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Sample records for survival prospect offspring

  1. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population.

  2. Socioeconomic status determines sex-dependent survival of human offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van D.; Rozing, M.P.; May, L.; Meij, H.J.; Thomese, F.; Zwaan, B.J.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: In polygynous societies, rich men have many offspring through the marriage of multiple wives. Evolutionary, rich households would therefore benefit more from sons, and according to the Trivers–Willard hypothesis, parents invest more in offspring of the sex that has the

  3. [Peculiarities of behavior of offspring of rats-ambidexters after surviving vital stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaliani, T V; Apraksina, N K; Lazarenko, N S; Tsikunov, S G

    2013-01-01

    Psychogenic trauma inflicted to mothers (Wistar rats) during pregnancy is more tragic for establishment of psychoemotional functions in offspring than in the rat pups whose mothers survived prior to pregnancy the stress connected with threat of life. The "antenatal stress" causes in the one-month-old offspring the depression-like behavior, while the stress one month prior to conception--the increased anxiety. Disturbances of the integral behavior in the test "open field" can be caused both by the acute psychogenic trauma of mothers and by its delayed consequences. The sharp impoverishment of behavior and the more pronounced psychoemotional disturbances are realized in female individuals regardless of the terms of the action. In the male offspring the vital stress during their mothers' pregnancy produces the rougher behavioral disturbances than stress prior to conception.

  4. Offspring schooling associated with increased parental survival in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Harling, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Background Investing in offspring's human capital has been suggested as an effective strategy for parents to improve their living conditions at older ages. A few studies have assessed the role of children's schooling in parental survival in high-income countries, but none have considered lower-resource settings with limited public wealth transfers and high adult mortality. Methods We followed 17,789 parents between January 2003 and August 2015 in a large population-based open cohort in rural ...

  5. Outbreeding increases offspring survival in wild greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, S J; Jones, G; Ransome, R D; Barratt, E M

    2001-05-22

    The factors influencing the survival of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) offspring born over seven years at a maternity colony in south-west Britain were studied. The effects of a range of phenotypic and maternal variables were analysed using a historical data set. In addition, the influence of two genetic measures on mortality, individual heterozygosity and a new measure of outbreeding, termed mean d(2), was assessed. Logistic regressions were undertaken with survival modelled as a binary response variable. Survival to two life stages was studied for each variable and all models were developed for both sexes separately and together. Only one variable, mean d(2), was significantly associated with survival. Male offspring with high mean d(2) scores were more likely to survive to their first and second summers. The influence of mean d(2) was not due to a single locus under selection but a wider multilocus effect and probably represents heterosis as opposed to solely inbreeding depression. Therefore, the extent to which an individual is outbred may determine survival more than widely used phenotypic characteristics such as size and mass. Mean d(2) may reflect immunocompetence, which influences mortality. Protection of mating sites in order to facilitate gene flow and, therefore, outbreeding may help to promote population stability and growth.

  6. The effects of the survival characteristics of parent Holocaust survivors on offsprings' anxiety and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviad-Wilchek, Yael; Cohenca-Shiby, Diana; Sasson, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines symptoms of anxiety and depression of Holocaust survivors' (HS) offspring as a function of their parents' age, gender, and survival situation (whether the survivor parent was alone or with a relative during the war). The 180 adults (142 with two parent survivors; 38 with a single parent survivor) who participated in this study completed (a) a measure of state-trait anxiety, (b) a measure of depression symptoms, (c) a sociodemographic questionnaire was divided into three sections: information about the participant, about his mother and about his father. Participants whose mothers were aged 18 or younger during the war and survived alone report more symptoms of anxiety and depression than participants whose mothers were the same age yet survived in the company of relatives. Participants whose mothers were aged 19 or older and survived either alone or in the company of relatives, exhibited fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. The survival situation was the only predictor related to the fathers. There were no significant differences between participants with one or two HS parents. Although this study is based on a relatively small sample, it highlights the relationship between the parents' survival situation and symptoms of anxiety and depression among their offspring.

  7. Early course of bipolar disorder in high-risk offspring: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Alda, Martin; Hajek, Tomas; Grof, Paul

    2009-11-01

    We studied the course of major mood disorders in the offspring of parents with well-characterised bipolar disorder prospectively for up to 15 years. All consenting offspring were assessed annually or anytime symptomatic. The participants began to develop major mood episodes in adolescence and not before. The index major mood episode was almost always depressive, as were the first few recurrences. Onsets and recurrences continued throughout the observation period into adulthood. We did not find evidence of pre-pubertal mania. In summary, adolescence marks the beginning of the high-risk period for major mood episodes related to bipolar disorder.

  8. A prospective study of the offspring of bipolar parents responsive and nonresponsive to lithium treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Alda, Martin; Kutcher, Stan; Cavazzoni, Patrizia; Robertson, Carrie; Grof, Eva; Grof, Paul

    2002-12-01

    The descriptions of clinical course among bipolar youths vary significantly and differ markedly from the findings described in classical studies of bipolar adults. This difference may in part reflect genetic heterogeneity. Response to lithium monotherapy identifies a homogeneous subgroup of bipolar adults. The aim of this study was to prospectively characterize the clinical course, including antecedent and comorbid conditions, among the offspring of 2 groups of bipolar parents divided on the basis of response to lithium. Parents were identified from families participating in ongoing molecular genetic studies and selected from specialty affective disorder clinics. For each child, 1 parent met Research Diagnostic Criteria/DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder and either response or nonresponse to lithium prophylaxis. The other parent had no lifetime history of a major psychiatric illness. Blind to family affiliation and lithium response, all eligible offspring aged 10 to 25 years were interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), and best-estimate diagnoses were made by a panel of experts. Offspring were then reassessed over a 5-year period. Offspring of lithium responders (N = 34) had good premorbid functioning and manifested classical mood disorders with an episodic course. Comorbid conditions in this group remitted prior to the mood disorder. In contrast, offspring of lithium nonresponders (N = 21) had poorer premorbid functioning and manifested mood disorders with a chronic course. Comorbid conditions continued alongside the mood disorder. Clinical course among affected offspring was predicted by the disease course of the parent. The pattern of clinical course, remitting or nonremitting, appears to be inherited. Among the offspring of lithium-responsive bipolar parents, an early-onset subgroup with a classical episodic clinical course can be identified.

  9. Universal doomsday: analyzing our prospects for survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerig, Austin [CABDyN Complexity Centre, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: austin.gerig@sbs.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: kdo@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford MA 02155 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Given a sufficiently large universe, numerous civilizations almost surely exist. Some of these civilizations will be short-lived and die out relatively early in their development, i.e., before having the chance to spread to other planets. Others will be long-lived, potentially colonizing their galaxy and becoming enormous in size. What fraction of civilizations in the universe are long-lived? The ''universal doomsday'' argument states that long-lived civilizations must be rare because if they were not, we should find ourselves living in one. Furthermore, because long-lived civilizations are rare, our civilization's prospects for long-term survival are poor. Here, we develop the formalism required for universal doomsday calculations and show that while the argument has some force, our future is not as gloomy as the traditional doomsday argument would suggest, at least when the number of early existential threats is small.

  10. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    W Agbenyikey; Karasek, R; Cifuentes, M.; PA Wolf; Seshadri, S; Taylor JA; AS Beiser; Au, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429), were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwar...

  11. Offspring schooling associated with increased parental survival in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Harling, Guy

    2017-03-01

    Investing in offspring's human capital has been suggested as an effective strategy for parents to improve their living conditions at older ages. A few studies have assessed the role of children's schooling in parental survival in high-income countries, but none have considered lower-resource settings with limited public wealth transfers and high adult mortality. We followed 17,789 parents between January 2003 and August 2015 in a large population-based open cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association between offspring's schooling and time to parental death. We assessed the association separately by parental sex and for four cause of death groups. A one year increase in offspring's schooling attainment was associated with a 5% decline in the hazard of maternal death (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.94-0.97) and a 6% decline in the hazard of paternal death (aHR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.92-0.96), adjusting for a wide range of demographic and socio-economic variables of the parent and their children. Among mothers, the association was strongest for communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (aHR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.82-0.92) and AIDS and tuberculosis (aHR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.89-0.96), and weakest for injuries. Among fathers, the association was strongest for injuries (aHR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95) and AIDS and tuberculosis (aHR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.89-0.96), and weakest for non-communicable diseases. Higher levels of schooling in offspring are associated with increased parental survival in rural South Africa, particularly for mothers at risk of communicable disease mortality and fathers at risk of injury mortality. Offspring's human capital may be an important factor for health disparities, particularly in lower-resource settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Weather, habitat composition, and female behavior interact to modify offspring survival in Greater Sage-Grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel; Blomberg, Erik J; Atamian, Michael T; Sedinger, James S

    2017-01-01

    Weather is a source of environmental variation that can affect population vital rates. However, the influence of weather on individual fitness is spatially heterogeneous and can be driven by other environmental factors, such as habitat composition. Therefore, individuals can experience reduced fitness (e.g., decreased reproductive success) during poor environmental conditions through poor decisions regarding habitat selection. This requires, however, that habitat selection is adaptive and that the organism can correctly interpret the environmental cues to modify habitat use. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are an obligate of the sagebrush ecosystems of western North America, relying on sagebrush for food and cover. Greater Sage-Grouse chicks, however, require foods with high nutrient content (i.e., forbs and insects), the abundance of which is both temporally and spatially dynamic and related primarily to water availability. Our goal was to assess whether nest site selection and movements of broods by females reduced the negative effect of drought on offspring survival. As predicted, chick survival was negatively influenced by drought severity. We found that sage-grouse females generally preferred to nest and raise their young in locations where their chicks would experience higher survival. We also found that use of habitats positively associated with chick survival were also positively associated with drought severity, which suggests that females reduced drought impacts on their dependent young by selecting more favorable environments during drought years. Although our findings suggest that female nest site selection and brood movement rates can reduce the negative effects of drought on early offspring survival, the influence of severe drought conditions was not completely mitigated by female behavior, and that drought conditions should be considered a threat to Greater Sage-Grouse population persistence. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of

  13. Externalizing disorders in the offspring from the San Diego prospective study of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A; Smith, Tom L; Pierson, Juliann; Trim, Ryan; Danko, George P

    2008-07-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be more prevalent in relatives of alcoholics and may predict alcohol and drug problems, but not all studies agree. This paper evaluates these questions in well-educated families of alcoholics and controls. Data from 165, 14-25-year-old offspring in the San Diego Prospective Study were used to create Group 1 (n=17) with CD or ADHD and Group 2 (n=148) with no such diagnoses. Correlations and hierarchical logistic regressions evaluated characteristics associated with these disorders, comparing the impact of CD and ADHD. The rates of CD (6.1%) and of ADHD (4.8%) were not strikingly elevated, and did not relate to the family history of alcohol or drug use disorders. Group 1 offspring were more likely to have divorced parents, a relative with bipolar disorder, a higher intake of alcohol and illicit substances, and associated problems.

  14. Reproductive tactics optimizing the survival of the offspring of Cichlasoma orientale (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussiara Candeira Spíndola Linhares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates have been observed in Teleost during early developmental stages, as well as great variations in reproductive tactics, which are related to adaptations towards environmental conditions and ecological niches for which different species have a specific response. The objective of this study was to describe reproductive tactics related to the survival of Cichlasoma orientale offspring, including aspects of body size, parental care, fecundity, oocyte size and spawning patterns. Samples were performed monthly from August 2011 to July 2013, in lentic and lotic environments at Curu river basin, Brazilian Northeastern semiarid region. Individual behavior (n=113 was observed underwater for over 50 hours by ad libitum sampling and focal-animal sampling. Collected individuals (males n=185, females n=95 were evaluated regarding the standard length, batch fecundity, oocyte size and spawning pattern. In females with mature ovaries, oocyte groups at different developmental stages were observed, these cells were counted and measured, and fecundity was estimated by the gravimetric method. Our results showed that the species displayed biparental care behavior and, on average, males were larger than females. Based on 46 ovaries, the average batch fecundity was 2 052±849 (range: 254-3 389. Standard length and batch fecundity were positively correlated, but no correlation was found between oocyte size and standard length. The maximum diameter observed in the most developed oocytes was 1.8mm. The observed distribution of oocyte size classes indicated synchronous oocyte development in three groups: previtellogenic, vitellogenic and mature, showing that C. orientale is a multiple spawner. Differences in the amount of oocytes among the three groups were observed, with the most developed group showing the smallest number of oocytes. The combination of low fecundity and large egg size is characteristic of demersal spawners due to a greater

  15. The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Erica P; Hurston, Shanta R; Dewey, Kathryn G; Faith, Myles S; Charvat-Aguilar, Nancy; Khoury, Vicky C; Nguyen, Van T; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2015-07-17

    Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life. Breastfed babies grow more slowly during infancy than formula-fed babies. Among offspring exposed in utero to maternal glucose intolerance, prospective data on growth during infancy have been unavailable. Thus, scientific evidence is insufficient to conclude that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity among the offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM). To address this gap, we devised the Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM Pregnancy and Growth of their Offspring, also known as the SWIFT Offspring Study. This prospective, longitudinal study recruited mother-infant pairs from the SWIFT Study, a prospective study of women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The goal of the SWIFT Offspring Study is to determine whether breastfeeding intensity and duration, compared with formula feeding, are related to slower growth of GDM offspring during the first year life. This article details the study design, participant eligibility, data collection, and methodologies. We also describe the baseline characteristics of the GDM mother-infant pairs. The study enrolled 466 mother-infant pairs among GDM deliveries in northern California from 2009-2011. Participants attended three in-person study exams at 6-9 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after delivery for infant anthropometry (head circumference, body weight, length, abdominal circumference and skinfold thicknesses), as well as maternal anthropometry (body weight, waist circumference and percent body fat). Mothers also completed questionnaires on health and lifestyle behaviors, including infant diet, sleep and temperament. Breastfeeding intensity and duration were assessed via several sources (diaries, telephone interviews, monthly mailings and in-person exams) from birth through the first year of life. Pregnancy course, clinical perinatal and newborn outcomes were obtained from health plan electronic

  16. Transgenerational effects of parental nutritional status on offspring development time, survival, fecundity, and sensitivity to zinc in Chironomus tepperi midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Golding, Lisa A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2014-12-01

    Environmental stimuli can induce plastic changes in life history traits, and stimuli experienced by parents can be transmitted to the next generation ("transgenerational") through the inheritance of factors unrelated to changes in DNA sequences. Transgenerational effects are common in species living in habitats subjected to recurrent stressful events, such as fluctuating resource availability. In a previous study, the nutritional status of the midge Chironomus tepperi has been reported to influence life history traits of the offspring. In this study we investigated whether they also alter sensitivity of offspring to zinc. Offspring of parents reared under low food conditions had a shorter development time and lower reproductive output compared to offspring of parents raised under excess food. While zinc exposure decreased the survival of offspring generally, the interaction between parental food level and zinc exposure did not influence the relative sensitivity of offspring toward zinc. Parental nutritional stress therefore triggered transgenerational effects, potentially acting as confounding factors in ecotoxicological studies, but they did not directly affect the susceptibility of offspring to zinc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

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    Sesilje B. Petersen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.

  18. Job Strain and Cognitive Decline: A Prospective Study of the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Agbenyikey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Workplace stress is known to be related with many behavioral and disease outcomes. However, little is known about its prospective relationship with measures of cognitive decline. Objective: To investigate the association of job strain, psychological demands and job control on cognitive decline. Methods: Participants from Framingham Offspring cohort (n=1429, were assessed on job strain, and received neuropsychological assessment approximately 15 years and 21 years afterwards. Results: High job strain and low control were associated with decline in verbal learning and memory. Job strain was associated with decline in word recognition skills. Active job and passive job predicted decline in verbal learning and memory relative to low strain jobs in the younger subgroup. Active job and demands were positively associated with abstract reasoning skills. Conclusions: Job strain and job control may influence decline in cognitive performance.

  19. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Sellers, Ruth; Owen, Michael J; Craddock, Nicholas; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon T; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Young people whose parents have depression have a greatly increased risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, but poor outcomes are not inevitable. Identification of the contributors to mental health resilience in young people at high familial risk is an internationally recognised priority. Our objectives were to identify protective factors that predict sustained good mental health in adolescents with a parent with depression and to test whether these contribute beyond what is explained by parent illness severity. The Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study (EPAD) is a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Parents with recurrent major depressive disorder, co-parents, and offspring (aged 9-17 years at baseline) were assessed three times over 4 years in a community setting. Offspring outcomes were operationalised as absence of mental health disorder, subthreshold symptoms, or suicidality on all three study occasions (sustained good mental health); and better than expected mental health (mood and behavioural symptoms at follow-up lower than predicted given severity of parental depression). Family, social, cognitive, and health behaviour predictor variables were assessed using interview and questionnaire measures. Between February and June, 2007, we screened 337 families at baseline, of which 331 were eligible. Of these, 262 completed the three assessments and were included in the data for sustained mental health. Adolescent mental health problems were common, but 53 (20%) of the 262 adolescents showed sustained good mental health. Index parent positive expressed emotion (odds ratio 1·91 [95% CI 1·31-2·79]; p=0·001), co-parent support (1·90 [1·38-2·62]; pprotective factors were required for offspring to be free of mental health problems (zero or one protective factor, 4% sustained good mental health; two protective factors, 10%; three protective factors, 13%, four protective factors, 38%; five protective

  20. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  1. Milk matters: offspring survival in Columbian ground squirrels is affected by nutrient composition of mother’s milk

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    Amy eSkibiel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through maternal effects, information about environmental conditions experienced in the maternal generation can be transmitted to subsequent generations. Although maternal effects have been described and quantified in many mammalian species, the underlying causal links are often under-studied. The close association between mother and neonate during the extended period of lactation in mammals provides a unique opportunity for mothers to influence offspring phenotype through nutrient provisioning of milk. The purpose of this study was to examine sources of inter-individual variation in milk composition and impacts on offspring phenotype and survival. Variation in fat content, protein content, and energy density of mother’s milk was associated with timing of reproduction. Mothers with intermediate birthdates produced milk that was higher in fat and energy density, but lower in protein than females with early or late birthdates. In turn, the pattern of change in milk composition affected juvenile overwinter survival. The protein content of Columbian ground squirrel milk typically increases to peak lactation and then declines before weaning. Pups consuming milk that was lower in protein in early lactation but then relatively high in protein at peak and late lactation had a higher probability of survival overwinter. Our results indicate that the interplay between the timing of reproduction and lactation performance has consequences for maternal and offspring fitness.

  2. Maternal weight gain during the first half of pregnancy and offspring obesity at 16 years: a prospective cohort study.

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    Laitinen, J; Jääskeläinen, A; Hartikainen, A-L; Sovio, U; Vääräsmäki, M; Pouta, A; Kaakinen, M; Järvelin, M-R

    2012-05-01

    To assess the association between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) during the first 20 weeks of gestation and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity of offspring at the age of 16 years. A prospective cohort study. The two northernmost provinces of Finland. Mothers and their adolescent offspring born from singleton pregnancies (3265 boys; 3372 girls) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Maternal weight at 20 weeks of gestation was measured in municipal maternity clinics. Maternal GWG was based on the difference between the measured weight and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight, and was classified into quartiles. Offspring weight, height and waist circumference were measured by study nurses during a clinical examination. Logistic regression analyses [with and without adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), glucose metabolism, education level, haemoglobin, smoking status, parity, and gender of offspring] were performed. Offspring overweight/obesity, based on BMI and abdominal obesity at 16 years. The highest quartile of maternal weight gain (>7.0 kg during the first 20 weeks of gestation) was independently associated with BMI-based overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in the 16-year-old offspring (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.16-1.83, and OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.10-1.72, respectively). Among all covariates, maternal pregravid obesity showed the highest odds for both overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity (OR 4.57, 95% CI 3.18-6.57, and OR 4.43, 95% CI 3.10-6.34, respectively). Maternal overnutrition during the first half of gestation predicts offspring overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in adolescence, yet a high pregravid BMI appears to be a more important determinant of both outcomes. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  3. [Intensive care medicine-survival and prospect of life].

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    Valentin, A

    2017-10-01

    Intensive care medicine has achieved a significant increase in survival rates from critical illness. In addition to short-term outcomes like intensive care unit or hospital mortality, long-term prognosis and prospect of life of intensive care patients have recently become increasingly important. Pure survival is no longer a sole goal of intensive care medicine. The prediction of an intensive care patient's individual course should include the period after intensive care. A relevant proportion of all intensive care patients is affected by physical, psychological, cognitive, and social limitations after discharge from the intensive care unit. The prognosis of the status of the patient after discharge from the intensive care unit is an important part of the decision-making process with respect to the implementation or discontinuation of intensive care measures. The heavy burden of intensive care treatment should not solely be argued by pure survival but an anticipated sound prospect of life.

  4. [Child survival, fertility, and family planning in Africa. Uncertain prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbacke, C

    1987-10-01

    This work summarizes a paper by Cynthia B. Lloyd and Serguey Ivanov entitled "The Effects of Improved Child Survival on Family Planning Practice and Fertility" that was presented at the October 1987 conference in Nairobi on the health benefits of family planning for women and children. The paper presented results of a systematic literature review that sought to answer 2 questions: 1) do improved prospects of child survival reduce fertility, and 2) if so, what role does family planning play in the process. The 4 parts of the study defined the theoretical framework of the analysis, examined socioeconomic factors that could influence family building strategies, reviewed empiric research on the subject, and discussed policy implications. Improved survival prospects for children have 4 different effects which promote fertility decline. The transition effect refers to the parents' growing awareness that they can influence future events. The physiologic effect results when lactation is uninterrupted by early death of the child. When fertility behavior becomes more calculated and less fatalistic, demand and supply effects enter into play. The relationship between fertility and mortality is 2-directional. Socioeconomic factors determine the number of surviving children desired by a couple. In the traditionally agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa, the economic value of children far exceeds their costs, which at any rate are shared by the extended family and the community at large. The age distribution of death largely determines the predictability of child survival. High mortality after the 1st year as in Sahel countries which have the highest child morality rates in the world is unfavorable to family planning. The distribution of causes of death is also important because parents are more likely to notice improved survival prospects and change their fertility expectations accordingly if they themselves helped improve conditions rather than merely benefitting from

  5. Maternal adiposity prior to pregnancy is associated with ADHD symptoms in offspring: evidence from three prospective pregnancy cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, A; Miettunen, J.; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2007-01-01

    the Nordic Network on ADHD.Methods:Maternal pregnancy and delivery data were collected prospectively. Teachers rated inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in offspring. High scores were defined as at least one core symptom rated as 'severe' and two as 'present' (approximately 10% of children scored...... in this range). Logistic regression and latent class analyses were used to examine maternal pregnancy weight in relation to children's ADHD core symptoms.Results:Teacher rated 12 556 school-aged children. Gestational weight gain outside of the Institute of Medicine guidelines was not related to ADHD symptoms...... pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and a high ADHD symptom score in offspring, ORs ranged between 1.37 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.75) and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.13, 3.15) adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, weight gain, pregnancy smoking, maternal age, maternal education, child gender, family structure...

  6. Maternal eating disorders affect offspring cord blood DNA methylation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Nabila; Gaunt, Tom R; Relton, Caroline; Micali, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are chronic psychiatric disorders, common amongst women of reproductive age. ED in pregnancy are associated with poor nutrition and abnormal intrauterine growth. Increasing evidence also shows offspring of women with ED have adverse developmental and birth outcomes. We sought to carry out the first study investigating DNA methylation in offspring of women with ED. We compared cord blood DNA methylation in offspring of women with active ED ( n  = 21), past ED ( n  = 43) and age- and social class-matched controls ( n  = 126) as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Offspring of women with both active and past ED had lower whole-genome methylation compared to controls (active ED 49.1% (95% confidence intervals 50.5-47.7%), past ED 49.2% (95% CI 50.7-47.7.0%), controls 52.4% (95% CI 53.0%-51.0%)). Amongst offspring of ED women, those born to women with restrictive-type and purging-type ED had lower methylation levels compared to those of controls. Offspring of women with an active restrictive ED in pregnancy had lower whole-genome methylation compared to offspring of women with past restrictive ED. We observed decreased methylation at the DHCR24 locus in offspring of women with active pregnancy ED (effect size (ES) = - 0.124, p  = 6.94 × 10 -8 ) and increased methylation at the LGALS2 locus in offspring of women with past ED (ES = 0.07, p  = 3.74 × 10 -7 ) compared to controls. Maternal active and past ED are associated with differences in offspring whole-genome methylation. Our results show altered DNA methylation in loci relevant to metabolism; these might be biomarkers of disrupted metabolic pathways in offspring of ED mothers. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and functional outcomes of the observed methylation patterns.

  7. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Lykkedegn

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19 or day 22 (E22, placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL, oxygenation (SaO2 at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR. S-25(OHD was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001. Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001, lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002, SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002 as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001. At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001. The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  8. The Risk of Offspring Developing Substance Use Disorders when Exposed to One versus Two Parents with Alcohol Use Disorder: A Register-based Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellentin, Angelina Isabella; Brink, M; Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2014-01-01

    .32-3.08) in the hazard ratios of SUD. Conclusion: Offspring’s of AUD parents had increased risks of SUD, with an additive parental risk of their offspring developing a SUD. This knowledge could have conceptual as well as practical implications in the clinical assessment, interventions and management of offspring exposed......Background: Few population-based studies have investigated associations between having one or two parents with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the risk of substance use disorders (SUD) in the offspring. Moreover, these studies have solely focused on AUD in the offspring and not SUD in general....... The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of SUD in offspring when exposed to one versus two parents with AUD. Methods: A population-based, prospective cohort study with 398,881 offspring’s born in Denmark within 1983-1989 was followed until 2011. Register-data was obtained from the following data...

  9. Academic Achievement in Primary School in Offspring Born to Mothers With Type 1 Diabetes (the EPICOM Study): A Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Clausen, Tine D; Vlachová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of maternal pregestational type 1 diabetes on offspring primary school performance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective combined clinical and register-based cohort study comparing primary school performance in offspring (n = 707...... type 1 diabetes obtained similar school grades as control offspring when finishing primary school (regression coefficient [β] = -0.13; 95% CI = -0.30 to 0.03; P = 0.12). Adjusting for parental education also resulted in an insignificant difference between the two groups (β = -0.07; 95% CI = -0.23 to 0...... when finishing primary school compared with matched control offspring. Among offspring of women with type 1 diabetes, we found a consistent negative association between maternal HbA1c in pregnancy and primary school grades. However, whether this association reflects a direct causal influence...

  10. Early exposure to parental bipolar disorder and risk of mood disorder: the Flourish Canadian prospective offspring cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodday, Sarah; Levy, Adrian; Flowerdew, Gordon; Horrocks, Julie; Grof, Paul; Ellenbogen, Mark; Duffy, Anne

    2015-10-21

    Exposure to postnatal parental depression is associated with offspring mood disorder later in life; however, little is known about exposure to parental bipolar disorder (BD) and subsequent risk of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the duration, severity and timing of exposure to parental BD in early childhood and subsequent risk of mood disorder. 189 offspring of a parent with BD completed annual assessments following Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders (KSADS) format semistructured interviews as part of an ongoing 16-year prospective cohort study. Clinical data from the affected parents were collected over the first decade of their offspring's life using SADS-L format semistructured interviews and coded using the Affective Morbidity Index (AMI). A longer duration of exposure to parental BD was associated with a 1.5-fold risk of any psychopathology (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-2.3) and a 2.5-fold increased risk of substance use disorders (95% CI: 1.2-5.3). Exposure during the first 2 years of life was significantly associated with the risk of mood disorder (hazard ratio (HR): 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0-1.2), whereas exposure later in childhood was not. The duration of exposure to active parental BD in childhood is an important risk factor for the subsequent development of mood and non-mood psychopathology risk in offspring. These findings emphasize the importance of effective treatment of parents with BD to help both themselves and their children, especially early in development. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents' Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.

  12. Current research and prospects for health effects of nanoparticles on offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umezawa, M [Department of Hygienic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Takeda, K, E-mail: masa-ume@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp

    2011-10-29

    Caution in handling ceramic nanoparticles is required by workers and consumers if they are to be used safely and profitably. The small size of nanoparticles can bestow high reactivity and unique translocational properties. Studies have shown that exposure to some types of nanoparticles affects the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems and various organs. When pregnant mice were exposed to nanoparticles, various organs of offspring are also affected. Our recent studies showed that prenatal exposure to nanoparticles (carbon black and titanium dioxide) causes long-term adverse effects on the reproductive, respiratory and central nervous systems of offspring. The effects of nanoparticles on fetuses and children and the possibility of them leading to the onset of diseases in adulthood are of concern. Thus, it is important to research the risk of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles, including ceramic nanoparticles, from the environment and to attempt to identify methods to protect against their toxicity.

  13. Things Really Exist? A Survival-Kit for Prospective Phenomenologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Koob

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides something of a survival kit for prospective phenomenologists. Starting with the main ideas of the founder of phenomenology Edmund HUSSERL, this article begins by articulating phenomenological thinking in abstract painting, existentialism, theology, and psychotherapy. On this background I discuss the theoretical and methodological development of phenomenology in the social sciences. Linking phenomenology and ordinary language philosophy rounds out this hopefully "easy-to-understand" introduction. After having read the text students should be familiar with the philosophical roots, the major application contexts, and some central reservations against phenomenology. Above all, students should be able to (a apply the term "phenomenology" appropriately (at least as far as this is possible and (b meet the requirements of phenomenologically oriented research methods in a reflective and mature way. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802202

  14. Poor survival of offspring from female rats previously exposed to perinatal propylthiouracil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1984-08-01

    Pregnant rats were fed 0.02% propythiouracil (PTU) in their drinking water during the last 4 days of pregnancy and the first 16 days of lactation. The survival of pups from rats previously exposed to perinatal propylthiouracil was tabulated. Results indicate that 73% of the pups from peri-PTU dams were dead two days after birth. Perinatal hypothyroidism in rats has been associated with persistent abnormalities, even though the animals may appear normal. These experiments do not clarify whether perinatal hypothyroidism or a non-thyroid effect of PTU caused the peri-PTU rats to have subnormal survival of pups.

  15. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pilecki, Bartosz; Duelund, Lars; Marcussen, Niels; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, plung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002), SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002) as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, plung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted.

  16. Maternal body burdens of methylmercury impair survival skills of offspring in Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María del Carmen; Murphy, Cheryl A; Rose, Kenneth A; McCarthy, Ian D; Fuiman, Lee A

    2006-12-30

    Methylmercury (MeHg), the organic form of mercury, bioaccumulates easily through the food chain. Fish in high trophic levels can accumulate substantial levels of MeHg and transfer it to their developing eggs. Here, the effects of maternally derived MeHg on the planktonic larval stage of Atlantic croaker were investigated. Adult Atlantic croaker were fed MeHg-contaminated food at three levels: 0, 0.05, and 0.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 1 month. Fish were then induced to spawn and MeHg levels in the eggs were measured (0.04-4.6 ng g(-1)). Behavioral performance of exposed and control larvae was measured at four developmental stages: end of yolk absorption (yolk), end of oil absorption (oil), and 4 and 11 days after oil absorption (oil+4 and oil+11). Behaviors analyzed included survival skills related to foraging and predator evasion: routine behavior (rate of travel, active swimming speed, net-to-gross displacement ratio, and activity) and startle response to a visual and a vibratory stimulus (responsiveness, reactive distance, response distance, response duration, average response speed, and maximum response speed). Maternally transferred MeHg induced concentration-dependent effects on survival skills. Statistical and simulation models applied to predict the ecological consequences of the behavioral effects suggested that maternal transfer of MeHg may substantially lower survival of planktonic stage larvae compared to unexposed larvae. These results also imply that larvae of top predatory fish species, such as blue marlin, may suffer mortality through maternal transfer of MeHg.

  17. The evolutionary ecology of generalization: among-year variation in host plant use and offspring survival in a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Christer; Friberg, Magne

    2009-12-01

    The majority of phytophagous insects are relatively specialized in their food habits, and specialization in resource use is expected to be favored by selection in most scenarios. Ecological generalization is less common and less well understood, but it should be selected for by (1) rarity of resources, (2) resource inconstancy, or (3) unreliability of resource quality. Here, we test these predictions by studying egg distribution and offspring survival in the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines, on different host plants in Sweden over a five-year period. A total of 3800 eggs were laid on 16 of the 18 crucifers available at the field site during the five years. Three main factors explained host plant generalization: (1) a rarity of food resources in which the female encounter rate of individual crucifer plants was low and within-year phenological succession of flowering periods of the different crucifers meant that individual species were suitable for oviposition only within a short time window, which translates to a low effective abundance of individual crucifer species as experienced by females searching for host plants, making specialization on a single crucifer species unprofitable; (2) variation in food resources in which among-year variation in availability of any one host plant species was high; and (3) larval survivorship varied unpredictably among years on all host plants, thereby necessitating a bet-hedging strategy and use of several different host plants. Unpredictable larval survival was caused by variation in plant stand habitat characteristics, which meant that drowning and death from starvation affected different crucifers differently, and by parasitism, which varied by host plant and year. Hence, our findings are in agreement with the theoretical explanation of ecological generalization above, helping to explain why A. cardamines is a generalist throughout its range with respect to genera within the Cruciferae.

  18. Rearing conditions determine offspring survival independent of egg quality : A cross-foster experiment with Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Bakker, T; Saaltink, DJ; Verhulst, S; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan

    Variation in rearing conditions, due either to parental or to environmental quality, can result in offspring of different quality (e.g. body condition, immune function). However, evidence is accumulating that egg size and composition can also affect offspring quality. In Oystercatchers Haematopus

  19. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung...

  20. Survival in the perinatal period: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, B M; Guilkey, D K; Schwartz, J B; Flieger, W

    1993-07-01

    A prospective study of 3080 Filipino mothers and non-twin births in 33 communities is used to study the determinants of mortality in week 1 postpartum. The results show significant nonlinear birth weight effects and the importance of environmental contamination, particularly for infants born by traditional methods at home, and several other intermediate and underlying determinants of perinatal mortality. The pathways through which important sociodemographic factors affect perinatal mortality are also presented.

  1. Early parent-child relationships and risk of mood disorder in a Canadian sample of offspring of a parent with bipolar disorder: findings from a 16-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Sarah; Levy, Adrian; Flowerdew, Gordon; Horrocks, Julie; Grof, Paul; Ellenbogen, Mark; Duffy, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to parental bipolar disorder (BD) early in life may increase the risk of developing a mood disorder. However, the impact of early parent-child relationships when a parent is affected and how this impacts an offspring's risk remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between parent-child relationships and risk of mood disorder in offspring of parents with BD and, secondly, to determine the interaction of temperament and life stress on this association. Two hundred and thirty-three offspring completed annual clinical assessments following Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders (KSADS) format interviews as part of an ongoing Canadian prospective cohort study conducted from 1996 to 2013. Offspring completed measures of early adversity, life stress and temperament. Clinical data from the affected parents were prospectively collected over the first decade of their offspring's life using SADS format interviews. Higher perceived neglect from mother and offspring emotionality were significantly associated with the hazard of mood disorder (hazard ratio (HR): 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-1.2 and HR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-3.1, respectively). Duration of exposure to parental BD significantly interacted with offspring emotionality to predict mood disorder (P = 0.01). Further, perceived neglect from mother was associated with offspring high emotionality (P = 0.02). Neglect from mother is a significant early predictor of mood disorder in offspring at familial risk for BD and may increase emotional sensitivity. Psychosocial support and interventions for high-risk families could be beneficial in reducing early adversity, maternal neglect and the risk of subsequent mood disorders in offspring. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Exposure to bacterial signals does not alter pea aphids' survival upon a second challenge or investment in production of winged offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas ter Braak

    Full Text Available Pea aphids have an obligate nutritional symbiosis with the bacteria Buchneraaphidicola and frequently also harbor one or more facultative symbionts. Aphids are also susceptible to bacterial pathogen infections, and it has been suggested that aphids have a limited immune response towards such pathogen infections compared to other, more well-studied insects. However, aphids do possess at least some of the genes known to be involved in bacterial immune responses in other insects, and immune-competent hemocytes. One possibility is that immune priming with microbial elicitors could stimulate immune protection against subsequent bacterial infections, as has been observed in several other insect systems. To address this hypothesis we challenged aphids with bacterial immune elicitors twenty-four hours prior to live bacterial pathogen infections and then compared their survival rates to aphids that were not pre-exposed to bacterial signals. Using two aphid genotypes, we found no evidence for immune protection conferred by immune priming during infections with either Serratia marcescens or with Escherichia coli. Immune priming was not altered by the presence of facultative, beneficial symbionts in the aphids. In the absence of inducible immune protection, aphids may allocate energy towards other defense traits, including production of offspring with wings that could escape deteriorating conditions. To test this, we monitored the ratio of winged to unwinged offspring produced by adult mothers of a single clone that had been exposed to bacterial immune elicitors, to live E. coli infections or to no challenge. We found no correlation between immune challenge and winged offspring production, suggesting that this mechanism of defense, which functions upon exposure to fungal pathogens, is not central to aphid responses to bacterial infections.

  3. Incremental diagnostic yield of pediatric cardiac assessment after fetal echocardiography in the offspring of women with congenital heart disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaroopan, Molly; Wald, Rachel M; Silversides, Candice K; Mason, Jennifer; Smallhorn, Jeffrey F; Sermer, Mathew; Colman, Jack M; Siu, Samuel C

    2008-03-01

    We sought to determine the incremental diagnostic utility of pediatric cardiac assessment in the offspring of women with congenital heart disease who have had previous fetal echocardiography. We prospectively followed pregnant women with congenital heart disease who were receiving care at 2 obstetric and cardiac centers and identified 276 infants who underwent both fetal echocardiography and pediatric cardiac assessment. All of the infants with abnormal fetal echocardiography findings or abnormal pediatric cardiac assessments underwent subsequent confirmatory pediatric echocardiography. In this cohort, congenital heart disease was detected in 22 (8%) of 276 offspring born to women with congenital heart disease. There was concordance between the results of fetal echocardiography and pediatric cardiac assessment in 235 (85%) of 276 offspring (231, both normal; 4, both abnormal) and discordance between the results of fetal echocardiography and pediatric cardiac assessment in 41 (15%) of 276 infants. In the 41 subjects with discordant results, there were normal fetal echocardiography findings but abnormal pediatric cardiac assessments in 35 of 41 (pediatric echocardiography revealed congenital heart disease in 18 of 35 and normal anatomy in 17 of 35) and abnormal fetal echocardiography findings but normal pediatric cardiac assessments in 6 of 41 (pediatric echocardiography findings normal in all 6 of the infants). Fetal echocardiography detected all of the major forms of congenital heart disease. Lesions missed by fetal echocardiography but detected on pediatric cardiac assessment included shunt lesions and minor valvular abnormalities. Although fetal echocardiography can reliably exclude major forms of congenital heart disease, minor congenital heart disease lesions can be missed on fetal echocardiography; however, these can be diagnosed with careful pediatric cardiac assessment. Postnatal pediatric cardiac assessment has incremental diagnostic utility for the

  4. Survival of participating and nonparticipating limb amputees in prospective study : Consequences for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.C.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified selection by analyzing the survival rate of the participants and nonparticipants in a 4-year prospective, multicenter cohort study. In addition, the differences between these groups were analyzed. Surgeons of six hospitals in the northern Netherlands referred, in total, 225

  5. Testing the level of response to alcohol-based model of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in offspring from the San Diego Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A; Smith, Tom L; Trim, Ryan; Kreikebaum, Sara; Hinga, Briana; Allen, Rhonda

    2008-07-01

    The low level of response (LR) to alcohol, an endophenotype related to heavy drinking and alcohol problems, influences the risk for alcoholism in the context of additional life domains. This article evaluates an LR-based model of drinking patterns in 113 drinking offspring, ages 12 to 24 years, from the San Diego Prospective Study. Correlations and structural equation models (SEMs) were evaluated using LR as measured from the Self-Report of the Effects of Alcohol questionnaire in the offspring. The expectations of the effects of alcohol (EXPECT), the perception of drinking in peers (PEER), the use of alcohol to cope with stress (COPE), and the drinking quantities and alcohol-related problems (ALCOUT) were evaluated in the SEM. The LR-based model worked well, with good fit characteristics and 78% of the variance of outcome explained. LR related directly to ALCOUT, with additional mediation of that relationship through EXPECT and COPE. The LR-based model performed well in adolescents from the San Diego Prospective Study. Knowledge of which domains mediate how LR impacts alcohol-related outcomes may be useful in developing more focused and potentially more effective prevention approaches.

  6. Maternal investment, sibling competition, and offspring survival with increasing litter size and parity in pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Nævdal, Eric; Bøe, Knut Egil

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of litter size and parity on sibling competition, piglet survival, and weight gain. It was predicted that competition for teats would increase with increasing litter size, resulting in a higher mortality due to maternal infanticide (i.e., crushing) and starvation, thus keeping the number of surviving piglets constant. We predicted negative effects on weight gain with increasing litter size. Based on maternal investment theory, we also predicted that piglet mortality would be higher for litters born late in a sow's life and thus that the number of surviving piglets would be higher in early litters. As predicted, piglet mortality increased with increasing litter size both due to an increased proportion of crushed piglets, where most of them failed in the teat competition, and due to starvation caused by increased sibling competition, resulting in a constant number of survivors. Piglet weight at day 1 and growth until weaning also declined with increasing litter size. Sows in parity four had higher piglet mortality due to starvation, but the number of surviving piglets was not affected by parity. In conclusion, piglet mortality caused by maternal crushing of piglets, many of which had no teat success, and starvation caused by sibling competition, increased with increasing litter size for most sow parities. The constant number of surviving piglets at the time of weaning suggests that 10 to 11 piglets could be close to the upper limit that the domestic sow is capable of taking care of.

  7. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures: prospective study over two decades in Aarhus City, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian; Granström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Vestergaard, Peter; Strøm, Marin

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during childhood have shown conflicting results. We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS). Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register. Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th-95th percentile) 25(OH)D was 76.2 (23.0-152.1) nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.74). Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12-2.97), which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OH)D and offspring forearm fractures (P = 0.054). Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures.

  8. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures: prospective study over two decades in Aarhus City, Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesilje Bondo Petersen

    Full Text Available Studies investigating the association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA during childhood have shown conflicting results.We used occurrence of bone fractures up to the age of 18 as a measure reflecting offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status.The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD by the liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS. Outcome was diagnosis of first time bone fractures extracted from the Danish National Patient Register.Vitamin D status was available for 850 women. The median (5th-95th percentile 25(OHD was 76.2 (23.0-152.1 nmol/l. During follow up 294 children were registered with at least one bone fracture diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression models using age as the underlying time scale indicated no overall association between maternal vitamin D status and first time bone fractures. However, there was a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR during childhood for those who had maternal blood drawn in Dec/Jan/Feb compared with Jun/Jul/Aug (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.11-2.74. Adjustment for vitamin D status strengthened this association (1.82, 1.12-2.97, which indicated a potential seasonal impact on offspring fractures independent of maternal vitamin D status. In a sensitivity analysis we found a borderline significant inverse association between continuous concentrations of 25(OHD and offspring forearm fractures (P = 0.054.Overall, our results did not substantiate an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures. Further studies on this subject are needed, but the study populations must be large enough to allow for subdivision of fractures.

  9. Determinants of parental care and offspring survival during the post-fledging period: males care more in a species with partially reversed sex roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Elizabeth A; Wiebe, Karen L

    2014-05-01

    Sexual conflict is magnified during the post-fledging period of birds when the sexes face different trade-offs between continuing parental care or investing in self maintenance or other mating opportunities. Species with reversed sex roles provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between mating systems and investment in parental care. Here, we provide the first detailed study of the length of care by males versus females (n = 24 pairs) during the post-fledging period, assessing factors that may promote care within and between the sexes. In the northern flicker Colaptes auratus, a species with partly reversed sex roles, males cared longer than females (average 16 versus 12 days, respectively). Overall, 36% of females but no males deserted the brood prior to fledgling independence. Parents that provisioned nestlings at a high rate also spent more days feeding fledglings. Among males, age and nestling feeding rates were positively associated with the length of care. Among females, a low level of feather corticosterone (CORTf) was associated with a longer length of care. About 45% of fledglings died within the first week, but fledglings with intermediate body mass had the highest survival suggesting stabilizing selection on mass. Fledgling survival was also higher in individuals with larger broods and lower levels of CORTf. We demonstrate that because females can be polyandrous they often desert the brood before males, and that the sexes respond to different cues relating to their energy balance when deciding the length of care given to their offspring.

  10. Parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring bone mass at age 10 years: findings from a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald-Wallis, C; Tobias, J H; Davey Smith, G; Lawlor, D A

    2011-06-01

    We investigated an intrauterine influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on childhood bone mass. Daughters, but not sons, of mothers who smoked had higher bone mass at age 10years. This appears to be due to familial factors related to parental smoking influencing increased offspring adiposity rather than a direct intrauterine effect. Neonatal studies have demonstrated an adverse relationship between maternal smoking in pregnancy and foetal bone mineral accrual. We aimed to investigate an intrauterine influence of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring bone mass at mean age 9.9 years. We compared associations of maternal and paternal smoking in pregnancy with offspring total body less head (TBLH) and spine bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD) and area-adjusted BMC (ABMC) in 7,121 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal smoking in any trimester was associated with increased TBLH BMC, BA and BMD in girls (mean difference [95% CI] (sex-specific SD scores), 0.13 [0.05-0.22], 0.13 [0.04-0.21], 0.13 [0.04-0.22], respectively) but not boys (0.01 [-0.07-0.09], 0.00 [-0.08-0.08], 0.04 [-0.05-0.12]), and also with spine BMC, BA and BMD in girls (0.13 [0.03-0.23], 0.12 [0.03-0.22], 0.10 [0.00-0.21]) but not boys (0.03 [-0.06-0.12], 0.00 [-0.09-0.09], 0.05 [-0.04-0.14]), but not with ABMC. Paternal smoking associations were similar, with no statistical evidence for a difference between maternal and paternal effects. Maternal associations increased on adjustment for offspring birth weight and gestational age, but attenuated to the null after adjustment for current height and weight. We found little evidence that maternal smoking was related to bone mass in boys. In girls, maternal smoking associations were similar to those of paternal smoking, suggesting that these were attributable to shared familial characteristics, not intrauterine mechanisms.

  11. Prospective postmarket device studies versus returned product analysis as a predictor of system survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, T R; Pulling, C C; Stanton, M S

    2000-07-01

    Monitoring and reporting mechanisms are vital tools for clinicians to assess ICD system performance over time for optimal patient care. This article explores the various reporting mechanisms available to the clinician, both historical and current, and compares and contrasts two such methods. The lead survival rates obtained by return product analysis (RPA) are compared with those from an ongoing prospective chronic study that actively follows patients for clinical ICD system failures (Tachyarrhythmia Chronic Systems Study [TCSS]). Examination of available data shows that a prospective study such as the TCSS is capable of detecting clinically significant adverse events in 2.2% of the 3,958 leads followed. By comparison, RPA-based monitoring of the same leads detects "out of specification" events in 0.5% of the 78,571 leads followed. Statistical analyses of two separate families of leads (RV leads and SQ Patch leads) show that survival rates obtained by the two methods begin to differ at approximately 2 years of implant experience, with 95% confidence intervals no longer overlapping at 3 years. The authors conclude that prospective chronic device studies are a superior tool for the ongoing monitoring of implanted device performance compared to RPA-based reports.

  12. Data from three prospective longitudinal human cohorts of prenatal marijuana exposure and offspring outcomes from the fetal period through young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. McLemore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes data from three prospective longitudinal human cohorts of prenatal marijuana exposure (PME and offspring outcomes from the fetal period through young adulthood. The table herein contains an overview of the major adverse effects associated with PME from the following human cohorts: (1 The Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS; (2 The Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Study (MHPCD; and (3 The Generation R Study (Gen R. In the OPPS, fetal gestational age was measured and age-appropriate standardized neuropsychological instruments were used to assess neonatal responses, and infant–child and adolescent–young adult cognitive and behavioral skills. In the MHPCD, birth length and weight, neonatal body length, and infant–child sleep, cognition, and behavioral parameters were measured. In the Gen R, birth weight and growth were measured, as were infant–child attention and aggression. The data in this article are in support of our report entitled “Prenatal Cannabis Exposure - The "First Hit" to the Endocannabinoid System” (K.A. Richardson, A.K. Hester, G.L. McLemore, 2016 [13].

  13. A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers' Constructive Parenting: Influences from Family of Origin, Adolescent Adjustment, and Offspring Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers' constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the 2nd generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers' parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A…

  14. Association between Parental Workaholism and Body Mass Index of Offspring: A Prospective Study among Japanese Dual Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Shimazu, Akihito; Tokita, Masahito; Shimada, Kyoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Watai, Izumi; Iwata, Noboru; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI) among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0-5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2%) were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring.

  15. Association of parental workaholism and body mass index of offspring: A prospective study among Japanese dual workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0–5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2% were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p < 0.001, while maternal workaholism was not associated with child BMI. Both maternal and paternal time spent with children did not mediate the association. Paternal work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism, but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring.

  16. Survival of immediately versus delayed loaded short implants: A prospective case series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira-González, Joaquin; Díaz-Campos, Erick; Sánchez-Garcés, Maria-Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Background To assess and compare survival rates of immediately and delayed loaded short implants (7 mm) in free ends of a partially edentulous jaw with moderate-severe alveolar bone resorption. Material and Methods 24 patients with atrophic edentulous free-ends were included in this prospective study. Four study groups were monitored monthly and their behavior was evaluated: bridges supported only by short implants and mixed short and long implant bridge groups, both with immediate and delayed loading. Failures, bone loss, probing depth and bleeding on probing were evaluated. Results 54 Mk III Shorty TiU and 15 Brånemark System®MK III TiU implants with a length longer than 7mm were included in the study. Twenty-eight implants were inserted following the immediate loading protocol and 26 according a two-stage procedure, depending on the torque value. The cumulative survival rate of short implants was 87% (n=54) after a mean time of 47.72 months (range 33-62 months), showing statistically significant differences related to loading protocol (p=0.047). Short implants immediately loaded had a higher long-term survival rate (96.4%) compared to the other study group (76.9%). Besides, short implants splinted to longer immediately loaded implants presented the highest survival rate (100%). Twenty-five (53.19%) short implants showed a bone loss of less than one millimeter after the follow-up period. Statistically significant differences were found between bleeding on probing, presence of plaque or suppuration and a higher bone loss in both loading protocols (p=0.001). Conclusions Immediate loading of short implants placed on free ends can be considered an option in the treatment protocol of patients with severe bone resorption especially if implants are splinted to others of greater length. Key words: Dental implants, short implants, immediate loading, prospective study, TiUnite surface. PMID:26034926

  17. Impact of insecticides used to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in corn on survival, sex ratio, and reproduction of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jander R Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is cultivated in large areas and considered one of the world's major cereal crops. There are several arthropod pests that can reduce its production such as the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae, which is considered to be the main pest for corn. Fall armyworm is primarily controlled by insecticides. The use of biological control agents to manage this pest is growing with an emphasis on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of the following insecticides (g ai L-1 beta-cypermethrin (0.03, chlorfenapyr (0.60, chlorpyrifos (0.96, spinosad (0.16, etofenprox (0.10, triflumuron (0.08, alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron (0.0425/0.0425, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam (0.11/0.083 on survival, sex ratio, reproduction, and T. pretiosum offspring. Distilled water was used as a control. Commercial insecticide formulations were diluted in distilled water. Bioassays used Anagasta kuehniella eggs treated with insecticides which were afterwards exposed to parasitism. Bioassays were conducted under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12:12 h photoperiod. Alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, etofenprox, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam reduced parasitism capacity of maternal generation females as well as the percentage of insect emergence from the F1 generation. Only triflumuron was selective for T. pretiosum and can be recommended along with this parasitoid in fall armyworm management programs in corn.

  18. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Education level and survival after oesophageal cancer surgery: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusselaers, Nele; Ljung, Rickard; Mattsson, Fredrik; Johar, Asif; Wikman, Anna; Lagergren, Pernilla; Lagergren, Jesper

    2013-12-03

    This study aimed to investigate whether a higher education level is associated with an improved long-term survival after oesophagectomy for cancer. A prospective, population-based cohort study. Sweden-nationwide. 90% of all patients with oesophageal and cardia cancer who underwent a resection in Sweden in 2001-2005 were enrolled in this study (N=600; 80.3% male) and followed up until death or the end of the study period (2012). The study exposure was level of education, defined as compulsory (≤9 years), moderate (10-12 years) or high (≥13 years). The main outcome measure was overall 5-year survival after oesophagectomy. Cox regression was used to estimate the associations between education level and mortality, expressed as HRs with 95% CIs, with adjustment for sex, age, tumour stage, histological type, complications, comorbidities and annual surgeon volume. The patient group with highest education was used as the reference category. Among the 600 included patients, 281 (46.8%) had compulsory education, 238 (39.7%) had moderate education and 81 (13.5%) had high education. The overall 5-year survival rate was 23.1%, 24.4% and 32.1% among patients with compulsory, moderate and high education, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, a slightly higher, yet not statistically significantly increased point HR was found among the compulsory educated patients (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.47). In patients with tumour stage IV, increased adjusted HRs were found for compulsory (HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.07 to 7.73) and moderately (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.15 to 6.95) educated patients. No statistically significant associations were found for the other tumour stages. This study provides limited evidence of an association between lower education and worse long-term survival after oesophagectomy for cancer.

  20. Survival of patients identified as candidates for intestinal transplantation: a 3-year prospective follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pironi, L.; Forbes, A.; Joly, F.

    2008-01-01

    with parenteral nutrition-related liver failure (P = .364). CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm home parenteral nutrition as the primary therapeutic option for intestinal failure and support the appropriateness and potential life-saving role of timely intestinal transplantation for patients with parenteral nutrition......BACKGROUND & AIMS: The US Medicare indications for intestinal transplantation are based on failure of home parenteral nutrition. The American Society of Transplantation also includes patients at high risk of death from their primary disease or with high morbidity intestinal failure. A 3-year...... prospective study evaluated the appropriateness of these indications. METHODS: Survival on home parenteral nutrition or after transplantation was analyzed in 153 (97 adult, 56 pediatric) candidates for transplantation and 320 (262 adult, 58 pediatric) noncandidates, enrolled through a European multicenter...

  1. Non-specific effects of vaccination on child survival: prospective cohort study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugelade, J; Pinchinat, S; Guiella, G; Elguero, E; Simondon, F

    2004-12-04

    To study the effect of vaccination on mortality before 2 years of age in a developing country. Prospective cohort study. Rural communities in Burkina Faso. 9085 children born in the study area between 1985 and 1993. Child death rate. Mortality before 2 years of age was lower in children who had been vaccinated: those vaccinated with BCG only had significantly lower mortality (risk ratio for vaccinated v unvaccinated children 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.48) as did those vaccinated with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis only (0.24, 0.13 to 0.43). The second dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis was not associated with lower mortality (0.80, 0.58 to 1.12). Vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis as well as BCG is associated with better survival of children up to 2 years of age.

  2. Doomed for Disorder? High Incidence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Offspring of Depressed and Anxious Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Petra J; Boschloo, Lynn; Bloemen, Annelene J P; Nauta, Maaike H; de Vries, Sybolt O; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Schoevers, Robert A; Hartman, Catharina A

    2017-01-01

    Early recognition of individuals at risk for depressive and anxiety disorders is key in influencing onset and course of these disorders. Parental history is a potent risk factor for the development of these disorders in offspring. However, knowledge about the magnitude of this risk is limited as large-scale longitudinal studies with a follow-up into adulthood are scarce. Those offspring at highest risk may possibly be identified by easy-to-determine parental psychiatric characteristics, family context, and offspring characteristics. From 2000-2002, we recruited 523 offspring (age 13-25 years) of 366 patients who had received specialized treatment for depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Offspring DSM-IV mood (major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder) and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, and agoraphobia) were assessed at baseline and at 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidence of mood and/or anxiety disorder was 38.0% at age 20 years and 64.7% at age 35 years. Parental early disorder onset (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.00-1.77), having 2 affected parents (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), and offspring female gender (HR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.74-3.15) were independent predictors of offspring mood and/or anxiety disorder. Balanced family functioning (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96) was found to be protective against offspring risk. Offspring of depressed and anxious patients are at very high risk of a mood and/or anxiety disorder themselves. Parental early onset, having 2 affected parents, female gender, and family functioning are important additional markers that can be used in clinical practice to identify those offspring at greatest risk.

  3. Maternal and early postnatal nutrition and mental health of offspring by age 5 years: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Felice N; Ystrom, Eivind; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Karevold, Evalill; Roth, Christine; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Schjolberg, Synnve; Berk, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Diet quality is related to the risk for depression and anxiety in adults and adolescents; however, the possible impact of maternal and early postnatal nutritional exposures on children's subsequent mental health is unexplored. The large prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study recruited pregnant women between 1999 and 2008. Data were collected from mothers during pregnancy and when children were 6 months and 1.5, 3, and 5 years of age. Latent growth curve models were used to model linear development in children's internalizing and externalizing problems from 1.5 to 5 years of age as a function of diet quality during pregnancy and at 1.5 and 3 years. Diet quality was evaluated by dietary pattern extraction and characterized as "healthy" or "unhealthy." The sample comprised 23,020 eligible women and their children. Adjustments were made for variables including sex of the child, maternal depression, maternal and paternal age, maternal educational attainment, household income, maternal smoking before and during pregnancy, mothers' parental locus of control, and marital status. Higher intakes of unhealthy foods during pregnancy predicted externalizing problems among children, independently of other potential confounding factors and childhood diet. Children with a high level of unhealthy diet postnatally had higher levels of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Moreover, children with a low level of postnatal healthy diet also had higher levels of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Among this large cohort of mothers and children, early nutritional exposures were independently related to the risk for behavioral and emotional problems in children. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of blood transfusion on the immune responsiveness and survival of cancer patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Buzzonetti, A; DiGirolamo, M; Iudicone, P; Guglielmetti, M; Martini, F; Scocchera, R; Terlizzi, F; Lapponi, P; Giuliani, E

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate whether blood transfusion exerts an adverse influence on cancer evolution, a prospective clinical and immunologic investigation was carried out on 58 surgical patients with gastric or colorectal adenocarcinoma. None had had previous transfusion; 35 received perioperative transfusion. Among preoperative variables, only red cell count and hemoglobin concentration were significantly reduced in the patients transfused at operation. Other clinical characteristics and immunologic functions (except interferon-gamma release) did not differ significantly from those of untransfused patients. The survival rate of transfused patients, although shorter, was not significantly different from that of untransfused patients. Immunologic tests done after surgery on 30 patients (17 transfused and 13 untransfused) did not show significant differences in the two groups. Significant increases in interleukin-2-stimulated production and immunoglobulin M synthesis were observed in transfused patients after surgery. Patients transfused perioperatively with more than 3 units of blood had some evidence of decreased immune function, but differences were not significant. While shorter survival and some immunologic changes may correlate with the number of transfusions, more patients must be studied to determine whether this relationship will be confirmed.

  5. Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival : the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Scalbert, Augustin; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Ward, Heather; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; His, Mathilde; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Overvad, Kim; Lasheras, Cristina; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, Maria José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; van Gils, Carla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17443068X; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Sund, Malin; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective

  6. Childhood psychopathology and adolescent cigarette smoking: a prospective survival analysis in children at high risk for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B; Cornelius, Jack

    2004-06-01

    Children of parents with substance use disorders (SUDs) have been shown to demonstrate an increased risk for cigarette smoking in adolescence. In this prospective study, we hypothesized that adolescent cigarette smoking risk would be accounted for by childhood disruptive behavior disorders and parent cigarette smoking. Preadolescent children (ages 10-12 years) of fathers with SUD considered at high average risk (HAR; n=274) and children of fathers without SUD or major psychopathology considered at low average risk (LAR; n=298) participated in structured interviews to determine mental disorder diagnoses and substance use history. Both parents were assessed. The age of onset of daily tobacco use was determined in three follow-up assessments conducted through late adolescence. Conduct disorder (CD) and parental smoking predicted earlier daily cigarette smoking, and mediated the relationship between risk status and offspring daily cigarette smoking. Through the identification of childhood characteristics predicting daily cigarette smoking in adolescence, these results may facilitate targeting of early childhood preventive interventions.

  7. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  8. Association of maternal diabetes mellitus in pregnancy with offspring adiposity into early adulthood: sibling study in a prospective cohort of 280,866 men from 248,293 families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2011-01-25

    Maternal diabetes mellitus in pregnancy results in greater offspring adiposity at birth. It is unclear whether it is associated with greater adiposity into adulthood, and if so, whether this is via intrauterine mechanisms or shared familial characteristics. A record-linkage prospective cohort study of 280,866 singleton-born Swedish men from 248,293 families was used to explore the intrauterine effect of maternal diabetes mellitus on offspring body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood. Maternal diabetes mellitus during pregnancy was associated with greater mean BMI at age 18 in their sons. The difference in BMI was similar within brothers and between nonsiblings. BMI of men whose mothers had diabetes mellitus during their pregnancy was on average 0.94 kg/m² greater (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 1.52) than in their brothers born before their mother was diagnosed with diabetes, after adjustment for birth year, maternal age, parity and education, birth weight, gestational age, and age at assessment of BMI. Early-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with son's BMI between nonsiblings, but there was no association within brothers. Adjustment of the maternal diabetes-offspring BMI association for maternal BMI did not alter the association either within brothers or between nonsiblings. Results were also robust to sensitivity analyses restricting the within-sibling analyses to siblings born within 3 years of each other. Maternal diabetes mellitus has long-term consequences for greater BMI in offspring; this association is likely to be via intrauterine mechanisms, and is independent of maternal BMI in early pregnancy.

  9. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  10. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsnes, Ingvild V; Vatten, Lars J; Fraser, Abigail; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2017-04-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m2 higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring? A prospective study over two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Brink Henriksen, Tine; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2013-08-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring. Longitudinal study where 965 pregnant women during 1988-1989 had four dimensions of PA assessed by questionnaires in gestation week 30: PA at work; leisure time PA, daily amount of walking-biking and sport participation. The following MS markers were assessed in the offspring (n=439): body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance as well as fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol), insulin and leptin levels. Walking-biking PA in pregnancy is associated with unchanged or subtle, adverse changes of distinct MS markers among offspring including lower levels of HDL cholesterol (ratio 0.95 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.98) per 1 h increment in walking-biking), a higher diastolic blood pressure (difference 1.12 (95% CI 0.03 to 2.20) mm Hg/1 h increment) and a higher BMI (ratio 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) per 1 h increment). In separate analyses in males, these associations persisted and additional adverse associations were found for triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and leptin. No associations were detected with other measures of PA. The study did not substantiate any protective effects of PA in pregnancy. In contrast, data suggested that high amounts of daily walking-biking in pregnancy may have adverse effects on levels of HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure and BMI in young adult offspring.

  12. Association of maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy with offspring IQ and brain morphology in childhood: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal thyroid function with child intelligence quotient (IQ) and brain morphology. In this population-based prospective cohort study, embedded within the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, Netherlands), we investigated the association of maternal thyroid function with child IQ (assessed by non-verbal intelligence tests) and brain morphology (assessed on brain MRI scans). Eligible women were those living in the study area at their delivery date, which had to be between April 1, 2002, and Jan 1, 2006. For this study, women with available serum samples who presented in early pregnancy (IQ (assessed at a median of 6·0 years of age [95% range 5·6-7·9 years]) or brain MRI scans (done at a median of 8·0 years of age [6·2-10·0]) were obtained. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders including concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin and child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. Data for child IQ were available for 3839 mother-child pairs, and MRI scans were available from 646 children. Maternal free thyroxine concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association with child IQ (p=0·0044), child grey matter volume (p=0·0062), and cortex volume (p=0·0011). For both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations, this association corresponded to a 1·4-3·8 points reduction in mean child IQ. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone was

  13. Wedge resection for non-small cell lung cancer in patients with pulmonary insufficiency: prospective ten-year survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John P; Eastridge, Charles E; Tolley, Elizabeth A; Pate, James W

    2006-11-01

    Possibility of curative resection by lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer is often denied patients with compromised pulmonary reserve. Analysis of survival of such patients treated by wedge resection was compared with that of patients treated by standard resection, with both groups followed for 10 years. A prospective 5-year cohort study. From 1988 to 1992, an observational cohort of 127 consecutive resected patients at Memphis VA Medical Center was divided into those receiving lobectomy in 81 cases and pneumonectomy in 15 cases (group I) versus 31 patients with compromised pulmonary reserve (group II), who had complete tumor excision by wedge resection. Preoperative clinical staging was corrected to surgical-pathological staging after demonstration of its superiority. Survival estimates were obtained by Kaplan-Meier method with curves compared by log rank tests, with all-cause mortality calculated from date of surgery. Extent of disease in group I was 58% stage I, 19% stage II, and 23% stage III. In group II, extent of disease was 84% stage I, 3% stage II, and 14% stage III. Group I median survival was 26 months with 30% 5-year survival; for group II, median survival was 30 months and 32%. Kaplan-Meier survival plots showed similar curves in groups I and II. Realizing less extent of disease in group II, another Kaplan-Meier plot restricted to stage I and II patients showed overlapping survival curves for groups I and II. Survival during 10-year observation was similar for patients with pulmonary insufficiency treated by wedge resection to that of patients receiving standard resection in this single-institution consecutive cohort.

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life, Cachexia and Overall Survival After Major Upper Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aahlin, E K; Tranø, G; Johns, N; Horn, A; Søreide, J A; Fearon, K C; Revhaug, A; Lassen, K

    2017-03-01

    Major upper abdominal surgery is often associated with reduced health-related quality of life and reduced survival. Patients with upper abdominal malignancies often suffer from cachexia, represented by preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) and this might affect both health-related quality of life and survival. We aimed to investigate how health-related quality of life is affected by cachexia and how health-related quality of life relates to long-term survival after major upper abdominal surgery. From 2001 to 2006, 447 patients were included in a Norwegian multicenter randomized controlled trial in major upper abdominal surgery. In this study, six years later, these patients were analyzed as a single prospective cohort and survival data were retrieved from the National Population Registry. Cachexia was derived from patient-reported preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia as assessed from computed tomography images taken within three months preoperatively. In the original trial, self-reported health-related quality of life was assessed preoperatively at trial enrollment and eight weeks postoperatively with the health-related quality of life questionnaire Short Form 36. A majority of the patients experienced improved mental health-related quality of life and, to a lesser extent, deteriorated physical health-related quality of life following surgery. There was a significant association between preoperative weight loss and reduced physical health-related quality of life. No association between sarcopenia and health-related quality of life was observed. Overall survival was significantly associated with physical health-related quality of life both pre- and postoperatively, and with postoperative mental health-related quality of life. The association between health-related quality of life and survival was particularly strong for postoperative physical health-related quality of life. Postoperative physical health-related quality of life

  15. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and survival differences in prospectively registered metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per; Cavalli-Björkman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trial accrual patterns were examined to determine whether metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients enrolled in trials are representative of a general cancer population concerning patient characteristics and survival. METHODS: A total of 760 mCRC patients referred for their first...... in 61% of the patients. Approximately one-third (36%) of patients receiving chemotherapy were included in a trial. The main reason for nonparticipation was failed eligibility criteria (69%). The median survival after chemotherapy was 15.8 months for all patients, and 18 months after combination...... chemotherapy. Trial patients had better prognostic characteristics and significantly longer survival than nontrial patients: 21.3 months versus 15.2 months when receiving combination chemotherapy. Poor performance status was the main reason for giving best supportive care only, and the median survival...

  16. No effect of satellite tagging on survival, recruitment, longevity, productivity and social dominance of a raptor, and the provisioning and condition of its offspring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergio, Fabrizio; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Tanferna, Alessandro; López Jiménez, Lidia; Blas, Julio; De Stephanis, Renaud; Marchant, Tracy A; Kumar, Nishant; Hiraldo, Fernando; Wilson, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    ... . ). In turn, this facilitates estimates of migratory performance, survival rates and causes of mortality only dreamt of until very recently, as the biases generated by poor sampling of unpopulated, remote or inaccessible areas are virtually removed (e.g. Croxall et al . ; Burnham & Newton ; Klaassen et al . ). However, several recent studies have shown ...

  17. Reduced Long-Term Relative Survival in Females and Younger Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Bull Enger

    Full Text Available To assess long-term survival and mortality in adult cardiac surgery patients.8,564 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in Trondheim, Norway from 2000 until censoring 31.12.2014 were prospectively followed. Observed long-term mortality following surgery was compared to the expected mortality in the Norwegian population, matched on gender, age and calendar year. This enabled assessment of relative survival (observed/expected survival rates and relative mortality (observed/expected deaths. Long-term mortality was compared across gender, age and surgical procedure. Predictors of reduced survival were assessed with multivariate analyses of observed and relative mortality.During follow-up (median 6.4 years, 2,044 patients (23.9% died. The observed 30-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year mortality rates were 2.2%, 4.4%, 8.2% and 13.8%, respectively, and remained constant throughout the study period. Comparing observed mortality to that expected in a matched sample from the general population, patients undergoing cardiac surgery showed excellent survival throughout the first seven years of follow-up (relative survival ≥ 1. Subsequently, survival decreased, which was more pronounced in females and patients undergoing other procedures than isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Relative mortality was higher in younger age groups, females and patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR. The female survival advantage in the general population was obliterated (relative mortality ratio (RMR 1.35 (1.19-1.54, p<0.001. Increasing observed long-term mortality seen with ageing was due to population risk, and younger age was independently associated with increased relative mortality (RMR per 5 years 0.81 (0.79-0.84, p<0.001.Cardiac surgery patients showed comparable survival to that expected in the general Norwegian population, underlining the benefits of cardiac surgery in appropriately selected patients. The beneficial effect lasted shorter in

  18. Functional impairment due to bereavement after the death of adolescent or young adult offspring in a national population study of 1,051,515 parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Alexanderson, Kristina; Runeson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    This study addresses the burden of grief after the death of an adolescent or young adult offspring. Parental bereavement following the death of an adolescent or young adult offspring is associated with considerable psychiatric and somatic impairment. Our aim is to fill a research gap by examining offspring death due to suicide, accidents, or natural causes in relation to risk of parental sickness absence with psychiatric or somatic disorders. This whole population-based prospective study included mothers and fathers of all offspring aged 16-24 years in Sweden on December 31, 2004 (n = 1,051,515). This study had no loss to follow-up and exposure, confounders, and the outcome were recorded independently of each other. Cox survival analysis was used to model time to sickness absence exceeding 30 days, adjusting for parental demographic characteristics, previous parental sickness absence and disability pension, and inpatient and outpatient psychiatric and somatic healthcare prior to offspring death in 2001-2004. This large study population provided satisfactory statistical power for stratification by parents' sex and adolescent and young adults' cause of death. Mothers and fathers of offspring suicide and accident decedents both had over tenfold higher risk for psychiatric sickness absence exceeding 30 days as compared to parents of live offspring. Fathers of suicide decedents were at 40 % higher risk for somatic sickness absence. This is the largest study to date of parents who survived their offspring's death and the first study of work-related outcomes in bereaved parents. This study uses a broad metric of work-related functional impairment, sickness absence, for capturing the burden of sudden offspring death.

  19. A prospective study of effects of prenatal maternal stress on later eating-disorder manifestations in affected offspring: preliminary indications based on the Project Ice Storm cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Annie; Steiger, Howard; Liu, Aihua; Laplante, David P; Thaler, Lea; Magill, Tara; King, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Research associates maternal stress exposures (especially when occurring late in gestation) with heightened risk of subsequent emotional and behavioral problems in affected offspring. However, as yet, no study has examined the association between prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) and affected children's risk of anorexia- or bulimia-type eating disturbances. To study the influences of PNMS on later disordered eating in exposed offspring. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT)-26 to measure eating attitudes and behaviors in 54 thirteen-year olds whose mothers had been exposed, while pregnant with these children, to the 1998 Quebec Ice Storm-a natural disaster regarded as a model of exposure to severe environmental stress. Mothers' stress was measured shortly after exposure to the storm using established indices of objective and subjective stress. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses indicated that once variance owing to children's body mass index and sex was accounted for, stress exposures during the third trimester of pregnancy predicted elevated EAT-26 scores in affected children-perhaps even more so when levels of objective stress were high. Third trimester exposure to PNMS, especially when objectively severe, seems to be associated with increased eating-disorder-linked manifestations in affected early adolescents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  1. Fulvestrant versus anastrozole for the treatment of advanced breast carcinoma: a prospectively planned combined survival analysis of two multicenter trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Pippen, John; Elledge, Richard M; Mauriac, Louis; Vergote, Ignace; Jones, Stephen E; Come, Steven E; Osborne, C Kent; Robertson, John F R

    2005-07-15

    Fulvestrant is an estrogen receptor antagonist with no agonist effects. In the second-line treatment of advanced breast carcinoma, fulvestrant was shown previously to be as effective as the third-generation aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, in terms of time to disease progression and objective response rates. The authors reported the overall survival results from these studies. A prospectively planned, combined, overall survival analysis was performed, including data from two Phase III trials that compared the efficacy and tolerability of fulvestrant (250 mg monthly; n = 428) with anastrozole (1 mg daily; n = 423) in the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast carcinoma who had disease progression after receipt of previous endocrine treatment. At an extended median follow-up of 27.0 months (range, 0-66.9 months), 319 (74.5%) patients in the fulvestrant group and 322 (76.1%) patients in the anastrozole group had died. Prolonged survival was observed with both drugs, with 10-20% of patients still alive > 5 years after randomization. The median overall survival was similar between treatments, being 27.4 months and 27.7 months in fulvestrant and anastrozole-treated patients, respectively (hazards ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.15; P = 0.809). Fulvestrant continued to be well tolerated, and was associated with a significantly lower incidence of joint disorders compared with anastrozole (P = 0.0234). The current analysis showed that fulvestrant was similar to anastrozole with respect to overall survival in the second-line treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast carcinoma.

  2. A prospective study of phobic anxiety, risk of ovarian cancer, and survival among patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Elizabeth M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Sood, Anil K; Okereke, Olivia I; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-05-01

    In ovarian cancer patients and mouse models, psychosocial stress is associated with higher circulating markers of angiogenesis and cell migration, impaired immune response, and increasing tumor burden and aggressiveness. In the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII), we assessed whether phobic anxiety, a marker of chronic distress, was associated with risk of incident ovarian cancer as well as survival among ovarian cancer patients. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of ovarian cancer incidence and survival by categories of the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety index (CCI). We identified 779 cases of ovarian cancer during 2,497,892 person-years of follow-up. For baseline CCI (NHS: 1988; NHSII: 1993), we observed a statistically nonsignificant increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (RR for CCI ≥ 4 vs. 0 or 1: 1.14; 95 % CI 0.96-1.36). However, when we updated CCI (NHS: 2004; NHSII: 2005), the associations were attenuated. Pre-diagnosis CCI was not associated with ovarian cancer survival (RR for ≥4 vs. 0 or 1: 1.00; 95 % CI 0.77-1.31); results were similar for post-diagnosis CCI. Distress, as measured by phobic anxiety symptoms, was not associated with ovarian cancer risk, although we cannot rule out a modest association. Future research should explore the role of phobic anxiety and other forms of psychological distress and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

  3. Prospective 5-year survival rate data following open-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Gerrit; von Heyden, Johanna; Pestka, Jan; Schmal, Hagen; Salzmann, Gian; Südkamp, Norbert; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Open-wedge high tibial osteotomy using internal plate fixation is a well-established and frequently performed treatment option for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) in the young and active patients. The present study provides survival rate and functional outcome preoperatively and after 6, 12, 24, 36 and 60 months following open-wedge high tibial osteotomy. Hypothesis of the authors was high survival rates after 5 years with still remaining satisfying functional results. Sixty-two patients suffering from tibial conditioned knee joint varus deformity and medial compartment OA that underwent high tibial osteotomy using an internal plate fixator (TomoFix™, Synthes) were included. Functional outcome was evaluated prior to surgery and in the further clinical course using standard instruments (IKDC score, Lysholm score). Treatment failure was defined as the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Fifty-one patients (mean age 46.8 ± 10.2 years) were available at a mean of 60.5 (SD ± 2.5) months (follow-up rate 82.3 %) postoperatively. Sixty-month IKDC (69.4 % SD ± 18.6) and Lysholm (76.6 SD ± 20.5) improved significantly when comparing with preoperative values (IKDC 44.6 SD ± 17.8; Lysholm 52.1 SD ± 20.8). Two of 51 subjects underwent TKA, resulting in a survival rate of 96 % among those patients followed (51 of 60; 85 %). Overall complication rate was 8.6 %. With a survival rate of over 96 % at 5 years, high tibial osteotomy seems to be a reliable treatment option with satisfying clinical outcome. Functional outcome was stable following 60 months. While a delay of the necessity for TKA seems likely with regard to the survival rate demonstrated in this article, possible avoidance needs to be demonstrated by longer follow-up studies. Therapeutic case series, Level IV.

  4. One-Year Multicenter Prospective Evaluation of Survival Rates and Bone Resorption in One-Piece Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleh Golab, Kaveh; Balouch, Amir; Mirtorabi, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have reported the efficiency of immediate loading techniques. The aim of this multicenter prospective study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of the one-piece screw (OPS) implants used by general dentists. A total of 272 patients were treated with 533 implants at five dental clinics by five general dentists. Some implants were provided with provisional restoration. Implants in partially edentulous spaces were splinted with acryl, composite, and intraoral welding. The implant survival rates, bone resorption, plaque accumulation, and soft tissue health were evaluated after 3, 6, and 12 months. The final restorations were cemented in the maxilla after 6 months and in the mandible after 3 months. Twelve implants failed (98% survival rate) after 12 months. None of the splinted implants failed during the follow-ups. There were five failures in unsplinted partial cases. The average amounts of bone loss around the implants were 0.40 ± 0.35 mm, 0.56 ± 0.41 mm, and 0.59 ± 0.41 mm after 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Visible plaque was registered in 18% of the implants, and bleeding on probing was observed in 17% of the implants after 12 months. High survival rates and favorable host tissue responses support the clinical performance of OPS implants. This study demonstrated that one-piece implants can be efficiently used by well-trained general dentists. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survival impact of centralization and clinical guidelines for soft tissue sarcoma (A prospective and exhaustive population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Derbel

    Full Text Available The outcome of sarcoma has been suggested in retrospective and non-exhaustive studies to be better through management by a multidisciplinary team of experts and adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. The aim of this prospective and exhaustive population based study was to confirm the impact of adherence to CPGs on survival in patients with localized sarcoma.Between 2005 and 2007, all evaluable adult patients with a newly diagnosis of localized sarcoma located in Rhone Alpes region (n = 634, including 472 cases of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS, were enrolled. The prognostic impact of adherence to CPGs on progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS was assessed by multivariate Cox model in this cohort.The median age was 61 years (range 16-92. The most common subtypes were liposarcoma (n = 133, 28%, unclassified sarcoma (n = 98, 20.7% and leiomyosarcoma (n = 69, 14.6%. In the initial management phase, from diagnosis to adjuvant treatment, the adherence to CPGs for patients with localized STS was 36% overall, corresponding to 56%, 85%, 96% and 84% for initial surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and follow-up, respectively. Adherence to CPGs for surgery was the strongest independent prognostic factor of PFS, along with age, gender, grade, and tumor size. For OS, multivariate analysis adherence to CPGs for surgery was a strong independent prognostic factor, with an important interaction with a management in the regional expert centers.This study demonstrates impact of CPGs and treatment within an expert center on survival for STS patients in a whole population-based cohort.

  7. Predictors of survival in children with methymalonic acidemia with homocystinuria in Beijing, China: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiliang, Li; Wenqi, Song; Quan, Wang; Xinying, Yang; Jiuwei, Li; Qiang, Sun; Xiaoxia, Peng; Peichang, Wang

    2015-02-01

    (i) To determine whether clinical features and biochemical parameters help to predict survival of methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria; (ii) To find the cutoff values of biochemical parameters for predicting survival of methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria. A prospective cohort study. A pediatric tertiary hospital in Beijing; all patients were followed until death or June 2013. 45 pediatric patients diagnosed with methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria between 2006 and 2012. The data of clinical characteristics and pretreatment biochemical parameters were collected. The Cox regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for survival of patients with methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria. The best cutoff values for these independent factors were determined by the receiver characteristic curve. Newborn onset (OR=6.856, 95%CI=2.241-20.976, P=0.001), high level of methylmalonic acid in urine (OR=1.022, 95%CI=1.011-1.033, P<0.001), and high level of urea in serum (OR=1.083, 95%CI=1.027-1.141, P=0.003) were independent negative risk factors for survival of patients with methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria. The cutoff values of maximum predictive accuracy of methylmalonic acid in urine and urea in serum were respectively 5.41 mmol/mmol creatinine and 7.80 mmol/L by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The patients of methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria tend to have an adverse outcome if they have newborn onsets. Elevated urea and urinary methylmalonic acid are predictors of adverse outcomes for the patients. They show similar effect for predicting severe adverse prognosis. The combination of methylmalonic acid in urine concentration and urea in serum concentration provided the most accurate predictive tool.

  8. Adrenaline (epinephrine) dosing period and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective review of prospectively collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sam A; Huszti, Ella; Bradley, Steven M; Chan, Paul S; Bryson, Chris L; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Nichol, Graham

    2014-03-01

    Expert guidelines for treatment of cardiac arrest recommend administration of adrenaline (epinephrine) every three to five minutes. However, the effects of different dosing periods of epinephrine remain unclear. We sought to evaluate the association between epinephrine average dosing period and survival to hospital discharge in adults with an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 20,909 IHCA events from 505 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation (GWTG-R) quality improvement registry. Epinephrine average dosing period was defined as the time between the first epinephrine dose and the resuscitation endpoint, divided by the total number of epinephrine doses received subsequent to the first epinephrine dose. Associations with survival to hospital discharge were assessed by using generalized estimating equations to construct multivariable logistic regression models. Compared to a referent epinephrine average dosing period of 4 to <5 min per dose, survival to hospital discharge was significantly higher in patients with the following epinephrine average dosing periods: for 6 to <7 min/dose, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.41 (95%CI: 1.12, 1.78); for 7 to <8 min/dose, adjusted OR, 1.30 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.65); for 8 to <9 min/dose, adjusted OR, 1.79 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.32); for 9 to <10 min/dose, adjusted OR, 2.17 (95%CI: 1.62, 2.92). This pattern was consistent for both shockable and non-shockable cardiac arrest rhythms. Less frequent average epinephrine dosing than recommended by consensus guidelines was associated with improved survival of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between nutritional status, inflammatory markers and survival in patients with advanced cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cindy S Y; Read, Jane A; Phan, Viet H; Beale, Philip J; Peat, Jennifer K; Clarke, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Malnutrition and elevated inflammatory markers have a negative impact on clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Few studies have investigated the associations between inflammatory makers, nutritional status and survival. This study investigates the association between nutritional status, inflammatory markers and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced cancer. This prospective cohort study recruited 114 adult patients from January 2007 to January 2010. It included patients diagnosed with advanced cancer, good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2, a prognosis of more than 3 months and had not received chemotherapy for advanced cancer prior to enrollment. Baseline data were collected prior to commencement of chemotherapy. Patients were followed up from the date of baseline nutritional assessment until the date of death or the date that data were last updated, whichever came first. Malnourished cancer patients had statistically significant higher concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) prior to starting chemotherapy. In univariate analyses to predict survival, mGPS 1 or 2 had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.81 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.13-2.89) and NLR ≥ 5 had a HR of 1.13 (95 % CI 1.08-4.60) and malnutrition (HR of 1.66 for Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) B (95 % CI 1.02-2.71), and HR for severely malnourished patients (PG-SGA C) was 2.73 (95 % CI 1.50-4.96). Inflammatory markers were statistically associated with malnutrition. Malnutrition and mGPS were significant independent predictors of overall survival in patients with advanced cancer.

  10. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22 188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19 403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (≤19 years) and older (≥35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained

  11. Deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty visual acuity, astigmatism, and endothelial survival in a large prospective series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mark A; Ousley, Paula J

    2005-09-01

    To report the 6-month results for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction in a large, prospective series of deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty (DLEK) procedures. Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. One hundred eyes of 88 patients with corneal edema from Fuchs' dystrophy and pseudophakia. A limbal, scleral, partial-depth incision provided access for a deep lamellar corneal pocket dissection. Two eyes were converted to penetrating keratoplasty (PK) at the time of DLEK surgery because of poor dissections. Of the 98 eyes that had completed DLEK surgeries, 36 eyes received a large-incision technique (9-mm scleral access incision) and 62 eyes received a small-incision technique (5-mm scleral access incision). A 7.5- to 8.0-mm posterior lamellar disc of recipient tissue then was excised and replaced through the pocket with a similar size donor disc containing healthy endothelium. A temporary air bubble in the anterior chamber was used for donor tissue adherence, and no surface corneal incisions or sutures were necessary. Preoperative and postoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction (MR) astigmatism, and endothelial cell density (ECD) were evaluated prospectively. At 6 months after surgery, all 98 DLEK corneas were clear and the grafts were healed in good position. The mean BSCVA was 20/46, with a range between 20/20 and 20/400. The average MR astigmatism was 1.34+/-0.86 diopters (D), representing an average change in astigmatism from before surgery of +0.28+/-1.08 D (P = 0.013). The average ECD at 6 months was 2140+/-427 cells/mm2, representing a mean cell loss from preoperative donor cell measurements of 25%. The DLEK procedure, with its absence of corneal surface incisions and sutures, preserves the normal corneal topography, minimizes astigmatism, and provides a healthy donor endothelial cell count and function. The DLEK procedure represents a reasonable alternative to PK, and compared with historical PK

  12. 10-year survival evaluation for glass-fiber-supported postendodontic restoration: a prospective observational clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Michael; Koelpin, Manja; Beuer, Florian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

    2012-04-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced endodontic posts (GFRPs), in combination with composite resin core materials, are commonly used to build up damaged endodontically treated teeth. However, long-term clinical data are scarce. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the survival of 3 different GFRP systems, taking into account several other relevant factors. One-hundred forty-nine GFRPs in 122 patients were followed for up to 120 months. GFRPs were adhesively luted using the etch-and-rinse technique. The core was built with a chemically curing composite resin and restored according to the specific prosthetic treatment plan. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between clinical variables and the time until failure. Within 10 years, 55 failures could be observed (annual failure rate = 4.6%) with the most frequent ones being post fracture, loss of post retention (both n = 17), endodontic problems (n = 7), and those resulting in tooth extraction (n = 10). Sixty posts could be followed up for 105 to 120 months (34 posts lost to follow-up, [mean (standard deviation) survival time: 74 (43) months]). In crude analyses, only the tooth type in favor of posterior teeth compared with anterior teeth and the number of remaining cavity walls (in favor of ≥ 1 compared with no wall) were significantly associated with the failure rate. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant hazard ratio of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.5; P = .021) for tooth type in favor of posterior teeth. The relatively high annual failure rate of GFRPs highlights that the treatment decision should take into account the most relevant factors as tooth type and the number of remaining cavity walls. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health-related quality of life and long-term prognosis in chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure: a prospective survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidbauer Kathrin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL is considered as an important outcome parameter in patients with chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the role of disease-specific HRQL for long-term survival in patients of different diagnoses with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF. Methods In a cohort of 231 stable patients (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n = 98; non-COPD (obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, restrictive disorders, neuromuscular disorders, n = 133 with CHRF and current home mechanical ventilation (HMV, HRQL was assessed by the disease-specific Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI questionnaire and its prognostic value was prospectively evaluated during a follow-up of 2–4 years, using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results HRQL was more impaired in COPD (mean ± SD SRI-summary score (SRI-SS 52.5 ± 15.6 than non-COPD patients (67.6 ± 16.4; p 1 turned out to be independent predictors (p Conclusion In patients with CHRF and HMV, the disease-specific SRI was an overall predictor of long-term survival in addition to established risk factors. However, the SRI predominantly beared information regarding long-term survival in non-COPD patients, while in COPD patients objective measures of the disease state were superior. This on one hand highlights the significance of HRQL in the long-term course of patients with CHRF, on the other hand it suggests that the predictive value of HRQL depends on the underlying disease.

  14. Overweight is associated with a favorable survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a prospective cohort study in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yang Won; Kim, Su-A; Lee, Jun Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Chang, Dong Kyung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Kim, Young-Ho

    2012-10-01

    The influence of body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely unknown, particularly in an Asian population. Therefore, we investigated the influence of BMI on survival of patients who underwent surgical treatment for CRC in Korean population. This prospective cohort study included CRC patients who underwent surgery between June 2003 and May 2005. Study participants were divided into two BMI groups: normal weight (<23 kg/m(2)) and overweight (≥23 kg/m(2)). A total of 509 CRC patients were included in this study. Of these, 318 patients (62.5%) were male, and the mean ± SD age was 59.1 ± 11.3 years. Two hundred eighteen patients (42.8%) were included in the normal-weight group and 291 (57.2%) were included in the overweight group. During a follow-up of 62.8 ± 27.2 months, 100 (19.6%) of the 509 eligible patients died, and 72 (15.0%) of 479 experienced recurrence. The overall survival of overweight group was more favorable compared with that of the normal-weight group (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in recurrence (P = 0.735). Compared with the normal-weight group, the hazard ratios of death and recurrence, respectively, were 0.615 (95% confidence interval 0.408-925; P = 0.020) and 0.992 (95% confidence interval 0.613-1.604; P = 0.973) for the overweight group. Overweight is not associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence but rather is associated a favorable overall survival in Asian CRC patients undergoing surgery.

  15. Survival prospects after acute myocardial infarction in the UK: a matched cohort study 1987–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitsels, Lisanne A; Kulinskaya, Elena; Steel, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Estimate survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the general population aged 60 and over and the effect of recommended treatments. Design Cohort study in the UK with routinely collected data between January 1987 and March 2011. Setting 310 general practices that contributed to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Participants 4 cohorts who reached the age of 60, 65, 70, or 75 years between 1987 and 2011 included 16 744, 43 528, 73 728, and 76 392 participants, respectively. Participants with a history of AMI were matched on sex, year of birth, and general practice to 3 controls each. Outcome measures The hazard of all-cause mortality associated with AMI was calculated by a multilevel Cox's proportional hazards regression, adjusted for sex, year of birth, socioeconomic status, angina, heart failure, other cardiovascular conditions, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, alcohol consumption, body mass index, smoking status, coronary revascularisation, prescription of β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers, aspirin, or statins, and general practice. Results Compared with no history of AMI by age 60, 65, 70, or 75, having had 1 AMI was associated with an adjusted hazard of mortality of 1.80 (95% CI 1.60 to 2.02), 1.71 (1.59 to 1.84), 1.50 (1.42 to 1.59), or 1.45 (1.38 to 1.53), respectively, and having had multiple AMIs with a hazard of 1.92 (1.60 to 2.29), 1.87 (1.68 to 2.07), 1.66 (1.53 to 1.80), or 1.63 (1.51 to 1.76), respectively. Survival was better after statins (HR range across the 4 cohorts 0.74–0.81), β-blockers (0.79–0.85), or coronary revascularisation (in first 5 years) (0.72–0.80); unchanged after calcium-channel blockers (1.00–1.07); and worse after aspirin (1.05–1.10) or ACE inhibitors (1.10–1.25). Conclusions The hazard of death after AMI is less than reported by previous studies, and standard treatments of aspirin or ACE inhibitors prescription

  16. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  17. Fever and infections during pregnancy and psychosis-like experiences in the offspring at age 11. A prospective study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J W; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-01-01

    study of 46 184 children who participated in the 11-year follow-up of the Danish National Birth Cohort was conducted. Pregnant women were enrolled between 1996 and 2002 and information on fever, genitourinary infections, respiratory tract infection, and influenza-like illness during pregnancy...... was prospectively collected in two interviews during pregnancy. PLEs were assessed using the seven-item Adolescent Psychotic-Like Symptom Screener in a web-based questionnaire completed by the children themselves at age 11. RESULTS: PLEs were reported among 11% of the children. Multinomial logistic regression...

  18. Cardiorenal Anemia Syndrome and Survival among Heart Failure Patients in Tanzania: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Fredrick, Francis; Bhalia, Smita; Nicholaus, Paulina; Kisenge, Peter; Mtinangi, Benjamin; Janabi, Mohamed; Humphrey, Stephen

    2017-02-14

    Cardiorenal anemia syndrome (CRAS) is an evolving global epidemic associated with increased morbimortality and cost of care. The management of patients with CRAS remains a challenging undertaking worldwide and the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines adds to the challenge. We aimed to explore the prevalence and survival rates of heart failure patients with CRAS in Tanzania. We screened 789 patients and consecutively recruited 463 who met the inclusion criteria. Each participant underwent an interview, physical examination, anthropometric measurements, anemia, renal functions and echocardiographic assessment. All participants were followed until death or for up-to 180 days, whichever came first. Bivariate comparison and subsequent Cox proportional-hazards regression model were used to compare the CRAS and non-CRAS groups with respect to the primary end point. The mean age of participants was 46.4 ± 18.9 years, and 56.5% were women. Overall, 51.9% of participants had renal insufficiency, 72.8% were anemic and 44.4% had CRAS. During a mean follow-up of 103 ± 75 days, 57.8% of participants died. Patients with CRAS displayed a higher mortality rate (73.5%) compared to those free of CRAS (45.8%), (p < 0.001). During multivariate analysis in a cox regression model of 21 potential predictors of mortality; renal dysfunction (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.5; p = 0.03), severe anemia (HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.1; p = 0.04), hyponatremia (HR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7; p = 0.004) and rehospitalization (HR 4.3; 95% CI 2.2-8.4; p < 0.001) proved to be the strongest factors. Cardiorenal anemia syndrome is considerably prevalent and is associated with an increase in mortality amongst patients with heart failure. In view of this, timely, aggressive and collaborative measures to improve renal functions and/or correct anemia are crucial in the management of CRAS patients. Furthermore, these findings call for guideline committees to revise and/or develop evidence

  19. The Seagrass Effect Turned Upside Down Changes the Prospective of Sea Urchin Survival and Landscape Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Farina

    Full Text Available Habitat structure plays an important mediating role in predator-prey interactions. However the effects are strongly dependent on regional predator pools, which can drive predation risk in habitats with very similar structure in opposite directions. In the Mediterranean Sea predation on juvenile sea urchins is commonly known to be regulated by seagrass structure. In this study we test whether the possibility for juvenile Paracentrotus lividus to be predated changes in relation to the fragmentation of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (four habitat classes: continuous, low-fragmentation, high-fragmentation and rocks, and to the spatial arrangement of such habitat classes at a landscape scale. Sea urchin predation risk was measured in a 20-day field experiment on tethered individuals placed in three square areas 35×35 m2 in size. Variability of both landscape and habitat structural attributes was assessed at the sampling grain 5×5 m2. Predation risk changed among landscapes, as it was lower where more 'rocks', and thus less seagrass, were present. The higher risk was found in the 'continuous' P. oceanica rather than in the low-fragmentation, high-fragmentation and rock habitats (p-values = 0.0149, 0.00008, and 0.0001, respectively. Therefore, the expectation that juvenile P. lividus survival would have been higher in the 'continuous' seagrass habitat, which would have served as shelter from high fish predation pressure, was not met. Predation risk changed across habitats due to different success between attack types: benthic attacks (mostly from whelks were overall much more effective than those due to fish activity, the former type being associated with the 'continuous' seagrass habitat. Fish predation on juvenile sea urchins on rocks and 'high-fragmentation' habitat was less likely than benthic predation in the 'continuous' seagrass, with the low seagrass patch complexity increasing benthic activity. Future research should be aimed at

  20. Prospectively defined murine mesenchymal stem cells inhibit Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced acute lung injury and improve pneumonia survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackstein, Holger; Lippitsch, Anne; Krug, Philipp; Schevtschenko, Inna; Kranz, Sabine; Hecker, Matthias; Dietert, Kristina; Gruber, Achim D; Bein, Gregor; Brendel, Cornelia; Baal, Nelli

    2015-10-06

    Numerous studies have described the immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) but these studies use mixtures of heterogeneous progenitor cells for in vitro expansion. Recently, multipotent MSC have been prospectively identified in murine bone marrow (BM) on the basis of PDFGRa(+) SCA1(+) CD45(-) TER119(-) (PαS) expression but the immunomodulatory capacity of these MSC is unknown. We isolated PαS MSC by high-purity FACS sorting of murine BM and after in vitro expansion we analyzed the in vivo immunomodulatory activity during acute pneumonia. PαS MSC (1 × 10(6)) were applied intratracheally 4 h after acute respiratory Klebsiella pneumoniae induced infection. PαS MSC treatment resulted in significantly reduced alveolitis and protein leakage in comparison to mock-treated controls. PαS MSC-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced alveolar TNF-α and IL-12p70 expression, while IL-10 expression was unaffected. Dissection of respiratory dendritic cell (DC) subsets by multiparameter flow cytometry revealed significantly reduced lung DC infiltration and significantly reduced CD86 costimulatory expression on lung CD103(+) DC in PαS MSC-treated mice. In the post-acute phase of pneumonia, PαS MSC-treated animals exhibited significantly reduced respiratory IL-17(+) CD4(+) T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, PαS MSC treatment significantly improved overall pneumonia survival and did not increase bacterial load. In this study we demonstrated for the first time the feasibility and in vivo immunomodulatory capacity of prospectively defined MSC in pneumonia.

  1. Linkage to Primary Care and Survival After Hospital Discharge for HIV-Infected Adults in Tanzania: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert N; Wang, Richard J; Mtui, Graham; Smart, Luke; Yango, Missana; Elchaki, Rim; Wajanga, Bahati; Downs, Jennifer A; Mteta, Kien; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2016-12-15

    Little is known about outcomes after hospitalization for HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. We determined 12-month, posthospital mortality rates in HIV-infected vs. uninfected adults and predictors of mortality. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled adults admitted to the medical wards of a public hospital in northwestern Tanzania. We conducted standardized questionnaires, physical examinations, and basic laboratory analyses including HIV testing. Participants or proxies were called at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months to determine outcomes. Predictors of in-hospital and posthospital mortality were determined using logistic regression. Cox regression models were used to analyze mortality incidence and associated factors. To confirm our findings, we studied adults admitted to another government hospital. We enrolled 637 consecutive adult medical inpatients: 38/143 (26.6%) of the HIV-infected adults died in hospital vs. 104/494 (21.1%) of the HIV-uninfected adults. Twelve-month outcomes were determined for 98/105 (93.3%) vs. 352/390 (90.3%) discharged adults, respectively. Posthospital mortality was 53/105 (50.5%) for HIV-infected adults vs. 126/390 (32.3%) for HIV-uninfected adults (adjusted P = 0.006). The 66/105 (62.9%) HIV-infected adults who attended clinic within 1 month after discharge had significantly lower mortality than the other HIV-infected adults [adjusted hazards ratio = 0.17 (0.07-0.39), P Adults admitted to a nearby government hospital had similar high rates of posthospital mortality. Posthospital mortality is disturbingly high among HIV-infected adult inpatients in Tanzania. The posthospital period may offer a window of opportunity to improve survival in this population. Interventions are urgently needed and should focus on increasing posthospital linkage to primary HIV care.

  2. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-08-01

    To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer: a report from the prospective Lynch syndrome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Sala, Paola; Evans, D Gareth; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Blanco, Ignacio; Sijmons, Rolf; Jeffries, Jacqueline; Vasen, Hans; Burn, John; Nakken, Sigve; Hovig, Eivind; Rødland, Einar Andreas; Tharmaratnam, Kukatharmini; de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, Wouter H; Hill, James; Wijnen, Juul; Jenkins, Mark; Green, Kate; Lalloo, Fiona; Sunde, Lone; Mints, Miriam; Bertario, Lucio; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Morak, Monika; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Frayling, Ian M; Plazzer, John-Paul; Pylvanainen, Kirsi; Genuardi, Maurizio; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Möslein, Gabriela; Sampson, Julian R; Capella, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do subsequent cancers occur; and (iii) what is the survival following these cancers? Information was collated on prospectively organised surveillance and prospectively observed outcomes in patients with LS who had cancer prior to inclusion and analysed by age, gender and genetic variants. 1273 patients with LS from 10 countries were followed up for 7753 observation years. 318 patients (25.7%) developed 341 first subsequent cancers, including colorectal (n=147, 43%), upper GI, pancreas or bile duct (n=37, 11%) and urinary tract (n=32, 10%). The cumulative incidences for any subsequent cancer from age 40 to age 70 years were 73% for pathogenic MLH1 ( path_MLH1 ), 76% for path_MSH2 carriers and 52% for path_MSH6 carriers, and for colorectal cancer (CRC) the cumulative incidences were 46%, 48% and 23%, respectively. Crude survival after any subsequent cancer was 82% (95% CI 76% to 87%) and 10-year crude survival after CRC was 91% (95% CI 83% to 95%). Relative incidence of subsequent cancer compared with incidence of first cancer was slightly but insignificantly higher than cancer incidence in patients with LS without previous cancer (range 0.94-1.49). The favourable survival after subsequent cancers validated continued follow-up to prevent death from cancer. The interactive website http://lscarisk.org was expanded to calculate the risks by gender, genetic variant and age for subsequent cancer for any patient with LS with previous cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Differential Drug Survival of Biologic Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Richard B; Smith, Catherine H; Yiu, Zenas Z N; Ashcroft, Darren M; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Burden, A David; Lunt, Mark; McElhone, Kathleen; Ormerod, Anthony D; Owen, Caroline M; Reynolds, Nick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-11-01

    Drug survival reflects a drug's effectiveness, safety, and tolerability. We assessed the drug survival of biologics used to treat psoriasis in a prospective national pharmacovigilance cohort (British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR)). The survival rates of the first course of biologics for 3,523 biologic-naive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were compared using survival analysis techniques and predictors of discontinuation analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Data for patients on adalimumab (n=1,879), etanercept (n=1,098), infliximab (n=96), and ustekinumab (n=450) were available. The overall survival rate in the first year was 77%, falling to 53% in the third year. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (hazard ratio (HR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.37), being a current smoker (HR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38), and a higher baseline dermatology life quality index (HR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) were predictors of discontinuation. Presence of psoriatic arthritis (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) was a predictor for drug survival. As compared with adalimumab, patients on etanercept (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.45-1.84) or infliximab (HR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16-2.09) were more likely to discontinue therapy, whereas patients on ustekinumab were more likely to persist (HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.37-0.62). After accounting for relevant covariates, ustekinumab had the highest first-course drug survival. The results of this study will aid clinical decision making when choosing biologic therapy for psoriasis patients.

  5. Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Francesca; Tramacere, Irene; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; DiMeco, Francesco; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pollo, Bianca; Salmaggi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Farinotti, Mariangela; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010. Methods Survival data were obtained from 764 patients (aged>16 years) with histologically confirmed primary GBM who were diagnosed and treated over a 7-year period (2004–2010) with follow-up to April 2012 (cohort II). Equivalent data from 490 GBM patients diagnosed and treated over the preceding 7 years (1997–2003) with follow-up to April 2005 (cohort I) were available for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS) was available from 361 and 219 patients actively followed up at INCB in cohorts II and I, respectively. Results Survival probabilities were 54% at 1 year, 21% at 2 years, and 11% at 3 years, respectively, in cohort II compared with 47%, 11%, and 5%, respectively, in cohort I. PFS was 22% and 12% at 1 year in cohorts II and I. Better survival and PFS in cohort II was significantly associated with introduction of the Stupp protocol into clinical practice, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.78 for survival and 0.73 for PFS, or a 22% relative decrease in the risk of death and a 27% relative decrease in the risk of recurrence. After recurrence, reoperation was performed in one-fifth of cohort I and in one-third of cohort II but was not effective (HR, 1.05 in cohort I and 1.02 in cohort II). Second-line chemotherapy, mainly consisting of nitrosourea-based chemotherapy, temozolomide, mitoxantrone, fotemustine, and bevacizumab, improved survival in both cohorts (HR, 0.57 in cohort I and 0.74 in cohort II). Radiosurgery was also effective (HR, 0.52 in cohort II). Conclusions We found a significant increase in overall survival, PFS, and survival after

  6. Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Francesca; Tramacere, Irene; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Dimeco, Francesco; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pollo, Bianca; Salmaggi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Farinotti, Mariangela; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-05-01

    Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010. Survival data were obtained from 764 patients (aged>16 years) with histologically confirmed primary GBM who were diagnosed and treated over a 7-year period (2004-2010) with follow-up to April 2012 (cohort II). Equivalent data from 490 GBM patients diagnosed and treated over the preceding 7 years (1997-2003) with follow-up to April 2005 (cohort I) were available for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS) was available from 361 and 219 patients actively followed up at INCB in cohorts II and I, respectively. Survival probabilities were 54% at 1 year, 21% at 2 years, and 11% at 3 years, respectively, in cohort II compared with 47%, 11%, and 5%, respectively, in cohort I. PFS was 22% and 12% at 1 year in cohorts II and I. Better survival and PFS in cohort II was significantly associated with introduction of the Stupp protocol into clinical practice, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.78 for survival and 0.73 for PFS, or a 22% relative decrease in the risk of death and a 27% relative decrease in the risk of recurrence. After recurrence, reoperation was performed in one-fifth of cohort I and in one-third of cohort II but was not effective (HR, 1.05 in cohort I and 1.02 in cohort II). Second-line chemotherapy, mainly consisting of nitrosourea-based chemotherapy, temozolomide, mitoxantrone, fotemustine, and bevacizumab, improved survival in both cohorts (HR, 0.57 in cohort I and 0.74 in cohort II). Radiosurgery was also effective (HR, 0.52 in cohort II). We found a significant increase in overall survival, PFS, and survival after recurrence after 2004, likely due to

  7. Neuro-immune changes in offspring of a bipolar parent: a follow-up study from adolescence to adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillegers, M.; Mesman, E.; Snijders, G.; Nolen, W.; Drexhage, H.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate neuro-immune changes and relate them to psychopathology development in a prospective study among children of a bipolar parent. Methods: Bipolar offspring (n = 140), originating from the prospective “Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study”, were evaluated

  8. Predicting Factors in the Last Week of Survival in Elderly Patients with Terminal Cancer: A Prospective Study in Southern Taiwan

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    Yee-Hsin Kao

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: We propose that the probability of survival of less than a week can be predicted by our formula. This formula, which includes factors of demographic information (male gender, and presence of liver cancer, clinical signs (lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate, and lower mean extremity muscle power, and biochemical tests (elevated BUN, and higher hemoglobin, may help improve survival prediction in terminal elderly cancer patients.

  9. Long-term survival in patients with acute myocardial infarction and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvakkestad, Kristin M; Sandvik, Leiv; Andersen, Geir Øystein; Sunde, Kjetil; Halvorsen, Sigrun

    2017-11-17

    To compare short- and long-term survival in patients admitted to hospital after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with and without out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Prospective cohort study of all AMI patients admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ulleval from September 1, 2005 to December 31, 2011. All-cause mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry with censoring date December 31, 2013. Cumulative survival was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier and the Life-table method. Logistic- and Cox regression were used for risk comparisons. We identified 404 AMI patients with OHCA and 9425 AMI patients without. AMI patients without OHCA were categorized as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, n=4522) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI, n=4903). Mean age was 63.6±standard deviation (SD) 12.5, 63.8±13.1 and 69.7±13.6 years in OHCA, STEMI and NSTEMI, respectively. Coronary angiography with subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention if indicated, was performed in 87% of OHCA, 97% of STEMI and 80% of NSTEMI patients. Thirty-day survival was 63%, 94% and 94%, and 8-year survival was 49%, 74%, and 57%, respectively. Among patients surviving the first 30days, no significant difference in risk during long-term follow-up was found (adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR)OHCAvsSTEMI 1.15 [95% CI 0.82-1.60], aHROHCAvsNSTEMI 0.89 [95% CI 0.64-1.24]). Long-term survival after OHCA due to AMI was good, with 49% of admitted patients being alive after eight years. Although short-term mortality remained high, OHCA patients alive after 30days had similar long-term risk as AMI patients without OHCA. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Creation of a Prognostic Index for Spine Metastasis to Stratify Survival in Patients Treated With Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Secondary Analysis of Mature Prospective Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chad [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hess, Kenneth [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Bishop, Andrew J.; Pan, Hubert Y.; Christensen, Eva N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yang, James N. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tannir, Nizar [Department of Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Amini, Behrang [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tatsui, Claudio; Rhines, Laurence [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Brown, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ghia, Amol, E-mail: ajghia@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: There exists uncertainty in the prognosis of patients following spinal metastasis treatment. We sought to create a scoring system that stratifies patients based on overall survival. Methods and Materials: Patients enrolled in 2 prospective trials investigating stereotactic spine radiation surgery (SSRS) for spinal metastasis with ≥3-year follow-up were analyzed. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to create a survival model. Pretreatment variables included were race, sex, age, performance status, tumor histology, extent of vertebrae involvement, previous therapy at the SSRS site, disease burden, and timing of diagnosis and metastasis. Four survival groups were generated based on the model-derived survival score. Results: Median follow-up in the 206 patients included in this analysis was 70 months (range: 37-133 months). Seven variables were selected: female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.7, P=.02), Karnofsky performance score (HR = 0.8 per 10-point increase above 60, P=.007), previous surgery at the SSRS site (HR = 0.7, P=.02), previous radiation at the SSRS site (HR = 1.8, P=.001), the SSRS site as the only site of metastatic disease (HR = 0.5, P=.01), number of organ systems involved outside of bone (HR = 1.4 per involved system, P<.001), and >5 year interval from initial diagnosis to detection of spine metastasis (HR = 0.5, P<.001). The median survival among all patients was 25.5 months and was significantly different among survival groups (in group 1 [excellent prognosis], median survival was not reached; group 2 reached 32.4 months; group 3 reached 22.2 months; and group 4 [poor prognosis] reached 9.1 months; P<.001). Pretreatment symptom burden was significantly higher in the patient group with poor survival than in the group with excellent survival (all metrics, P<.05). Conclusions: We developed the prognostic index for spinal metastases (PRISM) model, a new model that identified patient subgroups with poor and excellent prognoses.

  11. Postoperative deterioration in health related quality of life as predictor for survival in patients with glioblastoma: a prospective study.

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    Asgeir S Jakola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that acquired deficits negatively affect patients' self-reported health related quality of life (HRQOL and survival, but the impact of HRQOL deterioration after surgery on survival has not been explored. OBJECTIVE: Assess if change in HRQOL after surgery is a predictor for survival in patients with glioblastoma. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with glioblastoma were included. The majority of patients (n = 56, 91.8% were operated using a neuronavigation system which utilizes 3D preoperative MRI and updated intraoperative 3D ultrasound volumes to guide resection. HRQOL was assessed using EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D, a generic instrument. HRQOL data were collected 1-3 days preoperatively and after 6 weeks. The mean change in EQ-5D index was -0.05 (95% CI -0.15-0.05 6 weeks after surgery (p = 0.285. There were 30 patients (49.2% reporting deterioration 6 weeks after surgery. In a Cox multivariate survival analysis we evaluated deterioration in HRQOL after surgery together with established risk factors (age, preoperative condition, radiotherapy, temozolomide and extent of resection. RESULTS: There were significant independent associations between survival and use of temozolomide (HR 0.30, p = 0.019, radiotherapy (HR 0.26, p = 0.030, and deterioration in HRQOL after surgery (HR 2.02, p = 0.045. Inclusion of surgically acquired deficits in the model did not alter the conclusion. CONCLUSION: Early deterioration in HRQOL after surgery is independently and markedly associated with impaired survival in patients with glioblastoma. Deterioration in patient reported HRQOL after surgery is a meaningful outcome in surgical neuro-oncology, as the measure reflects both the burden of symptoms and treatment hazards and is linked to overall survival.

  12. The politics of learning to teach: The juxtaposition of reform, risk-taking, and survival for a prospective science teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Andrea Sabatini

    1998-12-01

    It has proven difficult for teachers to enact and sustain the changes to thinking and pedagogy called for in science education reforms. It may be especially difficult for prospective teachers to create coherent professional identities as they learn to teach in the borderland between educational change and the existing context of education. Field experiences remain a pivotal point in teacher education, as prospective teachers mature from the perspective they have lived as students to the vantage point they are constructing as developing teachers. This qualitative, naturalistic case study examined a reform-oriented preservice science teacher's beliefs and actions during a year of field practica, including student teaching. Interviews, observations, and written documents were collected to examine the extent to which the prospective teacher's thoughts and actions continued to reflect reform ideals across that time. Inductive data analysis indicated that tacit beliefs held by the participant interacted with significant events of the field experiences to direct her learning to teach process in non-educative ways. Implications include: (a) deeper examination of the beliefs and experiences of prospective teachers would allow teacher educators the ability to understand and guide professional development in deeper and more productive ways, (b) the establishment of an atmosphere of experimentation/inquiry and a more cohesive, collaborative approach to teacher education are needed, especially during field experiences, if teacher education programs are to foster the productive and educative experiences supportive of reform ideals, (c) the preparation of prospective teachers who intend to implement reform ideals should include developing understandings of the dynamics of the change process, and (d) the exploration/confrontation of the power structures inherent in the existing educational system is essential if they are to be prevented from undermining reform efforts. As science

  13. Evidence of Oxidative Shielding of Offspring in a Wild Mammal

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    Emma I. K. Vitikainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying a life history tradeoff between survival and reproduction. However, evidence that reproduction is associated with increased oxidative damage is equivocal, and some studies have found that breeding females exhibit reduced, rather than elevated, levels of oxidative damage compared to equivalent non-breeders. Recently it was hypothesized that oxidative damage could have negative impacts on developing offspring, and that mothers might down-regulate oxidative damage during reproduction to shield their offspring from such damage. We tested this hypothesis through a longitudinal study of adult survival, reproduction, and oxidative damage in wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Uganda. High levels of oxidative damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA were associated with reduced survival in both sexes. Levels of protein carbonyls were not linked to survival. Mothers showed reduced levels of MDA during pregnancy, and individuals with higher MDA levels gestated fewer offspring and had lower pup survival. These results suggest that maternal oxidative damage has transgenerational costs, and are consistent with the idea that mothers may attempt to shield their offspring from particularly harmful types of oxidative damage during pregnancy. We suggest that further advance in understanding of life history variation could benefit from theoretical and empirical exploration of the potential transgenerational costs of reproduction.

  14. The role of early magnetic resonance imaging in predicting survival on bevacizumab for recurrent glioblastoma: Results from a prospective clinical trial (CABARET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kathryn M; Phal, Pramit M; Fitt, Greg; Goh, Christine; Nowak, Anna K; Rosenthal, Mark A; Simes, John; Barnes, Elizabeth H; Sawkins, Kate; Cher, Lawrence M; Hovey, Elizabeth J; Wheeler, Helen

    2017-09-15

    Bevacizumab has been associated with prolonged progression-free survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma; however, not all derive a benefit. An early indicator of efficacy or futility may allow early discontinuation for nonresponders. This study prospectively assessed the role of early magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI) and its correlation with subsequent routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results and survival. Patients were part of a randomized phase 2 clinical trial (CABARET) comparing bevacizumab with bevacizumab plus carboplatin for recurrent glioblastoma. eMRI was conducted after 4 weeks in the trial (after 2 treatments with bevacizumab [10 mg/kg every 2 weeks]). The results were compared with the results of the subsequent 8-week MRI standard. For 119 of 122 patients, eMRI was available, and 111 had subsequent MRI for comparison. Thirty-six (30%) had an early radiological response, and 17 (14%) had progressive disease. The concordance between eMRI and 8-week MRI was moderate (κ = 0.56), with most providing the same result (n = 79 [71%]). There was strong evidence that progression-free survival and overall survival were predicted by the eMRI response (both P values < .001). The median survival was 8.6 months for an eMRI response, 6.6 months for stable disease, and 3.7 months for progressive disease; the hazard ratio (progressive disease vs stable disease) was 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.0). Landmark analyses showed that eMRI progression was a strong predictor of mortality independent of other potential baseline predictors. In this study, early progression on MRI appears to be a robust marker of a poor prognosis for patients on bevacizumab. Cancer 2017;123:3576-82. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Explaining the effects of socio-economic deprivation on survival in a national prospective cohort study of 1909 patients with head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Gerry; Greenlaw, Nicola; Bray, Caroline A; Morrison, David S

    2010-12-01

    Socio-economic differences in survival from head and neck cancers are among the largest of any malignancies. Population-based data have been unable to explain these differences. To describe survival from head and neck cancers in a large cohort of patients for whom a range of socio-economic, demographic, behavioural and casemix data was available. Prospective cohort study using data from the Scottish Head and Neck Audit on all patients diagnosed with a head and neck cancer in Scotland between 1st September 1999 and 31st August 2001 linked to General Register Office for Scotland death records to 30th June 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were produced to describe adjusted hazards of death according to socio-economic circumstances, using validated area-based DEPCAT scores. Data on 1909 patients were analysed. 71.0% were male and mean age was 64.3 (SD 12.2) years. Overall 5-year survival was 45.6% (95% CI: 43.4-47.8%). In order of strength of association in univariate regression, World Health Organisation Performance Status, disease stage, patient age, tumour site, smoking status, alcohol use, tumour differentiation, and deprivation were significant predictors of all-cause mortality but after multiple adjustment, deprivation was no longer an independent predictor of survival. Socio-economic differentials in survival from head and neck cancers are determined by a mixture of risk factors, some of which may be amenable to targeted earlier detection methods and lifestyle interventions. However, further research is needed to understand the impacts of performance status in more deprived patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of radiological hip dysplasia and breed on survival in a prospective cohort study of four large dog breeds followed over a 10 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krontveit, Randi I; Trangerud, Cathrine; Nødtvedt, Ane; Dohoo, Ian; Moe, Lars; Sævik, Bente K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of radiological hip and elbow dysplasia status and breed on overall survival in a cohort of four large dog breeds in Norway. Privately owned dogs of the Newfoundland (NF), Labrador Retriever (LR), Leonberger (LEO), and Irish Wolfhound (IW) breeds were followed prospectively from birth to 10 years of age. The age of death/euthanasia was registered. A total of 501 dogs from 103 litters were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to describe breed differences in survival times. The effects of radiological hip and elbow dysplasia status as well as breed were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The variables 'sex' and 'living region' were explored as potential confounders. Among LRs, 60.2% of the dogs were still alive at 10 years of age, and the corresponding figures for NFs, LEOs, and IWs were 28.8%, 16.11%, and 6.4%, respectively. Radiological hip dysplasia status and breed were found to influence overall survival. Two different time-varying effects were observed in that with the IW the hazard of death increased linearly through time, while the effect of severe radiological hip dysplasia decreased logarithmically with time. Location influenced the death hazard and dogs living in suburban areas or cities had longer mean time to death and a lower hazard compared to dogs living in the countryside. Radiological elbow dysplasia status was not found to have an effect on overall survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of awareness of terminal illness and use of palliative care or intensive care unit on the survival of terminally ill patients with cancer: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Lee, Myung Kyung; Kim, Seon Young; Lee, Woo Jin; Jung, Kyung Hae; Do, Young Rok; Kim, Samyong; Heo, Dae Seog; Choi, Jong Soo; Park, Sang Yoon; Jeong, Hyun Sik; Kang, Jung Hun; Kim, Si-Young; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Jung Lim; Park, Sook Ryun; Park, Sohee

    2011-06-20

    We conducted this study to evaluate the validity of the perception that awareness of their terminal prognosis and use of palliative care or nonuse of an intensive care unit (ICU) causes patients to die sooner than they would otherwise. In this prospective cohort study at 11 university hospitals and the National Cancer Center in Korea, we administered questionnaires to 619 consecutive patients immediately after they were determined by physicians to be terminally ill. We followed patients during 6 months after enrollment and assessed how their survival was affected by the disclosure of terminal illness and administration of palliative care or nonuse of the ICU. In a follow-up of 481 patients and 163.8 person-years, we identified 466 deceased patients. Nineteen percent of the patients died within 1 month, while 41.3% lived for 3 months, and 17.7% lived for 6 months. Once the cancer was judged terminal, the median survival time was 69 days. On multivariate analysis, neither patient awareness of terminal status at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.51), use of a palliative care facility (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.21), nor general prostration (aHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.57) was associated with reduced survival. Use of the ICU (aHR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.05) and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (aHR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71) were significantly associated with poor survival. Patients' being aware that they are dying and entering a palliative care facility or ICU does not seem to influence patients' survival.

  18. Survival of civilian and prisoner drug-sensitive, multi- and extensive drug- resistant tuberculosis cohorts prospectively followed in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Balabanova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: A long-term observational study was conducted in Samara, Russia to assess the survival and risk factors for death of a cohort of non-multidrug resistant tuberculosis (non-MDRTB and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB civilian and prison patients and a civilian extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB cohort. RESULTS: MDRTB and XDRTB rates of 54.8% and 11.1% were identified in the region. Half (50% of MDRTB patients and the majority of non-MDRTB patients (71% were still alive at 5 years. Over half (58% of the patients died within two years of establishing a diagnosis of XDRTB. In the multivariate analysis, retreatment (HR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.04, 2.49 and MDRTB (HR = 1.67, 95%CI 1.17, 2.39 were significantly associated with death within the non-MDR/MDRTB cohort. The effect of age on survival was relatively small (HR = 1.01, 95%CI 1.00, 1.02. No specific factor affected survival of XDRTB patients although median survival time for HIV-infected versus HIV-negative patients from this group was shorter (185 versus 496 days. The majority of MDRTB and XDRTB strains (84% and 92% respectively strains belonged to the Beijing family. Mutations in the rpoB (codon 531 in 81/92; 88.8%, katG (mutation S315T in 91/92, 98.9% and inhA genes accounted for most rifampin and isoniazid resistance respectively, mutations in the QRDR region of gyrA for most fluroquinolone resistance (68/92; 73.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Alarmingly high rates of XDRTB exist. Previous TB treatment cycles and MDR were significant risk factors for mortality. XDRTB patients' survival is short especially for HIV-infected patients. Beijing family strains comprise the majority of drug-resistant strains.

  19. Physician presence in an ambulance car is associated with increased survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a prospective cohort analysis.

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    Akihito Hagihara

    Full Text Available The presence of a physician seems to be beneficial for pre-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the effectiveness of a physician's presence during CPR before hospital arrival has not been established. We conducted a prospective, non-randomized, observational study using national data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests between 2005 and 2010 in Japan. We performed a propensity analysis and examined the association between a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride and short- and long-term survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Specifically, a full non-parsimonious logistic regression model was fitted with the physician presence in the ambulance as the dependent variable; the independent variables included all study variables except for endpoint variables plus dummy variables for the 47 prefectures in Japan (i.e., 46 variables. In total, 619,928 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Among propensity-matched patients, a positive association was observed between a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC before hospital arrival, 1-month survival, and 1-month survival with minimal neurological or physical impairment (ROSC: OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.63-2.07, p = 0.00 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates; 1-month survival: OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61, p = 0.02 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates; cerebral performance category (1 or 2: OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.03-2.29, p = 0.04 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates; and overall performance category (1 or 2: OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.01-2.24, p = 0.05 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates. A prospective observational study using national data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests shows that a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride was independently associated with

  20. A Prospective Study Assessing Tumour Response, Survival, and Palliative Care Outcomes in Patients with HIV-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Francis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus- (HIV- related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS has a high prevalence in Africa; however, there is minimal published data on treatment and outcomes in this population. Objective and Design. This was a prospective study of 50 patients, aiming to assess the impact of vincristine therapy on tumour response and survival and to assess palliative care outcomes in patients with HIV-related KS. Methods. 50 consecutive patients were recruited during 2008. Vincristine therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were given. Tumour response, survival, and chemotherapy-related toxicities were documented. Palliative care outcomes were assessed using the African Palliative Care Association (APCA Palliative Outcome Scale (POS. Results. The majority of patients were male, and the median age was 33 years. At baseline assessment, the median CD4 T-cell count was 263, and 50% patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. The overall response rate was 64% at 6 weeks, and median progression-free survival was 30 weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with peripheral neuropathy the main dose-limiting toxicity. Conclusion. The combination of vincristine and HAART is feasible and effective in a low resource setting, although peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting factor. This patient group carries a high mortality and as such adequate access to palliative care is crucial.

  1. Relationship between co-morbidities at diagnosis, survival and ultimate cause of death in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL): a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Parikh, Sameer A; Chaffee, Kari G; Kay, Neil E; Call, Timothy G; Achenbach, Sara J; Cerhan, James R; Slager, Susan L; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2017-08-01

    The ultimate cause of death for most patients with newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and its relationship to co-morbid health conditions is poorly defined. We conducted a prospective cohort study that systematically followed 1143 patients diagnosed with CLL between June 2002 and November 2014. Comorbid health conditions at the time of CLL diagnosis and their relationship to survival and cause of death were evaluated. Collectively, 1061 (93%) patients had at least one co-morbid health condition at the time of CLL diagnosis (median number 3). Despite this, 89% of patients had a low-intermediate Charlson Comorbidity Index score (CCI) at diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 6 years, 225 patients have died. Death was due to CLL progression in 85 (46%) patients, infection in 14 (8%) patients, other cancer in 35 (19%) patients and comorbid health conditions in 50 (27%) patients. Higher CCI score and a greater number of major comorbid health conditions at the time of CLL diagnosis was associated with shorter non-CLL specific survival, but not with shorter CLL-specific survival on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, CLL and CLL-related complications (infections and second cancers) are the overwhelming cause of death in patients with CLL, regardless of CCI score and number of comorbid health conditions at diagnosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association between use of air-conditioning or fan and survival of elderly febrile patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, G; Tansarli, G S; Mavros, M N; Spiropoulos, T; Barbas, S G; Falagas, M E

    2013-09-01

    Elderly individuals are more susceptible to excess summer heat. We sought to examine whether the use of cooling systems (air-conditioning or fan) affected the clinical outcomes of elderly febrile patients. We prospectively followed elderly (≥ 75 years old) febrile patients requesting the medical services of the SOS Doctors (a network of physicians performing house-call visits) from July 10 to August 20, 2011. Patients who used cooling systems ("users") were compared with those who did not ("non-users") regarding mortality, clinical outcome of primary illness (improvement or deterioration), and emergency hospitalization. Prospectively collected data were available for 339 individual elderly febrile patients. "Users" had lower mortality (10 % vs. 19 %, p air-conditioning and fan regarding mortality or clinical improvement, but fan use was associated with more hospitalizations (37 % vs. 19 %, p conditions), the sole variable significantly associated with mortality was the non-use of cooling systems [odds ratio (OR): 2.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.06-4.50]. The use of air-conditioning or fan during hot summer periods appeared to be beneficial for elderly febrile patients living in a large city. Large prospective studies are warranted in order to provide further insight into potential individual and public health initiatives aiming to alleviate the impact of excess summer heat on the health of elderly patients.

  3. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis

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    Ludwig, Johannes M. [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Ambinder, Emily McIntosh [John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States); Ghodadra, Anish [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Xing, Minzhi [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Prajapati, Hasmukh J. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@yale.edu [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival.MethodsA single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low (<10 %) LSF. Baseline comparisons were performed using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical and Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate (Wilcoxon rank-sum test) and multivariate analyses (Cox Proportional Hazard Model) for risk factor analysis were performed.ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, race, tumor properties, or previous treatments between patients with high (n = 15) and low (n = 29) LSF. The median OS was 27.4 months (95 %CI 12.73–55.23), with 4.77 months (95 %CI 2.87–26.73) for high and 42.77 months (95 %CI 18.47–59.73) for low LSF (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis identified high LSF (p = 0.001), total serum bilirubin >1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival.ConclusionsLSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  4. Management plan for deep sternal wound infection targeting to survival free of recurrence: A prospective evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Kasb

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Management of DSWI is tedious, has prolonged hospital stay and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Management of DSWI must be personalized according to findings on exploration of the sternal wound and flap coverage must be initiated only when the patient is bacteriologically free. Both PMF and/or VOF provided high acceptable success rate defined as survival free of DSWI recurrence.

  5. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartsteen, Birgitte Hollegaard; Byars, Sean Geoffrey; Lykke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved...... that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health....

  6. Increased metabolic risk in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes: The EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachová, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2015-01-01

    with offspring metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes had a less favourable metabolic profile and higher frequency of prediabetes than the background population. Significant associations between these outcomes and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with offspring of non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: During 1993-1999, pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes in Denmark were...... prospectively reported to a central registry in the Danish Diabetes Association. Data included information on maternal demography, diabetes status and pregnancy outcome. We invited 746 eligible children from this cohort (index offspring) to a follow-up examination. Control offspring were identified through...

  7. Survival advantage of peritoneal dialysis relative to hemodialysis in the early period of incident dialysis patients: a nationwide prospective propensity-matched study in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Choi

    Full Text Available The impact of dialysis modality on survival is still somewhat controversial. Given possible differences in patients' characteristics and the cause and rate of death in different countries, the issue needs to be evaluated in Korean cohorts.A nationwide prospective observational cohort study (NCT00931970 was performed to compare survival between peritoneal dialysis (PD and hemodialysis (HD. A total of 1,060 end-stage renal disease patients in Korea who began dialysis between September 1, 2008 and June 30, 2011 were followed through December 31, 2011.The patients (PD, 30.6%; HD, 69.4% were followed up for 16.3 ± 7.9 months. PD patients were significantly younger, less likely to be diabetic, with lower body mass index, and larger urinary volume than HD patients. Infection was the most common cause of death. Multivariate Cox regression with the entire cohort revealed that PD tended to be associated with a lower risk of death compared to HD [hazard ratio (HR 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.36-1.08]. In propensity score matched pairs (n=278 in each modality, cumulative survival probabilities for PD and HD patients were 96.9% and 94.1% at 12 months (P=0.152 and 94.3% and 87.6% at 24 months (P=0.022, respectively. Patients on PD had a 51% lower risk of death compared to those on HD (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.97.PD exhibits superior survival to HD in the early period of dialysis, even after adjusting for differences in the patients' characteristics between the two modalities. Notably, the most common cause of death was infection in this Korean cohort.

  8. The roles of herbal remedies in survival and quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors - results of a prospective study

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    Sullivan-Halley Jane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data exist on survival or health-related quality of life (QOL related to herbal remedy use among long-term breast cancer survivors. The objective of this report is to examine whether herbal remedy use is associated with survival or the health-related QOL of these long-term breast cancer survivors. Methods In 1999-2000, we collected the information of herbal remedy use and QOL during a telephone interview with 371 Los Angeles Non-Hispanic/Hispanic white women who had survived more than 10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. QOL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were followed for mortality from the baseline interview through 2007. 299 surviving patients completed a second telephone interview on QOL in 2002-2004. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards methods to estimate relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for mortality and applied multivariable linear regression models to compare average SF-36 change scores (follow-up - baseline between herbal remedy users and non-users. Results Fifty-nine percent of participants were herbal remedy users at baseline. The most commonly used herbal remedies were echinacea, herbal teas, and ginko biloba. Herbal remedy use was associated with non-statistically significant increases in the risks for all-cause (44 deaths, RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62-2.64 and breast cancer (33 deaths, RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.72-4.40 mortality. Both herbal remedy users' and non-users' mental component summary scores on the SF-36 increased similarly from the first survey to the second survey (P = 0.16, but herbal remedy users' physical component summary scores decreased more than those of non-users (-5.7 vs. -3.2, P = 0.02. Conclusions Our data provide some evidence that herbal remedy use is associated with poorer survival and a poorer physical component score for health-related QOL among women who have survived breast cancer for at least

  9. SLCO1B1 and SLC19A1 gene variants and irinotecan-induced rapid response and survival: a prospective multicenter pharmacogenetics study of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huang

    Full Text Available Rapid response to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC patients (response within 12 weeks of chemotherapy may increase the chance of complete resection and improved survival. Few molecular markers predict irinotecan-induced rapid response and survival. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in solute carrier genes are reported to correlate with the variable pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and folate in cancer patients. This study aims to evaluate the predictive role of 3 SNPs in mCRC patients treated with irinotecan and fluoropyrimidine-containing regimens.Three SNPs were selected and genotyped in 137 mCRC patients from a Chinese prospective multicenter trial (NCT01282658. The chi-squared test, univariate and multivariable logistic regression model, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to evaluate correlations between the genotypes and rapid response. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between genotypes and survival outcomes. Benjamini and Hochberg False Discovery Rate correction was used in multiple testing.Genotype GA/AA of SNP rs2306283 of the gene SLCO1B1 and genotype GG of SNP rs1051266 of the gene SLC19A1 were associated with a higher rapid response rate (odds ratio [OR] =3.583 and 3.521, 95%CI =1.301-9.871 and 1.271-9.804, p=0.011 and p=0.013, respectively. The response rate was 70% in patients with both genotypes, compared with only 19.7% in the remaining patients (OR = 9.489, 95%CI = 2.191-41.093, Fisher's exact test p=0.002. Their significances were all maintained even after multiple testing (all p c < 0.05. The rs2306283 GA/AA genotype was also an independent prognostic factor of longer progression-free survival (PFS (hazard ratio = 0.402, 95%CI = 0.171-0.945, p=0.037. None of the SNPs predicted overall survival.Polymorphisms of solute carriers' may be useful to predict rapid response to irinotecan plus fluoropyrimidine and PFS in m

  10. Determinants of survival in adult HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Eastern Uttar Pradesh: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Chakravarty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO of India has been providing free ARV (antiretroviral drugs since 2004. b0 y 2012, 486,173 patients had received treatment through the antiretroviral therapy (ART centres. The objective of this observational study was to assess the factors determining survival of patients on ART under routine programme conditions in an ART centre in north India five years after its inception. Methods: Treatment naive HIV positive patients who were enrolled in the ART centre between May 2009 and May 2010 and started on ART as per the Revised NACO guidelines 2009, were included in the study and outcome was assessed after two years of follow up. Results: A total of 1689 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 272 (16.10% expired, 205 (12.13% were lost to follow up (LFU, 526 (31.14% were transferred out to other facilities and 686 (40.63% were alive at the end of two years. Majority (92% of the deaths occurred in the first six months of therapy. Age >30 yr, male gender, poor functional status, haemoglobin level <11 g/dl, body weight <45 kg and CD4 count <100/μl at baseline had significantly higher relative hazard of death. Most LFU also occurred in the first six months and these patients had significantly low CD4 count, weight, haemoglobin level and higher number of patients in Stages III and IV as compared to those who survived. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings revealed poor survival in the first six months of therapy especially in those with severe immunosuppression. This emphasizes the need for early enrolment into the programme. The high LFU occurring early after initiation of therapy suggests the urgent need to build an efficient patient retrieval system in the programme.

  11. Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S

    2006-05-01

    Research has suggested that some types of parental child-rearing behavior may be associated with risk for offspring personality disorder (PD), but the association of parenting with offspring PD has not been investigated comprehensively with prospective longitudinal data. To investigate the association of parental child-rearing behavior with risk for offspring PD during adulthood. The Children in the Community study, a prospective longitudinal investigation. A community-based sample of 593 families interviewed during childhood (mean age, 6 years), adolescence (mean ages, 14 and 16 years), emerging adulthood (mean age, 22 years), and adulthood (mean age, 33 years) of the offspring. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. Ten types of parenting behavior that were evident during the child-rearing years were associated with elevated offspring risk for PD during adulthood when childhood behavioral or emotional problems and parental psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. Parental behavior in the home during the child-rearing years was associated with elevated risk for offspring PD at mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Risk for offspring PD at both assessments increased steadily as a function of the number of problematic parenting behaviors that were evident. Low parental affection or nurturing was associated with elevated risk for offspring antisocial (P = .003), avoidant (P = .01), borderline (P = .002), depressive (P = .02), paranoid (P = .002), schizoid (P = .046), and schizotypal (Pparental behavior (eg, harsh punishment) was associated with elevated risk for offspring borderline (P = .001), paranoid (P = .004), passive-aggressive (P = .046), and schizotypal (P = .02) PDs. Parental behavior during the child-rearing years may be associated with risk for offspring PD that endures into adulthood. This risk may not be attributable to offspring behavioral and emotional problems or parental psychiatric disorder, and it may not diminish

  12. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...... the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  13. Prostate cancer incidence, clinical stage and survival in relation to obesity: a prospective cohort study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Henrik; Roswall, Nina; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Cuzick, Jack; Holmberg, Lars; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2015-04-15

    There is no clear link between obesity and prostate cancer incidence but an association has been reported between obesity and fatal prostate cancer. We report on two prospective cohort analyses on (i) the incidence of prostate cancer in relation to obesity in a cohort of men with no previous cancer, and on (ii) the stage distribution and prostate cancer specific mortality in relation to obesity among men with prostate cancer. The "Diet, Cancer and Health" prospective cohort study was established in Denmark in 1993-1997 and accrued 26,944 men aged 50-64 years. Data were extracted on height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat percentage. Information on cancer incidence and deaths were obtained by record linkage with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish Death Register. The incidence rate of prostate cancer was similar or slightly lower in obese men compared with nonobese men, but obese men tended to be diagnosed with more advanced prostate cancer. The proportion of Stage 3-4 cancers was 37% in the lowest BMI quartile and 48% in the highest (p = 0.006). Obese men with prostate cancer had higher prostate cancer specific mortality. The hazard ratio comparing the highest and the lowest quartiles of BMI was 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.05; p-value for trend: 0.002). The association was attenuated but not eliminated by statistical adjustment for stage, and the data are suggestive of a stage-independent causal pathway where prostate cancer in obese men has higher fatality, even in early-stage disease. © 2014 UICC.

  14. The metastatic infiltration at the metastasis/brain parenchyma-interface is very heterogeneous and has a significant impact on survival in a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, Laila; Bleckmann, Annalen; Chaung, Han-Ning; Mohr, Alexander; Klemm, Florian; Barrantes-Freer, Alonso; Blazquez, Raquel; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Lüke, Florian; Rohde, Veit; Stadelmann, Christine; Pukrop, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The current approach to brain metastases resection is macroscopic removal of metastasis until reaching the glial pseudo-capsule (gross total resection (GTR)). However, autopsy studies demonstrated infiltrating metastatic cells into the parenchyma at the metastasis/brain parenchyma (M/BP)-interface. Aims/Methods: To analyze the astrocyte reaction and metastatic infiltration pattern at the M/BP-interface with an organotypic brain slice coculture system. Secondly, to evaluate the significance of infiltrating metastatic tumor cells in a prospective biopsy study. Therefore, after GTR, biopsies were obtained from the brain parenchyma beyond the glial pseudo-capsule and analyzed histomorphologically. Results: The coculture revealed three types of cancer cell infiltration. Interestingly, the astrocyte reaction was significantly different in the coculture with a benign, neuroectodermal-derived cell line. In the prospective biopsy study 58/167 (34.7%) samples revealed infiltrating metastatic cells. Altogether, 25/39 patients (64.1%) had proven to exhibit infiltration in at least one biopsy specimen with significant impact on survival (OS) (3.4 HR; p = 0.009; 2-year OS was 6.6% versus 43.5%). Exceptionally, in the non-infiltrating cohort three patients were long-term survivors. Conclusions: Metastatic infiltration has a significant impact on prognosis. Secondly, the astrocyte reaction at the M/BP-interface is heterogeneous and supports our previous concept of the organ-specific defense against metastatic (organ-foreign) cells. PMID:26299612

  15. Brain metastasis development and poor survival associated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Saavedra-Perez, David; Kuri, Roberto; Aviles-Salas, Alejandro; Martinez, Luis; Mendoza-Posada, Daniel; Castillo, Patricia; Astorga, Alma; Guzman, Enrique; De la Garza, Jaime

    2009-04-22

    Central nervous system is a common site of metastasis in NSCLC and confers worse prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical-pathological factors (CPF), serum CEA levels, and EGFR and HER2 tissue-expression in brain metastasis (BM) and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced NSCLC. In a prospective manner, we studied 293 patients with NSCLC in IIIB-IV clinical stage. They received standard chemotherapy. CEA was measured prior to treatment; EGFR and HER2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. BM development was confirmed by MRI in symptomatic patients. BM developed in 27, and 32% of patients at 1 and 2 years of diagnosis with adenocarcinoma (RR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.002-29; p = 0.05) and CEA > or = 40 ng/mL (RR 11.4; 95% CI, 1.7-74; p or = 40 ng/mL (RR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09-2.2; p = 0.014) and EGFR expression (RR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9; p = 0.012) were independent associated factors to worse OS. High CEA serum level is a risk factor for BM development and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. Surface expression of CEA in tumor cells could be the physiopathological mechanism for invasion to CNS.

  16. Pre-diagnostic meat and fibre intakes in relation to colorectal cancer survival in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather A.; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J. B.; Skeie, Guri; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krassimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Angell Åsli, Lene; Jakszyn, Paula; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jirström, Karin; Ericson, Ulrika; Johansson, Ingegerd; Gylling, Björn; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Riboli, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95% CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95% CI 0·91, 1·09) (Pfor heterogeneity = 0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship. PMID:27193442

  17. Serum estradiol levels predict survival and acute kidney injury in patients with septic shock--a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yih Feng

    Full Text Available Sex hormones have diverse immunomodulatory effects that may be involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. However, the roles of serum sex hormones in predicting outcomes and the severity of organ dysfunction, especially acute kidney injury (AKI, in septic shock patients remains controversial. We prospectively enrolled 107 clinically diagnosed pneumonia-related septic shock patients and serum sex hormone levels were measured on the day of shock onset. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive values of serum sex hormones levels for 28-day mortality and organs dysfunction, especially AKI. Compared with survivors, serum levels of progesterone (p40 pg/mL (p = 0.047 and APACHE II score ≥25 (p = 40 pg/mL was also an independent predictor of concomitant AKI (p = 0.002 and correlated well with severity of renal dysfunction using RIFLE classification. Elevated serum estradiol levels also predicted the development of new AKI within 28 days of shock onset (p = 0.013. In conclusion, serum estradiol levels appear to have value in predicting 28-day mortality in septic shock patients. Increased serum estradiol levels are associated with higher severity of concomitant AKI and predict development of new AKI.

  18. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2012-01-01

    members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important...

  19. Critical care admission following elective surgery was not associated with survival benefit: prospective analysis of data from 27 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Brennan C; Koulenti, Desponia; Arvaniti, Kostoula; Beavis, Vanessa; Campbell, Douglas; Chan, Matthew; Moreno, Rui; Pearse, Rupert M

    2017-07-01

    As global initiatives increase patient access to surgical treatments, there is a need to define optimal levels of perioperative care. Our aim was to describe the relationship between the provision and use of critical care resources and postoperative mortality. Planned analysis of data collected during an international 7-day cohort study of adults undergoing elective in-patient surgery. We used risk-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models to evaluate the association between admission to critical care immediately after surgery and in-hospital mortality. We evaluated hospital-level associations between mortality and critical care admission immediately after surgery, critical care admission to treat life-threatening complications, and hospital provision of critical care beds. We evaluated the effect of national income using interaction tests. 44,814 patients from 474 hospitals in 27 countries were available for analysis. Death was more frequent amongst patients admitted directly to critical care after surgery (critical care: 103/4317 patients [2%], standard ward: 99/39,566 patients [0.3%]; adjusted OR 3.01 [2.10-5.21]; p care admission directly after surgery (p = 0.26), critical care admission to treat complications (p = 0.33), or provision of critical care beds (p = 0.70). Findings of the hospital-level analyses were not affected by national income status. A sensitivity analysis including only high-risk patients yielded similar findings. We did not identify any survival benefit from critical care admission following surgery.

  20. Parental pre-pregnancy BMI influences on offspring BMI and waist circumference at 21 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalbahar, Nurzalinda; Najman, Jake; McIntrye, Harold D; Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the prospective association between parental pre-pregnancy BMI and adult male and female offspring BMI and waist circumference (WC). Sub-sample of 2,229 parent-offspring pairs with parental pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring BMI and WC at 21 years were used from the MUSP (Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort). Multivariable results were adjusted for maternal factors around pregnancy (e.g. gestational weight and smoking during pregnancy) and offspring factors in early life (e.g. birth weight) and at 14 years (e.g. sports participation and mealtime with family). After adjustments for confounders, each unit increase in paternal and maternal BMI, the BMI of young adult offspring increased by 0.33kg/m(2) and 0.35kg/m(2) , and the WC increased by 0.76 cm and 0.62 cm, respectively. In the combination of parents' weight status, offspring at 21 years were six times the risk being overweight/obese (OW/OB) when both parents were OW/OB, compared to offspring of healthy weight parents. Prenatal parental BMI are independently related to adult offspring BMI and WC. Both prenatal paternal-maternal weight status are important determinants of offspring weight status in long-term. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Parenting behaviours associated with the development of adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Liu, Lydia; Cohen, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the associations of beneficial parenting behaviours with adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits that persist into adulthood among individuals in the community. Families (n = 669) participating in the Children in the Community Study were interviewed during the childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood of the offspring at the mean ages of 6, 14, 16, 22, and 33 years. Twelve types of beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviour, reported by offspring at the mean age of 16 years, were associated with elevated offspring personality resiliency, at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years, and with low offspring personality disorder trait levels. These longitudinal associations remained significant when histories of childhood behaviour problems and parental psychiatric disorder were controlled statistically. Similar linear (that is, dose-dependent) associations were observed between the number of beneficial parenting behaviours during childhood and adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Maternal and paternal behaviours were independently associated with both adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits. Beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviours may promote the development of adaptive offspring personality traits that endure into adulthood, and they may be prospectively associated with reduced levels of maladaptive offspring traits. These associations may not be attributable to childhood behaviour problems or parental psychiatric disorders, and they may be equally evident during early and middle adulthood.

  2. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, F.J.J.; Ofec, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients.

  3. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, F.J.J.; Ofec, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients.

  4. Lower Maternal Folate Status in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Childhood Hyperactivity and Peer Problems in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotz, Wolff; Jones, Alexander; Phillips, David I. W.; Gale, Catharine R.; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been linked with fetal brain development and psychopathology in the offspring. We examined for associations of maternal folate status and dietary intake during pregnancy with brain growth and childhood behavioural difficulties in the offspring. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, maternal red…

  5. Effects of Offspring-Related Characteristics on Depressive Disorder among Cancer Patients and Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Yeom, Hyungseon; Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influence of offspring-related characteristics on the prevalence of depressive disorders among cancer patients and those who survived cancer for at least 45 years. Data were obtained from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). To investigate the association between offspring and depressive disorder among cancer patients and survivors, we analyzed data from 292 cancer patients and survivors drawn from a total subject pool of 16,613 individuals at baseline. According to our results, the odds ratio (OR) for subjects with five or more offspring developing depressive disorder was -0.794 (p-value: 0.039, SE: 0.329) compared with that of those with two offspring. In addition, the adjusted effect of the number of male and female offspring on the presence of depressive disorder showed that the OR for those with three or more female offspring for developing depressive disorder was -0.958 lower (SE: 0.305, p-value: 0.012) than it was for those with no female offspring. This article provides evidence for an association between offspring-related characteristics and depressive disorders among cancer patients and survivors. Therefore, offspring may be important contributors to the emotional status of cancer patients and survivors. Further study should precisely need to measure depressive disorders because of self-reported data.

  6. Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Botterill-James

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the occurrence of parent-offspring associations in a social lizard (Liopholis whitii. We found that the extent of parent-offspring association was higher when high-quality habitat was aggregated relative to when it was dispersed. This may be the result of greater competitive exclusion of adults and offspring from high quality crevices sites in the aggregated treatment compared to the dispersed treatment. Associating with parents had significant benefits for offspring growth and body condition but there were no concomitant effects on offspring survival. We did not find costs of parent-offspring association for parents in terms of increased harassment and loss of body condition. We discuss a number of potential mechanisms underlying these results. Regardless of mechanisms, our results suggest that habitat structure may shape the extent of parent-offspring association in L. whitti, and that highly aggregated habitats may set the stage for the diversification of more complex forms of care observed across closely related species.

  7. Should I stay or should I go? Fitness costs and benefits of prolonged parent–offspring and sibling–sibling associations in an Arctic‑nesting goose population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weegman, Mitch; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts persistence of long-term family relationships in vertebrates will occur until perceived fitness costs exceed benefits to either parents or offspring. We examined whether increased breeding probability and survival were associated with prolonged parent–offspring and sibling...... that the survival benefits are not sufficient enough to yield clear fitness benefits, and associations only persist because parents and offspring mutually benefit from their persistence....

  8. Brain metastasis development and poor survival associated with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Patricia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system is a common site of metastasis in NSCLC and confers worse prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical-pathological factors (CPF, serum CEA levels, and EGFR and HER2 tissue-expression in brain metastasis (BM and overall survival (OS in patients with advanced NSCLC. Methods In a prospective manner, we studied 293 patients with NSCLC in IIIB-IV clinical stage. They received standard chemotherapy. CEA was measured prior to treatment; EGFR and HER2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. BM development was confirmed by MRI in symptomatic patients. Results BM developed in 27, and 32% of patients at 1 and 2 years of diagnosis with adenocarcinoma (RR 5.2; 95% CI, 1.002–29; p = 0.05 and CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL (RR 11.4; 95% CI, 1.7–74; p p = 0.048, poor performance status (RR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5–2.3; p = 0.002, advanced clinical stage (RR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02–2; p = 0.04, CEA ≥ 40 ng/mL (RR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09–2.2; p = 0.014 and EGFR expression (RR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4–1.9; p = 0.012 were independent associated factors to worse OS. Conclusion High CEA serum level is a risk factor for BM development and is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC. Surface expression of CEA in tumor cells could be the physiopathological mechanism for invasion to CNS.

  9. Parents bereaved by offspring suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, James M; Au, Wendy; Leslie, William D

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Suicide bereavement remains understudied and poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To examine outcomes of parents bereaved by the suicide death of their offspring and to compare these with both nonbereaved parent controls and parents who had offspring die in a motor vehicle crash (MVC). DESIGN...... Population-based case-control study. Suicide-bereaved parents were compared with nonbereaved matched control parents in the general population (n = 1415) and with MVC-bereaved parents (n = 1132) on the rates of physician-diagnosed mental and physical disorders, social factors, and treatment use in the 2...... years after death of the offspring. Adjusted relative rates (ARRs) were generated by generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for confounding factors. SETTING Manitoba, Canada. PARTICIPANTS All identifiable parents who had an offspring die by suicide between 1996 and 2007 (n = 1415). MAIN...

  10. Interim analysis of survival in a prospective, multi-center registry cohort of cutaneous melanoma tested with a prognostic 31-gene expression profile test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy C. Hsueh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 31-gene expression profile (GEP test that provides risk classification of cutaneous melanoma (CM patients has been validated in several retrospective studies. The objective of the reported study was a prospective evaluation of the GEP performance in patients enrolled in two clinical registries. Methods Three-hundred twenty two CM patients enrolled in the EXPAND (NCT02355587 and INTEGRATE (NCT02355574 registries met the criteria of age ≥ 16 years, successful GEP result and ≥1 follow-up visit for inclusion in this interim analysis. Primary endpoints were recurrence-free (RFS, distant metastasis-free (DMFS, and overall survival (OS. Results Median follow-up was 1.5 years for event-free patients. Median age for subjects was 58 years (range 18–87 and median Breslow thickness was 1.2 mm (range 0.2–12.0. Eighty-eight percent (282/322 of cases had stage I/II disease and 74% (237/322 had a SLN biopsy. Seventy-seven percent (248/322 had class 1 molecular profiles. 1.5-year RFS, DMFS, and OS rates were 97 vs. 77%, 99 vs. 89%, and 99 vs. 92% for class 1 vs. class 2, respectively (p < 0.0001 for each. Multivariate Cox regression showed Breslow thickness, mitotic rate, and GEP class to significantly predict recurrence (p < 0.01, while tumor thickness was the only significant predictor of distant metastasis and overall survival in this interim analysis. Conclusions Interim analysis of patient outcomes from a combined prospective cohort supports the 31-gene GEP’s ability to stratify early-stage CM patients into two groups with significantly different metastatic risk. RFS outcomes in this real-world cohort are consistent with previously published analyses with retrospective specimens. GEP testing complements current clinicopathologic features and increases identification of high-risk patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02355574  and NCT02355587  

  11. Predictors of Survival among Adult Ethiopian Patients in the National ART Program at Seven University Teaching Hospitals: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekade, Daniel; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Teklu, Alula M; Damen, Melake; Abdella, Saro; Baraki, Nega; Belayhun, Bekele; Berhan, Eyoel; Kebede, Amha; Assefa, Yibeltal

    2017-02-01

    In Ethiopia, the publicly funded antiretroviral treatment (ART) program was started in 2005. Two hundred seventy-five thousand patients were enrolled in the national ART program by 2012. However, there is limited data on mortality and predictors of death among adult patients in the ART program. The study aimed to estimate mortality and risk factors for death among adult, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program from January 2009 to July 2013. Multi-site, prospective, observational cohort study of adult, age > 18 years, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program at seven university-affiliated hospitals from January 2009 - July 2013. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate survival and determine risk factors for death. A total of 976 patients, 594 females (60.9 %), were enrolled into the study. Median age of the cohort was 33years. The median CD4 count at start of ART was 144 cells/µl (interquartile range (IQR) 78-205), and 34.2% (330/965) had CD4 ART. Cox regression analyses showed that the following measures independently predicted mortality: age >51 years, (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 4.01, P=0.003), WHO stages III&IV, (AHR 1.76, p = 0.025), CD4 count, 5 log copies /ml (CHR 1.71, p = 0.037). There is high early on- ART mortality in patients presenting with advanced immunodeficiency. Detecting cases and initiating ART before onset of advanced immunodeficiency might improve survival.

  12. Predictors for contrast media-induced nephropathy and long-term survival: Prospectively assessed data from the randomized controlled Dialysis-Versus-Diuresis (DVD) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Birgit; Heitmeyer, Christine; Fobker, Manfred; Breithardt, Günter; Schaefer, Roland M; Reinecke, Holger

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the numerous studies concerning contrast media-induced nephropathy (CIN), there was no prospective trial that provided data on the long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess predictors of CIN and long-term outcomes of affected patients. METHODS: Four hundred twelve consecutive patients with serum creatinine levels of 115 μmol/L to 309 μmol/L (1.3 mg/dL to 3.5 mg/dL) undergoing elective coronary angiography were included. Patients were randomly assigned to periprocedural hydration alone, hydration plus onetime hemodialysis or hydration plus N-acetylcysteine. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression identified the following as predictors of CIN within 72 h (equivalent to an increase in creatinine 44.2 μmol/L [0.5 mg/dL] or more) : prophylactic postprocedural hemodialysis (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.07 to 7.69), use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (OR 6.16, 95% CI 2.01 to 18.93), baseline glomerular filtration rate (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.98) and the amount of contrast media given (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01). With regard to long-term outcome (mean follow-up 649 days), multivariate Cox regression models found elevated creatinine levels at 30 days (hazard rate ratio [HRR] 5.48, 95% CI 2.85 to 10.53), but not CIN within 72 h (HRR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.02), to be associated with increased mortality. In addition, independent predictors for death during follow-up included left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 35% (HRR 4.01, 95% CI 2.22 to 7.26), serum phosphate (HRR 1.64, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.43) and hemoglobin (HRR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96). CONCLUSION: From the present prospective trial, performance of post-procedural hemodialysis, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, reduced baseline glomerular filtration rate and amount of contrast media were independent predictors of CIN within 72 h after catheterization. Assessing renal function after 30 days, rather than within 72 h, seemed to be more predictive for

  13. Fever in pregnancy and offspring head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-12-06

    To examine whether maternal fever during pregnancy is associated with reduced head circumference and risk of microcephaly at birth. A prospective study of 86,980 live-born singletons within the Danish National Birth Cohort was carried out. Self-reported maternal fever exposure was ascertained in two interviews during pregnancy and information on head circumference at birth was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Fever in pregnancy was reported by 27% of the mothers, and we identified 3370 cases of microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to third percentile for sex and gestational age) and 1140 cases of severe microcephaly (head circumference less than or equal to first percentile for sex and gestational age). In this study, maternal fever exposure was not associated with reduced head circumference (adjusted β = 0.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.01-0.05), increased risk of microcephaly (odds ratio: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03) nor severe microcephaly (odds ratio: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.88-1.15) in the offspring. These findings were consistent for increasing numbers of fever episodes, for increasing fever severity, and for exposure in both early pregnancy and midpregnancy. In this most comprehensive study to date, we found no indication that maternal fever in pregnancy is associated with small head size in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parent-offspring conflict and the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölliker, Mathias; Boos, Stefan; Wong, Janine W Y; Röllin, Lilian; Stucki, Dimitri; Raveh, Shirley; Wu, Min; Meunier, Joël

    2015-04-16

    The genetic conflict between parents and their offspring is a cornerstone of kin selection theory and the gene-centred view of evolution, but whether it actually occurs in natural systems remains an open question. Conflict operates only if parenting is driven by genetic trade-offs between offspring performance and the parent's ability to raise additional offspring, and its expression critically depends on the shape of these trade-offs. Here we investigate the occurrence and nature of genetic conflict in an insect with maternal care, the earwig Forficula auricularia. Specifically, we test for a direct response to experimental selection on female future reproduction and correlated responses in current offspring survival, developmental rate and growth. The results demonstrate genetic trade-offs that differ in shape before and after hatching. Our study not only provides direct evidence for parent-offspring conflict but also highlights that conflict is not inevitable and critically depends on the genetic trade-offs shaping parental investment.

  15. Personality Traits of Centenarians’ Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Frederick, Maureen; Silverman, Leanne; Anderson, Stacy; Senville, Joanna; Silver, Margery; Sebastiani, Paola; Terry, Dellara F; Costa, Paul T.; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether the offspring of centenarians have personality characteristics that are distinct from the general population. DESIGN Case-control. SETTING Nationwide U.S. sample. PARTICIPANTS Unrelated offspring of centenarians (n = 246, mean age 75) were compared with published norms. MEASUREMENTS Using the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) questionnaire, measures of the personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were obtained. T-scores and percentiles were calculated according to sex and used to interpret the results. RESULTS Male and female offspring of centenarians scored in the low range of published norms for neuroticism and in the high range for extraversion. The women also scored comparatively high in agreeableness. Otherwise, both sexes scored within normal range for conscientiousness and openness, and the men scored within normal range for agreeableness. CONCLUSION Specific personality traits may be important to the relative successful aging demonstrated by the offspring of centenarians. Similarities across four of the five domains between male and female offspring is noteworthy and may relate to their successful aging. Measures of personality are an important phenotype to include in studies that assess genetic and environmental influences of longevity and successful aging. PMID:19392961

  16. A novel schedule of accelerated partial breast radiation using intensity-modulated radiation therapy in elderly patients: survival and toxicity analysis of a prospective clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayan, Mutlay; Nelson, Carl; Gagne, Havaleh; Rubin, Deborah; Heimann, Ruth [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington (United States); Wilson, Karen [University of Vermont Cancer Center, Burlington (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Several accelerated partial breast radiation (APBR) techniques have been investigated in patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC); however, the optimal treatment delivery techniques remain unclear. We evaluated the feasibility and toxicity of APBR delivered using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in elderly patients with stage I BC, using a novel fractionation schedule. Forty-two patients aged ≥65 years, with stage I BC who underwent breast conserving surgery were enrolled in a phase I/II study evaluating APBR using IMRT. Forty eligible patients received 40 Gy in 4 Gy daily fractions. Patients were assessed for treatment related toxicities, and cosmesis, before APBR, during, and after completion of the treatment. The median age was 73 years, median tumor size 0.8 cm and the median follow-up was 54 months. The 5-year locoregional control was 97.5% and overall survival 90%. Erythema and skin pigmentation was the most common acute adverse event, reported by 27 patients (69%). Twenty-six patients (65%) reported mild pain, rated 1-4/10. This improved at last follow-up to only 2 (15%). Overall the patient and physician reported worst late toxicities were lower than the baseline and at last follow-up, patients and physicians rated cosmesis as excellent/good in 93% and 86 %, respectively. In this prospective trial, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control with daily APBR. The acceptable toxicity profile and cosmetic results of this study support the use of IMRT planned APBR with daily schedule in elderly patients with early stage BC.

  17. Serum autotaxin is a parameter for the severity of liver cirrhosis and overall survival in patients with liver cirrhosis--a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pleli

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX and its product lysophosphatidic acid (LPA are considered to be involved in the development of liver fibrosis and elevated levels of serum ATX have been found in patients with hepatitis C virus associated liver fibrosis. However, the clinical role of systemic ATX in the stages of liver cirrhosis was unknown. Here we investigated the relation of ATX serum levels and severity of cirrhosis as well as prognosis of cirrhotic patients.Patients with liver cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled and followed until death, liver transplantation or last contact. Blood samples drawn at the day of inclusion in the study were assessed for ATX content by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ATX levels were correlated with the stage as well as complications of cirrhosis. The prognostic value of ATX was investigated by uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. LPA concentration was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.270 patients were enrolled. Subjects with liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum levels of ATX as compared to healthy subjects (0.814±0.42 mg/l vs. 0.258±0.40 mg/l, P<0.001. Serum ATX levels correlated with the Child-Pugh stage and the MELD (model of end stage liver disease score and LPA levels (r = 0.493, P = 0.027. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy (P = 0.006, esophageal varices (P = 0.002 and portal hypertensive gastropathy (P = 0.008 had higher ATX levels than patients without these complications. Low ATX levels were a parameter independently associated with longer overall survival (hazard ratio 0.575, 95% confidence interval 0.365-0.905, P = 0.017.Serum ATX is an indicator for the severity of liver disease and the prognosis of cirrhotic patients.

  18. Effects of among-offspring relatedness on the origins and evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, M B; Klug, H

    2011-06-01

    Parental care is expected to increase the likelihood of offspring survival at the cost of investment in future reproductive success. However, alternative parental behaviours, such as filial cannibalism, can decrease current reproductive success and consequently individual fitness. We evaluate the role of among-offspring relatedness on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Building on our previous work, we show how the evolution of care is influenced by the effect of among-offspring relatedness on both the strength of competition and filial cannibalism. When there is a positive relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness, parental care will be favoured when among-offspring relatedness is relatively low, and the maintenance of both care and no-care strategies is expected. If the relationship between among-offspring competition and relatedness is negative, parental care is most strongly favoured when broods contain highly related offspring. Further, we highlight the range of conditions over which the level of this among-offspring relatedness can affect the co-occurrence of different care/no care and cannibalism/no cannibalism strategies. Coexistence of multiple strategies is independent of the effects of among-offspring relatedness on cannibalism but more likely when among-offspring relatedness and competition are positively associated. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Lifetime psychopathology among the offspring of Bipolar I parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Zappitelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failures in Cambodia are associated with mutant K13 parasites presenting high survival rates in novel piperaquine in vitro assays: retrospective and prospective investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Valentine; Khim, Nimol; Leang, Rithea; Kim, Saorin; Domergue, Anais; Kloeung, Nimol; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Chy, Sophy; Eam, Rotha; Khean, Chanra; Loch, Kaknika; Ken, Malen; Lek, Dysoley; Beghain, Johann; Ariey, Frédéric; Guerin, Philippe J; Huy, Rekol; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Witkowski, Benoit; Menard, Didier

    2015-12-22

    The declining efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine against Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia, along with increasing numbers of recrudescent cases, suggests resistance to both artemisinin and piperaquine. Available in vitro piperaquine susceptibility assays do not correlate with treatment outcome. A novel assay using a pharmacologically relevant piperaquine dose/time exposure was designed and its relevance explored in retrospective and prospective studies. The piperaquine survival assay (PSA) exposed parasites to 200 nM piperaquine for 48 hours and monitored survival 24 hours later. The retrospective study tested 32 culture-adapted, C580Y-K13 mutant parasites collected at enrolment from patients treated with a 3-day course of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and having presented or not with a recrudescence at day 42 (registered ACTRN12615000793516). The prospective study assessed ex vivo PSA survival rate alongside K13 polymorphism of isolates collected from patients enrolled in an open-label study with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Cambodia (registered ACTRN12615000696594). All parasites from recrudescent cases had in vitro or ex vivo PSA survival rates ≥10%, a relevant cut-off value for piperaquine-resistance. Ex vivo PSA survival rates were higher for recrudescent than non-recrudescent cases (39.2% vs. 0.17%, P <1 × 10(-7)). Artemisinin-resistant K13 mutants with ex vivo PSA survival rates ≥10% were associated with 32-fold higher risk of recrudescence (95% CI, 4.5-224; P = 0.0005). PSA adequately captures the piperaquine resistance/recrudescence phenotype, a mainstay to identify molecular marker(s) and evaluate efficacy of alternative drugs. Combined ex vivo PSA and K13 genotyping provides a convenient monitor for both artemisinin and piperaquine resistance where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is used.

  1. Transforaminal endoscopic lumbar decompression & foraminoplasty: a 10 year prospective survivability outcome study of the treatment of foraminal stenosis and failed back surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Martin T N; Jago, Ingrid; Norris, Christopher; Midwinter, Lynne; Boynes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Conventional diagnosis between axial and foraminal stenosis is suboptimal and long-term outcomes limited to posterior decompression. Aware state Transforaminal Endoscopic Lumbar Decompression and Foraminoplasty (TELDF) offers a direct aware state means of localizing and treating neuro-claudicant back pain, referred pain and weakness associated with stenosis failing to respond to conventional rehabilitation, pain management or surgery. This prospective survivability study examines the outcomes 10 years after TELDF in patients with foraminal stenosis arising from degeneration or failed back surgery. For 10 years prospective data were collected on 114 consecutive patients with multilevel spondylosis and neuro-claudicant back pain, referred pain and weakness with or without failed back surgery whose symptoms had failed to respond to conventional rehabilitation and pain management and who underwent TELDF. The level responsible for the predominant presenting symptoms of foraminal stenosis, determined on clinical grounds, MRI and or CT scans, was confirmed by transforaminal probing and discography. Patients underwent TELDF at the spinal segment at which the predominant presenting symptoms were reproduced. Those that required treatment at an additional segment were excluded. Outcomes were assessed by postal questionnaire with failures being examined by the independent authors using the Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Prolo Activity Score. Cohort integrity was 69%. 79 patients were available for evaluation after removal of the deceased (12), untraceable (17) and decliners (6) from the cohort. VAP scores improved from a pre-operative mean of 7.3 to 2.4 at year 10. The ODI improved from a mean of 58.5 at baseline to 17.5 at year 10. 72% of reviewed patients fulfilled the definition of an "Excellent" or "Good Clinical Impact" at review using the Spinal Foundation Outcome Score. Based on the Prolo scale, 61 patients (77%) were able

  2. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...... cohorts: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Prepregnancy BMI was classified as underweight (BMI BMI 18.5-22.9), upper normal weight (BMI 23.0-24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9), and obese (BMI ≥30). CP diagnoses were obtained from...... the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  3. The pay-offs of maternal care increase as offspring develop, favouring extended provisioning in an egg-feeding frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Moore, M P; Martin, R A; Richards-Zawacki, C L; Sprehn, C G

    2016-10-01

    Offspring quantity and quality are components of parental fitness that cannot be maximized simultaneously. When the benefits of investing in offspring quality decline, parents are expected to shift investment towards offspring quantity (other reproductive opportunities). Even when mothers retain complete control of resource allocation, offspring control whether to allocate investment to growth or development towards independence, and this shared control may generate parent-offspring conflict over the duration of care. We examined these predictions by, in a captive colony, experimentally removing tadpoles of the strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) from the mothers that provision them with trophic eggs throughout development. Tadpoles removed from their mothers were no less likely to survive to nutritional independence (i.e. through metamorphosis) than were those that remained with their mothers, but these offspring were smaller at metamorphosis and were less likely to survive to reach adult size, even though they were fed ad libitum. Tadpoles that remained with their mothers developed more slowly than those not receiving care, a pattern that might suggest that offspring extracted more care than was in mothers' best interests. However, the fitness returns of providing care increased with offspring development, suggesting that mothers would be best off continuing care until tadpoles initiated metamorphosis. Although the benefits of parental investment in offspring quality are often thought to asymptote at high levels, driving parent-offspring conflict over weaning, this assumption may not hold over natural ranges of investment, with selection on both parents and offspring favouring extended durations of parental care. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Sperm competition and offspring viability at hybridization in Australian tree frogs, Litoria peronii and L. tyleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, C D H; Wapstra, E; Olsson, M

    2010-02-01

    Hybridization between closely related species often leads to reduced viability or fertility of offspring. Complete failure of hybrid offspring (post-zygotic hybrid incompatibilities) may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of reproductive barriers between closely related species. We show elsewhere that in Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii, males more closely related to a female sire more offspring in sperm competition with a less related rival male. Observations of rare 'phenotypic intermediate' males between L. peronii and the closely related L. tyleri made us suggest that these relatedness effects on siring success may be because of selection arising from risks of costly hybridization between the two species. Here, we test this hypothesis in an extensive sperm competition experiment, which shows that there is no effect of species identity on probability of fertilization in sperm competition trials controlling for sperm concentration and sperm viability. Instead, there was a close agreement between a male's siring success in isolation with a female and his siring success with the same female in competition with a rival male regardless of species identity. Offspring viability and survival, however, were strongly influenced by species identity. Over a 14-day period, hybrid offspring suffered increasing mortality and developed more malformations and an obvious inability to swim and right themselves, leading to compromised probability of survival. Thus, hybridization in these sympatric tree frogs does not compromise fertilization but has a strong impact on offspring viability and opportunity for reinforcement selection on mate choice for conspecific partners.

  5. Neurofunctional evaluation of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance.

  6. Neurofunctional Evaluation of Young Male Offspring of Rat Dams with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascio Lopes, Carla; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Mazzola, Jacqueline; Camano, Luiz; Mattar, Rosiane

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance. PMID:22363880

  7. A Maternal Low-Fiber Diet Predisposes Offspring to Improved Metabolic Phenotypes in Adulthood in an Herbivorous Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Wang, De-Hua

    The maternal or paternal dietary composition can have important effects on various aspects of their offspring's physiology. Studies from animal models and humans showed that a maternal high-fiber diet protected offspring against fat accumulation. However, little is known about how a maternal low-fiber diet modifies the metabolism of offspring in herbivorous rodents. We hypothesized that a maternal low-fiber diet would confer long-lasting beneficial effects on offspring metabolic phenotypes in herbivorous Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Female voles were fed either a control (12.4% fiber) or a low-fiber (3.5% fiber) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation, and all offspring were fed the control diet after weaning till 14 wk old. Offspring were sampled from each litter at 18 d and 14 wk of age. Another subset of adult offspring at 15 wk of age was fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk. We found that there was no difference in litter size, litter mass, or pup mass before weaning between the two maternal diet groups. Offspring from the maternal low-fiber diet increased energy intake, body mass, and lean mass; suppressed fat accumulation; and improved glucose tolerance compared with those from the control diet. Moreover, the maternal low-fiber diet alleviated high-fat diet-induced obesity in the adult offspring. Serum leptin concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in brown adipose tissue of offspring were not affected by a maternal low-fiber diet. We demonstrate that herbivorous females fed a low-fiber diet during pregnancy and lactation may predispose their offspring to accelerated growth of lean tissue, which may increase the opportunity for survival and reproduction in offspring.

  8. Physical exercise during pregnancy improves object recognition memory in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A M; Bucci, D J

    2014-01-03

    Exercising during pregnancy has been shown to improve spatial learning and short-term memory, as well as increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and hippocampal cell survival in juvenile offspring. However, it remains unknown if these effects endure into adulthood. In addition, few studies have considered how maternal exercise can impact cognitive functions that do not rely on the hippocampus. To address these issues, the present study tested the effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on object recognition memory, which relies on the perirhinal cortex (PER), in adult offspring. Pregnant rats were given access to a running wheel throughout gestation and the adult male offspring were subsequently tested in an object recognition memory task at three different time points, each spaced 2-weeks apart, beginning at 60 days of age. At each time point, offspring from exercising mothers were able to successfully discriminate between novel and familiar objects in that they spent more time exploring the novel object than the familiar object. The offspring of non-exercising mothers were not able to successfully discriminate between objects and spent an equal amount of time with both objects. A subset of rats was euthanized 1h after the final object recognition test to assess c-FOS expression in the PER. The offspring of exercising mothers had more c-FOS expression in the PER than the offspring of non-exercising mothers. By comparison, c-FOS levels in the adjacent auditory cortex did not differ between groups. These results indicate that maternal exercise during pregnancy can improve object recognition memory in adult male offspring and increase c-FOS expression in the PER; suggesting that exercise during the gestational period may enhance brain function of the offspring. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, and offspring growth through 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Yeyi; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Mendola, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    pregnancy in relation to offspring growth through age 7 years among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes. Methods: In a prospective study of 918 mother-singleton child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort, maternal dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire...

  10. Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Clinical Trial of Anti-T-Lymphocyte Globulin to Assess Impact on Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease-Free Survival in Patients Undergoing HLA-Matched Unrelated Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiffer, Robert J; Kim, Haesook T; McGuirk, Joseph; Horwitz, Mitchell E; Johnston, Laura; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Rybka, Witold; Artz, Andrew; Porter, David L; Shea, Thomas C; Boyer, Michael W; Maziarz, Richard T; Shaughnessy, Paul J; Gergis, Usama; Safah, Hana; Reshef, Ran; DiPersio, John F; Stiff, Patrick J; Vusirikala, Madhuri; Szer, Jeff; Holter, Jennifer; Levine, James D; Martin, Paul J; Pidala, Joseph A; Lewis, Ian D; Ho, Vincent T; Alyea, Edwin P; Ritz, Jerome; Glavin, Frank; Westervelt, Peter; Jagasia, Madan H; Chen, Yi-Bin

    2017-10-17

    Purpose Several open-label randomized studies have suggested that in vivo T-cell depletion with anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG; formerly antithymocyte globulin-Fresenius) reduces chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) without compromising survival. We report a prospective, double-blind phase III trial to investigate the effect of ATLG (Neovii Biotech, Lexington, MA) on cGVHD-free survival. Patients and Methods Two hundred fifty-four patients 18 to 65 years of age with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who underwent myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) were randomly assigned one to one to placebo (n =128 placebo) or ATLG (n = 126) treatment at 27 sites. Patients received either ATLG or placebo 20 mg/kg per day on days -3, -2, -1 in addition to tacrolimus and methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis. The primary study end point was moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Results Despite a reduction in grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD (23% v 40%; P = .004) and moderate-severe cGVHD (12% v 33%; P < .001) in ATLG recipients, no difference in moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival between ATLG and placebo was found (2-year estimate: 48% v 44%, respectively; P = .47). Both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were lower with ATLG (2-year estimate: 47% v 65% [ P = .04] and 59% v 74% [ P = .034], respectively). Multivariable analysis confirmed that ATLG was associated with inferior PFS (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.28; P = .026) and OS (hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.71; P = .01). Conclusion In this prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of ATLG in unrelated myeloablative HCT, the incorporation of ATLG did not improve moderate-severe cGVHD-free survival. Moderate-severe cGVHD was significantly lower with ATLG, but PFS and OS also were lower. Additional analyses are needed to understand the appropriate role for ATLG in HCT.

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts adult offspring cardiovascular risk factors - evidence from a community-based large birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Mamun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring obesity. However, little is known about whether maternal smoking in pregnancy predicts other offspring cardiovascular risk factors including waist circumference (WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, pulse rate (PR, systolic (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. METHODS: We studied a sub-sample of 2038 (50% males young adults who were born in Brisbane, Australia to investigate the prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with young adult cardiovascular risk factors. We compared offspring mean BMI, WC, WHR, SBP, DBP and PR and the risk of being overweight and obese at 21 years by three mutually exclusive categories of maternal smoking status defined as never smoked, smoked before and/or after pregnancy but not in pregnancy or smoked during pregnancy and other times. RESULTS: Offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy had greater mean BMI, WC, WHR and PR and they were at greater risk of being obese at 21 years compared to offspring of those mothers who never smoked. The mean of these risk factors among those adult offspring whose mothers stopped smoking during pregnancy, but who then smoked at other times in the child's life, were similar to those mothers who never smoked. These results were independent of a range of potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest a prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity as well as PR in adulthood, and reinforce the need to persuade pregnant women not to smoke.

  12. Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts adult offspring cardiovascular risk factors - evidence from a community-based large birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Abdullah A; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake M

    2012-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring obesity. However, little is known about whether maternal smoking in pregnancy predicts other offspring cardiovascular risk factors including waist circumference (WC), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), pulse rate (PR), systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). We studied a sub-sample of 2038 (50% males) young adults who were born in Brisbane, Australia to investigate the prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with young adult cardiovascular risk factors. We compared offspring mean BMI, WC, WHR, SBP, DBP and PR and the risk of being overweight and obese at 21 years by three mutually exclusive categories of maternal smoking status defined as never smoked, smoked before and/or after pregnancy but not in pregnancy or smoked during pregnancy and other times. Offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy had greater mean BMI, WC, WHR and PR and they were at greater risk of being obese at 21 years compared to offspring of those mothers who never smoked. The mean of these risk factors among those adult offspring whose mothers stopped smoking during pregnancy, but who then smoked at other times in the child's life, were similar to those mothers who never smoked. These results were independent of a range of potential confounding factors. The findings of this study suggest a prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity as well as PR in adulthood, and reinforce the need to persuade pregnant women not to smoke.

  13. Maternal hypothyroidism may be associated with CHD in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Michael J; Thomas, Daina S; Hornberger, Lisa K; Hamilton, Robert M; Midodzi, William K; Vohra, Sunita

    2015-10-01

    This study tested whether mothers with maternal hypothyroidism have increased odds of CHD in their offspring, and examined the relationship between CHD, maternal thyroid function, and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk for foetal demise and prematurity and can have a negative impact on neurodevelopment. Prior studies have postulated a relationship between maternal thyroid function, CHD, and maternal nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted over a 17-month period to obtain a history of maternal thyroid status and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Paediatric echocardiograms were evaluated for CHD by a blinded paediatric cardiologist. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between CHD and maternal hypothyroidism. Of the 998 maternal-child pairs, 10% (98/998) of the mothers reported a history of prenatal hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of CHD in the study sample was 63% (630/998). Mothers with a history of hypothyroidism were significantly more likely to have offspring with CHD compared with mothers without a history of hypothyroidism (72 versus 62%; p=0.04). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CHD in offspring associated with reported maternal hypothyroidism was 1.68 (1.02-2.78). This study suggests that maternal hypothyroidism is a risk factor for the development of CHD. Further prospective investigations are necessary to confirm this association and delineate pathogenic mechanisms.

  14. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S

    1996-01-01

    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  15. Increased pupil dilation to angry faces predicts interpersonal stress generation in offspring of depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, Cope; Burkhouse, Katie L; Siegle, Greg; Gibb, Brandon E

    2017-08-01

    Interpersonal stress generation is one mechanism hypothesized to increase risk for the intergenerational transmission of depression. Although there is some evidence of stress generation in offspring of depressed mothers, specific predictors of stress generation in these youth remain unknown. The goal of this study was to examine a peripheral measure of cognitive-affective reactivity (i.e. pupil dilation) to emotional interpersonal stimuli as a predictor of stress generation in offspring of depressed mothers. The study included 129 mothers and their offspring (ages 8-15) recruited from the community who participated at two time points separated by 6 months. Youth's average pupil dilation to emotional faces (angry, happy, sad) as well as maternal lifetime history of major depressive disorder were assessed at baseline. In addition, both time points included assessments of youth's levels of self-generated (dependent) and independent episodic life stress in the preceding 6 months. Youth's pupil dilation to angry, but not sad or happy, faces predicted prospective increases in dependent interpersonal stress across the follow-up. This effect was only observed in offspring of depressed mothers and was not seen in offspring of never-depressed mothers. This study highlights a potential risk factor (heightened reactivity to facial displays of anger) that may identify which offspring of depressed mothers are at greatest risk for interpersonal stress generation. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Latent profiles of nonresidential father engagement six years after divorce predict long-term offspring outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined profiles of nonresidential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) 6 to 8 years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, 9 years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of nonresidential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed 9 years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes 9 years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother's remarriage, mother's income, and gender, age, and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems 9 years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed.

  17. Attachment and temperament profiles among the offspring of a parent with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, S; Horrocks, J; Grof, P; Keown-Stoneman, C; Duffy, A

    2013-09-05

    Attachment is associated both with the risk of developing a mood disorder and temperamental profile. Relatively little is known about these associations in children of a parent with bipolar disorder (BD). The present study is a preliminary analysis of the association between attachment, temperament and psychopathology among high-risk offspring. As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study, offspring from families with one parent with BD (HR) and offspring from families with unaffected parents (C) were clinically assessed using KSADS-PL format interviews annually. Validated self-report measures of perceived attachment and temperament were completed. Perceived attachment did not differentiate HR from C offspring and did not predict psychopathology or mood disorder in particular. However, high emotionality significantly predicted the risk of psychopathology in HR offspring, where 1 standard deviation increase in emotionality significantly increased the hazard of psychopathology by a factor of 1.36 (p=0.0009) and mood disorder by a factor of 1.24 (p=0.02). Use of retrospective measures and low sample size for some models. There may be no gross abnormalities in attachment among HR compared to C offspring. It remains unclear if emotionality is a barometer of illness or a true risk factor in this population. More longitudinal research is needed to advance understanding of the influential pathways by which psychosocial risk factors impact the development of BD. This research has implications for targeted early interventions in HR youth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoking during teenage pregnancies: effects on behavioral problems in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; DeGenna, Natacha; Day, Nancy L

    2007-07-01

    We prospectively examined the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and child behavior in a birth cohort of 357 offspring of teenage mothers. PTE was defined as any exposure across pregnancy and, in separate analyses, exposure within each trimester. Outcomes included measures of behavior problems, activity, and attention. On average, the children were 6.4 years of age, 48% were females, and 69% were Black. Data on maternal tobacco and other substance use were collected prenatally and postnatally: 46% of the mothers smoked in the first trimester and 58% smoked 6 years later. Child urinary cotinine measured exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Stepwise multiple regressions were run. PTE predicted significantly increased offspring activity; impulsivity; and aggression, externalizing, and total behavior problems in step 1. PTE remained a significant predictor of increased activity when maternal psychological characteristics, home environment, and ETS were added. The results were similar when PTE was examined by trimesters, although later pregnancy tobacco exposure predicted the most behavioral outcomes. In the final model, PTE (all three trimesters) and PTE (second trimester) were significant predictors of increased activity and attention problems, respectively. Other predictors of child behavior included maternal anxiety, depression, hostility, and home environment. ETS was not a significant predictor of child behavior when PTE was considered. Smoking during pregnancy among adolescents is a significant predictor of increased activity and attention problems in their offspring after controlling for covariates in the prenatal and current environments. Smoking cessation interventions are recommended for this population to avoid the effects of PTE on the offspring of pregnant adolescents. This is particularly important because these mothers will likely become pregnant again and many will increase their level of tobacco use as they mature.

  19. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Hollegaard

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved through the ability of fetal genes to increase maternal blood pressure as this enhances general nutrient supply. However, such mechanisms for inducing hypertension in pregnancy would need to incur sufficient offspring health benefits to compensate for the obvious risks for maternal and fetal health towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show that offspring exposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH in trimester 1 had significantly reduced overall later-life disease risks, but increased risks when PIH exposure started or developed as preeclampsia in later trimesters. Similar patterns were found for first-year mortality. These results suggest that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health.

  20. Stressed mothers - troubled offspring: a study of behavioural maternal effects in farmed Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, M S; Faerevik, G; Kittilsen, S; McCormick, M I; Damsgård, B; Braithwaite, V A; Braastad, B O; Bakken, M

    2011-09-01

    Mature female Atlantic salmon Salmo salar were given intraperitoneal cortisol implants 1 week prior to stripping to examine the influence of simulated maternal stress on offspring boldness and social dominance. Behavioural tests originally designed to investigate stress responsiveness and coping styles in salmonids (i.e. feeding in isolation, dominance tests and acute confinement) were carried out on the offspring 1·5 years after hatching. In the feeding test, there were no differences between the two treatment groups in total feeding score or number of pellets eaten, but offspring from the cortisol-implanted females made more unsuccessful feeding attempts than offspring from control females. In dominance tests, there was no difference between controls and cortisol-treated fish regarding propensity to become socially dominant. A higher proportion of individuals with bite marks, however, was observed in the cortisol group when compared to controls. Cortisol-treated offspring that gained dominant rank in the dominance tests performed more aggressive acts after stable dominance-subordinate relationships were established compared to control winners. During acute confinement stress, offspring from cortisol-implanted females showed a reduction in the proportion of time they were moving compared to the controls. These results indicate that the maternal endocrine state at spawning affects several aspects of progeny behaviour potentially related to subsequent success and survival in farmed S. salar. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Definitive surgery and intraoperative photodynamic therapy: a prospective study of local control and survival for patients with pleural dissemination of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Charles B; Cengel, Keith A

    2014-02-01

    Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pleural dissemination have very limited survivals often of just 6-9 months. Prior reports of aggressive surgical resection of pleural metastases have shown no consistent improvements in overall survival and very high rates of local recurrences. Based on this and the generally very diffuse pleural dissemination seen in patients, chemotherapy and palliative interventions are standard of care. By attempting to sterile microscopic residual disease after surgical resection, intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) could improve local pleural control and overall survival compared with surgery alone for patients with NSCLC with pleural metastasis. Prior attempts to demonstrate an improvement in clinical outcomes with PDT as an intraoperative adjuvant combined with definitive surgery to treat pleural malignancies have not been successful, perhaps due, in part, to limited ability to perform real-time dosimetry and ensure adequate and even light distribution throughout the chest cavity. A stratified phase II trial assessed the efficacy of definitive surgery and intraoperative PDT with real-time dosimetry in patients with NSCLC with pleural dissemination demonstrated prolonged local control and a higher than expected 21.7-month median survival from the time of surgery and PDT among 22 enrolled patients. This is the first ever report describing optimal methods, techniques, and dosimetry that could be used to safely and reproducibly deliver intraoperative PDT to the chest cavity as part of multimodality therapy for NSCLC with pleural metastasis.

  2. Pneumonia, Intake Problems, and Survival Among Nursing Home Residents With Variable Stages of Dementia in the Netherlands: Results From a Prospective Observational Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.A.; Smalbrugge, M.; Gageldonk-Lafeber, A.B. van; Galindo-Garre, F.; Schipper, M.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Steen, J.T. van der

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We explored how pneumonia and intake problems affect survival in nursing home residents in variable stages of dementia. METHODS: In a longitudinal observational study (372 residents) with up to 3.5 years of follow-up, we examined relationships between dementia severity, the development

  3. Pre-diagnostic meat and fibre intakes in relation to colorectal cancer survival in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Heather A.; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Skeie, Guri; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krassimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Åsli, Lene Angell; Jakszyn, Paula; Ramón Quirós, J.; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jirström, Karin; Ericson, Ulrika; Johansson, Ingegerd; Gylling, Björn; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Riboli, Elio

    Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with

  4. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2010-01-01

    -to-offspring and father-to-offspring recurrence of clefts in these two populations. It is likely that fetal genes make the major genetic contribution to clefting risk in these populations, but we cannot rule out the possibility that maternal genes can affect risk through interactions with specific teratogens or fetal...

  5. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Elise Bondo; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2015-01-01

    .01-1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively...... associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future...

  6. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT following chemoradiation of uterine cervix cancer provides powerful prognostic stratification independent of HPV status: a prospective cohort of 105 women with mature survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva, Shankar; Hicks, Rodney J.; Callahan, Jason [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia); Deb, Siddhartha [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Pathology, East Melbourne (Australia); Young, Richard J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Molecular Therapeutics and Biomarkers Laboratory, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, East Melbourne (Australia); Mileshkin, Linda [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Cancer Medicine, East Melbourne (Australia); Rischin, Danny [University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Cancer Medicine, East Melbourne (Australia); Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    To report 5-year outcomes of a prospective registry study investigating posttherapy FDG PET/CT in women with locally advanced cervical cancer. A secondary analysis assessing the prognostic significance of HPV infection was performed. Patients underwent definitive chemoradiation followed by a single FDG PET/CT scan for response assessment. A complete metabolic response (CMR) was defined as no evidence of FDG-avid disease. Patients were dichotomized according to HPV infection status into a 'higher-risk' group and a 'lower-risk' group, with the higher-risk group comprising those with alpha-7 strain HPV (subtypes 18, 39 and 45) and those who were HPV-negative and the lower-risk group comprising those with alpha-9 strain HPV (subtypes 16, 31, 33, 52 and 58) and those with mixed strains. Survival outcomes, patterns of failure and salvage therapy outcomes were investigated for their association with metabolic response and HPV status. In 105 patients the median prospective follow-up was 5.2 years. The 5-year cancer-specific, overall and progression-free survival rates in patients with a CMR were 97 %, 93 % and 86 %, respectively. In patients without a CMR, the corresponding 5-year survival rates were 36 %, 22 % and 0 % respectively (p < 0.01). PET response was associated with patterns of failure (p < 0.01), with the 5-year freedom from local, nodal and distant failure in patients with a CMR being 94 %, 90 % and 94 %, respectively. Of 16 patients who underwent salvage therapy, 12 had disease detected on the surveillance PET scan, and 8 achieved a post-salvage CMR of whom all were alive at a median of 4.9 years. DNA adequate for HPV analysis was extracted in 68 patients. The likelihood of a PET metabolic response was not influenced by HPV infection status, with 71 % and 75 % of higher-risk and lower-risk patients, respectively, achieving CMR (p = 0.83). Higher-risk patients had a poorer OS (HR 2.6, range 1.0 - 6.6, p = 0.05) in univariable analysis but

  7. Assessment of Attention Deficits in Adolescent Offspring Exposed to Maternal Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and attention deficits in the offspring. Research design and methods: Adolescent offspring of a prospectively followed cohort of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 269...... differences between adolescents exposed to maternal diabetes and unexposed controls were not found in either single scores on Conners Continuous Performance Test or on any of the five attention factors identified. Conclusions: Exposure to maternal type 1 diabetes did not seem to increase the risk of attention...... deficits in the adolescent offspring. However, a higher self-reported use of ADHD medication in the exposed group could suggest a difference in attention not revealed by the applied test....

  8. Assessment of Attention Deficits in Adolescent Offspring Exposed to Maternal Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the potential association between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and attention deficits in the offspring. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adolescent offspring of a prospectively followed cohort of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 269...... differences between adolescents exposed to maternal diabetes and unexposed controls were not found in either single scores on Conners Continuous Performance Test or on any of the five attention factors identified. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to maternal type 1 diabetes did not seem to increase the risk of attention...... deficits in the adolescent offspring. However, a higher self-reported use of ADHD medication in the exposed group could suggest a difference in attention not revealed by the applied test....

  9. Prenatal mercury exposure and offspring behaviour in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Jean; Gregory, Steven; Emond, Alan; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Hibbeln, Joseph; Taylor, Caroline M

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable discussion over the possible harm caused by fetal exposure to mercury, but evidence of such harm is contradictory at levels commonly found in populations with moderate intakes of fish. Further information is needed to inform debate and clarify policy recommendations. Data were collected prospectively for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Whole blood taken in the first half of pregnancy was assayed for mercury. The outcomes were offspring behavioural assessments collected using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at seven time points between ages 4 and 16-17 years; five were completed by the mother and two by the teacher. Socioeconomic and biological confounders were first taken into account; further analyses added maternal blood selenium. Separate analyses compared the relationships between prenatal mercury levels and behaviour traits treated as continuous measures in women who ate fish with those who ate no fish in order to determine whether the relationships differed; the hypothesis was that fish consumption had benefits on the brain and masked any mercury effects. In order to prevent Type II errors, the P value for significance was set at 0.10. Prenatal mercury measurements and offspring behaviour results were available for between 2776 (at 47 months) to 1599 mother-child pairs (at 16-17 years). Even given a P value of 0.10, the number of significant results was no greater than expected apart from the relationships with peer problems at 4, 6 and 10-11 years where the relationships with prenatal mercury were negative (i.e. the greater the level of mercury the fewer the problems the child had with his/her peers). There were no significant differences between the associations with mercury found among the offspring of women who ate fish in pregnancy and those who did not, nor did adjustment for selenium make a difference. There were no adverse effects of maternal prenatal mercury levels on the behaviour of

  10. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kölliker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  11. Relation between hypermetabolism, cachexia, and survival in cancer patients: a prospective study in 390 cancer patients before initiation of anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Clara; Jouinot, Anne; Durand, Jean-Philippe; Neveux, Nathalie; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Huillard, Olivier; Alexandre, Jérôme; Cynober, Luc; Goldwasser, François

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cachexia is a major cause of death in cancer patients. The role of hypermetabolism in cancer cachexia remains unclear.Objective: We studied the relation between resting energy expenditure (REE), the estimated energy balance, clinical and biological markers of cachexia, and survival.Design: REE was measured with the use of indirect calorimetry in cancer patients before the initiation of anticancer therapies. Hypermetabolic, normometabolic, and hypometabolic patients were identified with the use of Boothby's standard. Weight loss, performance status (PS), C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, the nutritional risk index, daily energy intake, energy balance (equal to daily energy intakes minus the REE), and survival were recorded.Results: Of 390 enrolled patients, 49% of subjects were hypermetabolic, 30% of subjects were normometabolic, and 21% of subjects were hypometabolic. Mean daily energy intakes did not differ significantly between the 3 groups. Hypermetabolic patients, compared with normometabolic patients, were more likely to have a negative energy balance [45% compared with 32%, respectively; OR: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.91); P = 0.024], weight loss >5% [48% compared with 34%, respectively; OR: 1.83 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.04); P = 0.013], PS ≥2 [40% compared with 29%, respectively; OR: 1.70 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.88); P = 0.038], and CRP concentrations ≥10 mg/L [52% compared with 33%, respectively; OR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.33, 3.66); P = 0.001]. In metastatic patients, compared with normometabolism, hypermetabolism was associated with a reduced median survival [14.6 compared with 21.4 mo, respectively; OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.17); P = 0.044].Conclusions: Hypermetabolism is correlated with clinical and biological markers of cancer cachexia and is associated with a shorter survival in metastatic cancer patients. The development of therapeutic strategies that aim to blunt hypermetabolism appears warranted. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as

  12. Childhood anxiety: an early predictor of mood disorders in offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Horrocks, Julie; Doucette, Sarah; Keown-Stoneman, Charles; McCloskey, Shannon; Grof, Paul

    2013-09-05

    Anxiety disorders are common among the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated the nature of the association between anxiety disorders and mood disorders in a prospectively studied high-risk cohort. High-risk offspring were identified from families in which one parent had confirmed BD based on SADS-L interviews and best estimate diagnostic procedures. All agreeable offspring aged 8-25 years were enrolled in a longitudinal study involving repeated KSADS-PL format clinical assessments. Control (C) offspring from families in which neither parent met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder were similarly assessed. All DSM-IV diagnoses in the offspring were confirmed on blind consensus review. Cumulative incidence and adjusted Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to calculate the risk of anxiety disorders and the predictive association with mood disorders. The cumulative incidence of anxiety disorders was higher (23.40% vs. 10.42%; HR=2.136; p=.0382) and occurred earlier (9.79 vs. 14.84 years; p=.0125) in high-risk compared to C offspring. In high-risk offspring generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) followed by social phobia were the most incident anxiety subtypes; while high emotionality (HR 1.111; p=.0096) and shyness (HR 1.144; p=.0053) increased the risk of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders increased the adjusted risk of mood disorders (HR 2.166; p=.0004), on average 8.49 years later (SD 5.97). The cumulative incidence of BD is relatively low, as the cohort is still in the period of risk. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal surveillance of symptomatic high-risk children and suggest anxiety disorders are an important early intervention target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of parental history of diabetes and offspring birthweight on offspring glucose metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background. Links are well established between both family history of diabetes and reduced birthweight and increased risk of diabetes in adulthood. Objectives. 1) To investigate the influence of parental history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on offspring birthweight and adult offspring glucose...... with a spouse without known diabetes. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance tests and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests (FSIGT) in non-diabetic offspring. Birthweight and length obtained from birth records. Results. Among 122 offspring with maternal history of T2DM, 14.8% had diabetes compared...... 9.60 [10(-5) (min*pmol/L)(-1) ] (8.23-10.97) vs. 11.79 (10.41-13.18), p=0.02 - in adulthood compared to offspring with birthweights in the upper tertile. Conclusions. Offspring with a family history of maternal T2DM have higher birthweights than those with paternal T2DM. Low birthweight associates...

  14. EQ-5D utility, response and drug survival in rheumatoid arthritis patients on biologic monotherapy: A prospective observational study of patients registered in the south Swedish SSATG registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Schjødt Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Biologic agents have dramatically changed treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To date only scarce head-to-head data exist especially when the biological therapies are given as monotherapy without concomitant disease modifying drugs (DMARDs. Thus the objective of the current study is to evaluate treatment response of all available biological therapies with special focus on utility (EQ-5D-3L and drug survival of biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs prescribed as monotherapy in RA patients in southern Sweden.All RA patients registered in a regional database as initiating bDMARD as monotherapy, i.e. without concomitant conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs, from 1st of January 2006 through 31st of December 2012, were included. Patients were followed from initiation of the first dose of bDMARD monotherapy treatment until withdrawal from treatment, loss of follow-up or 31st of December 2012. Descriptive statistics for utility (EQ-5D-3L, effectiveness, and drug survival of bDMARD monotherapy were calculated.During the study period, a total of 554 patients were registered in SSATG as initiating bDMARD monotherapy. Most of the patients were women (81%, with a mean age of 57 years. The average disease duration was more than 12 years, and on average the patients had previously been treated with approximately four different csDMARDs. Fifty-five percent of the patients were initiating their first bDMARD, 26% their second, and 19% their third or more. At baseline the average EQ-5D-3L was 0.34. Most patients had moderate to high disease activity, with a mean DAS28 of 5.0, and were substantially disabled, with an average HAQ score of 1.4. At 6 months´ follow-up, the EQ-5D-3L in patients still on the biologic drug had increased by mean 0.23 (SD 0.4 with no differences between type of bDMARD (p = 0.49. The mean change in EQ-5D-3L ranged from 0.11 (rituximab and infliximab to 0.42 (tocilizumab. Although the changes were numerically different, no distinct pattern favored

  15. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Frank J J; Ofec, Ronen; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Ten Bruggenkate, Christiaan M

    2015-10-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients. Patients who had dental implant surgery in the period between November 1997 and June 2001, with a follow-up of at least 10 years, were investigated for clinical and radiological examination. Among the 506 inserted dental implants in 250 patients, 10-year data regarding the outcome of implants were available for 374 dental implants in 177 patients. In the current study, peri-implantitis was defined as advanced bone loss (≧1.5 mm. postloading) in combination with bleeding on probing. At 10-year follow-up, only one implant was lost (0.3%) 2 months after implant surgery due to insufficient osseointegration. The average bone loss at 10 year postloading was 0.52 mm. Advanced bone loss at 10-year follow-up was present in 35 dental implants (9.8%). Seven percent of the observed dental implants showed bleeding on probing in combination with advanced bone loss and 4.2% when setting the threshold for advanced bone loss at 2.0 mm. Advanced bone loss without bleeding on probing was present in 2.8% of all implants. In this prospective study, the 10-year survival rate at implant and patient level was 99.7% and 99.4%, respectively. Peri-implantitis was present in 7% of the observed dental implants according to the above-mentioned definition of peri-implantitis. This study shows that SLA implants offer predictable long-term results as support in the treatment of fully and partially edentulous patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In fact, breeding time directly influences the offspring body mass and condition through variation in the egg mass. There is a trade-off between offspring mass and condition with offspring number, and breeding time influences both. Offspring hatched from the eggs of early (May–June) or mid (July–August) breeding periods ...

  17. A new wide-diameter bone-anchored hearing implant-prospective 1-year data on complications, implant stability, and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Søren; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a new wide bone-anchored hearing implant considering initial stability, stability over time, implant loss, and skin reaction. STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive, prospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty adult patients were enrolled. All......, and 1 year after surgery. Skin and soft tissue reactions according to Holgers grading system. RESULTS: Implant stability quotient measurements revealed a significant increase in ISQ during the first 10 days after operation, and the ISQ values continued to rise throughout the 1-year observation period....... No implants were lost. Skin and soft tissue reactions were rare and minor, as no reaction was seen in 93% of the follow-up examinations and no grade 4 reactions occurred. CONCLUSION: The new wide implant showed good stability at surgery. Osseointegration was fast, and implant stability increased throughout...

  18. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0......–16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental...... information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival...

  19. Risk of psychatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Munk Laursen, Thomas; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. METHODS:We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0......-16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental...... information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival...

  20. Predicted vitamin D status during pregnancy in relation to offspring forearm fractures in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje B.; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on characteris......In a prospective cohort study, the association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures during childhood and adolescence was analysed in 30 132 mother and child pairs recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data...... on characteristics, dietary factors and lifestyle factors were collected on several occasions during pregnancy. We analysed the association between predicted vitamin D status, based on a subsample with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) biomarker measurements (n 1497) from gestation week 25, and first-time forearm...... and supplementary vitamin D intake, tanning bed use and outdoor physical activity) in pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. Likewise, measured 25(OH)D, tanning bed use and dietary vitamin D intake were not associated with offspring forearm fractures. In mid-pregnancy, 91 % of the women reported intake...

  1. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile and offspring's lipids and glycaemic control at age 5-6 years: The ABCD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Noekie; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Gademan, Maaike G J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2017-12-01

    Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile might influence offspring's lipids and glycaemic control, through an increased offspring's fat percentage. This explorative study investigates whether maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipids and glycaemic control independently of offspring's fat percentage and if these associations are mediated by offspring's fat percentage. Possible sex differences in these associations are also examined. 1133 mother-child pairs of the prospective ABCD-study were included. Maternal non-fasting lipids were collected in early pregnancy: triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and free fatty acids (FFA). Fasting triglycerides, TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose and C-peptide were assessed in offspring aged 5-6 years and HOMA2-IR was calculated. After adjustment for covariates, strongest associations were found between maternal TC and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.141 (0.074-0.207); girls β(95%CI) = 0.268 (0.200; 0.336)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.114 (0.052; 0.176); girls β(95%CI) = 0.247 (0.181-0.312)), maternal ApoB and offspring's TC (boys β(95%CI) = 0.638 (0.311-0.965); girls β(95%CI) = 1.121 (0.766-1.475)) and LDL (boys β(95%CI) = 0.699 (0.393-1.005); girls β(95%CI) = 1.198 (0.868-1.529)), and maternal ApoA1 and offspring's HDL (only boys β(95%CI) = 0.221 (0.101-0.341)). No significant association was found between maternal lipids and offspring's glycaemic control, and offspring's fat percentage played no mediating role. Maternal early pregnancy lipid profile is associated with offspring's lipid profile in childhood, with overall stronger associations in girls. This study provides further evidence that lowering lipid levels during pregnancy might be beneficial for the long term health of the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  2. Maternal obesity and malnourishment exacerbate perinatal oxidative stress resulting in diabetogenic programming in F1 offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M I; Abdelkhalek, T M; Haiba, M M; Saleh, M M; Hanafi, M Y; Tawfik, S H; Kamel, M A

    2016-06-01

    The effect of in-utero environment on fetal health and survival is long-lasting, and this is known as the fetal origin hypothesis. The oxidative stress state during gestation could play a pivotal role in fetal programming and development of diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of intra-uterine obesity and malnutrition on oxidative stress markers in pancreatic and peripheral tissues of F1 offspring both prenatally and postnatally. Furthermore, the effect of postnatal diet on oxidative stress profile was evaluated. The results indicated that intra-uterine obesity and malnourishment significantly increased oxidative stress in F1 offspring. Moreover, the programming effect of obesity was more pronounced and protracted than malnutrition. The obesity-induced programming of offspring tissues was independent of high-caloric environment that the offspring endured; however, high-caloric diet potentiated its effect. In addition, pancreas and liver were the most affected tissues by fetal reprogramming both prenatally and postnatally. In conclusion, maternal obesity and malnutrition-induced oxidative stress could predispose offspring to insulin resistance and diabetes.

  3. Maternal Brain TNF-α Programs Innate Fear in the Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Bojana; Liu, Bingfang; Taki, Faten; Toth, Judit Gal; Toth, Miklos

    2017-12-18

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that not only coordinates local and systemic immune responses [1, 2] but also regulates neuronal functions. Most prominently, glia-derived TNF-α has been shown to regulate homeostatic synaptic scaling [3-6], but TNF-α-null mice exhibited no apparent cognitive or emotional abnormalities. Instead, we found a TNF-α-dependent intergenerational effect, as mothers with a deficit in TNF-α programmed their offspring to exhibit low innate fear. Cross-fostering and conditional knockout experiments indicated that a TNF-α deficit in the maternal brain, rather than in the hematopoietic system, and during gestation was responsible for the low-fear offspring phenotype. The level of innate fear governs the balance between exploration/foraging and avoidance of predators and is thus fundamentally important in adaptation, fitness, and survival [7]. Because maternal exercise and activity are known to reduce both brain TNF-α [8] and offspring innate fear [9], whereas maternal stress has been reported to increase brain TNF-α [10] and offspring fear and anxiety [11, 12], maternal brain TNF-α may report environmental conditions to promote offspring behavioral adaptation to their anticipated postnatal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,

  5. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  6. Response rate as a potential surrogate for survival and efficacy in patients treated with novel immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta-regression of randomised prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviello, Giandomenico; Andre, Fabrice; Venturini, Sergio; Pistilli, Barbara; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rosellini, Pietro; Generali, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    To assess the role of the tumour response rate (RR) after immune checkpoint inhibitors-based therapy as a potential surrogate end-point of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with solid tumours, we performed a trial-based meta-regression of randomised studies comparing different immune checkpoint inhibitors-based treatments. The systematic literature search included the electronic databases and the proceedings of oncologic meetings. Treatment effects on PFS and OS were expressed as hazard ratios (HRs); treatment effects on RR were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). A weighted regression analysis was performed on log-transformed treatment effect estimates to test the association between treatment effects on the surrogate outcome and treatment effects on the clinical outcome. Twenty-four trials, for a total of 11,894 patients, were included in the analysis. Using the complete set of data, the regression of either the log(HR) for PFS or the log(HR) for OS on the log(OR) for RR demonstrated weak associations (R2 = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.77; P = 0.001; and R2 = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.02-0.76; P = 0.01, respectively). The pre-planned analyses stratifying trials according to different type of disease and different mechanism of action of immune checkpoint inhibitors showed a very weak association of the RR with the OS for non-small cell lung cancer indicated and a modest association of the RR with the PFS for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 checkpoint inhibitors. The results of the trial-based meta-regression analysis indicated a weak correlation between RR and OS, supporting future investigations to assess the surrogacy of RR in the patient treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring obesity and metabolic and vascular traits in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Abigail; Tilling, Kate; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Sattar, Naveed; Brion, Marie-Jo; Benfield, Li; Ness, Andy; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Nelson, Scott M; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2010-06-15

    We sought to examine the association of gestational weight gain (GWG) and prepregnancy weight with offspring adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 5154 (for adiposity and blood pressure) and 3457 (for blood assays) mother-offspring pairs from a UK prospective pregnancy cohort were used. Random-effects multilevel models were used to assess incremental GWG (median and range of repeat weight measures per woman: 10 [1, 17]). Women who exceeded the 2009 Institute of Medicine-recommended GWG were more likely to have offspring with greater body mass index, waist, fat mass, leptin, systolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels. Children of women who gained less than the recommended amounts had lower levels of adiposity, but other cardiovascular risk factors tended to be similar in this group to those of offspring of women gaining recommended amounts. When examined in more detail, greater prepregnancy weight was associated with greater offspring adiposity and more adverse cardiovascular risk factors at age 9 years. GWG in early pregnancy (0 to 14 weeks) was positively associated with offspring adiposity across the entire distribution but strengthened in women gaining >500 g/wk. By contrast, between 14 and 36 weeks, GWG was only associated with offspring adiposity in women gaining >500 g/wk. GWG between 14 and 36 weeks was positively and linearly associated with adverse lipid and inflammatory profiles, with these associations largely mediated by the associations with offspring adiposity. Greater maternal prepregnancy weight and GWG up to 36 weeks of gestation are associated with greater offspring adiposity and adverse cardiovascular risk factors. Before any GWG recommendations are implemented, the balance of risks and benefits of attempts to control GWG for short- and long-term outcomes in mother and child should be ascertained.

  8. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and criminal offending among adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2011-12-01

    Although a number of previous studies have reported an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and externalising behaviour problems among offspring, it has been suggested that this relationship is spurious due to the failure of these studies to properly account for important confounding factors. The relationship between MSP and adult criminal offending was examined using data from 3766 members of the Providence, Rhode Island, cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on MSP and most potential confounders was collected prospectively throughout pregnancy. In 1999-2000 all offspring had reached 33 years of age and an adult criminal record check was performed. Because previous research has been criticised for not properly accounting for confounding influences, our primary aim was to determine whether the MSP-criminal offending relationship held after efficiently adjusting for a wide range of sociodemographic and family background characteristics using propensity score methods. The association between MSP and adult criminal offending remained after controlling for propensity scores. Offspring of mothers who smoked heavily during pregnancy (≥20 cigarettes per day) had the greatest odds of an adult arrest record (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.62). Findings also suggest that MSP may be an independent risk factor for adult criminal histories marked by multiple arrests. Lastly, our findings show that the impact of MSP operates similarly across both genders. Results from this study provide evidence of an association between heavy MSP and long-term criminal offending. Any causal association is likely to be weak to moderate in strength.

  9. Maternal iron deficiency and the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Beverly J; Schaefer, Catherine A; McKeague, Ian W; Susser, Ezra S; Brown, Alan S

    2008-10-01

    Iron is essential for brain development and functioning. Emerging evidence suggests that iron deficiency in early life leads to long-lasting neural and behavioral deficits in infants and children. Adopting a life course perspective, we examined the effects of early iron deficiency on the risk of schizophrenia in adulthood. To determine whether maternal iron deficiency, assessed by maternal hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy, increases the susceptibility to schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) among offspring. Data were drawn from a population-based cohort born from 1959 through 1967 and followed up for development of SSD from 1981 through 1997. Of 6872 offspring for whom maternal hemoglobin concentration was available, 57 had SSDs (0.8%) and 6815 did not (99.2%). Prospectively assayed, the mean value of maternal hemoglobin concentration was the primary exposure. Hemoglobin concentration was analyzed as a continuous and a categorical variable. A mean maternal hemoglobin concentration of 10.0 g/dL or less was associated with a nearly 4-fold statistically significant increased rate of SSDs (adjusted rate ratio, 3.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-9.81; P = .008) compared with a mean maternal hemoglobin concentration of 12.0 g/dL or higher, adjusting for maternal education and ethnicity. For every 1-g/dL increase in mean maternal hemoglobin concentration, a 27% decrease in the rate of SSDs was observed (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.96; P = .02). The findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may be a risk factor for SSDs among offspring. Given that this hypothesis offers the potential for reducing the risk for SSDs, further investigation in independent samples is warranted.

  10. The effect of parental rearing conditions on offspring life history in Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maung Liam

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The environmental conditions experienced by parents are increasingly recognized to impact the success of offspring. Little is known on the presence of such parental effects in Anopheles. If present, parental effects could influence mosquito breeding programmes, some malaria control measures and have epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods The presence of parental effects on offspring emergence time, size, survival, blood meal size and fecundity in laboratory reared An. stephensi were tested. Results Parental rearing conditions did not influence the time taken for offspring to emerge, or their size or survival as adults. However, parental effects were influential in determining the fecundity of daughters. Counter-intuitively, daughters of parents reared in low food conditions produced larger egg clutches than daughters of parents reared in high food conditions. Offspring reared in low food conditions took larger blood meals if their parents had also experienced a low food environment. Conclusion So far as we are aware, this is the first evidence of parental effects on progeny in Anopheles.

  11. Do the bullies survive? A five-year, three-wave prospective study of indicators of expulsion in working life among perpetrators of workplace bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLAMBEK, Mats; SKOGSTAD, Anders; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    In recent series of studies, we have shown that targets of workplace bullying are at risk of expulsion in working life, both from current employment (e.g. in terms of changing employer) and from working life itself (e.g. becoming unemployed). The most recent of these, Take It or Leave: A Five-Year Prospective Study of Workplace Bullying and Indicators of Expulsion in Working Life was recently published in Industrial Health, and the present short communication aims to follow up that paper, investigating the possible job “survival” of the perpetrators. A nationally representative sample was employed (n=1,613), and responses were gathered at three time points with a two-year and a five-year time-lag. Outcomes were intention to leave and sickness absence at T1, and sickness absence, change of employer, disability benefit recipiency and unemployment at T2 and T3. The results of regression analyses clearly indicate that the perpetrators’ occupational status is largely unchanged, and remains so over time, as opposed to earlier findings regarding the targets of bullying. PMID:26320732

  12. Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Glejsted Ingstrup

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine if distress as a combined measure of anxiety, depression, and stress of the mother during pregnancy was associated with offspring childhood overweight at age 7. Methods. We performed a cohort study using prospective data from 37,764 women and child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002. At a telephone interview at approximately 30 weeks gestation, the women reported whether they felt anxious, depressed, or stressed. The 95 percentile for body mass index in an international reference defined childhood overweight at any given age. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Results. The prevalence of overweight children at 7 years of age was 9.9%. Prenatal exposure to maternal distress during pregnancy was not associated with childhood overweight at 7 years of age (adjusted OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.96; 1.18. In analyses stratified on sex, a small tendency of overweight was seen in boys (OR 1.15 (0.99; 1.33, but not in girls (OR 0.98 (0.85; 1.13. Conclusions. Maternal distress during pregnancy appeared to have limited, if any, influence on the risk of overweight in offspring at 7 years of age.

  13. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  14. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Offspring Emotional and Behavioral Problems:Maternal and Paternal Mechanisms of Risk Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, J; Stevens, Gonneke; Jansen, P.; Ringoot, A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.; Hudziak, J.J.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined hostility and harsh discipline of both mothers and fathers as potential mechanisms explaining the association between a maternal maltreatment history and her offspring's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 6 were collected from a

  15. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  16. Early life triclocarban exposure during lactation affects neonate rat survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A; Lasley, Bill L; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Early Life Triclocarban Exposure During Lactation Affects Neonate Rat Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rebekah C. M.; Menn, Fu-Min; Healy, Laura; Fecteau, Kellie A.; Hu, Pan; Bae, Jiyoung; Gee, Nancy A.; Lasley, Bill L.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC), an antimicrobial used in bar soaps, affects endocrine function in vitro and in vivo. This study investigates whether TCC exposure during early life affects the trajectory of fetal and/or neonatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were provided control, 0.2% weight/weight (w/w), or 0.5% w/w TCC-supplemented chow through a series of 3 experiments that limited exposure to critical growth periods: gestation, gestation and lactation, or lactation only (cross-fostering) to determine the susceptible windows of exposure for developmental consequences. Reduced offspring survival occurred when offspring were exposed to TCC at concentrations of 0.2% w/w and 0.5% w/w during lactation, in which only 13% of offspring raised by 0.2% w/w TCC dams survived beyond weaning and no offspring raised by 0.5% w/w TCC dams survived to this period. In utero exposure status had no effect on survival, as all pups nursed by control dams survived regardless of their in utero exposure status. Microscopic evaluation of dam mammary tissue revealed involution to be a secondary outcome of TCC exposure rather than a primary effect of compound administration. The average concentration of TCC in the milk was almost 4 times that of the corresponding maternal serum levels. The results demonstrate that gestational TCC exposure does not affect the ability of dams to carry offspring to term but TCC exposure during lactation has adverse consequences on the survival of offspring although the mechanism of reduced survival is currently unknown. This information highlights the importance of evaluating the safety of TCC application in personal care products and the impacts during early life exposure. PMID:24803507

  18. Evaluation of a new endoscopic ultrasound-guided multi-fiducial delivery system: a prospective non-survival study in a live porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganov, Peter V; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Wagh, Mihir S

    2013-11-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an excellent tool for implanting fiducials for gastrointestinal malignancies, but a dedicated delivery system for EUS-guided fiducial placement is not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of a new dedicated EUS-guided multi-fiducial delivery system. This was a prospective live porcine study using prototype 22-G EUS needles preloaded with four fiducials. Primary outcomes were technical success and accuracy of fiducial placement. Secondary outcomes were ease of passage of delivery system, ease of deployment, EUS visualization of the needle, visual appearance of fiducials on EUS, fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT) scans, time taken for fiducial placement and adverse events. Outcomes were scored on a predetermined 5-point Likert scale (1 = best, 5 = worst). Fiducial deployment was successful in 43 out of 45 needles (95.6%). All 172 fiducials (43 needles, four fiducials each)were successfully deployed on target. Fiducial placement accuracy score was 1.30 ± 0.64. All needles passed with ease (score 1.0 ± 0.0). Ease of fiducial deployment score was 1.85 ± 1.02. Mean scores for EUS visualization of the needle and fiducial were 1.02 ± 0.15 and 2.10 ± 0.91, respectively. Fluoroscopic and CT visualization of fiducials was excellent. Time for placement of four fiducials was new EUS-guided multi-fiducial delivery system provided quick, easy, and accurate fiducial deployment without adverse events. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. Parental smoking during pregnancy and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at ages 17 and 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dior, Uri P; Lawrence, Gabriella M; Sitlani, Colleen; Enquobahrie, Daniel; Manor, Orly; Siscovick, David S; Friedlander, Yechiel; Hochner, Hagit

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association of maternal and/or paternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) factors at adolescence and early adulthood, taking into account socio-demographic, medical and lifestyle characteristics of parents and offspring, as well as offspring common genetic variation. We used a population-based cohort of all 17 003 births in Jerusalem during 1974-76, with available archival data on parental and birth characteristics. Measurements at age 17 were assessed at military induction examinations for 11 530 offspring. 1440 offspring from the original 1974-1976 birth cohort were sampled using a stratified sampling approach, and were interviewed and examined at age 32. Parental smoking during pregnancy (i.e. maternal, paternal and any parent) was primarily defined dichotomously (any number of cigarettes smoked daily by mother or father during pregnancy vs. non-smokers). Additionally, smoking was assessed by quantity of cigarettes smoked daily. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of parental smoking during pregnancy with various offspring CMR factors, after controlling for potential confounders and for genetic variation in candidate genes. Prevalence of exposure to parental smoking in-utero (i.e. smoking of any parent) was 53.2% and 48.4% among the 17 years old and 32 years old samples, respectively. At age 17, smoking of at least one parent during pregnancy was significantly associated with weight (B = 1.39), height (B = 0.59), BMI (B = 0.32) and pulse rate (B = -0.78) (p-values smoking, adjusted for covariates, was associated with 2.22 kg higher mean offspring weight, 0.95 cm higher mean offspring height, 0.57 kg/m(2) higher BMI, and 1.46 cm higher waist-circumference (p-values ≤ 0.02). Similar results, reflecting a dose response, were observed when maternal and paternal smokings were assessed by number of cigarettes smoked daily. This prospective study demonstrates a potential long

  20. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy Predicts Adult Offspring Cardiovascular Risk Factors – Evidence from a Community-Based Large Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, Abdullah A.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Williams, Gail M.; Najman, Jake M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring obesity. However, little is known about whether maternal smoking in pregnancy predicts other offspring cardiovascular risk factors including waist circumference (WC), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), pulse rate (PR), systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Methods We studied a sub-sample of 2038 (50% males) young adults who were born in Brisbane, Australia to investigate the prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with young adult cardiovascular risk factors. We compared offspring mean BMI, WC, WHR, SBP, DBP and PR and the risk of being overweight and obese at 21 years by three mutually exclusive categories of maternal smoking status defined as never smoked, smoked before and/or after pregnancy but not in pregnancy or smoked during pregnancy and other times. Results Offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy had greater mean BMI, WC, WHR and PR and they were at greater risk of being obese at 21 years compared to offspring of those mothers who never smoked. The mean of these risk factors among those adult offspring whose mothers stopped smoking during pregnancy, but who then smoked at other times in the child's life, were similar to those mothers who never smoked. These results were independent of a range of potential confounding factors. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest a prospective association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring obesity as well as PR in adulthood, and reinforce the need to persuade pregnant women not to smoke. PMID:22829913

  1. Findings from bipolar offspring studies: methodology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Anne; Doucette, Sarah; Lewitzka, Ute; Alda, Martin; Hajek, Tomas; Grof, Paul

    2011-08-01

    High-risk studies provide the opportunity to describe the early natural history of bipolar disorder (BD); however, findings have varied substantially. In this review, we compare different methods of ascertainment and assessment, and their impact on study findings. Through a literature search, we identified 11 high-risk studies meeting inclusion criteria for this review. Studies included were those that focused on lifetime psychopathology in the offspring as the main outcome and provided adequate information on the methods of family ascertainment, as well as on parent and offspring assessment. We compared and contrasted psychopathological outcomes in the offspring among the studies using different methods. High-risk studies that identified affected parents through their involvement in neurobiological research and confirmed diagnosis in the parent and offspring through best estimate procedures tended to report lower rates of co-morbidity in the proband parent, lower rates of psychopathology in the non-proband parent, lower rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and externalizing disorders, and older ages of onset of major mood disorders in the offspring compared with studies that identified affected parents through self-referral and confirmed diagnosis in the parent and offspring through structured research interviews. Studies that identified severely ill parents and used semi-structured assessments tended to have an intermediate position in terms of outcomes. This review indicates that different methods of family ascertainment and of assessment of parent and offspring impact the findings pertaining to lifetime psychopathology and clinical course of BD in high-risk studies. The implications of this finding for mapping the natural history of BD are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Dietary Intake Influences Adult Fertility and Offspring Fitness in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent Newman

    Full Text Available The burden of malnutrition, including both over- and undernutrition, is a major public health concern. Here we used a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity to analyze the impact of dietary intake on fertility and the phenotype of the next generation. Over an eight-week period, one group received 60 mg of food each day (60 mg arm, while another received 5 mg (5 mg arm. At the end of the diet, the body mass index of the 60 mg arm was 1.5 fold greater than the 5 mg arm. The intervention also had a marked impact on fertility; breeding success and egg production in the 60 mg arm were increased 2.1- and 6.2-fold compared to the 5 mg arm, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of eggs revealed that transcripts involved in metabolic biological processes differed according to dietary intake. The progeny from the differentially fed fish were more likely to survive when the parents had access to more food. An intergenerational crossover study revealed that while parental diet did not influence weight gain in the offspring, the progeny of well-fed parents had increased levels of physical activity when exposed again to high nutrient availability. We conclude that dietary intake has an important influence on fertility and the subsequent fitness of offspring, even prior to breeding.

  3. Prospective cohort clinical study assessing the 5-year survival and success of anterior maxillary zirconia-based crowns with customized zirconia copings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sami; Raigrodski, Ariel J; Zhang, Hai; Mancl, Lloyd A

    2017-02-01

    Studies evaluating anterior zirconia-based crowns are limited. The purpose of this prospective cohort clinical study was to assess the efficacy of zirconia-based anterior maxillary crowns with 0.3-mm customized copings at the cervical third and anatomical design elsewhere for up to 5 years of service. Eighteen participants who required an anterior maxillary crown (n=20) and who had signed a consent form approved by the University of Washington Health Sciences Center Human Subjects Division were enrolled. All preparations were standardized and prepared with an occlusal reduction of 1.5 to 2 mm and an axial reduction of 1 to 1.5 mm with 10 degrees of convergence angle. All finish lines were located on the sound tooth structure. Zirconia copings (Lava; 3M ESPE) were custom designed and milled to a 0.3-mm thickness at the cervical third and with selective thickness elsewhere to support the veneering porcelain. All restorations were luted with self-etching self-adhesive composite resin cement. Recall appointments were at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months, and annually thereafter for 5 years. Modified Ryge criteria were used to assess the clinical fracture measurements, esthetics, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, radiographic proximal recurrent caries, and periapical pathoses. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the number and rate of complications and self-reported satisfaction with the crowns. Twenty crowns with a mean follow-up of 58.7 months were evaluated. All crowns were rated as Alfa for fracture measurements (smooth surface, no fracture/chipping). Twelve crowns were rated esthetically as Romeo (no mismatch in color and shade) and 8 as Sierra (mismatch in color and shade within normal range). Twelve crowns were rated as Alfa (no visible evidence of crevice) and 8 as Bravo (visible evidence of crevice, no penetration of explorer) for marginal integrity. Nineteen were rated as Alfa (no discoloration) and 1 as Bravo

  4. Relation of maternal hypertension with infant growth in a prospective birth cohort: the ABCD study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; van der Wal, M. F.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the assumed positive association of pre-existent and pregnancy-induced hypertension with the offspring's weight and length gain in the first 14 months of life. We studied 3994 pregnant women and their offspring in a prospective community-based cohort study,

  5. Latent profiles of non-residential father engagement six years after divorce predict long term offspring outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn Lynn; Hagan, Melissa; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    This study examined profiles of non-residential father engagement (i.e., support to the adolescent, contact frequency, remarriage, relocation, and interparental conflict) with their adolescent children (N = 156) six to eight years following divorce and the prospective relation between these profiles and the psychosocial functioning of their offspring, nine years later. Parental divorce occurred during late childhood to early adolescence; indicators of non-residential father engagement were assessed during adolescence, and mental health problems and academic achievement of offspring were assessed nine years later in young adulthood. Three profiles of father engagement were identified in our sample of mainly White, non-Hispanic divorced fathers: Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict, Low Involvement/Moderate Conflict, and High Involvement/High Conflict. Profiles differentially predicted offspring outcomes nine years later when they were young adults, controlling for quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, mother’s remarriage, mother’s income, and gender, age and offspring mental health problems in adolescence. Offspring of fathers characterized as Moderate Involvement/Low Conflict had the highest academic achievement and the lowest number of externalizing problems nine years later compared to offspring whose fathers had profiles indicating either the highest or lowest levels of involvement but higher levels of conflict. Results indicate that greater paternal psychosocial support and more frequent father-adolescent contact do not outweigh the negative impact of interparental conflict on youth outcomes in the long-term. Implications of findings for policy and intervention are discussed. PMID:24484456

  6. The Influence of Parental Psychopathology on Offspring Suicidal Behavior across the Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geilson Lima Santana

    Full Text Available Suicide tends to occur in families, and parental psychopathology has been linked to offspring suicidal behaviors. This study explores the influence of parental mental disorders across the lifespan. Data are from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with a representative sample of the adult population living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil (N=2,942. Survival models examined bivariate and multivariate associations between a range of parental disorders and offspring suicidality. After controlling for comorbidity, number of mental disorders and offspring psychopathology, we found that parental psychopathology influences suicidal behaviors throughout most part of the life cycle, from childhood until young adult years. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and antisocial personality were associated with offspring suicidal ideation (OR 1.8 and 1.9, respectively, panic and GAD predicted suicidal attempts (OR 2.3 and 2.7, respectively, and panic was related to the transition from ideation to attempts (OR 2.7. Although noticed in many different stages of the lifespan, this influence is most evident during adolescence. In this period, depression and antisocial personality increased the odds of suicidal ideation (OR 5.1 and 3.2, respectively, and depression, panic disorder, GAD and substance abuse predicted suicidal attempts (OR varying from 1.7 to 3.8. In short, parental disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression and anxiety-agitation were the main predictors of offspring suicidality across the lifespan. This clinically relevant intergenerational transmission of suicide risk was independent of offspring mental disorders, and this underscores the need for a family approach to psychopathology.

  7. Host gender and offspring quality in a flea parasitic on a rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Irina S; Serobyan, Vahan; Degen, A Allan; Krasnov, Boris R

    2010-10-01

    The quality of offspring produced by parent fleas (Xenopsylla ramesis) fed on either male or female rodent hosts (Meriones crassus) was studied. The emergence success, duration of development, resistance to starvation upon emergence and body size of the flea offspring were measured. It was predicted that offspring of fleas produced by parents that fed on male hosts (i) will survive better as pre-imago, (ii) will develop faster, (iii) will live longer under starvation after emergence and (iv) will be larger than offspring of fleas fed on female hosts. The emergence success of pre-imaginal fleas was relatively high, ranging from 46.9% to 100.0% and averaging 78.4±3.0%, and was not affected by host gender. The duration of development of pre-imaginal fleas depended on the gender of the host of parents and differed between male and female offspring, with female fleas developing faster. Furthermore, male fleas developed faster if their parents fed on female rather than on male hosts, whereas no difference in the duration of development between host genders was found in female fleas. The time to death under starvation did not depend on the gender of either the flea or the host. A newly emerged flea, on average, lived 31.9±1.0 days without access to food. The relationship between host gender and body size of male flea offspring was the only effect that supported the predictions. An increase in body size in male fleas could increase their mating success and, ultimately, their fitness.

  8. Transgenerational effects of maternal and grandmaternal age on offspring viability and performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch Qazi, Margaret C; Miller, Paige B; Poeschel, Penny M; Phan, Mai H; Thayer, Joseph L; Medrano, Christian L

    2017-07-01

    In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence. To test the hypothesis that female senescence has transgenerational effects on offspring viability and development, we measured the effects of maternal age on offspring survival over two generations and under two larval densities in two laboratory strains of flies (Oregon-R and Canton-S). Transgenerational effects of maternal age influence embryonic viability and embryonic to adult viability in both strains. However, the generation causing the effects, and the magnitude and direction of those effects differed by genotype. The effects of maternal age on embryonic to adult viability when larvae are stressed was also genotype-specific. Maternal effects involve provisioning: older females produced smaller eggs and larger offspring. These results show that maternal age has profound, complex, and multigenerational consequences on several components of offspring fitness and traits. This study contributes to a body of work demonstrating that female age is an important condition affecting phenotypic variation and viability across multiple generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Severe Maternal Hyperglycemia Exacerbates the Development of Insulin Resistance and Fatty Liver in the Offspring on High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adverse maternal environments may predispose the offspring to metabolic syndrome in adulthoods, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully understood. Methods. Maternal hyperglycemia was induced by streptozotocin (STZ injection while control (CON rats received citrate buffer. Litters were adjusted to eight pups per dam and then weaned to standard diet. Since 13 weeks old, a subset of offspring from STZ and CON dams were switched to high fat diet (HFD for another 13 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT and insulin secretion assay were performed; serum levels of lipids and leptin were measured. Hepatic fat accumulation and islet area were evaluated through haematoxylin and eosin staining. Results. STZ offspring exhibited lower survival rate, lower birth weights, and growth inhibition which persisted throughout the study. STZ offspring on HFD showed more severe impairment in GTT and ITT, and more profound hepatic steatosis and more severe hyperlipidemia compared with CON-HFD rats. Conclusions. Offspring from diabetic dams would be prone to exhibit low birth weight and postnatal growth inhibition, but could maintain normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. HFD accelerates development of insulin resistance in the offspring of diabetic dams mainly via a compensatory response of islets.

  10. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  11. Maternal anemia, iron intake in pregnancy, and offspring blood pressure in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Smith, George Davey; McArdle, Harry J; Ness, Andy R

    2008-10-01

    In animals, maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy results in elevated offspring blood pressure (BP). Studies in pregnant women are limited in number, have had inconsistent results, and have not accounted for maternal iron supplementation. The objective was to assess the association between maternal iron status during pregnancy and offspring BP. Maternal hemoglobin (n = 1255), iron supplementation (n = 7484), food-based iron intake (n = 7130), and offspring BP were assessed in a prospective cohort at 7 y of age. Maternal anemia during pregnancy was associated with lower systolic BP in the offspring at 7 y of age (third trimester, age- and sex-adjusted: beta = -1.09; 95% CI: -2.21, -0.05 mm Hg; P = 0.04). Adjustment for confounders attenuated this association (beta = -0.49; 95% CI: -1.71, 0.72 mm Hg; P = 0.4). In women who did not take iron supplements during pregnancy, the observed association with maternal anemia was even stronger: minimally adjusted models (beta = -2.11; 95% CI: -3.61, -0.61 mm Hg; P = 0.006) and fully adjusted models (beta = -1.48; 95% CI: -3.21, 0.25 mm Hg; P = 0.09). Iron supplementation was not associated with offspring BP after confounding by multivitamin intake was accounted for, and no association with iron intake from food was observed. In contrast with animal studies, maternal iron intake during pregnancy is not associated with offspring BP, and some evidence indicates that maternal anemia in contemporary pregnant women is associated with lower offspring BP. It is possible that, in well-nourished populations, low hemoglobin is more likely to reflect greater plasma volume expansion (and thus better maternal and offspring health) than iron deficiency.

  12. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Maternal effects, flight versus fecundity trade-offs, and offspring immune defence in the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hails Rosemary S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning, and can greatly affect offspring performance. In the present study, the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L. was used to investigate whether (after controlling for egg size maternal age, and increased flight during the oviposition period, resulted in changes in egg provisioning and whether this contributed to variation in offspring performance, i early in development (egg stage and early post-hatching development, and ii later in larval development after being exposed to the model viral pathogen system; the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. Results Age-related changes in maternal egg provisioning were observed to influence egg stage development only. Flight-induced changes in maternal egg provisioning had direct consequences for offspring growth and survival across each life stage from egg to adulthood; offspring from forced flight mothers had lower larval masses and longer development times. Offspring with lower larval masses also had reduced survival after exposure to the viral pathogen. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that a change in maternal provisioning as a result of increased flight during the oviposition period has the potential to exert non-genetic cross-generational fitness effects in P. aegeria. This could have important consequences for population dynamics, particularly in fragmented anthropogenic landscapes.

  14. An Old Mom Keeps You Young: Mother's Age at Last Birth and Offspring Longevity in Nineteenth-Century Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hin, Saskia; Ogórek, Bartosz; Hedefalk, Finn

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the intergenerational effects of late childbearing on offspring's adult longevity in a population in Utah (United States) that does not display evidence of parity-specific birth control-a so-called natural fertility population. Studies have found that for women who experience late menopause and prolonged reproduction, aging is postponed and longevity is increased. This is believed to indicate female "robustness" and the impact of biological or genetic factors. If indeed there is a genetic component involved, one would expect to also find evidence for the intergenerational transmission of longevity benefits. Our study investigates the relationship between prolonged natural fertility of mothers and their offspring's survival rates in adulthood. Gompertz regression models (N = 7,716) revealed that the offspring of mothers who were naturally fertile until a relatively advanced age lived significantly longer. This observed positive effect of late reproduction was not independent of but conditional upon survival of the mother to the end of her fecundity (defined as age 50). Offspring's relative risks at death beyond age 50 were 6-12 percent lower than those of their counterparts born to mothers who had an average age at last birth. Our results, which account for various early, adult, and later-life conditions, as well as shared frailty, suggest that there is a positive relationship between mother's age at last birth and offspring longevity, and strengthen the notion that age at menopause is a good predictor of this relationship.

  15. Costs of egg-laying and offspring provisioning: multifaceted parental investment in a digger wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Jeremy; Turner, Ed; Fayle, Tom; Foster, William A

    2007-02-07

    Nest-building Hymenoptera have been a major testing ground for theories of parental investment and sex allocation. Investment has usually been estimated by the likely costs of offspring provisioning, ignoring other aspects of parental care. Using three experimental treatments, we estimated the costs of egg-laying and provisioning separately under field conditions in a digger wasp Ammophila pubescens. In one treatment, we increased the provisioning effort required per offspring by removing alternate prey items as they were brought to the nest. In two other treatments, we reduced parental effort by either preventing females from provisioning alternate nests or preventing them from both ovipositing and provisioning. Our results indicate that both egg-laying and provisioning represent significant costs of reproduction, expressed as differences in productivity but not survival. A trade-off-based model suggests that other components of parental care such as nest initiation may also represent significant costs. Costs of egg production and nest initiation are probably similar for male and female offspring, so that taking them into account leads to a less male-biased expected sex ratio. Mothers compensated only partially for prey removal in terms of the total provisions they gave to individual offspring.

  16. Lethality and teratogenesis in F{sub 1} offspring mice following paternal fission neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether following genetic damage at germ cell stages induced by paternal exposure to {sup 252}Cf fission neutron could lead to teratogenesis in the offspring. Seven-week-old C3H male mice were irradiated with graded doses of {sup 252}Cf fission neutrons and then were mated with nine-week-old C57BL females two weeks after the exposure. Three weeks later, it was found that testis and epididymal weight losses as well as the proportions of caudal epididymal sperm abnormalities in irradiated males were significantly greater than those in non-irradiated groups. Pregnant dams were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for the number of resorptions, intrauterine deaths and teratogenesis in F{sub 1} surviving offspring. Embryo lethality among the F{sub 1} offspring was found to be significantly higher in the irradiated group than in the non-irradiated group (p < 0.01), while the incidence of congenital malformations among the F{sub 1} offspring significantly increased in the irradiated groups. These results suggest that the paternal radiation exposure may have caused genetic transmission of DNA damage and genetic instability, which is in line with findings that show increases in incidence of teratogenesis in B{sub 6}C{sub 3}F{sub 1}. (author)

  17. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  18. Turn-taking in cooperative offspring care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, James L.; Browning, Lucy E.; Manica, Andrea; Russell, Andrew F.; Johnstone, Rufus A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: For individuals collaborating to rear offspring, effective organization of resource delivery is difficult because each carer benefits when the others provide a greater share of the total investment required. When investment is provided in discrete events, one possible solution is to adopt

  19. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  20. Normotensive offspring of hypertensive Nigerians have increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sixty-five OHP aged 15-25 years with 65-age and sex-matched offspring of normotensive parents (ONP) were studied for early makers of hypertensive cardiovascular disease. Those with heart murmurs, structural heart diseases and blood pressure 9 140/90 mmHg were excluded. Electrocardiography (ECG) and ...

  1. Survival in common cancers defined by risk and survival of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on survival between familial and sporadic cancers have been inconclusive and only recent data on a limited number of cancers are available on the concordance of survival between family members. In this review, we address these questions by evaluating the published and unpublished data from the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database and a total of 13 cancer sites were assessed. Using sporadic cancer as reference, HRs were close to 1.0 for most of the familial cancers in both the offspring and parental generations, which suggested that survival in patients with familial and sporadic cancers was equal, with an exception for ovarian cancer with a worse prognosis. Compared to offspring whose parents had a poor survival, those with a good parental survival had a decreased risk of death for most cancers and HR was significantly decreased for cancers in the breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney. For colorectal and nervous system cancers, favorable survival between the generations showed a borderline significance. These data are consistent in showing that both good and poor survival in certain cancers aggregate in families. Genetic factors are likely to contribute to the results. These observations call for intensified efforts to consider heritability in survival as one mechanism regulating prognosis in cancer patients.

  2. Offspring size in a resident species affects community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kurt; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-03-01

    Offspring size is a trait of fundamental importance that affects the ecology and evolution of a range of organisms. Despite the pervasive impact of offspring size for those offspring, the influence of offspring size on other species in the broader community remains unexplored. Such community-wide effects of offspring size are likely, but they have not been anticipated by theory or explored empirically. For a marine invertebrate community, we manipulated the size and density of offspring of a resident species (Watersipora subtorquata) in the field and examined subsequent community assembly around that resident species. Communities that assembled around larger offspring were denser and less diverse than communities that assembled around smaller offspring. Differences in niche usage by colonies from smaller and larger offspring may be driving these community-level effects. Our results suggest that offspring size is an important but unexplored source of ecological variation and that life-history theory must accommodate the effects of offspring size on community assembly. Life-history theory often assumes that environmental variation drives intraspecific variation in offspring size, and our results show that the converse can also occur. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  3. Parent–offspring recognition in the Brown-headed Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parent–offspring recognition in the Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus. ... Parent–offspring recognition in the Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus. Stuart Taylor, Michael R Perrin. Abstract. Recognition by vocal characteristics between parents and their offspring is thought to be ubiquitous in ...

  4. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Thus, in C. versicolor offspring SVL is optimized while body mass and condition are not optimized. [Radder R S and Shanbhag B A 2004 ... Female body size, offspring number and offspring body size are basic components of an ... a few potted plants, dry sticks, hiding sites, water and a substratum of black soil obtained from.

  5. When to care for, abandon, or eat your offspring: the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B

    2007-12-01

    Parental care and filial cannibalism (the consumption of one's own offspring) co-occur in many animals. While parental care typically increases offspring survival, filial cannibalism involves the killing of one's young. Using an evolutionary ecology approach, we evaluate the importance of a range of factors on the evolution of parental care and filial cannibalism. Parental care, no care/total abandonment, and filial cannibalism evolved and often coexisted over a range of parameter space. While no single benefit was essential for the evolution of filial cannibalism, benefits associated with adult or offspring survival and/or reproduction facilitated the evolution of cannibalism. Our model highlights the plausibility of a range of alternative hypotheses. Specifically, the evolution of filial cannibalism was enhanced if (1) parents could selectively cannibalize lower-quality offspring, (2) filial cannibalism increased egg maturation rate, (3) energetic benefits of eggs existed, or (4) cannibalism increased a parent's reproductive rate (e.g., through mate attractiveness). Density-dependent egg survivorship alone did not favor the evolution of cannibalism. However, when egg survival was density dependent, filial cannibalism invaded more often when the density dependence was relatively more intense. Our results suggest that population-level resource competition potentially plays an important role in the evolution of both parental care and filial cannibalism.

  6. Parental Separation and Offspring Alcohol Involvement: Findings from Offspring of Alcoholic and Drug Dependent Twin Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julia D; Waldron, Mary; Sartor, Carolyn E; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Duncan, Alexis E; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2015-07-01

    We examined associations between parental separation during childhood and offspring alcohol involvement, adjusting for genetic and environmental risks specific to parental alcohol (AD) and cannabis/other illicit drug dependence (DD). The sample consisted of 1,828 offspring of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry, who completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted predicting onset of first use, transition from first use to first AD symptom, and transition from first use to AD diagnosis from paternal and avuncular AD and DD history, parental separation, and offspring and family background characteristics. Paternal/avuncular DD/AD was based on the DSM-III-R; offspring and maternal AD were based on DSM-IV criteria. Paternal DD/AD predicted increased offspring risk for all transitions, with genetic effects suggested on rate of transitioning to AD diagnosis. Parental separation was predictive of increased risk for early alcohol use, but a reduced rate of transition to both AD symptom onset and onset of AD. No interactions between separation and familial risk (indexed by paternal or avuncular DD/AD) were found. Findings highlight the contribution of both parental separation and paternal substance dependence in predicting timing of offspring alcohol initiation and problems across adolescence into early adulthood. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Long-term Cognitive Implications of Intrauterine Hyperglycemia in Adolescent Offspring of Women With Type 1 Diabetes (the EPICOM Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine; Vlachova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exposure to maternal diabetes in utero may have a negative impact on the developing brain. The objective was to examine long-term cognitive consequences of intrauterine hyperglycemia in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes and to ascertain a possible association...... in the exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes had lower cognitive function compared with a control group, also after adjustment for confounders and potential mediators. These differences may reflect direct harmful effects of maternal diabetes on neurodevelopment...... with maternal HbA1c. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Offspring of a prospectively followed cohort of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 277) participated in a follow-up examination at the age of 13-19 years. A control group from the background population was identified (n = 301). Cognitive function was evaluated...

  8. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  9. Associations of Existing Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes, and Glycosuria with Offspring IQ and Educational Attainment: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Fraser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Results from studies examining associations of maternal diabetes in pregnancy with offspring cognitive outcomes have been inconclusive. Methods. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK prospective pregnancy cohort. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment (SEA scores (age 4, N=6,032 and WISC-III IQ (age 8, N=5,282–5,307 and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE results (age 16, N=7,615. Results. Existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, and, to a lesser extent, glycosuria were associated with lower offspring SEA scores (age 4, IQ (age 8, and GCSE results (age 16 even when adjusting for offspring sex, maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, smoking in pregnancy, parity, caesarean section, maternal education, and occupational social class. Offspring of mothers with existing diabetes had a threefold risk of achieving no GCSEs graded A*-C, whilst offspring of women with gestational diabetes had, on average, a five point lower IQ compared to offspring of women with no diabetes or glycosuria. Conclusions. Maternal diabetes in pregnancy is consistently associated with lower offspring cognition and educational attainment though confidence intervals were wide. The weaker associations with glycosuria suggest a dose-dependent adverse association with IQ.

  10. Associations of existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, and glycosuria with offspring IQ and educational attainment: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Results from studies examining associations of maternal diabetes in pregnancy with offspring cognitive outcomes have been inconclusive. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK prospective pregnancy cohort. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment (SEA) scores (age 4, N = 6, 032) and WISC-III IQ (age 8, N = 5, 282-5,307) and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) results (age 16, N = 7, 615). Existing diabetes, gestational diabetes, and, to a lesser extent, glycosuria were associated with lower offspring SEA scores (age 4), IQ (age 8), and GCSE results (age 16) even when adjusting for offspring sex, maternal age, prepregnancy BMI, smoking in pregnancy, parity, caesarean section, maternal education, and occupational social class. Offspring of mothers with existing diabetes had a threefold risk of achieving no GCSEs graded A*-C, whilst offspring of women with gestational diabetes had, on average, a five point lower IQ compared to offspring of women with no diabetes or glycosuria. Maternal diabetes in pregnancy is consistently associated with lower offspring cognition and educational attainment though confidence intervals were wide. The weaker associations with glycosuria suggest a dose-dependent adverse association with IQ.

  11. Maternal macronutrient and energy intakes in pregnancy and offspring intake at 10 y: exploring parental comparisons and prenatal effects1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Ness, Andy R; Rogers, Imogen; Emmett, Pauline; Cribb, Victoria; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2010-01-01

    Background: High maternal dietary intakes in pregnancy may lead to increased fetal growth and program neuroendocrine pathways that result in greater appetite, energy intake, and adiposity in offspring later in life. Few prospective dietary studies have explored this relation. Objective: The objective was to assess associations of maternal dietary intake in pregnancy and maternal and paternal dietary intake postnatally with child dietary intake and adiposity. Design: Dietary intakes of energy, protein, total fat, and carbohydrate were assessed prospectively in mothers during pregnancy, in mothers and their partners at 47 mo postnatally, and in children at 10 y (n = 5717 mother-child pairs prenatally, 5593 mother-child pairs postnatally, and 3009 father-child pairs). Child body composition was assessed at 9 and 11 y (n = 5725). Results: Maternal dietary intakes of protein, fat (when adjusted for energy intake), and carbohydrate in pregnancy were positively associated with child dietary intakes of the same nutrients, and these associations were greater than those observed for paternal dietary intake, which was not strongly associated with offspring diet. Associations of maternal prenatal-offspring intakes were stronger than those of maternal postnatal-offspring intakes for protein and fat. Greater child energy and macronutrient intakes were only associated with greater adiposity in children when adjusted for potential energy underreporting. Maternal diet during pregnancy was not associated with offspring adiposity or lean mass. Conclusion: The stronger prenatal maternal associations with child dietary intake, particularly protein and fat, compared with both paternal intake associations and maternal postnatal intake associations provide some evidence for in utero programming of offspring appetite by maternal intake during pregnancy. PMID:20053880

  12. Multisystem Morbidity and Mortality in Offspring of Women With Type 1 Diabetes (the EPICOM Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Stochholm, Kirstine; Vlachová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the long-term consequences for offspring born to mothers with pregestational type 1 diabetes regarding mortality, hospital admissions, and medication. We also examined the association between HbA1c levels during pregnancy and mortality and incidence of hospital...... admissions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective combined clinical and register-based cohort study comparing mortality, hospital admissions, and use of medication in offspring (n = 1,326) of women with pregestational type 1 diabetes (index children) with matched control subjects (n = 131......,884). We also examined the association between HbA1c levels during pregnancy and mortality and the incidence of hospital admissions. Participants were monitored from birth to the age of 13-21 years. RESULTS: Overall mortality was significantly increased for index children (hazard ratio 2.10, 95% CI 1...

  13. Pathways to suicide-related behavior in offspring of mothers with depression: the role of offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers' first 11 years of their child's life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Lausanne-Geneva cohort study of offspring of parents with mood disorders: methodology, findings, current sample characteristics, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeleur, Caroline L; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Ferrero, François; Marquet, Pierre; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Preisig, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Studies focusing on the offspring of affected parents utilize the well-established familial aggregation of mood disorders as a powerful tool for the identification of risk factors, early clinical manifestations, and prodromes of mood disorders in these offspring. The major goals of the Lausanne-Geneva mood cohort study are to: (1) assess the familial aggregation of bipolar and unipolar mood disorders; (2) prospectively identify risk factors for mood disorders as well as their early signs and prodromes; (3) identify their endophenotypes including cognitive features, alterations in brain structure, HPA-axis dysregulation, and abnormalities of the circadian rhythm of activity. Probands with bipolar disorders, major depressive disorder, and controls with at least one child aged from 4 to 17.9 years at study intake, their offspring, as well as their spouses are invited to take part in follow-up assessments at predetermined ages of the offspring. Direct semi-structured diagnostic interviews have been used for all participants. Probands, spouses, and adult offspring also undergo neurocognitive testing, anthropomorphic measures and biochemical exams, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as well as objective assessments of physical activity using accelerometers in combination with ecological momentary assessments. Currently, our study has up to seven follow-up assessments extending over a period of 20 years. There are 214 probands and 389 offspring with one direct interview before age 18 as well as a second assessment over follow-up. Data on 236 co-parents are also available from whom 55% have been directly interviewed. First publications support the specificity of the familial aggregation of BPD and the strong influence of an early onset of the parental BPD, which amplifies the risk of developing this disorder in offspring. Information from clinical, biological, cognitive, and behavioral measures, based on contemporary knowledge, should further enhance our understanding

  15. Studies of offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans; Ketter, Terence

    2003-11-15

    Children and adolescents who are the biological offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) (bipolar offspring) represent a population rich in potential for revealing important aspects in the development of BD. Multiple cross-sectional assessments of psychopathology in bipolar offspring have confirmed high incidences of BD, as well as mood and behavioral disorders, and other psychopathology in this population. Longitudinal studies of offspring have begun to shed light on precursors of BD development. Other assessments of bipolar offspring have included dimensional reports of psychiatric and psychosocial functioning, temperament assessments, and descriptions of family environments and parenting styles. Neurobiological studies in bipolar offspring are just beginning to yield findings that may be related to the underlying neuropathophysiology of BD. The future holds promise for longitudinal studies of bipolar offspring incorporating all of these facets, including genetic analyses, to further elucidate the factors involved in the evolution of BD. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD symptoms in offspring: testing for intrauterine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Kate; Heron, Jon; Smith, George Davey; Thapar, Anita

    2012-08-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. It is assumed by many that this association is causal. Others suggest that observed associations are due to unmeasured genetic factors or other confounding factors. The authors compared risks of maternal smoking during pregnancy with those of paternal smoking during pregnancy. With a causal intrauterine effect, no independent association should be observed between paternal smoking and offspring ADHD. If the association is due to confounding factors, risks of offspring ADHD should be of similar magnitudes regardless of which parent smokes. This hypothesis was tested in 8,324 children from a well-characterized United Kingdom prospective cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (data from 1991-2000). Associations between offspring ADHD and maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy were compared using regression analyses. Offspring ADHD symptoms were associated with exposure to both maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy (mothers: β = 0.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.32; fathers: β = 0.21, 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.27). When paternal smoking was examined in the absence of maternal smoking, associations remained and did not appear to be due to passive smoking exposure in utero. These findings suggest that associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and child ADHD may be due to genetic or household-level confounding rather than to causal intrauterine effects.

  17. Association Between Cesarean Birth and Risk of Obesity in Offspring in Childhood, Adolescence, and Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changzheng; Gaskins, Audrey J; Blaine, Arianna I; Zhang, Cuilin; Gillman, Matthew W; Missmer, Stacey A; Field, Alison E; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-11-07

    Cesarean birth has been associated with higher risk of obesity in offspring, but previous studies have focused primarily on childhood obesity and have been hampered by limited control for confounders. To investigate the association between cesarean birth and risk of obesity in offspring. A prospective cohort study was conducted from September 1, 1996, to December 31, 2012, among participants of the Growing Up Today Study, including 22 068 offspring born to 15 271 women, followed up via questionnaire from ages 9 to 14 through ages 20 to 28 years. Data analysis was conducted from October 10, 2015, to June 14, 2016. Birth by cesarean delivery. Risk of obesity based on International Obesity Task Force or World Health Organization body mass index cutoffs, depending on age. Secondary outcomes included risks of obesity associated with changes in mode of delivery and differences in risk between siblings whose modes of birth were discordant. Of the 22 068 offspring (20 950 white; 9359 male and 12 709 female), 4921 individuals (22.3%) were born by cesarean delivery. The cumulative risk of obesity through the end of follow-up was 13% among all participants. The adjusted risk ratio for obesity among offspring delivered via cesarean birth vs those delivered via vaginal birth was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.26; P = .002). This association was stronger among women without known indications for cesarean delivery (adjusted risk ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54; P = .004). Offspring delivered via vaginal birth among women who had undergone a previous cesarean delivery had a 31% (95% CI, 17%-47%) lower risk of obesity compared with those born to women with repeated cesarean deliveries. In within-family analysis, individuals born by cesarean delivery had 64% (8%-148%) higher odds of obesity than did their siblings born via vaginal delivery. Cesarean birth was associated with offspring obesity after accounting for major confounding factors. Although additional research is

  18. Familial confounding of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring substance use and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Rickert, Martin E; Langström, Niklas; Donahue, Kelly L; Coyne, Claire A; Larsson, Henrik; Ellingson, Jarrod M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Rathouz, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Previous epidemiological, animal, and human cognitive neuroscience research suggests that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) causes increased risk of substance use/problems in offspring. To determine the extent to which the association between SDP and offspring substance use/problems depends on confounded familial background factors by using a quasi-experimental design. We used 2 separate samples from the United States and Sweden. The analyses prospectively predicted multiple indices of substance use and problems while controlling for statistical covariates and comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize confounding. Offspring of a representative sample of women in the United States (sample 1) and the total Swedish population born during the period from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 1995 (sample 2). Adolescent offspring of the women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 6904) and all offspring born in Sweden during the 13-year period (n = 1,187,360). Self-reported adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and early onset (before 14 years of age) of each substance (sample 1) and substance-related convictions and hospitalizations for an alcohol- or other drug-related problem (sample 2). The same pattern emerged for each index of substance use/problems across the 2 samples. At the population level, maternal SDP predicted every measure of offspring substance use/problems in both samples, ranging from adolescent alcohol use (hazard ratio [HR](moderate), 1.32 [95% CI, 1.22-1.43]; HR(high), 1.33 [1.17-1.53]) to a narcotics-related conviction (HR(moderate), 2.23 [2.14-2.31]; HR(high), 2.97 [2.86-3.09]). When comparing differentially exposed siblings to minimize genetic and environmental confounds, however, the association between SDP and each measure of substance use/problems was minimal and not statistically significant. The association between maternal SDP and offspring substance use/problems is likely due to familial background

  19. Sex-of-Offspring Differences between Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary biologists and psychologists have long been aware of maternal effects on the secondary sex ratio in mammals. Up till now these have appeared inconsistent but re-analysis of the evidence, focusing on normally distributed maternal testosterone and its physiological and behavioral sequelae, reveals some support for the existence of sex-of-offspring differences between mothers. In addition to the animal studies showing a relationship between maternal, testosterone-based dominance and the secondary sex ratio, research on human mothers shows sex-of-offspring differences in a range of testosterone—related attributes (physiological, behavioral and cognitive measured at varying times from before the child was conceived to the mother's maturity. Further exploration of these differences might help elucidate the problems surrounding sex determination in mammals.

  20. Parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Borges, Rebeca; Medina Mora, Maria-Elena; Benjet, Corina; Nock, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which parental psychopathology may confer increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts among their offspring in Mexico. Data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002) to examine the unique associations between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality were used. Parental disorders (major depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) were comorbid and after controlling for comorbidity and number of disorders only parental panic and antisocial personality disorder remained associated with ideation and attempts in the total sample. Those with more parental disorders were at increased risk of ideation and attempt, as well as increased risk to transition from suicide ideation to an attempt. These findings may help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries.

  1. 6. Communication between Parents and Offspring1

    OpenAIRE

    Bateson, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    How offspring respond to the behaviour of their parents raises important issues about their development. In studies of animal communication it has sometimes been argued that all the activities directed by one individual towards another are manipulative. Sometimes this view is clearly correct. Its most obvious form is in the interactions between species when one species manages to control the behaviour of another as if it were a puppet. A striking example is the European cuckoo. The mother cuc...

  2. Bridging the generation gap in plants: pollination, parental fecundity, and offspring demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mary V; Campbell, Diane R; Waser, Nickolas M; Brody, Alison K

    2008-06-01

    Despite extensive study of pollination and plant reproduction on the one hand, and of plant demography on the other, we know remarkably little about links between seed production in successive generations, and hence about long-term population consequences of variation in pollination success. We bridged this "generation gap" in Ipomopsis aggregata, a long-lived semelparous wildflower that is pollinator limited, by adding varying densities of seeds to natural populations and following resulting plants through their entire life histories. To determine whether pollen limitation of seed production constrains rate of population growth in this species, we sowed seeds into replicated plots at a density that mimics typical pollination success and spacing of flowering plants in nature, and at twice that density to mimic full pollination. Per capita offspring survival, flower production, and contribution to population increase (lambda) did not decline with sowing density in this experiment, suggesting that typical I. aggregata populations freed from pollen limitation will grow over the short term. In a second experiment we addressed whether density dependence would eventually erase the growth benefits of full pollination, by sowing a 10-fold range of seed densities that falls within extremes estimated for the natural "seed rain" that reaches the soil surface. Per capita survival to flowering and age at flowering were again unaffected by sowing density, but offspring size, per capita flower production, and lambda declined with density. Such density dependence complicates efforts to predict population dynamics over the longer term, because it changes components of the life history (in this case fecundity) as a population grows. A complete understanding of how constraints on seed production affect long-term population growth will hinge on following offspring fates at least through flowering of the first offspring generation, and doing so for a realistic range of population

  3. Genetic evidence for a Janzen-Connell recruitment pattern in reproductive offspring of Pinus halepensis trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, O; Troupin, D; Vendramin, G G; Nathan, R

    2011-10-01

    Effective seed dispersal, combining both dispersal and postdispersal (establishment) processes, determines population dynamics and colonization ability in plants. According to the Janzen-Connell (JC) model, high mortality near the mother plant shifts the offspring establishment distribution farther away from the mother plant relative to the seed dispersal distribution. Yet, extending this prediction to the distribution of mature (reproductive) offspring remains a challenge for long-living plants. To address this challenge, we selected an isolated natural Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) population in Mt. Pithulim (Israel), which expanded from five ancestor trees in the beginning of the 20th century into ∼2000 trees today. Using nine microsatellite markers, we assigned parents to trees established during the early stages of population expansion. To elucidate the effect of the distance from the mother plant on postdispersal survival, we compared the effective seed dispersal kernel, based on the distribution of mother-offspring distances, with the seed dispersal kernel, based on simulations of a mechanistic wind dispersal model. We found that the mode of the effective dispersal kernel is shifted farther away than the mode of the seed dispersal kernel, reflecting increased survival with increasing distance from the mother plant. The parentage analysis demonstrated a highly skewed reproductive success and a strong directionality in effective dispersal corresponding to the wind regime. We thus provide compelling evidence that JC effects act also on offspring that become reproductive and persist as adults for many decades, a key requirement in assessing the role of postdispersal processes in shaping population and community dynamics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Why Offspring in Nonhuman Families Differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Forbes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  5. Why offspring in nonhuman families differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott

    2013-07-18

    Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird) to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental) effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  6. Age, pathogen exposure, but not maternal care shape offspring immunity in an insect with facultative family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweith, Fanny; Körner, Maximilian; Foitzik, Susanne; Meunier, Joël

    2017-03-07

    To optimize their resistance against pathogen infection, individuals are expected to find the right balance between investing into the immune system and other life history traits. In vertebrates, several factors were shown to critically affect the direction of this balance, such as the developmental stage of an individual, its current risk of infection and/or its access to external help such as parental care. However, the independent and/or interactive effects of these factors on immunity remain poorly studied in insects. Here, we manipulated maternal presence and pathogen exposure in families of the European earwig Forficula auricularia to measure whether and how the survival rate and investment into two key immune parameters changed during offspring development. The pathogen was the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum and the immune parameters were hemocyte concentration and phenol/pro-phenoloxidase enzyme activity (total-PO). Our results surprisingly showed that maternal presence had no effect on offspring immunity, but reduced offspring survival. Pathogen exposure also lowered the survival of offspring during their early development. The concentration of hemocytes and the total-PO activity increased during development, to be eventually higher in adult females compared to adult males. Finally, pathogen exposure overall increased the concentration of hemocytes-but not the total-PO activity-in adults, while it had no effect on these measures in offspring. Our results show that, independent of their infection risk and developmental stage, maternal presence does not shape immune defense in young earwigs. This reveals that pathogen pressure is not a universal evolutionary driver of the emergence and maintenance of post-hatching maternal care in insects.

  7. Differential effects of age and sex on insulin sensitivity and body composition in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes: results from the EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Zuzana; Knorr, Sine; Bytoft, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age and sex on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes, compared with the background population. METHODS: This was a prospective nationwide follow-up study...

  8. Association between Maternal Depression Symptoms across the First Eleven Years of Their Child's Life and Subsequent Offspring Suicidal Ideation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Hammerton

    Full Text Available Depression is common, especially in women of child-bearing age; prevalence estimates for this group range from 8% to 12%, and there is robust evidence that maternal depression is associated with mental health problems in offspring. Suicidal behaviour is a growing concern amongst young people and those exposed to maternal depression are likely to be especially at high risk. The aim of this study was to utilise a large, prospective population cohort to examine the relationship between depression symptom trajectories in mothers over the first eleven years of their child's life and subsequent adolescent suicidal ideation. An additional aim was to test if associations were explained by maternal suicide attempt and offspring depressive disorder. Data were utilised from a population-based birth cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal depression symptoms were assessed repeatedly from pregnancy to child age 11 years. Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Using multiple imputation, data for 10,559 families were analysed. Using latent class growth analysis, five distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms were identified (minimal, mild, increasing, sub-threshold, chronic-severe. The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation at age 16 years was 15% (95% CI: 14-17%. Compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms, the greatest risk of suicidal ideation was found for offspring of mothers with chronic-severe symptoms [OR 3.04 (95% CI 2.19, 4.21], with evidence for smaller increases in risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with sub-threshold, increasing and mild symptoms. These associations were not fully accounted for by maternal suicide attempt or offspring depression diagnosis. Twenty-six percent of non-depressed offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms reported suicidal ideation. Risk for suicidal ideation should be considered in young people whose mothers have a

  9. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety

  10. Flexibility in the duration of parental care: Female leopards prioritise cub survival over reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Guy A; Robinson, Hugh S; Pitman, Ross T; Hunter, Luke T B

    2017-09-01

    Deciding when to terminate care of offspring is a key consideration for parents. Prolonging care may increase fitness of current offspring, but it can also reduce opportunities for future reproduction. Despite its evolutionary importance, few studies have explored the optimal duration of parental care, particularly among large carnivores. We used a 40-year dataset to assess the trade-offs associated with the length of maternal care in leopards in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, South Africa. We compared the costs imposed by care on the survival and residual reproductive value of leopard mothers against the benefits derived from maternal care in terms of increased offspring survival, recruitment and reproduction. We also examined the demographic and ecological factors affecting the duration of care in the light of five explanatory hypotheses: litter size, sex allocation, resource limitation, timing of independence and terminal investment. Duration of care exhibited by female leopards varied markedly, from 9 to 35 months. Mothers did not appear to suffer any short- or long-term survival costs from caring for cubs, but extending care reduced the number of litters that mothers could produce during their lifetimes. Interestingly, the duration of care did not appear to affect the post-independence survival or reproductive success of offspring (although it may have indirectly affected offspring survival by influencing dispersal distance). However, results from generalised linear mixed models showed that mothers prolonged care during periods of prey scarcity, supporting the resource limitation hypothesis. Female leopards also cared for sons longer than daughters, in line with the sex-allocation hypothesis. Cub survival is an important determinant of the lifetime reproductive success in leopards. By buffering offspring against environmental perturbation without jeopardising their own survivorship, female leopards apparently "hedge their bets" with current offspring rather than

  11. Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for tobacco use in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Mina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Svensson, Anna C; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-06-15

    Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antibiotic exposure in pregnancy and risk of coeliac disease in offspring: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårild, Karl; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Sanz, Yolanda; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2014-04-14

    The infant microbiota may play a pathogenic role in coeliac disease (CD). Antibiotic treatment in pregnancy is common and could significantly impact the infant microbiota. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring. Prospective questionnaire data on antibiotic exposure in pregnancy were available in 8729 children participating in the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) cohort study, and of these 46 developed CD until December 2006. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for CD in the offspring among mothers exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, with adjustment for parent-reported diary data on breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and number of infections in the child's first year of life. Of the 1836 children exposed to antibiotics during pregnancy, 12 (0.7%) children developed CD as compared with 34/6893 (0.5%) unexposed children (HR = 1.33; 95% CI = 0.69-2.56). Risk estimates remained unchanged after adjustment for breastfeeding, age at gluten introduction and infection load in the child's first year of life (HR = 1.28; 95% CI = 0.66-2.48). We found no statistically significant association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and CD in offspring. This lack of association may either be true or the result of limited statistical power.

  13. Maternal Weight Gain in Pregnancy and Risk of Obesity among Offspring: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Y. Lau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review the evidence from prospective and retrospective cohort studies on the association between gestational weight gain (GWG and offspring’s body weight. Methods. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere were searched from inception through March 18, 2013. Included studies (n=23 were English articles that examined the independent associations of GWG with body mass index (BMI and/or overweight status in the offspring aged 2 to 18.9 years. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed methodological quality of the included studies. Results. Evidence from cohort studies supports that total GWG and exceeding the Institute of Medicine maternal weight gain recommendation were associated with higher BMI z-score and elevated risk of overweight or obesity in offspring. The evidence of high rate of GWG during early- and mid-pregnancy is suggestive. Additionally, the evidence on inadequate GWG and net GWG in relation to body weight outcomes in offspring is insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions. These findings suggest that GWG is a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. However, findings should be interpreted with caution due to measurement issues of GWG and potential confounding effects of shared familial characteristics (i.e., genetics and maternal and child’s lifestyle factors.

  14. Seal mothers expend more on offspring under favourable conditions and less when resources are limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Clive R; Harcourt, Robert G; Burton, Harry R; Daniel, Owen; Hindell, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    In mammals, maternal expenditure on offspring is a complex mix of several factors including the species' mating system, offspring sex and the condition and age of the mother. While theory suggests that in polygynous species mothers should wean larger male offspring than females when resources and maternal conditions allow, the evidence for this remains equivocal. Southern elephant seals are highly dimorphic, polygynous capital breeders existing in an environment with highly variable resources and should therefore provide clear evidence to support the theoretical expectations of differential maternal expenditure in male and female pups. We quantified maternal size (mass and length) and pup size at birth and weaning for 342 elephant seal mothers at Macquarie Island. The study was conducted over 11 years of contrasting sea-ice and Southern Annular Mode values, both indices of maternal prey resources. Overall, large females weaned male pups that weighed 17 kg (15·5%) more than female pups. Maternal condition varied by as much as 59 kg among years, and was positively related to Southern Annular Mode, and negatively to maximum sea-ice extent. Smaller mothers weaned relatively larger male pups under favourable conditions, this effect was less apparent for larger mothers. We developed a simple model linking environmental variation to maternal masses post-partum, followed by maternal masses post-partum to weaning masses and then weaning masses to pup survival and demonstrated that environmental conditions affected predicted survival so that the pups of small mothers had an estimated 7% increase in first year survival in 'good' vs. 'bad' years compared to 1% for female pups of large mothers. Co-occurrence of environmental quality and conservative reproductive tactics suggests that mothers retain substantial plasticity in maternal care, enhancing their lifetime reproductive success by adjusting reproductive expenditure relative to both prevailing environmental conditions

  15. Female ornaments revisited – are they correlated with offspring quality?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeide, Jarle T; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Janhunen, Matti; Kortet, Raine; Ardia, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    .... While females usually invest significant amounts of their resources, including carotenoids, in offspring, all the resources allocated to elaborate ornamentation reduce resources available for other purposes...

  16. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  17. Exposure to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on the Development of Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes in Canadian First Nations and Non-First Nations Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Elizabeth A C; Dean, Heather J; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Martens, Patricia J; Phillips-Beck, Wanda; Heaman, Maureen; Prior, Heather J; Dart, Allison B; McGavock, Jonathan; Morris, Margaret; Torshizi, Ali A; Ludwig, Sora; Shen, Garry X

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing in children worldwide, with Canadian First Nations (FN) children disproportionally affected. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) also is increasing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of GDM exposure in utero and FN status on the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring in the first 30 years of life. In this population-based historical prospective cohort study, we used administrative databases linked to a clinical database to explore the independent association and interaction between GDM and FN status on the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes in offspring. Among 321,008 births with a median follow-up of 15.1 years, both maternal GDM and FN status were independently associated with subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring in the first 30 years of life (hazard ratio 3.03 [95% CI 2.44-3.76; P diabetes risk was observed. FN status had a stronger impact on the development of type 2 diabetes in offspring than GDM. GDM is an important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and its prevention may reduce the prevalence of subsequent type 2 diabetes in offspring. This study adds unique and rigorous evidence to the global public health debate about the impact of GDM on the long-term health of offspring. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Cardiovascular response to mental stress in offspring of hypertensive parents: The Dutch Hypertension and Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. de Visser (D.); I.M.S. van Hooft (I. M S); L.J.P. van Doornen (Lorenz); A. Hofman (Albert); J.F. Orlebeke (J.); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare blood pressure-regulating mechanisms during mental stress in two groups of offspring with contrasting risk for hypertension. Design: Cardiovascular reactivity to two different types of mental stressors was studied in adolescents and young adults with two

  19. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  20. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  1. Costly infidelity: low lifetime fitness of extra-pair offspring in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Schroeder, Julia; Winney, Isabel; Burke, Terry; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    Extra-pair copulation (EPC) is widespread in socially monogamous species, but its evolutionary benefits remain controversial. Indirect genetic benefit hypotheses postulate that females engage in EPC to produce higher quality extra-pair offspring (EPO) than within-pair offspring (WPO). In contrast, the sexual conflict hypothesis posits that EPC is beneficial to males but not to females. Thus, under the sexual conflict hypothesis, EPO are predicted to be no fitter than WPO. We tested these two hypotheses in a 12-year dataset with complete life-history and pedigree information from an isolated island population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We compared fitness components of EPO and two types of WPO: (1) WPO from genetically polyandrous "unfaithful" mothers, and (2) WPO from genetically monogamous mothers. We found that all three groups of offspring had similar probabilities of hatching and nestling survival. Unexpectedly, EPO had the lowest probability of recruiting into the breeding population and the lowest lifetime reproductive output. Our results indicate that EPO incurred indirect genetic costs, rather than benefits, which is contrary to indirect benefit models. Importantly, the indirect costs we observed are also underappreciated in current sexual conflict models. Our results call for improved theoretical frameworks that incorporate indirect costs by extending current sexual conflict models. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Incidence of abnormal offspring from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan R

    2014-02-01

    In animals produced by assisted reproductive technologies, two abnormal phenotypes have been characterized. Large offspring syndrome (LOS) occurs in offspring derived from in vitro cultured embryos, and the abnormal clone phenotype includes placental and fetal changes. LOS is readily apparent in ruminants, where a large calf or lamb derived from in vitro embryo production or cloning may weigh up to twice the expected body weight. The incidence of LOS varies widely between species. When similar embryo culture conditions are applied to nonruminant species, LOS either is not as dramatic or may even be unapparent. Coculture with serum and somatic cells was identified in the 1990s as a risk factor for abnormal development of ruminant pregnancies. Animals cloned from somatic cells may display a combination of fetal and placental abnormalities that are manifested at different stages of pregnancy and postnatally. In highly interventional technologies, such as nuclear transfer (cloning), the incidence of abnormal offspring continues to be a limiting factor to broader application of the technique. This review details the breadth of phenotypes found in nonviable pregnancies, together with the phenotypes of animals that survive the transition to extrauterine life. The focus is on animals produced using in vitro embryo culture and nuclear transfer in comparison to naturally occurring phenotypes.

  3. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decoupling of female host plant preference and offspring performance in relative specialist and generalist butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, M; Posledovich, D; Wiklund, C

    2015-08-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis posits that the host plant range of plant-feeding insects is ultimately limited by larval costs associated with feeding on multiple resources, and that female egg-laying preferences evolve in response to these costs. The trade-off of either using few host plant species and being a strong competitor on them due to effective utilization or using a wide host plant range but being a poor competitor is further predicted to result in host plant specialization. This follows under the hypothesis that both females and offspring are ultimately favoured by utilizing only the most suitable host(s). We develop an experimental approach to identify such trade-offs, i.e. larval costs associated with being a host generalist, and apply a suite of experiments to two sympatric and syntopic populations of the closely related butterflies Pieris napi and Pieris rapae. These butterflies show variation in their level of host specialization, which allowed comparisons between more and less specialized species and between families within species. Our results show that, first, the link between female host preference and offspring performance was not significantly stronger in the specialist compared to the generalist species. Second, the offspring of the host plant specialist did not outperform the offspring of the generalist on the former's most preferred host plant species. Finally, the more generalized species, or families within species, did not show higher survival or consistently higher growth rates than the specialists on the less preferred plants. Thus, the preference and performance traits appear to evolve as largely separated units.

  5. Fish Oil-Derived Fatty Acids in Pregnancy and Wheeze and Asthma in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L.

    2016-01-01

    in the children of women whose blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were in the lowest third of the trial population at randomization: 17.5% versus 34.1% (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.83; P=0.011). Analyses of secondary end points showed that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA......Background: Reduced intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may be a contributing factor to the increasing prevalence of wheezing disorders. We assessed the effect of supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs in pregnant women on the risk of persistent wheeze and asthma...... in their offspring. Methods: We randomly assigned 736 pregnant women at 24 weeks of gestation to receive 2.4 g of n-3 LCPUFA (fish oil) or placebo (olive oil) per day. Their children formed the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 (COPSAC2010) cohort and were followed prospectively...

  6. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane Lilleøre; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    Objective Maternal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring. We assessed the potential influence of both maternal and paternal RA on the risk of ASD in offspring to disentangle the influence of genetic inheritance from...

  7. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J ...

  8. Inbreeding parents should invest more resources in fewer offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Duthie, A. Bradley; Lee, Aline M.; Reid, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding increases parent?offspring relatedness and commonly reduces offspring viability, shaping selection on reproductive interactions involving relatives and associated parental investment (PI). Nevertheless, theories predicting selection for inbreeding versus inbreeding avoidance and selection for optimal PI have only been considered separately, precluding prediction of optimal PI and associated reproductive strategy given inbreeding. We unify inbreeding and PI theory, demonstrating tha...

  9. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  10. Psychopathology in the adolescent offspring of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, CG; Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA; Verhulst, FC

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and 14-months incidence of psychopathology in adolescent offspring of a bipolar parent. Method: Parent, teacher and self-report rating scales and Kiddie-SADS were used to assess 132 13-23-year-old offspring of bipolar parents.

  11. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. © FASEB.

  12. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  13. Effect of maternal rumination and disengagement during childhood on offspring neural response to reward in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Jacobs, Rachel H; Romens, Sarah E; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Forbes, Erika E

    2017-04-30

    Maternal rumination is a cognitive-affective trait that could influence offspring's ability to respond flexibly to positive and negative events, depending on the quality of maternal problem-solving behaviors with which rumination co-occurs. As reward circuitry is sensitive to stressors and related to risk for depression, reward circuitry is an appropriate candidate mechanism for how maternal characteristics influence offspring. We evaluated the independent and combined effect of maternal rumination and disengagement on adolescent neural response to reward win and loss. Participants were 122 boys and their mothers from low-income, urban backgrounds followed prospectively in a longitudinal study. The combination of high maternal rumination at child age 6 and high maternal disengagement during problem-solving at child age 10-12 was associated with lower anterior cingulate response to winning reward at age 20, but unrelated to neural response to losing reward. Lower anterior cingulate response to winning reward was associated with fewer anxiety symptoms during late adulthood. Findings suggest that maternal rumination occurring within the context of maternal disengagement during challenging experiences may be related to offspring blunted engagement during positive events. Helping highly ruminative mothers to restructure repetitive negative thoughts and to develop context-appropriate problem-solving behaviors may be important for promoting offspring affective development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure During Pregnancy With Speech, Scholastic, and Motor Disorders in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S; Gyllenberg, David; Malm, Heli; McKeague, Ian W; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Artama, Miia; Gissler, Mika; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Weissman, Myrna M; Gingrich, Jay A; Sourander, Andre

    2016-11-01

    Speech/language, scholastic, and motor disorders are common in children. It is unknown whether exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy influences susceptibility to these disorders. To examine whether SSRI exposure during pregnancy is associated with speech/language, scholastic, and motor disorders in offspring up to early adolescence. This prospective birth cohort study examined national population-based register data in Finland from 1996 to 2010. The sampling frame includes 845 345 pregnant women and their singleton offspring with data on maternal use of antidepressants and depression-related psychiatric disorders during pregnancy. There were 3 groups of offspring: 15 596 were in the SSRI-exposed group, ie, had mothers diagnosed as having depression-related psychiatric disorders with a history of purchasing SSRIs during pregnancy; 9537 were in the unmedicated group, ie, had mothers diagnosed as having depression-related psychiatric disorders without a history of purchasing SSRIs during pregnancy; and 31 207 were in the unexposed group, ie, had mothers without a psychiatric diagnosis or a history of purchasing SSRIs. Cumulative incidence of speech/language, scholastic, or motor disorders (829, 187, and 285 instances, respectively) from birth to 14 years. All hypotheses tested were formulated before data collection. Of the 56 340 infants included in the final cohort, 28 684 (50.9%) were male and 48 782 (86.6%) were 9 years or younger. The mean (SD) ages of children at diagnosis were 4.43 (1.67), 3.55 (2.67), and 7.73 (2.38) for speech/language, scholastic, and motor disorders, respectively. Offspring of mothers who purchased SSRIs at least twice during pregnancy had a significant 37% increased risk of speech/language disorders compared with offspring in the unmedicated group. The cumulative hazard of speech/language disorders was 0.0087 in the SSRI-exposed group vs 0.0061 in the unmedicated group (hazard ratio, 1

  15. Psychomotor development and general movements in offspring of women with epilepsy and anticonvulsant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Pasquale; Francia, Ada; Vanacore, Nicola; Fiore, Stefania; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Manfredi, Mario

    2003-11-01

    While the role of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy in teratogenesis has widely been investigated, there are few prospective studies on later postnatal development in offspring of epileptic women in utero exposed. The aim of this study was a prospective investigation of the psychomotor development in a selected population of infant born to women with epilepsy on AED therapy during pregnancy. Children were assessed at various times until 30 months of age by general movement (GMs) observation (at 7 days and 4 and 13 weeks), traditional neurologic examination (at 7 days and 4 and 13 weeks, 6, 9 and 12 months) and Brunet-Lezine (B-L) administration (at 30 months). We present the preliminary results of our study conducted on 11 children. Psychomotor delay in children was confirmed by traditional neurological examinations scores at 7 days, 4 weeks, 13 weeks and 6 months and by B-L score at 30 months. Between 9 and 12 months of age, traditional neurologic examination became "silent". GM assessment was found to be a better predictor of psychomotor development. In fact, GM analysis, particularly at 4 weeks, was strongly correlated with the Brunet-Lezine score at 30 months. In conclusion, on the basis of these data we suggest a psychomotor delay in the offspring of epileptic women and that GMs and neurologic evaluation provide complementary information concerning psychomotor development and later outcome of these children.

  16. Differential maternal testosterone allocation among siblings benefits both mother and offspring in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncoraglio, Giuseppe; Groothuis, Ton G G; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus

    2011-07-01

    Parents are selected to preferentially invest in the offspring with highest reproductive value. One mechanism for achieving this is the modification of competitive asymmetries between siblings by maternal hormones. In many organisms, offspring value varies according to birth position in the brood, which determines survival chances and competitive advantage over access to resources. In birds, variation in yolk androgen allocation over the laying sequence is thought to modulate dominance of senior chicks over junior brood mates. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches, which show a naturally decreasing pattern of within-clutch testosterone allocation. We abolished these within-clutch differences by experimentally elevating yolk testosterone levels in eggs 2-6 to the level of egg 1, and we assessed fitness measures for junior offspring (eggs 2-6), senior offspring (egg 1), and their mothers. Testosterone-injected eggs hatched later than control eggs. Junior, but not senior, chicks in testosterone-treated broods attained poorer phenotypic quality compared to control broods, which was not compensated for by positive effects on seniors. Mothers were generally unaffected by clutch treatment. Thus, naturally decreasing within-clutch yolk testosterone allocation appears to benefit all family members and does not generally enhance brood reduction by favoring senior chicks, in contrast to the widely held assumption.

  17. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... of a close relative in the antenatal period increases the occurrence of cryptorchidism in the offspring. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, we studied death of a close relative as the exposure and cryptorchidism entries in nationwide medical registries as the outcome. Danish national registries included...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  18. The origins of altruism in offspring care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D

    2013-11-01

    The current review aims to unify existing views of altruism through an examination of the biological bases of a fundamental form of giving: altruistic responding. Altruistic responding is most salient during heroic acts of helping but is also observed any time one perceives another's distress or need, which in turn motivates one to help at a current cost to the self. Such aid is simple, observable across species, and rooted in the instincts and circuits that evolved to maximize inclusive fitness through the care of helpless offspring. By design, the system already biases aid to both kin and nonkin under conditions that are largely adaptive. These inherent benefits are also buttressed in primates and humans by known, later-arriving benefits to helping in group-living animals. Evidence for the proposed homology between altruistic responding and offspring retrieval is presented through 10 key shared factors. Conceptually, both require (a) participation by nonmothers, (b) motor competence and expertise, (c) an adaptive opponency between avoidance and approach, and a facilitating role of (d) neonatal vulnerability, (e) salient distress, and (f) rewarding close contact. Physiologically, they also share neurohormonal support from (g) oxytocin, (h) the domain-general mesolimbocortical system, (i) the cingulate cortex, and (j) the orbitofrontal cortex. The framework intermixes ultimate and proximate levels of analysis and unifies existing views by assuming that even complex human behaviors reflect ancient mammalian neural systems that evolved to solve key problems in adaptive ways, with far-reaching consequences for even our most venerated human traits. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  19. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  20. Association between maternal diet quality and offspring diet quality assessed at age 14 years: longitudinal study in a large contemporary cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Anne Ahrendt; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Tetens, Inge

    2017-01-01

    -pregnancy BMI, level of education, and maternal smoking. Interpretation  This is the first study, to our knowledge, to examine associations between maternal dietary habits during pregnancy and offspring dietary habits during adolescent years in a large contemporary cohort. Diet quality during pregnancy...... pregnancy was associated with adolescent diet quality 15 years later in a prospective cohort representing a typical high-income population. Methods  Dietary intake assessed with a 360-item food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (1996–2003) was matched with offspring dietary intake assessed...... if the mother was ranked in the highest quartile of HEI during pregnancy (relative risk 2·05, 95% CI 1·91–2·20). Adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy body-mass index (BMI), parity, level of education, smoking, and energy intake of offspring did not affect the estimates, nor did analyses within strata of pre...

  1. Intrauterine exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy and the occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadia in the offspring: the Generation R Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snijder, Claudia A.; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Steegers, Eric A.P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, over-the-counter mild analgesic use during pregnancy has been suggested to influence the risk of reproductive disorders in the offspring. We examined the influence of maternal exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy on the occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadia...... in their offspring. METHODS: Associations between maternal exposure to mild analgesics during pregnancy and cryptorchidism or hypospadia in the offspring were studied in 3184 women participating in a large population-based prospective birth cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in the Netherlands (2002......–2006), the Generation R Study. Cryptorchidism and hypospadia were identified during routine screening assessments performed in child health care centres by trained physicians. The use of mild analgesics was assessed in three prenatal questionnaires in pregnancy, resulting in four periods of use, namely, periconception...

  2. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; Liu, George

    2015-04-01

    Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia were mated with non-transgenic control mice to obtain 4 types of offspring: maternal non-transgenic control and maternal transgenic offspring, and paternal control and paternal transgenic offspring. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured. ApoCIII overexpression caused severe hypertriglyceridemia, but the transgenic female mice had unaltered fertility with normal pregnancy and birth of pups. The 4 groups of offspring had similar birth weight and growth rate. The plasma TG of maternal and paternal transgenic offspring were nearly 40-fold higher than maternal and paternal control mice, but there was no difference in plasma TG between maternal and paternal transgenic offspring. Although the FPG of the 4 groups of animals had no difference, the maternal transgenic mice showed impaired glucose tolerance, increased FINS levels and higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the other 3 groups. In conclusion, maternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia in ApoCIII transgenic mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-R, while paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia did not have such impacts.

  3. Paternal personality and social status influence offspring activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Susanne; Herbert-Read, James E; Abbasi, Nasir M; Zajitschek, Felix; Immler, Simone

    2017-07-03

    Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the non-genetic transmission of plastic behavioural traits from parents to offspring. We investigated the relative effect of personality and of social dominance as indicators at the opposite ends of the plasticity range on offspring behaviour in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We assessed male boldness, a behavioural trait that has previously been shown previously to possess genetic underpinnings, and experimentally manipulated male social status to assess the association between the two types of behaviour and their correlation with offspring activity. We found a clear interaction between the relatively stable and putative genetic effects based on inherited differences in personality and the experimentally induced epigenetic effects from changes in the social status of the father on offspring activity. Our study shows that offspring behaviour is determined by a combination of paternal personality traits and on-genetic effects derived from the social status of the father.

  4. High BRAF Mutation Frequency and Marked Survival Differences in Subgroups According to KRAS/BRAF Mutation Status and Tumor Tissue Availability in a Prospective Population-Based Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Dragomir, Anca; Sundström, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    RAS and BRAF mutations impact treatment and prognosis of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (mCRC), but the knowledge is based on trial patients usually not representative for the general cancer population. Patient characteristics, treatment and efficacy according to KRAS, BRAF and MSI status...... micro array (TMA) (42%) had worse prognostic factors and inferior survival (all patients; 7m vs 11m, chemotherapy-treated;12m vs 17m). The 92 patients (21%) with BRAF mutation had a poor prognosis regardless of microsatellite instability, but receipt of 1-2nd chemotherapy was similar to wildtype BRAF...... patients. Median survival in this cohort varied from 1 month in BRAF mutated patients not given chemotherapy to 26 months in wildtype KRAS/BRAF patients mutation and KRAS mutation were all independent prognostic factors for survival. The observed 21% BRAF...

  5. No difference in cardiac event-free survival between positron emission tomography-guided and single-photon emission computed tomography-guided patient management - A prospective, randomized comparison of patients with suspicion of jeopardized myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, HMJ; Blanksma, PK; Crijns, HJGM; Bax, JJ; van Boven, AJ; Kingma, T; Piers, DA; Pruim, J; Jager, PL; Vaalburg, W; van der Wall, EE

    OBJECTIVES We sought to prospectively compare nitrogen-13 (N-13)-ammonia/(18)fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-guided management with stress/rest technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-guided management BACKGROUND Patients

  6. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  7. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  8. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T D; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  9. Maternal vitamin D beneficially programs metabolic, gut and bone health of mouse male offspring in an obesogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, C R; Chen, J; Wen, B; Sacco, S M; Taibi, A; Ward, W E; Comelli, E M

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin D is an anti-inflammatory nutrient and a determinant of bone health. Some prospective studies suggest that maternal vitamin D status is positively associated with offspring bone mass. We found that serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory molecule related to adiposity, insulin resistance and bone resorption, is lower in healthy mouse offspring exposed to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. LPS reaches the circulation via the gut. This study investigated whether maternal vitamin D programs metabolic, gut and bone health of male offspring in an obesogenic environment. C57BL/6J dams received an AIN-93G diet with high (H) or low (L) vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, offspring remained on their dam's vitamin D level (LL or HH) or were switched (LH or HL) and fed a high fat (44.2%) and sucrose (19.8%) diet. Glucose response, adiposity, systemic inflammation (LPS, cytokines), intestinal permeability and mass, strength and microarchitecture of trabecular and cortical bone were assessed in 7-month-old male offsprings. Higher maternal dietary vitamin D resulted in lower intestinal permeability (fecal albumin, P=0.010) and benefited trabecular but not cortical bone structure at the distal femur (higher trabecular number, P=0.022; less trabecular separation, P=0.015) and lumbar vertebra 2 (bone volume/total volume%, P=0.049). Higher maternal and offspring vitamin D resulted in lower fasting glucose (HH versus LL, P=0.039) and serum LPS concentrations (dam diet, P=0.011; pup diet, P=0.002). Higher offspring vitamin D resulted in lower epididymal fat pad relative weight (P=0.006). The serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α did not differ among groups. Maternal dietary vitamin D beneficially programs intestinal permeability and systemic LPS concentration, which is accompanied by stronger trabecular bone in an obesogenic environment. Thus, the gut may mediate vitamin D effects. Moreover, optimizing vitamin D

  10. Fear affects parental care, which predicts juvenile survival and exacerbates the total cost of fear on demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudeck, Blair P; Clinchy, Michael; Allen, Marek C; Zanette, Liana Y

    2018-01-01

    Fear itself (perceived predation risk) can affect wildlife demography, but the cumulative impact of fear on population dynamics is not well understood. Parental care is arguably what most distinguishes birds and mammals from other taxa, yet only one experiment on wildlife has tested fear effects on parental food provisioning and the repercussions this has for the survival of dependent offspring, and only during early-stage care. We tested the effect of fear on late-stage parental care of mobile dependent offspring, by locating radio-tagged Song Sparrow fledglings and broadcasting predator or non-predator playbacks in their vicinity, measuring their parent's behavior and their own, and tracking the offspring's survival to independence. Fear significantly reduced late-stage parental care, and parental fearfulness (as indexed by their reduction in provisioning when hearing predators) significantly predicted their offspring's condition and survival. Combining results from this experiment with that on early-stage care, we project that fear itself is powerful enough to reduce late-stage survival by 24%, and cumulatively reduce the number of young reaching independence by more than half, 53%. Experiments in invertebrate and aquatic systems demonstrate that fear is commonly as important as direct killing in affecting prey demography, and we suggest focusing more on fear effects and on offspring survival will reveal the same for wildlife. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Reduced pre-hospital and in-hospital survival rates after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus : An observational prospective community-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoeijen, Daniel A.; Blom, Marieke T.; Bardai, Abdennasser; Souverein, Patrick C.; De Boer, Anthonius; Tan, Hanno L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major cause of death. We aimed to determine whether type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with reduced pre-hospital and in-hospital survival rates after OHCA. Methods and results An observational community-based cohort study was performed

  12. Micro-Albuminuria In Adolescent/Young Adult Offsprings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Offspring of Young Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund; Schmidt, Anne Aarslev; Mulvihill, John J

    2018-01-01

    Danish cancer survivors and 40 859 offspring (40 794 live-born children and 65 fetuses) of 19 536 siblings. Chromosomal abnormalities include numeric and structural abnormalities. Odds ratios were estimated by multiple logistic regression models comparing the risk of chromosomal abnormalities among...... compared with their siblings' offspring (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 1.44, two-sided P = .94), with similar risk between male and female survivors. Cancer survivors were not more likely than their siblings to have children with a chromosomal abnormality.......To examine whether cancer survivors diagnosed before age 35 years are more likely to have offspring with chromosomal abnormalities than their siblings, chromosomal abnormalities were determined in a population-based cohort of 14 611 offspring (14 580 live-born children and 31 fetuses) of 8945...

  14. Maternal smoking during pregnancy induces airway remodelling in mice offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, M. J.; Timens, W.; Melgert, B. N.; Geerlings, M.; Postma, D. S.; Hylkema, M. N.

    Children from smoking mothers have an increased risk of developing asthma for reasons largely unknown. The effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on remodelling, allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in offspring were investigated in an experimental asthma model. Mice were

  15. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic...

  16. Mammal Reproductive Strategies Driven by Offspring Mortality-Size Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2009-01-01

    and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring within a litter and between a few large litters and many small ones within a reproductive season....... Artiodactyls, perissodactyls, cetaceans, and pinnipeds, which give birth in the open on land or in the sea, produce a few large offspring, at infrequent intervals, because this increases their chances of escaping predation. Insectivores, fissiped carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents, whose offspring...... are protected in burrows or nests, produce large litters of small newborns. Primates, bats, sloths, and anteaters, which carry their young from birth until weaning, produce litters of one or a few offspring because of the need to transport and care for them....

  17. Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing; Shu, Wei-qun

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy.

  18. Do embryos influence maternal investment? Evaluating maternal-fetal coadaptation and the potential for parent-offspring conflict in a placental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Matthew; Travis, Joseph

    2009-11-01

    The evolution of matrotrophy introduces the potential for genomic conflicts between mothers and embryos. These conflicts are hypothesized to accelerate the evolution of reproductive isolation and to influence the evolution of life-history traits, reproductive structures, and genomic imprinting. These hypotheses assume offspring can influence the amount of maternal investment they receive and that there is a trade-off between maternal investment into individual offspring and maternal survival or fecundity. We used field data and laboratory crosses to test whether these assumptions are met in the matrotrophic poeciliid fish Heterandria formosa. Comparisons of life histories between two natural populations demonstrated a trade-off between the level of maternal investment into individual embryos and maternal fecundity. Laboratory crosses between individuals from these populations revealed that offspring genotype exerts an influence on the level of maternal investment and affects maternal fecundity through higher rates of embryo abortion and lower numbers of full-term offspring. Our results show that the prerequisites for parent-offspring conflict to be a potent evolutionary force in poeciliid fish are present in H. formosa. However, determining whether this conflict has shaped maternal investment in nature will require disentangling any effects of conflict from those of several ecological factors that are themselves correlated with the expected intensity of conflict.

  19. Experimental comparison of the reproductive outcomes and early development of the offspring of rats given five common types of drinking water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available Tap water (unfiltered, filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague-Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA; the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy.

  20. Maternal Food Restriction during Pregnancy and Lactation Adversely Affect Hepatic Growth and Lipid Metabolism in Three-Week-Old Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal malnutrition influences the early development of foetal adaptive changes for survival. We explored the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation and lactation on hepatic growth and function. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal or a food-restricted (FR diet during gestation and/or lactation. We performed analyses of covariance (adjusting for the liver weight/body weight ratio to compare hepatic growth and lipid metabolism among the offspring. Maternal FR during gestation triggered the development of wide spaces between hepatic cells and increased the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in three-week-old male offspring compared with controls (both p < 0.05. Offspring nursed by FR dams exhibited wider spaces between hepatic cells and a lower liver weight/body weight ratio than control offspring, and increased mTOR expression (p < 0.05. Interestingly, the significant decrease in expression of lipogenic-related genes was dependent on carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein, despite the increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1 (p < 0.05. This study demonstrated increased expression of key metabolic regulators (mTOR and SREBP1, alterations in lipid metabolism, and deficits in hepatic growth in the offspring of FR-treated dams.

  1. Sex distribution of offspring-parents obesity: Angel's hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Watt, Graham; Lean, Michael E J

    2011-08-01

    This study, which is based on two cross sectional surveys' data, aims to establish any effect of parental obesity sex distribution of offspring and to replicate the results that led to the hypothesis that obesity may be associated with sex-linked recessive lethal gene. A representative sample of 4,064 couples living in Renfrew/Paisley, Scotland was surveyed 1972-1976. A total of 2,338 offspring from 1,477 of the couples screened in 1972-1976, living in Paisley, were surveyed in 1996. In this study, males represented 47.7% among the total offspring of the couples screened in 1972-1976. In the first survey there was a higher male proportion of offspring (53%, p parents who were both obese, yet this was not significant after adjustment for age of parents. Also, there were no other significant differences in sex distribution of offspring according to body mass index, age, or social class of parents. The conditions of the original 1949 study of Angel ( 1949 ) (which proposed a sex-linked lethal recessive gene) were simulated by selecting couples with at least one obese daughter. In this subset, (n = 409), obesity in fathers and mothers was associated with 26% of offspring being male compared with 19% of offspring from a non-obese father and obese mother. Finally we conclude that families with an obese father have a higher proportion of male offspring. These results do not support the long-established hypotheses of a sex-linked recessive lethal gene in the etiology of obesity.

  2. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and offspring body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Sorensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC).......Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)....

  3. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Offspring sex ratio of Iranian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Mirdehghan, Seyedeh Reihaneh; Namdari, Mahshid; Bayat, Fariborz

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of occupational factors on the sex ratio of dentists' children. A randomly selected 501 Iranian dentists participated in a telephone interview. The participants were contacted by their mobile number to answer questions about demographic variables (gender, age, marriage status), practice-related variables (year of graduation as general or specialist dentist, years of clinical work, working hours, average number of radiographs taken in a day, and spouse's job), and questions about their children (number, gender and date of birth of each child). Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests served for statistical evaluation. Of all participating dentists, 71 % were men, about two-thirds were 35- to 50-year olds, and 89 % were married. In total, the dentists had 768 children; about 21 % had no child. Of all the children, 54 % were boys (overall sex ratio = 1.17). The offspring sex ratio was 1.13 among male dentists, 1.50 for female dentists, and 1.44 when both parents were dentists. Higher percentages of boys were prevalent among female dentists, younger dentists, and general dental practitioners (p dentists' children in this study. However, the result needs evaluation in further studies.

  5. Sangiovese and its offspring in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, Marica; Caputo, Angelo Raffaele; Bergamini, Carlo; Crupi, Pasquale; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Perniola, Rocco; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-06-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of different approaches such as ampelography, historical researches, and molecular analysis to reveal direct parent-child relationship. The aim of this paper was to highlight the degree of relationship to five varieties spread in southern Italy, through ampelographic and molecular characterization: Sangiovese, Mantonico di Bianco, Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese. Molecular characterization was carried out through 52 SSR molecular markers, showing that Sangiovese and Mantonico di Bianco are the parents of Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese. Ampelographic description was performed using the method developed by the Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin. This analysis identifies three distinct groups: the first brings together Sangiovese and the two offspring Nerello Mascalese and Gaglioppo di Cirò, while Mantonico di Bianco and Mantonicone are positioned at a distance from the first and between them. Using molecular characterization, supported by the ampelographic one, we showed that Gaglioppo di Cirò, Mantonicone, and Nerello Mascalese, three varieties recovered in the southern regions of Italy, such as Calabria and Sicily, originated by the cross between a nationally spread grape variety as Sangiovese and a Calabria autochthonous vine as Mantonico di Bianco.

  6. Sleep characteristics in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebela, Antonin; Novak, Tomas; Kemlink, David; Goetz, Michal

    2017-05-26

    Impairment of sleep and circadian rhythm is a typical feature of bipolar disorder (BD). We carried out an exploratory cross-sectional case-control study to extend the knowledge of sleep characteristics in offspring at risk for BD. We investigated 42 offspring of bipolar parents (OB) (mean age 12.5 ± 3.2) and 42 sex and age matched comparison offspring of healthy parents. We administered the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire and The General Behavior Inventory Sleep Subscale (GBISS) to assess circadian preference, and to identify sleep impairment symptoms. In addition, the participants completed 14 days of actigraphy to characterise sleep and wake patterns. The current psychopathology profile was assessed using Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher among OB than controls (headache after waking up, 17.9% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.03; excessive daytime sleepiness, 38.5% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.004; apparent tiredness at wake-up times, 43.6% vs. 15.0%, p = 0.007 and nightmares, 21.6% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.01), but the differences between groups were not significant after adjusting for current psychopathology. OB had higher GBISS total score (parental version, p parents experience sleep disturbance symptoms, which was associated with psychopathology in this study. Prospective longitudinal sleep studies would clarify whether sleep disturbance could be a predictor of mood disorder onset in this high-risk population.

  7. Repeated salivary daytime cortisol and onset of mood episodes in offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodday, Sarah M; Horrocks, Julie; Keown-Stoneman, Charles; Grof, Paul; Duffy, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Differences in cortisol secretion may differentiate individuals at high compared to low genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and predict the onset or recurrence of mood episodes. The objectives of this study were to determine if salivary cortisol measures are: (1) different in high-risk offspring of parents with BD (HR) compared to control offspring of unaffected parents (C), (2) stable over time, (3) associated with the development of mood episode onset/recurrence, and (4) influenced by comorbid complications. Fifty-three HR and 22 C completed salivary cortisol sampling annually for up to 4 years in conjunction with semi-structured clinical interviews. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), daytime cortisol [area under the curve (AUC)], and evening cortisol (8:00 p.m.) were calculated. There were no differences in baseline CAR, AUC and evening cortisol between HR and C (p = 0.38, p = 0.30 and p = 0.84), respectively. CAR, AUC and evening cortisol were stable over yearly assessments in HR, while in Cs, evening cortisol increased over time (p = 0.008), and CAR and AUC remained stable. In HR, AUC and evening cortisol increased the hazard of a new onset mood disorder/recurrence by 2.7 times (p = 0.01), and 3.5 times (p = 0.01), respectively, but this was no longer significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. Salivary cortisol is stable over time within HR offspring. However, between individuals, basal salivary cortisol is highly variable. More research is needed, with larger samples of prospectively studied HR youth using a more reliable method of cortisol measurement, to determine the potential role of cortisol in the development of mood disorders.

  8. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. [Psychopathological Profiles of Offspring of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Esteban Uribe; Briceño, Paola Gutiérrez; Palacio, Juan David; García, Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has a high heritability and is more prevalent in first-degree relatives with family history. This makes the bipolar offspring (BO) an ideal study group to evaluate the natural history and the prodromal symptoms of this disorder. The main psychopathological findings for this group in various studies are described in this review. Articles comparing the psychopathology of bipolar offspring to either the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls were reviewed. The reviewed studies showed that the BO group had higher rates of affective disorders when compared to the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls. The high prevalence of anxiety disorders, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorders in this population suggest that such disorders could be considered prodromes of mood disorders. The group of BO had a significantly higher risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders besides BD. More longitudinal studies are needed to characterize this population at risk for BD and to elucidate the risk factors in the progression of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiomyopathy in Offspring of Pregestational Diabetic Mouse Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dowling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate cardiomyopathy in offspring in a mouse model of pregestational type 1 diabetic pregnancy. Methods. Pregestational diabetes was induced with STZ administration in female C57BL6/J mice that were subsequently mated with healthy C57BL6/J males. Offspring were sacrificed at embryonic day 18.5 and 6-week adolescent and 12-week adult stages. The size and number of cardiomyocyte nuclei and also the extent of collagen deposition within the hearts of diabetic and control offspring were assessed following cardiac tissue staining with either haematoxylin and eosin or Picrosirius red and subsequently quantified using automated digital image analysis. Results. Offspring from diabetic mice at embryonic day 18.5 had a significantly higher number of cardiomyocyte nuclei present compared to controls. These nuclei were also significantly smaller than controls. Collagen deposition was shown to be significantly increased in the hearts of diabetic offspring at the same age. No significant differences were found between the groups at 6 and 12 weeks. Conclusions. Our results from offspring of type 1 diabetic mice show increased myocardial collagen deposition in late gestation and have increased myocardial nuclear counts (hyperplasia as opposed to increased myocardial nuclear size (hypertrophy in late gestation. These changes normalize postpartum after removal from the maternal intrauterine environment.

  11. Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Little, Tom J

    2014-07-01

    Maternal effects have wide-ranging effects on life-history traits. Here, using the crustacean Daphnia magna, we document a new effect: maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate, with low quantities of food triggering mothers to produce slow-feeding offspring. Such a change in the rate of resource acquisition has broad implications for population growth or dynamics and for interactions with, for instance, predators and parasites. This maternal effect can also explain the previously puzzling situation that the offspring of well-fed mothers, despite being smaller, grow and reproduce better than the offspring of food-starved mothers. As an additional source of variation in resource acquisition, this maternal effect may also influence relationships between life-history traits, i.e. trade-offs, and thus constraints on adaptation. Maternal nutrition has long-lasting effects on health and particularly diet-related traits in humans; finding an effect of maternal nutrition on offspring feeding rate in Daphnia highlights the utility of this organism as a powerful experimental model for exploring the relationship between maternal diet and offspring fitness. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Female promiscuity and maternally dependent offspring growth rates in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C; Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    Conflicts between family members are expected to influence the duration and intensity of parental care. In mammals, the majority of this care occurs as resource transfer from mothers to offspring during gestation and lactation. Mating systems can have a strong influence on the severity of familial conflict--where female promiscuity is prevalent, conflict is expected to be higher between family members, causing offspring to demand more resources. If offspring are capable of manipulating their mothers and receive resources in proportion to their demands, resource transfer should increase with elevated promiscuity. We tested this prediction, unexplored across mammals, using a comparative approach. The total durations of gestation and lactation were not related to testes mass, a reliable proxy of female promiscuity across taxa. Offspring growth during gestation, however, and weaning mass, were positively correlated with testes mass, suggesting that offspring gain resources from their mothers at faster rates when familial conflict is greater. During gestation, the relationship between offspring growth and testes mass was also related to placenta morphology, with a stronger relationship between testes mass and growth observed in species with a less invasive placenta. Familial conflict could have a pervasive influence on patterns of parental care in mammals. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Effects of age and sex ratios on offspring recruitment rates in translocated black rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Law, Peter R; du Preez, Pierre; Linklater, Wayne L

    2017-09-22

    Success of animal translocations depends on improving postrelease demographic rates toward establishment and subsequent growth of released populations. Short-term metrics for evaluating translocation success and its drivers, like postrelease survival and fecundity, are unlikely to represent longer-term outcomes. We used information theory to investigate 25 years of data on black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) translocations. We used the offspring recruitment rate (ORR) of translocated females-a metric integrating survival, fecundity, and offspring recruitment at sexual maturity-to detect determinants of success. Our unambiguously best model (AICω = 0.986) predicted that ORR increases with female age at release as a function of lower postrelease adult rhinoceros sex ratio (males:females). Delay of first postrelease reproduction and failure of some females to recruit any calves to sexual maturity most influenced the pattern of ORRs, and the leading causes of recruitment failure were postrelease female death (23% of all females) and failure to calve (24% of surviving females). We recommend translocating older females (≥6 years old) because they do not exhibit the reproductive delay and low ORRs of juveniles (<4 years old) or the higher rates of recruitment failure of juveniles and young adults (4-5.9 years old). Where translocation of juveniles is necessary, they should be released into female-biased populations, where they have higher ORRs. Our study offers the unique advantage of a long-term analysis across a large number of replicate populations-a science-by-management experiment as a proxy for a manipulative experiment, and a rare opportunity, particularly for a large, critically endangered taxon such as the black rhinoceros. Our findings differ from previous recommendations, reinforce the importance of long-term data sets and comprehensive metrics of translocation success, and suggest attention be shifted from ecological to social constraints on population

  14. Perfect genetic correlation between number of offspring and grandoffspring in an industrialized human population

    OpenAIRE

    Zietsch, B.P.; Kuja-Halkola, R; Walum, H.; Verweij, K J H

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success is widely used as a measure of fitness. However, offspring quantity may not reflect the genetic contribution to subsequent generations if there is nonrandom variation in offspring quality. Offspring quality is likely to be an important component of human fitness, and tradeoffs between offspring quantity and quality have been reported. As such, studies using offspring quantity as a proxy for fitness may yield erroneous projections of evolutionary change, for example if the...

  15. Primed for success: Oyster parents treated with poly(I:C) produce offspring with enhanced protection against Ostreid herpesvirus type I infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Helbig, Karla; Speck, Peter; Raftos, David A

    2016-10-01

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is farmed globally. Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1) causes severe mortalities of farmed C. gigas. Management of OsHV-1 has proven difficult. Oysters treated with poly(I:C) exhibit enhanced protection (EP) against OsHV-1. This chemical treatment is highly effective, but it is not feasible to treat every oyster on a farm. To circumvent this practical limitation, previous studies on arthropods have suggested that EP can be transferred from parents to their offspring (trans-generational EP, TGEP). This suggests that the treatment of relatively few parents could be used to produce large numbers of offspring with TGEP. Here, we investigated TGEP in oysters to test whether it might be used as a cost effective management tool to control OsHV-1. We found that offspring (D-veliger larvae) produced from poly(I:C)-treated parents had double the chance of surviving exposure to OsHV-1 compared to controls. Furthermore, the larvae of poly(I:C)-treated parents contained elevated levels of mRNA encoding a key transcription factor that regulates antiviral immunity (IRF2). Poly(I:C) treatment had no effect on the survival of oyster parents. Hence, the enhanced immunity of their offspring could not be explained by genetic selection, and instead may reflect epigenetic reprogramming or maternal provisioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrian, Sonya K; Holson, R R

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings' social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  17. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy and congenital heart defects in offspring: review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Yu, Di; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Wang, Zhiqi; Lin, Yuan; Ni, Bixian; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

    2014-11-11

    The prognosis of children with congenital heart defects(CHDs) continues to improve with advancing surgical techniques; however, lack of information about modifiable risk factors for malformations in cardiovascular development impeded the prevention of CHDs. We investigated an association between maternal lifestyle factors and the risk of CHDs, because epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal lifestyle factors and the risk of CHDs recently. A review published on 2007 provided a summary of maternal exposures associated with an increased risk of CHDs. As part of noninherited risk factors, we conducted a brief overview of studies on the evidence linking common maternal lifestyle factors, specifically smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, caffeine, body mass index and psychological factors to the development of CHDs in offspring. Women who smoke and have an excessive body mass index(BMI) during pregnancy are suspected to be associated with CHDs in offspring. Our findings could cause public health policy makers to pay more attention to women at risk and could be used in the development of population-based prevention strategies to reduce the incidence and burden of CHDs. However, more prospective studies are needed to investigate the association between maternal lifestyle factors and CHDs.

  18. The Synergistic Roles of the Chronic Prenatal and Offspring Stress Exposures in Impairing Offspring Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Chen, Ke-Yang; Han, Zhen-Min; Wang, Qi-Hong; Yao, Yu-You

    2016-04-23

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), extensive experimental studies have demonstrated a negative impact of chronic stress during various stages of life (including prenatal phase) on some aspects of AD pathology. Nevertheless, presently, few studies have been involved in the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathology elicited by the chronic prenatal stress (CPS) and the chronic offspring stress (COS) exposures simultaneously, particularly for the adult male APPswe/PS1dE9 murine offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CPS on learning and memory impairments induced by COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice and the related mechanism. Our study firstly demonstrates that 14-day exposure to CPS could exacerbate the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathological damages in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus and cortex neurons, which is induced by the 28-day exposure to COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice. In addition, CPS could potentiate the production of AβPP, Aβ42, and corticosterone in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring that also suffer COS. In conclusion, our novel findings strongly implicate the synergistic roles of the CPS and COS exposures in impairing offspring learning and memory. Moreover, CPS potentiating the production of Aβ42 might be mediated by glucocorticoids through increasing the expression of APP and BACE1 gene.

  19. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected.Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue.Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice.Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  20. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Trauer

    Full Text Available In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages

  1. Association between Maternal Depression Symptoms across the First Eleven Years of Their Child’s Life and Subsequent Offspring Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Mahedy, Liam; Mars, Becky; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita; Zammit, Stanley; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common, especially in women of child-bearing age; prevalence estimates for this group range from 8% to 12%, and there is robust evidence that maternal depression is associated with mental health problems in offspring. Suicidal behaviour is a growing concern amongst young people and those exposed to maternal depression are likely to be especially at high risk. The aim of this study was to utilise a large, prospective population cohort to examine the relationship between depression symptom trajectories in mothers over the first eleven years of their child’s life and subsequent adolescent suicidal ideation. An additional aim was to test if associations were explained by maternal suicide attempt and offspring depressive disorder. Data were utilised from a population-based birth cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Maternal depression symptoms were assessed repeatedly from pregnancy to child age 11 years. Offspring suicidal ideation was assessed at age 16 years. Using multiple imputation, data for 10,559 families were analysed. Using latent class growth analysis, five distinct classes of maternal depression symptoms were identified (minimal, mild, increasing, sub-threshold, chronic-severe). The prevalence of past-year suicidal ideation at age 16 years was 15% (95% CI: 14-17%). Compared to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms, the greatest risk of suicidal ideation was found for offspring of mothers with chronic-severe symptoms [OR 3.04 (95% CI 2.19, 4.21)], with evidence for smaller increases in risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with sub-threshold, increasing and mild symptoms. These associations were not fully accounted for by maternal suicide attempt or offspring depression diagnosis. Twenty-six percent of non-depressed offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms reported suicidal ideation. Risk for suicidal ideation should be considered in young people whose mothers have a history of

  2. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA methylation mediates the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birthweight of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpers, Leanne K; Xu, Xiaojing; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Vaez, Ahmad; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; Scholtens, Salome; Nolte, Ilja M; Richmond, Rebecca C; Relton, Caroline L; Felix, Janine F; Duijts, Liesbeth; van Meurs, Joyce B; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Wang, Xiaoling; Corpeleijn, Eva; Snieder, Harold

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birthweight of the offspring was mediated by smoking-induced changes to DNA methylation in cord blood. First, we used cord blood of 129 Dutch children exposed to maternal smoking vs 126 unexposed to maternal and paternal smoking (53% male) participating in the GECKO Drenthe birth cohort. DNA methylation was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Beadchip. We performed an epigenome-wide association study for the association between maternal smoking and methylation followed by a mediation analysis of the top signals [false-discovery rate (FDR) smoking, of which 23 survived Bonferroni correction (P smoking on birthweight (Sobel P smoking mothers. Functional enrichment analysis pointed towards activation of cell-mediated immunity. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood methylation differences. We observed a potentially mediating role of methylation in the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birthweight of the offspring. Functional network analysis suggested a role in activating the immune system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Is subfertility or fertility treatment associated with long-term growth in the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether fertility treatment or subfertility is associated with long-term growth in the offspring. DESIGN: A prospective follow-up study including 1,773 singletons participating in the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study at the age of 5. SETTING: Research centers. PATIENT......(S): A total of 3,478 mother-child pairs were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort, and 1,773 completed the outcome measurements. A total of 69 children were born after fertility treatment, whereas 132 were born to subfertile parents conceiving spontaneously but after a time to pregnancy of more than......, perinatal outcomes, and postnatal parental lifestyle characteristics were obtained from the Danish National Birth Cohort, the 5-year follow-up, and Danish health registers. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Adjusted mean differences in body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and head...

  5. A specific immune tolerance toward offspring cells is to exist after the mother lymphocyte infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haizhou; Liu, Shiqin; Chen, Xue; Fang, Fang; Wu, Xueqiang; Zhu, Ping

    2017-04-01

    To examine immune tolerance between maternal lymphocytes and offspring tissue after a donor lymphocyte infusion. Mouse models were established by mating female BALB/c mice with male C57BL mice. Splenic lymphocytes from donors of different genetic backgrounds were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and 1×10(7) of the labeled cells were intravenously injected into a recipient. At 6h, 24h, 72h and 120h after the infusion, mononuclear cells in recipient spleen, liver, thymus, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood were collected. CFSE+, CFSE-, CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, CD19+, NK1.1+, CD25+, and CD127+ lymphocytes in those samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. The distribution of donor T cells, B cells, NK cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and recipient regulatory T cells in the tissues were then analyzed. Maternal lymphocytes were more likely to survive in offspring. At 120h after infusion, the percentages of maternal cells in the offspring were 0.52±0.11% in lymph nodes, 0.97±0.04% in peripheral blood, and 0.97±0.11% in the spleen. Few donor cells, if any, were detected in these tissues at 120h after aunt to child, father to child, and unrelated allogeneic infusions were performed. The subtype proportion of donor lymphocytes changed significantly in the recipient tissues. Recipient Treg cells increased in the mother to child group, but not in the aunt to child, father to child, and unrelated allogeneic groups, suggesting a decreased cellular immune response to allogeneic cells in the mother to child group. At 120h after the infusion, no donor cells were detected in the recipient livers and thymuses of all groups, implying that donor cells were barely able to colonize in the liver and thymus. Specific immune tolerance to maternal lymphocytes exists in offspring. An infusion of maternal donor lymphocytes may produce a relatively persistent effect of adoptive immunotherapy with reduced side-effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  6. Plant and Animal Reproductive Strategies: Lessons from Offspring Size and Number Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Srikanta Dani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff between offspring size and number is ubiquitous and manifestly similar in plants and animals despite fundamental differences between the evolutionary histories of these two major life forms. Fecundity (offspring number primarily affects parental fitness, while offspring size underpins the fitness of parents and offspring. We provide an overview of theoretical models dealing with offspring size and fitness relationships. We follow that with a detailed examination of life-history constraints and environmental effects on offspring size and number, separately in plants and animals. The emphasis is on seed plants, but we endeavor to also summarize information from distinct animal groups—insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Furthermore, we analyse genetic controls on offspring size and number in two model organisms—Arabidopsis and Drosophila. Despite the deep evolutionary divergence between plants and animals, we find four trends in reproductive strategy that are common to both lineages: (i offspring size is generally less variable than offspring number, (ii offspring size increases with increasing parent body size, (iii maternal genes restrict offspring size and increase offspring numbers, while zygotic genes act to increase offspring size; such parent-offspring conflicts are enhanced when there is sibling rivalry, and (iv variation in offspring size increases under sub-optimal (harsh environmental conditions. The most salient difference between plants and animals is that the latter tend to produce larger (fewer offspring under sub-optimal conditions while seed plants invest in smaller (many seeds, suggesting that maternal genetic control over offspring size increases in plants but decreases in animals with parental care. The time is ripe for greater experimental exploration of genetic controls on reproductive allocation and parent-offspring conflicts in plants and animals under sub-optimal (harsh environments.

  7. Parental burden associated with borderline personality disorder in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Marianne; Patil, Uday; Triebwasser, Joseph; Hoffman, Perry; Weinstein, Zachary A; New, Antonia

    2011-02-01

    To identify aspects of parental burden associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD), an anonymous internet survey linked to BPD support websites was developed for parents to complete on their BPD offspring and unaffected siblings. The questions cover aspects of the child's life from pregnancy through young adulthood, and query about the impact of the child's BPD on six domains of the parent's life, including physical and emotional health, marriage, job, standard of living, social life, and career trajectory. Additionally, financial burden was assessed with questions pertaining to insurance and out-of pocket costs associated with the BPD disorder. BPD offspring were identified by meeting diagnostic criteria embedded within the survey and having been given a diagnosis of BPD by a professional at some point in their life. We report on 233 female offspring meeting strict criteria for BPD. Parents of daughters with BPD endorsed varying levels of impact on the six domains comprising burden with the largest impact on emotional health which was impacted in over 88% of the respondents. Over 50% of parents endorsed four or greater of the six burden items. Particular aspects of the offspring's BPD symptom profile correlated with intensity of parental burden included including problems in adolescence with acting out behavior (p Parents of female offspring with BPD experience burden in multiple domains of their life and many have incurred substantial financial expense. Increasing awareness of co-morbid conditions in the BPD proband that significantly increase parental burden may be indicators for the provision of increased family support.

  8. Associations of maternal iron intake and hemoglobin in pregnancy with offspring vascular phenotypes and adiposity at age 10: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen A Alwan

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is common during pregnancy. Experimental animal studies suggest that it increases cardiovascular risk in the offspring.To examine the relationship between maternal pregnancy dietary and supplement iron intake and hemoglobin, with offspring's arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, endothelial function (measured by brachial artery flow mediated dilatation, blood pressure, and adiposity (measured by body mass index, test for mediation by cord ferritin, birth weight, gestational age, and child dietary iron intake, and for effect modification by maternal vitamin C intake and offspring sex.Prospective data from 2958 mothers and children pairs at 10 years of age enrolled in an English birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study for Parents and Children (ALSPAC, was analysed.2639 (89.2% mothers reported dietary iron intake in pregnancy below the UK reference nutrient intake of 14.8 mg/day. 1328 (44.9% reported taking iron supplements, and 129 (4.4% were anemic by 18 weeks gestation. No associations were observed apart from maternal iron intake from supplements with offspring systolic blood pressure (-0.8 mmHg, 99% CI -1.7 to 0, P = 0.01 in the sample with all relevant data observed, and -0.7 mmHg, 99% CI -1.3 to 0, P = 0.008 in the sample with missing data imputed.There was no evidence of association between maternal pregnancy dietary iron intake, or maternal hemoglobin concentration (which is less likely to be biased by subjective reporting with offspring outcomes. There was a modest inverse association between maternal iron supplement intake during pregnancy with offspring systolic blood pressure at 10 years.

  9. Maternal prepregnancy BMI, offspring's early postnatal growth, and metabolic profile at age 5-6 years: the ABCD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostvogels, Adriëtte J J M; Stronks, Karien; Roseboom, Tessa J; van der Post, Joris A M; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2014-10-01

    Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (pBMI) and offspring's accelerated postnatal growth have adverse consequences for later cardiometabolic health, but it is unknown how these two factors interact. To assess the association between maternal pBMI and offspring's metabolic profile at age 5-6 years and determine the role (independent/mediating/moderating) of offspring's postnatal growth in this association. In total, 1459 mother-child pairs from the prospective ABCD study with known maternal pBMI, offspring postnatal growth (weight and weight-for-length gain) between age 1-3 months (Δ SD score). We analyzed metabolic components of offspring at age 5-6 years, including waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), fasting glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol values, both individually (Z-scores) and combined (sum Z-scores; metabolic score). Maternal pBMI was positively associated with offspring's WHtR (β = 0.025; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.010-0.039), SBP (β = 0.020; 95% CI, 0.005-0.0035), DBP (β = 0.016; 95% CI, 0.000-0.031), and metabolic score (β = 0.078; 95% CI, 0.039-0.118) after adjusting. Adding postnatal growth had no relevant impact on these effect sizes. Postnatal weight gain was independently associated with WHtR (β = 0.199; 95% CI, 0.097-0.300), fasting glucose values (β = 0.117; 95% CI, 0.008-0.227), metabolic score (β = 0.405; 95% CI, 0.128-0.682). Postnatal weight-for-length gain was independently associated with WHtR (β = 0.145; 95% CI, 0.080-0.211), and metabolic score (β = 0.301; 95% CI, 0.125-0.477). An interaction between maternal pBMI and postnatal weight gain was present in the association with SBP (P = .021) and metabolic score (P = .047), and between maternal pBMI and postnatal weight-for-length gain in the association with triglycerides (P = .022) and metabolic score (P = .042). Both high maternal pBMI and postnatal accelerated growth are associated with adverse metabolic

  10. Monocyte activation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and S100B in bipolar offspring: a follow-up study from adolescence into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Hillegers, Manon Hj; Ambree, Oliver; Arolt, Volker; Nolen, Willem A; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that both immune and neurochemical alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder; however, their precise role remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate neuro-immune changes in a prospective study on children of patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar offspring, from the prospective Dutch bipolar offspring study (n = 140), were evaluated cross-sectionally within a longitudinal context at adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. We examined the expression of 44 inflammation-related genes in monocytes, the cytokines pentraxin 3 (PTX3), chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) in the serum of bipolar offspring and healthy controls. During adolescence, bipolar offspring showed increased inflammatory gene expression in monocytes, high serum PTX3 levels, but normal CCL2 levels. BDNF levels were decreased, while S100B levels were normal. During young adulthood, monocyte activation remained, although to a lesser degree. Serum PTX3 levels remained high, and signs of monocyte migration became apparent through increased CCL2 levels. BDNF and S100B levels were not measured. At adulthood, circulating monocytes had lost their activation state, but CCL2 levels remained increased. Both BDNF and S100B were now increased. Abnormalities were independent of psychopathology state at all stages. This study suggests an aberrant neuro-immune state in bipolar offspring, which followed a dynamic course from adolescence into adulthood and was present irrespective of lifetime or future mood disorders. We therefore assumed that the aberrant neuro-immune state reflects a general state of vulnerability for mood disorders rather than being of direct predictive value. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Myxomatosis: passive immunity in the offspring of immune rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infested with fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi Dale) and exposed to myxoma virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobey, W R; Conolly, D

    1975-02-01

    Kittens with maternal antibodies to myxoma virus, the offspring of rabbits which had recovered from myxomatosis, were exposed to fleas contaminated with myxoma virus and/or contact with infected rabbits from birth. All kittens died or became infected before 8 weeks of age. When compared with adult animals similarly infected the kittens showed no advantage in terms of survival time or recovery rate attributable to maternal antibodies. Flea transmission of virus was found more effective than contact transmissions.

  12. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lin

    2012-02-01

    Seahorses are the vertebrate group with the embryonic development occurring within a special pouch in males. To understand the reproductive efficiency of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 under controlled breeding experiments, we investigated the dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth over births by the same male seahorses. The mean brood size of the 1-year old pairs in the 1st birth was 85.4±56.9 per brood, which was significantly smaller than that in the 6th birth (465.9±136.4 per brood (P<0.001. The offspring survivorship and growth rate increased with the births. The fecundity was positively correlated with the length of brood pouches of males and trunk of females. The fecundity of 1-year old male and 2-year old female pairs was significantly higher than that from 1-year old couples (P<0.001. The brood size (552.7±150.4 of the males who mated with females that were isolated for the gamete-preparation, was larger than those (467.8±141.2 from the long-term pairs (P<0.05. Moreover, the offspring from the isolated females had higher survival and growth rates. Our results showed that the potential reproductive rate of seahorses H. erectus increased with the brood pouch development.

  13. Interleukin 7 from maternal milk crosses the intestinal barrier and modulates T-cell development in offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Aspinall

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding protects against illnesses and death in hazardous environments, an effect partly mediated by improved immune function. One hypothesis suggests that factors within milk supplement the inadequate immune response of the offspring, but this has not been able to account for a series of observations showing that factors within maternally derived milk may supplement the development of the immune system through a direct effect on the primary lymphoid organs. In a previous human study we reported evidence suggesting a link between IL-7 in breast milk and the thymic output of infants. Here we report evidence in mice of direct action of maternally-derived IL-7 on T cell development in the offspring.We have used recombinant IL-7 labelled with a fluorescent dye to trace the movement in live mice of IL-7 from the stomach across the gut and into the lymphoid tissues. To validate the functional ability of maternally derived IL-7 we cross fostered IL-7 knock-out mice onto normal wild type mothers. Subsets of thymocytes and populations of peripheral T cells were significantly higher than those found in knock-out mice receiving milk from IL-7 knock-out mothers.Our study provides direct evidence that interleukin 7, a factor which is critical in the development of T lymphocytes, when maternally derived can transfer across the intestine of the offspring, increase T cell production in the thymus and support the survival of T cells in the peripheral secondary lymphoid tissue.

  14. MANAGEMENT AND SURVIVAL IN ADVANCED PROSTATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-05

    May 5, 2000 ... Objective: To evaluate the management and survival of patients with advanced prostate cancer in this locality. Design: A prospective case study. Setting: Kenyatta National Referral Hospital and the Nairobi and Mater Hospitals. Patients: Fifty nine patients with advanced cancer of prostate (extra prostatic ...

  15. Increased sympathetic activity in normotensive offspring of malignant hypertensive parents compared to offspring of normotensive parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F. Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hypertension seems to be the consequence of very high blood pressure. Furthermore, an increase in sympathetic and renin-angiotensin system activity is considered to be the main mechanisms producing malignant hypertension. In the present study, 10 offspring of malignant hypertensive (OMH parents (age 28 ± 5 years, 7 males, 3 females, 2 white and 8 non-white and 10 offspring of normotensive (ONT parents (age 28 ± 6 years, 2 males, 8 females, 3 white and 7 non-white were evaluated. The OMH group had significantly higher (P < 0.05 casual blood pressure (125 ± 10/81 ± 5 mmHg compared with ONT (99 ± 13/67 ± 5 mmHg. The increase in blood pressure was greater in OMH (Δ SBP = 17 ± 2 vs Δ SBP = 9 ± 1 mmHg in ONT during cold pressor testing, but they had a lower increase in heart rate (Δ HR = 13 ± 2 vs Δ HR = 20 ± 3 bpm in ONT during isometric exercise (handgrip test. Sympathetic activity, measured by microneurography, was significantly higher (P < 0.05 before exercise in OMH (17 ± 6 vs 11 ± 4 burst/min in ONT and exhibited a greater increase (Δ = 18 ± 10 vs Δ = 8 ± 3 burst/min in ONT during isometric exercise. This study showed increased sympathetic activity in OMH before exercise and a greater response during isometric exercise, suggesting an autonomic abnormality before exercise and a greater sympathetic response to physical stress in OMH compared to ONT.

  16. Prospective Study of Serial Imaging Comparing Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Fluorothymidine PET During Radical Chemoradiation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Reduction of Detectable Proliferation Associated With Worse Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Sarah; Ball, David; Hicks, Rodney J; Callahan, Jason; Plumridge, Nikki; Trinh, Jenny; Herschtal, Alan; Kron, Tomas; Mac Manus, Michael

    2017-11-15

    To investigate the associations between interim tumor responses on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET and patient outcomes, especially progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Patients with FDG-PET/computed tomography stage I-III NSCLC were prescribed concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (60 Gy in 30 fractions). Scans were acquired at baseline (FDG-PET/computed tomography [FDGBL] for radiation therapy planning and FLT-PET [FLTBL]), week 2 (FDGwk2 and FLTwk2), and week 4 (FDGwk4 and FLTwk4) of chemoradiation therapy. Tumor responses were categorized as complete or partial responses or stable or progressive disease (SD, PD) using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Associations between response, OS, and PFS were analyzed with univariate Cox regressions and plotted using Kaplan-Meier curves. Between 2009 and 2013, 60 patients were recruited. Thirty-seven (62%) were male, and the median age was 66 years (range, 31-86 years). Two-year OS and PFS were 0.51 and 0.26, respectively. Unexpectedly, SD on FLTwk2 compared with complete response/partial response was associated with longer OS (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.01 [0.87-4.65], P=.082) and PFS (2.01 [0.92-4.36], P=.061). Weeks 2 and 4 FDG PET/CT were not significantly associated with survival. Study scans provided additional information to FDGBL in 21 patients (35%). Distant metastases detected in 3 patients on FLTBL and in 2 patients on FDG/FLTwk2 changed treatment intent from curative to palliative. Locoregional progression during radiation therapy was observed in 5 (8%) patients, prompting larger radiation therapy fields. Stable uptake of (18)F-FLT at week 2 was paradoxically associated with longer OS and PFS. This suggests that suppression of tumor cell proliferation may protect against radiation-induced tumor cell

  17. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... uptake capacity for glutamate in the FCx of PS male offspring while no such changes were observed in the HPC. The results show that changes mediated by PS on the adult glutamatergic system are brain region specific. Overall, PS produces long-term changes in the glutamatergic system modulating......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...

  18. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  19. Meiotic faults as a major cause of offspring inviability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    , the most sex-like form of asex. Meiotic parthenogenesis does consistently achieve lower offspring viability than does sex. However when sexual reproduction is compared to forms of asex that don't involve meiosis, asex results in higher offspring viability. Combined with experimental and demographic data......, this result demonstrates that failures associated with meiosis are a major cause of offspring inviability not only for meiotic parthenogenesis, but for sexual reproducers such as humans. Meiosis is necessary for genetic recombination in eukaryotes, but is vestigial, and costly, in parthenogens. The question...... of why meiosis persists in parthenogens despite its clear fitness costs and lack of benefits for them is addressed in terms of mechanistic constraints upon what selection can achieve. This provides a clear example of evolutionary inertia having a major and maladaptive effect on the demography of a wide...

  20. Caring for offspring in a world of cheats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Lukas

    Full Text Available Parents providing care to offspring face the same problem that exists in every biological system in which some individuals offer resources to others: cheaters, who exploit these benefits. In almost all species in which males contribute to parental care, females mate with multiple males. As a result, males frequently provide efforts for unrelated offspring at a cost to their own reproductive fitness. In a new study, Griffin et al. find that across a wide range of animal species, males flexibly adjust their contribution to parental care in relation to extra-pair paternity. However, adjustment is not perfect, because males are limited by the potential costs of withholding help to their own offspring, which is only outweighed if cheating occurs frequently and if providing care reduces a male's future reproductive success. These findings illustrate how in biological systems cheater and cheated can adapt to changes in each other, preventing either one from gaining control.

  1. Maternal drinking and risky sexual behavior in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D

    2015-04-01

    Teenage mothers are more likely to use drugs, and their children are more likely to use substances and become pregnant during adolescence. Teenage mothers' substance use may play a role in the intergenerational risk for adolescent pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents (12-18 years) were seen during pregnancy and postnatal years 6, 10, 14, and 16 (n = 332). Teenage mothers reported on substance use and family characteristics. The offspring reported substance use (starting at age 10) and sexual behavior (ages 14 and 16). Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with offspring (a) having a risky first sex partner and (b) multiple sex partners in the past year. Heavy maternal drinking during childhood was associated with offspring reports of a risky first sex partner and early teenage pregnancy. Findings from this unique birth cohort have implications for alcohol prevention efforts with girls during and after a teenage pregnancy and interventions to prevent risky sex in high-risk youth. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark: a nationwide, register-based, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sandra Feodor; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Thorup, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-12-01

    Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0-16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival analysis using Poisson regression and incidence rate ratios (IRRs), adjusted for year and offspring characteristics, and additionally adjusted for parental factors (age at offspring's birth and parental psychiatric disorders). 17 238 (2%) offspring had either one or two parents with a history of homelessness, and 56 330 (5%) children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4-15·8) in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6·0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6·0-6·1) in those whose parents had no such history (IRR 2·5 [95% CI 2·3-2·7] for mother homeless, 2·3 [2·2-2·5] for father homeless, and 2·8 [2·4-3·2

  3. Risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring of parents with a history of homelessness during childhood and adolescence in Denmark: a nationwide, register-based, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Feodor Nilsson, MSc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Children and adolescents from deprived backgrounds have high rates of psychiatric problems. Parental and social factors are crucial for children's healthy and positive development, but whether psychiatric morbidity is associated with parental social marginalisation is unknown. We aimed to analyse the association between mother's and father's history of homelessness and the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, during childhood and adolescence. Methods: We did a nationwide, register-based cohort study of 1 072 882 children and adolescents aged 0–16 years, who were living or born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1999, and Dec 31, 2015. Parental homelessness was the primary exposure, data on which were obtained from the Danish Homeless Register. The Danish Civil Registration System was used to extract the population and link offspring to parental information, and the outcome, psychiatric disorders in the offspring, was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Danish National Patient Register. We analysed the association between parental history of homelessness and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring by survival analysis using Poisson regression and incidence rate ratios (IRRs, adjusted for year and offspring characteristics, and additionally adjusted for parental factors (age at offspring's birth and parental psychiatric disorders. Findings: 17 238 (2% offspring had either one or two parents with a history of homelessness, and 56 330 (5% children and adolescents were diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder during the study period. The incidence of any psychiatric disorder was 15·1 cases per 1000 person-years (95% CI 14·4–15·8 in offspring with at least one parent with a history of homelessness, compared with 6·0 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 6·0–6·1 in those whose parents had no such history (IRR 2·5 [95

  4. Gestational diabetes influences retinal Muller cells in rat's offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akramsadat Tabasi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The Muller cell is the principal glial cell of the vertebrate retina. The expression of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in the Muller cells was used as a cellular marker for retinal damage. This study was done to evaluate the effect of gestational diabetes on retinal Muller cells in rat's offspring. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 12 Wistar rat dams were randomly allocated in control and diabetic groups. Gestational diabetes was induced by 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin at the first day of gestation, intraperitoneally. Dams in control group received an equivalent volume normal saline. Eye of six offspring of each group were removed at postnatal day 28 (P28. The histopathological changes in retina were examined through H&E staining and ultrastructure transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The expression of GFAP was examined using Immunohisto-chemical staining of GFAP in Muller cells. Photographs of retina were taken using Olympus BX51 microscope and a digital camera DP12 and EM LEO906; Zeiss, Germany. Results: In the control rat's offspring, GFAP expression was not significant in Muller cells. According to the optical microscope images, GFAP expression was observed in the processes of the Muller cell in the inner plexiform layer of retina in offspring of diabetic mothers. In TEM technique, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were observed in Muller cell of diabetic offspring. Conclusion: This study showed that the uncontrolled gestational diabetes can increase GFAP expression in Muller cells and retinal thickness of retinal layer in rat offspring's, therefore uncontrolled gestational can damage the Muller cells.

  5. Impact of maternal prenatal stress on growth of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugongo, Sarah K; Hlusko, Leslea J

    2014-02-01

    Unperturbed fetal development is essential for future health of an individual. Previous studies have linked diseases of aging to harmful alterations that happen during fetal development. Given the significant long-term impact that intrauterine environment has on an individual's life, it was hypothesized that maternal stress during pregnancy will have negative effects on the offspring's prenatal and postnatal growth. To test this, twenty-eight female and seven male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were purchased and bred to produce 176 offspring. During pregnancy, dams were randomly divided into four groups (n=7, per group) and immobilization stress induced as follows; Group 1 (GW1): immobilization stress on days 1-7 of pregnancy, Group 2 (GW2): on days 8-14, Group 3 (GW3): on days 15-21, Group 4 (Controls): left undisturbed. Maternal cortisol hormone, food intake, and weight gain were monitored during pregnancy. Pups were raised under normal laboratory conditions and sacrificed at ages: 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks to determine the effect of prenatal stress. At necropsy, the tibia was removed and processed for histology. Differences among groups were determined by T-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between stress in utero and indicators of bone development in offspring. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Cortisol hormone levels in controls were lower than those of stressed animals. Stressed dams consumed 12.5% less food per day compared to controls. Animals in GW1 and GW2 gained less weight during pregnancy but had larger litters than did GW3 or the control group. Offspring born to GW3 were heavier compared to all other groups. GW3 offspring had a higher rate of bone formation. In conclusion, stress during pregnancy resulted in increased cortisol and reduced food intake in mothers, but faster growth and higher weight gain in offspring compared to controls.

  6. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and anger temperament among adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianli; Gatsonis, Constantine A; Baylin, Ana; Kubzansky, Laura D; Loucks, Eric B; Buka, Stephen L

    2011-12-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with aggressive behaviors among offspring across the life course. We posit that anger, as a precedent of aggression, may have mediated the association. The current study examines the relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and anger proneness among the adult offspring. Participants were 611 adult offspring (ages 38-48 years) of mothers enrolled in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959 and 1966 in Boston and Providence. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was collected during prenatal visits. Spielberger's trait anger scale was used to measure anger proneness which has two components: anger temperament and angry reaction. Results from the full sample analyses showed that offspring whose mother smoked one pack or more per day on average scored 1.7 higher in anger temperament T scores in comparison to offspring whose mother never smoked during pregnancy (β=1.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.1, 3.2). The fixed effects analyses among siblings that accounted for more confounding found a greater effect of around one standard deviation increase in anger temperament T scores corresponding to maternal smoking of one pack or more (β=7.4, 95% CI: 0.5, 14.4). We did not observe an association of maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring angry reaction or other negative emotions including anxiety and depression. We concluded that prenatal exposure to heavy cigarette smoke was associated with an increased level of anger temperament, a stable personality trait that may carry the influence of prenatal smoking through the life course. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When ambient noise impairs parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucass, Carsten; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-05-01

    Ambient noise has increased in extent, duration and intensity with significant implications for species' lives. Birds especially, because they heavily rely on vocal communication, are highly sensitive towards noise pollution. Noise can impair the quality of a territory or hamper the transmission of vocal signals such as song. The latter has significant fitness consequences as it may erode partner preferences in the context of mate choice. Additional fitness costs may arise if noise masks communication between soliciting offspring and providing parents during the period of parental care. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) families within their nest boxes with playbacks of previously recorded highway noise and investigated the consequences on parent-offspring communication. We hypothesized that noise interferes with the acoustic cues of parental arrival and vocal components of offspring begging. As such we expected an increase in the frequency of missed detections, when nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent, and a decrease in parental provisioning rates. Parents significantly reduced their rate of provisioning in noisy conditions compared to a control treatment. This reduction is likely to be the consequence of a parental misinterpretation of the offspring hunger level, as we found that nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent more frequently in the presence of noise. Noise also potentially masks vocal begging components, again contributing to parental underestimation of offspring requirements. Either way, it appears that noise impaired parent-offspring communication is likely to reduce reproductive success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal obesity regulates gene expression in the hearts of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raipuria, M; Hardy, G O; Bahari, H; Morris, M J

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests maternal obesity leads to adverse outcomes for offspring, including increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alterations in taste preferences of offspring from mothers consuming a high fat diet (HFD) have also been reported. Given recent reports describing cardiac taste receptors, we examined whether the expression of umami and bitter taste receptors is modulated by maternal obesity, and compared this with the physiological challenge of maternal exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or HFD (F) and half of each were provided with a running wheel to enable voluntary exercise (CE or FE), the others remaining sedentary (CS or FS). Two pups from each mother were killed at postnatal day 19. Both lean and obese dams undertook similar amounts of exercise (8.1 ± 2.4 vs 5.1 ± 1.5 km). Maternal obesity increased offspring body weight, adiposity, net and weight-corrected heart ventricle weight, with no effect of exercise. Maternal obesity also increased offspring plasma leptin concentrations, which were normalised by maternal exercise. Cardiac ventricle mRNA expression of bitter taste receptors, β-adrenoceptor (Adrbk1) and angiotensin II receptor type 1a (Agtr1a) were significantly decreased in response to maternal obesity, with maternal exercise decreasing Agtr1a in FE offspring. No changes in umami receptors were observed. FTO mRNA expression was down-regulated by maternal HFD with an up-regulation in offspring of CE mothers. Maternal obesity affected the expression of bitter taste receptors and other genes in the heart ventricle, potentially implicating these genes in the development of CVD associated with maternal obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, insulin secretion, and pancreatic islets morphology of adult male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, H; Ghasemi, A; Roghani, M; Zahediasl, S

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal hypothyroidism has serious effects on growth, development, and metabolism. This study aims to investigate the effects of the neonatal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism, islet insulin secretion and morphology of the pancreatic islets in adult male offspring. Lactating mothers of Wistar rats consumed 0.02% solution of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during the weaning period (neonatal hypothyroid group), while mothers of the control group drank merely tap water. Body weight and survival of pups were followed up. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed in adult male offspring and 5-6 weeks later, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was evaluated. During the glucose tolerance test, plasma glucose level of the neonatal hypothyroid group (13.18 ± 0.59 mmol/l) was significantly higher at 5 min compared to the control group (11.54 ± 0.47 mmol/l), whereas plasma insulin concentrations and GSIS of the groups was not significantly different. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of adult male offspring of the hypothyroid group (9.1 ± 1.0) was significantly higher as compared to the control group (4.5 ± 0.6). Area (14,613.0 ± 2646.3 μm2) and the diameter of the islets (147 ± 3.0 μm) of the neonatal hypothyroid group were significantly lower, as compared to the control group (32,886.3 ± 4690.3 and 206.6 ± 5.9 μm2 and μm, respectively). Neonatal hypothyroidism can alter carbohydrate metabolism in euthyroid adult offspring, which may increase susceptibility to the development of glucose intolerance and occurrence of Type 2 diabetes later in life.

  10. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  11. Physical activity during pregnancy and language development in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukic, Anne Marie Z; Lawlor, Debbie A; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    language development. METHODS: At 18 weeks of gestation, women reported the hours per week they participated in 11 leisure-time physical activities and the hours per week spent in general physical activity (leisure, household and occupational). Caregivers completed a modified MacArthur Infant Communication......BACKGROUND: In rodents, physical activity during pregnancy has been associated with improved learning and memory in the offspring. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (born in 1991-92) to investigate maternal physical activity during pregnancy and offspring...

  12. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  13. Comparison of genetic diversity between wild-caught broodstock and hatchery-produced offspring populations of the vulnerable Korean kelp grouper (Epinephelus bruneus) by microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, H S; Yang, S G; Moon, T S; Park, J Y; Hong, C G; Hwang, H K; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-11-14

    The kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus (Perciformes: Haemulidae), is one of the most economically important fishery resources in Korea. This fish is regarded as a target for prospective aquaculture diversification; therefore, maintenance of stock quality is important. To investigate the effects of current artificial reproduction in a hatchery facility, genetic variation in wild-caught broodstock and hatchery-produced offspring of kelp grouper was analyzed using eight polymorphic nuclear microsatellite DNA loci; 77 alleles were identified. Allelic variability ranged from 2 to 22 in the broodstock and from 1 to 10 in the offspring. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.620 and 0.623 in the broodstock and 0.600 and 0.513 in the offspring, respectively. The possibility of a recent genetic bottleneck was suggested in both populations of E. bruneus. The minor, but significant, genetic differentiation (FST = 0.047, P hatchery procedures. Therefore, genetic variation between broodstock and offspring in a hatchery should be monitored in both breeding and release programs as a routine hatchery operation, and inbreeding should ideally be controlled to improve kelp grouper hatchery management. Our data provide a useful genetic basis for future planning of sustainable culture and management of E. bruneus in fisheries.

  14. Prospective versus Retrospective Approaches to the Study of Intergenerational Social Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xi; Mare, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Most intergenerational social mobility studies are based upon retrospective data, in which samples of individuals report socioeconomic information about their parents, an approach that provides representative data for offspring but not the parental generation. When available, prospective data on intergenerational mobility, which are based on a…

  15. Transgenerational effects of stress exposure on offspring phenotypes in apomictic dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Van Gurp, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  16. Transgenerational Effects of Stress Exposure on Offspring Phenotypes in Apomictic Dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Gurp, van T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic modulation of gene expression is a candidate mechanism to explain parental environmental effects on offspring phenotypes, but current evidence for environment-induced epigenetic changes that persist in offspring generations is scarce. In apomictic dandelions, exposure to various

  17. No evidence for an association of coxsackie virus infections during pregnancy and early childhood with development of islet autoantibodies in offspring of mothers or fathers with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchtenbusch, M; Irnstetter, A; Jäger, G; Ziegler, A G

    2001-12-01

    Recent case-control studies reported an increased frequency of antibodies against Coxsackie virus (CV) antigens in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and during pregnancy in mothers of diabetic offspring, suggesting a role for CV infections in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, it is not known whether CV infections are causally related to the development of islet autoantibodies or merely represent secondary events in subjects already affected with established islet autoimmunity. Therefore we have prospectively evaluated CV infections from birth, prior to and in parallel with the appearance of islet autoantibodies in offspring of parents with T1D. Using indirect ELISAs, IgG-antibodies (abs) against a panel of CV, and IgG- and IgM-abs to CVB3, CVB4, and CVB5 were measured at 9 months, 2, 5, and 8 years in 28 offspring of mothers or fathers with T1D or of mothers with gestational diabetes who developed persistent islet antibodies (IAA, GADA, IA-2A), and compared to 51 islet autoantibody-negative offspring matched for place and date of birth. CV infections were also determined at delivery in 16 mothers whose offspring developed islet autoantibodies later in life and compared to 110 mothers (matched for HLA-DR, place and date of birth) whose offspring remained islet autoantibody-negative during early childhood. CV-antibodies were detected in only 2/28 (7.1%) offspring who developed islet autoantibodies during follow up and in 7/51 (13.7%) offspring without islet autoantibodies (median follow up time 3.0 years, range 2.0-8.7). CV-IgG abs were detected in one mother (6.3%), whose offspring developed islet autoantibodies during early childhood, compared to 15 mothers (13.6%) with islet autoantibody-negative offspring (P=0.5). Also, partum levels of CV-IgG and CVB3-, -4-, and -5-IgM abs were similar in both groups (median 35 U, 0.08 index (I), 0.08, 0.05 vs. 35 U, 0.06 I, 0.11, and 0.06, resp., P> 0.35 in each case). These data make it unlikely

  18. Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses' health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Du, M; Wong, J Y Y; Han, J; De Vivo, I

    2012-12-01

    Is the association between paternal age at birth and offspring leukocyte telomere length (LTL) an artifact of early life socioeconomic status (SES)? Indicators of early life SES did not alter the relationship between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL among a population of white female nurses. Telomere length is considered a highly heritable trait. Recent studies report a positive correlation between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL. Maternal age at birth has also been positively associated with offspring LTL, but may stem from the strong correlation with paternal age at birth. The Nurses' Health Study (NHS) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121 700 female registered nurses who were enrolled in 1976. Great effort goes into maintaining a high degree of follow-up among our cohort participants (>95% of potential person-years). In 1989-1990, a subset of 32 826 women provided blood samples from which we selected participants for several nested case-control studies of telomere length and incident chronic disease. We used existing LTL data on a total of 4250 disease-free women who also reported maternal and paternal age at birth for this study. Nested case-control studies of stroke, myocardial infarction, cancers of the breast, endometrium, skin, pancreas and colon, as well as colon adenoma, were conducted within the blood sub-cohort. Each study used the following study design: for each case of a disease diagnosed after blood collection, a risk-set sampling scheme was used to select from one to three controls from the remaining participants in the blood sub-cohort who were free of that disease when the case was diagnosed. Controls were matched to cases by age at blood collection (± 1 year), date of blood collection (± 3 months), menopausal status, recent postmenopausal hormone use at blood collection (within 3 months, except for the myocardial infarction case-control study), as well as other factors carefully chosen for each individual study. The

  19. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  20. Maternal transfer of antibodies in vertebrates: trans-generational effects on offspring immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselquist, Dennis; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2008-01-01

    Maternal effects by which females provide their offspring with non-genetic factors such as hormones, nutrients and antibodies can have an important impact on offspring fitness. In vertebrates, maternal antibodies (matAb) are transferred from the mother, via the placenta, egg yolk or milk during lactation to offspring until they are 2 weeks (birds), 4–10 weeks (rodents) and 9 months (humans) old, respectively. matAb transfer can have direct effects on offspring growth rate in birds and rodents...

  1. Factors affecting survival in young alpacas (Lama pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustinza, A V; Burfening, P J; Blackwell, R L

    1988-05-01

    Factors affecting survival of young from birth to weaning (7 mo) in alpacas (Lama pacos) were evaluated in data collected at the Estacion Experimental de Camelidos Sudamericanos La Raya in the Altiplano region of Peru. Age of dam effects on survival rate were curvilinear; survival rate increased from approximately 78% for offspring of 3-yr-old dams to about 91% for those from 9- to 11-yr-old dams, then declined to about 85% for 15-yr-old dams. Weight of dam measured 2 mo prior to parturition was associated negatively with survival of the young (b = -.7%/kg). Alpaca born early in the season of birth had a higher survival rate than those born late; the regression of survival on birth date was -.2%/d. Survival rates were curvilinearly related with birth weight and were highest at weights of 9 to 11 kg (90%) and lowest at weights of 4 to 5 kg (20% to 40%). The estimated heritabilities of survival and birth weight were .10 +/- .17 and .34 +/- .23, weight was -.18 +/- .82; the corresponding environmental and phenotypic correlations were positive (.37 and .26, respectively).

  2. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  3. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample...

  4. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  5. The oxidative costs of territory quality and offspring provisioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindre-Parker, S; Baldo, S; Gilchrist, H G; Macdonald, C A; Harris, C M; Love, O P

    2013-12-01

    The costs of reproduction are an important constraint that shapes the evolution of life histories, yet our understanding of the proximate mechanism(s) leading to such life-history trade-offs is not well understood. Oxidative stress is a strong candidate measure thought to mediate the costs of reproduction, yet empirical evidence supporting that increased reproductive investment leads to oxidative stress is equivocal. We investigated whether territory quality and offspring provisioning increase oxidative stress in male snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) using a repeated sampling design. We show that arrival oxidative stress is not a constraint on territory quality or the number of offspring fledged. Nevertheless, owners of higher-quality territories experienced an oxidative cost, with this cost increasing more rapidly in younger males. Males that provisioned offspring at a high rate also experienced increased oxidative stress. Together, these findings support the potential role of oxidative stress in mediating life-history trade-offs. Future work should consider that reproductive workload is not limited to offspring care, and other activities - including territory defence - may contribute significantly to the costs of reproduction. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  7. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  8. Parental Body Mass Index and Behavioral Problems in Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Hohwü, Lena; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity has been associated with increased risk of offspring behavioral problems. We examined whether this association could be explained by familial factors by comparing associations for maternal body mass index (BMI) with associations for paternal BMI. We studied 38,314 children born...

  9. Morphometric variables of offspring of Quassia amara treated male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... size, head diameter and body length of the offspring of treated male rats. Its reproductive toxicity actions may alter the developmental programming and probably transferred from one generation to another. Keywords: Quassia amara, spermatozoa, developmental programming, anogenital distance, endocrine disruptors ...

  10. Offspring Generation Method for interactive Genetic Algorithm considering Multimodal Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuyuko; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miki, Mitsunori; Yokouchi, Hisatake

    In interactive genetic algorithms (iGAs), computer simulations prepare design candidates that are then evaluated by the user. Therefore, iGA can predict a user's preferences. Conventional iGA problems involve a search for a single optimum solution, and iGA were developed to find this single optimum. On the other hand, our target problems have several peaks in a function and there are small differences among these peaks. For such problems, it is better to show all the peaks to the user. Product recommendation in shopping sites on the web is one example of such problems. Several types of preference trend should be prepared for users in shopping sites. Exploitation and exploration are important mechanisms in GA search. To perform effective exploitation, the offspring generation method (crossover) is very important. Here, we introduced a new offspring generation method for iGA in multimodal problems. In the proposed method, individuals are clustered into subgroups and offspring are generated in each group. The proposed method was applied to an experimental iGA system to examine its effectiveness. In the experimental iGA system, users can decide on preferable t-shirts to buy. The results of the subjective experiment confirmed that the proposed method enables offspring generation with consideration of multimodal preferences, and the proposed mechanism was also shown not to adversely affect the performance of preference prediction.

  11. Altered morphology of liver and pancreas tissues of offsprings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between consumption of charred meat, which is believed to be rich in nitrosamine by pregnant mothers and the adverse effects on the growth of their offsprings, alterations in morphology of tissues like liver and pancreas were studied. Meat was subjected to charcoal fire roasting without curing and was ...

  12. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  13. Parentally biased favouritism: why should parents specialize in caring for different offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    'Parentally biased favouritism' occurs when the two parents differentially care for individual offspring or kinds of offspring. Examples in birds include brood division and differential investment by the two parents in relation to the size or sex of the offspring. This paper uses mathematical models

  14. Perfect genetic correlation between number of offspring and grandoffspring in an industrialized human population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Kuja-Halkola, R.; Walum, H.; Verweij, K.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive success is widely used as a measure of fitness. However, offspring quantity may not reflect the genetic contribution to subsequent generations if there is nonrandom variation in offspring quality. Offspring quality is likely to be an important component of human fitness, and tradeoffs

  15. Association between Parental and Offspring's Alcohol Use--Population Data from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Authors investigated the association between alcohol use of parents and offspring in data derived from a district based household survey on drug abuse. Methods: Data on 4411 fathers paired with 6884 offspring were available. Alcohol use disorders were diagnosed based on DSM-III-R criteria. Analyses was conducted to contrast 1979 offspring of…

  16. Prenatal glucocorticoids and maternal smoking during pregnancy independently program adult nicotine dependence in daughters: A 40-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George; Shenassa, Edmond; Rodriguez, Daniel; Niaura, Raymond; LeWinn, Kaja; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is an independent risk factor for offspring nicotine dependence (ND), but mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated prenatal glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) associations with offspring ND over 40 years, and the possibility that prenatal glucocorticoids and androgens would mediate links between MSDP and offspring ND. Methods Participants were 1,086 mother-adult offspring pairs (59% female) from the New England Family Study, a 40-year longitudinal follow up of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. MSDP was assessed prospectively at each prenatal visit. Maternal cortisol, testosterone, and cotinine (nicotine metabolite), were assayed from third trimester maternal sera. Offspring lifetime ND was assessed via structured interview. Results Significant bivariate associations emerged for: a) MSDP/cotinine and lifetime ND, and b) maternal cortisol and lifetime ND, for daughters only. In multivariate models, maternal cortisol and MSDP/cotinine remained significantly and independently associated with increased odds of daughters’ lifetime ND. However, cortisol did not mediate the MSDP-lifetime ND relation. No associations emerged between maternal testosterone and offspring ND. Conclusions Results provide the first evidence in support of prenatal glucocorticoid programming of adult ND over 40 years in daughters only. Our study highlights two independent prenatal pathways leading to increased risk for ND in daughters: elevated prenatal glucocorticoids and MSDP/nicotine exposure. Daughter-specific effects of glucocorticoid and MSDP programming over 40 years highlight the breadth and persistence of sexually dimorphic programming effects in humans. Results do not support androgen programming of offspring ND. PMID:24034414

  17. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  18. Is low docosahexaenoic acid associated with disturbed rhythms and neurodevelopment in offsprings of diabetic mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza-Moreno, M; Fuentes-Hernández, S; Carrión, V; Alcántara-López, M V; Madrid, J A; López-Soler, C; Sánchez-Solís, M; Larqué, E

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and neurodevelopment in the offsprings of gestational diabetic mothers (ODMs). A prospective cohort study was performed. The offspring of 63 pregnant women (23 controls, 21 diet-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 19 insulin-treated GDM) were recruited. Maternal and venous cord plasma DHA percentages were analyzed. Skin temperature and activity in children were recorded for 72 h at 3 and 6 months of life. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II (BSID II) at 6 and 12 months of age. Cord plasma DHA percentage was significantly lower in the ODMs compared with that in the controls (Control 6.43 [5.04-7.82](a); GDM+diet 5.65 [4.44-6.86](ab); GDM+insulin 5.53 [4.45-6.61](b)). Both mental (Control 102.71 [97.61-107.81](a); GDM+diet 100.39 [91.43-109.35](a); GDM+insulin 93.94 [88.31-99.57](b)) and psychomotor (Control 91.52 [81.82-101.22](a); GDM+diet 81.67 [73.95-89.39](b); GDM+insulin 81.89 [71.96-91.85](b)) scores evaluated by the BSID II were significantly lower at 6 months in ODMs, even after adjusting for confounding factors such as breastfeeding, maternal educational level and gender. Cord plasma DHA percentage correlated with the psychomotor score from BSID II (r=0.27; P=0.049) and with the intra-daily variability in activity (r=-0.24; P=0.043) at 6 months. Maternal DHA was correlated with several sleep rhythm maturation parameters at 6 months. Lower DHA levels in cord plasma of ODMs could affect their neurodevelopment. Maternal DHA status was also associated with higher values in the sleep rhythm maturation parameters of children.

  19. Maternal History of Child Abuse and Obesity Risk in Offspring: Mediation by Weight in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Petito, Lucia C; Rehkopf, David H; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Abrams, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    Women's experience of childhood adversity may contribute to their children's risk of obesity. Possible causal pathways include higher maternal weight and gestational weight gain, which have been associated with both maternal childhood adversity and obesity in offspring. This study included 6718 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 in the United States (1979-2012). We applied multiple log-binomial regression models to estimate associations between three markers of childhood adversity (physical abuse, household alcoholism, and household mental illness) and offspring obesity in childhood. We estimated natural direct effects to evaluate mediation by prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. Among every 100 mothers who reported physical abuse in childhood, there were 3.7 (95% confidence interval: -0.1 to 7.5) excess cases of obesity in 2- to 5-year olds compared with mothers who did not report physical abuse. Differences in prepregnancy BMI, but not gestational weight gain, accounted for 25.7% of these excess cases. There was no evidence of a similar relationship for household alcoholism or mental illness or for obesity in older children. In this national, prospective cohort study, prepregnancy BMI partially explained an association between maternal physical abuse in childhood and obesity in preschool-age children. These findings underscore the importance of life-course exposures in the etiology of child obesity and the potential multi-generational consequences of child abuse. Research is needed to determine whether screening for childhood abuse and treatment of its sequelae could strengthen efforts to prevent obesity in mothers and their children.

  20. Adult children's socioeconomic resources and mothers' survival after a breast cancer diagnosis: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Hannah L; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Talbäck, Mats; Feychting, Maria; Ljung, Rickard

    2017-03-30

    Socioeconomic inequalities in survival after breast cancer persist worldwide. We aim to determine whether adult offspring's socioeconomic resources contribute to inequalities in mothers' survival after breast cancer. 14 231 women, aged 65-79 years, with a child aged ≥30 years and a first primary diagnosis of breast cancer in the National Cancer Register between 2001 and 2010 were followed until death, 10 years after diagnosis, or end of study (December 2015). Relative survival proportions and excess mortality within 10 years of diagnosis by strata of offspring's education level and disposable income were estimated using flexible parametric models accounting for measures of mothers' socioeconomic position and expected mortality in the general population. 4292 women died during 102 236 person-years of follow-up. Crude 10-year relative survival proportions for mothers of children with >14, 12-14 and education were 0.89 (0.87 to 0.91), 0.87 (0.85 to 0.89) and 0.79 (0.76 to 0.81), respectively. Compared with mothers of children with >14 years of education, mothers of children with education had substantially higher excess mortality (excess HR 1.69 (1.38 to 2.07) and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48), respectively). Higher mortality did not differ between tertiles of offspring's disposable income. Adult offspring's education level may contribute to inequalities in mothers' survival after breast cancer. Clinicians should be aware of the educational context beyond the individual and women with less educated offsprings may require extra support. This should be considered in future research, policy frameworks and interventions aimed at reducing survival inequalities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Scott, James; William, Gail M; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M

    2017-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ) among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (parental socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, maternal smoking and binge drinking in pregnancy, birthweight, breastfeeding and parenting style attenuates the association, though the effect remains statistically significant (-1.4 IQ points; 95% CI: -2.8,-0.1). Similarly the risk of offspring having low IQ remained marginally significantly higher in those born to teenage mothers (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9). In contrast, teenage fatherhood is not associated with adult offspring IQ, when adjusted for maternal age. Although the reduction in IQ is quantitatively small, it is indicative of neurodevelopmental disadvantage experienced by the young adult offspring of teenage mothers. Our results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but also at supporting early life condition of children born to teenage mothers to minimize the risk for disadvantageous outcomes of the next generation.

  2. Offspring mortality was a determinant factor in the evolution of paternal investment in humans: An evolutionary game approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Diego; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Isabel M

    2017-04-21

    Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs. Payoffs were computed as reproductive successes by a model based on trivial probabilities, implemented within the Barreto's Population Dynamics Toolbox (2014). The evolution of the parent conflict was simulated by a game with two players (the woman and the man). First, a simple game was assayed with two strategies, 'desert-unfaithful' and 'care-faithful'. Then, the game was played with a third mixed strategy, 'care-unfaithful'. The two-strategy game results were mainly determined by the offspring survival rate (s) and the non-paternity rate (z), with remaining factors playing a secondary role. Starting from two empirical estimates for both rates (s = 0.617 and z = 0.033) and decreasing the offspring mortality from near 0.4 to 0.1, the results were consistent with a win for the 'care-faithful' strategy. The 'desert-unfaithful' strategy only won at unrealistically high non-paternity rates (z>0.2). When three-strategy games were played, the mixed strategy of 'care-unfaithful' man could win the game in some less frequent cases. Regardless of the number of game strategies, 'care' fathers always won. These results strongly suggest that offspring mortality was the key factor in the evolution of paternal investment within the Homo branch. The 'care-faithful' strategy would have been the main strategy in human evolution but 'care-unfaithful' men did evolve at a lesser frequency. It can therefore be

  3. Working memory and attention deficits in adolescent offspring of schizophrenia or bipolar patients: comparing vulnerability markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Goradia, Dhruman; Hosanagar, Avinash; Mermon, Diana; Montrose, Debra M; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Rajarathinem, R; Haddad, Luay; Amirsadri, Ali; Zajac-Benitez, Caroline; Rajan, Usha; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2011-07-01

    Working memory deficits abound in schizophrenia and attention deficits have been documented in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Adolescent offspring of patients may inherit vulnerabilities in brain circuits that subserve these cognitive domains. Here we assess impairments in offspring of schizophrenia (SCZ-Offspring) or bipolar (BP-Offspring) patients compared to controls (HC) with no family history of mood or psychotic disorders to the second degree. Three groups (n=100 subjects; range: 10-20 yrs) of HC, SCZ-Offspring and BP-Offspring gave informed consent. Working memory was assessed using a delayed spatial memory paradigm with two levels of delay (2s & 12s); sustained attention processing was assessed using the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs version. SCZ-Offspring (but not BP-Offspring) showed impairments in working memory (relative to HC) at the longer memory delay indicating a unique deficit. Both groups showed reduced sensitivity during attention but only BP-Offspring significantly differed from controls. These results suggest unique (working memory/dorsal frontal cortex) and potentially overlapping (attention/fronto-striatal cortex) vulnerability pathways in adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Working memory and attention assessments in these offspring may assist in the clinical characterization of the adolescents vulnerable to SCZ or BP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parent-offspring correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. METHODS: We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8-18 years by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends. RESULTS: The correlations were the highest between siblings (r=0.28, 95%CI: 0.17-0.38. Parent-offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r=0.21, 95%CI: 0.12-0.30, especially between mothers and daughters (r=0.24, 95%CI: 0.12-0.36 vs. r=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.31 for sons, but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r=0.17, 95%CI: 0.00-0.34 in 8-11-year-olds, r=0.20, 95%CI: 0.07-0.33 in 12-15-year-olds, and r=0.25, 95%CI: 0.07-0.39 in ≥16-year-olds. Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r=0.14, 95%CI: 0.01-0.27. CONCLUSION: Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a possible mother effect. Mother-offspring correlations remained

  5. Effect of Maternal Stress Prior to Conception on Hippocampal BDNF Signaling in Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Somayeh; Nahavandi, Arezo; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar; Peyvandi, Hassan; Zare Mehrjerdi, Fatemeh; Karimi, Mohsen

    2017-10-01

    Environmental factors, especially stress, can remain pervasive effects across the lifespan. Traumatic experiences are risk factors for the behavioral and emotional disorders. Since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the important regulator of neural survival, development, and its genetic and epigenetic alterations which have been linked with several neuropsychiatric disorders, the present study investigated the effect of maternal adulthood stress on molecular changes of BDNF and tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor (TrkB) in the hippocampus of 30-day-old offspring. To induce stress, we employed a repeated forced swimming model for female rats across 21 days. Then, they were divided into two parental breeding groups: stressed mother (SM) and non-stressed mother (NSM) or control group. Anxiety-like behavior was tested in adult female rats and 30-day-old pups by using the elevated plus maze (EPM). The level of serum corticosterone was also measured by ELISA. BDNF and TrkB gene methylation and protein expression in the hippocampus were detected using real-time PCR and Western blotting in all groups. Thirty-day-old male and female pups from SM groups had a significantly more serum corticosterone concentration, DNA methylation levels of BDNF and TrKB, and lower expression of these genes compared to pups from the control groups. Also, male pups from stressed mother exhibited significant anxiety-like behavior compared to male pups from the control mothers. These findings suggest that molecular changes formed by maternal stress experience even before conception persist to the next generation and will negatively influence on phenotypes of offspring.

  6. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  7. Effect of parental morphine addiction on extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in rat offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahele Assaee

    2004-01-01

    Findings: In male offsprings of sham control1, sham control2, test1 and test2 basal and electrical stimulated of extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus were: 0.67±0.04, 1.11±0.1, and in female offsprings were 0.47±0.06, 0.88±0.05 (n=5. The basal and stimulated extra cellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus was decreased in both test1 and test2 offsprings. It was less in test1 than test2 offsprings. The glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in female offsprings of test1 group was less than that of the male offsprings. conclusion: The results suggest that parental morphine addiction may cause learning deficiency through reduction of extracellular glutamate concentration in dentate gyrus so the side effects of parental morphine addiction in offsprings must be considered.

  8. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  9. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  10. Sugared water consumption by adult offspring of mothers fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity: the second hit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-Gómez, M; Cuevas, E; Nicolás, L; Castelán, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, J

    2014-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. This predisposition is modified by various postnatal factors. We hypothesised that coupled to the initial effects of developmental programming due to a maternal low-protein diet, a second hit resulting from increased offspring postnatal sugar consumption would lead to additional changes in metabolism and adipose tissue function. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of sugared water consumption (5% sucrose in the drinking-water) on adult offspring adiposity as a 'second hit' following exposure to maternal protein restriction during pregnancy. We studied four offspring groups: (1) offspring of mothers fed the control diet (C); (2) offspring of mothers fed the restricted protein diet (R); (3) offspring of control mothers that drank sugared water (C-S); (4) offspring of restricted mothers that drank sugared water (R-S). Maternal diet in pregnancy was considered the first factor and sugared water consumption as the second factor - the second hit. Body weight and total energy consumption, before and after sugared water consumption, were similar in all the groups. Sugared water consumption increased TAG, insulin and cholesterol concentrations in both the sexes of the C-S and R-S offspring. Sugared water consumption increased leptin concentrations in the R-S females and males but not in the R offspring. There was also an interaction between sugared water and maternal diet in males. Sugared water consumption increased adipocyte size and adiposity index in both females and males, but the interaction with maternal diet was observed only in females. Adiposity index and plasma leptin concentrations were positively correlated in both the sexes. The present study shows that a second hit during adulthood can amplify the effects of higher adiposity arising due to poor maternal pregnancy diet in an offspring sex dependent fashion.

  11. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  12. Prepregnancy Diabetes and Offspring Risk of Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Leirgul, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a national cohort study, we...... pharmacies. Persons with CHD (n=16 325) were assigned to embryologically related cardiac phenotypes. The CHD prevalence in the offspring of mothers with pregestational diabetes mellitus was 318 per 10 000 live births (n=232) in comparison with a baseline risk of 80 per 10 000; the adjusted relative risk...... for CHD was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 3.51-4.53). The association was not modified by year of birth, maternal age at diabetes onset, or diabetes duration, and CHD risks associated with type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (insulin-independent) diabetes mellitus did not differ significantly. Persons...

  13. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    in the offspring. METHODS: A cohort study was performed among all live singletons born in Denmark between 1996 and 2007. Mothers who had a diagnosis of depressive disorder and/or who used antidepressants 1 year before or during the index pregnancy were identified. Using a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... or use of antidepressants 1 year before or during pregnancy). Prenatal maternal depression was associated with childhood asthma (HR: 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20–1.30]). Overall, 8895 children were exposed to antidepressants in utero. Compared with children born to mothers with prenatal......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that maternal depression during pregnancy is abstract associated with asthma in the offspring, but the role of medical treatment of depression is not known. Our goal was to examine whether prenatal antidepressant use increases the risk of asthma...

  14. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  15. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....... distress was associated with the sex ratio in the offspring. METHODS: From 1989 to 1992, a cohort of 8,719 Danish-speaking pregnant women were followed until delivery. Questionnaires were administered to the women in early pregnancy and 6,629 (76%) completed the 30-item version of the General Health...

  16. Maternal Behaviors during Pregnancy Impact Offspring Obesity Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Phelan

    2011-01-01

    pregnancy was the strongest, independent predictor of higher weight for age (WFA (beta =0.19; P=0.004, higher odds of macrosomia (OR = 1.1 (1.0–1.2; P=0.004 andWFA >90th percentile at birth (OR = 1.2 (1.1–1.3; P=0.002 and higher WFA at 6 months (beta =0.30; P=0.002. In normal weight (n=153 mothers, higher intake of soft drinks was the strongest predictor of higher offspring WFA at birth (beta = 0.16; P=0.04 but not at 6 months. Prenatal physical activity, depressive symptoms, and sleep-related variables did not significantly predict offspring weight outcomes. Mothers’ eating behaviors during pregnancy, especially intake of sweets in OW/OB mothers, may have a lasting effect on child weight.

  17. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...... days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants...

  18. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    with hypertension. Parental hypertension was associated with greater offspring mean arterial pressure (multivariable-adjusted estimate=2.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.9, and 4.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.5, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P... forward pressure wave amplitude (1.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.7, and 1.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-3.2, for 1 and 2 parents with hypertension, respectively; P=0.003 for both). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index displayed similar dose-dependent relations......High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We...

  19. Gonadal function in male offspring of pinealectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Tlemcani, O; Boucher, D

    1987-10-01

    Female rats were exposed to a short (6 L: 18 D) photoperiod from 21 days of age. On day 2 of gestation, animals were pinealectomized sham-operated. Lighting regimens were not changed during the course of the study. Male offspring of the 2 groups of rats were sacrificed on days 30, 42 and 49 after birth. Pinealectomy of the mother induced the following modifications: in 30-day-old offsprings, a decrease in prostatic weight and plasma dihydrotestosterone level; in 42-day-old rats, a decrease in prostatic weight, in testicular androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone content, and in plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels; in 49-day-old animals, decreased testicular and plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels. These results indicate that rat testicular function, after exposure to a short photoperiod beginning before conception, is decreased by maternal pinealectomy. The mother's pineal gland may play a part in the control of rat testicular function.

  20. Tubuloglomerular feedback responses in offspring of dexamethasone-treated ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anita J; Brown, Russell D; Brandon, Amanda E; Persson, A Erik G; Gibson, Karen J

    2017-10-01

    Via developmental programming, prenatal perturbations, such as exposure to glucocorticoids and maternal malnutrition alter kidney development and contribute to the development of hypertension. To examine the possibility that alterations in tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) contribute to the development of hypertension in offspring following maternal dexamethasone treatment (Dex) in early gestation, studies were conducted in fetal sheep and lambs. Pregnant ewes were infused with dexamethasone (0.48 mg/h) at 26-28 days gestation. No differences were observed in mean arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate. or electrolyte excretion rates between the Dex and Untreated fetuses or lambs. Gestational exposure to Dex markedly enhanced TGF sensitivity, as the turning point in Dex-treated fetuses was significantly lower (12.9 ± 0.9 nl/min; P dexamethasone-exposed offspring may contribute to the development of hypertension as adults. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Democratic survival in Latin America (1945-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal PÉREZ-LIÑÁN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.

  2. Prenatal Hypoxia Induced Dysfunction in Cerebral Arteries of Offspring Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiaqi; Li, Na; Chen, Xueyi; Gao, Qinqin; Zhou, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Bailin; Sun, Miao; Xu, Zhice

    2017-10-03

    Hypoxia during pregnancy could cause abnormal development and lead to increased risks of vascular diseases in adults. This study determined angiotensin II (AII)-mediated vascular dysfunction in offspring middle cerebral arteries (MCA). Pregnant rats were subjected to hypoxia. Vascular tension in offspring MCA by AII with or without inhibitors, calcium channel activities, and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were tested. Whole-cell patch clamping was used to investigate voltage-dependent calcium channel currents. mRNA expression was tested using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. AII-mediated MCA constriction was greater in male offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia. AT1 and AT2 receptors were involved in the altered AII-mediated vasoconstriction. Prenatal hypoxia increased baseline activities of L-type calcium channel currents in MCA smooth muscle cells. However, calcium currents stimulated by AII were not significantly changed, whereas nifedipine inhibited AII-mediated vasoconstrictions in the MCA. Activities of IP3/ryanodine receptor-operated calcium channels, endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores, and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase were increased. Prenatal hypoxia also caused dysfunction of vasodilatation via the endothelium NO synthase. The mRNA expressions of AT1A, AT1B, AT2R, Cav1.2α1C, Cav3.2α1H, and ryanodine receptor RyR2 were increased in the prenatal-hypoxia group. Hypoxia in pregnancy could induce dysfunction in both contraction and dilation in the offspring MCA. AII-increased constriction in the prenatal-hypoxia group was not mainly dependent on the L-type and T-type calcium channels; it might predominantly rely on the AII receptors, IP3/ryanodine receptors, and the endoplasmic reticulum calcium store as well as calcium ATPase. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Maternal micronutrients and brain global methylation patterns in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Pratiksha; Randhir, Karuna; Kale, Anvita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Studies have established the association of maternal nutrition and increased risk for non-communicable diseases. It has been suggested that this involves epigenetic modifications in the genome. However, the role of maternal micronutrients in the one-carbon cycle in influencing brain development of the offspring through methylation is unexplored. It is also unclear whether epigenomic marks established during early development can be reversed by a postnatal diet. The present study reports the effect of maternal micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids on global DNA methylation patterns in the brain of the Wistar rat offspring at three timepoints (at birth, postnatal day 21, and 3 months of age). Pregnant rats were divided into control (n = 8) and five treatment groups (n = 16 dams in each group) at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12 (NFBD, EFB, and EFBD). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups (NFBDO and EFBDO). Following delivery, eight dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Our results demonstrate that maternal micronutrient imbalance results in global hypomethylation in the offspring brain at birth. At adult age the cortex of the offspring displayed hypermethylation as compared with control, in spite of a postnatal control diet. In contrast, prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was able to normalize methylation at 3 months of age. Our findings provide clues for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in reversing methylation patterns thereby highlighting its contribution in neuroprotection and cognition.

  4. Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, K N; Rickert, M E; Thornton, L M; Peat, C M; Baker, J H; Birgegård, A; Norring, C; Landén, M; Almqvist, C; Larsson, H; Lichtenstein, P; Bulik, C M; D'Onofrio, B M

    2017-02-01

    Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence. Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history. Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED. In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.

  5. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; LIU, GEORGE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia...

  6. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  7. rEnolase maternal immunization confers caries protection on offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, M; Trigo, G; Chaves, N; Fonseca, A J M M; Ribeiro, A; Tavares, D; Cabrita, A M S; Ferreira, P

    2011-03-01

    Therapeutic vaccination with Streptococcus sobrinus recombinant enolase (rEnolase) protects rats from dental caries. Here, we investigated the effect that maternal rEnolase vaccination before pregnancy had on the offspring's immune response to S. sobrinus oral infection and dental caries progression. Female Wistar rats were immunized by intranasal and subcutaneous routes with rEnolase adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant or similarly treated with the adjuvant alone (sham-immunized). Ten days after the last administration, the immunized females were paired with a male rat. The oral immune responses to S. sobrinus infection and dental caries in the offspring were evaluated. The results showed that pups born from rEnolase-immunized mothers had higher levels of rEnolase-specific salivary IgA and IgG antibodies (indicating a placental antibody transfer) and lower sulcal and proximal enamel caries scores than rats born from sham-immunized mothers. In conclusion, rEnolase maternal immunization before pregnancy provides offspring with protection against S. sobrinus-induced dental caries.

  8. Comparison of the effect of maternal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism in young and aged male offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Faraji, Farzaneh; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2013-02-01

    Since thyroid hormones play fundamental roles in somatic growth and metabolism, disturbances of thyroid function affect many organs and systems. Both fetal hypothyroidism and aging can affect carbohydrate metabolism during adult life. This study aims to assess the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion capacity of islets in young and aged male offspring of mothers who were hypothyroid during pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid group received water containing 0.02% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (200 ppm) during gestation. After birth, survival and weight of pups from both groups were followed. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, 0.5 g/kg glucose) was carried out in young and aged male offspring (at 3- and 12-months-old). In old, but not in young rats, serum glucose and insulin levels were respectively significantly higher and lower between 5 and 20 min in the fetal hypothyroid (FH) group, compared with the controls (C). Insulin secretion of the isolated islets stimulated with 5.6, 8.3, and 16 mmol/L glucose in the old FH group (240.5 ± 22.0, 457.0 ± 40.1, and 768.0 ± 57.1 respectively) were significantly lower (p = 0.014, p = 0.029 and p = 0.003 respectively), compared to the C group (327.9 ± 25.9, 579.2 ± 36.3, and 1024.0 ± 59.5 pmol/islet/min respectively). Results show that maternal hypothyroidism leads to glucose intolerance and reduced insulin secretion capacity, more obvious in older offspring. Hence it can be concluded that the effect of fetal hypothyroidism on carbohydrate metabolism may contribute to increased risk of type II diabetes in aged animals.

  9. Genetic variation of transgenerational plasticity of offspring germination in response to salinity stress and the seed transcriptome of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Wendy T; Chang, Peter L; Moriuchi, Ken S; Friesen, Maren L

    2015-04-01

    Transgenerational plasticity provides phenotypic variation that contributes to adaptation. For plants, the timing of seed germination is critical for offspring survival in stressful environments, as germination timing can alter the environmental conditions a seedling experiences. Stored seed transcripts are important determinants of seed germination, but have not previously been linked with transgenerational plasticity of germination behavior. In this study we used RNAseq and growth chamber experiments of the model legume M. trucantula to test whether parental exposure to salinity stress influences the expression of stored seed transcripts and early offspring traits and test for genetic variation. We detected genotype-dependent parental environmental effects (transgenerational plasticity) on the expression levels of stored seed transcripts, seed size, and germination behavior of four M. truncatula genotypes. More than 50% of the transcripts detected in the mature, ungerminated seed transcriptome were annotated as regulating seed germination, some of which are involved in abiotic stress response and post-embryonic development. Some genotypes showed increased seed size in response to parental exposure to salinity stress, but no parental environmental influence on germination timing. In contrast, other genotypes showed no seed size differences across contrasting parental conditions but displayed transgenerational plasticity for germimation timing, with significantly delayed germination in saline conditions when parental plants were exposed to salinity. In genotypes that show significant transgenerational plastic germination response, we found significant coexpression networks derived from salt responsive transcripts involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the germination pathway. Consistent with the delayed germination response to saline conditions in these genotypes, we found genes associated with dormancy and up-regulation of abscisic acid (ABA). Our results

  10. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, offspring DNA methylation and later offspring adiposity: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Richmond, Rebecca C; Fraser, Abigail; Simpkin, Andrew; Suderman, Matthew; Shihab, Hashem A; Lyttleton, Oliver; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan M; Gaunt, Tom R; Davey Smith, George; Relton, Caroline L

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in utero exposure to undernutrition and overnutrition might affect adiposity in later life. Epigenetic modification is suggested as a plausible mediating mechanism. We used multivariable linear regression and a negative control design to examine offspring epigenome-wide DNA methylation in relation to maternal and offspring adiposity in 1018 participants. Compared with neonatal offspring of normal weight mothers, 28 and 1621 CpG sites were differentially methylated in offspring of obese and underweight mothers, respectively [false discovert rate (FDR)-corrected P-value BMI) outside the normal range, was seen at 78.6% of the sites associated with obesity and 87.9% of the sites associated with underweight. Associations of maternal obesity with offspring methylation were stronger than associations of paternal obesity, supporting an intrauterine mechanism. There were no consistent associations of gestational weight gain with offspring DNA methylation. In general, sites that were hypermethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypomethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be positively associated with offspring adiposity, and sites hypomethylated in association with maternal obesity or hypermethylated in association with maternal underweight tended to be inversely associated with offspring adiposity. Our data suggest that both maternal obesity and, to a larger degree, underweight affect the neonatal epigenome via an intrauterine mechanism, but weight gain during pregnancy has little effect. We found some evidence that associations of maternal underweight with lower offspring adiposity and maternal obesity with greater offspring adiposity may be mediated via increased DNA methylation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. Comparison Across Two Generations of Prospective Models of How the Low Level of Response to Alcohol Affects Alcohol Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Kalmijn, Jelger; Trim, Ryan S.; Cesario, Erin; Saunders, Gretchen; Sanchez, Courtney; Campbell, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the first direct comparison of level of response (LR)—based prospective models in two generations of the same families. To accomplish this, we describe results from the first prospective evaluation of potential mediators of how an earlier low LR to alcohol relates to adverse alcohol outcomes in offspring from the San Diego Prospective Study (SDPS). Method: To compare with data from probands in the SDPS, new data were gathered from 86 drinking offspring (age ∼20 years) during the 25-year follow-up of these families. Consistent with the usual effect of a low LR, outcomes 5 years later for both generations focused on drinking quantities as well as alcohol problems during the follow-up. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the relationships among variables, and the models in proband and offspring generations were compared using direct observations of the model results and through invariance procedures. Results: In these drinking offspring, LR correlated with 5-year outcomes (r = .48, p drinking, positive alcohol expectancies, and using alcohol to cope with stress. These results were similar to a previously published prospective model in SDPS probands, although path coefficients were generally higher in the younger group. Conclusions: The LR-based model of heavier drinking operated similarly across generations, with some modest differences. These results indicate that the model may be meaningful in both younger and middle-age groups. PMID:22333327

  12. Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, reduced risk of metabolic syndrome traits, and incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumawas, Marcella E; Meigs, James B; Dwyer, Johanna T; McKeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-12-01

    The benefit of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in mitigating metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has not been well investigated among nondiabetic Americans. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective association between the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score (MSDPS) was used to characterize a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort. We examined the longitudinal association between MSDPS and metabolic syndrome traits (including homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting glucose, waist circumference, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure) among 2730 participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort without type 2 diabetes (baseline median age: 54 y; 55% women), who were followed from the fifth (baseline) to the seventh study examinations (mean follow-up time: 7 y), and metabolic syndrome incidence (according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) in 1918 participants free of the condition at baseline. A higher MSDPS was associated with lower homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (P = 0.02), waist circumference (P metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile category (38.5% compared with 30.1%; P = 0.01). Our study suggests that the consumption of a diet consistent with the principles of the Mediterranean-style diet may protect against metabolic syndrome in Americans.

  13. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with childhood bone fractures in offspring - A birth-cohort study of 6718 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Roope; Auvinen, Juha; Pokka, Tytti; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko

    2017-08-01

    In children there is limited understanding about the biological and environmental risk factors of fractures. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of maternal smoking on preschool children's fractures hypothesizing that the fracture risk might be programmed during intrauterine growth in means of disturbed bone formation. A prospective birth cohort included women living in Northern Finland with an expected date of delivery between July 1st, 1985 and June 30th, 1986 (N=9362), and their offspring (N=9432). Smoking was inquired during pregnancy and when the offspring reached seven years of age. Information on in-hospital-treated fractures among the children was collected from the National Hospital Discharge Register (NHDR). The cases who declined to participate or suffered from any bone dysplasia such as osteogenesis imperfecta or any malignancy were excluded, thus 6718 subjects (71.2%) were finally included. Poisson regression analysis with adjustment for gender, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, socioeconomic status of the family, maternal age and body mass index (BMI) of the children was used to determine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and bone fractures. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 1.83-fold (95% CI 1.06-3.02, p=0.022) increased risk of in-hospital-treated fractures at pre-school age. The fracture risk in childhood is perhaps increased as a result of modified bone development of the fetus due to maternal smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between......PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  15. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  16. Parental supply and offspring demand amongst Karo Batak mothers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2009-03-01

    The resolution of parent-offspring conflict (POC) might sway in favour of the offspring if the parent relies on offspring-supplied information about need. Here, three hypotheses from a resolution model of POC were tested using data on sickness histories and mother-infant interactions from 24 Karo Batak women and their young children from two rural villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. First, as predicted, offspring with greater need (measured as age and propensity to illness) tended to fuss more often. Second, as expected, observed fussiness predicted the number of suckling occurrences observed during sampling periods. Third, contrary to the prediction, the duration of fussing observed after breast-feeding occurrences was longer than the duration of the breast-feeding occurrences themselves. Parental decisions were made based on offspring-supplied information about need, but offspring failed to garner resources in excess of the parental optimum. This suggests that a POC interpretation is unnecessary to account for these results.

  17. Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Matthew G; Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Roizen, Erica R; Truong, Nhan L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between parental depression and phobias in offspring as well as links between childhood fears and risk for major depression. This study examines the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in parents and specific fears and phobias in offspring. Three hundred and eighteen children of parents with lifetime MDD, anxiety disorder, MDD+anxiety disorder, or neither were psychiatrically assessed via parent interview. Rates of specific phobias in offspring did not differ significantly across parental groups. Specific fears were significantly elevated in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder relative to the other groups (MDD, anxiety disorder, and controls, which did not differ). We failed to find increased phobias in offspring of parents with MDD without anxiety disorder. Elevated rates of specific fears in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder may be a function of more severe parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading, or unmeasured environmental influences. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Incretin and glucagon levels in adult offspring exposed to maternal diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    as hyperglucagonemia. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate circulating plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a follow-up study of 567 offspring, aged 18-27 years. We included...... two groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (O-GDM; n = 163) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM; n = 146). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normoglycemia during pregnancy (O-NoGDM; n...... maternal blood glucose during OGTT in pregnancy was associated with reduced postprandial suppression of glucagon in the offspring. Lower levels of GLP-1 and higher levels of glucagon during the OGTT were present in offspring characterized by overweight or prediabetes/T2DM at follow-up, irrespective...

  19. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  20. Parental ploidy strongly affects offspring fitness in heteroploid crosses among three cytotypes of autopolyploid Jacobaea carniolica (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Sonnleitner

    Full Text Available Reproductive interactions among cytotypes in their contact zones determine whether these cytotypes can co-exist and form stable contact zones or not. In autopolyploids, heteroploid cross-compatibilities might depend on parental ploidy, but tests of this hypothesis in autopolyploid systems with more than two ploidies are lacking. Here, we study Jacobaea carniolica, which comprises diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid individuals regularly forming contact zones. Seeds obtained from in situ cross-pollinations within and among cytotypes were subjected to DNA flow cytometry and greenhouse germination experiments. Hybrid fitness and parental effects on hybrid fitness were tested with regression models comparing fitness parameters of early life stages. Irrespective of the direction of crosses, seed viability and seedling survival in diploid-polyploid crosses were substantially lower than in tetraploid-hexaploid crosses. In contrast, seedling growth traits indicated neither transgressive character expression nor any selection against hybrid offspring. Congruent with a model of genome dosage effects, these traits differed between reciprocal crosses, especially of diploids and tetraploids, where trait values resembled those of the maternal parent. The strong effect of parental ploidy on offspring fitness in heteroploid crosses may cause contact zones involving exclusively polyploid cytotypes to be less stable over longer terms than those involving diploids and polyploids.

  1. Prenatal Stress Exposure Generates Higher Early Survival and Smaller Size without Impacting Developmental Rate in a Pacific Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Pauline M; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Sopinka, Natalie M; Heath, John W; Love, Oliver P

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to elevated glucocorticoids can act as a signal of environmental stress, resulting in modifications to offspring phenotype. While "negative" phenotypic effects (i.e., smaller size, slower growth) are often reported, recent research coupling phenotype with other fitness-related traits has suggested positive impacts of prenatal stress. Using captive Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), we treated eggs with biologically relevant cortisol levels-low (300 ng mL(-1) ), high (1,000 ng mL(-1) ), or control (0 ng mL(-1) )-to examine the early-life impacts of maternally transferred stress hormones on offspring. Specifically, we measured early survival, rate of development, and multiple measures of morphology. Low and high cortisol dosing of eggs resulted in significantly higher survival compared to controls (37% and 24% higher, respectively). Fish reared from high dose eggs were structurally smaller compared to control fish, but despite this variation in structural size, exposure to elevated cortisol did not impact developmental rate. These results demonstrate that elevations in egg cortisol can positively influence offspring fitness through an increase in early survival while also altering phenotype at a critical life-history stage. Overall, these results suggest that exposure to prenatal stress may not always produce apparently negative impacts on offspring fitness and further proposes that complex phenotypic responses should be examined in relevant environmental conditions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Maternal obesity and offspring body composition by indirect methods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Laura, Helen; Santos, Iná S.; Quadros, Lenice C. M.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study reviewed the evidence that assessed the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain and offspring body composition in childhood. A systematic review was conducted. Cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled trials measuring offspring body composition by indirect methods were included. Meta-analyses of the effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on offspring fat-free mass, body fat percent, and fat mass were conduc...

  3. Epigenetic Patterns Modulate the Connection between Developmental Dynamics of Parenting and Offspring Psychosocial Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Naumova, Oksana Yu; Hein, Sascha; Suderman, Matthew; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Raefski, Adam; Dobrynin, Pavel V.; Brown, Pamela J.; Szyf, Moshe; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to establish and quantify the connections between parenting, offspring psychosocial adjustment, and the epigenome. The participants, 35 African-American young adults (19 females and 16 males; age = 17 to 29.5 years), represented a subsample of a three-wave longitudinal 15-year study on the developmental trajectories of low-income urban mother-offspring dyads. Mothers were assessed on their perceptions of maternal stress at each wave. Offspring were assessed on their perce...

  4. Animal models of maternal nutrition and altered offspring bone structure – Bone development across the lifecourse

    OpenAIRE

    SA Lanham; C Bertram; C Cooper; ROC Oreffo

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspr...

  5. Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Lise Falgreen Eriksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children’s IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child’s health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

  6. Transmitting the sum of all fears: Iranian nuclear threat salience among offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Many Israelis are preoccupied with the prospect of a nuclear-armed Iran, frequently associating it with the danger of annihilation that existed during the Holocaust. The current article examined whether offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) are especially preoccupied and sensitive to the Iranian threat, and whether this susceptibility is a part of their increased general image of actual and potential threats, defined as the hostile world scenario (HWS). Study 1 (N = 106) showed that relative to comparisons, OHS reported more preoccupation with the Iranian nuclear threat. Moreover, the positive relationship between the salience of the Iranian threat and symptoms of anxiety was stronger among OHS. Study 2 (N = 450) replicated these findings, while focusing on the Iranian nuclear threat salience and symptoms of psychological distress. It further showed that OHS reported more negative engagement with the HWS (i.e., feeling that surrounding threats decrease one's sense of competence), which in turn mediated their increased preoccupation with the Iranian threat. The results suggest that intergenerational transmission of the Holocaust trauma includes heightened preoccupation with and sensitivity to potential threats of annihilation, and that the specific preoccupation with threats of annihilation reflects a part of a more general preoccupation with surrounding threats. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Maternal dietary folate, folic acid and vitamin D intakes during pregnancy and lactation and the risk of cows' milk allergy in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinistö, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2016-08-01

    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements.

  8. Trichomoniasis and Lactoferrin: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Alka

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan which infects the urogenital tract and requires iron as an essential nutrient. Iron is known to upregulate various adhesins required for cytoadherance and other factors involved in pathogenesis. At mucosal surfaces, iron is chelated by lactoferrin resulting in low levels of free iron. However, pathogens have evolved mechanisms for an increased uptake of iron. The present review highlights the role of iron in survival of Trichomonas during fluctuating concentrations of iron at mucosal surfaces during the menstrual cycle. Future prospects in terms of new drug and vaccine targets related to iron and its receptors have also been described. PMID:22988421

  9. Parent-offspring conflict and co-adaptation: behavioural ecology meets quantitative genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiseth, Per T; Wright, Jonathan; Kölliker, Mathias

    2008-08-22

    The evolution of the complex and dynamic behavioural interactions between caring parents and their dependent offspring is a major area of research in behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics. While behavioural ecologists examine the evolution of interactions between parents and offspring in the light of parent-offspring conflict and its resolution, quantitative geneticists explore the evolution of such interactions in the light of parent-offspring co-adaptation due to combined effects of parental and offspring behaviours on fitness. To date, there is little interaction or integration between these two fields. Here, we first review the merits and limitations of each of these two approaches and show that they provide important complementary insights into the evolution of strategies for offspring begging and parental resource provisioning. We then outline how central ideas from behavioural ecology and quantitative genetics can be combined within a framework based on the concept of behavioural reaction norms, which provides a common basis for behavioural ecologists and quantitative geneticists to study the evolution of parent-offspring interactions. Finally, we discuss how the behavioural reaction norm approach can be used to advance our understanding of parent-offspring conflict by combining information about the genetic basis of traits from quantitative genetics with key insights regarding the adaptive function and dynamic nature of parental and offspring behaviours from behavioural ecology.

  10. Circadian rhythm of autonomic activity in non diabetic offsprings of type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by heart rate variability (HRV with 24-hours ECG Holter (HRV, the circadian autonomic activity in offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and the relation with insulin-resistance. METHODS: 50 Caucasian offsprings of type 2 diabetic subjects were divided in two groups: insulin-resistant offsprings (IR and non insulin-resistant offsprings (NIR. Autonomic nervous activity was studied by HRV. Time domain and spectral analysis (low frequency, LF, and high frequency, HF, provide markers of sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation when assessed in normalized units were evaluated. RESULTS. Time domain showed a reduction of total SDNN in IR (p

  11. Transmission of parental neuroticism to offspring's depression: the mediating role of rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Selby, Edward A; Hames, Jennifer L; Joiner, Thomas E; Fingerman, Karen L; Zarit, Steven H; Birditt, Kira S; Hilt, Lori M

    2014-10-01

    Rumination is a cognitive process that involves repetitively focusing on the causes, situational factors and consequences of one's negative emotion, and it is a potent risk factor for depression. Parental depression and neuroticism may exert an influence on offspring's development of rumination, which may increase offspring's risk for depression. The current study included 375 biological parent-offspring dyads. Parents were assessed for depressive symptoms and neuroticism; adult offspring were assessed for depressive symptoms and rumination. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the effects of parental depressive symptoms and parental neuroticism on adult offspring's depression, and to determine whether offspring's rumination mediated this relationship. Results provided evidence that offspring's rumination fully mediated the relationship between parental neuroticism and offspring's depressive symptoms. Parental depressive symptoms and neuroticism may contribute a genetic predisposition for depressive symptoms in offspring, but it also may promote an environment in which maladaptive cognitive processes, such as rumination, are learned. Given the role that rumination plays in mediating the association between neuroticism and depressive symptoms-targeting rumination in the treatment of high risk individuals would be important in reducing onset of depressive disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children ...... born before and after maternal surgical weight loss.......According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children...

  13. Experimental gestational hypothyroidism evokes hypertension in adult offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sheyla Oliveira; Loureiro, Saulo Makerran Araújo; Alves, Iura Gonzalez Nogueira; Jesus, Camila Santos de; Santos, Patrícia Rabelo dos; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana dos; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Badauê-Passos, Daniel

    2012-09-25

    Gestational hypothyroidism is a prevalent disorder in pregnant women. We aimed to investigate the impact of experimental gestational hypothyroidism (EGH) on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) in the offspring of rats. EGH was induced with methimazole (MMI) 0.02% in drinking water from day 9 of gestation until birth. Sixty day old offspring from MMI-treated dams (OMTD, n=13) or water-treated dams (OWTD, n=13) had femoral arteries surgically assessed for the measurements of heart rate (HR), mean (MAP), systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). To investigate the balance of ANS, we established the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands of pulse interval (PI) and LF band of SAP spectrum. OMTD had increased MAP (130.2 ± 2.0 vs 108.8 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.001), SAP (157.3 ± 2.9 vs 135.7 ± 4.5mm Hg, p<0.001) and DAP (109.7 ± 1.9 vs 88.4 ± 2.6 mmHg, p<0.001) when compared to OWTD, and had lower HR (355.1 ± 8.9 vs 386.8 ± 9.2 bpm, p<0.05). After spectral analysis of PI and SAP, only LF band of SAP spectrum was higher (7.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.0 ± 0.6 mmHg(2), p<0.01) in OMTD under spontaneous condition. Despite bradycardia, EGH promotes spontaneous hypertension in 60 day old offspring, probably due to increased sympathetic modulation of vessels, which is suggested by the higher LF of SAP. These findings suggest a critical role of maternal THs in the development of fetal cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glomerular filtration barrier in rat offspring exposed to maternal undernutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh H. Alwasel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor diet during pregnancy can increase blood pressure in offspring of human and laboratory animals. The present study examined the effects of moderate intrauterine undernutrition on the ultrastructure of the glomerular filtration barrier in 20-day-old rat fetuses and six-month-old rat offspring. Pregnant rats were provided with either ad libitum food during pregnancy (control group, C or restricted to 50% of ad libitum food until delivery (food-restricted group, FR. Both groups were given free access to food after birth. The kidneys of embryonic day 20 and six-month-old rats were harvested. Transmission electron micrographs in glomeruli from both groups were obtained to study the ultrastructure of the glomerular filtration barrier. Blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate were measured in six-month-old rats. In comparison to the control group, the FR group had smaller body and kidney weights in both ages. Systemic blood pressure was significantly elevated in the FR group. The glomerular filtration rate was similar in both groups. A study of the glomerular ultrastructure showed a remarkable retardation in the development of the podocyte foot process in the FR group at embryonic day 20. Micrographs also showed remarkable changes in the glomerular filtration barrier of six-month-old rats including an increase in the thickness of the glomerular basement membrane and an increase in the width of filtration slits. These results suggest that maternal food restriction disturbs the development of the glomerular filtration barrier, which may contribute to hypertension in adult rat offspring. The long-term exposure to hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration may have contributed to the damages observed in the glomerular filtration barrier of six-month-old rats exposed to intrauterine food restriction.

  15. Shared genetic influences do not explain the association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems: results from a Children-of-Twins study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, L J; Rijsdijk, F V; Ganiban, J M; Reiss, D; Spotts, E L; Neiderhiser, J M; Lichtenstein, P; McAdams, T A; Eley, T C

    2017-07-26

    Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence. We used a Children-of-Twins (CoT) design with data from the parent-based Twin and Offspring Study of Sweden (TOSS) sample [909 adult twin pairs and their offspring; offspring mean age 15.75 (2.42) years], and the child-based Swedish Twin Study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) sample [1120 adolescent twin pairs; mean age 13.67 (0.47) years]. A composite of parent-report measures (closeness, conflict, disagreements, expressions of affection) indexed parent-offspring relationship quality in TOSS, and offspring self-reported internalizing symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in both samples. A social transmission mechanism explained the intergenerational association [r = 0.21 (0.16-0.25)] in our best-fitting model. A passive genetic transmission pathway was not found to be significant, indicating that parental genetic influences on parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring genetic influences on their internalizing problems were non-overlapping. These results indicate that this intergenerational association is a product of social interactions between children and parents, within which bidirectional effects are highly plausible. Results from genetically informative studies of parenting-related effects should be used to help refine early parenting interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.

  16. Animal cloning: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D N

    2005-04-01

    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  17. Prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement and childbirths in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973...... Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement. RESULTS: A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3%) were...

  18. The offspring of irradiated parents, are they stable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ruth C. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rcb6@le.ac.uk; Dubrova, Yuri E. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-25

    Mutation induction in directly exposed cells is currently regarded as the main component of the genetic risk of ionising radiation for humans. However, recent studies showing that exposure to ionising radiation results in elevated mutation rates detectable in the non-irradiated progeny of exposed cells challenge the existing paradigm in radiation biology. This review describes some recent data on radiation-induced genomic instability in vitro and mainly focuses on the in vivo phenomenon of transgenerational instability, where elevated mutation rates are detected in the non-exposed offspring of irradiated parents. The possible mechanisms and implications of transgenerational instability are also discussed.

  19. Production of trout offspring from triploid salmon parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Shikina, Shinya; Kanno, Megumi; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2007-09-14

    Many salmonids have become at risk of extinction. For teleosts whose eggs cannot be cryopreserved, developing techniques other than egg cryopreservation to save genetic resources is imperative. In this study, spermatogonia from rainbow trout were intraperitoneally transplanted into newly hatched sterile triploid masu salmon. Transplanted trout spermatogonia underwent spermatogenesis and oogenesis in male and female recipients, respectively. At 2 years after transplantation, triploid salmon recipients only produced trout sperm and eggs. With use of these salmon as parents, we successfully produced only donor-derived trout offspring. Thus, by transplanting cryopreserved spermatogonia into sterile xenogeneic recipients, we can generate individuals of a threatened species.

  20. The generation of live offspring from vitrified oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gabriel Sanchez-Partida

    Full Text Available Oocyte cryopreservation is extremely beneficial for assisted reproductive technologies, the treatment of infertility and biotechnology and offers a viable alternative to embryo freezing and ovarian grafting approaches for the generation of embryonic stem cells and live offspring. It also offers the potential to store oocytes to rescue endangered species by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for the generation of embryonic stem cells to study development in these species. We vitrified mouse oocytes using a range of concentrations of trehalose (0 to 0.3 M and demonstrated that 0.1 and 0.3 M trehalose had similar developmental rates, which were significantly different to the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. As mitochondria are important for fertilisation outcome, we observed that the clustering and distribution of mitochondria of the 0.2 M cohort were more affected by vitifrication than the other groups. Nevertheless, all 3 cohorts were able to develop to blastocyst, following in vitro fertilisation, although developmental rates were better for the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts than the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. Whilst blastocysts gave rise to embryonic stem-like cells, it was apparent from immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR that these cells did not demonstrate true pluripotency and exhibited abnormal karyotypes. However, they gave rise to teratomas following injection into SCID mice and differentiated into cells of each of the germinal layers following in vitro differentiation. The transfer of 2-cell embryos from the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts resulted in the birth of live offspring that had normal karyotypes (9/10. When 2-cell embryos from vitrified oocytes underwent vitrification, and were thawed and transferred, live offspring were obtained that exhibited normal karyotypes, with the exception of one offspring who was larger and died at 7 months. We conclude that these studies highlight the importance of the endometrial environment for the maintenance of genetic stability and

  1. Associations of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain with Adult Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Meiner, Vardiella; Sagy, Yael; Avgil-Tsadok, Meytal; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Siscovick, David S.; Manor, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adult offspring adiposity. However, whether these maternal attributes are related to other cardio-metabolic risk factors in adulthood has not been comprehensively studied. Methods and Results We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, to prospectively examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with adiposity and related cardio-metabolic outcomes. Greater mppBMI, independent of GWG and confounders, was significantly associated with higher offspring BMI, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, insulin and triglycerides and with lower HDL-C. For example, the effect sizes were translated to nearly 5kg/m2 higher mean BMI, 8.4cm higher WC, 0.13mmol/L (11.4mg/dL) higher triglycerides and 0.10mmol/L (3.8mg/dL) lower HDL-C among offspring of mothers within the upper mppBMI quartile (BMI>26.4kg/m2) compared to the lower (BMI14kg) and lower (GWG<9kg) quartiles of GWG were compared. Further adjustment for offspring adiposity attenuated to null the observed associations. Conclusions Maternal size both before and during pregnancy are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring. The associations appear to be driven mainly by offspring adiposity. Future studies that explore mechanisms underlying the intergenerational cycle of obesity are warranted to identify potentially novel targets for cardio-metabolic risk-reduction interventions. PMID:22344037

  2. Defining MCI in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring: education versus WRAT-based norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Richard E; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Auerbach, Sanford; Wolf, Philip A; Au, Rhoda

    2013-01-01

    Psychometric definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) typically use cut-off levels set at 1.5 SDs below age-adjusted and education-adjusted norms, assuming that the education adjustment accounts for premorbid abilities. However, noncognitive factors impact educational at