma (82%) and 61 patients with ciliary body/iris melanoma (18%). The observed 5-year survival probability from all-cause death was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%-79%); women with uveal melanoma showed higher survival probability (83% [95% CI: 76%-89%]) compared with men (66% [95% CI: 58%-73%], P Korea, which requires further investigation of mechanism of the sex disparity in uveal melanoma.

  4. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerni...

  5. Improved survival rate in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, V R; Mathiesen, E R; Heaf, J

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the survival rate of Danish diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between 1990 and 2005 and evaluated possible predictors of survival rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Danish National Register on Dialysis and Transplantation...... diabetic: 5%, non-diabetic: 24%. The survival rate of transplanted patients with diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) compared with non-diabetic patients at 1 year was: 95 vs 93%, at 5 years: 80 vs 85% and at 10 years: 52 vs 71%. Among diabetic patients survival rate was better in transplanted than in waiting...... and from the Scandiatransplant database. Survival rates in different patient groups and association with age, sex, calendar time, waiting-list status and renal transplantation were evaluated using a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: During the study period 8,421 patients (13% type 1 diabetic, 9...

  6. Survival and Growth Rates of Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis urolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerlings were fed twice daily using commercial fish feeds (white Rose floating type), initially at a rate of 5% of their total body weight (TBW) and two weeks later at 10% of their TBW. The growth rate (weight and length) was recorded once a week except for handling control fingerlings which were recorded at the beginning ...

  7. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  8. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Luisa de Brito, Pacheco; Isabel Cristina, Olegário; Clarissa Calil, Bonifácio; Ana Flávia Bissoto, Calvo; José Carlos Pettorossi, Imparato; Daniela Prócida, Raggio

    2017-11-06

    Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE) and Vitro Molar (DFL). A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%). There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98-2.62, p = 0.058). The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%). Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  9. One year Survival Rate of Ketac Molar versus Vitro Molar for Occlusoproximal ART Restorations: a RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACHECO Anna Luisa de Brito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good survival rates for single-surface Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART restorations have been reported, while multi-surface ART restorations have not shown similar results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate of occluso-proximal ART restorations using two different filling materials: Ketac Molar EasyMix (3M ESPE and Vitro Molar (DFL. A total of 117 primary molars with occluso-proximal caries lesions were selected in 4 to 8 years old children in Barueri city, Brazil. Only one tooth was selected per child. The subjetcs were randomly allocated in two groups according to the filling material. All treatments were performed following the ART premises and all restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test, while Cox regression analysis was used for testing association with clinical factors (α = 5%. There was no difference in survival rate between the materials tested, (HR = 1.60, CI = 0.98–2.62, p = 0.058. The overall survival rate of restorations was 42.74% and the survival rate per group was Ketac Molar = 50,8% and Vitro Molar G2 = 34.5%. Cox regression test showed no association between the analyzed clinical variables and the success of the restorations. After 12 months evaluation, no difference in the survival rate of ART occluso-proximal restorations was found between tested materials.

  10. 47 CFR 51.507 - General rate structure standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Pricing of Elements § 51.507 General rate structure standard. (a) Element rates... defined geographic areas within the state to reflect geographic cost differences. (1) To establish geographically-deaveraged rates, state commissions may use existing density-related zone pricing plans described...

  11. Aminophylline Improves Urine Flow Rates but Not Survival in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Variable AKI outcomes have been reported in association with aminophylline treatment. This study evaluated AKI outcome in a group of Nigerian children treated with aminophylline. Methods: This is a retrospective study of AKI in children ...

  12. Is growth rate more important than survival and reproduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic value of a trait was defined as the marginal profit per ewe per year resulting from a unit increase or decrease in the average value of a trait, whilst holding the average levels of all other traits constant, and at a discount rate of 0 and 12.5%. The results of the study indicated that on average, traits associated with ...

  13. Improving survival rates of newborn infants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield David

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number, rates and causes of early neonatal deaths in South Africa were not known. Neither had modifiable factors associated with these deaths been previously documented. An audit of live born infants who died in the first week of life in the public service could help in planning strategies to reduce the early neonatal mortality rate. Methods The number of live born infants weighing 1000 g or more, the number of these infants who die in the first week of life, the primary and final causes of these deaths, and the modifiable factors associated with them were collected over four years from 102 sites in South Africa as part of the Perinatal Problem Identification Programme. Results The rate of death in the first week of life for infants weighing 1000 g or more was unacceptably high (8.7/1000, especially in rural areas (10.42/1000. Intrapartum hypoxia and preterm delivery are the main causes of death. Common modifiable factors included inadequate staffing and facilities, poor care in labour, poor neonatal resuscitation and basic care, and difficulties for patients in accessing health care. Conclusion Practical, affordable and effective steps can be taken to reduce the number of infants who die in the first week of life in South Africa. These could also be implemented in other under resourced countries.

  14. Towards a General Equation for the Survival of Microbes Transferred between Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2014-01-01

    in terms of initial ejection mass, ejection shock magnitude, transfer time, initial microbial load and/or other terms and generate graphs defining the number of surviving microbes. The general form of the equation is: x(sub f) = x(sub i) f(sub1) f(sub 2) f(sub 3) f(sub 4) Where x(sub f) is the final number of microbes to survive transfer, x(sub i) is the initial population prior to ejection, and f(sub 1-4) are mortality factors for the four phases described above. Among other considerations, f(sub 1) will vary with respect to impact shock magnitude and f(sub 2) will be time-dependent. Considerable research has been performed to date to quantify the survival rates of various microbes in response to portions of these four phases, both as vegetative cells and/or spores. Results indicate that many species tend to respond differently to the pertinent mortality factors, especially in the case of extremophiles. Therefore, a complete equation will include species-specific responses to the mortality factors.

  15. Racial disparities in breast carcinoma survival rates: seperating factors that affect diagnosis from factors that affect treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kenneth C; Lamar, Charisee A; Freeman, Harold P

    2003-06-01

    Black females have lower breast carcinoma survival rates compared with white females. One possible reason is that black females have more advanced-stage breast disease. Another factor may be racial differences in the utilization of cancer treatments. The authors determined racial differences in 6-year stage specific survival rates, adjusting for age and treatments (using estrogen receptor [ER] status), to determine whether there were racial differences in treatment. Racial differences in the stage distributions of breast disease were used to examine the impact of racial factors on breast carcinoma diagnosis. For all breast carcinoma cases, the stage specific 6-year survival rates, in general, were significantly lower for black females for all stages combined and for Stages I-III in every age group. However, examination by different treatments, as measured by ER status, revealed some different results. Only black women younger than age 50 years with ER-positive tumors and women younger than age 65 years with ER-negative tumors had significantly lower stage-specific survival rates. In addition, the stage distribution analyses showed that black females of every age group had less Stage I breast disease. For younger black women (younger than age 50 years), there was evidence of racial differences in treatment for both women with ER-positive tumors and women with ER-negative tumors, as indicated by their lower stage-specific survival rates. In contrast, for black females age 65 years or older with ER-positive or ER-negative tumors, the lack of a significant difference in the stage-specific survival rate suggests that Medicare may help to alleviate racial disparities in cancer treatment. Furthermore, racial differences in the stage distributions indicated the need for earlier diagnosis for black females of every age. Published 2003 American Cancer Society.

  16. Estimation of survival rates and abundance of green turtles along the U.S. West Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine abundance and survival rates of the east Pacific green turtles in the northern most foraging grounds, the turtle research groups at SWFSC have been...

  17. Survival and Recovery Rates of Mallards Banded Postseason in South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a published report on the survival and recovery rates of mallards after they have been banded in South Carolina. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) has...

  18. Process error rates in general research applications to the Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To examine process error rates in applications for ethics clearance of health research. Methods. Minutes of 586 general research applications made to a human health research ethics committee (HREC) from April 2008 to March 2009 were examined. Rates of approval were calculated and reasons for requiring ...

  19. Association between a Hospital’s Rate of Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Cardiac Arrest Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lena M.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Li, Yan; Chan, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Context National efforts to measure hospital performance for cardiac arrest have focused on case survival, with the hope of improving survival after cardiac arrest. However, it is plausible that hospitals with high case-survival rates do a poor job of preventing cardiac arrests in the first place. Objective To describe the association between inpatient cardiac arrest incidence and survival rates. Design, Setting, and Patients Within a large, national registry, we identified hospitals with at least 50 adult in-hospital cardiac arrest cases between January 1, 2000 and November 30, 2009. We used multivariable hierarchical regression to evaluate the correlation between a hospital’s cardiac arrest incidence rate and its case-survival rate after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Main Outcome Measure The correlation between a hospital’s incidence rate and case-survival rate for cardiac arrest. Results Of 102,153 cases at 358 hospitals, the median hospital cardiac arrest incidence rate was 4.02 per 1000 admissions (IQR: 2.95 to 5.65 per 1000 admissions), and the median hospital case-survival rate was 18.8% (IQR: 14.5% to 22.6%). In crude analyses, hospitals with higher case-survival rates also had lower cardiac arrest incidence (correlation of -0.16; P=0.003). This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics (correlation of -0.15; P=0.004). After adjusting for potential mediators of this relationship (i.e., hospital characteristics), the relationship between incidence and case-survival was attenuated (correlation of -0.07; P=0.18). The one modifiable hospital factor that most attenuated this relationship was a hospital’s nurse-to-bed ratio (correlation of -0.12; P=0.03). Conclusions Hospitals with exceptional rates of survival for in-hospital cardiac arrest are also better at preventing cardiac arrests, even after adjusting for patient case-mix. This relationship is partially mediated by measured hospital attributes

  20. Increasing Calcium Oxide (Cao) to Accelerate Moulting and Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Erlando, Gito; ', Rusliadi; Mulyadi,

    2016-01-01

    The research about the increasing Calcium Oxide (CaO) to accelerate moulting and survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was conducted from Agustus until September 2015 at Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Instalasi Pembenihan Udang (IPU) Gelung, Situbondo Provinsi Jawa Timur. The purpose of this research was to investigate optimum doses calcium oxide to accelerate moulting and the survival rate vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vannamei shrimp with size PL25 were used in...

  1. Introduction of a prediction model to assigning periodontal prognosis based on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canut, Pedro; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alcaraz, Jaime; Alvarez-Novoa, Pablo; Alvarez-Novoa, Carmen; Marcos, Ana; Noguerol, Blas; Noguerol, Fernando; Zabalegui, Ion

    2017-09-04

    To develop a prediction model for tooth loss due to periodontal disease (TLPD) in patients following periodontal maintenance (PM), and assess its performance using a multicentre approach. A multilevel analysis of eleven predictors of TLPD in 500 patients following PM was carried out to calculate the probability of TLPD. This algorithm was applied to three different TLPD samples (369 teeth) gathered retrospectively by nine periodontist, associating several intervals of probability with the corresponding survival rates, based on significant differences in the mean survival rates. The reproducibility of these associations was assessed in each sample (One-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison with Bonferroni corrections). The model presented high specificity and moderate sensitivity, with optimal calibration and discrimination measurements. Seven intervals of probability were associated with seven survival rates and these associations contained close to 80% of the cases: the probability predicted the survival rate at this percentage. The model performed well in the three samples, since the mean survival rates of each association were significantly different within each sample, while no significant differences between the samples were found in pair-wise comparisons of means. This model might be useful for predicting survival rates in different TLPD samples This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Özgür Demiralp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P<0.05. Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials.

  3. One-Year Multicenter Prospective Evaluation of Survival Rates and Bone Resorption in One-Piece Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleh Golab, Kaveh; Balouch, Amir; Mirtorabi, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported the efficiency of immediate loading techniques. The aim of this multicenter prospective study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the one-piece screw (OPS) implants used by general dentists. A total of 272 patients were treated with 533 implants at five dental clinics by five general dentists. Some implants were provided with provisional restoration. Implants in partially edentulous spaces were splinted with acryl, composite, and intraoral welding. The implant survival rates, bone resorption, plaque accumulation, and soft tissue health were evaluated after 3, 6, and 12 months. The final restorations were cemented in the maxilla after 6 months and in the mandible after 3 months. Twelve implants failed (98% survival rate) after 12 months. None of the splinted implants failed during the follow-ups. There were five failures in unsplinted partial cases. The average amounts of bone loss around the implants were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm, 0.56 ± 0.41 mm, and 0.59 ± 0.41 mm after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Visible plaque was registered in 18% of the implants, and bleeding on probing was observed in 17% of the implants after 12 months. High survival rates and favorable host tissue responses support the clinical performance of OPS implants. This study demonstrated that one-piece implants can be efficiently used by well-trained general dentists. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Look Different: Effect of Radiation Hormesis on the Survival Rate of Immunosuppressed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, M; Taeb, S; Okhovat, M A; Atefi, M; Negahdari, F

    2016-09-01

    Hormesis is defined as the bio-positive response of something which is bio-negative in high doses. In the present study, the effect of radiation hormesis was evaluated on the survival rate of immunosuppressed BALB/c mice by Cyclosporine A. We used 75 consanguine, male, BALB/c mice in this experiment. The first group received Technetium-99m and the second group was placed on a sample radioactive soil of Ramsar region (800Bq) for 20 days. The third group was exposed to X-rays and the fourth group was placed on the radioactive soil and then injected Technetium-99m. The last group was the sham irradiated control group. Finally, 30mg Cyclosporine A as the immunosuppressive agent was orally administered to all mice 48 hours after receiving X-rays and Technetium-99m. The mean survival rate of mice in each group was estimated during time. A log rank test was run to determine if there were differences in the survival distribution for different groups and related treatments. According to the results, the survival rate of all pre-irradiated groups was more than the sham irradiated control group (p Ramsar region for 20 days and then injected Technetium-99m. This study confirmed the presence of hormetic models and the enhancement of survival rate in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice as a consequence of low-dose irradiation. It is also revealed the positive synergetic radioadaptive response on survival rate of immunosuppressed animals.

  5. Success Rate of Treatments Provided for Early Childhood Caries under General Anesthesia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Maryam; Nouri, M-Reza; Hulland, Sarah; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Azarpazhooh, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the success rate of various treatments provided under general anesthesia for early childhood caries (ECC) over three-year follow-up period. ECC children no older than 72 months at the time of dental surgery, who had completed a three-year follow-up, were included. The success rate of every treatment was evaluated. The longevity of each treatment and significant factors associated with failures were assessed. A total of 818 children (55.8 percent were males with a mean age of 46.2±13.4 months old) were included. Of these, 32.9 percent had restored teeth that required further treatment during the three-year follow-up. Amalgam restorations and stainless steel crowns (SSCs) showed significantly longer survival than composite restorations in all types of restorations (Pindirect pulp capping and pulpotomies were the same (P=0.234), and they were significantly higher than that for pulpectomies (P=0.001, P=0.039, respectively). The lower lingual holding arch (LLHA) had a significantly lower survival rate than other space maintainers (Prestorations were clinically more successful and had better survival times than composite restorations. The survival rate for the LLHA was low compared to other space maintainers.

  6. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...... the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase...

  7. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  8. One-year survival rate of renal transplant: factors influencing the outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezapour S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siavash Rezapour,1 Aliasghar Yarmohammadi,1,2 Mahmoud Tavakkoli1,2 1Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 2Urology Department, Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Background: Renal transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, as the procedure not only improves quality of life, but also markedly increases patients’ survival rates. Organ and patient survival rates are important issues of interest post-transplantation. Aim: To determine the 1-year survival rate of renal transplant, we studied graft function, which is a predictor of survival, among those who received a kidney transplant in the time period between February 2012 and February 2013 at Montaserie Organ Transplantation Hospital. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective cohort study planned to determine patient and organ survival rates after kidney transplantation from living and deceased donors during a 1-year period. We also tried to clarify factors resulting in graft loss. Designated variables were collected using checklists and subsequently entered into SPSS software version 17 and analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and descriptive statistics.Results: From 173 patients included in the study, 67.1% (n=116 were female. The mean age of the recipients was 33±12.85 years. In the majority of cases, cause of end-stage renal disease was not clear (n=89, 51.44%. Urinary tract infection (23.1% was the commonest post-operative complication, followed by delayed graft function, which was diagnosed in 22 (12.7% recipients. Seventeen cases of graft rejection (9.8% were recorded and 4 (2.3% of these cases underwent nephrectomy that will be regarded as graft loss in this paper. Therefore, 1-year graft survival was 90.2%. Graft survival in cadaveric and live-donor recipients was 90.8% and 88.7%, respectively. As there was no mortality reported among graft recipients, 1-year patient survival rate

  9. Survival benefit of statin use in ankylosing spondylitis: a general population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Amar; Lu, Na; Schoenfeld, Sara R; Fisher, Mark C; Dubreuil, Maureen; Rai, Sharan K; Zhang, Yuqing; Choi, Hyon K

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We examined the potential survival benefit of statin use in AS within a general population context. We performed an incident user cohort study with time-stratified propensity score matching using a UK general population database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2014. To account for potential confounders, we compared propensity score-matched cohorts of statin initiators and non-initiators using 1-year cohort accrual blocks. The variables used to create the propensity score model included disease duration, body mass index, lifestyle factors, comorbidities and medication use. Using unmatched AS cohorts, statin initiators (n=1430) showed a 43% higher risk of mortality than non-initiators (n=1430) (HR=1.43; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.84). After propensity score matching, patients with AS who initiated statins (n=1108) had 96 deaths, and matched non-initiators (n=1108) had 134 deaths over a mean follow-up of 5.3 and 5.1 years, respectively. This corresponded to mortality rates of 16.5 and 23.8 per 1000 person-years (PY), respectively, resulting in an HR of 0.63 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.85) and an absolute mortality rate difference of 7.3 deaths per 1000 PY (95% CI 2.1 to 12.5). This general population-based cohort study suggests that statin initiation is associated with a substantially lower risk of mortality among patients with AS. The magnitude of the inverse association appears to be larger than that observed in randomised trials of the general population and in population-based cohort studies of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Are elderly dependency ratios associated with general population suicide rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2011-05-01

    The elderly population size is increasing worldwide due to falling birth rates and increasing life expectancy. It has been hypothesized that as the elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of those over the age of 65 years to those under 65) increases, there will be fewer younger people available to care for older people and this, in turn, will increase the burden on younger carers with increased levels of psychiatric morbidity leading to an increase in general population suicide rates. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates was conducted using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations websites. The main findings were of a significant and independent positive correlation between elderly dependency ratios and general population suicide rates in both genders. The contribution of cross-national differences in psychiatric morbidity in younger carers on general population suicide rates requires further study. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in younger carers of older people should be examined by: (i) cross-national studies using standardized measures of psychiatric morbidity that are education-free, culture-fair and language-fair; and (ii) within-country longitudinal studies with changing elderly dependency ratios over time.

  11. Long-term survivals of 'direct-wax' cast gold onlays: a retrospective study in a general dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlish, Lalit Kumar; Mariatos, G

    2009-08-08

    Compared to other restoration types, indirect cast posterior restorations of partial coverage exhibit one of the longest survivals. The purpose of the current study was to estimate the success rates of 'direct-wax' cast gold onlays. According to the direct wax technique, the wax pattern is shaped intra-orally followed by direct casting without the need for impressions, resulting in low cost and short processing time. A retrospective survival study was undertaken at a mixed National Health Service and private general dental practice based in London. Patients with direct-wax onlays attending over a period of four months for regular check-ups or dental treatment were recruited. Patient discomfort, pain or sensitivity was recorded. Restoration location, extension, marginal fit, and tooth vitality were also recorded. Restoration failure was defined in the event of recurrent caries, pulp infection for vital teeth, increase in the size of periapical radiolucency for non-vital teeth, and restoration decementation. Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier algorithm. One hundred and ninety-four onlays in 56 patients were examined. Four restorations (2.1%) had failed, mainly due to recurrent caries. The cumulative survival probability was estimated at 415.3 (95% Confidence Interval: 403.0, 427.7) months (34.6, 95% CI: 33.6, 35.6 years), while the 10-year and 20-year survival rates were 97.0% and 94.1% respectively. Vital teeth, compared to non-vital ones, and onlay extension encompassing both the mesial and distal tooth surfaces exhibited significantly (P cast gold restorations of partial coverage were a highly successful treatment option for posterior restorations in a general dental practice environment.

  12. The Topp-Leone generalized Rayleigh cure rate model and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthaprut, Pimwarat; Bodhisuwan, Winai; Patummasut, Mena

    2017-11-01

    Cure rate model is one of the survival analysis when model consider a proportion of the censored data. In clinical trials, the data represent time to recurrence of event or death of patients are used to improve the efficiency of treatments. Each dataset can be separated into two groups: censored and uncensored data. In this work, the new mixture cure rate model is introduced based on the Topp-Leone generalized Rayleigh distribution. The Bayesian approach is employed to estimate its parameters. In addition, a breast cancer dataset is analyzed for model illustration purpose. According to the deviance information criterion, the Topp-Leone generalized Rayleigh cure rate model shows better result than the Weibull and exponential cure rate models.

  13. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  14. Evidence that a Highway Reduces Apparent Survival Rates of Squirrel Gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. McCall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are prominent components of most landscapes throughout the world, and their negative effects on the natural environment can extend for hundreds or thousands of meters beyond the road. These effects include mortality of wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, pollution of soil and air, modification of wildlife behavior in response to noise, creation of barriers to wildlife movement, and establishment of dispersal conduits for some plant and animal species. In southeast Australia, much of the remaining habitat for the squirrel glider, Petaurus norfolcensis, is located in narrow strips of Eucalyptus woodland that is adjacent to roads and streams, as well as in small patches of woodland vegetation that is farther from roads. We evaluated the effect of traffic volume on squirrel gliders by estimating apparent annual survival rates of adults along the Hume Freeway and nearby low-traffic-volume roads. We surveyed populations of squirrel gliders by trapping them over 2.5 years, and combined these data with prior information on apparent survival rates in populations located away from freeways to model the ratio of apparent annual survival rates in both site types. The apparent annual survival rate of adult squirrel gliders living along the Hume Freeway was estimated to be approximately 60% lower than for squirrel gliders living near local roads. The cause of the reduced apparent survival rate may be due to higher rates of mortality and/or higher emigration rates adjacent to the Hume Freeway compared with populations near smaller country roads. Management options for population persistence will be influenced by which of these factors is the primary cause of a reduced apparent survival rate.

  15. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  16. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve (DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites using ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Pr...

  17. Ten-year survival and success rate of implant-prosthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Ihan Hren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implant-prosthodontic treatment for restoring a single missing tooth, partial edentulism and complete edentulism is a predictive and successful method in terms of both the survival rate of implants and the different parameters which determine the success rate of the treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 10-year survival and success rates of dental implants, analyze the causes of early and late complications, and assess the type and number of prosthodontic complications.Patients and methods: In 51 patients, 113 titanium dental implants were inserted by one surgeon using a two-stage surgical protocol. The prosthodontic treatment included fixed or removable treatment options. Implant survival and success were evaluated 10 years after the completion of prosthodontic treatment. The evaluation comprised history, clinical examination with assessment of success parameters (prosthesis functionality, peri-implant tissue status, and x-ray assessment of bone loss.Results: Two implants were lost before and two 10 years after the prosthodontic treatment. The survival rate of implants was 96.4 % on the average, 100 % in the lower jaw, and 92.5 % in the upper jaw. Peri-implantitis was diagnosed in 4.5 % of all implants. The success rate was thus 95.5 %. Technical complications occurred in 2.8 % of fixed prostheses and 19 % of removable prostheses.Conclusion: The long-term survival and success rates of dental implants are high. Proper implant prosthodontic treatment planning is crucial to achieving high survival and success rates of implant treatment. Bone quality has to be taken into account when implant treatment is performed. Peri-implantitis is rarely observed, and prosthodontic complications are uncommon. On completion of the surgical and prosthetic phases of treatment, patients must be followed at regular intervals to ensure timely management of complications.

  18. The Clinicopathologic Characteristics and 5-year Survival Rate of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Yazd, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Bashardust, Nasrollah; Zakerian, Neda; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignancy in women, the most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths, and most patients have advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 5-year survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer based on age, tumor histology, stage of disease, and type of treatment. This study was conducted on 120 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer referred to Shahid Sadoughi hospital and Shah Vali oncology clinic of Yazd from 2006 to 2012. Demographic data and patient records were studied to evaluate the treatment outcome, pathology of the tumor, and stage of disease. Finally, the overall survival rate and tumor-free survival of patients was assessed. The mean patient age was 53.87± 14.11 years. Most participants had stage I (36.7%) or stage II (35%) disease. Serous adenocarcinoma (57.6%) was the most common pathology found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The overall survival of patients in this study was significantly associated with the histological tumor type (p = 0.000) and disease stage (p = 0.0377). Stage I (84.18%) and serous adenocarcinoma (72.81%) demonstrated the best survival. The tumor-free survival rates were not associated with histology types (p = 0.079), surgical procedure (p = 0.18), or chemotherapy (p = 0.18). The survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly associated with disease stage. Serous adenocarcinoma also had the best prognosis among the pathologies studied. Therefore, early detection of ovarian cancer can substantially increase the survival rate.

  19. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  20. Conformity to the surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines among physicians in a general intensive care unit in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'ayi, V; Karuga, R

    2010-08-01

    There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Cross sectional observational study. The general intensive care unit, Aga Khan University Hospital,Nairobi. Admitting physicians from all specialties in the general intensive care unit. The physicians had high conformity rates of 92% and 96% for the fluid resuscitation and use of va so pressors respectively for the initial resuscitation bundle. They had moderate conformity rates for blood cultures prior to administering antibiotics (57%) and administration of antibiotics within first hour of recognition of septic shock (54%). There was high conformity rate to the glucose control policy (81%), use of protective lung strategy in acute lung injury/Acute respiratory distress syndrome, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (100%) and stress ulcer prophylaxis (100%) in the management bundle. Conformity was moderate for use of sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxant policy (69%), continuous renal replacement therapies (54%) and low for steroid policy (35%), administration ofdrotrecogin alfa (0%) and selective digestive decontamination (15%). There is varying conformity to the international sepsis guidelines among physicians caring for patients in our general ICU. Since increased conformity would improve survival and reduce morbidity, there is need for sustained education and guideline based performance improvement.

  1. Interdependence of response rates, survival rates, stage and histology after radio-/chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schratter, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Szalay, S.; Janisch, H.

    1982-11-01

    Between February 1977 and February 1981, 55 patients with ovarian cancer (45 at stage III and 10 at stage IV) underwent simultaneous radio-/chemotherapy and early therapeutic second-look operation. The overall response rate amounts to 94%, 63% of which are complete and 31% are partial emissions. Stage III comprises 74% complete and 26% partial remissions. Patients with complete remission at stage III have a significantly longer tumor-free survival time than patients with partial remission (median 16 vs. 8 months). A longer overall survival time (median 30 vs. 16 months) is also significant. At stage III there have been 74% successful therapeutic second operations. In all patients with residual tumors above 2 cm in diameter after primary operation a response rate of 92% could be achieved, 52% showed complete remissions. The survival time proved to be independent of both histological parameter and age. The remaining residual tumor above or under 2 cm in diameter in any single location is, however, a significant prognostic factor for long-time survival. Possible curative chances for patients with stage III disease are only to be expected through interdisciplinary oncological cooperation.

  2. Prospective 5-year survival rate data following open-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerrit; von Heyden, Johanna; Pestka, Jan; Schmal, Hagen; Salzmann, Gian; Südkamp, Norbert; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using internal plate fixation is a well-established and frequently performed treatment option for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) in the young and active patients. The present study provides survival rate and functional outcome preoperatively and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Hypothesis of the authors was high survival rates after 5 years with still remaining satisfying functional results. Sixty-two patients suffering from tibial conditioned knee joint varus deformity and medial compartment OA that underwent high tibial osteotomy using an internal plate fixator (TomoFix™, Synthes) were included. Functional outcome was evaluated prior to surgery and in the further clinical course using standard instruments (IKDC score, Lysholm score). Treatment failure was defined as the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.8 ± 10.2 years) were available at a mean of 60.5 (SD ± 2.5) months (follow-up rate 82.3 %) postoperatively. Sixty-month IKDC (69.4 % SD ± 18.6) and Lysholm (76.6 SD ± 20.5) improved significantly when comparing with preoperative values (IKDC 44.6 SD ± 17.8; Lysholm 52.1 SD ± 20.8). Two of 51 subjects underwent TKA, resulting in a survival rate of 96 % among those patients followed (51 of 60; 85 %). Overall complication rate was 8.6 %. With a survival rate of over 96 % at 5 years, high tibial osteotomy seems to be a reliable treatment option with satisfying clinical outcome. Functional outcome was stable following 60 months. While a delay of the necessity for TKA seems likely with regard to the survival rate demonstrated in this article, possible avoidance needs to be demonstrated by longer follow-up studies. Therapeutic case series, Level IV.

  3. Evaluation of the Risk of Relapse in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma at Event-Free Survival Time Points and Survival Comparison With the General Population in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapgood, Greg; Zheng, Yvonne; Sehn, Laurie H; Villa, Diego; Klasa, Richard; Gerrie, Alina S; Shenkier, Tamara; Scott, David W; Gascoyne, Randy D; Slack, Graham W; Parsons, Christina; Morris, James; Pickles, Tom; Connors, Joseph M; Savage, Kerry J

    2016-07-20

    Studies in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) typically measure the time to events from diagnosis. We evaluated the risk of relapse at event-free survival time points in cHL and compared the risk of death to expected mortality rates in British Columbia (BC). The BC Cancer Agency Lymphoid Cancer Database was screened to identify all patients age 16 to 69 years diagnosed with cHL between 1989 and 2012 treated with the chemotherapy regimen of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (or equivalent). We compared the observed mortality to the general population using age-, sex-, and calendar period-generated expected mortality rates from BC life-tables. Relative survival was calculated using a conditional approach and expressed as a standardized mortality ratio of observed-to-expected deaths. One thousand four hundred two patients were identified; 749 patients were male (53%), the median age was 32 years, and 68% had advanced-stage disease. The median follow-up time was 8.4 years. Seventy-two percent of relapses occurred within the first 2 years of diagnosis. For all patients, the 5-year risk of relapse from diagnosis was 18.1% but diminished to 5.6% for patients remaining event free at 2 years. For advanced-stage patients who were event free at 2 years, the 5-year risk of relapse was only 7.6%, and for those who were event free at 3 years, it was comparable to that of limited-stage patients (4.1% v 2.5%, respectively; P = .07). Furthermore, international prognostic score ≥ 4 and bulky disease were no longer prognostic in patients who were event free at 1 year. Although the relative survival improved as patients remained in remission, it did not normalize compared with the general population. Patients with cHL who are event free at 2 years have an excellent outcome regardless of baseline prognostic factors. All patients with cHL had an enduring increased risk of death compared with the general population. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Effect of increased ovulation rate on embryo and foetal survival as a model for selection by ovulation rate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Badawy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection for ovulation rate in prolific species has not improved litter size, due to an increase in prenatal mortality, with most mortality observed in the foetal period. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and timing of embryo and early foetal survival in females with high ovulation rate using hormonal treatment as a model for selection by ovulation rate. Two groups of females (treated and untreated were used. Treated females were injected with 50 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin 48 h before mating. Females were slaughtered at 18 d of gestation. Ovulation rate (OR, number of implanted embryos (IE, number of live foetuses at 12 and 18 d (LF12 and LF18, respectively were recorded. In addition, embryo survival (ES=IE/OR, foetal survival at 18 d of gestation (FSLF18=LF18/IE, foetal survival between 12 and 18 d of gestation (FSLF18/LF12=LF18/LF12 and prenatal survival (PSLF18=LF18/OR were estimated. For each female, the mean and variability of the weight for live foetuses (LFWm and LFWv, respectively and their placentas (LFPWm and LFPWv, respectively were calculated. Treated females had a higher ovulation rate (+3.02 ova than untreated females, with a probability of 0.99. An increase in the differences (D between treated and untreated females was observed from implantation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.33, –0.70 and –1.28 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. These differences had a low accuracy and the probability that treated females would have a lower number of foetuses also increased throughout gestation (0.60, 0.70 and 0.86 for IE, LF12 and LF18, respectively. According to the previous results for OR and LF18, treated females showed a lower survival rate from ovulation to 18 d of gestation (D=–0.12, P=0.98 for PSLF18. Treated females also had lower embryo and foetal survival (D=–0.10 and P=0.94 for ES and D=–0.08 and P=0.93 for FSLF18. Main differences in foetal survival appeared from 12 to 18 d of gestation (D=–0

  5. Survival rate of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers after exposure to sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, T.

    2010-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a commonly used systemic insecticide which can induce several sublethal effects. Previous research has not shown any increased mortality in bees that were fed with sublethal doses. However, there is very little research conducted with the focus on survival rate of honeybees in the

  6. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  7. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  8. Retrospective Study of the Survival Rates of Indirect Pulp Therapy Versus Different Pulpotomy Medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Patrice Barsamian; Kuhnen, Marissa M; Best, Al M; Brickhouse, Tegwyn H

    2016-10-15

    The purposes of this retrospective chart review were to determine: (1) how primary molars in need of vital pulp therapy (VPT) have been treated over a period of four years at a university-based pediatric dental practice (UBP); and which treatments-indirect pulp therapy (IPT), formocresol pulpotomy (FCP), and ferric sulfate pulpotomy (FSP)-have been successful. Electronic patient records (axiUm) that contained the procedure codes D3120 (pulp cap-indirect) or D3220 (therapeutic pulpotomy) were totaled by year. Visit records were queried again to identify treatment failures (i.e., extractions [D7140] or pulpectomy [D3221/D3240]). A total of 2,001 primary molar teeth were included in the study. Success was compared using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. At the three-year follow-up, IPT had a 96.2 percent survival rate, FCP had a 65.8 percent survival rate, and FSP had a 62.9 percent survival rate (P<.0001). Over a four-year period of time, IPT became the more commonly used vital pulp therapy treatment at a university-based pediatric dental practice and had a significantly better survival rate than FCP or FSP.

  9. The effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of | Makhafola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of breed on the survivability and motility rate of cryopreserved cock semen. Semen from three cock breeds; White Leghorn (WL), Ovambo (OV) and Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK) was collected by means of the abdominal massage technique. Following semen collection, sperm were analyzed for ...

  10. Survival and growth rate of coastal water Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salt concentration on the survival and growth rate of Escherichia coli isolated from Lagos Lagoon surface water was investigated. This was necessitated to ascertain the suitability of using E. coli as feacal pollution indicator in this water body which experiences fluctuation in salinity values. The salinity during the ...

  11. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  12. Immunocompetence index selection of broiler chicken lines for disease resistance and their impact on survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to develop the disease resistance broiler chicken lines over two generations (G0 , G1 and G2 of selection for immunocompetence (IC index by targeting all the facets of immune response traits viz., humoral response (HR to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC, cell mediated immune response (CMI to phytohaeagglutination- Pmitogen (PHA-P, levels of serum serum immunoglobin- G (IgG and serum lysozyme (LZM level.Materials and Methods: The SDLSynthetic Dam Line (SDL broiler line consisting of 303, 204 and 300 birds in G0 , G1 and G2 generations, respectively were screened for immunocompetence traits such as humoral response to SRBCs, cell mediated immune response to PHA-Pand levels of serum lysozyme by Lysoplate assay and IgG by SRID method, and ranked based on their IC index values. Results: The percent survival rate up to 6 weeks of age in SDL broiler chicken lines were selected for high immunocompetence index (HIC and low immunocompetence index values (LIC over two generations (G1 , G1 and G2 of selection and observed that significant differences (P< 0.05 in percent survival pattern in the base population (n= 303 with the highest survivability of 100.00% was observed in 5-6 weeks of age followed by 99.37% and 97.23% in 4-5 and 0-4 weeks of age respectively. In the G1 generation, significant differences ( P<0.01 was noticed in the selected high and low index lines up to 6 weeks of age with the overall survival rate lower in high index lines (93.10% as compared to the low index lines (97.62%. Whereas the reverse trend was observed in the G2 generation that the high index line had significantly (P<0.05 higher survival percent (98.62% as compared to the low index lines (97.93%. Moreover, the overall survival rate was better substantially over the two generations of divergent immunocompetent index selection of SDL broiler chicken lines. The present investigation revealed that breeding for better immunocompetence status by selection index

  13. Efficacy of monoterpene perillyl alcohol upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Clovis O; Simão, Marcela; Lins, Igor R; Caetano, Regina O; Futuro, Débora; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2011-02-01

    The monoterpene perillyl alcohol (POH) a Ras inhibitor with potential capacity to arrest gliomagenesis is being used in a phase I/II clinical trial in adults with recurrent malignant glioma. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intranasal administration of monoterpene POH upon survival rate of patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in comparison with historical control group of GBM patients. It was included 89 adults with recurrent GBM receiving daily intranasal administration of 440 mg POH and 52 matched GBM patients as historical control untreated group only with supportive treatment. Patients with recurrent primary GBM treated with POH survived significantly longer (log rank test, P < 0.0001) than untreated group. Patients with recurrent primary GBM in deep location survived significantly longer than with lobar location (log rank test, P < 0.0001). Median survival rate of secondary GBM was 11.2 months, longer (log rank test, P = 0.0366) than primary GBM (5.9 months). Radiographic improvement and reduction of corticosteroid dosage (36%) further associated with a delay towards progression. Intranasal administration of POH increased the overall survival of patients with recurrent GBM in comparison with historical untreated controls, but especially patients with secondary GBM and primary GBM with tumor localized in deep regions of the brain. The side effects of POH treatment were almost nonexistent, even in patients treated for over 4 years.

  14. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  15. Non-Rated Air Force Line Officer Attrition Rates Using Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    priority for the project: schedule or cost [15]. A study conducted by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency ( NIMA ) used the concept of stocks and flows...quantity–such as food in a grocery store–and flows are rates at which the inventory flows into or out of stocks. NIMA is also a government entity, and is

  16. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  17. Metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: are survival rates excellent only within the stringent framework of clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, A; Agodi, A; Balaguer, J; Garaventa, A; Barchitta, M; Segura, V; Bianchi, M; Castel, V; Castellano, A; Cesaro, S; Couselo, J M; Cruz, O; D'Angelo, P; De Bernardi, B; Donat, J; de Andoin, N G; Hernandez, M I; La Spina, M; Lillo, M; Lopez-Almaraz, R; Luksch, R; Mastrangelo, S; Mateos, E; Molina, J; Moscheo, C; Mura, R; Porta, F; Russo, G; Tondo, A; Torrent, M; Vetrella, S; Villegas, J A; Viscardi, E; Zanazzo, G A; Cañete, A

    2017-01-01

    SIOPEN INES protocol yielded excellent 5-year survival rates for MYCN-non-amplified metastatic neuroblastoma. Patients deemed ineligible due to lack or delay of MYCN status or late registration were treated, but not included in the study. Our goal was to analyse survival at 10 years among the whole population. Italian and Spanish metastatic INES patients' data are reported. SPSS 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Among 98 infants, 27 had events and 19 died, while 79 were disease free. Five- and 10-year event-free survival (EFS) were 73 and 70 %, and overall survival (OS) was 81 and 74 %, respectively. MYCN status was significant for EFS, but not for OS in multivariate analysis. The survival rates of patients who complied with all the inclusion criteria for INES trials are higher compared to those that included also not registered patients. Five-year EFS and OS for INES 99.2 were 87.8 and 95.7 %, while our stage 4s population obtained 78 and 87 %. Concerning 99.3, 5-year EFS and OS were 86.7 and 95.6 %, while for stage 4 we registered 61 and 68 %. MYCN amplification had a strong impact on prognosis and therefore we consider it unacceptable that many patients were not studied for MYCN and probably inadequately treated. Ten-year survival rates were shown to decrease: EFS from 73 to 70 % and OS from 81 to 74 %, indicating a risk of late events, particularly in stage 4s. Population-based registries like European ENCCA WP 11-task 11 will possibly clarify these data.

  18. General anesthesia suppresses normal heart rate variability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Gerald; Wood, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The human heart normally exhibits robust beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV). The loss of this variability is associated with pathology, including disease states such as congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of general anesthesia on intrinsic HRV is unknown. In this prospective, observational study we enrolled 100 human subjects having elective major surgical procedures under general anesthesia. We recorded continuous heart rate data via continuous electrocardiogram before, during, and after anesthesia, and we assessed HRV of the R-R intervals. We assessed HRV using several common metrics including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Multifractal Analysis, and Multiscale Entropy Analysis. Each of these analyses was done in each of the four clinical phases for each study subject over the course of 24 h: Before anesthesia, during anesthesia, early recovery, and late recovery. On average, we observed a loss of variability on the aforementioned metrics that appeared to correspond to the state of general anesthesia. Following the conclusion of anesthesia, most study subjects appeared to regain their normal HRV, although this did not occur immediately. The resumption of normal HRV was especially delayed on DFA. Qualitatively, the reduction in HRV under anesthesia appears similar to the reduction in HRV observed in CHF. These observations will need to be validated in future studies, and the broader clinical implications of these observations, if any, are unknown.

  19. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-18

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate(ASR) in DNNR(52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan(13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR(26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan(3.2%). The daily survival rate(DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources.

  20. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  1. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  2. Comparison of survival rates between 3D conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with stage Ⅲ non–small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Moonkyoo Kong, Seong Eon Hong Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: Randomized trials showing a clear survival benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT over 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT in the treatment of lung cancer are lacking. This study compared the survival rates of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with either 3D-CRT or IMRT and analyzed the prognostic factors for survival.Methods: From January 2008 to July 2015, 19 patients were treated with IMRT and 30 were treated with 3D-CRT in our institution. The choice between 3D-CRT and IMRT was determined by the physician based on tumor extent and general condition of the patients. The primary endpoint of this study was overall survival. The secondary endpoints were loco-regional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and the incidence of radiation-induced lung and esophageal toxicities. Results: The 1- and 2-year overall survival rates were 94.7% and 77.1% in the IMRT group and 76.7% and 52.5% in the 3D-CRT group, respectively. The overall survival rates of the IMRT group were higher than those of the 3D-CRT group; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P=0.072. Gross tumor volume was significantly associated with the overall survival rate. The 1- and 2-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival rates were 63.2% and 51% in the IMRT group and 67.5% and 48.1% in the 3D-CRT group (P=0.897, respectively. The 1- and 2-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 78.9% and 68.4% in the IMRT group and 62.6% and 40.9% in the 3D-CRT group (P=0.120, respectively. Chemotherapy and treatment interruption were significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival.Conclusion: IMRT showed comparable or better overall survival compared with 3D-CRT in patients with stage III non-small cell

  3. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Troyer

    Full Text Available Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor, using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960 than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920, while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106 than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067. Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004, indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  4. Influence of L-dopa and of thymus fraction on the survival rate of whole-body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, E.; Helmholz, M. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite))

    1982-06-01

    The survival rate of mice with exposure of the whole body (7 Gy) was hardly changed by one dose as well as several doses of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor amantadine and the interferon inductor measles vaccine. However, the survival rates were increased by one administration of L-dopa or by the long-term therapy using L-dopa at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. The survival rates were also increased at 7 and 9 Gy, resp. if the thymus factor was three times applied to the animals after irradiation. The increased survival rates gained by using L-dopa and thymus factor are correlated with the leukocyte values determined.

  5. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  6. Occurrence of complications and survival rates in elderly with neurological disorders undergoing enteral nutrition therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Stangherlin; Rezende, Nilton Alves de; Torres, Henrique Oswaldo da Gama

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of complications, as well as the survival rates, in elderly people having neurological diseases and undergoing enteral nutrition therapy (ENT). Patients aged over 60 years, assisted by a home medical service from a healthcare plan in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were thoroughly evaluated. The mentioned evaluation occurred at their homes after hospital discharge with enteral nutrition (EN) after a three-month period, a six-month period, and at the end of the study. A nutritional assessment was performed along with data collection performed on the patients' electronic medical records, and interviews performed with patients' family members and caregivers. Seventy-nine patients aged 82.9 ± 10.4 years old were evaluated; of these, 49.4% presented dementia, and 50.6% presented other neurological diagnoses. 100% of patients presented a high dependence level, assessed by the Katz index. The majority of patients (91.2%) presented some complications such as: pneumonia, catheter loss, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, fluid leakage, periostotomy, tube obstruction, reflux, and myiasis. Pneumonia was the most frequent complication, occurring in 55.9% of cases. The mortality rates were 15.2% at a three-month period, 22.8% at a six-month period, and 43% at the end of study. The median survival after starting EN was 364 days. Differences among the mortality rate and neurological diagnosis, EN routes of access, and complications were not observed. The survival rate was lower in patients having inadequate nutritional status and albumin levels nutritional status according to the clinical assessment and albumin levels lower than 3.5 mg/dL significantly influenced the survival rates.

  7. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Daily survival rate and habitat characteristics of nests of Wilson's Plover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Elizabeth; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed habitat characteristics and measured daily survival rate of 72 nests of Charadrius wilsonia (Wilson's Plover) during 2012 and 2013 on South Island and Sand Island on the central coast of South Carolina. At both study areas, nest sites were located at slightly higher elevations (i.e., small platforms of sand) relative to randomly selected nearby unused sites, and nests at each study area also appeared to be situated to enhance crypsis and/or vigilance. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests ranged from 0.969 to 0.988 among study sites and years, and the probability of nest survival ranged from 0.405 to 0.764. Flooding and predation were the most common causes of nest failure at both sites. At South Island, DSR was most strongly related to maximum tide height, which suggests that flooding and overwash may be common causes of nest loss for Wilson's Plovers at these study sites. The difference in model results between the 2 nearby study sites may be partially due to more-frequent flooding at Sand Island because of some underlying yet unmeasured physiographic feature. Remaining data gaps for the species include regional assessments of nest and chick survival and habitat requirements during chick rearing.

  9. Nutrition and Hydration Status of Aircrew Members Consuming The Food Packet, Survival, General Purpose, Improved During A Simulated Survival Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    over hilly terrain without packs to identify edible plants, shelter sites, water sources, and other materials to be used for survival purposes. The...snake, squirrel, trout, frog , venison, snail and numerous plant foods. In order to give the survival school students the same amount of kilocalories...dishes, Chinese or other ethnic foods, other fruits or vegetables, as well as nutritional supplements (bran, etc.). Please take a look at the list of

  10. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas.

  11. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. Materials and Methods: A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. Results: In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). Conclusion: OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas. PMID:23814575

  12. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altwegg Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers.

  13. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  14. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste

    OpenAIRE

    Quirynen, Marc; De Soete, Marc; Pauwels, M.; Goossens, K.; Teughels, Wim; Van Eldere, Johan; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND, AIMS: Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Ea...

  15. Microcalcification-Associated Breast Cancer: Presentation, Successful First Excision, Long-Term Recurrence and Survival Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Marga B; Steinmetz, Carolin; Westerman, Ronny; Ramaswamy, Annette; Albert, Ute-Susann

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluated mammographic, histological and immunohistochemical findings for microcalcification-associated breast cancer with regards to breast-conserving therapy, recurrence and survival rate. We retrospectively analyzed 99 consecutive, non-palpable and microcalcification-associated breast cancers (94 women) that were treated surgically between January 2002 and December 2003 at a national academic breast cancer center. Calcifications were classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Descriptors, surgical outcome and histological findings were assessed. Recurrences and survival rates were evaluated based on medical records, standardized patient questionnaires and/or contacting the physician. 42 of the 99 lesions (42.4%) were invasive carcinomas, 57 (57.6%) were pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). 6 out of 99 (6.1%) lesions were triple negative, and 29 (29.3%) were HER2/neu positive. Successful first excision rate was 76/99 lesions (76.8%). Breast conservation was achieved in 73.7% (73/99). 10 women showed local recurrences without negatively impacting survival. The recurrences included round/punctate, amorphous, fine pleomorphic, and fine linear or fine-linear branching descriptors. The breast cancer-specific long-term survival rate was 91/94 (96.8%) for a mean follow-up of 81.4 months. The 3 patients who died due to breast carcinoma showed fine pleomorphic calcifications, and had nodal-positive invasive carcinoma at diagnosis. Microcalcification-associated breast cancers are frequently treated with breast-conserving therapy. Continuous clinical and mammographic follow-up is recommended for all descriptors.

  16. Improvement of piglet survival rate in relation to farrowing systems and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, A; Le Dividich, J

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in the same farrowing house with the aim of comparing the efficiency of two types of floors and in order to estimate the effect of bedding material on the performance of newborn piglets. In addition, the productivity data of our sow herd as well as those of the national herd, were analysed in order to study the effect of the farrowing system and piglet maturity at birth on the survival rate of the newborn. The main results clearly show the detrimental effect on piglet survival of using slatted floors at farrowing. Furthermore the mode of sow tethering during parturition directly affects the piglets losses between birth and weaning, i.e. 2.03 piglets/litter for tethered sows, 2.17 for caged sows, 2.30 piglets when using farrowing rails. Use of a bedding material has a positive influence on the survival rate: 83.1% for straw, 78.5% for shredded paper versus 68.5% in the case of an insulated concrete floor. Rearing of newborn piglets in a cold environment leads to a drop in the rectal temperature, a poor body carbohydrate utilization and a decrease in colostrum intake. This results in a poor immunity, a low survival rate and a growth rate depression. Search for optimal environmental conditions for the newborn piglet is more important than for the sow. An adequate management of farrowing houses is recommended involving tethering of the sows, extra heating of the pens when the piglets are born and during their first 3 weeks of life.

  17. Preoperative Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Independently Predicts Overall Survival in Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma following Radical Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Cross

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the relationship between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and overall survival in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC following nephrectomy. Methods. 167 patients undergoing nephrectomy for localized RCC had ESR levels measured preoperatively. Receiver Operating Characteristics curves were used to determine Area Under the Curve and relative sensitivity and specificity of preoperative ESR in predicting overall survival. Cut-offs for low (0.0–20.0 mm/hr, intermediate (20.1–50.0 mm/hr, and high risk (>50.0 mm/hr groups were created. Kaplan-Meier analysis was conducted to assess the univariate impact of these ESR-based groups on overall survival. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential of these groups to predict overall survival, adjusting for other patient and tumor characteristics. Results. Overall, 55.2% were low risk, while 27.0% and 17.8% were intermediate and high risk, respectively. Median (95% CI survival was 44.1 (42.6–45.5 months, 35.5 (32.3–38.8 months, and 32.1 (25.5–38.6 months, respectively. After controlling for other patient and tumor characteristics, intermediate and high risk groups experienced a 4.5-fold (HR: 4.509, 95% CI: 0.735–27.649 and 18.5-fold (HR: 18.531, 95% CI: 2.117–162.228 increased risk of overall mortality, respectively. Conclusion. Preoperative ESR values represent a robust predictor of overall survival following nephrectomy in localized RCC.

  18. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental...

  19. Urothelial atypia and survival rate of 500 unselected patients with primary transitional-cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde Olsen, P; Wolf, H; Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 500 unselected patients with primary urinary bladder tumours the influence of urothelial atypia on the 5 years survival-rate was examined. All tumours were transitional-cell tumours categorized according to the T-classification. Mucosal biopsies from 7 pre-selected sites...... worse than those with normal bladder mucosa (5 years survival 42% versus 62%). This difference in survival-rate became apparent first after two years of observation. Grade II atypia in the bladder mucosa and grade III (carcinoma in situ) had equal significance assessed by the survival-rates....

  20. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-04-18

    Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts--Cohort I 1890-1919; Cohort II 1920-1959--and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Reaction rates for a generalized reaction-diffusion master equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2016-01-01

    It has been established that there is an inherent limit to the accuracy of the reaction-diffusion master equation. Specifically, there exists a fundamental lower bound on the mesh size, below which the accuracy deteriorates as the mesh is refined further. In this paper we extend the standard reaction-diffusion master equation to allow molecules occupying neighboring voxels to react, in contrast to the traditional approach, in which molecules react only when occupying the same voxel. We derive reaction rates, in two dimensions as well as three dimensions, to obtain an optimal match to the more fine-grained Smoluchowski model and show in two numerical examples that the extended algorithm is accurate for a wide range of mesh sizes, allowing us to simulate systems that are intractable with the standard reaction-diffusion master equation. In addition, we show that for mesh sizes above the fundamental lower limit of the standard algorithm, the generalized algorithm reduces to the standard algorithm. We derive a lower limit for the generalized algorithm which, in both two dimensions and three dimensions, is of the order of the reaction radius of a reacting pair of molecules.

  2. High survival and hatching rates following vitrification of embryos at blastocyst stage: a bovine model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jack Y J; Chung, Jin-Tae; Tan, Seang Lin; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Cryopreservation of embryos at the blastocyst stage may provide an effective method to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate for each treatment cycle of ovarian-stimulated IVF. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival rate and hatching rate of bovine blastocysts following vitrification using a method designed for oocytes, with a view to introducing this methodology into human assisted reproduction technology and reproductive medicine. Bovine blastocysts were produced from abattoir materials subjected to in-vitro maturation and in-vitro fertilization. Survival rate of the bovine blastocysts was 100% (94/94) following vitrification using a method designed for oocyte cryopreservation. There was no difference in the hatching rate of the bovine blastocysts between control (62.5%: 60/96) and vitrified (61.7%: 58/94) groups. The number of dead cells in the blastocysts was not significantly different between control (5.0 +/- 2.9) and vitrified (9.5 +/- 4.0) groups. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that bovine blastocysts can be vitrified successfully using a procedure designed for oocyte cryopreservation. It is possible that this method may also be successful for the cryopreservation of human embryos. A further study into this is currently being organized.

  3. Trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Moon, E K; Park, J Y; Jung, K W; Oh, C M; Kong, H J; Won, Y J

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population. Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry were extracted for 10,282 patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer (C01-C06) between 1999 and 2010 to evaluate the age-standardised incidence rate, annual percentage change (APC) and 5-year relative survival rate (RSR) according to gender and age. In males, the incidence rate slightly decreased [APC of -0.2% (P = 0.6427)]; in females, the incidence rate increased [APC of 3.1% (P oral tongue cancer (C02) significantly increased [APC of 2.2% and 4.1%, respectively (P oral tongue cancer incidence was most prominent in the younger age group (cancer increased only among males [APC of 4.8% (P oral cavity cancer in females increased, whereas it stabilised or decreased in males. However, the incidence of oral tongue cancer increased in both males and females, especially in the younger age group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  5. It isn't like this on TV: Revisiting CPR survival rates depicted on popular TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portanova, Jaclyn; Irvine, Krystle; Yi, Jae Yoon; Enguidanos, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Public perceptions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be influenced by the media. Nearly two decades ago, a study found that the rates of survival following CPR were far higher in popular TV shows than actual rates. In recent years, major strides toward enhanced education and communication around life sustaining interventions have been made. This study aimed to reassess the accuracy of CPR portrayed by popular medical TV shows. Additionally, we sought to determine whether these shows depicted discussions of care preferences and referenced advance directives. Three trained research assistants independently coded two leading medical dramas airing between 2010 and 2011, Grey's Anatomy and House. Patient characteristics, CPR survival rates, and goals of care discussions were recorded. CPR was depicted 46 times in the 91 episodes, with a survival rate of 69.6%. Among those immediately surviving following CPR, the majority (71.9%) survived to hospital discharge and 15.6% died before discharge. Advance directive discussions only occurred for two patients, and preferences regarding code status (8.7%), intubation (6.5%) and feeding (4.3%) rarely occurred. Both popular TV shows portrayed CPR as more effective than actual rates. Overall, the shows portrayed an immediate survival rate nearly twice that of actual survival rates. Inaccurate TV portrayal of CPR survival rates may misinform viewers and influence care decisions made during serious illness and at end of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  7. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (pworking memory (pnutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Survival rate and pressure ulcer prevalence in patients with and without dementia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaul, E; Rosenzweig, J P; Meiron, O

    2017-07-02

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) in older patients with advanced dementia versus older patients without dementia but with other comorbidities, such as diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PUs were thought to be more prevalent and to present a higher risk of mortality in patients with dementia. PUs were assessed on admission using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) staging system. Patients were classified as either with or without dementia according to Reisberg's functional assessment staging test (FAST). The prevalence of PUs and the survival rates were analysed and compared in both groups. The combined effect of PUs and dementia on survival was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The median survival rate of patients with PUs and dementia was 63 days, significantly lower than in patients with PUs without dementia 117 days. Both groups had similar other comorbidities. These findings underscore the requirement for geriatricians and health professionals to be more vigilant in examining PUs as dementia progresses.

  9. Survival Implications Associated with Variation in Mastectomy Rates for Early-Staged Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Brooks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.

  10. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  11. Relation of Mitral Valve Surgery Volume to Repair Rate, Durability, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwe, Joanna; Toyoda, Nana; Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Itagaki, Shinobu; Egorova, Natalia N; Boateng, Percy; El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Adams, David H

    2017-04-24

    Degenerative mitral valve repair rates remain highly variable, despite established benefits of repair over replacement. The contribution of surgeon-specific factors is poorly defined. This study evaluated the influence of surgeon case volume on degenerative mitral valve repair rates and outcomes. A mandatory New York State database was queried and 5,475 patients were identified with degenerative mitral disease who underwent mitral valve operations between 2002 and 2013. Mitral repair rates, mitral reoperations within 12 months of repair, and survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox modeling and restricted cubic spline function. Median annual surgeon volume of any mitral operations was 10 (range 1 to 230), with a mean repair rate of 55% (n = 20,797 of 38,128). In the subgroup of patients with degenerative disease, the mean repair rate was 67% (n = 3,660 of 5,475), with a range of 0% to 100%. Mean repair rates ranged from 48% (n = 179 of 370) for surgeons with total annual volumes of ≤10 mitral operations to 77% (n = 1,710 of 2,216) for surgeons with total annual volumes of >50 mitral operations (p mitral valve disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.13 for every additional 10 mitral operations; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.17; p mitral operations annually; and improved 1-year survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.95 for every additional 10 operations; 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98; p = 0.001). For surgeons with a total annual volume of ≤25 mitral operations, repair rates were higher (63.8%; n = 180 of 282) if they operated in the same institution as a surgeon with total annual mitral volumes of >50 and degenerative mitral valve repair rates of >70%, compared with surgeons operating in the other institutions (51.3%; n = 580 of 1,130) (adjusted OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.60; p mitral repair rates, but also freedom from reoperation, and survival. The data from this study support the guideline's concept of reference referral to experienced mitral

  12. Effect of nitric oxide on spinal evoked potentials and survival rate in rats with decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsøe, Thomas; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Broholm, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have, in experimental settings, been shown to decrease intravascular nitrogen bubble formation and to increase the survival rate during decompression sickness (DCS) from diving. The effect has been ascribed to a possible removal of preexisting micronuclei...... evaluated by means of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs). Anesthetized rats were decompressed from a 1-h hyperbaric air dive at 506.6 kPa (40 m of seawater) for 3 min and 17 s, and spinal cord conduction was studied by measurements of SEPs. Histological samples of the spinal cord were analyzed for lesions...... GTN (group 6) during the dive, before decompression. In all groups, decompression caused considerable intravascular bubble formation. The ISMN groups showed no difference compared with the control group, whereas the GTN groups showed a tendency toward faster SEP disappearance and shorter survival...

  13. Single-plate Molteno implants in complicated glaucomas : Results, survival rates, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakantan Arvind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-two single-plate single-stage Molteno implantations for complicated glaucomas were performed between March 1991 and November 1992. The charts of all these patients were reviewed to determine the intraocular pressure (IOP control success rate (< 21 mm Hg with or without medications, visual success rate (retention or improvement of visual acuity from preoperative level and the rate of complications encountered. A Kaplan-Meier life-table (survival analysis was also performed. IOP control was obtained in 74.2% of cases. Mean postoperative IOP was 16.97 +/- 8.07 mm Hg (Mean +/- SD. Visual success was obtained in 51.6% of the eyes. Eyes with aphakia/pseudophakic glaucomas showed the best response with 80% of them achieving IOP control and 60% achieving visual success. The survival plot for IOP control revealed 75.81% and 74.19% success rates at 48 and 72 weeks, respectively. Complications encountered were either due to the early postoperative hypotony or were tube-related. These results were gratifying considering the severity of the glaucoma in these cases and they reaffirm the usefulness of the Molteno implant in the management of difficult glaucomas.

  14. Effect of culture system on survival rate of vitrified bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, A; Nazari, H; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B; Shams-Esfandabadi, N

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of in vitro culture system on bovine blastocyst yield and quality after vitrification. In Experiment 1, IVM/IVF zygotes were allocated to three culture conditions: (I) Oviductal cells-SOF (OCM-SOF); (II) Oviductal cells-TCM (OCM-TCM); and (III) SOF for 8 days. There was no significant difference between blastocyst rates among groups. In Experiment 2, the IVP-blastocysts in three above culture conditions were vitrified within groups segregated according to age (Day 7 and 8) and blastocoelic cavity size (early and expanded blastocysts). A trend of higher survival rate was obtained in vitrified/warmed early blastocysts compared with expanded ones, so that the difference in OCM-TCM group was significant (P<0.001). Higher survival and hatching rates (P<0.001) were obtained in OCM-SOF and OCM-TCM groups (co-culture) compared with SOF group and the age of blastocyst had no effect on post-thaw survival and hatching rates. In Experiment 3, after staining of blastocysts, in fresh blastocysts the highest number of trophectoderm cells was observed in OCM-TCM group and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) was higher in co-culture groups than SOF group (P<0.001). In vitrified/warmed blastocysts the number of ICM and trophectoderm cells in co-culture groups was higher than SOF group (P<0.001) except for the ICM of expanded blastocysts. In conclusion, in our culture conditions, the blastocyst yield is not influenced by culture system, while the cryotolerance of IVP-blastocysts is positively influenced by the presence of somatic cells. Moreover, the expanded blastocysts are more susceptible to cryoinjury than early blastocysts.

  15. Survival Rates of Teeth with Primary Endodontic Treatment after Core/Post and Crown Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kandace; Bhagavatula, Pradeep; Stover, Sheila; Eichmiller, Frederick; Hashimoto, Lance; MacDonald, Scott; Barkley, Gordon

    2017-12-08

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of delayed placement of the core/post and crown on the outcomes of nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). According to the Delta Dental of Wisconsin claims database, 160,040 NSRCTs were completed with a core/post and a crown placed before the end of the continuous coverage period or occurrence of an untoward event. Untoward events were defined as a retreatment, apicoectomy, or extraction as defined by the Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature. Statistical analysis was performed by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The survival rate from the time of crown placement to an untoward event was 99.1% at 1 year, 96.0% at 3 years, 92.3% at 5 years, and 83.8% at 10 years. Failure rates were greater when a core/post was placed more than 60 days after the NSRCT (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.08) and when the crown was placed more than 60 days after the core/post placement (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14). Overall, the survival rates of NSRCT were greater when performed by an endodontist versus other providers. On the basis of the information available from insurance claims data, this study shows that the long-term survival rates of initial endodontic therapy are adversely affected by the delayed placement of the final restoration and full coverage crown. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study.

  17. Higher survival rates of chronic hemodialysis patients on anti-hypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, K; Shoji, T; Nakai, S; Watanabe, Y; Akiba, T; Tsubakihara, Y

    2009-01-01

    The effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on survival have not been examined in a large cohort of hemodialysis (HD) patients. We examined the relationship between blood pressure, anti-hypertensive drug therapy, and survival using the nationwide HD registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Outcomes were confirmed using the coded ID numbers of the 2005 and 2006 registries. Logistic analyses were performed to determine the effect of anti-hypertensive drug therapy on survival. A total of 163,668 patients (50.6% men; 31.5% with diabetes mellitus; mean age 63.6 years) on HD 3 times a week in 2005 were studied. Mean (SD) levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 153.4 (24.1) and 78.7 (13.7) mm Hg, respectively, before the HD session. Two-thirds of the HD patients were prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and the numbers of anti-hypertensive medications were: 1 in 26.8%, 2 in 24.4%, and 3 or more in 14.5% of the total patients. The 1-year mortality rate was 6.6% overall: 8.5% in patients not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs and 5.6% among those prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the 1-year mortality rate was 0.724 (0.681-0.770, p anti-hypertensive drugs, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, HD duration, serum albumin, and systolic blood pressure. Survival was better in patients prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs, particularly renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, than in those not prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The causality on this association remained to be determined and prospective studies on blood pressure target levels and the effects of anti-hypertensive drug class in HD patients are warranted. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  19. Preoperative ejection fraction as a predictor of survival after coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison with a matched general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Elisabeth J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative left ventricular dysfunction is an established risk factor for early and late mortality after revascularization. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the effects of preoperative ejection fraction on the short-term and long-term survival of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods Early and late mortality were determined retrospectively in 10 626 consecutive patients who underwent isolated coronary bypass between January 1998 and December 2007. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to their preoperative ejection fraction. Expected survival was estimated by comparison with a general Dutch population group described in the database of the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics. For each of our groups with a known preoperative ejection fraction, a general Dutch population group was matched for age, sex, and year of operation. Results and Discussion One hundred twenty-two patients were lost to follow-up. In 219 patients, the preoperative ejection fraction could not be retrieved. In the remaining patients (n = 10 285, the results of multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression analysis identified the ejection fraction as a predictor of early and late mortality. When we compared long-term survival and expected survival, we found a relatively poorer outcome in all subjects with an ejection fraction of 50%, long-term survival exceeded expected survival. Conclusions The severity of left ventricular dysfunction was associated with poor survival. Compared with the survival of the matched general population, our coronary bypass patients had a worse outcome only if their preoperative ejection fraction was

  20. Five-year survival rates of melanoma patients treated by diet therapy after the manner of Gerson: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, G L; Hildenbrand, L C; Bradford, K; Cavin, S W

    1995-09-01

    Compare 5-year melanoma survival rates to rates in medical literature. Retrospective. Hospital in Tijuana, Mexico. White adult patients (N = 153) with superficial spreading and nodular melanoma, aged 25-72 years. Gerson's diet therapy: lactovegetarian; low sodium, fat and (temporarily) protein; high potassium, fluid, and nutrients (hourly raw vegetable/fruit juices). Metabolism increased by thyroid; calorie supply limited to 2600-3200 calories per day. Coffee enemas as needed for pain and appetite. 5-year survival rates by stage at admission. Of 14 patients with stages I and II (localized) melanoma, 100% survived for 5 years, compared with 79% of 15,798 reported by Balch. Of 17 with stage IIIA (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 82% were alive at 5 years, in contrast to 39% of 103 from Fachklinik Hornheide. Of 33 with combined stages IIIA + IIIB (regionally metastasized) melanoma, 70% lived 5 years, compared with 41% of 134 from Fachklinik Hornheide. We propose a new stage division: IVA (distant lymph, skin, and subcutaneous tissue metastases), and IVB (visceral metastases). Of 18 with stage IVA melanoma, 39% were alive at 5 years, compared with only 6% of 194 from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Survival impact was not assessed for stage IVB. Male and female survival rates were identical for stages I-IIIB, but stage IVA women had a strong survival advantage. The 5-year survival rates reported here are considerably higher than those reported elsewhere. Stage IIIA/B males had exceptionally high survival rates compared with those reported by other centers.

  1. The evolutionary ecology of generalization: among-year variation in host plant use and offspring survival in a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Christer; Friberg, Magne

    2009-12-01

    The majority of phytophagous insects are relatively specialized in their food habits, and specialization in resource use is expected to be favored by selection in most scenarios. Ecological generalization is less common and less well understood, but it should be selected for by (1) rarity of resources, (2) resource inconstancy, or (3) unreliability of resource quality. Here, we test these predictions by studying egg distribution and offspring survival in the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, on different host plants in Sweden over a five-year period. A total of 3800 eggs were laid on 16 of the 18 crucifers available at the field site during the five years. Three main factors explained host plant generalization: (1) a rarity of food resources in which the female encounter rate of individual crucifer plants was low and within-year phenological succession of flowering periods of the different crucifers meant that individual species were suitable for oviposition only within a short time window, which translates to a low effective abundance of individual crucifer species as experienced by females searching for host plants, making specialization on a single crucifer species unprofitable; (2) variation in food resources in which among-year variation in availability of any one host plant species was high; and (3) larval survivorship varied unpredictably among years on all host plants, thereby necessitating a bet-hedging strategy and use of several different host plants. Unpredictable larval survival was caused by variation in plant stand habitat characteristics, which meant that drowning and death from starvation affected different crucifers differently, and by parasitism, which varied by host plant and year. Hence, our findings are in agreement with the theoretical explanation of ecological generalization above, helping to explain why A. cardamines is a generalist throughout its range with respect to genera within the Cruciferae.

  2. Survival Rates in Trauma Patients Following Health Care Reform in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Turner; Glance, Laurent G; Li, Wenjun; Buzas, Jeffery S; Hosmer, David W

    2015-07-01

    Massachusetts introduced health care reform (HCR) in 2006, expecting to expand health insurance coverage and improve outcomes. Because traumatic injury is a common acute condition with important health, disability, and economic consequences, examination of the effect of HCR on patients hospitalized following injury may help inform the national HCR debate. To examine the effect of Massachusetts HCR on survival rates of injured patients. Retrospective cohort study of 1,520,599 patients hospitalized following traumatic injury in Massachusetts or New York during the 10 years (2002-2011) surrounding Massachusetts HCR using data from the State Inpatient Databases. We assessed the effect of HCR on mortality rates using a difference-in-differences approach to control for temporal trends in mortality. Health care reform in Massachusetts in 2006. Survival until hospital discharge. During the 10-year study period, the rates of uninsured trauma patients in Massachusetts decreased steadily from 14.9% in 2002 to 5.0.% in 2011. In New York, the rates of uninsured trauma patients fell from 14.9% in 2002 to 10.5% in 2011. The risk-adjusted difference-in-difference assessment revealed a transient increase of 604 excess deaths (95% CI, 419-790) in Massachusetts in the 3 years following implementation of HCR. Health care reform did not affect health insurance coverage for patients hospitalized following injury but was associated with a transient increase in adjusted mortality rates. Reducing mortality rates for acutely injured patients may require more comprehensive interventions than simply promoting health insurance coverage through legislation.

  3. Growing body of evidence on survival rates of implant-supported fixed prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Elliot

    2008-01-01

    the study-specific event rates, the Spearman goodness-of fit statistics and associated probability value were calculated. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate formally whether event rates varied by crown material (metal-ceramic vs all-ceramic) or crown design (cemented vs screw-retained). Twenty-six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Survival of implants supporting SC was 96.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 95.9-97.6%] after 5 years. The survival rate of SC supported by implants was 94.5% (95% CI, 92.5-95.9%) after 5 years of function. The survival rate of metal-ceramic crowns, 95.4% (95% CI, 93.6-96.7%), was significantly higher (P 0.005) than the survival rate (91.2%; 95% CI, 86.8-94.2%), of all-ceramic crowns. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications occurred adjacent to 9.7% of the SC and 6.3% of the implants had bone loss exceeding 2 mm over the 5-year observation period. The cumulative incidence of implant fractures after 5 years was 0.14%. After 5 years, the cumulative incidence of screw or abutment loosening was 12.7%, and was 0.35% for screw or abutment fracture. For suprastructure-related complications, the cumulative incidence of ceramic or veneer fractures was 4.5%. An observation period of 5 years allows the conclusion that high survival rates of implants and implant-supported SC can be expected, but biological and, particularly, technical complications are frequent.

  4. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Freire, Gabriela Mesquita Lopes; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, Jo E

    2017-05-04

    The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR) sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6-7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  5. Bacterial survival rate on tooth- and interdental brushes in relation to the use of toothpaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirynen, M; de Soete, M; Pauwels, M; Goossens, K; Teughels, W; van Eldere, J; van Steenberghe, D

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that oral hygiene aids can play a rôle in the intra-oral translocation of pathogens. The survival rate of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species on toothbrushes, with and without toothpaste, and interdental brushes was presently investigated. 12 periodontitis patients had their interdental spaces professionally cleaned with interdental brushes and their teeth with new toothbrushes with or without different dentifrices. Each time brushes were rinsed with tap water and stored dry at room temperature. At different time intervals an interdental brush or 4 tufts from a toothbrush were processed for vitality staining and selective and non-selective culturing procedures. Immediately after rinsing, a toothbrush without toothpaste harboured 10(7), 10(8) and 10(7) colony forming units (CFU) of respectively aerobic, anaerobic and black pigmented species. An insignificant decrease occurred the first 24 hours and after 48 hours still 10(4) CFU of aerobic and anaerobic species could be cultured. No periodontopathogen remained detectable at 8 hours, except for Fusobacterium nucleatum. The proportion of vital bacteria decreased in 48 hours from 50% to 30%. Comparable results were obtained for interdental brushes. The bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes was significantly reduced by the use of a detergent containing toothpaste by 2 log at baseline, another 2 log at 4 hours and an extra log more at 8 hours for aerobic and anaerobic species. A toothpaste without detergent only had an insignificant bactericidal effect. Toothpaste detergents decrease the survival rate of pathogenic species on a toothbrush and can thus limit the risk for bacterial translocation.

  6. 3-year survival rates of retained composite resin and ART sealants using two assessment criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Augusto HILGERT

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to test the null-hypothesis that there is no difference in the cumulative survival rate of retained composite resin (CR sealants and a high-viscosity glass-ionomer Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART sealant in first permanent molars calculated according to the traditional and the modified retention assessment criteria over a period of 3 years. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial consisted of 123 schoolchildren, 6–7-years-old. At baseline, high-caries risk pits and fissures of fully erupted first permanent molars were treated with CR and ART sealants. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 years. Retention was scored for free-smooth surface and for each of three sections into which the occlusal surface had been divided. The modified criterion differed from the traditional in that it determined an occlusal sealant to be a failure when at least one section contained no visible sealant material. Data were analysed according to the PHREG model with frailty correction, Wald-test, ANOVA and t-test, using the Jackknife procedure. The cumulative survival rates for retained CR and ART sealants in free-smooth and occlusal surfaces for both criteria were not statistically significantly different over the 3 years. A higher percentage of retained CR sealants on occlusal surfaces was observed at longer evaluations. Cumulative survival rates were statistically significantly lower for the modified criterion in comparison to the traditional. The modified retention assessment criterion should be used in future sealant-retention studies.

  7. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  8. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  9. Increasing Calcium Carbonate (Caco3) To Growt And Survival Rate Vannamei Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei))

    OpenAIRE

    Heriadi, Unggul Fitrah; ', Mulyadi; Putra, Iskandar

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in March 2016 - April 2016 for 21 days at the NationalBroodstock Center For Shrimp and Mollusk Karangasem Bali. The purpose of this study todetermine the effect of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the growth and survival rate vanameishrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei). Vanamei shrimp size PL25 were used in the research. Thecontainer used fiber tub with capacity 250 liters and the volume of water used is 100 liters.The treatment is giving of calcium carbonate 20 mg, 35mg, 50m...

  10. Survival Rate and its Related Factors in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghaffarian Shirazi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been noted that the myocardial infarction is an increasing episode in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help to reduce the number of death from this ongoing event. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and its association with different variables. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study evaluates 111 cases of acute myocardial infarction admitted in Yasuj Imam Sajjad hospital during the year 2004 and 2005. Data were collected using a questionnaire which was completed through direct interviewing by trained personnel. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of patients was 57± 12 years. The mean time of having access to physician after MI was 4 ± 2.2 hours. The mean time of reaching hospital after physician order was 5 ± 4.9 hours. The mean time of hospitalization was 4 ± 1.67 days. Considering the past history of these patients revealed that 31 percent were smokers, 16 percent had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 63 percent had hypertension, 8 percent had diabetes mellitus, 95 percent had clip I, 95 percent had no previous block, 82 percent had MI with Q wave. The survival rate in our study was found to be 0.91 in the first 10 hours, 0.847 in the first day, 0.829 in the first 28 days, 0.820 in the first third months, 0.792 in the first six months and 0.771 in the first 10 months of disease. Conclusion: The mortality rate during the first month among the patients with heart failure turned out to be higher than that of the other similar studies performed in other parts of the country however, the annual survival rate proved to be less. The most important causes of survival after the stroke are being single, smoking, fatness and angina pain

  11. Stadium IB - IIA cervical cancer patient’s survival rate after receiving definitive radiation and radical operation therapy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy along with analysis of factors affecting the patient’s survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslim, S. K.; Purwoto, G.; Widyahening, I. S.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the characteristics and overall survival rates of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO IB-IIA) patients who receive definitive radiation therapy and those who are prescribed adjuvant postoperative radiation and to conduct a factors analysis of the variables that affect the overall survival rates in both groups of therapy. The medical records of 85 patients with cervical cancer FIGO stages IB-IIA who were treated at the Department of Radiotherapy of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were reviewed and analyzed to determine their overall survival and the factors that affected it between a definitive radiation group and an adjuvant postoperative radiation group. There were 25 patients in the definitive radiation and 60 patients in the adjuvant radiation group. The overall survival rates in the adjuvant radiation group at years one, two, and three were 96.7%, 95%, and 93.3%, respectively. Negative lymph node metastasis had an average association with overall survival (p 12 g/dl was a factor with an average association with the overall survival (p cervical cancer FIGO stage IB-IIA patients who received definitive radiation or adjuvant postoperative radiation. Negative lymph node metastasis had an effect on the overall survival rate in the adjuvant postoperative radiation group, while a preradiation Hb level >12 g/dl tended to affect the overall survival in the definitive radiation group patients.

  12. Review suggests high survival rates for veneers at five and ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Eileen; Conway, David I

    2013-03-01

    The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched and the Evidence-Based Dentistry, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, and Journal of Oral Rehabilitation were hand searched. Clinical trials registers, conference proceedings and academic colleagues were contacted to identify unpublished data, abstracts and other gray literature. There were no language limits. Article identification, screening, and eligibility and inclusion assessments were completed independently by two reviewers. Prospective and retrospective cohort and controlled trials assessing the outcome of feldspathic porcelain veneers in more than 15 patients were included. Some veneers in each study had to be in situ for five years. Veneers placed using unusual techniques, such as with no enamel preparation or excessive incisal edge lengthening, were excluded. Estimated cumulative survival and standard error for each study were assessed and used for meta-, sensitivity and post hoc analyses. The I(2) statistic and the Cochran Q test and its associated P value were used to evaluate statistical heterogeneity, with a random-effects meta-analysis used when the P value for heterogeneity was less than 0.1. Heterogeneity, publication patterns and small study biases were explored. Eleven studies were included with six (four prospective and two retrospective cohorts) contributing to the meta-analysis. The estimated cumulative survival for feldspathic porcelain veneers was 95.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.9% to 98.4%) at five years and ranged from 64% to 95% at ten years across three studies. A post hoc meta-analysis indicated that the 10-year best estimate may approach 95.6% (95% CI: 93.8% to 97.5%). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were found. When bonded to enamel substrate, feldspathic porcelain veneers have a very high 10-year survival rate that may

  13. A long-term retrospective analysis of survival rates of implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, Thomas J; Wolfinger, Glenn J; Stein, Brett E; Balshi, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the survival rate of endosseous dental implants placed in the edentulous or partially edentulous mandible over a long-term follow-up period of 10 years or more. The charts of patients who underwent mandibular implant placement at a private prosthodontics practice and received follow-up care for 10 years or more were included in this study. Implants were examined according to the following study variables: patient sex, patient age, degree of edentulism (fully vs partially edentulous), implant location, time of loading (delayed vs immediate), implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of other implants during placement. The study sample was composed of 2,394 implants placed in 470 patients with 10 to 27 years of follow-up. Of these 2,394 implants, 176 failed, resulting in an overall cumulative survival rate (CSR) of 92.6%. A total of 1,482 implants were placed in edentulous mandibles, and 912 implants were placed in partially edentulous mandibles, with CSRs of 92.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Comparisons of the study variables with respect to CSR were largely nonsignificant. However, there were significant differences in CSRs between anterior vs posterior locations and rough- vs smooth-surfaced implants in addition to some prosthesis types, ages, and bone qualities. The overall CSR of 92.6% in the present study is high and comparable to survival rates observed in previous long-term analyses of mandibular implants. The significant differences observed between implant locations, patient age groups, bone qualities, and prostheses were not suggestive of any remarkable trends. Patient sex, age, degree of edentulism, implant location, time of loading, implant size and type, bone quality, prosthesis type, and the presence of multiple implants did not result in any significant effect on long-term implant survival. The CSR observed after 10 to 27 years of follow-up in a single private prosthodontic center was high (92

  14. Shorter survival rate in varus-aligned knees after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Xiao; Shang, Ping; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    One long-held tenet of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is that post-operative neutral limb alignment promotes implant durability. Recently, the concept of generic safe zone (0° ± 3°) has been challenged. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate whether neutral alignment was superior to malalignment in long-term survival of TKAs. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Chinese Periodical, Google and reference lists of all the included studies were searched. Of the 1512 studies initially identified, ten met the eligibility criteria, including eight case-control studies and two cohort trials. Relative risks of implant failure were compared between post-operative neutrally aligned and malaligned knees. Post-operative malalignment showed higher failure rate of knee implants compared with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.00-1.88, P = 0.05). Failure rate in knees with varus alignment was significantly higher than with neutral alignment (95 % CI 1.07-2.55, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the likelihood of implant failure between knees with valgus and neutral alignment (95 % CI 0.78-2.41, n.s.). No significant difference of failure rate was noted between neutral alignment and malalignment for fixed-bearing prothesis (95 % CI 0.94-1.95, n.s.) or rotating-platform prothesis (95 % CI 0.75-2.73, n.s.). There was no significant difference of failure rate between knees with neutral alignment and malalignment for studies with a mean follow-up of more than 10 years (95 % CI 0.81-2.01, n.s.) or studies using long-leg weight-bearing radiographs (95 % CI 0.79-1.79, n.s.). Post-operative varus alignment results in shorter survival rate after TKA. Not only neutral limb alignment but also the valgus alignment promotes implant durability. Neutral or valgus alignment rather than varus alignment is essential to achieve long-term survival of TKAs and patient satisfaction. III.

  15. The Effect of Weaning Tecnique to Survival Rate and Height Growth of Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical rehabilitation planning of BPDAS Tondano on coastal area has reached 10,000 hectares, thus require many seedlings. Nyamplung has potential as rehabilitation plant in coastal at the same time it can support national demand of biofuel. However the nurseries of nyamplung in North Sulawesi are not optimal and need appropriate information of weaning method. This research used completely randomized design with three treatment factors, namely 1 Cutting the leaves consist of two levels ie D1 (pair leaves and D2 (intact leaf; 2 Cutting intact seeds, consists of two levels i.e B1 (removed seed and B2 (intact seeds; and 3 Cutting the roots lenght consist of three levels i.e A1 (5 cm, A2 (10 cm and A3 (15 cm. There were 180 seedlings taken from seed that germinated using cocopeat media. Results of variance analysis showed that the applied treatment only affect the heigth growth. The survival rate is not affected by all treatments or in the other words survival rate reached 100 %. The treatments on leaves and seeds gave significant effect, on the contrary with root treatment. The treatment of intact leaf (D2 and intact seeds (B2 produced the best height growth responses i.e 4.60 cm and 4.63 cm.

  16. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls.

  17. Use of alpaca seminal plasma on ovulation rate and embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The South American camelids are a domesticated species adapted to the high Andes, they are considered as a species of induced ovulation. In these species, so that the release of the oocyte occurs, a neuroendocrine interaction and stimulation during intercourse (which have to lasts on average 18 minutes is necessary. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of an inducing factor for the ovulation found in the seminal plasma of the male that is crucial for ovulation to occurs in camelids. From 1968 researches were initiated to confirm and determine the inductor factor. The works have shown that ovulation in alpacas occurs after intramuscular and intravaginal application of seminal plasma. Recent studies showed the luteotropic effect of this factor, which is evidenced by the increase and retention of circulating concentrations of LH, the rapid change in the vascularization of the pre-ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum development, this contributes to the increase of the embryonic survival rate, due to the stimulus that causes this hormone in the pituitary to release LH, triggering an additional luteotropic effect on the corpus luteum with increased secretion of progesterone. At the field, level the results are not as manifest in relation to the results obtained when the ultrasound monitoring is performed. However, the work done by different research groups confirm the contribution of seminal plasma in increasing fertility rates and embryonic survival in domestic camelids such as alpaca and llama.

  18. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (pyogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  19. Radiotherapy combined with intracavitary irradiation for uterine cervical cancer. Study of survival rate, patterns of recurrence and complication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuda, Junko; Mizutani, Yoshiyuki; Yoshino, Ayako; Takayama, Makoto; Furuya, Yoshiro (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Takei, Ryoji

    1994-09-01

    Survival rates and patterns of recurrence in 137 patients with uterine cervical cancer were determined. These patients were treated by radiotherapy with high-dose rate intracavitary irradiation using remote afterloading system (RALS) at Kyorin University Hospital from Oct. 1987 to Dec. 1992. Age range was from 29 to 87 years. According to clinical staging of UICC, stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 29, 62, 33, and 13 cases respectively. Cumulative 5-year survival rate of all cases was 72%. Cumulative 5-year survival rates were 100% for stage I, 81% for stage II, 38% for stage III, and 27% for stage IV. Cumulative 5-year survival rates of the postoperative radiotherapy and radical radiotherapy groups were 75% and 90% respectively. There was significant difference of survival rates between the postoperative radiotherapy group and the radical radiotherapy group. As patterns of recurrence, extrapelvic metastasis was more frequent than local recurrence. In stages II and III, recurrent patterns were extrapelvic matastasis in most cases. Of 18 cases with extrapelvic metastasis, there were 10 cases of paraaortic lymph node metastasis. With increase in the control rate of parraortic lymph node metastasis, survival rate of patients with uterine cervical cancer increased. Four of 5 cases with local recurrence controled by intracavitary irradiation is effective for local recurrence control. Rectal and bladder complications following radiotherapy were observed in 25 cases. However, all cases with complication after radiotherapy were treated conservatively, excluding 1 case (vasicorectal fistula). (author).

  20. Survival, fidelity, and recovery rates of white-winged doves in Texas

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Bret A.

    2012-03-12

    Management of migratory birds at the national level has historically relied on regulatory boundaries for definition of harvest restrictions and estimation of demographic parameters. Most species of migratory game birds are not expanding their ranges, so migratory corridors are approximately fixed. White-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), however, have undergone significant variation in population structure with marked range expansion occurring in Texas, and range contraction in Arizona, during the last 30 years. Because >85% of white-winged dove harvest in the United States (approx. 1.3 million annually) now occurs in Texas, information on vital rates of expanding white-winged dove populations is necessary for informed management. We used band recovery and mark-recapture data to investigate variation in survival and harvest across 3 geographic strata for white-winged doves banded in the pre-hunting season in Texas during 2007-2010. We banded 60,742 white-winged doves, recovered 2,458 bands via harvest reporting, and recaptured 455 known-age birds between 2007 and 2010. The best supporting model found some evidence for geographic differences in survival rates among strata (A-C) in both hatch-year (juvenile; A = 0.205 [SE = 0.0476], B = 0.213 [SE = 0.0278], C = 0.364 [SE = 0.0254]) and after-hatch year (adult; A = 0.483 [SE = 0.0775], B = 0.465 [SE = 0.0366], C = 0.538 [SE = 0.251]) birds. White-winged doves had a low probability of moving among strata (0.009) or being recaptured (0.002) across all strata. Harvest recovery rates were concordant with estimates for other dove species, but were variable across geographic strata. Based on our results, harvest management strategies for white-winged doves in Texas and elsewhere should consider differences in population vital rates among geographic strata. © 2012 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Breast cancer survival rate according to data of cancer registry and death registry systems in Bushehr province, 2001-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rampisheh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. Survival rate of breast cancer, especially as an indicator of the successful implementation of screening, diagnosis and treatment programs, has been at the center of attention of public health experts Material and Methods: In a survival study, the records of breast cancer cases in cancer registry system of Bushehr Province were extracted during 2001, March to 2013, September. These records were linked and matched with records of death registry system. After determining patients, status regarding being alive or dead, survival analysis was done. Life table, Kaplan-Mayer analysis, log rank and Breslow tests were used for computing and comparing survival rates. Results: In 300 recorded breast cancer cases, mean and standard deviation of age was 51.26±13.87. Survival rates were 95, 88, 78, 73 and 68 percent since the first year through the fifth year, respectively. Mean survival was 87.20 months (95% CI= 81.28- 93.12. There was no significant difference in mean survival regarding age and different geographical areas. Conclusion: Although survival rates of registered breast cancer patients in Bushehr Province are similar to other provinces, they are far from those of developed countries. This situation demands more extensive efforts regarding public education and improving the process of diagnosis, treatment and care of patients especially during first two years after diagnosis.

  2. Reduced in-hospital survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims with obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; Warnier, M J; Bardai, A

    2013-01-01

    with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have a lower survival rate after OHCA than non-OPD patients. METHODS: We performed a community-based cohort study of 1172 patients with non-traumatic OHCA with ECG-documented VT/VF between 2005 and 2008. We compared survival to emergency room (ER), to hospital admission...

  3. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  4. Growth rates and post-release survival of captive neonate timber rattlesnakes Crotalus horridus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Shirley J. Burgdorf

    2003-01-01

    The need for conservation and management of rare species is becoming increasingly important as wildlife species and their habitat continue to decline. Translocation of wild captured adults to augment and reintroduce populations has been successfully used for some endangered avian species (see Carrie et al. 1999; Rudolph et al. 1992). In general, success rates for...

  5. Development of a likelihood of survival scoring system for hospitalized equine neonates using generalized boosted regression modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A Dembek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical management of critically ill equine neonates (foals can be expensive and labor intensive. Predicting the odds of foal survival using clinical information could facilitate the decision-making process for owners and clinicians. Numerous prognostic indicators and mathematical models to predict outcome in foals have been published; however, a validated scoring method to predict survival in sick foals has not been reported. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system that can be used by clinicians to predict likelihood of survival of equine neonates based on clinical data obtained on admission. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 339 hospitalized foals of less than four days of age admitted to three equine hospitals were included to develop the model. Thirty seven variables including historical information, physical examination and laboratory findings were analyzed by generalized boosted regression modeling (GBM to determine which ones would be included in the survival score. Of these, six variables were retained in the final model. The weight for each variable was calculated using a generalized linear model and the probability of survival for each total score was determined. The highest (7 and the lowest (0 scores represented 97% and 3% probability of survival, respectively. Accuracy of this survival score was validated in a prospective study on data from 283 hospitalized foals from the same three hospitals. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the survival score in the prospective population were 96%, 71%, 91%, and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The survival score developed in our study was validated in a large number of foals with a wide range of diseases and can be easily implemented using data available in most equine hospitals. GBM was a useful tool to develop the survival score. Further evaluations of this scoring system in field conditions are needed.

  6. Determine movement patterns and survival rates of Central Valley Chinook salmon, steelhead and their predators using acoustic tags.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project’s objective is to document movement patterns and survival rates of Chinook salmon, steelhead, green sturgeon, and other fish from several sources in...

  7. Observations on feeding behaviour and survival rates in the estuarine calanoid copepods Acartia spinicauda and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srivastava, Y.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Experiments were conducted on the calanoid copepods, Acartia spinicauda (Acartiidae) and Heliodiaptomus cinctus (Diaptomidae) in order to determine food preference and survival rates respectively. Adults of A. spinicauda were fed monocultures...

  8. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sund Björn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. Conclusion We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1 static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2 dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  9. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Björn

    2013-02-15

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS) simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch) increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data. We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1) static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2) dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  10. Growth and Survival Rate of Redclaw Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus Reared with Different Density in Recirculation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the growth and survival rate of redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus reared in recirculation system with density 20, 30, 40 and 50 m-2. Lobster with 6.02 ± 0.13 cm length and 6.23 ± 0.51 gram initial body weights were cultured in 60 x 30 x 40 cm aquarium and compiled in recirculation system, for 42 days. Result of research showed that there are statistically difference at growth rate daily weight, coefficient of variances and feed efficiency (p0.05. From this research it can be concluded that the best density for freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus was 50 m-2.Keywords: density, growth, survival rate, redclaw crayfish,  Cherax quadricarinatus ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup lobster capit merah (Cherax quadricarinatus yang dipelihara pada sistem resirkulasi dengan kepadatan 20, 30, 40 dan 50 ekor/m2. Benih lobster yang digunakan memiliki panjang awal rata-rata 6,02 ± 0,13 cm dan berat 6,23 ± 0,51 gram, dipelihara pada akuarium dengan ukuran 60 x 30 x 40 cm yang diisi air setinggi 20 cm dan disusun dalam sistem resirkulasi, selama 42 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan nyata pada laju pertumbuhan bobot harian, koefisien keragaman dan efisiensi pakan (p0,05. Dari hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa padat penebaran yang dapat memberikan hasil maksimum adalah 50 ekor/m2.Kata kunci: padat penebaran, pertumbuhan, kelangsungan hidup, lobster capit merah, Cherax quadricarinatus

  11. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ascencio-Montiel, Iv?n de Jes?s; Kumate-Rodr?guez, Jes?s; Borja-Aburto, V?ctor Hugo; Fern?ndez-Garate, Jos? Esteban; Konik-Comonfort, Selene; Mac?as-P?rez, Oliver; Campos-Hern?ndez, ?ngel; Rodr?guez-V?zquez, H?ctor; L?pez-Rold?n, Ver?nica Miriam; Zitle-Garc?a, Edgar Jes?s; Sol?s-Cruz, Mar?a del Carmen; Vel?zquez-Ram?rez, Ismael; Aguilar-Jim?nez, Miriam; Villa-Caballero, Leonel; Cisneros-Gonz?lez, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,01...

  12. [Impact of ishemia-reperfusion injury on long survival rate in intestinal transplantation in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausada, Natalia; Stringa, Pablo; Cabanne, Ana; Ramisch, Diego; Machuca, Mariana; Galvao, Flavio; Coronato, Silvia; Raimondi, Jorge Clemente; Gondolesi, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    The intestine is a highly sensitive tissue to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury that will early respond increasing its permeability. Later this response is translated in morphologic and histological changes that reveal the degree of damage. The heterotopic intestinal transplantation model in rats allows to evaluate the evolution of intestinal tissue injury after ischemia-reperfusion without affecting the long survival rate. The aim of this paper is to establish a relationship between the ischemic reperfusion injury with the long-term survival Ten intestinal transplants were analyzed in adult, Wistar, inbred, male rats. Light microscopical examination was performed on intestine graft: 1) immediately post-dissection, 2) at the end of cold isquemia, 3) 30 min, 4) 48hs and 5) 5 days post-transplant procedure, respectively. Biopsies were reported according to Park's classification and extension of staining using immunohistochemestry to malondialdehyde (MDA) products. The Park's classification indexes reported in samples were 1) 0,57 +/- 1,13 (N=10); 2) 2,71 +/- 1,25 (N=10); 3) 4,14 +/- 0,89 (N=10); 4) 1,0 +/- 0,81 (N=7); 5) 0 (N=7). The highest levels of immunohistochemical detection of MDA were observed thirty minutes post-reperfusion (extension of staining between 51% to 75%). Three animals died when they were sampled at 48 hours, and the biopsies had Park's classification > or = 4 at 30 minutes post-reperfusion and endotoxemic signology. The highest degree of mucosal damage was observed immediately post-reperfusion. At 48hs the graft tended to be normalized Failure to repair the immediately I-R injury signficantly affects the long term survival.

  13. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The focus of this paper is to obtain the compromise optimization between economics (profit rate) and the energy utilization factor (COP) for the cycle, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit rate, which is termed as the finite time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, the effects of various factors, ...

  15. Undergraduate medical students' rating of clerkship in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldevi, M

    1995-06-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand for more involvement of general practice in undergraduate medical education. General practice and primary care can contribute with a relevant clinical content but also be a major resource in facilitating of professional development of the medical student. In the reformed undergraduate medical education of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping, Sweden, general practice has been given an important and extensive role. To evaluate the students' opinion on the recurrent clerkships in general practice a written questionnaire was given to all students after each clerkship. In the autumn of 1992, 74% of the 115 students answered this questionnaire. The questionnaire was focused on qualities regarded as important for creating the best educational milieu for the professional development of the student. Factor analysis of the different questionnaire headings showed a good construct validity. The distinct constituent elements were those of the clerkship structure, the amount of tutoring, and the student-tutor relationship. The students' overall satisfaction was high. It was not gender-related, nor did it fall with increasing semester stage. It was mainly determined by the qualitative clerkship and provider factors. The strongest of these was the 'quality of tutoring' whereas the 'quantity of tutoring' was weakest. Considering that the general practitioners were relatively inexperienced as educators, these results were both gratifying and promising, although they indicate a need for further improvement of the competence of the tutoring general practitioners.

  16. Dampak Stres Salinitas Terhadap Prevalensi White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV dan Survival Rate Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Pada Kondisi Terkontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attabik Mukhammad Amrillah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome (WSS adalah penyakit yang secara signifikan menyebabkan tingginya mortalitas dan kerusakan parah pada budidaya udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak stres salinitas terhadap prevalensi WSSV dan survival rate udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini menggunakan udang vannamei ukuran PL 40 yang diinfeksi WSSV dengan konsentrasi virus 20 μg/ml pada tiga rentang salinitas yang berbeda 0-10 ppt, 11-20 ppt, 21–30 ppt dan di rendam selama 4 jam kemudian dilakukan pengamatan selama 7 hari pasca infeksi dan diukur survival rate dan kuaitas airnya. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel terinfeksi oleh WSSV, ditunjukkan hasil analisa PCR dan gejala klinis yang timbul. Salinitas 0-10 ppt memberikan hasil persentase survival rate terendah jika dibandingkan dengan rentang salinitas yang lainnya yaitu sebesar 7 ekor atau 33% dari jumlah total sampel yang digunakan. Persentase survival rate udang tertinggi pasca infeksi virus WSSV terdapat pada perlakuan salinitas 21-30 ppt yaitu sebesar 13 ekor atau 63% dari jumlah total individu, dan salinitas 11-20 ppt memiliki persentase survival rate medium yaitu sebesar 10 ekor atau 49% dari jumlah total sampel. Stres salinitas mempengaruhi prevalensi WSSV dengan semakin tingginya tingkat infeksi seiring menurunnya rentang salinitas, akan tetapi survival rate semakin tinggi seiring dengan bertambahnya rentang salinitas.

  17. Outpatient-shopping behavior and survival rates in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shang-Jyh; Wang, Shiow-Ing; Liu, Chien-Hsiang; Yaung, Chih-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of the definition of outpatient-shopping behavior in Taiwanese patients. Linked study of 3 databases (Taiwan Cancer Registry, National Health Insurance [NHI] claim database, and death registry database). Outpatient shopping behavior was defined as making at least 4 or 5 physician visits to confirm a cancer diagnosis. We analyzed patient-related factors and the 5-year overall survival rate of the outpatient-shopping group compared with a nonshopping group. Using the household registration database and NHI database, we determined the proportion of outpatient shopping, characteristics of patients who did and did not shop for outpatient therapy, time between diagnosis and start of regular treatment, and medical service utilization in the shopping versus the nonshopping group. Patients with higher incomes were significantly more likely to shop for outpatient care. Patients with higher comorbidity scores were 1.4 times more likely to shop for outpatient care than patients with lower scores. Patients diagnosed with more advanced cancer were more likely to shop than those who were not. Patients might be more trusting of cancer diagnoses given at higher-level hospitals. The nonshopping groups had a longer duration of survival over 5 years. Health authorities should consider charging additional fees after a specific outpatient- shopping threshold is reached to reduce this behavior. The government may need to reassess the function of the medical sources network by shrinking it from the original 4 levels to 2 levels, or by enhancing the referral function among different hospital levels.

  18. Survival Rate and Growth of Fighting Fish Larvae (Betta splendens Regan Fed on Various Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larval of fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan requires precise live foods for its growth and survival. In this experiment, fish larvae were fed on either Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, or Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex. The fish were fed Paramecium from day-2 till day-7 after hatching. There after, the live food was changed according to the treatments till day-28.  Results showed that fish fed on Paramecium + Artemia significantly had the highest total length (12.63 mm than other treatments (11.86 mm. On the other hand, survival rate of fish had no significant affected by the treatments. Keywords: fighting fish, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larvae   ABSTRAK Larva ikan betta (Betta splendens Regan membutuhkan jenis pakan alami yang tepat bagi kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhannya. Pada penelitian ini, larva ikan diberi pakan berupa Paramecium + Artemia, Paramecium + Artemia + Tubifex, Paramecium + Moina, atau Paramecium + Moina + Tubifex.  Ikan diberi pakan pakan berupa Paramecium dari hari ke-2 hingga hari ke-7. Setelah itu, pemberian pakan alami diubah berdasarkan masing-masing perlakuan hingga hari ke-28.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan yang diberi pakan Paramecium + Artemia memiliki tubuh secara signifikan lebih panjang (12,63 mm dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya (11,86 mm.  Sementara itu, kelangsungan hidup tidak dipengatuhi oleh perlakuan. Kata kunci: ikan betta, Betta splendens, Paramecium, Moina, Artemia, Tubifex, larva

  19. The genotoxin colibactin exacerbates lymphopenia and decreases survival rate in mice infected with septicemic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Ingrid; Martin, Patricia; Payros, Delphine; Cuevas-Ramos, Gabriel; Boury, Michèle; Watrin, Claude; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Olier, Maïwenn; Oswald, Eric

    2014-07-15

    Sepsis is a life-threatening infection. Escherichia coli is the first known cause of bacteremia leading to sepsis. Lymphopenia was shown to predict bacteremia better than conventional markers of infection. The pks genomic island, which is harbored by extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and encodes the genotoxin colibactin, is epidemiologically associated with bacteremia. To investigate a possible relationship between colibactin and lymphopenia, we examined the effects of transient infection of lymphocytes with bacteria that were and those that were not producing the genotoxin. A mouse model of sepsis was used to compare the virulence of a clinical ExPEC isolate with its isogenic mutant impaired for the production of colibactin. We observed that colibactin induced double-strand breaks in the DNA of infected lymphocytes, leading to cell cycle arrest and to cell death by apoptosis. E. coli producing colibactin induced a more profound lymphopenia in septicemic mice, compared with the isogenic mutant unable to produce colibactin. In a sepsis model in which the mice were treated by rehydration and antibiotics, the production of colibactin by the bacteria was associated with a significantly lower survival rate. In conclusion, we demonstrate that production of colibactin by E. coli exacerbates lymphopenia associated with septicemia and could impair the chances to survive sepsis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Increased rate of survival in Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats treated with the new immunomodulator Pidotimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, R; Condorelli, F; Girardello, R; Uslenghi, C; Chisari, G; di Mauro, M; Speciale, A M; Meroni, P L; Nicoletti, F

    1992-01-01

    Wistar rats infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (type III ATCC) rapidly develop an acute form of experimental lobar pneumonia (ELP) with death of 80-90% of the animals by 6 days after the infection. Prophylactic treatment of these animals with the novel immunomodulator Pidotimod, at the dose of 25 mg/kg bw, significantly increased their rate of survival as compared to the control group (50 vs. 90% respectively). Recovery from the infection appeared definitive since all the Pidotimod-treated survivors were alive and in good condition at the end of the observation period (45 days post infection). Prophylactic treatment with higher or lower doses of the drug was ineffective. Therapy with Pidotimod was not effective. This preliminary study suggests that Pidotimod may have contributed to activation of specific and non-specific immune effectors involved in the host response to S. pneumoniae infection.

  1. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments.

  2. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim Yiting [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kastan, Michael B. [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Matsui, William, E-mail: matsuwi@jhmi.edu [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L., E-mail: deweete@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  3. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemoli, Arthur Musakulu; van Amerongen, Willem Evert

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary molars, participated. Over a 3-week period, three 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' operators randomly paired with four 'experienced' and four 'inexperienced' assistants, made the restorations at site using hand instruments. They randomly used Fuji IX, Ketac Molar Easymix and Ketac Molar Aplicap glass ionomer cements to restore the cavities, under randomly selected rubber dam and cotton roll isolation methods. The fillings were independently evaluated by nine trained and calibrated evaluators. After 1 year, the survival rate of the fillings evaluated in the study was 44.8%. Irrespective of the other factors involved, restorations with the highest survival rate were of size between 2 and 3 mm (mesio-distal, bucco-lingual, and depth) or volumes 10.0-19.9 mm(3) (Chi-square, P = 0.002, KM mean survival of 345 days). While the survival rates for class II ART restorations were still low, the choice of medium-sized proximal cavities gave better survival rates for this technique.

  4. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  5. Factors Affecting the Survival Rate of Dental Implants: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikar, Sonal; Talukdar, Pratim; Kumari, Sarala; Panda, Sangram Kumar; Oommen, Vinni Mary; Prasad, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Dental implants have emerged as new treatment modality for the majority of patients and are expected to play a significant role in oral rehabilitation in the future. The present study was conducted to assess various factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants. The present retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics. In this study, 5200 patients with dental implants which were placed during June 2008-April 2015 were included. Exclusion criteria were patients with hormonal imbalance, patients with chronic infectious disease, patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, pregnant women, drug and alcohol addicts, and patients with severe periodontal diseases. Parameters such as name, age, gender, length of implant, diameter of implant, location of implant, and bone quality were recorded. Data were tabulated and statistically evaluated with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0., IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA. Out of 5200 patients, 2800 were males and 2400 females. Maximum implants failures (55) were seen in age group above 60 years of age (males - 550, females -700). Age group 11.5 mm (40/700) followed by implants with 4.5 mm (16/1600) and implants with diameter 3.75-4.5 mm (50/2600). The Chi-square test showed significant results ( P < 0.05). Mandibular posterior showed 3.3% implants failure, maxillary posterior revealed 2.2%, maxillary anterior showed 2.1%, and mandibular anterior showed 1% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Type I bone showed 0.3% implant failure, Type II showed 1.95%, Type III showed 3%, and Type IV revealed 0.8% failure rate; this difference was significant ( P < 0.05). Age, length of implant, diameter of implant, bone quality, and region of implant are factors determining the survival rate of implants. We found that implant above 11.5 mm length, and with diameter <3.75 mm, placed in the mandibular posterior region, in Type III bone showed maximum failures.

  6. Effect of continuous hemofiltration on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ming CHEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of continuous hemofiltration(CHF on internal environment and survival rate of severe heatstroke dogs with shock.Methods Sixteen healthy male dogs were randomly divided into heatshock group(HS group,n=8 and continuous hemofiltration group(CHF group,n=8.Severe heatstroke model was established by applying high temperature to whole body,and then the animals were removed from the heating cabin as soon as they presented manifestations of shock.Dogs of HS group were put into an ordinary environment,while dogs of CHF group received CHF treatment.The core temperature(Tc,mean arterial pressure(MAP,blood gas analysis,serum electrolytes and survival rate of dogs in two groups were observed.Results The time from heat exposure to shock was 107.0±28.5min and 111.4±22.2min in HS group and CHF group respectively(t=-0.354,P=0.729.The Tc in CHF group declined to normal level 15 to 30 minitues after CHF treatment,while the Tc in HS group remained at a level higher than that before heat exposure at 90min after shock.The Tc of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.01.The MAP of both groups was obviously lowered than that before heatstroke.The MAP of CHF group raised gradually 30 min after treatment,while the MAP of HS group rose very slowly,and it was significantly lower than that of CHF group at each time point after 45min(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.All the dogs in both groups manifested hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis when shock appeared.After shock,respiratory alkalosis in HS group gradually became metabolic acidosis,with some animals manifested combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis because of respiratory decompensation,while the blood gas levels in CHF group recovered to normal gradually.The blood gas levels of two groups showed significant difference at each time point after shock(P < 0.05,P < 0.01.Hypernatremia,hyperchloraemia and hyperpotassaemia were found in all animals of both

  7. 34 CFR 76.565 - General management costs-restricted rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General management costs-restricted rate. 76.565... Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Indirect Cost Rates § 76.565 General management costs—restricted rate. (a) As used in § 76.564, general management costs means the costs of activities...

  8. Association of general population suicide rates with fertility rates: a test of fertility as a measure of social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandarkar, Ritesh; Shah, Ajit

    2008-12-01

    A negative correlation between societal suicide rates and social integration has been reported using data within individual countries; however, this has rarely been examined cross-nationally. The relation of general population suicide rates with fertility rates across 75 countries was examined for data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. Social integration has been defined as the extent to which members of society are bound together in social relationships, and higher fertility rates, reflecting greater vigour and unity of the family, serve as a proxy measure of social integration. Multiple regression analysis indicated that general population suicide rates in males and females were independently correlated with fertility rates. The relation of general population suicide rates with fertility rates was also curvilinear (U-shaped curve). Explanation of the observed curvilinear relationship requires further study.

  9. Advanced Unilateral Retinoblastoma: The Impact of Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery on Enucleation Rate and Patient Survival at MSKCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available To report on the influence of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC on enucleation rates, ocular and patient survival from metastasis and impact on practice patterns at Memorial Sloan Kettering for children with advanced intraocular unilateral retinoblastoma.Single-center retrospective review of all unilateral retinoblastoma patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma treated at MSKCC between our introduction of OAC (May 2006 and December 2014. End points were ocular survival, patient survival from metastases and enucleation rates.156 eyes of 156 retinoblastoma patients were included. Primary enucleation rates have progressively decreased from a rate of >95% before OAC to 66.7% in the first year of OAC use to the present rate of 7.4%. The percent of patients receiving OAC has progressively increased from 33.3% in 2006 to 92.6% in 2014. Overall, ocular survival was significantly better in eyes treated with OAC in the years 2010-2014 compared to 2006-2009 (p = 0.023, 92.7% vs 68.0% ocular survival at 48 months. There have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group but two patients treated with primary enucleation have died of metastatic disease.OAC was introduced in 2006 and its impact on patient management is profound. Enucleation rates have decreased from over 95% to less than 10%. Our ocular survival rate has also significantly and progressively improved since May 2006. Despite treating more advanced eyes rather then enucleating them patient survival has not been compromised (there have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group. In our institution, enucleation is no longer the most common treatment for advanced unilateral retinoblastoma.

  10. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hala; Sinnott, Sarah-Jo; Corcoran, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Sharp, Linda; Kabir, Zubair

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009. National data on incident oral cancers [ICD 10 codes C01-C06] were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Ireland from 1994 to 2009. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) in oral cancer incidence during 1994-2009 using joinpoint regression software (version 4.2.0.2). The lifetime risk of oral cancer to age 79 was estimated using Irish incidence and population data from 2007 to 2009. Survival rates were also examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to explore the influence of several demographic/lifestyle covariates with follow-up to end 2012. Data were obtained on 2,147 oral cancer incident cases. Men accounted for two-thirds of oral cancer cases (n = 1,430). Annual rates in men decreased significantly during 1994-2001 (APC = -4.8 %, 95 % CI: -8.7 to -0.7) and then increased moderately (APC = 2.3 %, 95 % CI: -0.9 to 5.6). In contrast, annual incidence increased significantly in women throughout the study period (APC = 3.2 %, 95 % CI: 1.9 to 4.6). There was an elevated risk of death among oral cancer patients who were: older than 60 years of age; smokers; unemployed or retired; those living in the most deprived areas; and those whose tumour was sited in the base of the tongue. Being married and diagnosed in more recent years were associated with reduced risk of death. Oral cancer increased significantly in both sexes between 1999 and 2009 in Ireland. Our analyses demonstrate the influence of measured factors such as smoking, time of diagnosis and age on observed trends. Unmeasured factors such as alcohol use, HPV and dietary factors may also be contributing to increased trends. Several of

  11. Survival rates of short-span implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Gary L

    2010-01-01

    Publications were sought using Medline, and searches were made by hand of the journals Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, along with reference lists of identified articles. Titles and abstracts were initially screened by two independent reviewers to identify prospective or retrospective longitudinal cohort studies or controlled studies reporting on implant-supported cantilever fixed dental prostheses (ICFDP) with a mean followup period of at least 5 years. A clinical examination had to be performed at the end of the followup. For multiple publications reporting on the same population, only the most recent report was included. Data for the meta-analysis were extracted by two independent reviewers. Information regarding survival and complication rates of both implants and ICFDP were extracted. Implant survival was considered if the implant was present at the followup examination; ICFDP survival was considered if the prosthesis was present at the followup visit without any modifications. Peri-implantitis and soft tissue complications were included in the category of biological complications. As for technical complications, all the events affecting the implant and/ or the meso- and/ or the suprastructures' integrity were considered. Among them, the following categories were defined: implant fractures, veneer fractures, framework fractures, abutment or screw fractures, loss of retention and screw loosening. The five studies included in the meta-analysis yielded an estimated 5- and 10-year ICFDP cumulative survival rate of 94.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84.1-98%] and 88.9% (95% CI, 70.8- 96.1%), respectively. Five-year estimates for peri-implantitis were 5.4% (95% CI, 2.0-14.2%) and 9.4% (95% CI, 3.3-25.4%) at implant and prosthesis levels, respectively. Veneer fracture (5-year

  12. The impact of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on survival in the general population – the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorpen Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met which has been related to common diseases like cancer, psychiatric illness and myocardial infarction. Whether the Val158Met polymorphism is associated with survival has not been evaluated in the general population. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism on survival in a population-based cohort. Methods The sample comprised 2979 non-diabetic individuals who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in the period 1995–97. The subjects were followed up with respect to mortality throughout year 2004. Results 212 men and 183 women died during the follow up. No association between codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism and survival was found. The unadjusted relative risk of death by non-ischemic heart diseases with Met/Met or Met/Val genotypes was 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–9.00 compared to Val/Val genotype. When we adjusted for age, gender, smoking, coffee intake and body mass index the relative risk decreased to 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–8.00. Conclusion During 10 year of follow-up, the Val158Met polymorphism had no impact on survival in a general population. Difference in mortality rates from non-ischemic heart diseases may be incidental and should be evaluated in other studies.

  13. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-03-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.

  14. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris stock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Tyne

    Full Text Available Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68. Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761 spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  16. [Survival in patients with liver cirrhosis at the Durango, IMSS Regional General Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Heriberto; Jacobo-Karam, Janett S; Castañón-Santillán, María del Carmen; Arámbula-Chávez, Mayela; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    In Mexico, hepatic cirrhosis mortality exhibits important regional differences. To analyze global survival of cirrhotic patients, according to etiology and functional status. Between March 1990 to August 1998, newly diagnosed patients with hepatic cirrhosis were included in a follow-up study. Subjects were analyzed monthly. Information on clinical evolution, complications, and dates of events (death) and complications were registered. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Ninety nine subjects were included in the survival analysis, 66 with alcoholic and 33 with viral cirrhosis (HCV and HBV in 24 and nine patients, respectively). Ninety seven percent of patients were decompensated at diagnosis, and 81% had ascites. Probabilities for survival in the entire series were 69.7, 37.6 and 23.6% at 24, 48, and 60 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in the survival of patients grouped according to etiology. When survival was analyzed by Child-Pugh score, it was slightly higher in the alcoholic cirrhosis group. In this study survival probability of patients with viral cirrhosis was lower than in patients with alcohol cirrhosis.

  17. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  18. Survival of mouse embryos after vitrification depending on the cooling rate of the cryoprotectant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hredzák, R; Ostró, A; Zdilová, Viera; Maracek, I; Kacmárik, J

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the rate of cooling of eight-cell mouse embryos to the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C) and their developmental capacity after thawing on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') during in vitro culturing. Eight-cell embryos were obtained from superovulated female mice and divided into three experimental and one control group. Embryos from the experimental groups were cryopreserved by the vitrification method using ethylene glycol as cryoprotectant. The vitrification protocols used in the study differed in the rate of cooling of the cryoprotectant solution. Embryos from the first group were frozen in conventional 0.25-ml plastic straws, those from the second group in pipetting 'tips', and embryos from the third group, placed in vitrification solution, were introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen. The control group of embryos was cultured in vitro without freezing in a culturing medium in an environment consisting of 95% air and 5% CO2. The developmental capacity of thawed embryos was assessed on the basis of their ability to leave the zona pellucida ('hatching') after three days of in vitro culturing. In the control group 95.1% of embryos 'hatched'. A significantly higher number of embryos that 'hatched' after thawing was observed in the group introduced dropwise directly into liquid nitrogen (60.0%) compared to the group frozen in pipetting 'tips' (37.9%). The group frozen in straws yielded significantly the lowest proportion of 'hatching' embryos (8.1%). These results showed that increasing cooling rates during vitrification of embryos improved their survival.

  19. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo-Yun; Lee, Chung-O; Kim, Jin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982-1996 (256 patients), 1999-2006 (248 patients), and 2007-2011 (196 patients). Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis.

  20. Enhancing the Survival Rate of Sand Goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr., Larvae with Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPenicillin G and streptomycin sulphate were administered for 18 days of rearing of sand goby larvae. 7'wo-days larvae (3,37-3,41 mm were reared in 160 1 aerated water at stocking density of 50 fish/1.  Until 17 days of rearing period, the larvae were fed plankton (50-300 gm at stocking density of 20-30 individual/mi, and at day 13-I8, were fed Artemia sp. (1-2 individual/ml.  During first seven days, penicillin G and streptomycin sulphate (1.000 IU/1 and 10 mg/1, respectively were applied daily, and there after once every three days.  The fry which reared in media containing antibiotics exhibited higher survival rate (28,09%, compared to 3,3 1 %, than the control, whereas their growth was similar (1,09-1,53 mm. Keywords :  Antibiotics, survival rate, sand goby fish, Oxyeleotris marmorata  ABSTRAKAntibiotik penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat telah digunakan dalam pemeliharaan larva ikan betutu selama 18 hari.  Larva umur 2 hari (3,37-3,41 mm dipelihara dalain tangki berisi air sebanyak 160 1 yang diaerasi halus, dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/1.  Antibiotik diberikan kepada media pemeliharaan larva setiap hari pada 7 hari pertarna pemeliharaan dan selanjutnya setiap 3 hari sekaii hingga akhir pemeliharaan, sebanyak 1.000 IU/1 dan 10 mg/1 masing-masing untuk penisilin G dan streptomisin sulfat.  Pada hari pertama hingga ke- 1 7, larva diberi makan plankton berukuran 50-300 gm sebanyak 20-30 individu/ml, hari ke- 13 sampai 18 diberi Artemia sp. sebanyak 1-2 ekor/ml.  Larva yang dipelihara pada media berantibiotik memiliki kelangsungan hidup (28,09% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanpa antibiotik (3,31%, sedangkan pertumbuhan panjang mutlaknya sama yaitu 1,09-1,53 mm.Kata kunci :  Antibiotik, kelangsungan hidup, ikan betutu, Oxyeleotris marmorata

  1. Effect of Different Medium on Survival Rate and Growth of Chironomus sp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Widanarni

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the ornamental fish and fish for food culture, feeding by natural feed is very suitable since they are easy to digest and their size is suitable with  to larval mouth.  One of natural foods is blood worm Chironomus sp. larvae that has high protein content (till  65.2% of  protein. Until now, blood worm is obtained from nature and their stock depends on the weather.  That problem  may be overcome by culturing blood worm in appropriate culture medium.  Naturally, Chironomus sp. grows well in the water containing sago waste.  This study was carried out to examine the growth of Chironomus sp. reared in the medium containing mud, solid sago waste, solid tapioca wastes and water with no waste in depth of 0.5 cm. After 35-day rearing, survival rate of Chironomus sp was different among the treatments, while growth in length was similar. The best survival rate, 58.93% was obtained in the media containing solid sago waste.   Keywords: Chironomus, blood worm, sago waste, tapioca waste   ABSTRAK Dalam usaha budidaya ikan hias maupun ikan konsumsi, pemberian pakan alami sangat cocok karena mudah dicerna dan sesuai dengan bukaan mulut larva. Salah satu contoh pakan alami adalah Chironomus sp. (blood worm yang mempunyai kandungan protein mencapai 65,2%. Selama ini cacing darah diperoleh dari alam dan suplainya tergantung pada kondisi musim. Hal ini mungkin dapat diatasi dengan membudidayakan cacing darah dengan  media yang sesuai sebagai tempat hidupnya. Secara alami, Chironomus sp. dapat tumbuh dan berkembang dengan baik pada limbah sagu. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan Chironomus sp. yang dipelihara pada media berupa lumpur, limbah sagu padat, limbah tapioka padat dan air tanpa limbah dengan ketebalan media 0,5 cm. Setelah 35 hari masa pemeliharaan, diketahui bahwa penggunaan media limbah padat sagu, limbah padat tapioka, lumpur dan air tanpa limbah pada pemeliharaan Chironomus sp. masing-masing menghasilkan tingkat

  2. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  3. Effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery on survival rate of patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Huan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical effect of CyberKnife radiosurgery, a type of stereotactic body radiotherapy, in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer after resection or ablation, as well as the effect of clinical factors on survival rate. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 34 patients with recurrent liver cancer after surgery who were treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery. The patients′ survival rate and survival time after radiotherapy were calculated, and the influencing factors for survival were analyzed. The gross tumor volume of tumor target was 1.475-1082.075 cm3 (median 162.99 cm3. The fraction dose was 7-20 Gy (median 9 Gy, the number of times of irradiation was 2-8 times (median 5 times, and the tumor dose was 24-60 Gy (median 45 Gy once a day. The major indices for observation were short-term outcome, toxic and side effects, and long-term outcome. The log-rank test was used to analyze the surviral-related factors. The chi-square test and fisher test were used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy were 91.2%, 70.6%, and 44.1%, respectively, and the median survival time was 34 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival rates were 55.9%, 38.2%, and 29.4%, respectively. There were no significant differences in 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates after radiotherapy between the ≤1-year (early postoperative group and the >1-year (late postoperative group (89%/73.7%/57.9% vs 93%/73.3%/33.3%, χ2=0.354, P=0.368. The univariate analyses showed that sex, age, time to postoperative recurrence, diameter and number of recurrent lesions, liver function classification, alpha-fetoprotein level, and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with patients' survival after radiotherapy. ConclusionCyberKnife radiosurgery is safe and effective in the treatment of recurrent liver cancer, with the

  4. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  5. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival to discharge. RESULTS: Overall the proportion of this very preterm cohort who survived to discharge from neonatal care was 89.5%, varying from 93.2% to 74.8% across the regions. Less than 2% of infants

  6. Melanoma tumors frequently acquire LRP2/megalin expression, which modulates melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Hammer, Katrine; Hager, Henrik; Christensen, Julie N; Ludvigsen, Maja; Honoré, Bent; Thomsen, Mai-Britt H; Madsen, Mette

    2015-05-01

    We show that the multiligand receptor megalin, known to mediate uptake and trafficking of nutrients and signaling molecules, is frequently expressed in malignant melanoma samples. Expression of megalin-encoding mRNA was investigated in 65 samples of nevi, melanomas, and melanoma metastases and was observed in more than 60% of the malignant samples, while only in 20% of the benign counterparts. Megalin expression in nevus and melanoma samples was additionally investigated by immunohistochemistry, which confirmed our mRNA-based observations. We furthermore show that a panel of tumor-derived melanoma cell lines express LRP2/megalin endogenously. In these cells, megalin is internalized from the cell surface and localizes extensively to intracellular vesicles, confirming receptor activity and pointing toward association with the endocytic apparatus. Groundbreaking, our results indicate that sustained megalin expression in melanoma cells is crucial for cell maintenance, as siRNA-mediated reduction in melanoma cell expression of LRP2/megalin significantly decreases melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Optimized surgical techniques and postoperative care improve survival rates and permit accurate telemetric recording in exercising mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Beat; Rettich, Andreas; Vogel, Johannes; Gassmann, Max; Arras, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    Background The laboratory mouse is commonly used as a sophisticated model in biomedical research. However, experiments requiring major surgery frequently lead to serious postoperative complications and death, particularly if genetically modified mice with anatomical and physiological abnormalities undergo extensive interventions such as transmitter implantation. Telemetric transmitters are used to study cardiovascular physiology and diseases. Telemetry yields reliable and accurate measurement of blood pressure in the free-roaming, unanaesthetized and unstressed mouse, but data recording is hampered substantially if measurements are made in an exercising mouse. Thus, we aimed to optimize transmitter implantation to improve telemetric signal recording in exercising mice as well as to establish a postoperative care regimen that promotes convalescence and survival of mice after major surgery in general. Results We report an optimized telemetric transmitter implantation technique (fixation of the transmitter body on the back of the mouse with stainless steel wires) for subsequent measurement of arterial blood pressure during maximal exercise on a treadmill. This technique was used on normal (wildtype) mice and on transgenic mice with anatomical and physiological abnormalities due to constitutive overexpression of recombinant human erythropoietin. To promote convalescence of the animals after surgery, we established a regimen for postoperative intensive care: pain treatment (flunixine 5 mg/kg bodyweight, subcutaneously, twice per day) and fluid therapy (600 μl, subcutaneously, twice per day) were administrated for 7 days. In addition, warmth and free access to high energy liquid in a drinking bottle were provided for 14 days following transmitter implantation. This regimen led to a substantial decrease in overall morbidity and mortality. The refined postoperative care and surgical technique were particularly successful in genetically modified mice with severely

  8. Recurrent and de novo glomerulonephritis following renal transplantation: higher rates of rejection and lower graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirioglu, Safak; Caliskan, Yasar; Goksoy, Yagmur; Gulcicek, Sibel; Ozluk, Yasemin; Sarihan, Irem; Seyahi, Nurhan; Kilicaslan, Isin; Turkmen, Aydin; Sever, Mehmet Sukru

    2017-12-01

    In this retrospective study with case-control design, we aimed to determine the clinical and pathological characteristics of post-transplant glomerulonephritis (GN), and their effects on transplant recipients. One hundred and twenty renal transplant recipients with biopsy-proven recurrent or de novo primary GN were compared with two matched control groups including 120 transplant recipients with nonrecurrent primary GN (nonrecurrent GN group) and 120 transplant recipients with non-GN etiology (non-GN group). Primary outcome was allograft loss, and secondary outcomes were biopsy-confirmed cellular or antibody-mediated rejection. In recurrent/de novo GN, nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups, 54.2% (n = 65), 16.7% (n = 20) and 8.3% (n = 10) of patients reached primary outcome after a median follow-up of 96 (IQR: 56-149) months, respectively. Allograft loss was significantly higher in recurrent/de novo GN group compared to nonrecurrent GN and non-GN groups (p < 0.001). At 10 years, allograft loss rates in recurrent/de novo GN group were 54.2% for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, 53.2% for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and 33.4% for IgA nephropathy cases. Biopsy-confirmed rejection rate was significantly higher in the recurrent/de novo GN group (n = 25, 20.8%) compared to non-GN (n = 8, 6.7%) group (p = 0.001). Recurrent/de novo GN is associated with higher risk of rejection and worse allograft survival.

  9. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  10. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  11. 12 CFR 615.5180 - Interest rate risk management by banks-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate risk management by banks-general....5180 Interest rate risk management by banks—general. The board of directors of each Farm Credit Bank, bank for cooperatives, and agricultural credit bank shall develop and implement an interest rate risk...

  12. Improvement of the Measure of the Network Survival Rate and its Application to a Japanese Business Relations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    We analyze the typical characteristics of the percolation transition of a large-scale complex network, a Japanese business relation network consisting of approximately 600,000 nodes and 4,000,000 links. By utilizing percolation characteristics, we revise the definition of network survival rate that we previously proposed. The new network survival rate has a strong correlation with the old one. The calculation cost is also much smaller and the number of trials decreases from 100,000 to 1,000. Finally, we discuss the identification of robust and fragile regions using this index.

  13. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Blake

    Full Text Available Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02 when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72 and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases. Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  14. Early development, survival and growth rates of the giant clam Tridacna crocea (Bivalvia: Tridacnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mies

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tridacnid clams are conspicuous inhabitants of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and are traded and cultivated for the aquarium and food industries. In the present study, daily growth rates of larvae of the giant clam Tridacna crocea were determined in the laboratory during the first week of life. Adults were induced to spawn via intra-gonadal serotonin injection through the byssal orifice. After spawning oocytes were collected, fertilized and kept in 3 L glass beakers and raceways treated with antibiotics to avoid culture contamination. Larvae were fed twice with the microalga Isochrysis galbana and zooxanthellae were also offered twice during the veliger stage (days 4 and 6. Larval length was measured using a digitizing tablet coupled to a microcomputer. Larval mortality was exponential during the first 48 hours of life declining significantly afterwards. Mean growth rate was 11.3 μm day-1, increasing after addition of symbionts to 18.0 μm day-1. Survival increased to ca. 75% after the addition of zooxanthellae. The results describe the growth curve for T. crocea larvae and suggest that the acquisition of symbionts by larvae may be useful for larval growth and survival even before larvae have attained metamorphosis.Bivalves tridacnídeos são habitantes conspícuos dos recifes da região do Indo-Pacífico e são cultivados e comercializados para os mercados alimentício e aquarista. No estudo apresentado foram determinadas as taxas de crescimento diário durante a primeira semana de vida da larva do bivalve ornamental Tridacna crocea. As matrizes foram induzidas à desova por meio de uma injeção intragonadal de serotonina realizada através do orifício bissal. Após desova, ovócitos foram coletados, fertilizados e mantidos em béqueres de vidro e tanques de fluxo contínuo tratados com antibióticos para evitar contaminação. Larvas foram alimentadas em duas ocasiões com a microalga Isochrysis galbana e zooxantelas foram oferecidas também por

  15. Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates of Cryotop-Vitrified Oocyte and Embryo Using Low Concentrated Cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roozbehi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: The preserving embryos, the risk of multiple pregnancies, the existence of factors in stimulated uterine cycle, are important forces in perfecting embryo cryopreservation. The aim of current study was to assess Survival, Fertilization and Developmental Rates (SRs, FRs, DRs of the mouse oocytes and embryos using cryotop and low concentrated cryoprotectants solutions. Methods: Mouse C57BL/6 oocytes and embryos were collected. Oocytes SRs, FRs, DRs were recorded after cryotop-vitrification/ warming. As well as comparing fresh oocytes and embryos, the data obtained from experimental groups (exp. applying 1.25, 1.0, and 0.75 Molar (M CPAs were analyzed in comparison to those of exp. adopting 1.5 M CPAs (largely-used concentration of EthylenGlycol (EG and Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO. Results: The data of oocytes exposed to 1.25 M CPAs were in consistency with those exposed to 1.5 M and control group in terms of SR, FR and DR. As fewer concentrations were applied, the more decreased SRs, FRs and DRs were obtained from other experimental groups. The results of embryos were exposed to 1.25 M and 1.0 M was close to those vitrified with 1.5 M and fresh embryos. The results of 0.75 M concentrated CPAs solutions were significantly lower than those of control, 1.5 M and 1.0 M treated groups. Conclusion: CPAs limited reduction to 1.25 M and 1.0 M instead of using 1.5 M, for oocyte and embryo cryotop-vitrification procedure may be a slight adjustment.

  16. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Dupont, Nana Hee; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2...... or were euthanized (CI: 19 – 32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68 – 81%). Conclusions: The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among...... the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners ’ attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias...

  17. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  18. Temperature- and age-dependent survival, development, and oviposition rates of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had...

  19. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Aim.  To evaluate the influence of the size of proximal cavities on the survival rate of the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Design.  A total of 804 children, aged 6-8 years, from a low socio-economic community, with an ART restorable proximal carious lesion in their primary

  20. Influence of the experience of operator and assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations: two-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Opinya, G.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the influence of the experience of the operator and the assistant on the survival rate of proximal ART- restorations after 2 years when placed using two methods of tooth-isolation and three glass ionomer cement-brands. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical

  1. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; de Oliveira Rocha, R.; Bönecker, M.; Raggio, D.P.; van Amerongen, W.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of

  2. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijan, M.; Amorim, R.G. de; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Oliveira, L.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment

  3. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-03-01

    European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. A total of 14 countries. Consensus groups of PCPs. Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = -0.16, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = -0.57, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.12; ovary: r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.62). There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a "PCP-as-gatekeeper" system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. KEY POINTS European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European countries show a wide variation in the probability of initial presentation to a PCP. The degree to

  4. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  5. The dwell time and survival rates of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty in patient with unexpected central venous obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Yim, Younghee

    2016-09-21

    To evaluate the dwell time and actual survival rates of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placements after balloon angioplasty in patients with unexpected central venous obstructions. Data were obtained on all PICC insertions performed in a tertiary care hospital from August 2008 to December 2013. Thirty-five PICCs attempted after balloon angioplasty in 25 patients (15 male and 10 female patients; mean age, 63 years). Fisher's exact test was used to test for differences in reasons for catheter removal between the groups of patients with stenosis or obstructions. Survival curves for PICC dwell time of all patients, stenosis group, and obstruction group were generated separately using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and compared with log-rank tests. There were a total 21 obstructions and 14 stenoses. The overall technical success rate of PICC placement after balloon angioplasty was 94% (33 of 35 procedures). The PICC dwell time was determined for 27 PICCs and ranged from 4 to 165 days (mean, 39.6 days). Among all PICCs, 16 were removed early, resulting in an actual survival rate of 40.7% (11 of 27 PICCs). There were no significant differences in reasons for catheter removal between the stenosis and obstruction groups (p = 0.24). The dwell times for both groups were not significantly different by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.54). PICC placement after balloon angioplasty is a good treatment option for patients with unexpected central venous lesions, and offers high technical success rates. The actual survival rate was relatively lower (40.7%) than that from previous studies.

  6. Short-term survival and mortality rates in a retrospective study of colic in 1588 Danish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Mogens T; Dupont, Nana; Berg-Sørensen, Kristina S; Konnerup, Christel; Pihl, Tina H; Andersen, Pia H

    2014-04-08

    Outcomes of colic treatment are of great interest to clinicians, horse owners and insurers. One commonly used criterion of success is the overall short-term survival rate. This is used as to compare treatments and to measure quality of veterinary care, but may be biased by demographic or social factors such as attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia. The aims of this study were to 1) describe and analyse characteristics in horses with signs of colic referred to the University Hospital for Large Animals (UHLA), University of Copenhagen, Denmark over a 10-year period and 2) to compare these rates with those published in other comparable studies. The overall survival rate for colic horses over the 10-year study period was 68% (confidence intervals (CI): 66-71%; 1087/1588). In the medical group, 1093 horses, short-term survival was 87% (CI: 85-89%). Thirty one % of referred horses were given diagnoses requiring surgical intervention (CI: 29-33%). In this group 32% of the horses were euthanized before surgery (CI: 28-36%; 159/495). Of the surgical cases 27% (CI: 23-31%) were euthanized or died during surgery. Of the horses that recovered from surgery 25% died or were euthanized (CI: 19-32%; 48/189), while 75% survived to discharge (CI: 68-81%). The short term survival rates of Danish horses with colic were similar or lower to those reported from other countries. Apart from variability of veterinary care, attitudes towards euthanasia vary among the countries, which may bias the outcomes. This study indicates that qualitative interview studies on owners' attitudes towards animal suffering and euthanasia need to be conducted. Our opinion is that survival rates are not valid as sole indicators of quality of care in colic treatment due to selection bias. If the survival rates are to be compared between hospitals, techniques or surgeons, prospective studies including mutually agreed-on disease severity scores and a predefined set of reasons for euthanasia are needed.

  7. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  8. Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Troisi, Rebecca J; Savage, Sharon A

    2009-04-01

    Osteosarcoma, which is the most common primary bone tumor, occurs most frequently in adolescents, but there is a second incidence peak among individuals aged > 60 years. Most osteosarcoma epidemiology studies have been embedded in large analyses of all bone tumors or focused on cases occurring in adolescence. Detailed descriptions of osteosarcoma incidence and survival with direct comparisons among patients of all ages and ethnicities are not available. Frequency, incidence, and survival rates for 3482 patients with osteosarcoma from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program between 1973 and 2004 were investigated by age (ages 0-24 years, 25-59 years, and 60 to > or = 85 years), race, sex, pathology subtype, stage, and anatomic site. There were large differences in incidence and survival rates by age. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. There was a high percentage of osteosarcoma among patients with Paget disease and osteosarcoma as a second or later cancer among the elderly. Tumor site differences among age groups were noted. Survival rates varied by anatomic site and disease stage and did not improve significantly from 1984 to 2004. This comprehensive, population-based description of osteosarcoma, identified important differences in incidence, survival, pathologic subtype, and anatomic site among age groups, and quantified the impact of osteosarcoma in patients with Paget disease or as a second cancer on incidence and mortality rates. These findings may have implications in understanding osteosarcoma biology and epidemiology. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society

  9. A pilot study of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: Effects on survival and palliation of general symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengtao; Yu, Huiming; Wang, Xingwen; Han, Junqing

    2012-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo have been reported in previous studies. However, the effects of MFs in the treatment of cancer have not been described in clinical trials. We investigated the effects of 420 r/min, 0.4-T extremely low-frequency MFs (ELF-MFs) on the survival and palliation of general symptoms in 13 advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Toxicity and side-effects were assessed according to WHO criteria. The treatment area included the primary tumor site, metastatic sites and metastatic lymph nodes. Additionally, the patients were treated 2 h per day, 5 days per week for 6-10 weeks. The changes in general symptoms were analyzed during ELF-MF treatment and 2 weeks after the completion of therapy. Results of physical examination, routine analysis of blood, ECG and liver function, biochemical and kidney function tests were evaluated before and following treatment. All 13 patients were followed up by outpatient service or telephone interview. Our results demonstrated that decreased pleural effusion, remission of shortness of breath, relief of cancer pain, increased appetite, improved physical strength, regular bowel movement and better sleep quality was detected in 2 (15.4%), 5 (38.5%), 5 (38.5%), 6 (46.2%), 9 (69.2%), 1 (7.7%) and 2 (15.4%) patients, respectively. However, the palliation of symptoms in 2 (15.4%) patients was observed during therapy and disappeared at treatment termination. No severe toxicity or side-effects were detected in our trial. The median survival was 6.0 months (95% CI, 1.0-11.0). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 31.7 and 15.9%, respectively. This study is the first to describe survival and palliation of general symptoms in advanced NSCLC patients treated with ELF-MFs. As an effective, well-tolerated and safe treatment choice, ELF-MFs may prolong survival and improve general symptoms of advanced NSCLC patients. However, this treatment strategy

  10. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  11. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter......) but not in Denmark (87% versus 81%, respectively). Mailed reminders can improve the response rate in surveys related to a general practice, but they are not effective in all situations....

  12. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  13. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warattama Suksaphar; Danuchit Banomyong; Titalee Jirathanyanatt; Yaowaluk Ngoenwiwatkul

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations...

  14. Survival rates of immature Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks estimated using field-placed enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Holmes, Elizabeth A; Foley, Janet E

    2010-06-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and Lyme borreliosis are emerging tick-borne diseases caused by infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, and maintained in rodent-Ixodes spp. tick cycles, including I. pacificus in the western U.S. Ixodes pacificus has a multiple-year life cycle and B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum are transstadially, but not transovarially, transmitted within ticks, thus ticks function importantly in maintaining infection in nature. In this study, the survival of larval and nymphal I. pacificus was determined using ticks placed in tubes in leaf litter from June 2005 to September 2006 at two field sites in the California northern coast range mountains and a laboratory control. In all three sites, nymphal and larval survival ranged from 90-400 d, with differences in mean survival among sites. Fewer ticks died in the autumn in the moister field sites compared with the drier incubator control treatment. The first large die-off event in late autumn occurred at all sites shortly before relative humidity increased from 80-100% and temperature declined from approximately 22-15 degrees C. The concurrent die-off in the incubator population, subject to relative humidity and temperature regimes that were invariant, suggests that survival time was dependent on other factors in addition to environmental conditions. These results suggested that many ticks exhausted resources or tolerance for relatively low humidity within six months of questing, and that higher humidity prolonged survival. Based on observed longevity, humans and other animals could acquire A. phagocytophilum infection from adult I. pacificus that were infected up to three years earlier.

  15. IMPROVED SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL RATES IN VITRIFIED-WARMED PIG OOCYTES AFTER RECOVERY CULTURE WITH COENZYME Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, D ae-Jin; Kwak, Tae-Uk; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2016-01-01

    The primary problems with porcine oocyte vitrification are their low viability and development; both need improvement. This study was designed to improve the survival and developmental rates in vitrified-warmed porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes matured in vitro were vitrified-warmed with Cryotop. Then the oocytes were supplemented with Q10 during recovery culture. The survival rates immediately after warming were 92.9% by morphological inspection and 39.3% by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) assay. The group of recovery culture with Q10 (VC+Q10) showed significantly higher viability compared to the group of recovery culture without Q10 (VC+) analyzed by morphology and the FDA. The VC+Q10 group showed a low Bax/Bcl-xl ratio and a high expression of MAP3K12 and TGFB3 compared to the VC+. The cleavage rate did not differ in both groups but, blastocyst yield was higher in VC+Q10 than the VC+ group. Supplementation of Q10 during recovery culture led to a higher blastocyst yield by increasing survival rates and regulating mRNA expressions.

  16. Evaluation of Survival Rate and Effective Factors in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Emam Hospital (Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Maghsoodloo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For the time being we have considered that the myocardial infarction is an increasing event in Islamic Republic of Iran and there are many procedures and methods which can help us to diminish the number of death from this ongoing event. The main aim of this research is to determine the survival rate in those patients who have had acute myocardial infarction and the association of it with different variables. Methods and Materials: The present research is a descriptive case-series study which evaluates the 100 cases of acute myocardial infarction who had been admitted in Tehran Emam Khomeini Hospital during the year 1999. Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years. The peak of attack rates was in spring and autumn. Investigating of the past history of these patients reviled that 41 percent had been smokers, 63.5 percent have had the history of previous ischemic heart disease, 41 percent have had hyper cholestrolemia, 34 percent had hypertension, 18 percent had diabetes mellitus, 9 percent had mitral rigurgitation and 9 percent had heart block. The Survival rate in our study has been calculated 68 percent in first 28 days of disease. Conclusion: In our study we concluded that there is significant correlation between survival rate and past history of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, tobacco smoking and clip classification.

  17. A clinical study on survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Sami; Güven, Orhan; Gllareva, Enis; Prekazi, Mergime; Salihu, Leminot

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the survival rate of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip in Kosovo and to see the effect of stage of disease on the success of surgical treatment. 789 patients with SCCLL who were referred to the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, were examined during a period of 20 years (between 1993 and 2013). 614 (77.82%) of these patients received treatment and have regularly visited the department once every 3 months for post-operative controls. Data have been collected from these 614 patients for 10 years; thus the follow-up period lasts for 10 years for every patient under control. The collected data were analysed using Chi square test. Patients were classified by sex, aetiology, stage of the disease, location of the disease, the treatment patients received, metastasis rate and survival rate. The most susceptible patients were those at ages between 50 and 70. The youngest patient was 8 years old whereas the oldest was 92. The male-female ratio was 5:1. 57% of the patients had been working outdoors and had been exposed to sunlight. Ten years survival rate for the Stages I, II, III and IV was 91.7%, 83.7%, 28% and 11.4% respectively. It was found that the success of the surgery was closely related with the stage of disease and early diagnosis. Training the relevant parties (i.e., the people, family doctors etc.) on early diagnosis would improve the survival rate. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The 3.5-year survival rates of primary molars treated according to three treatment protocols: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijan, Maite; de Amorim, Rodrigo Guedes; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Mulder, Jan; Oliveira, Luciana; Creugers, Nico H J; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the survival rates of molars treated according to the conventional restorative treatment (CRT) using amalgam, atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) using high-viscosity glass ionomer, and ultraconservative treatment (UCT) protocol after 3.5 years. Cavitated primary molars were treated according to CRT, ART, and UCT (small cavities were restored with ART and medium/large cavities were daily cleaned with toothpaste/toothbrush under supervision). Molar extractions resulting from toothache, sepsis, or pulp exposure were failures. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival curves. The numbers of treated teeth, among the 302 6-7-year-old children, were 341 (CRT), 244 (ART), and 281 (for UCT group: 109 small ART, 166 open cavities, and 6 combinations). Protocol groups were similar at baseline regarding gender and mean decayed missing filled tooth score, but not regarding age and type of surface. The numbers of molars extracted were 22 (CRT), 16 (ART), and 26 (UCT). Fistulae were most often recorded. After 3.5 years, the cumulative survival rate ± standard error for all molars treated was 90.9 ± 2.0 % with CRT, 90.4 ± 2.4 % with ART, and 88.6 ± 1.9 % with UCT (p = 0.13). Only a type of surface effect was observed over the 3.5-year period: survival rates for molars were higher for single- than for multiple-surface cavities. There was no difference in the cumulative survival rates of primary molars treated according to the CRT, ART, and UCT protocols over a 3.5-year period. Keeping cavities in primary molars biofilm-free might be another treatment option alongside restoring such cavities through conventional and ART protocols.

  19. Worse Long-term Patient Survival and Higher Cancer Rates in Liver Transplant Recipients With a History of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, Richard S; Fridell, Jonathan A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Loeffler, Amanda L; Krause, Audrey A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Tiwari, Sarika; Tector, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This study is a retrospective review of liver transplant (LT) recipients to determine the impact of tobacco exposure on 10-year survival and de novo cancer (CA) incidence. The records of 1275 consecutive LT patients were reviewed (2001 to 2011). Patients were categorized as current, previous, or never smokers (NS) at listing for LT. Additionally, smokers were stratified by pack-years of tobacco exposure. Events included patient death, cardiovascular events, and de novo cancers. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate survival. A complete cause of death analysis is provided, as well as a detailed tumor registry. Current (n = 279) and previous smokers (n = 323) were more likely to have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at transplant (25%, 29% vs 18% [NS], P history of smoking, and the risk of negative events increases with increasing tobacco use. Smokers have higher rates of HCC and recurrence, de novo cancer, and worse long-term survival. This study summarizes the clinical outcomes for 1275 LT patients over 10 years, analyzing the impact of pre transplant recipient tobacco use. There are 47% of patients with a history of smoking. Because of demonstrated higher cancer rates and decreased survival, patients with a significant smoking history should be carefully scrutinized for liver transplantation.

  20. Dental Implant Survival and Complication Rate over 2 Years for Individuals with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskow, Caroline C; Oates, Thomas W

    2017-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that implant therapy may be a viable option for diabetic individuals with elevated glycemic levels. The purpose of this 2 year observational study was to evaluate survival and clinical complications of dental implants following placement in type 2 diabetes individuals having poor glycemic control. Adult participants (n = 24) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (8.0% ≤ HbA1c ≤ 12.0%) received two or more transgingival dental implants. Survival was evaluated after 1 (23 participants, 72 implants) and 2 (20 participants, 59 implants) years. Clinical complications were evaluated in 18 participants (52 implants) after 21-34 months. Relationships between complications and stratified HbA1c levels were assessed using Pearson's correlation test. Survival rates were 98.6% (71/72 implants) after 1 year and 96.6% (57/59 implants) after 2 years. Complications were identified in 29% of participants with peri-implant mucositis, the most common event. Complications correlated directly with number of implants across HbA1c strata (0.42, R2  = 0.66). There was no correlation between HbA1c and the occurrences of complications or mucositis. This 2-year evaluation supports the broader application of implant therapy in type 2 diabetes individuals with poor glycemic control in demonstrating high survival rates with limited complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Trends in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-year survival rates of beta-thalassemia patients in Southern Iran, 1995-2016: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hassanzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Results: Five and 10-year survival rates remained unchanged since 1995-2016. Overall, 20- and 30-year survival rates were lower in younger birth cohorts than older ones. A declining trend was found in 20-year survival rate from 1995 to 2000 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was stable from 2001 to 2016. In addition, there was a declining trend in 30-year survival rate from 1995 to 2008 for all and also for thalassemia major patients, but was an increased trend from 2009 to 2016. Conclusion: Over the past two decades and in recent birth cohorts, the 20- and 30-year survival rates has declined. In other words, declining survival trends in the birth cohorts may be associated with some different causes of mortality such as exposure to the toxic effects of iron over time and the occurrence of diseaserelated mortality.

  2. Survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: On different states of wheat and rye kernels previously infested by beetle pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Filip N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine survival rate of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813, reared on different mechanical states of Vizija winter wheat cultivar and Raša winter rye cultivar, previously infested with different beetle pests. Wheat was previously infested with Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cryptolestes ferrugineus, while rye was infested only with O. surinamensis. Kernels were tested in three different mechanical states: (A whole undamaged kernels; (B kernels already damaged by pests and (C original storage kernels (mixture of B and C type. No P. interpunctella adult emerged on wheat kernels, while 36 adults developed on rye kernels. The highest abundance reached beetle species who fed with a mixture of kernels damaged by pests and whole undamaged kernels. Development and survival rate of five different storage insect pests depends on type of kernels and there exist significant survivorship correlations among them.

  3. Differences in treatment and survival rates of non-small-cell lung cancer in three regions of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosclaude, P; Galat, J P; Macé-Lesech, J; Roumagnac-Machelard, M; Mercier, M; Robillard, J

    1995-11-01

    Treatment and survival rates of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were compared between three French Cancer Registries (Calvados, Doubs, Tarn). The methodological issues in such comparisons are discussed. The treatments for NSCLC differed between the regions: radiotherapy tended to be preferred in Calvados (73% vs 21.3% surgery), whereas surgery was more frequently employed in Doubs and Tarn (27.7% and 37% respectively). The percentage of cases receiving no therapeutic treatment ranged from 7.8% (Calvados) to 26% (Tarn). Despite the differences in treatment, the overall survival rates were similar in the three regions. Adjustment for treatment in such a descriptive study may be misleading since different therapeutic strategies in different regions may lead to selection of patients of systematically better or poorer prognosis in the various treatment groups.

  4. Effect of antibiotics selection on survival rate of nodal explant and gene transformation in Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various concentrations of hygromycin antibiotic supplemented in modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS on the survival rate of nodal explant of Anthurium andraeanum cv. Sonate were determined.The use of hygromycin at 50 mg/l caused absolute death of nodal tissue after 4 weeks of culture. Dipping nodal explant with agrobacterium, EHA 105 containing pCAMBIA1301 for 15 min followed by co-cultureon filter paper laid on MMS with 0.5 mg/l benzyladenine (BA, 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ and 200 mg/l cefotaxime for 2 days then transferring the explant to culture on MMS supplemented with the abovephytohormones and 50 mg/l hygromycin resulted in the highest survival rate at 26.6% with 4 shoots/callus. Histochemical analysis of gus activity was found in callus after 6 weeks of nodal culture and in leaf fromshoot derived from the callus.

  5. Survival and progression rates of large European silver eel Anguilla anguilla in late freshwater and early marine phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Thorstad, Eva B.; Koed, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The population of European silver eel Anguilla anguilla has declined tremendously in the last decades. The cause of this decline is unknown, and it is necessary to investigate the migratory behaviour and survival rates of silver eels during the reproductive migration in order to understand...... was high in fresh water. However, 60% of eels were lost in the inner and outer fjord, supporting the hypothesis that mortality is large in the early phase of the marine migration and that fishing may be a major cause of mortality of silver eels. There was no indication that the slowest-migrating...... if the decline is related to factors acting during that migration. We estimated survival and progression rates of European silver eel migrating in the lower part of the River Gudenaa and during the first phase of the marine migration in the Randers Fjord in Denmark. Fifty migrating silver eel (total body length...

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia - influence of glaucolide-A on the growth rate and survival of Lepidopterous larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samuel B; Burnett, William C; Coile, Nancy C; Mabry, Tom J; Betkouski, M F

    1979-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone glaucolide-A from Vernonia, incorporated in the rearing diets of five species of Lepidoptera, significantly reduced the rate of growth of larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania; fall armyworm, S. frugiperda; and yellowstriped armyworm, S. ornithogalli. Quantitative feeding tests demonstrated that decreased feeding levels and reduced growth resulted from ingestion of a sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of glaucolide-A increased the number of days to pupation in four of the species. In the southern armyworm, it significantly reduced pupal weight. Glaucolide-A decidedly reduced percentage of survival of southern and fall armyworms. Yellow woollybear, Diacrisia virginica, and cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, larvae were essentially uneffected by the ingestion of the sesquiterpene lactone. Sesquiterpene lactones adversely affect growth rate and survival of certain insects that feed upon plants containing them. They apparently function as defensive products, screening out a portion of the potential herbivores.

  7. Exploring survival rates of companies in the UK video-games industry: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Cabras, I.; Goumagias, N. D.; Fernandes, K.; Cowling, P.; Li, F.; Kudenko, D.; Devlin, S.; Nucciarelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper investigates companies operating in the UK video-game industry with regard to their levels of survivability. Using a unique dataset of companies founded between 2009 and 2014, and combining elements and theories from the fields of Organisational Ecology and Industrial Organisation, the authors develop a set of hierarchical logistic regressions to explore and examine the effects of a range of variables such as industry concentration, market size and density on...

  8. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  9. 24 Hour Survival Rate and its Determinants in Patients with Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Movahedi; Ali Kavosi; Hamidreza Behnam Vashani; Gholamreza Mohammadi; Hasan Mehrad Majd; Javad Malekzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims The main cause of death in the adult population in the industrialized world is sudden cardiac arrest. The first purpose of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is return of spontaneous circulation. Post cardiopulmonary resuscitation cares are fifth stage of American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation that less take into consideration. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of “24 Hour Survival Rate and it’s determinants in patients w...

  10. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  11. Funding, Survival and Growth of Postdoctoral General Dentistry Programs after Federal Funding Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Frank

    1991-01-01

    A challenge now faced by dental school administrators is to maintain the feasibility of federally funded postdoctoral general dentistry residency programs when institutional, educational, and economic priorities stretch institutional limits. Some existing programs can offer ideas and insights through their diverse and nontraditional funding…

  12. American internal medicine in the 21st century: can an Oslerian generalism survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Centor, Robert; Heudebert, Gustavo R

    2003-09-01

    American internal medicine suffers a confusion of identity as we enter the 21st century. The subspecialties prosper, although unevenly, and retain varying degrees of connection to their internal medicine roots. General internal medicine, identified with primary care since the 1970s, retains an affinity for its traditional consultant-generalist ideal even as primary care further displaces that ideal. We discuss the origins and importance of the consultant-generalist ideal of internal medicine as exemplified by Osler, and its continued appeal in spite of the predominant role played by clinical science and accompanying subspecialism in determining the academic leadership of American internal medicine since the 1920s. Organizing departmental clinical work along subspecialty lines diminished the importance of the consultant-generalist ideal in academic departments of medicine after 1950. General internists, when they joined the divisions of general internal medicine that appeared in departments of medicine in the 1970s, could sometimes emulate Osler in practicing a general medicine of complexity, but often found themselves in a more limited role doing primary care. As we enter the 21st century, managed care threatens what remains of the Oslerian ideal, both in departments of medicine and in clinical practice. Twenty-first century American internists will have to adjust their conditions of work should they continue to aspire to practice Oslerian internal medicine.

  13. Influence of category coherence and type of base-rate acquisition on property generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ShinWoo; Lee, Guk-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Category coherence involves identifying similarities between social categories, such as jobs and hobbies, and is primarily used for generalizing or drawing inferences about their properties. Category coherence is also used for drawing inferences from explicit information, such as base rates. For example, people generalize the properties of groups or brands from multiple sources (e.g., survey results and the share market in periodicals). However, generalizing the properties of categories using explicit base-rate information may not always involve category coherence; rather, it may involve directly analyzing base-rate information. Therefore, this study attempts to distinguish between conditions in which people use category coherence and explicit base-rate information. Specifically, we proposed that people acquiring explicit base-rate knowledge-described as a percentage-would generalize a category's properties according to its base rate; however, for base-rate information acquired via direct observation, the inductive strength in generalizing properties would be greater for categories with high levels of coherence. Our results (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) validated these two predictions. Finally, the interaction between category coherence and type of base-rate acquisition was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. General practitioners' home visit tendency and readmission-free survival after COPD hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Jesper; Larsen, Pia V; Paulsen, Maja S

    2014-01-01

    Background:The tendency of general practitioners (GPs) to conduct home visits is considered an important aspect of practices' accessibility and quality of care.Aims:To investigate whether GPs' tendency to conduct home visits affects 30-day readmission or death after hospitalisation with chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease.Methods:All Danish patients first-time hospitalised with COPD during the years 2006-2008 were identified. The association between the GP's tendency to conduct home visits and the time from hospital discharge until death or all-cause readmission was analysed by means of Cox...... regression adjusted for multiple patient and practice characteristics.Results:The study included 14,425 patients listed with 1,389 general practices. Approximately 31% of the patients received a home visit during the year preceding their first COPD hospitalisation, and within 30 days after discharge 19% had...

  15. Sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: incidence rate, risk factors and its effect on survival risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongqi; Gong, Dehua; Jia, Fengyu; Xu, Bin; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a degenerative syndrome mainly characterized by the atrophy of skeletal muscle, along with the decrease of muscle strength and function. However, there are currently few studies concerning sarcopenia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis dialysis (MHD). This study was aimed to investigate the incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients and its influencing factors, as well as its impact on survival risk. All 131 MHD patients enrolled in our study were tested with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and grip strength. Demographic data was collected and anthropometric measurement and laboratory examination were conducted. The total incidence of sarcopenia within the 131 MHD patients was 13.7% and the incidence of sarcopenia in patients over 60 years was 33.3%. The dialysis duration, with or without diabetes, serum phosphorus and pre-albumin levels of sarcopenic patients were significantly different from those of non-sarcopenicones; the modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) scores of sarcopenic patients were higher than those without sarcopenia. Multivariate analysis showed that dialysis duration, diabetes and serum phosphorus level were independent risk factors for sarcopenia in MHD patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a one-year survival of 88.9% in sarcopenic patients, which was significantly lower than non-sarcopenic patients. The incidence of sarcopenia in MHD patients was high and increased gradually with age. Dialysis duration, diabetes, serum phosphorus level and malnutrition predisposed the patients to sarcopenia. One-year follow-up found that the mortality risk of sarcopenic patients was higher than that of non-sarcopenic patients.

  16. Impacts of low dose rate irradiation on the fertility, fecundity and hatchling survival of Japanese rice fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, T.G.; Coughlin, D.P.; Marsh, L.C.; Yi, Yi; Winn, R. [Georgia Univ., Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A renewed international interest in the effects on biota from low dose rate irradiation has recently occurred. Much of that interest is centered on the relevance of previously accepted dose rate guidelines (e.g. 10 mGy d{sup -1} for aquatic biota) suggested by the ICRP and IAEA. All parties concerned seem to agree that additional data are needed on population level impacts from chronic low-level exposures to radionuclides. Using a Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LoDIF), we conducted an experiment on the fecundity, fertility and hatchling survival of Japanese Rice Fish (medaka, Oryzias latipes). Fish were exposed externally to {sup 137}Cs from juvenile through adulthood at mean dose rates of 3.5, 35 and 350 mGy d{sup -1}. Fish were bred at maturity and the following endpoints were examined: 1) the number of eggs produced; 2) the percent of eggs that hatched; and 3) the survival of hatchlings 20-days post hatch. The influence of gender was examined by breeding irradiated males with control females; control males with irradiated females; irradiated males with irradiated females; and control males with control females. The data contribute to our understanding the impacts of low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  17. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  18. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses in a national cohort of Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Permanent occupational disability is one of the most severe consequences of diabetes that impedes the performance of usual working activities among economically active individuals. Survival rates and worker compensation expenses have not previously been examined among Mexican workers. We aimed to describe the worker compensation expenses derived from pension payments and also to examine the survival rates and characteristics associated with all-cause mortality, in a cohort of 34,014 Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes during the years 2000–2013 at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. Methods A cross-sectional analysis study was conducted using national administrative records data from the entire country, regarding permanent occupational disability medical certification, pension payment and vital status. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI in order to assess the cohort characteristics and all-cause mortality risk. Total expenses derived from pension payments for the period were accounted for in U.S. dollars (USD, 2013. Results There were 12,917 deaths in 142,725.1 person-years. Median survival time was 7.26 years. After multivariate adjusted analysis, males (HR, 1.39; 95 % CI, 1.29–1.50, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers (HR, 1.41; 95 % CI, 1.15–1.73 and renal complications (HR, 3.49; 95 % CI, 3.18–3.83 had the highest association with all-cause mortality. The all-period expenses derived from pension payments amounted to $777.78 million USD (2013, and showed a sustained increment: from $58.28 million USD in 2000 to $111.62 million USD in 2013 (percentage increase of 91.5 %. Conclusions Mexican workers with permanent occupational disability caused by diabetes had a median survival of 7.26 years, and those

  19. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of nest box temperature and humidity on the growth and survival of approx. 700 mink litters. Surprisingly this study did not find any general biological explanatory temperature and/or humidity effects within days on the number of live born kits dying and kits...... growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors acting...... on the female/litter prior to or during the parturition are an important determent of early kit growth and viability. The results indicate that females with large litters have less success by taken care of the kits compared to females with small litters. In addition litters with high mean growth were also...

  20. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  1. Prenatal Stress Exposure Generates Higher Early Survival and Smaller Size without Impacting Developmental Rate in a Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Pauline M; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Sopinka, Natalie M; Heath, John W; Love, Oliver P

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring. Specifically, we measured early survival, rate of development, and multiple measures of morphology. Low and high cortisol dosing of eggs resulted in significantly higher survival compared to controls (37% and 24% higher, respectively). Fish reared from high dose eggs were structurally smaller compared to control fish, but despite this variation in structural size, exposure to elevated cortisol did not impact developmental rate. These results demonstrate that elevations in egg cortisol can positively influence offspring fitness through an increase in early survival while also altering phenotype at a critical life-history stage. Overall, these results suggest that exposure to prenatal stress may not always produce apparently negative impacts on offspring fitness and further proposes that complex phenotypic responses should be examined in relevant environmental conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Survival rate variation with different histological subtypes of poor prognostic male anal squamous cell carcinoma: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kelash; Vikash, Sindhu; Chen, Liaobin; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective The prognosis of male anal squamous cell carcinoma (MASCC) and female anal squamous cell carcinoma (FASCC) is variable. The influence of tumor subtype on the survival rate and gender is poorly known. Our study is the largest population-based study and aims to outline the difference in survival between MASCC and FASCC patients. Methods A retrospective population-based study was performed to compare the disease-specific mortalities (DSMs) between genders related to the tumor subtypes. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database was employed to obtain the data from January 1988 to December 2014. Results A total of 4,516, (3,249 males and 1,267 females), patients with anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) were investigated. The 5-year DSMs were 24.18% and 18.08% for men and women, respectively. The univariate analysis of the male basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and cloacogenic carcinoma (CC) patients demonstrated higher DSMs (P <0.001). Moreover, in the multivariate analysis, BSCC and CC were associated with soaring DSMs in male patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions In the cohort of BSCC and CC patients, male patients demonstrated a considerable decrease in survival rate compared to females. A more precise classification of ASCC and individualized management for MASCC are warranted. PMID:29137429

  3. Estimating morbidity rates from electronic medical records in general practice. Evaluation of a grouping system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.C.J.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Robbe, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated the internal validity of EPICON, an application for grouping ICPC-coded diagnoses from electronic medical records into episodes of care. These episodes are used to estimate morbidity rates in general practice. METHODS: Morbidity rates based on EPICON were

  4. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... rate or glomerular filtration barrier and occurrence of stroke. Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 934-938. 2. Matsushita K,Mahmoodi BK, Woodward M,. Emberson JR, Jafar TH, Jee SH et al. Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the. MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  5. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  6. Differences in long-term survival among liver transplant recipients and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Fredrik; Gissler, Mika; Karlsen, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    ) (SMR change 23.1-9.2), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (SMR 38.4-18.8), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (SMR 11.0-4.2), and deterioration in alcoholic liver disease (8.3-24.0) and acute liver failure (ALF) (5.9-7.6). SMRs for cancer and liver disease (recurrent or transplant-unrelated disease) were...... elevated in all indications except primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Absolute mortality rates underestimated the elevated premature mortality from infections (SMR 22-693) and kidney disease (SMR 13-45) across all indications, and from suicide in HCV and ALF. SMR for cardiovascular disease was significant...

  7. Low dose radiation risks for women surviving the a-bombs in Japan: generalized additive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Greg

    2016-11-24

    Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy. For all solid cancer incidence, RR estimated from 0 - 100 mGy and 0 - 20 mGy subcohorts is significantly raised. The response tapers above 150 mGy. At low doses, RR increases with age-at-exposure and decreases with time-since-exposure, the preferred covariate. Using the empirical cumulative distribution of dose improves model fit, and capacity to detect non-linear responses. RR is elevated over wide ranges of covariate values. Results are stable under simulation, or when removing exceptional data cells, or adjusting neutron RBE. Estimates of Excess RR at 10 mGy using the cumulative dose distribution are 10 - 45 times higher than extrapolations from a linear model fitted to the full cohort. Below 100 mGy, quasipoisson models find significant effects for all solid, squamous, uterus, corpus, and thyroid cancers, and for respiratory cancers when age-at-exposure > 35 yrs. Results for the thyroid are compatible with studies of children treated for tinea capitis, and Chernobyl survivors. Results for the uterus are compatible with studies of UK nuclear workers and the Techa River cohort. Non-linear models find large, significant cancer risks for Japanese women exposed to low dose radiation from the atomic bombings. The risks should be reflected in protection standards.

  8. Dispersal and survival rates of adult and juvenile Red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda exposed to potential contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber, E. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual survival and dispersal rates of adult and juvenile red-tailed tropicbirds were examined in connection with exposure to heavy metals. From 1990-2000 the incineration of a U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons stored at Johnston Atoll exposed nesting tropicbirds to increased levels of human disturbance, smoke stack emissions and potential leaks. Using a multi-state mark-recapture modeling approach, birds nesting in this site (downwind of the plant were compared to those nesting in a reference site (upwind of the plant with less human disturbance, no exposure to smoke stack emissions or other potential incineration emissions. We did not find any difference in survival of adults or juveniles when comparing the two sites. Adult breeding dispersal rates did not differ between the sites but we did find differences in the age-specific natal dispersal rates. Birds fledged from downwind areas were less likely to return to their natal area to nest and more likely to immigrate to the upwind area than vice-versa. This asymmetry in emigration rates is believed to be due to differing vegetation densities and has implications for vegetation management in relation to tropicbird nest success and population size.

  9. Long-Term Survival Rate in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Treated With Noninvasive Ventilation in Ordinary Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Bocchino, Speranza; Lembo, Rosalba; Monti, Giacomo; Greco, Massimiliano; Zambon, Massimo; Colombo, Sergio; Pasin, Laura; Beretta, Luigi; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation is a life-saving technique increasingly used to treat acute respiratory failure. Noninvasive ventilation has been applied mostly in ICUs, but several reasons brought to an increasing application of noninvasive ventilation in ordinary wards. Few articles evaluated the outcomes of patients receiving noninvasive ventilation including long-term follow-up. The aim of the present study was to assess 1-year survival rate of patients treated with noninvasive ventilation outside the ICU for acute respiratory failure of heterogeneous causes and to identify the predictors of long-term mortality. Prospective, observational, pragmatic study. Ordinary wards of a teaching hospital. Consecutive patients treated with noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. None. Two-hundred and twenty-patients were enrolled. Mortality rates at 30-day, 90-days, and 1-year follow-up were 20%, 26%, and 34%. When excluding patients with "do-not-resuscitate" status, mortality rates were 13%, 19%, and 28%. The multivariate analyses identified solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic patients, and do-not-resuscitate status as independent predictors of mortality with postoperative acute respiratory failure associated with improved survival. The same predictors were confirmed when excluding do-not-resuscitate patients from the analyses. Noninvasive ventilation applied in ordinary wards was effective, with long-term outcomes not different from those reported for ICU settings. Solid cancer, pneumonia in hematologic malignancies, and do-not-resuscitate status predicted mortality, whereas patients with postoperative acute respiratory failure had the best survival rate. Additional studies are required to evaluate noninvasive ventilation efficacy in the wards compared with ICU.

  10. Retrospective success and survival rates of dental implants placed with simultaneous bone augmentation in partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Nima; Darby, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the success and survival rate of dental implants placed with simultaneous hard tissue grafting. All patients treated in Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne who had implant placement with and without guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures were identified. Seventy-three attended a follow-up appointment. These patients were examined recording probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque accumulation and radiographic bone loss by one examiner. Clinical and radiographic findings were compared in grafted and non-grafted groups and also analysed for years in function. Approximately 50% of implants were placed simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique. In the majority of cases, defects were filled by deproteinized bovine bone mineral and covered with collagen membrane. The range of time in function was 20-88 months with a mean 34.8 (±1.7). Seventy-nine per cent of the implants placed in anterior maxilla were placed with GBR, while only 18% in posterior mandible needed grafting procedure. The cumulative implant survival rates at the time of examination was 97.95% for both GBR and non-GBR group. The mean PPD, BOP, and Plaque index were not statistically significantly different in GBR vs. non-GBR groups two to seven years in function. However, bone loss is significantly less in GBR group 2-7 years after function. The overall success rate was around 90% after 2-7 years in function with the GBR group slightly less than the non-GBR group, but not statistically significant. For the subjects included in this retrospective study, the data demonstrate that GBR is a predictable procedure. The survival and success rates of the implants inserted with simultaneous GBR were similar, if slightly lower, to the non-grafted implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Breast Cancer Detected at Screening US: Survival Rates and Clinical-Pathologic and Imaging Factors Associated with Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Boo-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Woo Jung; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Hak Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To determine the survival rates and clinical-pathologic and imaging factors associated with recurrence in women with breast cancer detected at screening ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. A retrospective review of the databases of four institutions identified 501 women (median age, 47 years; range, 27-74 years) with breast cancer (425 invasive cancers and 76 ductal carcinoma in situ) detected at screening US between January 2004 and March 2011. Five-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were estimated, and the clinical-pathologic and imaging data were collected. Multivariate analysis was performed by using Cox proportional hazard regression to determine factors associated with recurrence. Results At a median follow-up of 7.0 years (range, 5.0-12.1 years), 15 (3.0%) recurrences were detected: five in ipsilateral breast and 10 in contralateral breast. The 5-year OS and RFS rates were 100% and 98.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.8%, 99.2%), respectively. In patients with invasive cancers, age younger than 40 years (hazard ratio: 3.632 [95% CI: 1.099, 11.998]; P = .032), the triple-negative subtype (hazard ratio: 7.498 [95% CI: 2.266, 24.816]; P = .001), and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A lesions (hazard ratio: 5.113 [95% CI: 1.532, 17.195]; P = .008) were associated with recurrence. Conclusion Women with breast cancers detected at screening US have excellent outcomes, with a 5-year RFS rate of 98.0%. However, in patients with invasive breast cancer, age younger than 40 years, the triple-negative subtype, and BI-RADS category 4A lesions were associated with recurrence. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, G; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1996-12-16

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibilities of simplification, and to outline the limits of application, of a vitrification method for cow embryos. Morulae and blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of slaughterhouse-derived, in vitro matured oocytes with frozen-thawed bull semen, and subsequent culture on a granulosa cell monolayer. Vitrification was performed by equilibration of embryos with 12.5% ethylene glycol and 12.5% dimethylsulphoxide at 20-22 degrees C for 60 s, then with 25% ethylene glycol and 25% dimethylsulphoxide at 4 degrees C for another 60 s. Embryos were then loaded in straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapour for 2 min, and then plunged. Straws were thawed in a 22 degrees C water-bath, the embryos were directly rehydrated and further incubated in straw, and were then expelled and cultured in vitro for 72 h. In the first experiment, embryos of different age and developmental stage (Day 5 compacted morulae, Day 6 early blastocysts, Days 6 and 7 blastocysts, Day 7 expanded blastocysts and Day 8 hatched blastocysts) as well as Days 7 and 5 blastocysts previously subjected to partial zone dissection were vitrified. After thawing, the re-expansion rates of blastocysts and zona-dissected embryos did not differ (67 and 87%, respectively), and hatching was more frequent for blastocysts frozen in advanced developmental stages (34, 47 and 63% for early blastocysts, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts, respectively). The re-expansion rate of morulae was lower (10%) and no hatching of these embryos was observed. In the second experiment, Day 7 expanded blastocysts were vitrified using PBS, PBS+albumin, TCM199 and TCM199+calf serum as holding media. No differences in re-expansion and hatching rates were seen. However, when incubation with the concentrated cryoprotectant solution was performed at 20-22 degrees C, the embryo survival rate decreased (PBS+albumin) or no embryo survived (TCM199+calf serum) the vitrification procedure. In

  14. Survival Rates Using Individualized Bioselection Treatment Methods in Patients with Advanced Laryngeal Cancer : The University of Michigan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gregory T.; Bellile, Emily; Eisbruch, Avraham; Urba, Susan; Bradford, Carol R.; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark E.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; McLean, Scott A.; Moyer, Jeffery; Taylor, Jeremy MG; Worden, Francis P.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of chemoradiation for advanced laryngeal cancer led to a major paradigm shift in treatment as an alternative to laryngectomy. Despite widespread adoption, survival rates have not improved and the original premise of matching neoadjuvant chemotherapy tumor response to determine subsequent treatment has not been followed. A unique approach incorporating a single cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to select patients with advanced disease for either laryngectomy or concurrent chemoradiation was studied to determine if improved survival could be achieved. Design From 2002–2012, we treated an unselected cohort of 247 patients with laryngeal cancer in an academic institution. Interventions Limited disease patients (n=94) underwent endoscopic resection (n=33; 35%), radiation (n=50; 53%) or chemoradiation for deeply invasive T2 lesions (n=11; 12%). For advanced disease (n=153), neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treatment selection (n=71; 46%), concurrent chemoradiation (n=50; 33%) or primary surgery (n=32; 21%) was recommended. Outcomes Propensity for treatment selection in advanced patients was modeled using logistic regression. Overall (OS) and disease specific survival (DSS) were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models stratified by propensity score. Median follow was 48 months. Results Five-year OS and DSS was 75% (95% C.I. 68–81%) and 83% (77–88%), respectively for the entire cohort. DSS was 92% (83–97%) for patients with Stage I, II and 78% (69–84%) for patients with Stage III, IV disease. For advanced disease patients, 5-year OS (and DSS) ranged from 78% (91%) for surgery to 76% (79%) for neoadjuvant bioselection and 61% (66%) for primary chemoradiation. Propensity-adjusted multivariable Cox models controlling for known prognostic factors showed DSS was significantly improved in the neoadjuvant group compared to definitive chemoradiation [Hazard ratio 0.48, 95%CI: (0.29, 0.80), p=0.005]. DSS for the definitive surgery group was

  15. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  16. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The rapid killing of various bacteria in contact with metallic copper is thought to be influenced by the influx of copper ions into the cells, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. This study showed that the kinetics of contact killing of copper surfaces depended greatly on the amount...... surface corrosion rates were determined from electrochemical polarization tests using the Stern-Geary method and revealed decreased corrosion rates with benzotriazole and thermal oxide coating. Copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium cells suspended in 0.8% NaCl showed prolonged survival rates...... on electroplated copper surfaces with benzotriazole coating and thermal oxide coating compared to surfaces without anti-corrosion treatment. Control of surface corrosion affected the level of copper ion influx into bacterial cells, which contributed directly to bacterial killing....

  17. Neoadjuvant TACE before laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) in the treatment of non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases: Feasibility and survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Kreutzträger, Martin; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate safety, feasibility and overall survival rates for transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone or combined with MR-guided laser-induced-thermotherapy (LITT) in liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin. Methods and materials: Included were patients with unresectable non-colorectal non-breast cancer liver metastases with progression under systemic chemotherapy. Excluded were patients with Karnofsky score ≤70, respiratory, renal and cardiovascular failure, and general TACE contraindications. TACE using Mitomycin alone, Mitomycin–Gemcitabine or Mitomycin–Gemcitabine–Cisplatin was performed to all patients. After TACE 146 metastases were ablated with MR-guided LITT. To be eligible for LITT metastases should be <5 cm in size and ≤5 in number. Tumor response was evaluated using MRI according to RECIST. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: A total of 110 patients (mean age 59.2 years) with 371 metastases received TACE (mean 5.4 sessions/patient, n = 110) with 76 (69%) receiving LITT (mean 1.6 session/patient) afterwards. TACE resulted in a mean decrease of mean maximum diameter of 52% ± 26.6 and volume change of −68.5% ± 22.9 in the 25 patients (23%) with partial response. Stable disease (n = 59, 54%). Progressive disease (n = 26, 23%). The RECIST outcome after LITT showed complete response (n = 13, 17%), partial response (n = 1, 1%), stable situation (n = 41, 54%) and progressive disease (n = 21, 28%). The mean time to progression (TTP) was 8.6 months. Median survival of all patients was 21.1 months. Conclusion: TACE with different protocols alone and in combination with LITT is a feasible palliative treatment option resulting in a median survival of 21.1 months for unresectable liver metastases of non-colorectal and non-breast cancer origin.

  18. Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC, orange claw (OC and small male (SM at harvest in all-male culture and assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m−2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m−2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density was significant (P < 0.05 affect adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yields performance was from 20 juvenile m−2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22 was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01 and the BC (0.43 population. The survival rate of the SM population was 100% while others were 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the OC male (23.87 g than the SM (19.57 g and the BC male (6.31 g. Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.

  19. Effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on survival and development rate of larval Arkansas River Shiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia S.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Decreases in the abundance and diversity of stream fishes in the North American Great Plains have been attributed to habitat fragmentation, altered hydrological and temperature regimes, and elevated levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids, such as the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi, may be particularly vulnerable to these changing conditions because of their reproductive strategy. Our objectives were to assess the effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on the developmental and survival rates of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. Results suggest temperature had the greatest influence on the developmental rate of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. However, embryos exposed to the higher levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids reached developmental stages earlier than counterparts at equivalent temperatures. Although this rapid development may be beneficial in fragmented waters, our data suggest it may be associated with lower survival rates. Furthermore, those embryos incubating at high temperatures, or in high levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids resulted in less viable embryos and larvae than those incubating in all other temperature, total dissolved solid, and total suspended solid treatment groups. As the Great Plains ecoregion continues to change, these results may assist in understanding reasons for past extirpations and future extirpation threats as well as predict stream reaches capable of sustaining Arkansas River Shiners and other species with similar early life-history strategies.

  20. Comparison of peritonitis rates and patient survival in automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama

    2016-09-01

    Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.

  1. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Isomura

    Full Text Available Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  2. Effect of Triiodothyronine and Cortisol on Development, Growth and Survival Rate of Sand Goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata, Blkr. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R Sri Pudji

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of triiodothyronine and cortisol on the development, growth, and survival rate of sand goby larvae.  The experiment was carried out at Kolan Percobaan Babakan, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, IPB Bogor.  The larvae were immersed in solution of A (T3 2 mg/1 + C 1 mg/1, B (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mgll, C (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0,0 1 mg/1 dan D (without hormone for one hour.  After treatment, larvae were reared in aquarium (50x50x50 cm.  Larvae were fed by rotifer and phytoplankton, three times a day.  Larval development, growth and survival rate were observed.  Result showed that T3 2 mg/1 +C 1 nig/1 and T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mg/1 could accelerated development of swim bladder and eyespot of larvae.  Treatment did not effect body pigmentation and growth; but effect survival rate of sand goby larvae.Key words :  Triidothyronine, cortisol, larvae, sand goby fish, development, growth, survival rate ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian hormon triidotironin dan kortisol terhadap perkembangan, pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan betutu.  Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kolam Percobaan Babakan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Institut Pertanian Bogor.  Larva direndam selama satu jam dalam larutan A (T3 2 mg/1 + C 1 mg/1, B (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0, 1 mg/1, C (T3 2 mg/1 + C 0,0 1 mg/1 dan D (tanpa hormon.  Setelah perlakuan, larva dipelihara dalam akuariun berukuran 50x50x50 cm.  Selama pemeliharaan larva diberi pakan berupa rotifer dan fitoplankton dengan frekuensi tiga kali sehari.  Perkembangan, petumbuhan, dan kelangsungan hidup larva diamati.  Perendaman larva ikan betutu dalam larutan A dan B dapat mempercepat pembentukan gelembung renang dan bintik mata.  Perlakuan yang diberikan tidak mempengaruhi kecepatan terjadinya pigmentasi tubuh dan pertumbuhan, tetapi mempengaruhi derriat kelangsungan hidup larva.Kata kunci :  Triidotironin, kortisol

  3. Lovastatin delays infection and increases survival rates in AG129 mice infected with dengue virus serotype 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Martinez-Gutierrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that treatment of DENV-infected cultures with Lovastatin (LOV, can affect viral assembly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LOV on the survival rate and viremia levels of DENV-2-infected AG129 mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were inoculated with 1 × 10(6 plaque-forming units (PFU/ml of DENV-2 and treated with LOV (200 mg/kg/day. Pre-treatment with one or three doses of LOV increased the survival rate compared to untreated mice (7.3 and 7.1 days, respectively, compared to 4.8 days. Viremia levels also decreased by 21.8% compared to untreated mice, but only in the group administered three doses prior to inoculation. When LOV was administered after viral inoculation, the survival rate increased (7.3 days in the group treated at 24 hpi, 6.8 days in the group treated at 48 hpi and 6.5 days in the group treated with two doses compared to the untreated group (4.8 days. Interestingly, the serum viral titer increased by 24.6% in mice treated at 48 hpi with a single dose of LOV and by 21.7% in mice treated with two doses (at 24 and 48 hpi of LOV compared to untreated mice. Finally histopathological changes in the liver and spleen in infected and untreated mice included massive extramedullary erythropoiesis foci and inflammatory filtration, and these characteristics were decreased or absent in LOV-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the effect of LOV on viremia depends on the timing of treatment and on the number of doses administered. We observed a significant increase in the survival rate in both schemes due to a delay in the progression of the disease. However, the results obtained in the post-treatment scheme must be handled carefully because this treatment scheme increases viremia and we do not know how this increase could affect disease progression in humans.

  4. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  5. Low-cost GICs reduce survival rate in occlusal ART restorations in primary molars after one year: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olegário, Isabel Cristina; Pacheco, Anna Luisa de Brito; de Araújo, Mariana Pinheiro; Ladewig, Nathalia de Miranda; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2017-02-01

    The high costs of the worldwide recommended GICs might be a barrier for the implementation of ART. To overcome this problem, low cost GIC are used even though there is a lack of evidence for the survival rate of restorations. To evaluate the performance of low-cost GICs used on occlusal ART restorations after one year. A total of 150 primary molars in 150 children with occlusal caries lesions were selected in 4-8 year-old children. The patients were randomly allocated in three groups: G1-GC Gold Label 9 (GC Corp); G2-Vitro Molar (DFL) and G3-Maxxion R (FGM). All treatments were performed following the ART premises in school setting. Restorations were evaluated after 2, 6 and 12 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test and Cox regression was used for testing association with clinical factors (α=5%). GC Gold Label 9 had better performance compared to the low-cost GICs (HR=1.47, CI=1.04-2.08, p=0.027). The overall SR of restorations was 65.33% and the SR per group was G1=77.55%; G2=61.11% and G3=42.55%. The low-cost GICs have a poorer performance than GC Gold Label 9 in occlusal ART restoration in primary molars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Depression and unemployment incidence rate evolution in Portugal, 1995-2013: General Practitioner Sentinel Network data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Sousa-Uva, Mafalda; Fonseca, Rita; Marques, Sara; Pina, Nuno; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-11-17

    Quantify, for both genders, the correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal between 1995 and 2013. An ecological study was developed to correlate the evolution of the depression incidence rates estimated by the General Practitioner Sentinel Network and the annual unemployment rates provided by the National Statistical Institute in official publications. There was a positive correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal, which was significant only for males (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.04). For this gender, an increase of 37 new cases of depression per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated for each 1% increase in the unemployment rate between 1995 and 2013. Although the study design does not allow the establishment of a causal association between unemployment and depression, the results suggest that the evolution of unemployment in Portugal may have had a significant impact on the level of mental health of the Portuguese, especially among men.

  7. Improved decay rates for solutions for a multidimensional generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the decay rates of solutions for the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation in multi-dimensional space. For initial data in some L1-weighted spaces, we prove faster decay rates of the solutions. More precisely, using the Fourier transform and the energy method, we show the global existence and the convergence rates of the solutions under the smallness assumption on the initial data and we give better decay rates of the solutions. This result improves early works in J. Differential Equations 158(2) (1999), 314-340 and Nonlinear Anal. 75(7) (2012), 3385-3392. © 2014-IOS Press.

  8. Effects of Aeration Rate and Salinity Gradient on the Survival and Growth in the Early Life Stages of the Devil Stinger Inimicus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Andou, Yoshihide; Tomioka, Chisato; Yogo, Shigeru; Kadomura, Kazushi; Miyaki, Kadoo; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a flow field in the rearing tank exhibited by different aeration rate and salinity gradient on the larviculture of the devil stinger Inimicus japonicus. Two different rearing experiments using 1 kl rearing tanks were conducted from hatching (day 0) to settlement. In the Experiment 1, fish were reared until day 21 in 5 different aeration rates (0-1200 ml/min). There was a significant and positive relationship between survival and aeration rate, and fish survival b...

  9. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    carcinogenicity (Meyer and Jorgenson 1984,. Fitzpatrick et al, 1995) and / or mutagenic properties. (Marking et al, 1994), its use was limited to the treatment of non-food ... effective anti fungal agents used to control fungal infections on eggs and improves hatching rate. Formalin effectively kills parasites on gills, skin and fins.

  10. Survival rate of lithium disilicate restorations at 4 years: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Taiseer A; Delgado, Alex J; Donovan, Terence E

    2015-09-01

    Ceramic restorations are frequently being placed due to the esthetic demand and the cost of noble metals that has increased considerably. One major disadvantage of ceramic restoration is failure of the material due to fracture by crack propagation. In vitro studies are of little clinical significance and in vivo studies are too short to support clinical success. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the failure rate of lithium disilicate restorations (monolithic and layered) at 4 years. Data were collected over 45 months from 2 commercial laboratories. Restorations were categorized into monolithic restorations and layered restorations. Each category was further classified into complete coverage single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, e.max veneers, and inlay/onlay restorations. Failure rates were compared and analyzed using Chi-square (α=.05). A total of 21,340 restorations were evaluated in this study and included 15,802 monolithic restorations and 5538 layered restorations. The failure rate for single crown monolithic restorations was 0.91% and was 1.83% for single crown layered restorations. For fixed dental prostheses, 4.55% of monolithic restorations failed. For e.max veneers, 1.3% of monolithic veneers fractured and 1.53% of layered veneers fractured. Of the inlay/onlay restorations group, 1.01% of monolithic restorations fractured. In the short term (45 months), restorations fabricated with the lithium disilicate material (IPS e.max) had relatively low fracture rates. Layered single crowns fractured at approximately 2 times the rate of monolithic crowns. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Survival rate of approximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique for glass ionomer insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Hesse, Daniela; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel; Bönecker, Marcelo; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; van Amerongen, W Evert

    2013-09-01

    Good survival rates (SR) have been reported for occlusal-atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations but not for approximal-ART restorations. The high-viscosity consistency of the glass ionomer cement (GIC) may lead to its incorrect adaptation into the cavity and thus to failure of the restoration. Because the use of a flowable GIC layer seemed to improve its adaptation in approximal restorations in vitro, we evaluated whether the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer would improve the SR of approximal-ART restorations. A total of 208 children (6-7 years old) with at least one occluso-proximal carious lesion in a primary molar were selected and randomly allocated to two groups: G1, conventional technique, one-layer GIC (powder/liquid ratio 1:1); and G2, two-layer technique, consisting of a first layer of GIC with a flowable consistency (powder/liquid ratio 1:2) and a second layer of a regular consistency. Restorations were made by final-year students and evaluated after 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Restoration survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival and logrank test. Poisson regression analyses (α = 5) were used to verify the influence of factors such as insertion technique, restoration surface and operators. The overall SR of the restorations after 18 months was 68 %. There was no difference in SR between the techniques, neither did the other factors influence the SR. Over 18 months, the use of an intermediate flowable GIC layer in approximal-ART restorations does not improve the restoration survival. This study suggests that the two-layer technique is not the answer for increasing approximal-ART restoration longevity.

  12. Exploratory spatial analysis of pilot fatality rates in general aviation crashes using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Jurek G; Curriero, Frank C; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2002-03-01

    Geographic information systems and exploratory spatial analysis were used to describe the geographic characteristics of pilot fatality rates in 1983-1998 general aviation crashes within the continental United States. The authors plotted crash sites on a digital map; rates were computed at regular grid intersections and then interpolated by using geographic information systems. A test for significance was performed by using Monte Carlo simulations. Further analysis compared low-, medium-, and high-rate areas in relation to pilot characteristics, aircraft type, and crash circumstance. Of the 14,051 general aviation crashes studied, 31% were fatal. Seventy-four geographic areas were categorized as having low fatality rates and 53 as having high fatality rates. High-fatality-rate areas tended to be mountainous, such as the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian region, whereas low-rate areas were relatively flat, such as the Great Plains. Further analysis comparing low-, medium-, and high-fatality-rate areas revealed that crashes in high-fatality-rate areas were more likely than crashes in other areas to have occurred under instrument meteorologic conditions and to involve aircraft fire. This study demonstrates that geographic information systems are a valuable tool for injury prevention and aviation safety research.

  13. Escin Increases the Survival Rate of LPS-Induced Septic Mice Through Inhibition of HMGB1 Release from Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have described the effects of Escin on improving the survival rate of endotoxemic animals. The purpose of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of this potentially beneficial treatment. Methods: First, the survival rate of endotoxemic mice was monitored for up to 2 weeks after Escin pretreatment, Escin post-treatment, or Escin post-treatment + rHMGB1. The effects of Escin on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in the serum of endotoxemic mice and LPS-induced macrophages were evaluated by ELISA. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of HMGB1 in LPS-induced macrophages were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Additionally, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 was evaluated by ELISA in rHMGB1-induced macrophages. Finally, the protein levels and the activity of NF-κB in macrophages were checked by Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Results: Both pretreatment and post-treatment with Escin could improve the survival rate of endotoxemic mice, while exogenous rHMGB1 reversed this effect. In addition, Escin decreased the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 and HMGB1 in endotoxemic mice and in LPS-induced macrophages. Escin could also inhibit the mRNA levels and activity of HMGB1. The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6 could be suppressed in rHMGB1-induced macrophages by Escin. Finally, Escin could suppress the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced macrophages. Conclusion: Escin could improve the survival of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia. This effect maybe meditated by reducing the release of HMGB1, resulting in the suppression of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  14. Implant survival and success rates in patients with risk factors: results from a long-term retrospective study with a 10 to 18 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, F; Papi, P; Mencio, F; Rosella, D; Di Carlo, S; Pompa, G

    2017-02-01

    Risk factors for implant therapy are represented by all general and local conditions that through various mechanisms can increase either short-term and long-term failure risk. The aim of this study is to assess the implant survival and implant success rates with single and multiple risk factors. To address the research purpose, a retrospective cohort study was designed and implemented, including a sample of 225 patients with a total of 871 implants placed. The following risk factors were considered: smoking, bruxism, bone augmentation procedures and the presence of load risk (implants with crown/implant relation > 0.8; angulation > 25°; presence of cantilever). Follow-up ranged from 10 years to 18 years (average follow-up 13.6 years). Failures were subdivided into short-term failures, before the prosthetic phase, and long-term failures, after definitive prosthesis. The success criteria published by Albrektsson and Zarb were adopted. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate hazard ratio, with a statistically significant p-value implants placed, 138 did not meet the success criteria, (success rate 84.16%), sixty (43.47%) were classified as "early failure" and seventy-eight as "late failure" (56.53%). A total of 70 dental implants were removed, with a survival rate of 91.96%. The presence of a single risk factor does not imply a marked increase of failure risk. Among the analyzed factors, the one that proved to be the most dangerous was bruxism, even when presented as the only risk factor. Bruxism with load risk proved to be the most dangerous association (success rate 69.23%) and could be included among the absolute contraindications for implant treatment.

  15. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Amir; Bordel, Sergio

    2013-10-24

    Cancer cells can have a broad scope of proliferation rates. Here we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that allow some cancer cell lines to grow up to 4 times faster than other cell lines. The correlation of gene expression profiles with the growth rate in 60 different cell lines has been analyzed using several genome-scale biological networks and new algorithms. New possible regulatory feedback loops have been suggested and the known roles of several cell cycle related transcription factors have been confirmed. Over 100 growth-correlated metabolic sub-networks have been identified, suggesting a key role of simultaneous lipid synthesis and degradation in the energy supply of the cancer cells growth. Many metabolic sub-networks involved in cell line proliferation appeared also to correlate negatively with the survival expectancy of colon cancer patients.

  16. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI, survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p=0.230. The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.. Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor.

  17. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  18. General Practitioners’ Participation in a Large, Multicountry Combined General Practitioner-Patient Survey: Recruitment Procedures and Participation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Groenewegen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The participation of general practitioners (GPs is essential in research on the performance of primary care. This paper describes the implementation of a large, multicountry study in primary care that combines a survey among GPs and a linked survey among patients that visited their practice (the QUALICOPC study. The aim is to describe the recruitment procedure and explore differences between countries in the participation rate of the GPs. Methods. Descriptive analyses were used to document recruitment procedures and to assess hypotheses potentially explaining variation in participation rates between countries. Results. The survey was implemented in 31 European countries. GPs were mainly selected through random sampling. The actual implementation of the study differed between countries. The median participation rate was 30%. Both material (such as the payment system of GPs in a country and immaterial influences (such as estimated survey pressure are related to differences between countries. Conclusion. This study shows that the participation of GPs may indeed be influenced by the context of the country. The implementation of complex data collection is difficult to realize in a completely uniform way. Procedures have to be tuned to the context of the country.

  19. Approximate Method of Calculating Heating Rates at General Three-Dimensional Stagnation Points During Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. H., II

    1982-01-01

    An approximate method for calculating heating rates at general three dimensional stagnation points is presented. The application of the method for making stagnation point heating calculations during atmospheric entry is described. Comparisons with results from boundary layer calculations indicate that the method should provide an accurate method for engineering type design and analysis applications.

  20. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. II. Classical Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual classical form activated complex theory assumes a particular expression for the kinetic energy of the reacting system -- one associated with a rectilinear motion along the reaction coordinate. The derivation of the rate expression given in the present paper is based on the general kinetic energy expression.

  1. The combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner consultation rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Donker, G.A.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: More than two-thirds of cancer patients have one or more chronic diseases besides cancer. The purpose of this study was to get detailed insight into the combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner (GP) consultation rates. Methods: From the NIVEL Primary Care Database

  2. The combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner consultation rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Donker, G.A.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: More than two-thirds of cancer patients have one or more chronic diseases besides cancer. The purpose of this study was to get detailed insight into the combined effect of cancer and chronic diseases on general practitioner (GP) consultation rates. Methods: From the NIVEL Primary Care Database

  3. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  4. Association between hospital rates of early Do-Not-Resuscitate orders and favorable neurological survival among survivors of inhospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Timothy J; Spertus, John A; Kennedy, Kevin F; Chan, Paul S

    2017-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend deferring prognostication for 48 to 72 hours after resuscitation from inhospital cardiac arrest. It is unknown whether hospitals vary in making patients who survive an arrest Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) early after resuscitation and whether a hospital's rate of early DNR is associated with its rate of favorable neurological survival. Within Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation, we identified 24,899 patients from 236 hospitals who achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after inhospital cardiac arrest between 2006 and 2012. Hierarchical models were constructed to derive risk-adjusted hospital rates of DNR status adoption ≤12 hours after ROSC and risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (without severe disability; Cerebral Performance Category ≤2). The association between hospitals' rates of early DNR and favorable neurological survival was evaluated using correlation statistics. Of 236 hospitals, 61.7% were academic, 83% had ≥200 beds, and 94% were urban. Overall, 5577 (22.4%) patients were made DNR ≤12 hours after ROSC. Risk-adjusted hospital rates of early DNR varied widely (7.1%-40.5%, median: 22.7% [IQR: 19.3%-26.1%]; median OR of 1.48). Significant hospital variation existed in risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (3.5%-44.8%, median: 25.3% [IQR: 20.2%-29.4%]; median OR 1.72). Hospitals' risk-adjusted rates of early DNR were inversely correlated with their risk-standardized rates of favorable neurological survival (r=-0.179, P=.006). Despite current guideline recommendations, many patients with inhospital cardiac arrest are made DNR within 12 hours after ROSC, and hospitals vary widely in rates of early DNR. Higher hospital rates of early DNR were associated with worse meaningful survival outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Choosing Surgery: Identifying Factors Leading to Increased General Surgery Matriculation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, David T; Freeman, Matthew D; Korndorffer, James R; Meade, Peter C; Jaffe, Bernard M; Slakey, Douglas P

    2017-03-01

    Tulane graduates have, over the past six years, chosen general surgical residency at a rate above the national average (mean 9.6% vs 6.6%). With much of the recent career choice research focusing on disincentives and declining general surgery applicants, we sought to identify factors that positively influenced our students' decision to pursue general surgery. A 50-question survey was developed and distributed to graduates who matched into a general surgery between the years 2006 and 2014. The survey evaluated demographics, exposure to surgery, and factors affecting interest in a surgical career. We achieved a 54 per cent (61/112) response rate. Only 43 per cent considered a surgical career before medical school matriculation. Fifty-nine per cent had strongly considered a career other than surgery. Sixty-two per cent chose to pursue surgery during or immediately after their surgery clerkship. The most important factors cited for choosing general surgery were perceived career enjoyment of residents and faculty, resident/faculty relationship, and mentorship. Surgery residents and faculty were viewed as role models by 72 and 77 per cent of responders, respectively. This study demonstrated almost half of those choosing a surgical career did so as a direct result of the core rotation experience. We believe that structuring the medical student education experience to optimize the interaction of students, residents, and faculty produces a positive environment encouraging students to choose a general surgery career.

  6. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  7. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  8. Model-based estimates of annual survival rate are preferable to observed maximum lifespan statistics for use in comparative life-history studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longevity are available for many animals, and are commonly used in comparative life-history analyses. We suggest that annual survival rate is more appropriate life history parameter for most comparative life history analyses. Observed maximum longevities were not correlated with the annual survival rate estimates and appear to be unstable over time. We recommend that observed maximum lifespans not be used in life history analyses.

  9. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p Fullerenes significantly increased bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  11. The nexus of hair corticosterone level, immunocompetence, metabolic rates and overwinter survival in the root vole, Microtus oeconomus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Zub, Karol; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Wieczorek, Monika; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-09-01

    Although corticosterone (CORT) regulates many physiological mechanisms, the associations between CORT levels, immunocompetence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival have not been examined. Here, we studied individual variation in CORT level extracted from hair, immunocompetence quantified as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels (NAbs), along with the resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) and mortality during three consecutive winter seasons in a natural population of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus. In early winter, hair CORT level was strongly positively associated with body mass and inversely related to voles' ability to survive. We suggest that the observed association between hair CORT level and body mass may be the key component of the physiological nexus driving the survivorship of individual rodents. Additionally, hair CORT was a significant predictor of variation of the whole body RMR, which in turn enhanced overwinter survival in the studied population. On the other hand, hair CORT was not significantly associated with changes in the blood indices. Interestingly, the analysis carried out only during the first year of study (2008), which was characterized by a high population density and prevalence of infestation with a blood protozoan, Babesia spp., showed that the intensity of the infestation was negatively correlated with both the hair CORT level and the N/L ratio. Because CORT is often considered immunosuppressive, we expected a positive association between its level and the N/L ratio. However, hair CORT did not significantly correlate with the N/L ratio. We suggest that the lack of an association between hair CORT and the N/L ratio resulted from a small inter-individual variation in the N/L ratio in 2008, which was much higher and less variable than in the other years of our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of human Y79 cells after down-regulation of Mcl-1

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    Lu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of oxaliplatin on the survival rate of Y79 after down-regulation of Mcl-1 by SiRNA. METHODS: Y79 cells were cultured in RPMI1640. The cultured cells were stimulated with 0.25μmol/L of oxaliplatin. The expression of Mcl-1 protein was detected by Western blot after 6, 16 and 24h respectively. Cells in logarithmic phase were collected and used for single-cell suspension. Then they were transfected with empty plasmid, Mcl-1-homo-991, Mcl-1-homo-1114 and Mcl-1-homo-1235. After 6h, fluorescence microscope was used to observe the transfection efficiency and the optimal one was selected. The cells were divided into Group A and transfected with empty plasmids. The cells transfected with Mcl-1 were divided into Group B and Group C. Group A and Group C were treated with 0.25μmol/L oxaliplatin for stimulating induction, and the apoptotic rate was compared after 24h.RESULTS: The expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 stimulated by oxaliplatin was the most after 24h of culture. Mcl-1-homo-991 significantly inhibited the expression of Mcl-1 in Y79 after transfection. There was no significant difference in the apoptosis rate in Group A(11.1%±1.2%and in the control group(6.1%±0.6%(P>0.05. The apoptotic rate of Group C(49.2%±2.7%was significantly higher than that of Group B(20.8%±1.9%. At the same time, the apoptotic rates of these two groups were significantly higher than those of Group A and control group, the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Downregulation of Mcl-1 by siRNA can reduce the drug resistance of Y79, thereby enhancing the apoptosis of Y79, and reducing the survival rate of Y79.

  13. Mathematical Formalism of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics for Nonlinear Chemical Reaction Systems with General Rate Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies a mathematical formalism of nonequilibrium thermodynamics for chemical reaction models with N species, M reactions, and general rate law. We establish a mathematical basis for J. W. Gibbs' macroscopic chemical thermodynamics under G. N. Lewis' kinetic law of entire equilibrium (detailed balance in nonlinear chemical kinetics). In doing so, the equilibrium thermodynamics is then naturally generalized to nonequilibrium settings without detailed balance. The kinetic models are represented by a Markovian jumping process. A generalized macroscopic chemical free energy function and its associated balance equation with nonnegative source and sink are the major discoveries. The proof is based on the large deviation principle of this type of Markov processes. A general fluctuation dissipation theorem for stochastic reaction kinetics is also proved. The mathematical theory illustrates how a novel macroscopic dynamic law can emerges from the mesoscopic kinetics in a multi-scale system.

  14. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick J Larabee

    Full Text Available Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation has been co-opted for another (defense.

  15. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Fredrick J; Suarez, Andrew V

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense).

  16. Patients with a history of diabetes have a lower survival rate after in-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursson, P; Gudbjörnsdottir, S; Aune, S; Svensson, L; Oddby, E; Sjöland, H; Herlitz, J

    2008-01-01

    To describe the association between a history of diabetes and outcome among patients suffering an in-hospital cardiac arrest. All patients suffering an in-hospital cardiac arrest in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg between 1994 and 2006 and at nine further hospitals in Sweden between 2005 and 2006. In all, 1810 patients were included in the survey, 395 (22%) of whom had a previous history of diabetes. Patients with a history of diabetes differed from those without such a history by having a higher prevalence of previous myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and renal disease. They were more frequently treated with anti-arrhythmic drugs during resuscitation. Whereas immediate survival did not differ between groups (51.7% and 53.1%, respectively), patients with diabetes were discharged alive from hospital (29.3%) less frequently compared with those without diabetes (37.6%). When correcting for dissimilarities at baseline, the adjusted odds ratio for being discharged alive (diabetes/no diabetes) was 0.57 (95% CL 0.40-0.79). Among patients suffering an in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden in whom CPR was attempted, 22% had a history of diabetes. These patients had a lower survival rate, which cannot simply be explained by different co-morbidity.

  17. Functionalized Scaffold-mediated Interleukin 10 Gene Delivery Significantly Improves Survival Rates of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Carolyn; Power, Karen; Sefton, Michael; O'Brien, Timothy; Gallagher, William M.; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    While stem cell transplantation could potentially treat a variety of disorders, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated conclusive benefits. This may be partly because transplanted stem cells have low survival rates, potentially due to host inflammation. The system described herein used two different gene therapy techniques to improve retention of rat mesenchymal stem cells. In the first, stem cells were transfected with interleukin-10 (IL-10) before being loaded into a collagen scaffold. In the second, unmodified stem cells were loaded into a collagen scaffold along with polymer-complexed IL-10 plasmids. The scaffolds were surgically implanted into the dorsum of syngeneic rats. At each endpoint, the scaffolds were explanted and cell retention, IL-10 level and inflammatory response were quantified. All treatment groups had statistically significant increases in cell retention after 7 days, but the group treated with 2 µg of IL-10 polyplexes had a significant improvement even at 21 days. This cell retention was associated with increased IL-10 and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. The primary effect on the inflammatory response appeared to be on macrophage differentiation, encouraging the regulatory phenotype over the cytotoxic lineage. Improving cell survival may be an important step toward realization of the therapeutic potential of stem cells. PMID:21266957

  18. Increased drying rate lowers the critical water content for survival in embryonic axes of English oak (Quercus robur L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Finch-Savage, William E; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2011-04-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Settlement and post-settlement survival rates of the white seabream (Diplodus sargus) in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Amalia; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Cardona, Luis; Cheminée, Adrien; Hidalgo, Manuel; Moranta, Joan

    2018-01-01

    Survival during the settlement window is a limiting variable for recruitment. The survival is believed to be strongly determined by biological interactions and sea conditions, however it has been poorly investigated. We examined the settlement patterns related to relevant biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. Density-dependence, wind stress, wave height and coastal current velocity) potentially determining post-settler survival rates of a coastal necto-benthic fish of wide distribution in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, the white seabream (Diplodus sargus). An observational study of the demography of juveniles of this species was carried out at six coves in Menorca Island (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean). Three of the coves were located in the northern and wind exposed coast, at the Northeast (NE) side; while the other three were found along the southern and sheltered coast, at the Southwest (SW) side of the island. The settlement period extended from early May to late June and maximum juvenile densities at the sampling sites varied between 5 and 11 ind. m-1 with maximum values observed in late May simultaneously occurring in the two coasts. Our analysis of juvenile survival, based on the interpretation of the observed patters using an individual based model (IBM), revealed two stages in the size-mortality relationships. An initial density-dependent stage was observed for juveniles up to 20 mm TL, followed by a density independent stage when other factors dominated the survival at sizes > 20 mm TL. No significant environmental effects were observed for the small size class (30mm TL) size class. In the NE, the wind stress consistently affected the density of fish of 20-30 mm and >30 mm TL with a dome-shape effect with higher densities at intermediate values of wind stress and negative effect at the extremes. The best models applied in the SW coves showed a significant non-linear negative effect on fish density that was also consistent for both groups 20

  20. Settlement and post-settlement survival rates of the white seabream (Diplodus sargus in the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Cuadros

    Full Text Available Survival during the settlement window is a limiting variable for recruitment. The survival is believed to be strongly determined by biological interactions and sea conditions, however it has been poorly investigated. We examined the settlement patterns related to relevant biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. Density-dependence, wind stress, wave height and coastal current velocity potentially determining post-settler survival rates of a coastal necto-benthic fish of wide distribution in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, the white seabream (Diplodus sargus. An observational study of the demography of juveniles of this species was carried out at six coves in Menorca Island (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Three of the coves were located in the northern and wind exposed coast, at the Northeast (NE side; while the other three were found along the southern and sheltered coast, at the Southwest (SW side of the island. The settlement period extended from early May to late June and maximum juvenile densities at the sampling sites varied between 5 and 11 ind. m-1 with maximum values observed in late May simultaneously occurring in the two coasts. Our analysis of juvenile survival, based on the interpretation of the observed patters using an individual based model (IBM, revealed two stages in the size-mortality relationships. An initial density-dependent stage was observed for juveniles up to 20 mm TL, followed by a density independent stage when other factors dominated the survival at sizes > 20 mm TL. No significant environmental effects were observed for the small size class (30mm TL size class. In the NE, the wind stress consistently affected the density of fish of 20-30 mm and >30 mm TL with a dome-shape effect with higher densities at intermediate values of wind stress and negative effect at the extremes. The best models applied in the SW coves showed a significant non-linear negative effect on fish density that was also consistent for

  1. A General Rate K/N Convolutional Decoder Based on Neural Networks with Stopping Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny W. H. Kao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm for decoding a general rate K/N convolutional code based on recurrent neural network (RNN is described and analysed. The algorithm is introduced by outlining the mathematical models of the encoder and decoder. A number of strategies for optimising the iterative decoding process are proposed, and a simulator was also designed in order to compare the Bit Error Rate (BER performance of the RNN decoder with the conventional decoder that is based on Viterbi Algorithm (VA. The simulation results show that this novel algorithm can achieve the same bit error rate and has a lower decoding complexity. Most importantly this algorithm allows parallel signal processing, which increases the decoding speed and accommodates higher data rate transmission. These characteristics are inherited from a neural network structure of the decoder and the iterative nature of the algorithm, that outperform the conventional VA algorithm.

  2. Interest Rates with Long Memory: A Generalized Affine Term-Structure Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterrieder, Daniela

    We propose a model for the term structure of interest rates that is a generalization of the discrete-time, Gaussian, affine yield-curve model. Compared to standard affine models, our model allows for general linear dynamics in the vector of state variables. In an application to real yields of U...... by a level, a slope, and a curvature factor that arise naturally from the co-fractional modeling framework. We show that implied yields match the level and the variability of yields well over time. Studying the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of our model, we find that our model results in good yield...

  3. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Araújo, Márcio S S; Costa-Neto, João M; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Barrouin-Melo, Stella M; Cardoso, Sergio V; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Serakides, Rogéria; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-06-04

    The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4+ (> or = 66.7%) or CD8+ T-cells ( or = 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P carcinomas.

  4. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  5. Implant and prosthodontic survival rates with implant fixed complete dental prostheses in the edentulous mandible after at least 5 years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Mokti, Muizzaddin; Chen, Chun-Jung; Benic, Goran I; Gallucci, German O; Chronopoulos, Vasilios

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of mandibular edentulism with implant fixed complete dental prostheses (IFCDPs) is a routinely used treatment option. The study aims to report the implant and prosthodontic survival rates associated with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible after an observation period of a minimum 5 years. An electronic MEDLINE/PubMED search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective studies with IFCDPs for the edentulous mandible. Clinical studies with at least 5-year follow-up were selected. Pooled data were statistically analyzed and cumulative implant- and prosthesis survival rates were calculated by meta-analysis, regression, and chi-square statistics. Implant-related and prosthesis-related factors were identified and their impact on survival rates was assessed. Seventeen prospective studies, including 501 patients and 2,827 implants, were selected for meta-analysis. The majority of the implants (88.5% of all placed implants) had been placed in the interforaminal area. Cumulative implant survival rates for rough surface ranged from 98.42% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.98-98.86) (5 years) to 96.86% (95% CI: 96.00-97.73) (10 years); smooth surface implant survival rates ranged from 98.93% (95% CI: 98.38-99.49) (5 years) to 97.88% (95% CI: 96.78-98.98) (10 years). The prosthodontic survival rates for 1-piece IFCDPs ranged from 98.61% (95% CI: 97.80-99.43) (5 years) to 97.25% (95% CI: 95.66-98.86) (10 years). Treatment with mandibular IFCDPs yields high implant and prosthodontic survival rates (more than 96% after 10 years). Rough surface implants exhibited cumulative survival rates similar to the smooth surface ones (p > .05) in the edentulous mandible. The number of supporting implants and the antero-posterior implant distribution had no influence (p > .05) on the implant survival rate. The prosthetic design and veneering material, the retention type, and the loading protocol (delayed, early, and immediate) had no

  6. Depression and unemployment incidence rate evolution in Portugal, 1995–2013: General Practitioner Sentinel Network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Sousa-Uva, Mafalda; Fonseca, Rita; Marques, Sara; Pina, Nuno; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Quantify, for both genders, the correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal between 1995 and 2013. METHODS An ecological study was developed to correlate the evolution of the depression incidence rates estimated by the General Practitioner Sentinel Network and the annual unemployment rates provided by the National Statistical Institute in official publications. RESULTS There was a positive correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal, which was significant only for males (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.04). For this gender, an increase of 37 new cases of depression per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated for each 1% increase in the unemployment rate between 1995 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS Although the study design does not allow the establishment of a causal association between unemployment and depression, the results suggest that the evolution of unemployment in Portugal may have had a significant impact on the level of mental health of the Portuguese, especially among men. PMID:29166442

  7. Pulse oximetry-derived respiratory rate in general care floor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S; Watson, James N; Mestek, Michael L; Ochs, James P; Uribe, Alberto A; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory rate is recognized as a clinically important parameter for monitoring respiratory status on the general care floor (GCF). Currently, intermittent manual assessment of respiratory rate is the standard of care on the GCF. This technique has several clinically-relevant shortcomings, including the following: (1) it is not a continuous measurement, (2) it is prone to observer error, and (3) it is inefficient for the clinical staff. We report here on an algorithm designed to meet clinical needs by providing respiratory rate through a standard pulse oximeter. Finger photoplethysmograms were collected from a cohort of 63 GCF patients monitored during free breathing over a 25-min period. These were processed using a novel in-house algorithm based on continuous wavelet-transform technology within an infrastructure incorporating confidence-based averaging and logical decision-making processes. The computed oximeter respiratory rates (RRoxi) were compared to an end-tidal CO2 reference rate (RRETCO2). RRETCO2 ranged from a lowest recorded value of 4.7 breaths per minute (brpm) to a highest value of 32.0 brpm. The mean respiratory rate was 16.3 brpm with standard deviation of 4.7 brpm. Excellent agreement was found between RRoxi and RRETCO2, with a mean difference of -0.48 brpm and standard deviation of 1.77 brpm. These data demonstrate that our novel respiratory rate algorithm is a potentially viable method of monitoring respiratory rate in GCF patients. This technology provides the means to facilitate continuous monitoring of respiratory rate, coupled with arterial oxygen saturation and pulse rate, using a single non-invasive sensor in low acuity settings.

  8. Dynamics of synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general incidence rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Xiang, Hong; Li, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic drugs are replacing traditional ones and becoming the main popular ones gradually, which have given rise to serious social issues in recent years. In this paper, a synthetic drugs transmission model with psychological addicts and general contact rate is proposed. The local and global stabilities are decided by the basic reproduction number R0. By analyzing the sensitivity of parameters, we obtain that controlling psychological addiction is better than drugs treatment. These results are verified by numerical simulations.

  9. Effects of an experimental oil spill (bunker on seedling survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Nardes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bunker oil on survival and growth rate of Laguncularia racemosa were tested using 60 seedlings planted in small plastic bags (experimental unit. One of the six treatments was randomly assigned to each bag: 0 mL (control, 10 mL, 20 mL, 30 mL, 40 mL e 50 mL of bunker oil spilled in each bag. The experiment was monitored weekly for 20 weeks. The results were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and linear regression. In the first seven weeks, we observed chlorosis, loss of leafs and death rate significantly superior to plants of all treatments compared to the control group. Persistent effects like reduction of stem growth and leaf production was proportional to the initial oil concentration. The plants from control and 10 mL treatments were significantly superior to all remaining treatments in height, leaf number and healthy level. Results indicated that L. racemosa seedlings suffer both lethal and sublethal effects from exposition to bunker oil exposure.

  10. Improvement of survival rate in patients with cardiogenic shock by using nonpulsatile and pulsatile ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, K; el-Banayosy, A; Posival, H; Seggewiss, H; Murray, E; Körner, M M; Körfer, R

    1992-12-01

    Between January 1988 and January 1992, 65 patients (pts) had a ventricle assist device (VAD) inserted in our clinic. In 24 pts a VAD was applied because of primarily unsuccessful weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (Group A). In a further 24 pts (Group B) a VAD was installed for the therapy of refractive cardiogenic shock (CS) after initially successful cardiac surgery (n = 21) and after acute myocardial infarction (n = 3). Twelve pts were bridged to heart transplantation (Group C) and five had a VAD inserted for various other reasons (Group D). In 36 (55.4%) of the total 65 pts a nonpulsatile VAD (Biomedicus 540) was used: 10 in Group A; 20 in B, 3 in C and 3 in D. In 29 pts (44.6%) a pulsatile VAD (Abiomed BVS 5000) was used: 14 in Group A, 4 in B, 9 in C and 2 in D. Weaning rate and long-term survival rates were 50% and 46% respectively in Group A and 38% and 42% in Group B. Seven pts from Group C were transplanted and six are long-term survivors. Two pts (40%) in Group D were discharged from hospital. Major postoperative complications were bleeding (46%), thromboembolism (14%), multiple organ failure (11%), renal failure (11%), arterial embolism (4.6%), sepsis (3%). The results indicate that application of a VAD can be recommended in pts with postcardiotomy CS to allow recovery of cardiac function and in pts with irreversible ventricular damage as bridging to HTX.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND TYPES OF MEDIA ON THE SURVIVAL RATE OF S. agalactiae BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful effect of phages in phage therapy has been proven by an increase of the presence of phages in survivors. Seven previously isolated phages were used to examine the effects of storage temperature and types of media on their survival rate. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 isolated from a Streptococcosis-infected Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were used in this study. Phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2 and PSaG-3 were isolated from a diseased Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy. All of the phages were stored in refrigerator at temperature of 8oC and kept in two types of media, Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB and BHIB enriched with glycerol. To determine the lytic activity of the phages, 20 μL of each phage suspension was poured onto BHIA plate and incubated at 25oC for 24 to 48 hours. The result showed that phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20 and PSaT-21 have lytic activity against S. agalactiae and S. iniae than phages PSaG-1, PSaG-2, and PSaG-3. Phages PSaT-18, PSaT-19, PSaT-20, and PSaT-21 always survived up to three weeks and phage PSaT-18 in BHIB have the highest potential as a candidate of phage therapy for Streptococcosis.

  12. Bevacizumab reduces the growth rate constants of renal carcinomas: a novel algorithm suggests early discontinuation of bevacizumab resulted in a lack of survival advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2008-10-01

    To hasten cancer drug development, new paradigms are needed to assess therapeutic efficacy. In a randomized phase II study in patients with renal cell carcinoma, 10 microg/kg bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) administered every 2 weeks resulted in a longer time to progression but a statistically significant difference in overall survival could not be demonstrated. We developed a novel two-phase equation to estimate concomitant rates of tumor regression (regression rate constant) and tumor growth (growth rate constant). This method allows us to assess therapeutic efficacy using tumor measurements gathered while a patient receives therapy in a clinical trial. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas were significantly lower during therapy with 10 microg/kg bevacizumab than those of tumors in patients receiving placebo. In all cohorts the tumor growth rate constants were correlated with survival. That a survival advantage was not demonstrated with bevacizumab appears to have been a result of early discontinuation of bevacizumab. Single-agent bevacizumab significantly affects the growth rate constants of renal cell carcinoma. Extrapolating from the growth rate constants, we conclude that the failure to demonstrate a survival advantage in the original study was a result of premature discontinuation of bevacizumab. The mathematical model described herein has applications to many tumor types and should aid in evaluating the relative efficacies of different therapies. Quantitating tumor growth rate constants using data gathered while patients are enrolled in a clinical trial, as in the present study, may streamline and assist in drug development.

  13. Survival Rates from Fracture of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Full-coverage Crowns or Direct Resin Composite Restorations: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Banomyong, Danuchit; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2017-12-02

    The aim of the present study was to compare the survival rates against fracture of premolar endodontically treated teeth (ETT) restored with resin composite or crowns and to identify risk factors associated with the fracture. Data from dental records and radiographs of premolar ETT with postendodontic restorations (ie, resin composite or crowns) were collected between 2012 and 2016 and selected following selected inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tooth location, type of restoration, number of proximal contacts, and amount of tooth surface loss were recorded. The incidence and restorability of postendodontic fractures were identified. Survival rates against fracture of the 2 restoration types were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Any potential factors associated with fractures were identified using Cox proportional hazards models. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns (95.1%) was higher than resin composite (77.0%). ETT restored with resin composite with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts had a high survival rate of 88.5% that was not significantly different from ETT with crowns. A higher incidence of restorability after fracture was observed in teeth restored with resin composite than crowns. The type of restoration and number of proximal contacts were identified as potential risk factors associated with fracture incidence. The survival rate against fracture of ETT restored with crowns was higher than resin composite. However, ETT with 1 or 2 tooth surface losses and 2 proximal contacts and restored with resin composite showed a high survival rate that was comparable with ETT restored with crowns. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival Rate of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) Restorations Using a Glass Ionomer Bilayer Technique with a Nanofilled Coating: A Bi-center Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Daniela; Bonifácio, Clarissa Calil; Bönecker, Marcelo; Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida Brandão; da Franca, Carolina; van Amerongen, Willem Evert; Colares, Viviane; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2016-01-01

    The high-viscosity consistency of glass ionomer cement (GIC) contributes to its inappropriate adaptation, while the material's premature exposure to humidity decreases its mechanical properties. This study's purposes were to: (1) investigate approximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations' survival in primary molars using two different insertion techniques and two surface protection materials; and (2) compare the results of cities where treatments were performed. A total of 389 six- to seven-year-olds were selected from two cities in Brazil and randomly assigned into four groups: (1) ART restorations plus petroleum jelly (PJ); (2) bilayer-ART restorations plus PJ; (3) ART restorations plus nanofilled coating for GIC (NC); (4) bilayer-ART restorations plus NC. Restorations were evaluated after one, six, 12, 18, and 24 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis were performed. Restorations' cumulative survival was 46.4 percent. There was a higher survival of bilayer-ART restorations (P=0.03). No difference was observed between surface protection materials (P=0.57). Restorations made in Barueri were almost 2.5-fold more likely to survive than those from Recife (PART restorations' survival in primary molars. The nanofilled coating does not influence restorations' survival rate, and the city where treatments were performed influences restoration survival.

  15. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  16. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yong Hoon [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Sang Jun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  17. Postoperative radiotherapy appeared to improve the disease free survival rate of patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer at high risk of loco-regional recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yonghoon; Byun, Sang Jun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (RT), in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer by comparing the survival rate between patients undergoing surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative RT, and to identify the prognostic factors affecting survival. Between 2000 and 2013, 52 patients with EHBD cancer underwent surgical resection. Of these, 33 patients did not receive postoperative RT (group I), and 19 patients did (group II). R1 resection was significantly more frequent in group II. The median radiation dose was 5,040 cGy. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate for group I and group II was 38% and 56%, respectively (p = 0.274). The 3-year disease free survival (DFS) rate for group I and group II was 20% and 31%, respectively (p = 0.049), and the 3-year loco-regional recurrence free survival (LRFS) rates were 19% and 58%, respectively (p = 0.002). Multivariate analyses showed that postoperative RT and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for DFS and LRFS. Overall, 42 patients (80%) experienced treatment failure. Distant metastasis was the predominant pattern of failure in group II. Postoperative RT after surgical resection appeared to improve the loco-regional control and DFS rate. More effort is needed to reduce distant metastasis, the major pattern of failure, in patients who receive postoperative RT.

  18. A generalized Forchheimer radial flow model for constant-rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yi-Feng; Zhan, Hongbin; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2017-09-01

    Models used for data interpretation of constant-rate tests (CRTs) are commonly derived with the assumption of Darcian flow in an idealized integer flow dimension, where the non-Darcian nature of fluid flow and the complexity of flow geometry are disregarded. In this study, a Forchheimer's law-based analytical model is proposed with the assumption of buildup (or drawdown) decomposition for characterizing the non-Darcian flow in a generalized radial formation where the flow dimension n may become non-integer. The proposed model immediately reduces to Barker's (1988) model for Darcian flow in the generalized radial formation and to Mathias et al.'s (2008) model for non-Darcian flow in a two-dimensional confined aquifer. A comparison with numerical simulations shows that the proposed model behaves well at late times for flow dimension n > 1.5. The proposed model is finally applied for data interpretation of the constant-rate pumping tests performed at Ploemeur (Le Borgne et al., 2004), showing that the intrinsic hydraulic conductivity of formations will be underestimated and the specific storage will be overestimated if the non-Darcian effect is ignored. The proposed model is an extension of the generalized radial flow (GRF) model based on Forchheimer's law, which would be of significance for data interpretation of CRTs in aquifers of complex flow geometry in which non-Darcian flow occurs.

  19. Rates and causes of accidents for general aviation aircraft operating in a mountainous and high elevation terrain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Marisa; Stolzer, Alan; Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-10-01

    Flying over mountainous and/or high elevation terrain is challenging due to rapidly changeable visibility, gusty/rotor winds and downdrafts and the necessity of terrain avoidance. Herein, general aviation accident rates and mishap cause/factors were determined (2001-2014) for a geographical region characterized by such terrain. Accidents in single piston engine-powered aircraft for states west of the US continental divide characterized by mountainous terrain and/or high elevation (MEHET) were identified from the NTSB database. MEHET-related-mishaps were defined as satisfying any one, or more, criteria (controlled flight into terrain/obstacles (CFIT), downdrafts, mountain obscuration, wind-shear, gusting winds, whiteout, instrument meteorological conditions; density altitude, dust-devil) cited as factors/causal in the NTSB report. Statistics employed Poisson distribution and contingency tables. Although the MEHET-related accident rate declined (p<0.001) 57% across the study period, the high proportion of fatal accidents showed little (40-43%) diminution (χ 2 =0.935). CFIT and wind gusts/shear were the most frequent accident cause/factor categories. For CFIT accidents, half occurred in degraded visibility with only 9% operating under instrument flight rules (IFR) and the majority (85%) involving non-turbo-charged engine-powered aircraft. For wind-gust/shear-related accidents, 44% occurred with a cross-wind exceeding the maximum demonstrated aircraft component. Accidents which should have been survivable but which nevertheless resulted in a fatal outcome were characterized by poor accessibility (60%) and shoulder harness under-utilization (41%). Despite a declining MEHET-related accident rate, these mishaps still carry an elevated risk of a fatal outcome. Airmen should be encouraged to operate in this environment utilizing turbo-charged-powered airplanes and flying under IFR to assure terrain clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A.; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S.; Leehey, Maureen A.; Pontone, Gregory M.; Chou, Kelvin L.; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. OBJECTIVE To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3–6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant’s BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss (“decreasing BMI”), weight stability (“stable BMI”), or weight gain (“increasing BMI”) during the study. RESULTS Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss

  1. The relationship between annual survival rate and migration distance in mallards: an examination of the time-allocation hypothesis for the evolution of migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Predictions of the time-allocation hypothesis were tested with several a posteriori analyses of banding data for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The time-allocation hypothesis states that the critical difference between resident and migrant birds is their allocation of time to reproduction on the breeding grounds and survival on the nonbreeding grounds. Residents have higher reproduction and migrants have higher survival. Survival and recovery rates were estimated by standard band-recovery methods for banding reference areas in the central United States and central Canada. A production-rate index was computed for each reference area with data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service May Breeding Population Survey and July Production Survey. An analysis of covariance was used to test for the effects of migration distance and time period (decade) on survival, recovery, and production rates. Differences in migration chronology were tested by comparing direct-recovery distributions for different populations during the fall migration. Differences in winter locations were tested by comparing distributions of direct recoveries reported during December and January. A strong positive relationship was found between survival rate, and migration distance for 3 of the 4 age and sex classes. A weak negative relationship was found between recovery rate and migration distance. No relationship was found between production rate and migration distance. During the fall migration, birds from the northern breeding populations were located north of birds from the southern breeding populations. No pattern could be found in the relative locations of breeding and wintering areas. Although our finding that survival rate increased with migration distance was consistent with the time-allocation hypothesis, our results on migration chronology and location of wintering areas were not consistent with the mechanism underlying the time-allocation hypothesis. Neither this analysis nor other recent

  2. A comparative study of generalized linear mixed modelling and artificial neural network approach for the joint modelling of survival and incidence of Dengue patients in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapugoda, J. C.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Survival time of patients with a disease and the incidence of that particular disease (count) is frequently observed in medical studies with the data of a clustered nature. In many cases, though, the survival times and the count can be correlated in a way that, diseases that occur rarely could have shorter survival times or vice versa. Due to this fact, joint modelling of these two variables will provide interesting and certainly improved results than modelling these separately. Authors have previously proposed a methodology using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) by joining the Discrete Time Hazard model with the Poisson Regression model to jointly model survival and count model. As Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) has become a most powerful computational tool to model complex non-linear systems, it was proposed to develop a new joint model of survival and count of Dengue patients of Sri Lanka by using that approach. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a model using ANN approach and compare the results with the previously developed GLMM model. As the response variables are continuous in nature, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) approach was adopted to model the data. To compare the model fit, measures such as root mean square error (RMSE), absolute mean error (AME) and correlation coefficient (R) were used. The measures indicate the GRNN model fits the data better than the GLMM model.

  3. Negative relationships between population density and metabolic rates are not general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, Varvara; Fossen, Erlend Ignacio; Kielland, Øystein Nordeide; Einum, Sigurd

    2016-07-01

    Population density has recently been suggested to be an important factor influencing metabolic rates and to represent an important 'third axis' explaining variation beyond that explained by body mass and temperature. In situations where population density influences food consumption, the immediate effect on metabolism acting through specific dynamic action (SDA), and downregulation due to fasting over longer periods, is well understood. However, according to a recent review, previous studies suggest a more general effect of population density per se, even in the absence of such effects. It has been hypothesized that this results from animals performing anticipatory responses (i.e. reduced activity) to expected declines in food availability. Here, we test the generality of this finding by measuring density effects on metabolic rates in 10 clones from two different species of the zooplankton Daphnia (Daphnia pulex Leydig and D. magna Straus). Using fluorescence-based respirometry, we obtain high-precision measures of metabolism. We also identify additional studies on this topic that were not included in the previous review, compare the results and evaluate the potential for measurement bias in all previous studies. We demonstrate significant variation in mass-specific metabolism among clones within both species. However, we find no evidence for a negative relationship between population density and mass-specific metabolism. The previously reported pattern also disappeared when we extended the set of studies analysed. We discuss potential reasons for the discrepancy among studies, including two main sources of potential bias (microbial respiration and declining oxygen consumption due to reduced oxygen availability). Only one of the previous studies gives sufficient information to conclude the absence of such biases, and consistent with our results, no effect of density on metabolism was found. We conclude that population density per se does not have a general effect

  4. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  5. Generalized groundwater plume with degradation and rate-limited sorption model with Mittag-Leffler law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr Saad T. Alkahtani

    Full Text Available The concept of differentiation with the generalized Mittag-Leffler law is used in this paper to construct the model of movement of groundwater pollution with degradation and limited sorption. The fractional differentiation used in the model is in Riemann-Liouville sense. The new model is solved analytically using the Green Laplace transform approach. A numerical scheme is used to obtain the numerical solution of the modified model. Keywords: Movement of groundwater pollution, Plume with degradation, Rate-limited sorption, Atangana-Baleanu derivative in Riemann-Liouville sense

  6. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  7. Survival rates as a guide to implanted cardioverter-defibrillator replacement strategies for device recalls--adding statistical insight to clinical intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Lorne J; Massel, David; Krahn, Andrew D; Skanes, Allan C; Yee, Raymond; Klein, George J

    2007-02-01

    Recalls and advisories of implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have become an unfortunate reality of cardiac rhythm management. With a paucity of data available on which to base replacement decisions, our goal is to model the potential risks and benefits of ICD generator replacement. The estimated risks are varied through a wide range to determine the potential range of outcomes. Using initial estimates of risk derived from real data on 2915 advisory devices from 17 implanting centers, a decision analysis and Markov model were used to estimate survival according to device replacement decision. Survival rates at 5 years with and without device replacement were estimated at 60.38% and 60.66%, respectively. This difference was not significantly different on comparative analysis, using variability determined by Monte Carlo simulation. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses are presented, demonstrating the minimal effect of varying estimates of risk. Only variation in risk of device failure had a differential effect on survival, with a survival benefit at 7 years if annual risk of device failure is at least 1.8%. Little differential effect on survival was demonstrated by variation of estimates of arrhythmia risk, nonarrhythmic mortality, and postprocedure infection rate. Survival rates with a generator replacement or nonreplacement strategy in response to ICD recalls are similar and decrease nearly in parallel over time. The main factor with differential effect on survival is risk of device failure, although the level of this risk required to confer a survival advantage to a replacement strategy is quite large.

  8. Pharmacogenetic analysis of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a possible association between survival rate and ITPA polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyery Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms are important factors in the effects and toxicity of chemotherapeutics. To analyze the pharmacogenetic and ethnic differences in chemotherapeutics, major genes implicated in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL were analyzed. Eighteen loci of 16 genes in 100 patients with ALL were analyzed. The distribution of variant alleles were CYP3A4*1B (0%, CYP3A5*3 (0%, GSTM1 (21%, GSTP1 (21%, GSTT1 (16%, MDR1 exon 21 (77%, MDR1 exon 26 (61%, MTHFR 677 (63%, MTHFR 1298 (29%, NR3C1 1088 (0%, RFC1 80 (68%, TPMT combined genotype (7%, VDR intron 8 (11%, VDR FokI (83%, TYMS enhancer repeat (22% and ITPA 94 (30%. The frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of 10 loci were statistically different from those in Western Caucasians. Dose percents (actual/planned dose or toxicity of mercaptopurine and methotrexate were not related to any SNPs. Event free survival (EFS rate was lower in ITPA variants, and ITPA 94 AC/AA variant genotypes were the only independent risk factor for lower EFS in multivariate analysis, which was a different pharmacogenetic implication from Western studies. This study is the first pharmacogenetic study in Korean pediatric ALL. Our result suggests that there are other possible pharmacogenetic factors besides TPMT or ITPA polymorphisms which influence the metabolism of mercaptopurine in Asian populations.

  9. SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH AND SEEDLING QUALITY INDEX OF Baringtonia Asiatica Kurz STUMP DUE TO LENGTH VARIATION OF STEMS AND ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are 14805.14 ha of North Sulawesi coastal ecosystems that has been damaged. Baringtonia asiatica Kurz (Keben is one type of coastal plants that can be used to protect coastal areas . Unfortunately, the propagation technique of keben was not widely studied. This study aims to determine the characters of seedlings produced from the stumps of seed germination. The research used Complete Random Design with nine treatments, consisting of combination between three levels of root length (0 cm, 5 cm and 10 cm, and three levels of the stems length (5 cm, 15 cm and 30 cm. Parameters for analysis include percent of success, growth and quality index. The results show that root length and stem length factors significantly affect the height and robustness value. Treatment of root length of 10 cm and 5 cm rods allegedly produces the most excellent quality with the survival rates 93 %, height 10.3 cm, diameter 1.08 cm, robustness value 2.03 and index of seed quality 1.35. Based on regulation of land rehabilitation, the height of 10 weeks stump have not qualified yet.

  10. Evaluation of survival rate, bone loss and post operative complication in fixed retained prosthesis with All-on-4 technique: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival rate, mean bone loss and post operative complication of implants inserted in All-on-4 technique .   Materials and Methods: The literature was searched using keywords angled implant, All-on-4, tilted implant and graftless technique in the last 10 years (2001 to 2011 and clinical trial article that evaluated survival rate and mean bone loss around axial and tilted implants in All-on-4 technique was selected and evaluated.   A total of 73 articles were found by searching. After evaluation of titles and abstracts, finally 10 clinical trial, that were fully consistent with including criteria such as mean of bone loss and survival rate was selected and evaluated.   Conclusion: Results showed that the survival rate (96-100% and mean bone loss (0.34-1.9 mm with All-on-4 technique in immediate loading is comparable with other implant support treatment plan. Comparison of implant survival and bone loss in axial and tilted implant in All-on-4 system is shown this treatment plan has consistent result with other conventional implant support prosthesis. Also, postoperative complication including fractures of the acrylic temporary prosthesis, detachment of the teeth, abutment or prosthesis screw loosening have been reported with All-on-4 technique.

  11. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  12. Striking variations in consultation rates with general practice reveal family influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reasons why patients decide to consult a general practitioner vary enormously. While there may be individual reasons for this variation, the family context has a significant and unique influence upon the frequency of individuals' visits. The objective of this study was to explore which family factors can explain the differences between strikingly high, and correspondingly low, family consultation rates in families with children aged up to 21. Methods Data were used from the second Dutch national survey of general practice. This survey extracted from the medical records of 96 practices in the Netherlands, information on all consultations with patients during 2001. We defined, through multilevel analysis, two groups of families. These had respectively, predominantly high, and low, contact frequencies due to a significant family influence upon the frequency of the individual's first contacts. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to analyse which of the family factors, related to shared circumstances and socialisation conditions, can explain the differences in consultation rates between the two groups of families. Results In almost 3% of all families, individual consultation rates decrease significantly due to family influence. In 11% of the families, individual consultation rates significantly increase due to family influence. While taking into account the health status of family members, family factors can explain family consultation rates. These factors include circumstances such as their economic status and number of children, as well as socialisation conditions such as specific health knowledge and family beliefs. The chance of significant low frequencies of contact due to family influences increases significantly with factors such as, paid employment of parents in the health care sector, low expectations of general practitioners' care for minor ailments and a western cultural background. Conclusion Family

  13. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  14. New tests of the distal speech rate effect: Examining cross-linguistic generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDilley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings [Dilley and Pitt, 2010. Psych. Science. 21, 1664-1670] have shown that manipulating context speech rate in English can cause entire syllables to disappear or appear perceptually. The current studies tested two rate-based explanations of this phenomenon while attempting to replicate and extend these findings to another language, Russian. In Experiment 1, native Russian speakers listened to Russian sentences which had been subjected to rate manipulations and performed a lexical report task. Experiment 2 investigated speech rate effects in cross-language speech perception; non-native speakers of Russian of both high and low proficiency were tested on the same Russian sentences as in Experiment 1. They decided between two lexical interpretations of a critical portion of the sentence, where one choice contained more phonological material than the other (e.g., /stərʌ'na/ side vs. /strʌ'na/ country. In both experiments, with native and non-native speakers of Russian, context speech rate and the relative duration of the critical sentence portion were found to influence the amount of phonological material perceived. The results support the generalized rate normalization hypothesis, according to which the content perceived in a spectrally ambiguous stretch of speech depends on the duration of that content relative to the surrounding speech, while showing that the findings of Dilley and Pitt (2010 extend to a variety of morphosyntactic contexts and a new language, Russian. Findings indicate that relative timing cues across an utterance can be critical to accurate lexical perception by both native and non-native speakers.

  15. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  16. EFFECT OF INOCULUM SIZE ON SURVIVAL RATE OF CANDIDA-ALBICANS AND ASPERGILLUS-NIGER IN TOPICAL PREPARATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; DEVRINGER, T

    The survival of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in O/W creams with different types and concentrations of parabens was studied. The survival was not only dependent on the type and concentration of the preservative, but also on the size of the inoculum. The results are relevant for future

  17. The Risk of Growing Fast: Does fast growth have a negative impact on the survival rates of firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; van der Zwan, Peter; de Kok, Jan; Hartog, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing firms are considered as the central drivers of job creation in the economy. There is an abundance of literature on the separate subjects of firm growth and firm survival. However, the relationship between survival and growth is neglected. Using the Dutch Longitudinal Enterprise Database

  18. Two-Year Success Rate of Implant-Retained Mandibular Overdentures by Novice General Dentistry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrom, Hans; Xiao, Jin; Romanos, Georgios; Ren, Yan-Fang

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical success and patient satisfaction when dental implant-retained mandibular overdentures are placed and restored by novice general dentistry residents. A total of 50 subjects who were dissatisfied with their mandibular complete dentures were enrolled in the study. Two dental implants were placed in the anterior mandible between the mental foramina by novice general dentistry residents under the direct supervision of the principal investigator. The resident attached the denture to the implants 3 to 4 months later using locator attachments. The implant success rate was determined by measuring bone loss, mobility, pocket probing depth, and gingival and plaque indices. Subjects were asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire with the prosthesis at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after overdenture delivery. A total of 100 implants were placed in the 50 study subjects. Of these, 2 implants were lost in 1 subject, and 1 subject died due to unrelated causes. Of the 48 remaining subjects, 45 have had their implants restored with overdentures. The subjects' overall satisfaction with fit and ability to chew hard foods with their mandibular overdentures improved significantly (P general dentistry residents can successfully place mandibular implants and restore them with overdentures under direct supervision, subsequently enhancing the subjects' satisfaction with their mandibular dentures.

  19. Error Rates of M-PAM and M-QAM in Generalized Fading and Generalized Gaussian Noise Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-07-01

    This letter investigates the average symbol error probability (ASEP) of pulse amplitude modulation and quadrature amplitude modulation coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive white generalized Gaussian noise. The new ASEP results are derived in a generic closed-form in terms of the Fox H function and the bivariate Fox H function for the extended generalized-K fading case. The utility of this new general closed-form is that it includes some special fading distributions, like the Generalized-K, Nakagami-m, and Rayleigh fading and special noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian. Some of these special cases are also treated and are shown to yield simplified results.

  20. Older adults rate their mental health better than their general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Magwene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-rated health (SRH shows strong associations with measures of health and well-being. Increasingly, studies have used self-rated mental health (SRMH as a predictor of various outcomes, independently or together with SRH. Research has not firmly established if and how these two constructs differ. We sought to characterize the relationship between SRH and SRMH, and to determine how this relationship differed across subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related characteristics.Design and methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 CAHPS Medicare Advantage Survey. SRH and SRMH ratings were crosstabulated to determine the distribution of responses across response categories. The expected joint probability distribution was computed and compared to the observed distribution. A constructed variable indicated whether SRMH was better, the same, or worse than SRH. We analyzed the distribution of this variable across various subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results. A total of 114,905 Medicare Advantage beneficiaries responded to both the SRH and SRMH questions. Both in general and within all subgroups, SRMH was usually rated as better than SRH, and rarely as worse. Conclusions. Within a large group of Medicare recipients, the overwhelming trend was for recipients to rate their mental health as at least as good as their overall health, regardless of any sociodemographic and health-related factors. This finding of a shifted distribution encourages caution in the analytic use of selfrated mental health, particularly the use of both SRH and SRMH for adjustment. Additional research is needed to help clarify the complex relationship between these variables.

  1. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  2. Generalized Rate Theory for Void and Bubble Swelling and its Application to Plutonium Metal Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolfer, W. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    In the classical rate theory for void swelling, vacancies and self-interstitials are produced by radiation in equal numbers, and in addition, thermal vacancies are also generated at the sinks, primarily at edge dislocations, at voids, and at grain boundaries. In contrast, due to the high formation energy of self-interstitials for normal metals and alloys, their thermal generation is negligible, as pointed out by Bullough and Perrin. However, recent DFT calculations of the formation energy of self-interstitial atoms in bcc metals have revealed that the sum of formation and migration energies for self-interstitials atoms (SIA) is of the same order of magnitude as for vacancies. The ratio of the activation energies for thermal generation of SIA and vacancies is presented. For fcc metals, this ratio is around three, but for bcc metals it is around 1.5. Reviewing theoretical predictions of point defect properties in δ-Pu, this ratio could possibly be less than one. As a result, thermal generation of SIA in bcc metals and in plutonium must be taken into considerations when modeling the growth of voids and of helium bubbles, and the classical rate theory (CRT) for void and bubble swelling must be extended to a generalized rate theory (GRT).

  3. Rock climbing injury rates and associated risk factors in a general climbing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, S; Ericson, L; Janson, S; Timpka, T

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to examine injury rates and associated risk factors in a representative sample of climbers. A random sample (n=606) of the Swedish Climbing Association members was sent a postal survey, with an effective response rate of 63%. Self-reported data regarding climbing history, safety practices and retrospective accounts of injury events (recall period 1.5 years) were obtained. Descriptive statistical methods were used to calculate injury incidences, and a two-step method including zero-inflated Poisson's regression analysis of re-injuries was used to determine the combination of risk factors that best explained individual injury rates. Overall, 4.2 injuries per 1000 climbing hours were reported, overuse injuries accounting for 93% of all injuries. Inflammatory tissue damages to fingers and wrists were the most common injury types. The multivariate analysis showed that overweight and practicing bouldering generally implied an increased primary injury risk, while there was a higher re-injury risk among male climbers and a lower risk among the older climbers. The high percentage of overuse injuries implies that climbing hours and loads should be gradually and systematically increased, and climbers regularly controlled for signs and symptoms of overuse. Further study of the association between body mass index and climbing injury is warranted.

  4. Rates and risk factors of unplanned 30-day readmission following general and thoracic pediatric surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Stephanie F; Potter, Donald D; Glasgow, Amy E; Klinkner, Denise B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative unplanned readmissions are costly and decrease patient satisfaction; however, little is known about this complication in pediatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine rates and predictors of unplanned readmission in a multi-institutional cohort of pediatric surgical patients. Unplanned 30-day readmissions following general and thoracic surgical procedures in children Pediatric. Time-dependent rates of readmission per 30 person-days were determined to account for varied postoperative length of stay (pLOS). Patients were randomly divided into 70% derivation and 30% validation cohorts which were used for creation and validation of a risk model for readmission. Readmission occurred in 1948 (3.6%) of 54,870 children for a rate of 4.3% per 30 person-days. Adjusted predictors of readmission included hepatobiliary procedures, increased wound class, operative duration, complications, and pLOS. The predictive model discriminated well in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC 0.710 and 0.701) with good calibration between observed and expected readmission events in both cohorts (p>.05). Unplanned readmission occurs less frequently in pediatric surgery than what is described in adults, calling into question its use as a quality indicator in this population. Factors that predict readmission including type of procedure, complications, and pLOS can be used to identify at-risk children and develop prevention strategies. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimated glucose disposal rate and long-term survival in type 2 diabetes after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Thomas; Holzmann, Martin J; Eliasson, Björn; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Kuhl, Jeanette; Sartipy, Ulrik

    2017-03-01

    We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with type 2 diabetes. All patients who underwent primary CABG in Sweden from 2006 to 2013 were identified from the SWEDEHEART register and by record linkage to the National Diabetes Register; all patients with type 2 diabetes were included and formed the study population. Patients were followed until 2013 through national registers for major adverse cardiovascular events and death from any cause. eGDR was calculated using waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c, and presence or the absence of hypertension. The association between eGDR and death was estimated using multivariable Cox regression. A total of 3256 patients were included. During a mean follow-up of 3.1 years (10,227 person-years), in total, 14 % patients died: 17 % (n = 186) in the 1st tertile (lowest eGDR), 14 % (n = 145) in the 2nd tertile, and 13 % (n = 133) in the 3rd tertile (highest eGDR). There was a significant association between eGDR and increased risk of death: adjusted hazard ratio (95 % confidence interval): 1.46 (1.12-1.90) for the 1st eGDR tertile compared to the 3rd and highest eGDR tertile. In conclusion, patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent CABG, a low eGDR, were associated with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality that was independent of other cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Insulin resistance measured by eGDR could be a useful risk marker in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease.

  6. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations.

  7. Hepatic arterial embolization and chemoembolization for the treatment of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors: variables affecting response rates and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Sanjay; Johnson, Marcella M; Murthy, Ravi; Ahrar, Kamran; Wallace, Michael J; Madoff, David C; McRae, Stephen E; Hicks, Marshall E; Rao, Sujaya; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Ajani, Jaffer A; Yao, James C

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic variables that influence response and survival in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who are treated with hepatic arterial embolization (HAE...

  8. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under clean-room conditions that often require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation on the surface of Mars. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  9. Combined D-optimal design and generalized regression neural network for modeling of plasma etching rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Hailong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma etching process plays a critical role in semiconductor manufacturing. Because physical and chemical mechanisms involved in plasma etching are extremely complicated, models supporting process control are difficult to construct. This paper uses a 35-run D-optimal design to efficiently collect data under well planned conditions for important controllable variables such as power, pressure, electrode gap and gas flows of Cl2 and He and the response, etching rate, for building an empirical underlying model. Since the relationship between the control and response variables could be highly nonlinear, a generalized regression neural network is used to select important model variables and their combination effects and to fit the model. Compared with the response surface methodology, the proposed method has better prediction performance in training and testing samples. A success application of the model to control the plasma etching process demonstrates the effectiveness of the methods.

  10. Moment expansion to the memory function for generalized Drude scattering rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Pankaj; Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder

    2016-05-01

    The memory function formalism is an important tool to evaluate the frequency dependent electronic conductivity. It is previously used within some approximations in the case of electrons interacting with various other degrees of freedom in metals with great success. However, one needs to go beyond those approximations as the interaction strengths become stronger. In this work, we propose a systematic expansion of the memory function involving its various moments. We calculate the higher order contribution to the generalized Drude scattering rate in case of electron-impurity interactions. Further we compare our results with the results from previously studied lowest order calculations. We find larger contributions from the higher moments in the low frequency regime and also in the case of larger interaction strength.

  11. Moment expansion to the memory function for generalized Drude scattering rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, Pankaj, E-mail: pankajbhalla66@gmail.com [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, 382355 (India); Das, Nabyendu; Singh, Navinder [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2016-05-20

    The memory function formalism is an important tool to evaluate the frequency dependent electronic conductivity. It is previously used within some approximations in the case of electrons interacting with various other degrees of freedom in metals with great success. However, one needs to go beyond those approximations as the interaction strengths become stronger. In this work, we propose a systematic expansion of the memory function involving its various moments. We calculate the higher order contribution to the generalized Drude scattering rate in case of electron–impurity interactions. Further we compare our results with the results from previously studied lowest order calculations. We find larger contributions from the higher moments in the low frequency regime and also in the case of larger interaction strength.

  12. Effects of Some Natural Immunomodulatory Compounds in Combination with Thalidomide on Survival Rate and Tumor Size in Fibrosarcoma-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Aghebati Maleki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite significant advances have been achieved in cancer therapy, response to conventional treatments like surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy varies among individuals. Immunotherapy is known to be an effective strategy for patients who are resistant to the currently available interventions. Methods: Ninety-six male Balb/c mice (aged 6-8 weeks were selected and divided into twelve groups of eight. Approximately, 1×106of WEHI-164 cells were injected to each mouse for tumor genesis. Five immunotherapy treatments were considered in this study, including Heat Shock Proteins (HSP, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Bifidobacterium, Immuno-Modulator Drug (IMOD and Thalidomide. After tumor formation, the groups were treated with one or more of these therapies. Tumor size and survival rate was regularly monitored. Results: Depending on the treatment group, tumor sizes were different. In some groups, combined treatments demonstrated more inhibitory effects on tumor growth rate. The mice in group (IMOD+ Thalidomide had the lowest survival rate but group (BCG+ HSP+ Thalidomide survived until the end of the experiment. Conclusion: The (HSP+ BCG+ Thalidomide group exhibited satisfactory outcomes and two third of the mice in this group went into complete remission. Some combination therapies in test groups had significant impacts on survival and tumor growth rate.

  13. A meta-analysis of clinical studies to estimate the 4.5-year survival rate of implants placed with the osteotome technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalabi, M.M.; Manders, P.; Mulder, J.; Jansen, J.A.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the survival rate of implants placed with the osteotome technique by means of a systematic review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature was searched using Medline; the search was limited to the years 1953 to 2005. Inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical studies or clinical

  14. Two-year survival rates of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment restorations in relation to glass ionomer cements and postrestoration meals consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; Opinya, G.N.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Mwalili, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 3 glass ionomer cement (GIC) brands and the postrestoration meal consumed on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations. Methods: A total of 804 proximal restorations were placed in primary

  15. Retrospective comparative ten-year study of cumulative survival rates of remaining teeth in large edentulism treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures or removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Seiya; Arakawa, Hikaru; Maekawa, Kenji; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Noda, Kinji; Minakuchi, Hajime; Sonoyama, Wataru; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the survival rates of remaining teeth between implant-supported fixed dentures (IFDs) and removable partial dentures (RPDs) in patients with large edentulous cases. The second goal was to assess the risk factors for remaining tooth loss. The study subjects were selected among those who received prosthodontic treatment at Okayama University Dental Hospital for their edentulous space exceeding at least four continuous missing teeth. Twenty-one patients were included in the IFD group and 82 patients were included in the RPD group. Survival rates of remaining teeth were calculated in three subcategories: (1) whole remaining teeth, (2) adjacent teeth to intended edentulous space, and (3) opposing teeth to intended edentulous space. The ten-year cumulative survival rate of the whole remaining teeth was significantly higher in the IFD group (40.0%) than in the RPD group (24.4%). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between two groups in the survival rate of teeth adjacent or opposing to intended edentulous space. A Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that RPD restoration and gender (male) were the significant risk factors for remaining tooth loss (whole remaining teeth). These results suggest that IFD treatment can reduce the incidence of remaining tooth loss in large edentulous cases. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part I: Single crowns (SCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Makarov, Nikolay Alexandrovich; Thoma, Daniel Stefan; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pjetursson, Bjarni Elvar

    2015-06-01

    To assess the 5-year survival of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic tooth-supported single crowns (SCs) and to describe the incidence of biological, technical and esthetic complications. Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) searches (2006-2013) were performed for clinical studies focusing on tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a mean follow-up of at least 3 years. This was complimented by an additional hand search and the inclusion of 34 studies from a previous systematic review [1,2]. Survival and complication rates were analyzed using robust Poisson's regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Sixty-seven studies reporting on 4663 metal-ceramic and 9434 all-ceramic SCs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventeen studies reported on metal-ceramic crowns, and 54 studies reported on all-ceramic crowns. Meta-analysis of the included studies indicated an estimated survival rate of metal-ceramic SCs of 94.7% (95% CI: 94.1-96.9%) after 5 years. This was similar to the estimated 5-year survival rate of leucit or lithium-disilicate reinforced glass ceramic SCs (96.6%; 95% CI: 94.9-96.7%), of glass infiltrated alumina SCs (94.6%; 95% CI: 92.7-96%) and densely sintered alumina and zirconia SCs (96%; 95% CI: 93.8-97.5%; 92.1%; 95% CI: 82.8-95.6%). In contrast, the 5-year survival rates of feldspathic/silica-based ceramic crowns were lower (pcrowns exhibited significantly lower survival rates in the posterior region (pcrown types performed similarly. Densely sintered zirconia SCs were more frequently lost due to veneering ceramic fractures than metal-ceramic SCs (p<0.001), and had significantly more loss of retention (p<0.001). In total higher 5 year rates of framework fracture were reported for the all-ceramic SCs than for metal-ceramic SCs. Survival rates of most types of all-ceramic SCs were similar to those reported for metal-ceramic SCs, both in anterior and posterior regions. Weaker

  17. Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients. Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age (P<0.05 for all. With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (P=1.519. Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.

  18. Assessment of Survival Rate and Affected Factor in Referred Patients with Postoperative Gastric Cancer in Be'sat Hospital of Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gastric cancer is the forth common cancer and second cause of death. Surgery is the primary treatment of gastric cancer and chemotherapy and radiotherapy is used as supplementary treatments. The aim of this study is estimation of survival and affected fac-tor in the patients with gastric cancer after surgery in Hamadan province. Materials & Methods: All patients with postoperative gastric cancer were collected in Hamadan province as a retrospective study in 2006-2012. Survival time of the patients was deter-mined from the time of diagnosis to death or the end of the study. The effect of risk factors such as gender, age at diagnosis, tumor site, type of tumor and … on survival was assessed. The data was analyzed by Cox regression model and using SPSS16 statistical software. Results: 67 patients with postoperative gastric cancer were assessed. 48 patients (71.6% were male and 40 case died during the study. Median survival of patients was 26 months and 1, 3 and 5 year survival rates were 67, 40 and 36 percent, respectively. The effect of gender, di-agnosis age and stage on survival was statistically significant. Conclusion: Survival rate of postoperative gastric cancer in Hamadan is low similar to other regions in Iran. The most important cause is late referral of the patients. So, pervasive educa-tion via mass media about primary symptoms and risk factors of this malady is highly sug-gested. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:271-276

  19. Generalized Rate Theory for Void and Bubble Swelling and its Application to Delta-Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wall, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wolfer, W. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-04

    A rate theory for void and bubble swelling is derived that allows both vacancies and self-interstitial atoms to be generated by thermal activation at all sinks. In addition, they can also be produced by displacement damage from external and internal radiation. This generalized rate theory (GRT) is applied to swelling of gallium-stabilized δ-plutonium in which α-decay causes the displacement damage. Since the helium atoms produced also become trapped in vacancies, a distinction is made between empty and occupied vacancies. The growth of helium bubbles observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in weapons-grade and in material enriched with Pu238 is analyzed, using different values for the formation energy of self-interstitial atoms (SIA) and two different sets of relaxation volumes for the vacancy and for the SIA. One set allows preferential capture of SIA at dislocations, while the other set gives equal preference to both vacancy and SIA. It is found that the helium bubble diameters observed are in better agreement with GRT predictions if no preferential capture occurs at dislocations. Therefore, helium bubbles in δ-plutonium will not evolve into voids. The helium density within the bubbles remains sufficiently high to cause thermal emission of SIA. Based on a helium density between two to three helium atoms per vacant site, the sum of formation and migration energies must be around 2.0 eV for SIA in δ-plutonium.

  20. [Multi-disciplinary treatment increases the survival rate of late stage pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers treated by free jejunal flap reconstruction after cancer resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Zhang, H; Ni, S; Wang, J; Li, D Z; Liu, S Y

    2016-05-23

    To investigate the survival status of patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers, who received free jejunal flap (FJF) to repair the defects following tumor resection, and to analyze the effect of multi-disciplinary treatment on their survival. Fifty-eight patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancer underwent free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction after cancer resection between 2010 and 2013. All their clinical records were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of flap transplantation was 91.4% (53/58). The 2-year overall survival rates (OSR) of cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer patients were 67.5% and 49.3%, respectively, both were significantly better than that of laryngeal cancer. The main causes of death were local recurrence and distant metastases. The group with no short-term complications had a better two-year OSR (59.0%) than the group with short-term complications (46.6%), however, the difference between them was not significant (P=0.103). The 2-year survival rate of the initial treatment group was 65.0%, better than that of the salvage treatment group (49.4%), but the difference was not significant (P=0.051). For the stage III and IV patients, the multi-disciplinary treatment group had a significantly better 2-year OSR (64.7%) than the single or sequential treatment group (37.0%, P=0.016). Free jejunal flap reconstruction is an ideal option for repairing the cervical digestive tract circumferential defects caused by tumor resection with a high success rate and a low mortality. Compared with the single or sequential treatment, multi-disciplinary treatment can significantly improve the survival rate of late-stage hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer patients.

  1. Mortality Prediction with a Single General Self-Rated Health Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Karen B; Bloser, Nicole; Reynolds, Kristi; He, Jiang; Muntner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    objective Health planners and policy makers are increasingly asking for a feasible method to identify vulnerable persons with the greatest health needs. We conducted a systematic review of the association between a single item assessing general self-rated health (GSRH) and mortality. Data Sources Systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE database searches for studies published from January 1966 to September 2003. Review Methods Two investigators independently searched English language prospective, community-based cohort studies that reported (1) all-cause mortality, (2) a question assessing GSRH; and (3) an adjusted relative risk or equivalent. The investigators searched the citations to determine inclusion eligibility and abstracted data by following a standarized protocol. Of the 163 relevant studies identified, 22 cohorts met the inclusion criteria. Using a random effects model, compared with persons reporting “excellent” health status, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality was 1.23 [1.09, 1.39], 1.44 [1.21, 1.71], and 1.92 [1.64, 2.25] for those reporting “good,”“fair,” and “poor” health status, respectively. This relationship was robust in sensitivity analyses, limited to studies that adjusted for co-morbid illness, functional status, cognitive status, and depression, and across subgroups defined by gender and country of origin. Conclusions Persons with “poor” self-rated health had a 2-fold higher mortality risk compared with persons with “excellent” self-rated health. Subjects' responses to a simple, single-item GSRH question maintained a strong association with mortality even after adjustment for key covariates such as functional status, depression, and co-morbidity. PMID:16336622

  2. Rapid Enhancement in General Relativistic Precession Rates due to Kozai Mechanism in Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Werner, Stephanie; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie

    2017-06-01

    Two well known phenomena in orbital dynamics associated with low perihelion distance bodies are general relativistic (GR) precession and Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations.In this work, we are interested to identify bodies evolving in the near future (i.e. thousands of years in this case) into rapid sungrazing and sun colliding phases and undergoing inclination flips, due to LK like oscillations and being GR active at the same time. We find that LK mechanism leads to secular lowering of perihelion distance which in turn leads to a huge increase in GR precession of the argument of pericentre depending on the initial orbital elements. This in turn gives feedback to the LK mechanism as the eccentricity, inclination and argument of pericentre in Kozai cycles are closely correlated. In this work, we find real examples of solar system bodies which show rapid enhancement in GR precession rates due to LK like oscillations and there are cases where GR precession rate peaks to about 60 times that of the GR precession of Mercury thus showing the strength and complementary nature between these two dynamical phenomena.An analytical treatment is done on few bodies to understand the difference in their orbital evolution in the context of LK mechanism with and without GR precession term by incorporating suitable Hamiltonian dynamics. This result is subsequently matched using numerical integrations to find direct correlations. Real solar system bodies showing both GR precession and LK like oscillations are identified using compiled observational records from IAU-Minor Planet Center, Cometary Catalogue, IAU-Meteor Data Center and performing analytical plus numerical tests on them. This intermediate state (where GR and LK effects are comparable and co-exist) brings up the interesting possibility of drastic changes in GR precession rates during orbital evolution due to sungrazing and sun colliding phases induced by the LK like mechanism, thus combining both these important effects in a

  3. Main Clinical Outcomes of Feldspathic Porcelain and Glass-Ceramic Laminate Veneers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Survival and Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Susana; Albanesi, Rafael Borges; Sesma, Newton; Agra, Carlos Martins; Braga, Mariana Minatel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis based on clinical trials that evaluated the main outcomes of glass-ceramic and feldspathic porcelain laminate veneers. A systematic search was carried out in Cochrane and PubMed databases. From the selected studies, the survival rates for porcelain and glass-ceramic veneers were extracted, as were complication rates of clinical outcomes: debonding, fracture/chipping, secondary caries, endodontic problems, severe marginal discoloration, and influence of incisal coverage and enamel/dentin preparation. The Cochran Q test and the I(2) statistic were used to evaluate heterogeneity. Out of the 899 articles initially identified, 13 were included for analysis. Metaregression analysis showed that the types of ceramics and follow-up periods had no influence on failure rate. The estimated overall cumulative survival rate was 89% (95% CI: 84% to 94%) in a median follow-up period of 9 years. The estimated survival for glass-ceramic was 94% (95% CI: 87% to 100%), and for feldspathic porcelain veneers, 87% (95% CI: 82% to 93%). The meta-analysis showed rates for the following events: debonding: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 4%); fracture/chipping: 4% (95% CI: 3% to 6%); secondary caries: 1% (95% CI: 0% to 3%); severe marginal discoloration: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 10%); endodontic problems: 2% (95% CI: 1% to 3%); and incisal coverage odds ratio: 1.25 (95% CI: 0.33 to 4.73). It was not possible to perform meta-analysis of the influence of enamel/dentin preparation on failure rates. Glass-ceramic and porcelain laminate veneers have high survival rates. Fracture/ chipping was the most frequent complication, providing evidence that ceramic veneers are a safe treatment option that preserve tooth structure.

  4. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; Harnish, R. A.; Woodley, C. M.; Hughes, J. A.; Li, X.; Fu, T.; Lu, J.; McMichael, G. A.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, R. L.

    2017-02-01

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitter are key limiting factors. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first acoustic transmitter that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectable transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the proceeding generation of commercially-available JSATS transmitters tested concurrently. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable transmitter had a higher survival probability from release to each of eleven downstream detection arrays, because reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. The information gathered with this new technology is helping to evaluate the impacts of dams on fishes.

  5. Preoperative lipiodol marking and its role on survival and complication rates of CT-guided cryoablation for small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Fumiya; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakmura, Terukazu; Naya, Yoshio; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; Ichijo, Yusuke; Miki, Tsuneharu; Yamada, Kei; Ukimura, Osamu

    2017-01-18

    improving complication and survival rates with cryoablation.

  6. A Retrospective Study of the 3-Year Survival Rate of Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Cement Class II Restorations in Primary Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webman, Mark; Mulki, Ezat; Roldan, Rosie; Arevalo, Oscar; Roberts, John F; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the three-year survival rate of Class II resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC), Vitremer, restorations in primary molars and to compare these results with measurements of survival of Class II restorations of standard restorative materials. Data on Class II restorations placed in primary molars during a six-year period were collected through a chart review and radiographic evaluation in the office of a board-certified pediatric dentist. A radiograph showing that the restoration was intact was required at least 3 years after placement to qualify as successful. If no radiograph existed, the restoration was excluded. If the restoration was not found to be intact radiographically or was charted as having been replaced before three years it was recorded as a failure. The results of this study were then compared to other standard restorative materials using normalized annual failure rates. Of the 1,231 Class II resinmodified glass-ionomer cement restorations placed over six years 427 met the inclusion criteria. There was a 97.42% survival rate for a 3-year period equivalent to an annual failure rate of 0.86%. A novel approach comparing materials showed that in this study Vitremer compared very favorably to previously published success rates of other standard restorative materials (amalgam, composite, stainless steel crown, compomer) and other RMGIC studies.

  7. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  8. Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K.; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival. OBJECTIVE To examine...... temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which...... resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n...

  9. INSURE method (INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation) in early and late premature neonates with respiratory distress: factors affecting the outcome and survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseh, Ali; Yekta, Batool Ghorbani

    2014-01-01

    We studied the effects of administering exogenous surfactant for the treatment of respiratory distress in premature neonates (born before 37 weeks of gestational age [GA]) and compared the role of different risk factors on the outcome as well as survival rate. All the neonates (242) suffered from moderate to severe respiratory distress, identified by clinical signs, chest X-ray, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) score >6, and blood gas measurements. All the neonates included were treated by administering surfactant (Beractant or Poractant alfa, dosage 100 mg/kg). The INSURE method was "successful" in 74% of patients, meaning there was no need for a second dose of surfactant or mechanical ventilation repetition. The factors that determined the "success" (Table II) were as follows: type of delivery, weight, GA, and number of fetuses. The factors affecting survival were: number of fetuses, mechanical ventilation dependency, pregnancy complications, and type of surfactant. The INSURE method reduced mortality (91.3% survived).

  10. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  11. The recommended treatment algorithms of the BCLC and HKLC staging systems: does following these always improve survival rates for HCC patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Jung, Sin-Ho; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-10-01

    Several staging systems have been proposed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among them, only the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC) staging systems also recommend treatment modality. This study was designed to see whether BCLC and HKLC staging can guide treatment strategy, so analyzed whether patients survival is better for those who received recommended therapy by each staging system. A total of 3515 treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed HCC patients at a single centre were analyzed. Five-year survival rates according to BCLC stages: 0 = 79.1%, A = 62.9%, B = 40.3%, C = 21.3% and D = 27.0%; 5-year survival rates according to HKLC stages: I = 72.3%, IIa = 54.9%, IIb = 50.6%, IIIa = 21.3%, IIIb = 10.2%, IVa = 16.7%, IVb = 7.2%, Va = 47.1% and Vb = 11.3%. The C-indices of the BCLC and HKLC staging systems were 0.708 and 0.732 respectively. Patient survival was better when patients received the recommended treatment in stages 0 or A; survival was worse if treatment began at stage B, C or D. For HKLC staging system, survival was better when patients received the recommended treatment in stages I, IIa, IIb, IIIa or Va but was worse when treatment began in stages IIIb, IVa, IVb or Vb. Both the BCLC and HKLC staging systems effectively stratified patient prognosis, but neither could direct therapy for a large proportion of patients; for some stages, recommended therapy was associated with worse prognosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Time trends in incidence rates and survival of newly diagnosed stage IV breast cancer by tumor histology: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meglio, Antonio; Freedman, Rachel A; Lin, Nancy U; Barry, William T; Metzger-Filho, Otto; Keating, Nancy L; King, Tari A; Sertoli, Mario Roberto; Boccardo, Francesco; Winer, Eric P; Vaz-Luis, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Few contemporary data are available that compare incidence and survival of metastatic breast cancer between ductal and lobular carcinomas. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 registries, we identified 10,639 patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 2011. Annual age-adjusted incidence rates and annual percent changes (APCs) were analyzed. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the impact of year of diagnosis and histology on overall survival. 9250 (86.9 %) patients had ductal and 1389 (13.1 %) had lobular carcinomas. Metastatic breast cancer incidence increased slightly over time for ductal (APC = +1.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = +1.0 to +2.4) and lobular carcinomas (APC = +3.0, 95 % CI = +1.8 to +4.3). Median overall survival was 22 months among the whole cohort. More recent year of diagnosis was associated with better overall survival only for patients with ductal carcinomas (interaction p value = 0.006), with an adjusted hazard ratio of death for every five-year increment in the date of diagnosis of 0.93 (95 % CI =  0.91-0.95) among ductal carcinomas, compared with 1.05 (95 % CI = 0.95-1.10) among lobular carcinomas. Overall survival was longer for lobular versus ductal carcinomas (28 versus 21 months, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio of death = 0.93, 95 % CI = 0.87-0.99), but the magnitude of this effect was attenuated among the cohort restricted to hormone receptor-positive tumors. In this population-based analysis, incidence rates of metastatic breast cancer at presentation increased slightly over time for both histologies, and particularly for lobular tumors. A modest improvement in metastatic breast cancer median overall survival was observed, but was apparently limited to ductal carcinomas.

  13. Survival rates indicate that correlations between community-weighted mean traits and environments can be unreliable estimates of the adaptive value of traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Daniel C; Strahan, Robert T; Adler, Peter B; Moore, Margaret M

    2018-01-22

    Correlations between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits and environmental gradients are often assumed to quantify the adaptive value of traits. We tested this assumption by comparing these correlations with models of survival probability using 46 perennial species from long-term permanent plots in pine forests of Arizona. Survival was modelled as a function of trait × environment interactions, plant size, climatic variation and neighbourhood competition. The effect of traits on survival depended on the environmental conditions, but the two statistical approaches were inconsistent. For example, CWM-specific leaf area (SLA) and soil fertility were uncorrelated. However, survival was highest for species with low SLA in infertile soil, a result which agreed with expectations derived from the physiological trade-off underpinning leaf economic theory. CWM trait-environment relationships were unreliable estimates of how traits affected survival, and should only be used in predictive models when there is empirical support for an evolutionary trade-off that affects vital rates. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Eden, Ece; Frencken, Jo E; Oncag, Ozant

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel and (2) in the survival rate of class II composite resin restorations between two treatment groups after 2 years. Three hundred twenty-seven children with 568 class II cavitated lesions were included in a parallel mouth study design. Four operators placed resin composite (Filtek Z 250) restorations bonded with a self-etch adhesive (Adper prompt L pop). Two independent examiners evaluated the restorations after 0.5, 1, and 2 years using the modified Ryge criteria. The Kaplan-Meier survival method was applied to estimate survival percentages. A high proportion of restorations were lost during the study period. Therefore, the first hypothesis could not be tested. No statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival percentages of restorations produced by the two treatment approaches over the 2-year period (ART, 54.1 +/- 3.4%; ART with Carisolv, 46.0 +/- 3.4%). This hypothesis was accepted. ART with chemomechanical gel might not provide an added benefit increasing the survival percentages of ART class II composite resin restorations in primary teeth.

  15. First general solutions for unidirectional motions of rate type fluids over an infinite plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Fetecau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a simple but important remark regarding the governing equation for the non-trivial shear stress corresponding to the motion of a fluid over an infinite plate, exact solutions are established for the motion of Oldroyd-B fluids due to the plate that applies an arbitrary time-dependent shear stress to the fluid. These solutions, that allow us to provide the first exact solutions for motions of rate type fluids produced by an infinite plate that applies constant, constantly accelerating or oscillating shears stresses to the fluid, can easily be reduced to the similar solutions for Maxwell, second grade or Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. Furthermore, the obtained solutions are used to develop general solutions for the motion induced by a moving plate and to correct or recover as special cases different known results from the existing literature. Consequently, the motion problem of such fluids over an infinite plate that is moving in its plane or applies a shear stress to the fluid is completely solved.

  16. Evaluation of Stress Response During Mesiodens Extraction Under General Anesthesia Using Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye-Won; Hyun, Hong-Keun; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Jung-Wook; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-05-01

    Stress related to dental treatment can be associated with negative outcomes. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective measurement of autonomic nervous system activity. Therefore, HRV was used to identify autonomic nervous system reactions during mesiodens extraction under general anesthesia in children. Electrocardiography was performed with customized software during treatment. HRV parameters were analyzed according to time and frequency domains during each dental procedure (local anesthesia, incision, flap, bone removal, extraction of mesiodens, and suturing). The relations of HRV parameters to age also were determined. Total autonomic nervous system activity decreased markedly after local anesthesia injection. Depending on the responses of sympathetic nerve activity, patients were categorized in a stress group and a nonstress group. The ratio of low-frequency power (LF) to high-frequency power (HF), an indication of sympathetic and parasympathetic balance, increased in the stress group after incision and flap formation. Conversely, the LF/HF ratio decreased during treatment in the nonstress group. However, HR, widely used to evaluate stress responses, did not change statistically during mesiodens extraction in either group. HRV parameters did not differ statistically according to age. The internal stress related to mesiodens extraction can be evaluated more objectively with HRV parameters than with conventional methods. Sympathetic nerve activity in the stress group differed from that in the nonstress group during the treatment procedures. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure factors for tunneling ionization rates of molecules: General Hartree-Fock-based integral representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Lars Bojer; Jensen, Frank; Dnestryan, Andrey I.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2017-07-01

    In the leading-order approximation of the weak-field asymptotic theory (WFAT), the dependence of the tunneling ionization rate of a molecule in an electric field on its orientation with respect to the field is determined by the structure factor of the ionizing molecular orbital. The WFAT yields an expression for the structure factor in terms of a local property of the orbital in the asymptotic region. However, in general quantum chemistry approaches molecular orbitals are expanded in a Gaussian basis which does not reproduce their asymptotic behavior correctly. This hinders the application of the WFAT to polyatomic molecules, which are attracting increasing interest in strong-field physics. Recently, an integral-equation approach to the WFAT for tunneling ionization of one electron from an arbitrary potential has been developed. The structure factor is expressed in an integral form as a matrix element involving the ionizing orbital. The integral is not sensitive to the asymptotic behavior of the orbital, which resolves the difficulty mentioned above. Here, we extend the integral representation for the structure factor to many-electron systems treated within the Hartree-Fock method and show how it can be implemented on the basis of standard quantum chemistry software packages. We validate the methodology by considering noble-gas atoms and the CO molecule, for which accurate structure factors exist in the literature. We also present benchmark results for CO2 and for NH3 in the pyramidal and planar geometries.

  18. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  19. On the generalization of the hazard rate twisting-based simulation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-11-17

    Estimating the probability that a sum of random variables (RVs) exceeds a given threshold is a well-known challenging problem. A naive Monte Carlo simulation is the standard technique for the estimation of this type of probability. However, this approach is computationally expensive, especially when dealing with rare events. An alternative approach is represented by the use of variance reduction techniques, known for their efficiency in requiring less computations for achieving the same accuracy requirement. Most of these methods have thus far been proposed to deal with specific settings under which the RVs belong to particular classes of distributions. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the well-known hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling-based approach that presents the advantage of being logarithmic efficient for arbitrary sums of RVs. The wide scope of applicability of the proposed method is mainly due to our particular way of selecting the twisting parameter. It is worth observing that this interesting feature is rarely satisfied by variance reduction algorithms whose performances were only proven under some restrictive assumptions. It comes along with a good efficiency, illustrated by some selected simulation results comparing the performance of the proposed method with some existing techniques.

  20. Elevated plasma YKL-40 predicts increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and decreased survival after any cancer diagnosis in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.S.; Bojesen, S.E.; Mylin, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    to plasma YKL-40 in sex and 10 years age percentile categories: 0% to 33%, 34% to 66%, 67% to 90%, 91% to 95%, and 96% to 100%. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of gastrointestinal cancer increased with increasing YKL-40 (trend P gastrointestinal cancer were 1...... a median survival time after the diagnosis of 1 year versus 4 years in participants with YKL-40 category 0% to 33% (P gastrointestinal cancer were 6 months versus 1 year (P = .007). Multifactorially adjusted HRs for early death were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.5; P ...) after any cancer and 2.4 (95% CI, 1.3 to 4.3; P = .005) after gastrointestinal cancer in participants with YKL-40 category 91% to 100% versus 0% to 33%. CONCLUSION: In the general population, elevated plasma YKL-40 predicts increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and decreased survival after any...

  1. Embryo survival and birth rate after minimum volume vitrification or slow freezing of in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Cuadro, F; Barrera, N; Crispo, M; Menchaca, A

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and birth rate of in vivo derived vs. in vitro produced ovine embryos submitted to different cryopreservation methods. A total of 197 in vivo and 240 in vitro produced embryos were cryopreserved either by conventional freezing, or by vitrification with Cryotop or Spatula MVD methods on Day 6 after insemination/fertilization. After thawing/warming and transfer, embryo survival rate on Day 30 of gestation was affected by the source of the embryos (in vivo 53.3%, in vitro 20.8%; P vitro produced embryos, survival rate was 7.3% for conventional freezing, 38.7% for Cryotop, and 11.4% for Spatula MVD. Fetal loss from Day 30 to birth showed a tendency to be greater for in vitro (15.0%) rather than for in vivo produced embryos (5.7%), and was not affected by the cryopreservation method. Gestation length, weight at birth and lamb survival rate after birth were not affected by the source of the embryo, the cryopreservation method or stage of development (average: 150.5 ± 1.8 days; 4232.8 ± 102.8 g; 85.4%; respectively). This study demonstrates that embryo survival and birth rate of both in vivo and in vitro produced ovine embryos are improved by vitrification with the minimum volume Cryotop method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  3. Enhancing hatch rate and survival in laboratory-reared hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish through application of antibiotics to eggs and larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Olin; Bonar, Scott A.; Barrett, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of four antibiotics in enhancing the hatch rate, larval survival, and adult survival of hybrid Devils Hole Pupfish Cyprinodon diabolis (hybridized with Ash Meadows Amargosa Pupfish C. nevadensis mionectes). Cephalexin (CEX; concentration = 6.6 mg/L of water), chloramphenicol (CAM; 50 mg/L), erythromycin (ERY; 12.5 mg/L), and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 25 mg/L) were applied as a constant bath either to incubating eggs or to larvae that hatched from untreated eggs. Hatch rate was roughly doubled by incubation in the presence of CAM (68% hatch) and TMP-SMX (66%) relative to the control (28%). Cephalexin and ERY conferred no benefit upon the hatch rate. Among fry that hatched from treated eggs, there was no increase in 15-d larval survival. However, fish that hatched from eggs treated with CAM, ERY, and TMP-SMX demonstrated enhanced survival at 360 d (51.2, 38.4, and 43.6%, respectively) and at 540 d (22.6, 6.8, and 20.2%, respectively); the untreated control had no survivors to those time points. All groups of eggs treated with antibiotics showed reductions in bacterial colony-forming units (CFUs) at 24 h posttreatment. At 120 h posttreatment, CEX-treated eggs had CFU counts similar to those of the control, whereas the TMP-SMX-treated eggs had the lowest CFU counts. Eggs treated with CAM and ERY had similar CFU counts, which were significantly reduced from the control counts. Larvae that were treated with CAM and TMP-SMX within 12 h posthatch showed enhanced 15-d survival (74% and 72%, respectively) in comparison with the control (56%). For pupfish rearing efforts in which antibiotic use is appropriate, CAM and TMP-SMX appear to provide the greatest benefit, particularly when applied to incubating eggs rather than to hatched larvae.

  4. Increased litter survival rates, reduced clinical illness and better lactogenic immunity against TGEV in gilts that were primed as neonates with porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Ronald D; Lager, Kelly M

    2003-09-01

    Establishing immunological memory in female piglets at a young age with PRCV was effective in inducing a secondary immune response to a limiting dose of virulent TGEV given orally 13-18 days prior to farrowing. Subsequently, because of passive antibody transfer, the offspring of these primed gilts were more efficient in surviving a lethal TGEV challenge. An average survival rate of 89% occurred in 6 litters of piglets from primed gilts that were boosted with 2.8 x 10(6) plaque forming units (PFU) of TGEV whereas 76% of the piglets survived in three litters that suckled primed gilts boosted with 3.0 x 10(5)PFU of TGEV. Non-primed gilts given identical pre-farrowing doses of TGEV had litter survival rates of 63 and 55%, respectively. Moreover, both groups of litters from primed gilts suffered less clinical illness (as measured by the extent of weight loss post-challenge) than control litters. Priming of the piglets as neonates and boosting the pregnant gilts produced an anamnestic systemic immune response and correspondingly higher milk titers in the primed gilts compared to control animals. Thus, priming piglets with PRCV was beneficial in providing resistance to TGEV and could be incorporated into a vaccine strategy that yields better protection against TGEV.

  5. Other paradigms: growth rate constants and tumor burden determined using computed tomography data correlate strongly with the overall survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Huang, Hui; Menefee, Michael; Edgerly, Maureen; Kotz, Herb; Dwyer, Andrew; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    In solid tumors, where curative therapies still elude oncologists, novel paradigms are needed to assess the efficacy of new therapies and those already approved. We used radiologic measurements obtained in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma enrolled in a phase II study of the epothilone B analog, ixabepilone (Ixempra), to address this issue. Using a novel 2-phase mathematical equation, we used the radiologic measurements to estimate the concomitant rates of tumor regression and growth (regression and growth rate constants). Eighty-one patients were enrolled on the ixabepilone trial at the time of this analysis. Growth rate constants were determined using computed tomography measurements obtained exclusively while a patient was enrolled on study. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas treated with ixabepilone were significantly reduced compared with those of tumors in patients who received placebo in a previous trial. Furthermore, a correlation with overall survival was found for both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden; and this correlation was even stronger when both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden were combined. The readily amenable mathematical model described herein has potential applications to many tumor types that can be assessed with imaging modalities. Because the growth rate constant seems to be a surrogate for survival, assessment could aid in the evaluation of relative efficacies of different therapies and perhaps in assessing the potential individual benefit of an experimental therapy.

  6. 9 CFR 203.17 - Statement of general policy with respect to rates and charges at posted stockyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... respect to rates and charges at posted stockyards. 203.17 Section 203.17 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.17 Statement of general...

  7. Incidence rates and risk factors of bipolar disorder in the general population: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jojanneke S.; Wohlfarth, Tamar D.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Sutterland, Arjen L.; Storosum, Jitschak G.; Denys, Damiaan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Sturkenboom, Mirjam C. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the incidence rates (IRs) of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in the general population according to sociodemographic population characteristics. A cohort study (during the years 1996-2007) was conducted in a general practitioners research database with a longitudinal electronic record

  8. Survival Rates and Bone and Soft Tissue Level Changes Around One-Piece Dental Implants Placed with a Flapless or Flap Protocol: 8.5-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froum, Stuart J; Khouly, Ismael

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the survival rates and to measure marginal bone changes and peri-implant conditions 8.5 years after placement of one-piece implants with an anodically oxidized surface (AOS). A total of 52 subjects who received a one-piece implant with an AOS using a flapless or flap protocol and completed a previous randomized clinical trial were contacted for a recall visit 8.5 years after implant placement (T8.5). Implant success and survival rates, probing pocket depth (PPD), presence of bleeding on probing (BoP), papilla level, and incidence of complications and peri-implant disease were assessed by a single, blinded examiner. A second blinded examiner evaluated marginal bone level changes. Results for 8.5 years were compared to those at the time of implant placement, implant loading (0.5 year), and 1 and 1.5 years follow-up. The results based on 28 patients who attended the follow-up visit (half had flapless and half a flap protocol) showed a 100% implant survival rate and a 96.4% implant success rate 8.5 years after implant placement using one-piece implants, with no difference in survival and success rates between the flapless and the flap protocol. During the same follow-up period, a significant increase in crestal bone height from 1.5 to 8.5 years was observed. Analysis suggested decreasing mean levels of bone loss with time (P rates of BoP (22.8% vs 17.9%, respectively). Papilla levels increased during the first year after implant loading. However, there was little additional change between 1.5 and 8.5 years. A total of eight fractured porcelain crowns and three crown loosenings were reported. One-piece implants with an AOS showed high survival rates and stable marginal bone and periimplant soft tissue levels regardless of whether a flapless or flap protocol was used.

  9. Classroom ratings of likeability and popularity are related to the Big Five and the general factor of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, D.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Cilessen, A.H.N.; te Nijenhuis, J.; Segers, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether: (i) self-rated personality (Big Five) is related to peer-ratings of likeability and popularity in classmates and (ii) a General Factor of Personality (GFP), reflecting the shared variance of the Big Five, is related to social status. In a sociometric approach,

  10. Physical condition and stress levels during early development reflect feeding rates and predict pre- and post-fledging survival in a nearshore seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Juliet S.; O'Reilly, Kathleen M.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of acute environmental stressors on reproduction in wildlife are often difficult to measure because of the labour and disturbance involved in collecting accurate reproductive data. Stress hormones represent a promising option for assessing the effects of environmental perturbations on altricial young; however, it is necessary first to establish how stress levels are affected by environmental conditions during development and whether elevated stress results in reduced survival and recruitment rates. In birds, the stress hormone corticosterone is deposited in feathers during the entire period of feather growth, making it an integrated measure of background stress levels during development. We tested the utility of feather corticosterone levels in 3- to 4-week-old nestling brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) for predicting survival rates at both the individual and colony levels. We also assessed the relationship of feather corticosterone to nestling body condition and rates of energy delivery to nestlings. Chicks with higher body condition and lower corticosterone levels were more likely to fledge and to be resighted after fledging, whereas those with lower body condition and higher corticosterone levels were less likely to fledge or be resighted after fledging. Feather corticosterone was also associated with intracolony differences in survival between ground and elevated nest sites. Colony-wide, mean feather corticosterone predicted nest productivity, chick survival and post-fledging dispersal more effectively than did body condition, although these relationships were strongest before fledglings dispersed away from the colony. Both reproductive success and nestling corticosterone were strongly related to nutritional conditions, particularly meal delivery rates. We conclude that feather corticosterone is a powerful predictor of reproductive success and could provide a useful metric for rapidly assessing the effects of changes in environmental

  11. Variation of Nitrogenous Compounds in the Mass-Production Ponds of Swimming Crab Portunus trituberculatus Larvae with Particular Reference to the Survival Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Show-Ying; Kabeta, Seishi; Matsuda, Osamu; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of nitrogenous compounds of various forms (NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PON) were carried out in three different pond waters, i. e., green water (G) composed of green algae (mainly Nannochloropsis sp.), brown water (B) composed of natural diatom assemblage, and B+G water the mixture of them, during the rearing period of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus larvae in 1991 at Hiroshima Prefecture Fish Farming Center. These results were investigeted in comparison with the survival rate...

  12. Survival rate, load to fracture, and finite element analysis of incisors and canines restored with ceramic veneers having varied preparation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoli, C D; Meira, J B C; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the survival rate, success rate, load to fracture, and finite element analysis (FEA) of maxillary central incisors and canines restored using ceramic veneers and varying preparation designs. Thirty human maxillary central incisors and 30 canines were allocated to the following four groups (n=15) based on the preparation design and type of tooth: Gr1 = central incisor with a conservative preparation; Gr2 = central incisor with a conventional preparation with palatal chamfer; Gr3 = canine with a conservative preparation; Gr4 = canine with a conventional preparation with palatal chamfer. Ceramic veneers (lithium disilicate) were fabricated and adhesively cemented (Variolink Veneer). The specimens were subjected to 4 × 10(6) mechanical cycles and evaluated at every 500,000 cycles to detect failures. Specimens that survived were subjected to a load to fracture test. Bidimensional models were modeled (Rhinoceros 4.0) and evaluated (MSC.Patrans 2005r2 and MSC.Marc 2005r2) on the basis of their maximum principal stress (MPS) values. Survival rate values were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier test (α = 0.05) and load to fracture values were analyzed using the Student t-test (α = 0.05). All groups showed 100% survival rates. The Student t-test did not show any difference between the groups for load to fracture. FEA showed higher MPS values in the specimens restored using veneers with conventional preparation design with palatal chamfer. Preparation design did not affect the fracture load of canines and central incisors, but the veneers with conventional preparation design with palatal chamfer exhibited a tendency to generate higher MPS values.

  13. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Change in General Relativistic precession rates due to Lidov-Kozai oscillations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David J.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie

    2017-04-01

    permissible in nature. A real solar system body in this intermediate state is identified using compiled observational records from IAU-Minor Planet Center, Cometary Catalogue, IAU-Meteor Data Center and performing analytical plus numerical tests on them. This intermediate state brings up the interesting possibility of drastic changes in GR precession rates (at some points peaking to about 60 times that of Mercury's GR precession) during orbital evolution due to sungrazing and sun colliding phases induced by the LK mechanism, thus combining both these important effects in a unique and dynamically interesting way. Comet 96P/Machholz 1 stands out as the only real body identified (from our simulations) to be exhibiting these interesting traits, as well as inclination flips, in the near future. Both these phenomena complimenting and co-existing at the same time has interesting implications in the long term impact studies of small bodies in general.

  15. The Influence of Zusanli and Nonmeridian Acupuncture Points on the Survival Rate and Intestinal Tissue Features after Fatal Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: (a control group (HS; (b Immediate rehydration group (IFR; (c ST36 electroacupuncture (EA delay rehydration group (EA/DFR: EA at ST36 immediately after blood loss with infusion 3 h later; (d EA nonmeridian rehydration group (SEA/DFR: EA at nonacupuncture sites with rehydration similar to EA/DFR; (e ST36 EA group (EA: EA at ST36 immediately after blood loss with no rehydration. Forty-five percent of the entire blood volume was taken out to make lethal hemorrhagic shock models. We recorded the survival rate, intestinal tissue DAO content, and microcirculation. The survival rate of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than that of the other three groups (P<0.05. Twelve hours after blood loss, intestinal tissue DAO content of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than that of the SEA/DFR group, EA group, and HS group (P<0.05 and P<0.01. The mucosal blood flow of the EA/DFR group and the IFR group was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05 each. We conclude that EA improves the blood pressure and raises the early survival rate of hemorrhagic shock rats, maintains the intestinal barrier function, and improves the degree of intestinal ischemia.

  16. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Banomyong, Danuchit; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2017-08-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations. Literature search were performed using keywords. Publications from 1980 to 2016 were searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS. Included studies were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three clinical studies were included: 1 randomized controlled trial and 1 prospective and 1 retrospective cohort studies. Pooled survival rates ranged from 94%-100% and 91.9%-100% for crowns and resin composite, respectively. The majority of teeth had no more than 3 surface loss of tooth structure. The studies included were heterogeneous, and were not appropriate for further meta-analysis. Current evidence suggested that the survival rates against the fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composites were not significantly different in the teeth with minimum to moderate loss of tooth structure.

  17. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warattama Suksaphar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations. Literature search were performed using keywords. Publications from 1980 to 2016 were searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS. Included studies were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three clinical studies were included: 1 randomized controlled trial and 1 prospective and 1 retrospective cohort studies. Pooled survival rates ranged from 94%–100% and 91.9%–100% for crowns and resin composite, respectively. The majority of teeth had no more than 3 surface loss of tooth structure. The studies included were heterogeneous, and were not appropriate for further meta-analysis. Current evidence suggested that the survival rates against the fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composites were not significantly different in the teeth with minimum to moderate loss of tooth structure.

  18. Survival Rate without Brain Abnormalities on Postnatal Ultrasonography among Monochorionic Twins after Fetoscopic Laser Photocoagulation for Selective Intrauterine Growth Restriction with Concomitant Oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keisuke; Wada, Seiji; Takano, Mayumi; Nakata, Masahiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Sago, Haruhiko

    2018-02-20

    We aimed to clarify the survival rate without brain abnormalities (BA) after fetoscopic laser photoco-agulation (FLP) for monochorionic diamniotic twin gestations (MCDA) with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) accompanied by abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler waveforms and isolated oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin. This retrospective study included 52 cases that underwent FLP. The main outcome was survival rate without BA of the twins at age 28 days. BA was defined as severe intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia on postnatal ultrasonography. Median gestational age at FLP was 20 (16-24) weeks. Ten cases were classified as type III based on Doppler for the UA. For all cases, including 20 cases of anterior placenta, FLP was completed without major intraoperative complications. Amnioinfusion was required in 49 cases for better fetoscopic visualization. Fetal loss occurred in 29 sIUGR twins and two larger twins, whereas one larger twin experienced neonatal death. Survival rates without BA were 44% (n = 23) for sIUGR twins and 94% (n = 49) for the larger twins. FLP for MCDA with sIUGR presenting with oligohydramnios in the sIUGR twin might be considered a prenatal treatment option. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with full-coverage crowns or resin composite restorations: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksaphar, Warattama; Jirathanyanatt, Titalee; Ngoenwiwatkul, Yaowaluk

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the current clinical studies that investigated survival rates against fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composite restorations. Literature search were performed using keywords. Publications from 1980 to 2016 were searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS. Included studies were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three clinical studies were included: 1 randomized controlled trial and 1 prospective and 1 retrospective cohort studies. Pooled survival rates ranged from 94%–100% and 91.9%–100% for crowns and resin composite, respectively. The majority of teeth had no more than 3 surface loss of tooth structure. The studies included were heterogeneous, and were not appropriate for further meta-analysis. Current evidence suggested that the survival rates against the fracture of endodontically treated posterior teeth restored with crowns or resin composites were not significantly different in the teeth with minimum to moderate loss of tooth structure. PMID:28808632

  20. Reduced-dose cyclosporine with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone significantly improves the long-term glomerular filtration rate and graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rending; Xu, Ying; Wu, Jianyong; Wang, Yimin; He, Qiang; Chen, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    It remains debated whether reduced doses of chronic calcineurin inhibitors benefit graft survival. This retrospective study analyzed 60 first cadaveric renal transplant recipients who received cyclosporine (CSA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone (CMP group) and 71 recipients who received reduced-dose CSA with prednisone and MMF (RCMP group). All recipients were followed for at least 96 months. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated at different time points, graft survival, the incidence of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) and the acute rejection rate within six months were analyzed and compared between the two groups. The incidence of acute rejection within six months post-transplant was 15.5% (11/71) in the RCMP group and 13.3% (8/60) in the CMP group. This difference was not significant (p=0.727). The MDRD-calculated GFR in the CMP group reached a peak at 24 months post-transplant (66.6 ± 20.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) then decreased gradually. In contrast, in the RCMP group, the GFR reached a peak at 36 months post-transplant (76.9 ± 19.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). The GFR from month 36 to month 96 was significantly higher in the RCMP group than in the CMP group. The Kaplan-Meier calculated death-censored graft survival in the RCMP group was significantly higher than that observed in the CMP group, with an estimated cumulative proportion surviving at 96 months of 95.5% in the RCMP group and 83.5% in the CMP group. The incidence of CAN within 96 months was 5.6% (4/71) in the RCMP group vs. 16.7% (10/60) in the CMP group (p=0.042). An RCMP regimen can significantly improve the long-term GFR level and benefit graft survival.

  1. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log

  2. A generalized one-factor term structure model and pricing of interest rate derivative securities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, George J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a nonparametric interest rate term structure model and investigate its implications on term structure dynamics and prices of interest rate derivative securities. The nonparametric spot interest rate process is estimated from the observed short-term interest

  3. The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction with Service Quality and Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Is Self-Rated Health a Potential Confounder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Lis

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that higher patient satisfaction (PS with service quality is associated with favorable survival outcomes in a variety of cancers. However, we cautioned the readers that patients with greater satisfaction might be the ones with better self-rated health (SRH, a well-established prognosticator of cancer survival. In other words, SRH could potentially confound the PS and survival relationship. We investigated this hypothesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.778 NSCLC patients (327 males and 451 females; mean age 58.8 years treated at 4 Cancer Treatment Centers of America hospitals between July 2011 and March 2013. PS was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "completely dissatisfied" to "completely satisfied". SRH was measured on a 7-point scale ranging from "very poor" to "excellent". Both were dichotomized into 2 categories: top box response (7 versus all others (1-6. Patient survival was the primary end point. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between PS and survival controlling for covariates.74, 70, 232 and 391 patients had stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively. 631 (81.1% patients were "completely satisfied". 184 (23.7% patients had "excellent" SRH. There was a weak but significant correlation between overall PS and SRH (Kendall's tau b = 0.19; p<0.001. On univariate analysis, "completely satisfied" patients had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.99; p = 0.04. Similarly, patients with "excellent" SRH had a significantly lower risk of mortality (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.81; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis controlling for stage at diagnosis, treatment history and gender, SRH was found to be a significant predictor of survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.89; p = 0.007 while PS was not (HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.2; p = 0.32. Among the individual PS items, the only significant independent predictor of survival was "teams communicating with each

  4. The influence of anti-predator training, personality and sex in the behavior, dispersion and survival rates of translocated captive-raised parrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice R.S. Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predation is one of the main factors responsible for the failure of reintroduction/translocation programs. Animal's personality and sex can also influence key behaviors for survival and reproduction. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of anti-predator training, personality and sex on the survival and behaviors of translocated blue-fronted Amazon parrots. Thirty-one captive-raised parrots were translocated to a Cerrado area in Brazil. Parrots were separated into two groups: anti-predator trained group (ATG and control group (CG. Personality tests were performed with individuals of the ATG group. Data were collected using focal sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every minute. Anti-predator training, personality and sex did not influenced parrots' survival after release. However, anti-predator training proved to be efficient in eliciting more natural behaviors in parrots after release. Shy individuals and males showed to be more sociable than bold individuals and females. Personality and sex did not influence behavior exhibition. Parrots interacted more, positively or negatively, with individuals of its own group. Training session closer to the release date should be tried. Behavioral data and not just survival rates should be used to evaluate the efficiency of the techniques, because behavior can give clues about the adaptation of the individuals to the new habitat, increasing the success of the conservation program.

  5. Do female cancer patients display better survival rates compared with males? Analysis of the Korean National Registry data, 2005-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Won Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex differences have been reported in the prognosis of certain cancers. In this study, we investigated whether Korean females display better survival rates compared with male patients for solid tumor sites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database from 599,288 adult patients diagnosed with solid cancers between 2005 and 2009. Patients were followed until December 2010. We applied a relative excess risk (RER model adjusting for year of follow-up, age at diagnosis, and stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: For all solid cancer sites combined, women displayed an 11% lower risk of death compared to men (RER 0.89; 95% CI 0.88-0.90 after adjusting for year of follow-up, age, stage, and case mix. Women showed significantly lower RERs for the following sites: head/neck, esophagus, small intestine, liver, nasal cavities, lung, bone/cartilages, melanoma of skin, soft tissue, brain and CNS, and thyroid. In contrast, women displayed a poorer prognosis than did men for colorectal, laryngeal, kidney and bladder cancer. However, the survival gaps between men and women narrowed by increase in age; female patients over 75 years of age displayed a 3% higher RER of death compared with males in this age group. CONCLUSIONS: Female cancer patients display an improved survival for the majority of solid tumor sites, even after adjustment for age and stage. Age at diagnosis was the major contributor to the women's survival advantage.

  6. Estimating survival rates of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis veliger larvae under summer and autumn temperature regimes in residual water of trailered watercraft at Lake Mead, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 6 January 2007, invasive quagga mussels [Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897] were discovered in the Boulder Basin ofLake Mead, Nevada, a popular site for recreational boating in the southwestern United States. Recreational watercraft are considered aprimary vector for overland dispersal of quagga mussel veliger larvae between water bodies. Thus, effective decontamination of veligers inresidual water carried by trailered recreation boats is critical to controlling this species’ spread. The survival rate of quagga mussel veligerswas measured during exposure to environmental temperature conditions mimicking those experienced in the residual water of traileredvessels during warm summer and cooler autumn months in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Under warm summer conditions,quagga mussel veligers survived approximately five days while under cooler autumn conditions they survived 27 days. When tested underautumn temperature conditions veliger survival times increased with increased level of larval development. The results suggested a greaterlikelihood of veliger transport in the residual water of trailered watercraft during autumn months. The results indicated that presentlyrecommended vessel quarantine times to kill all externally attached juvenile and adult dreissenid mussels prior to launching in an uninfested water body should be increased to generate 100% veliger mortality in residual water unable to be fully drained from the internal areas of watercraft.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma reduces skin flap inflammatory cells infiltration and improves survival rates through induction of angiogenesis: An experiment in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Geng, Qiuhua; Hu, Junling; Shao, Jianchuan; Ruan, Jing; Zheng, Jiansheng

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on flap survival in an experimental rabbit model. Symmetrical rectangular dorsal cutaneous flaps (8 × 2 cm) were elevated in 15 rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into a 3-day group (n = 5), a 7-day group (n = 5), and a 14-day group (n = 5). Either side of the dorsum was selected for injection of PRP into the flap basal surface, while the other side received an equal volume of saline as a control. The flaps were immediately sutured back, after which the flap survival was measured and histology specimens were collected at 3, 7, and 14 days. Platelet-rich plasma significantly improved flap survival rates of the PRP side flaps relative to the control in the 3-day (74.4% ± 4.7% vs 65.8% ± 6.8%; p platelet-rich plasma side flap vs the blank control side flap. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes the survival of random rabbit flaps and, therefore, represents a promising treatment to prevent skin flap necrosis in reconstructive and plastic surgery.

  8. Self-rated health in the last 12 years of life compared to matched surviving controls: the Health and Retirement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Stenholm

    Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH is a valid measure of health status and associated with mortality. Based on individual-level biannual repeat data on SRH we sought to characterize the natural history of poor SRH during the 12 years prior to death in men and women in different age groups. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Health and Retirement Study participants who died between 1998 and 2010 and had at least two SRH measurements in the 12 years prior to death. We used a nested case-control design to compare SRH trajectories of deceased men and women aged 30-64, 65-79 and 80 years versus surviving participants. The cases comprised 3,350 deceased participants who were matched to surviving controls (n = 8,127. SRH was dichotomized into good vs. poor health. Men and women dying at age 65-79 and ≥ 80 years had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of poor SRH already 11-12 years prior to death compared to surviving controls. The risk estimates remained statistically significant even after adjusting for life-style related risk factors and diagnosed diseases. Prevalence of poor SRH before death was lowest among those aged ≥ 80 years and highest in 30-64 year-olds. In conclusion, men and women who subsequently die perceive their health worse already 11-12 years prior to death compared to their surviving controls.

  9. The small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor, UTL-5g, delays deaths and increases survival rates for mice treated with high doses of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick

    2013-09-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and body weights were monitored. UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150 % of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200 % of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight loss induced by cisplatin, indicating that body weight may not be a sensitive-enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin, indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted.

  10. Prosthetic outcomes and survival rates of implants placed with guided flapless surgery using stereolithographic templates: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Kunal; Eisig, Sidney B; Fine, James B; Papaspyridakos, Panos

    2013-01-01

    Recent technologic advances allow clinicians to place dental implants using computer-generated templates. However, there are limited data regarding treatment outcomes for implants placed using these techniques. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the 2- to 4-year prosthetic outcomes and survival of dental implants placed by postdoctoral residents with a flapless surgical protocol using computer-based planning and stereolithographic surgical templates. Thirty-six patients were treated using the NobelGuide concept, comprising an image-based three-dimensional implant planning software and flapless implant surgery with stereolithographic templates.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of radiative heating and cooling rates in planetary atmospheres: general linearization and adjoint approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiative heating and cooling provide primary source and ultimate sink of energy driving lower planetary atmospheres. Evaluating the sensitivities of atmospheric dynamics models on these primary atmospheric parameters requires knowing how heating and cooling rates depend on these same parameters. We discuss two approaches that make it possible to directly compute the sensitivities of heating and cooling rates in parallel with evaluation of heating and cooling rates themselves.

  12. Health check-ups and family screening allow detection of hereditary hemochromatosis with less advanced liver fibrosis and survival comparable with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Soo; Endalib, Sanam; Stål, Per; Lööf, Lars; Lindgren, Stefan; Sandberg-Gertzén, Hanna; Almer, Sven; Olsson, Sigvard; Danielsson, Ake; Wallerstedt, Sven; Hultcrantz, Rolf

    2011-09-01

    The information concerning the morbidity and mortality of hereditary hemochromatosis is based primarily on clinical cohorts of symptomatic patients. The major aim of this study was to analyze the long-term prognosis for Swedish patients with this condition, with respect to both clinical features and survival, in relation to the route by which the disease was detected. 373 patients with hemochromatosis detected through routine health check-ups (n = 153), family screening (n = 44), symptoms of arthralgia (n = 23), investigation of other diseases/symptoms (n = 108) or signs of liver disease (n = 45) were monitored for a mean period of 11.9 ± 5.8 years. The degree of liver fibrosis and survival were analyzed. Overall survival among these patients was not significantly different from that of a matched normal population. The patients diagnosed through health check-ups and family screening were detected at an earlier age and had the highest rate of survival. Liver biopsy at the time of diagnosis revealed cirrhosis in 9% of those detected through the health check-ups and 5% in the case of family screening, compared with 13% for the group with arthralgia, 17% for other diseases/symptoms and 42% for liver disease. Health check-ups and family screening allow detection of hereditary hemochromatosis at an earlier age and with less advanced liver fibrosis, although a few of these patients have already developed cirrhosis. Our study indicates that iron indices should be included in health check-ups, and if abnormal, should lead to further investigation.

  13. Relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rate and convulsion as an adverse effect chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Andid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on the relationship between the general condition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with remission rale and convulsion as an adverse effect of chemotherapy was conducted in leukemia patients of the hematology-oncology subdivision, Departmenl of Child Health, Medical School, University of North Sumatra, Medan. Of 114 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 81 (71.05% received chemotherapy, 31 patients among them was in good general condition. Remission rate of the 31 patients was 80.6% (25 children. Whereas in the remaining 50 patients, the remission rate among them was 84% (42 patients. There was no significant relationship between their general condition to the recurrence rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients who had been administered chemotherapy during induction phase. Convulsion was found In 2 cases, due to CNS leukemia.

  14. Association of heart rate with albuminuria in a general adult population: the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H S; Hong, J W; Lee, J H; Noh, J H; Kim, D J

    2015-04-01

    Albuminuria is associated with increased risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, such as progressive renal failure, cardiovascular disease and death. However, in the general population, it is uncertain whether albuminuria is associated with elevated heart rate, which is an independent and powerful risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate whether an elevated heart rate is an independent factor associated with albuminuria in the general adult population of Korea. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on 5198 Korean adults aged 19 years or older who participated in the fifth (2011) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2). The prevalence of albuminuria showed an increasing trend throughout the whole range of heart rate, even after adjusting for confounders (P = 0.002). The increment was most profound at the heart rate of 70-75 and >76 beats per minute (b.p.m.; P = 0.011). In multiple logistic regression analysis, age (P albuminuria in Korean adults. Compared with participants with heart rate ≤ 64 b.p.m., the odds ratio (95% CI) for albuminuria was 1.50 (1.15-1.96) for those with heart rate ≥ 76 b.p.m. The prevalence of albuminuria is independently associated with heart rate in the general adult population of Korea. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Differences in, and Frames of Reference of, Indigenous Australians' Self-rated General and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Reshika; Parker, Eleanor; Jamieson, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    To compare general and oral health perceptions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians and to quantify Indigenous Australian health-related frames of reference. A mixed-methods approach was used. The quantitative component comprised data from four convenience studies of Indigenous oral health and one national oral health survey stratified by Indigenous status. Qualitative data with questions pertaining to frames of reference were collected from 19 Indigenous Australian interviews. Among the Indigenous studies, deficits in perceptions of excellent, very good, or good general health and excellent, very good, or good oral health ranged from 10.5% to 43.8%. Among the non-Indigenous population, the deficit was 5%. Frames of reference appeared to underpin a biomedical conceptual outlook. The deficit in perceived oral health compared with general health was far greater among Indigenous Australians. The frame of reference underpinning Indigenous Australian's perceptions of health reflect those of the general Australian population.

  16. Weight development and survival rate of reindeer calves treated against Oedemagena tarandi L and Cephenemyia trompe L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Persen

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Three trials with treatment of reindeer warbles are carried out. All treated groups were injected intramuscularly with Warbex (35%, American Cyanamid, dosage 10 mg active ingredient/10 kg live weight. In total 911 calves and 403 adult females were included in the experiments. All animals were individually marked with plastic eartags. The trials tried to give answers as to the effect of treatment on: a weight development during winter, b weight development to the normal age of slaughter (18 months and c loss rate during winter. One trial deals with the effect of weight loss during winter by different date of treatment. All studies are undertaken within sex. Generelly the trials show that treated animals lost more weight during winter than untreated. There was found significant higher weight loss for treated female calves (0.7 kg, p=0.005 in the period January 13. — April 28. in trial I and for male calves (0.8 kg, p=0.01 in the period February 14. — April 4. in trial II. There is a trend that treatment increases the slaughter weight. A significant higher increase in the slaughter weight (0.8 kg, p=0.05 of treated male calves was found in trial III. No effect was found by treatment in the loss of animals in winter. The calves lossed during winter had a significant lower live weight at the start of the trial compared to those which survived. In the period February 14. — April 4. there was a higher weight loss in the male calves which were treated on February 14. compared to those treated on November 27. (0.5 kg, p=0.01. Forsøk med behandling av reinkalver mot reinbremslarver (Oedemagena tarandi L og Cephenemyia trompe L.Effekt på kalvens kondisjon målt ved levende vekt og overlevingsevne.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er utført tre forsøk med behandling av rein mot reinbremselarver (Oedemagena tarandi L. og Cephenemyia trompe L.. I alle forsøk er brukt intramuskulær injeksjon av Warbex (Am. Cyanamid 35% med dosering 30 mg

  17. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  18. Survival rate of Saccharomyces boulardii adapted to a functional freeze-dried yoghurt, related to processing, storage and digestion by experimental Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tranquilino-Rodriguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saccharomycesboulardiiis a probiotic clinically effective inthe prevention and treatment of antibiotic induced diarrheain both children and adults, Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the microorganisms need to survive the gastrointestinal transit and arrive to their action site alive in order to exert their beneficial effects. Microencapsulation is an alternative to improve the viability of probiotic in foods which can also survive in the gastrointestinal conditions. Freeze--drying is a method of dehydration that does not affect nutrients and bioactive compounds,such as probiotics contained in foods.All of them will increase the survival rate of S.boulardii.Purpose of this study:This study focused on formulae freeze-dried yogurt containing inulin, vegetable palm oil,and S.boulardii, both asfree cells and in microencapsulated form.Also,the effect of ampicillin associated S.boulardii. Methods. Yogurts were given to an “in vivo” digestion process, using male Wistar rats.The survival of S. boulardiiwas subsequently evaluated in colon and feces.For this study, six treatmentsof four of rats were used:i control rats ii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiias free cells, iii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiiinmicro-encapsulated form, iv control rats fed with penicillin,v rats fed with ampicillin plus yogurtcontaining S. boulardiias free cells, and vi rats fed with penicillin plus yogurt containing S. boulardiiin micro-encapsulated form. Results:The study demonstrated it was feasible to freeze-drythe S. boulardiiand incorporate it into a yogurtmade with skim milk,inulin, and unsaturated vegetable oil.The freeze-drying process not affected thesurvival of the S. boulardii(p<0.05. Microencapsulation increased the survival of S. boulardii on 1.77-Log CFU/g, and the presence of S. boulardii was only detected in colon and fecesof those rats which

  19. Are survival and mortality rates associated with recruitment to clinical trials in teenage and young adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia? A retrospective observational analysis in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Rachael; Sandhu, Sabrina; Khan, Maria; Moran, Anthony; Feltbower, Richard; Stiller, Charles; Stevens, Mike C G; Rowntree, Clare; Vora, Ajay; McCabe, Martin G

    2017-10-05

    Participation rates in clinical trials are low in teenagers and young adults (TYA) with cancer. Whilst the importance of clinical trials in informing best practice is well established, data regarding individual patient benefit are scarce. We have investigated the association between overall survival and trial recruitment in TYA patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Retrospective. National (England) TYA patients treated for ALL. 511 patients aged 15-24 years diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2010 inclusive, of whom 239 (46.7%) participated in the UKALL2003 trial. Patients were identified using National Clinical Trial (UKALL2003) and Cancer Registry (National Cancer Data Repository, English National Cancer Online Registration Environment) Databases. Relative survival rates were calculated for trial and non-trial patients and observed differences were modelled using a multiple regression approach. The numbers and percentages of deaths in those patients included in the survival analysis were determined for each 3-month period, p values were calculated using the two-tailed z-test for difference between proportions and 95% CIs for percentage deaths were derived using the binomial distribution based on the Wilson Score method. Patients treated on the trial had a 17.9% better 2-year survival (85.4% vs 67.5%, p<0.001) and 8.9% better 1-year survival (90.8% vs 81.9%, p=0.004) than those not on the trial. 35 (14.6%) patients recruited to the trial died in the 2 years following diagnosis compared with 86 (32.6%) of those not recruited (p<0.001). TYA patients recruited to the clinical trial UKALL 2003 in England had a lower risk of mortality and a higher overall survival than contemporaneous non-trial patients. These data underline the potential for individual patient benefit in participating in a clinical trial and the importance of international efforts to increase trial participation in the TYA age group. ISRCTN07355119. © Article author(s) (or their

  20. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

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    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  1. Analyzing a Lung Cancer Patient Dataset with the Focus on Predicting Survival Rate One Year after Thoracic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Hachesu, Peyman; Moftian, Nazila; Dehghani, Mahsa; Samad Soltani, Taha

    2017-06-25

    Background: Data mining, a new concept introduced in the mid-1990s, can help researchers to gain new, profound insights and facilitate access to unanticipated knowledge sources in biomedical datasets. Many issues in the medical field are concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on tests conducted on individuals at risk. Early diagnosis and treatment can provide a better outcome regarding the survival of lung cancer patients. Researchers can use data mining techniques to create effective diagnostic models. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns existing in risk factor data of for mortality one year after thoracic surgery for lung cancer. Methods: The dataset used in this study contained 470 records and 17 features. First, the most important variables involved in the incidence of lung cancer were extracted using knowledge discovery and datamining algorithms such as naive Bayes, maximum expectation and then, using a regression analysis algorithm, a questionnaire was developed to predict the risk of death one year after lung surgery. Outliers in the data were excluded and reported using the clustering algorithm. Finally, a calculator was designed to estimate the risk for one-year post-operative mortality based on a scorecard algorithm. Results: The results revealed the most important factor involved in increased mortality to be large tumor size. Roles for type II diabetes and preoperative dyspnea in lower survival were also identified. The greatest commonality in classification of patients was Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), based on levels of which patients could be classified into different categories. Conclusion: Development of a questionnaire based on calculations to diagnose disease can be used to identify and fill knowledge gaps in clinical practice guidelines. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Influence of referral pathway on ebola virus disease case-fatality rate and effect of survival selection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra...... Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis...

  3. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra...... Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis...

  4. CASE-CONTROL SURVIVAL ANALYSIS WITH A GENERAL SEMIPARAMETRIC SHARED FRAILTY MODEL - A PSEUDO FULL LIKELIHOOD APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorfine, Malka; Zucker, David M; Hsu, Li

    2009-01-01

    In this work we deal with correlated failure time (age at onset) data arising from population-based case-control studies, where case and control probands are selected by population-based sampling and an array of risk factor measures is collected for both cases and controls and their relatives. Parameters of interest are effects of risk factors on the failure time hazard function and within-family dependencies among failure times after adjusting for the risk factors. Due to the retrospective sampling scheme, large sample theory for existing methods has not been established. We develop a novel technique for estimating the parameters of interest under a general semiparametric shared frailty model. We also present a simple, easily computed, and non-iterative nonparametric estimator for the cumulative baseline hazard function. We provide rigorous large sample theory for the proposed method. We also present simulation results and a real data example for illustrating the utility of the proposed method.

  5. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-01-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in t...

  6. Do neighbourhoods in Vancouver and surrounding areas demonstrate different rates of bystander CPR and survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbic, David; Klinkenberg, Brian; Grunau, Brian; Christenson, Jim

    2016-10-17

    No prior work exists examining the relation between the geographic distribution of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas that may exhibit a clustering of cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of OHCA within the Vancouver Coastal Health region using a geographic information system (GIS) analysis and appropriate statistical analyses. This study was a post-hoc GIS-based analysis of OHCA patients in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas, using data collected by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium between September 2007 and December 2011. The kernel density techniques and regression tree analysis using binary recursive partitioning were used. We examined 1617 cases of OHCA with a mortality rate of 86.5% (95% CI 84.8-88.2). The mean age of OHCA cases was 66.6 years (95% CI 65.7-67.5), and 33.6% (95% CI 31.3-35.9) were female. The proportion with an initial shockable rhythm (VF or pulseless VT) was 22.2% (95% CI 20.2-24.2); 42.3% (95% CI 39.9-44.7) of all cases received bystander CPR, and 49.7% (95% CI 47.3-52.1) were transported to the hospital by paramedics. The rate of survival to hospital discharge with favourable neurological status (FNS) Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 1 or 2 was 10.4% (8.9-11.9). Distance of transport to the hospital (less than 2.7 km) was a significant predictor of survival with FNS, but income did not predict survival with FNS. Areas with higher proportions of commuters by car demonstrated lower rates of survival with FNS. This is the first GIS-based study to examine OHCA in a single large Canadian centre. Clustering of OHCA consistent with areas of high population density was observed. Distance of transport was a significant predictor of survival with FNS for patients with OHCA. This may have important implications for future emergency medical services deployment and dispatch decision-making, and public policy initiatives.

  7. Effects of Honey Supplementation in Female Brood Feed on Male and Female Percentages, Growth, and Survival Rate of Crayfish Red Claw (Cherax quadricarinatus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Taufiq Mukti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know effects of honey supplementation in female brood feed on male and female percentages, growth, and survival rate of crayfish red claw seed. The method that used in this study was laboratory scale experiment. The treatments that was applied were addition of honey dosages in female brood feed of crayfish red claw, i.e. 0 (control, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ml/kg feed. Parameters test were male and female percentages, daily growth (G, specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate of crayfish red claw seed. Data analysis that used was descriptive analysis. The result of this study indicated that supplement of honey in female brood feed of crayfish red claw influenced male and female percentages, growth rate, and survival rate of seed. Treatment of honey dosage 300 ml/kg feed has high result, i.e. male percentage was 58,09% (female, 41.09%, daily  growth was 0.59 mm/day, specific growth rate was 0.10% of BW/day, and survival rate was 96.77 %. Treatment of honey dosage 0 ml/kg feed (control showed low result, i.e. male percentage was 46.72 % (female, 53.28%, day growth was 0.55 mm/day, specific growth rate was 0.01%  of BW/day, and survival rate was 94.74%. Keywords: supplementation, honey, crayfish, sex, growth   ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh suplementasi madu dalam pakan induk betina terhadap persentase jantan dan betina, pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih lobster air tawar red claw. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah eksperimen. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah penambahan dosis madu dalam pakan induk betina lobster air tawar red claw, yaitu 0 (kontrol, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 dan 300 ml/kg pakan. Parameter yang diuji adalah persentase jenis kelamin jantan dan betina, pertumbuhan harian (G, laju pertumbuhan spesifik (SGR dan kelangsungan hidup dari benih lobster air tawar red claw. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah deskriptif. Hasil dari penelitian ini

  8. Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National Forest, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Thompson; Kathryn Purcell

    2013-01-01

    Secondary exposure of wildlife to pesticides has been well documented, yet exposure is typically associated with agricultural or wildland-urban interface areas. Wildlife in undeveloped areas is generally presumed free from risk. In 2009, a male fisher was found dead in the Sierra National Forest and subsequent necropsy revealed that the animal died of acute rodenticide...

  9. Resampling-Based Empirical Bayes Multiple Testing Procedures for Controlling Generalized Tail Probability and Expected Value Error Rates: Focus on the False Discovery Rate and Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudoit, Sandrine; Gilbert, Houston N.; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article proposes resampling-based empirical Bayes multiple testing procedures for controlling a broad class of Type I error rates, defined as generalized tail probability (gTP) error rates, gTP(q, g) = Pr(g(Vn, Sn) > q), and generalized expected value (gEV) error rates, gEV(g) = E[g(Vn, Sn)], for arbitrary functions g(Vn, Sn) of the numbers of false positives Vn and true positives Sn. Of particular interest are error rates based on the proportion g(Vn, Sn) = Vn/(Vn + Sn) of Type I errors among the rejected hypotheses, such as the false discovery rate (FDR), FDR = E[Vn/(Vn + Sn)]. The proposed procedures offer several advantages over existing methods. They provide Type I error control for general data generating distributions, with arbitrary dependence structures among variables. Gains in power are achieved by deriving rejection regions based on guessed sets of true null hypotheses and null test statistics randomly sampled from joint distributions that account for the dependence structure of the data. The Type I error and power properties of an FDR-controlling version of the resampling-based empirical Bayes approach are investigated and compared to those of widely-used FDR-controlling linear step-up procedures in a simulation study. The Type I error and power trade-off achieved by the empirical Bayes procedures under a variety of testing scenarios allows this approach to be competitive with or outperform the Storey and Tibshirani (2003) linear step-up procedure, as an alternative to the classical Benjamini and Hochberg (1995) procedure. PMID:18932138

  10. Implant survival rates, marginal bone level changes, and complications in full-mouth rehabilitation with flapless computer-guided surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraschini, V; Velloso, G; Luz, D; Barboza, E Porto

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review evaluated the implant survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and complications associated with guided surgery for the treatment of fully edentulous patients followed up for longer than 1 year. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to retrieve studies published up until July 2014 that met predefined eligibility criteria. Thirteen studies were included. In studies on the guided surgery technique, a survival rate of 97.2% and a mean marginal bone loss of 1.45 mm were found during 1-4 years of follow-up. However, associated complications, such as implant loss, prosthesis or surgical guide fractures, and low primary stability, were often found, and there is a learning curve to achieve treatment success. Further longitudinal comparative studies should improve the technique and its success rate. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher survival rate of vitrified and thawed in vitro produced bovine blastocysts following culture in defined medium supplemented with beta-mercaptoethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedambale, Tshimangadzo Lucky; Du, Fuliang; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2006-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare bovine embryo developmental quality, after culture in different defined culture media, up to blastocyst stage, and subsequently cultured in media supplemented with beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME) following blastocyst vitrification and thawing. In part one of this study, presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated into the following media: (1) CR1, (2) KSOM, (3) SOF, and (4) sequential KSOM-SOF. In the second part of the study, blastocysts derived from four different culture media were subjected to a solid surface vitrification (35% (v/v) ethylene glycol+0.5M Sucrose+5% (w/v) Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and tested for the effect of beta-ME on their post-vitrification survival. Following thawing, blastocysts were cultured with or without beta-ME. Culture medium had no effect on cleavage rates; however, a significantly greater number of zygotes cultured in KSOM, KSOM-SOF, or SOF developed to the 8-cell stage, compared with those cultured in CR1. A greater proportion of the zygotes cultured in SOF or KSOM-SOF reached blastocysts, than did those cultured in CR1 or KSOM. The use of sequential KSOM-SOF significantly increased total cell numbers of Day 7 expanded-blastocysts when compared to those cultured in CR1, KSOM, or SOF. Addition of beta-ME into culture media after vitrification and thawing improved blastocyst survival, hatching rates, and total cell numbers of blastocysts. In conclusion, supplementation of beta-ME into culture medium after vitrification and thawing significantly increased blastocyst survival, hatching rates, and their total cell numbers. These results suggest that vitrified IVF embryos should be thawed and briefly cultured in beta-ME medium prior to embryo transfer.

  12. Induction chemotherapy for T3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer increases the rate of complete resection but does not confer improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin L; Mulvihill, Michael S; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Speicher, Paul J; D'Amico, Thomas A; Tong, Betty C; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of induction therapy prior to an operation in patients with cT3 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients diagnosed with cT3N0M0 NSCLC from 2006 to 2011 in the National Cancer Database who were treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy were stratified by treatment strategy: an operation first versus induction chemotherapy. Propensity scores were developed and matched cohorts were generated. Short-term outcomes included margin status, 30- and 90-day mortality rates, readmission and length of stay. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier methods were performed on both the unadjusted and propensity matched cohorts. A total of 3791 cT3N0M0 patients were identified for inclusion, of which 580 (15%) were treated with induction chemotherapy. Prior to adjustment, patients treated with induction chemotherapy were younger, had a higher comorbidity burden and were more likely to have private insurance (all P  induction chemotherapy were more likely to subsequently undergo an open procedure (87.3 vs 77.8%, P  = 0.005). These patients were more likely to obtain R0 resection (93.1% vs 90.0%, P  = 0.04) and were thereby less likely to have positive margins at the time of resection (6.9% vs 10.0%, P  = 0.03). Patients who received induction therapy had higher rates of 90-day mortality (6.6% vs 3.4%) but there was no difference in long-term survival between the groups. Despite yielding increased rates of R0 resection, induction chemotherapy for cT3N0M0 NSCLC is not associated with improved survival and should not be considered routinely. Further studies are warranted to elucidate cohorts that may benefit from induction therapy.

  13. Factors affecting survival rates of in vitro produced bovine embryos after vitrification and direct in-straw rehydration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, Gábor; Holm, Peter; Greve, Torben

    1996-01-01

    and developmental stage (Day 5 compacted morulae, Day 6 early blastocysts, Days 6 and 7 blastocysts, Day 7 expanded blastocysts and Day 8 hatched blastocysts) as well as Days 7 and 5 blastocysts previously subjected to partial zona dissection were vitrified. After thawing, the re-expansion rates of blastocysts...... and zona-dissected embryos did not differ (67 and 87%, respectively), and hatching was more frequent for blastocysts frozen in advanced developmental stages (34, 47 and 63% for early blastocysts, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts, respectively). The re-expansion rate of morulae was lower (10......%) and no hatching of these embryos was observed. In the second experiment, Day 7 expanded blastocysts were vitrified using PBS, PBS + albumin, TCM199 and TCM 199 + calf serum as holding media. No differences in re-expansion and hatching rates were seen. However, when incubation with the concentrated cryoprotectant...

  14. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  15. General Education Teachers' Ratings of the Academic Engagement Level of Students Who Read Braille: A Comparison with Sighted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, Julie A.; Lewis, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    English and language arts teachers of braille-reading students in general education classes rated these students' academic engagement and the academic achievement of low- and average-achieving sighted students in the same classrooms. The braille readers were found to be statistically similar to the low-achieving students with regard to effort,…

  16. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  17. Effect of Different Rearing Density on Survival Rate and Growth of Giant Gouramy Osphronemus gouramy Lac. Fry at Size of 2 cm in Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Effendi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant gouramy Osphronemus gouramy Lac is one of the fish for food that has high economic value, but its production is not  met with the market demand yet.  The effort is needed to be done in order to increase production of giant gouramy fry by an intensive hatchery system through high rearing density.  This study was performed to determine the effect of rearing density on survival rate and growth of fry.  Fry were reared in aquaria 60x29x33 cm filled with 35 liters water, and fed by Tubifex at satiation as much as  0.23-0.28 g/fry/day with feeding frequency  2 times a day.   Collected  data were survival rate, growth, feed consumption, feed efficiency, and water quality.  The result of study showed that survival rate and feed efficiency did not affected by rearing density, while growth and feed quantity were did.  Survival rate of fish was high; 90.14-99.52%.  Growth and feed consumption were decreased by increasing of  rearing density. Keywords: giant gouramy, Osphronemus gouramy, rearing density, growth   ABSTRAK Ikan gurame, Osphronemus gouramy Lac. merupakan salah satu jenis ikan konsumsi yang memiliki nilai ekonomi yang cukup tinggi, tetapi hasil produksinya masih belum dapat memenuhi permintaan pasar. Upaya perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produksi benih ikan gurame dengan pembenihan secara intensif melalui peningkatan padat penebaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh padat penebaran terhadap kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan benih ikan gurami. Benih ikan gurami dipelihara pada akuarium berukuran 60×29×33 cm3 yang diisi air sebanyak 35 liter. Pakan berupa cacing sutera diberikan secara at satiation sebanyak 0,23 - 0,28 g/ekor/hari dengan frekuensi 2 kali/hari. Data yang diambil meliputi kelangsungan hidup, pertumbuhan, jumlah pakan yang dikonsumsi, efisiensi pakan dan kualitas air.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa padat penebaran tidak mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup dan efisiensi pakan, namun

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the influence of peritoneal dialysis catheter type on complication rate and catheter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Sander M; Lafranca, Jeffrey A; IJzermans, Jan N M; Dor, Frank J M F

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. There are several configurations of PD catheter design that may impact catheter function, such as the shape of the intraperitoneal segment, the number of cuffs, and the subcutaneous configuration. This review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether there is a clinical advantage for one of the catheter types or configurations. Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2012, issue 10). The methodology was in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Interventional Systematic Reviews and written based on the PRISMA statement. The initial search yielded 682 hits from which 13 randomized controlled trials were identified. Outcomes of interest were as follows: catheter survival, drainage dysfunction, migration, leakage, exit-site infections, peritonitis, and catheter removal. Comparing straight vs. swan neck and single vs. double-cuffed catheters, no differences were found when results were pooled. Comparison of straight vs. coiled-tip catheters demonstrated that survival was significantly different in favor of straight catheters (hazard ratio 2.05; confidence interval 1.10-3.79, P=0.02). For surgically inserted catheters, the removal rate and survival at 1 year after insertion were significantly in favor of straight catheters. Our meta-analysis clearly demonstrates benefits for catheters with a straight intraperitoneal segment.

  19. Heart rate variability during abdominal surgical manipulation under general and epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Naoyuki; Miyashita, Ryo; Maruyama, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Ryoichi; Shimizu, Hitoshi; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2012-12-01

    Anesthesiologists occasionally encounter bradycardia during abdominal surgery and recognize the phenomenon as a vagal reflex. The presence of bradycardia implies efferent vagal dominance in the autonomic nervous system during this vagal reflex. In this study, we investigated the effect of abdominal surgical manipulation on autonomic nervous activity, using heart rate variability analysis. Abdominal surgical manipulation decreased the heart rate and enhanced not only the high-frequency power (0.15-0.4 Hz) but also the low-frequency power (0.04-0.15 Hz) calculated from the power spectral density of heart rate variability. Our results suggest that both vagal tone and sympathetic tone could be activated during the vagal reflex caused by abdominal surgical manipulation.

  20. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  1. Using anchoring vignettes to assess group differences in general self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Freese, Jeremy; Hauser, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    This article addresses a potentially serious problem with the widely used self-rated health (SRH) survey item: that different groups have systematically different ways of using the item's response categories. Analyses based on unadjusted SRH may thus yield misleading results. The authors evaluate anchoring vignettes as a possible solution to this problem. Using vignettes specifically designed to calibrate the SRH item and data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS; N = 2,625), the authors show how demographic and health-related factors, including sex and education, predict differences in rating styles. Such differences, when not adjusted for statistically, may be sufficiently large to lead to mistakes in rank orderings of groups. In the present sample, unadjusted models show that women have better SRH than men, but this difference disappears in models adjusting for women's greater health-optimism. Anchoring vignettes appear a promising tool for improving intergroup comparability of SRH.

  2. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. I. Quantum Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual form activated complex theory assumes a quasi-equilibrium between reactants and activated complex, a separable reaction coordinate, a Cartesian reaction coordinate, and an absence of interaction of rotation with internal motion in the complex. In the present paper a rate expression is derived without introducing the Cartesian assumption. The expression bears a formal resemblance to the usual one and reduces to it when the added assumptions of the latter are introduced.

  3. Generalization of an Inequality of Birnbaum and Marshall, with Applications to Growth Rates for Submartingales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-29

    applying the Monotone Convergence Theorem to both sides of (2.2). If h(’) is nonrandom, then E A(T) is by the Fubini -Tonelli Theorem equal to h(s) dp(s...of upper-tail 4- probability inequalities like Doob’s (Doob 1953, Theorem 3.4; Liptser and Shiryaev 1977, vol. 1, Theorem 3.2) for their suprema...stochastic behavior at the right endpoint of the interval. The inequality of Birnbaurn and Marshall (1961, Theorem 5.1) which we generalize in this

  4. Preserved heart rate variability during therapeutic hypothermia correlated to 96 hrs neurological outcomes and survival in a pig model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Guan, Jun; Barbut, Denise; Bisera, Joe; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2012-02-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia initiated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves neurologic outcomes and survival after prolonged cardiac arrest. However, the potential mechanism by which hypothermia improves neurologic outcomes remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of rapid head cooling on 96-hr neurologic outcomes and survival by heart rate variability analysis in a pig model of prolonged cardiac arrest. Prospective randomized controlled animal study. University-affiliated research laboratory. Yorkshire-X domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). A protocol of 10 mins of untreated ventricular fibrillation followed by 5 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model of cardiac arrest was used in this study. Sixteen male domestic pigs weighing between 39 and 45 kg were randomized into two groups, hypothermia (n = 8) and control (n = 8). For the hypothermia group, intranasal-induced head cooling was initiated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and persisted for 4 hrs after resuscitation. For the control group, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started with normothermia. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability was calculated in 5-min sections of electrocardiographic recordings at baseline and 4 hrs after resuscitation. Neurologic outcomes were evaluated every 24 hrs during the 96-hr postresuscitation observation period. No differences in the baseline measurement and resuscitation outcome were observed between the groups. However, the 96-hr cerebral performance categories of the hypothermic group were significantly lower than control (1.0 ± 0.0 vs. 4.0 ± 1.9, p = .003). Four hrs after resuscitation, mean RR interval, heart rate variability triangular index, and normalized very-low-frequency power were restored to baseline in the hypothermia group. Square root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals and SD of instantaneous RR intervals were significantly improved in the cooled animals compared with controls. A significant

  5. Microbial Survival Rates of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans Under Low Temperature, Low Pressure, and UV-Irradiation Conditions, and Their Relevance to Possible Martian Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Benjamin; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Viability rates were determ