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Sample records for survival processing paradigm

  1. An experimental paradigm for team decision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, D.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The study of distributed information processing and decision making is presently hampered by two factors: (1) The inherent complexity of the mathematical formulation of decentralized problems has prevented the development of models that could be used to predict performance in a distributed environment; and (2) The lack of comprehensive scientific empirical data on human team decision making has hindered the development of significant descriptive models. As a part of a comprehensive effort to find a new framework for multihuman decision making problems, a novel experimental research paradigm was developed involving human terms in decision making tasks. Attempts to construct parts of an integrated model with ideas from queueing networks, team theory, distributed estimation and decentralized resource management are described.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lifestyle: A Paradigm for Adaptation, Survival, and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradali, M. Fata; Ghods, Shirin; Rehm, Bernd H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen affecting immunocompromised patients. It is known as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Due to a range of mechanisms for adaptation, survival and resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, infections by P. aeruginosa strains can be life-threatening and it is emerging worldwide as public health threat. This review highlights the diversity of mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa promotes its survival and persistence in various environments and particularly at different stages of pathogenesis. We will review the importance and complexity of regulatory networks and genotypic-phenotypic variations known as adaptive radiation by which P. aeruginosa adjusts physiological processes for adaptation and survival in response to environmental cues and stresses. Accordingly, we will review the central regulatory role of quorum sensing and signaling systems by nucleotide-based second messengers resulting in different lifestyles of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, various regulatory proteins will be discussed which form a plethora of controlling systems acting at transcriptional level for timely expression of genes enabling rapid responses to external stimuli and unfavorable conditions. Antibiotic resistance is a natural trait for P. aeruginosa and multiple mechanisms underlying different forms of antibiotic resistance will be discussed here. The importance of each mechanism in conferring resistance to various antipseudomonal antibiotics and their prevalence in clinical strains will be described. The underlying principles for acquiring resistance leading pan-drug resistant strains will be summarized. A future outlook emphasizes the need for collaborative international multidisciplinary efforts to translate current knowledge into strategies to prevent and treat P. aeruginosa infections while reducing the rate of antibiotic resistance

  3. Survival Processing Eliminates Collaborative Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B; Bliss, Heather; Baker, Melissa A

    2017-04-11

    The present experiments examined the effect of processing words for their survival value, relevance to moving, and pleasantness on participants' free recall scores in both nominal groups (non-redundant pooled individual scores) and collaborative dyads. Overall, participants recalled more words in the survival processing conditions than in the moving and pleasantness processing conditions. Furthermore, nominal groups in both the pleasantness condition (Experiment 1) and the moving and pleasantness conditions (Experiment 2) recalled more words than collaborative groups, thereby replicating the oft-observed effect of collaborative inhibition. However, processing words for their survival value appeared to eliminate the deleterious effects of collaborative remembering in both Experiments 1 and 2. These results are discussed in the context of the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis and the effects of both expertise and collaborative skill on group remembering.

  4. African wild dogs test the 'survival of the fittest' paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Alistair; Gordon, Iain J; Gorman, Martyn L

    2003-08-07

    Charles Darwin first used the term 'survival of the fittest' in the 5th edition of The origin of species. A literal interpretation implies that predators will selectively prey upon the weakest members of a population. We demonstrate that this is true for African wild dogs hunting impala.

  5. Negative pressure darwinism: survival of the fittest paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael; Bybordi, Farhad

    2009-07-01

    The use of negative pressure for wound healing has been based on a set of parameters and devices that until recently were combined into a single paradigm. Despite historical and more recent evidence providing viable alternative considerations, it is only recently that this paradigm and its tenets have come into question. As the understanding of the limits of the current paradigm and specific instances of its benefits and drawbacks are identified, shifts in the paradigm must take place if the therapy is to evolve, develop, and continue to be efficacious. The pertinence of the concept of survival of the fittest is used to explore the need for a paradigm shift in negative pressure wound therapy.

  6. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Iskandar; Drancourt, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  7. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drancourt Michel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of environmental mycobacteria have been previously demonstrated to resist free-living amoeba with subsequent increased virulence and resistance to antibiotics and biocides. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit a significant degree of genetic variability. We herein studied the intra-ameobal location of all members of the MAC as model organisms for environmental mycobacteria. Results Type strains for M. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium arosiense, Mycobacterium marseillense, Mycobacterium timonense and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense were co-cultivated with the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga strain Linc-AP1. Microscopic analyses demonstrated the engulfment and replication of mycobacteria into vacuoles of A. polyphaga trophozoites. Mycobacteria were further entrapped within amoebal cysts, and survived encystment as demonstrated by subculturing. Electron microscopy observations show that, three days after entrapment into A. polyphaga cysts, all MAC members typically resided within the exocyst. Conclusions Combined with published data, these observations indicate that mycobacteria are unique among amoeba-resistant bacteria, in residing within the exocyst.

  8. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant

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    Link Ray Swanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Predictive processing is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence, and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of predictive processing seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly predictive processing links back to Kant. In this article I argue that several core aspects of predictive processing were anticipated by Kant in his 1781-87 works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in predictive processing include (1 the emphasis on ‘top-down’ generation of percepts, (2 the role of ‘hyperpriors’, (3 the general function of ‘generative models’, (4 the process of ‘analysis-by-synthesis’, and (5 the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that predictive processing echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or ‘top-down’ method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on predictive processing by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that predictive processing should not be regarded as a new paradigm but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.

  9. Dynamic Consistency in Process Algebra: From Paradigm to ACP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andova; L.P.J. Groenewegen; E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at various levels of abstraction. The operational semantics of Paradigm is given. For a

  10. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on “top-down” generation of percepts; (2) the role of “hyperpriors”; (3) the general function of “generative models”; (4) the process of “analysis-by-synthesis”; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or “top-down” method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz. PMID:27777555

  11. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on "top-down" generation of percepts; (2) the role of "hyperpriors"; (3) the general function of "generative models"; (4) the process of "analysis-by-synthesis"; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant's general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or "top-down" method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant's influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant's conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.

  12. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  13. Neyman, Markov processes and survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Grace

    2013-07-01

    J. Neyman used stochastic processes extensively in his applied work. One example is the Fix and Neyman (F-N) competing risks model (1951) that uses finite homogeneous Markov processes to analyse clinical trials with breast cancer patients. We revisit the F-N model, and compare it with the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) formulation for right censored data. The comparison offers a way to generalize the K-M formulation to include risks of recovery and relapses in the calculation of a patient's survival probability. The generalization is to extend the F-N model to a nonhomogeneous Markov process. Closed-form solutions of the survival probability are available in special cases of the nonhomogeneous processes, like the popular multiple decrement model (including the K-M model) and Chiang's staging model, but these models do not consider recovery and relapses while the F-N model does. An analysis of sero-epidemiology current status data with recurrent events is illustrated. Fix and Neyman used Neyman's RBAN (regular best asymptotic normal) estimates for the risks, and provided a numerical example showing the importance of considering both the survival probability and the length of time of a patient living a normal life in the evaluation of clinical trials. The said extension would result in a complicated model and it is unlikely to find analytical closed-form solutions for survival analysis. With ever increasing computing power, numerical methods offer a viable way of investigating the problem.

  14. Optimal control of psychological processes: a new computational paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K O; Molenaar, P C M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use general mathematical-statistical theorems to prove that developmental processes must be studied at the intra-individual level. We demonstrate how to model intra-individual variation using single-participant time series analysis with time-varying parameters. We use advanced signal analysis techniques based on nonlinear state-space modeling to present simulation results obtained with a new Maximum Likelihood technique based on Extended Kalman Filtering with Iteration and Smoothing (EKFIS) embedded in an Expectation Maximization (EM) loop. After showing how EKFIS results yield state-space models with time-varying parameters, we then couple EKFIS to recursive optimal control techniques to produce a receding horizon feedback-feedforward controller. In this way, we obtain a flexible on-line computational paradigm with which we can optimally control observed behavioral processes for an individual person in real time. We will present optimal control techniques using simulated data and outline preliminary applications to real time patient-specific treatment of type I diabetic patients and asthma patients.

  15. Biogeochemical processes on tree islands in the greater everglades: Initiating a new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, P.R.; Sklar, Fred H.; Coronado, C.A.; Troxler, T.G.; Krupa, S.L.; Sullivan, P.L.; Ewe, S.; Price, R.M.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientists' understanding of the role of tree islands in the Everglades has evolved from a plant community of minor biogeochemical importance to a plant community recognized as the driving force for localized phosphorus accumulation within the landscape. Results from this review suggest that tree transpiration, nutrient infiltration from the soil surface, and groundwater flow create a soil zone of confluence where nutrients and salts accumulate under the head of a tree island during dry periods. Results also suggest accumulated salts and nutrients are flushed downstream by regional water flows during wet periods. That trees modulate their environment to create biogeochemical hot spots and strong nutrient gradients is a significant ecological paradigm shift in the understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the Everglades. In terms of island sustainability, this new paradigm suggests the need for distinct dry-wet cycles as well as a hydrologic regime that supports tree survival. Restoration of historic tree islands needs further investigation but the creation of functional tree islands is promising. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. The information-processing paradigm: a valuable framework for clinical child and adolescent psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Vasey, Michael W; Braet, Caroline

    2003-03-01

    Provides an introduction to the special section on information-processing (I-P) factors in child and adolescent psychopathology. First, we describe the I-P paradigm and summarize its central tenets, presenting examples of past research that illustrate the heuristic value of the paradigm. Next, we discuss the potential benefits of the I-P paradigm for the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology. Finally, we present an overview of the articles in the special section.

  17. Separating limits on preparation versus online processing in multitasking paradigms: Evidence for resource models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Victor; Miller, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    We conducted 2 multitasking experiments to examine the finding that first-task reaction times (RTs) are slower in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm than in the prioritized processing (PP) paradigm. To see whether this difference between the 2 paradigms could be explained entirely by differences in first-task preparation, which would be consistent with the standard response selection bottleneck (RSB) model for multitasking interference, we compared the size of this difference for trials in which a second-task stimulus actually occurred against the size of the difference for trials without any second-task stimulus. The slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm was larger when the second-task stimulus appeared than when it did not, indicating that the difference cannot be explained entirely by between-paradigm differences in first-task preparation. Instead, the results suggest that the slowing of first-task RTs in the PRP paradigm relative to the PP paradigm is partly because of differences between paradigms in the online reallocation of processing capacity to tasks. Thus, the present results provide new evidence supporting resource models over the RSB model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Paradigm shift: Can TQM save DOD's procurement process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Ross V.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) ambitious introduction of total quality management (TQM) will fail, unless they change their paradigm and reengineer how they do business. TQM implementation in the defense department and possibilities for reengineering DOD's management structure were investigated. This paper uses a case study to investigate DOD's procurement efficiency and effectiveness with information technology. The findings show DOD is faced with its greatest challenge since WWII in meeting the rapidly evolving environment of the 1990s and the 21st century.

  19. The plastic coupled map lattice : a novel image-processing paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Colin B; Wambacq, Patrick; Oosterlinck, André

    1992-01-01

    Price C., Wambacq P., Oosterlinck A., "The plastic coupled map lattice : a novel image-processing paradigm", Chaos, an interdisciplinary journal of nonlinear science, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 351-366, 1992, American Institute of Physics.

  20. Paradigms of forensic science and legal process: a critical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2015-08-05

    This article reconsiders the relationship between criminal adjudication and forensic expertise in the light of 'new paradigms' of forensic practice and recent law reform. It briefly summarizes conventional wisdom on the typical shortcomings of forensic science and other expert evidence, as a springboard for a more searching critical diagnosis of longstanding maladies. The fundamentally jurisdictional nature of law is emphasized, and some implications for expert testimony noted. English law's traditionally adversarial model of criminal procedure is then reassessed, taking account of a proper understanding of its normative structure and modern development, and drawing on comparative legal research and theorizing to obtain a more rounded second opinion. In conclusion, some avenues for intelligent prescription are canvassed, highlighting the importance of promoting and facilitating effective communication between experts, lawyers and courts, and prioritizing modest practical remedies over radical surgery. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Navon's classical paradigm concerning local and global processing relates systematically to visual object classification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Poirel, Nicolas

    2018-01-10

    Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical paradigm involving the presentation of compound stimuli; large letters composed of smaller letters. Despite the usefulness of this paradigm it remains uncertain whether effects found with compound stimuli relate directly to visual object recognition. It does so because compound stimuli are not actual objects but rather formations of elements and because the elements that form the global shape of compound stimuli are not features of the global shape but rather objects in their own right. To examine the relationship between performance on Navon's paradigm and visual object processing we derived two indexes from Navon's paradigm that reflect different aspects of the relationship between global and local processing. We find that individual differences on these indexes can explain a considerable amount of variance in two standard object classification paradigms; object decision and superordinate categorization, suggesting that Navon's paradigm does relate to visual object processing.

  2. The Language of Archaeology II (or: How I survived the paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staša Babić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an auto-reflexive critical reconsideration of the author’s own previous writings on theory in archaeology. The imperfections of the early papers are scrutinized in connection to the prevailing attitude in the local disciplinary community at the time. Archaeology in Serbia has been withdrawn from the main theoretical discussions, and the individual attempts were aimed at compensating for this setback, introducing the essence of the current debates. Since the two major paradigms of the discipline – processual and post-processual, formulated in their original setting within the timespan of almost three decades, were presented simultaneously, they were merged in an unconsistent manner.

  3. Simulating the Emergence and Survival of Mutations Using a Self Regulating Multitype Branching Processes

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    Charles J. Mode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for an experimenter to study the emergence and survival of mutations, because mutations are rare events so that large experimental population must be maintained to ensure a reasonable chance that a mutation will be observed. In his famous book, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Sir R. A. Fisher introduced branching processes into evolutionary genetics as a framework for studying the emergence and survival of mutations in an evolving population. During the lifespan of Fisher, computer technology had not advanced to a point at which it became an effective tool for simulating the phenomenon of the emergence and survival of mutations, but given the wide availability of personal desktop and laptop computers, it is now possible and financially feasible for investigators to perform Monte Carlo Simulation experiments. In this paper all computer simulation experiments were carried out within a framework of self regulating multitype branching processes, which are part of a stochastic working paradigm. Emergence and survival of mutations could also be studied within a deterministic paradigm, which raises the issue as to what sense are predictions based on the stochastic and deterministic models are consistent. To come to grips with this issue, a technique was used such that a deterministic model could be embedded in a branching process so that the predictions of both the stochastic and deterministic compared based on the same assigned values of parameters.

  4. The effects of thoughts of survival and thoughts of death on recall in the adaptive memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Hart and Burns (2012) presented evidence that conditions that prime thoughts of one's mortality benefit recall. Drawing on the conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival, Hart and Burns interpret their findings as suggestive of the possibility that death-related thoughts function in manner similar to survival-related thoughts in enhancing recall. In the present study I draw on evolutionary arguments to question whether a conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival translates into a functional relation. I then present data showing that while death-related thoughts can promote high levels of recall, (a) the level achieved does not match that produced by survival processing and (b) survival and death cognition likely rely on different mechanisms to achieve their effects.

  5. YY Filter - A Paradigm of Digital Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahara, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    YY filter, named after the founder Prof. Yutaka Yamamoto, is a digital filter designed by sampled-data control theory, which can optimize the analog performance of the signal processing system with AD/DA converters. This article discusses problems in conventional signal processing and introduces advantages of the YY filter.

  6. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management

  7. The Viewpoint Paradigm: a semiotic based approach for the intelligibility of a cooperative designing process

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    Pierre-Jean Charrel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of viewpoint is studied in the field of the modelling and the knowledge management concerned in the upstream phases of a designing process. The concept is approached by semiotics, i.e. in dealing with the requirements so that an actor gives sense to an object. This gives means to transform the intuitive concepts of viewpoint and relation between viewpoints into the Viewpoint Paradigm: the sense of an object is the integration of the viewpoints which exert on it. The elements of this paradigm are integrated in a general model, which defines two concepts formally: Viewpoint and Correlation of viewpoints. The Viewpoint Paradigm is then implemented in operational concerns which are related with the intelligibility of the designing process. Two models of viewpoint and correlation are proposed. They raise of viewpoints management such as one can identify them in the written documents of a project.

  8. Comparison of fMRI paradigms assessing visuospatial processing: Robustness and reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Peer; Zimmermann, Kristin M.; Westermann, Stefan; Frässle, Stefan; Jansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The development of brain imaging techniques, in particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), made it possible to non-invasively study the hemispheric lateralization of cognitive brain functions in large cohorts. Comprehensive models of hemispheric lateralization are, however, still missing and should not only account for the hemispheric specialization of individual brain functions, but also for the interactions among different lateralized cognitive processes (e.g., language and visuospatial processing). This calls for robust and reliable paradigms to study hemispheric lateralization for various cognitive functions. While numerous reliable imaging paradigms have been developed for language, which represents the most prominent left-lateralized brain function, the reliability of imaging paradigms investigating typically right-lateralized brain functions, such as visuospatial processing, has received comparatively less attention. In the present study, we aimed to establish an fMRI paradigm that robustly and reliably identifies right-hemispheric activation evoked by visuospatial processing in individual subjects. In a first study, we therefore compared three frequently used paradigms for assessing visuospatial processing and evaluated their utility to robustly detect right-lateralized brain activity on a single-subject level. In a second study, we then assessed the test-retest reliability of the so-called Landmark task–the paradigm that yielded the most robust results in study 1. At the single-voxel level, we found poor reliability of the brain activation underlying visuospatial attention. This suggests that poor signal-to-noise ratios can become a limiting factor for test-retest reliability. This represents a common detriment of fMRI paradigms investigating visuospatial attention in general and therefore highlights the need for careful considerations of both the possibilities and limitations of the respective fMRI paradigm–in particular, when being

  9. Survival of enterococci during hospital laundry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, K E; Holliday, M G; Jones, A L; Robson, I; Perry, J D

    2002-02-01

    Much remains to be elucidated about the epidemiology of nosocomial enterococcal infections. Enterococci are, however, known to be relatively thermotolerant, and several studies have shown that under laboratory conditions many strains are able to survive the time/temperature combinations of the UK Department of Health recommendations for the decontamination of used linen (HSG(95)18). We therefore wished to investigate the efficacy of decontamination of enterococci from hospital linen in working hospital laundries. The thermotolerance of 40 strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium was first determined. Reduction by a factor of greater than 10(5) was achieved in only two of 40 strains after 3 min at 71 degrees C or 10 min at 65 degrees C, the time/temperature combinations specified by the Department of Health for the disinfection of used linen. During experimental challenge of 10 working hospital laundries, however, we demonstrated successful decontamination of laundry artificially contaminated with enterococci. This was shown to take place during the washing stage. Our study suggests that, despite the relative thermotolerance of enterococci, the time/temperature combinations specified in HSG(95)18 should be adequate for their decontamination in hospital laundries. Copyright 2002 The Hospital Infection Society.

  10. Dying to remember, remembering to survive: mortality salience and survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Kramer, Melanie E; Burns, Amy D

    2014-01-01

    Processing items for their relevance to survival improves recall for those items relative to numerous other deep processing encoding techniques. Perhaps related, placing individuals in a mortality salient state has also been shown to enhance retention of items encoded after the morality salience manipulation (e.g., in a pleasantness rating task), a phenomenon we dubbed the "dying-to-remember" (DTR) effect. The experiments reported here further explored the effect and tested the possibility that the DTR effect is related to survival processing. Experiment 1 replicated the effect using different encoding tasks, demonstrating that the effect is not dependent on the pleasantness task. In Experiment 2 the DTR effect was associated with increases in item-specific processing, not relational processing, according to several indices. Experiment 3 replicated the main results of Experiment 2, and tested the effects of mortality salience and survival processing within the same experiment. The DTR effect and its associated difference in item-specific processing were completely eliminated when the encoding task required survival processing. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the mechanisms responsible for survival processing and DTR effects are overlapping.

  11. Fundamental paradox of survival determinism: the ur-etiology disease paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsmanovic, Pavle

    2013-06-01

    Following a common practice in medicine, biomedical researches tend to view various disease conditions as direct results of preceding, disease-causing events. Such events are commonly those that could have been previously detected and which have given the history of studies of particular diseases, been previously recognized as playing an important role in an onset and/or progression of the disease in question. Although such practice is justified from the very principles of experimental investigation and scientific observation, it comes short of finding the fundamental causes behind these disease conditions. This manuscript proposes a different view to the origin of some types of diseases as well as some other biological phenomena. Namely, the focus of the concept relates to a notion of survival determinism, proposed to have been in the very core of evolution of primordial organisms. Thereby, as various disease models are discussed in the light of the proposed mechanisms for adaptation, they could be seen as relicts of the early evolutionary history of life on Earth.

  12. Aporia in the information-processing paradigm of contemporary cognitive psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Miluše

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (1999), s. 274-279 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3077601 Keywords : information-processing approach * paradigm * cognitive psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.115, year: 1999

  13. Anaphora Resolution and Reanalysis during L2 Sentence Processing: Evidence from the Visual World Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnings, Ian; Fotiadou, Georgia; Tsimpli, Ianthi

    2017-01-01

    In a visual world paradigm study, we manipulated gender congruence between a subject pronoun and two antecedents to investigate whether second language (L2) learners with a null subject first language (L1) acquire and process overt subject pronouns in a nonnull subject L2 in a nativelike way. We also investigated whether L2 speakers revise an…

  14. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-02-15

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An eye-tracking paradigm for analyzing the processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Wendt

    Full Text Available An eye-tracking paradigm was developed for use in audiology in order to enable online analysis of the speech comprehension process. This paradigm should be useful in assessing impediments in speech processing. In this paradigm, two scenes, a target picture and a competitor picture, were presented simultaneously with an aurally presented sentence that corresponded to the target picture. At the same time, eye fixations were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The effect of linguistic complexity on language processing time was assessed from eye fixation information by systematically varying linguistic complexity. This was achieved with a sentence corpus containing seven German sentence structures. A novel data analysis method computed the average tendency to fixate the target picture as a function of time during sentence processing. This allowed identification of the point in time at which the participant understood the sentence, referred to as the decision moment. Systematic differences in processing time were observed as a function of linguistic complexity. These differences in processing time may be used to assess the efficiency of cognitive processes involved in resolving linguistic complexity. Thus, the proposed method enables a temporal analysis of the speech comprehension process and has potential applications in speech audiology and psychoacoustics.

  16. An eye-tracking paradigm for analyzing the processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-01-01

    An eye-tracking paradigm was developed for use in audiology in order to enable online analysis of the speech comprehension process. This paradigm should be useful in assessing impediments in speech processing. In this paradigm, two scenes, a target picture and a competitor picture, were presented simultaneously with an aurally presented sentence that corresponded to the target picture. At the same time, eye fixations were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The effect of linguistic complexity on language processing time was assessed from eye fixation information by systematically varying linguistic complexity. This was achieved with a sentence corpus containing seven German sentence structures. A novel data analysis method computed the average tendency to fixate the target picture as a function of time during sentence processing. This allowed identification of the point in time at which the participant understood the sentence, referred to as the decision moment. Systematic differences in processing time were observed as a function of linguistic complexity. These differences in processing time may be used to assess the efficiency of cognitive processes involved in resolving linguistic complexity. Thus, the proposed method enables a temporal analysis of the speech comprehension process and has potential applications in speech audiology and psychoacoustics.

  17. A new experimental paradigm to study children's processing of their parent's unscripted language input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Sudha

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a new experimental paradigm for studying children's real-time language processing of their parents' unscripted speech. Focusing on children's processing of referential expressions, or the phrases that parents used to label particular objects, we engaged dyads in a game in which parents labeled one of several objects displayed on a screen, and the child was to quickly identify it as their eye gaze was tracked. There were two conditions; one included a competitor object (e.g., the target was a striped umbrella and the display also included an umbrella with polka dots), while the other one did not (e.g., only one umbrella was present). The results revealed evidence of children's incremental processing of their parents' referential expressions. They also showed faster processing of postnominally-modified as compared to prenominally-modified referential expressions. Parents tended to produce postnominally-modified referential expressions in the more difficult experimental condition in which there was a competitor object, suggesting either that these expressions are also easier for them to produce, or that they accommodate their children by producing more easily processed expressions. We discuss the potential of this paradigm for advancing theories of the relationship between child-directed language input and children's language processing.

  18. Survival-time statistics for sample space reducing stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Avinash Chand

    2016-04-01

    Stochastic processes wherein the size of the state space is changing as a function of time offer models for the emergence of scale-invariant features observed in complex systems. I consider such a sample-space reducing (SSR) stochastic process that results in a random sequence of strictly decreasing integers {x(t)},0≤t≤τ, with boundary conditions x(0)=N and x(τ) = 1. This model is shown to be exactly solvable: P_{N}(τ), the probability that the process survives for time τ is analytically evaluated. In the limit of large N, the asymptotic form of this probability distribution is Gaussian, with mean and variance both varying logarithmically with system size: 〈τ〉∼lnN and σ_{τ}^{2}∼lnN. Correspondence can be made between survival-time statistics in the SSR process and record statistics of independent and identically distributed random variables.

  19. Syllabic effects in word processing: evidence from the structural induction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, M A; Smith, K L; Klein, J M

    1998-12-01

    Spoken words have a rich structural organization in memory, consisting of syllabic and subsyllabic representations. A phoneme monitoring paradigm, in which the target phoneme occurs more frequently in one syllabic position than another (e.g., onset of the 2nd syllable vs. the coda of the 1st syllable: neu-tral vs. nut-meg; C. Pallier, N. Sebastian-Galles, T. Felguera, A. Christophe, & J. Mehler, 1993) was used to explore the formation of syllabic structure during word processing. Experiment 2 investigated how a recognition system that uses syllabic structure processes words with unclear syllable boundaries (e.g., pa-lace or pal-ace?). Two methodological issues were explored: The importance of a baseline condition for measuring effects of induction (Experiment 1) and the form of the representation used in the induction paradigm (Experiment 3). Findings suggest that syllabic structure begins to form early in word processing, and they demonstrate the adequacy of the induction procedure for measuring such processes.

  20. An image processing based paradigm for the extraction of tonal sounds in cetacean communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Roch, Marie A

    2013-12-01

    Dolphins and whales use tonal whistles for communication, and it is known that frequency modulation encodes contextual information. An automated mathematical algorithm could characterize the frequency modulation of tonal calls for use with clustering and classification. Most automatic cetacean whistle processing techniques are based on peak or edge detection or require analyst assistance in verifying detections. An alternative paradigm is introduced using techniques of image processing. Frequency information is extracted as ridges in whistle spectrograms. Spectral ridges are the fundamental structure of tonal vocalizations, and ridge detection is a well-established image processing technique, easily applied to vocalization spectrograms. This paradigm is implemented as freely available matlab scripts, coined IPRiT (image processing ridge tracker). Its fidelity in the reconstruction of synthesized whistles is compared to another published whistle detection software package, silbido. Both algorithms are also applied to real-world recordings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trunactus) signature whistles and tested for the ability to identify whistles belonging to different individuals. IPRiT gave higher fidelity and lower false detection than silbido with synthesized whistles, and reconstructed dolphin identity groups from signature whistles, whereas silbido could not. IPRiT appears to be superior to silbido for the extraction of the precise frequency variation of the whistle.

  1. Knowledge management and process monitoring of pharmaceutical processes in the quality by design paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Bansal, Anshuman; Hans, Jaspinder

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical processes are complex and highly variable in nature. The complexity and variability associated with these processes result in inconsistent and sometimes unpredictable process outcomes. To deal with the complexity and understand the causes of variability in these processes, in-depth knowledge and thorough understanding of the process and the various factors affecting the process performance become critical. This makes knowledge management and process monitoring an indispensable part of the process improvement efforts for any pharmaceutical organization.

  2. A comparison of the psychological refractory period and prioritized processing paradigms: Can the response-selection bottleneck model explain them both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz

    2015-10-01

    Four experiments examined whether well-established phenomena from the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm are also observed in the prioritized processing paradigm, as would be expected from a common description of the 2 paradigms with the response selection bottleneck (RSB) model. Consistent with a generalization of the RSB model to the prioritized processing paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that this paradigm yields effects of SOA and stimulus discriminability analogous to those observed in the PRP paradigm. In Experiments 3 and 4, however, overall RTs and effect sizes differed between the PRP and prioritized processing paradigms in ways that are difficult to explain within the RSB model. Understanding the differences between these 2 paradigms offers considerable promise as a way to extend the RSB model beyond the domain of the PRP paradigm and to generalize our understanding of multitasking interference. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Using the trauma film paradigm to explore interpersonal processes after trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Matthew J; Beck, J Gayle

    2017-07-01

    The present study sought to examine ways in which social support might influence trauma symptoms using a variation of the trauma film paradigm. Sixty-seven undergraduate female students in romantic relationships were randomized to watch a stressful film clip depicting a sexual assault, either in the presence (PP) or absence (PA) of their romantic partner. Analyses showed that the PP condition experienced more intrusive memories of the film than the PA condition. In addition, participants in the PP condition whose romantic partner reported low relationship trust had higher film-related distress than participants in the PP condition whose romantic partner reported high relationship trust. Observational coding of partner behaviors after viewing the film clip found that greater expression of negative emotion from partners predicted participants' negative affect and intrusive memories over time. Positive emotional support did not have any effect upon participants' distress. Findings identify possible ways in which interpersonal processes influence trauma adjustment and suggest that the trauma film paradigm can be adapted to examine the role of interpersonal processes in post-trauma adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Learning about Expectation Violation from Prediction Error Paradigms - A Meta-Analysis on Brain Processes Following a Prediction Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Astolfo, Lisa; Rief, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    Modifying patients' expectations by exposing them to expectation violation situations (thus maximizing the difference between the expected and the actual situational outcome) is proposed to be a crucial mechanism for therapeutic success for a variety of different mental disorders. However, clinical observations suggest that patients often maintain their expectations regardless of experiences contradicting their expectations. It remains unclear which information processing mechanisms lead to modification or persistence of patients' expectations. Insight in the processing could be provided by Neuroimaging studies investigating prediction error (PE, i.e., neuronal reactions to non-expected stimuli). Two methods are often used to investigate the PE: (1) paradigms, in which participants passively observe PEs ("passive" paradigms) and (2) paradigms, which encourage a behavioral adaptation following a PE ("active" paradigms). These paradigms are similar to the methods used to induce expectation violations in clinical settings: (1) the confrontation with an expectation violation situation and (2) an enhanced confrontation in which the patient actively challenges his expectation. We used this similarity to gain insight in the different neuronal processing of the two PE paradigms. We performed a meta-analysis contrasting neuronal activity of PE paradigms encouraging a behavioral adaptation following a PE and paradigms enforcing passiveness following a PE. We found more neuronal activity in the striatum, the insula and the fusiform gyrus in studies encouraging behavioral adaptation following a PE. Due to the involvement of reward assessment and avoidance learning associated with the striatum and the insula we propose that the deliberate execution of action alternatives following a PE is associated with the integration of new information into previously existing expectations, therefore leading to an expectation change. While further research is needed to directly assess

  5. Learning about Expectation Violation from Prediction Error Paradigms – A Meta-Analysis on Brain Processes Following a Prediction Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D’Astolfo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modifying patients’ expectations by exposing them to expectation violation situations (thus maximizing the difference between the expected and the actual situational outcome is proposed to be a crucial mechanism for therapeutic success for a variety of different mental disorders. However, clinical observations suggest that patients often maintain their expectations regardless of experiences contradicting their expectations. It remains unclear which information processing mechanisms lead to modification or persistence of patients’ expectations. Insight in the processing could be provided by Neuroimaging studies investigating prediction error (PE, i.e., neuronal reactions to non-expected stimuli. Two methods are often used to investigate the PE: (1 paradigms, in which participants passively observe PEs (”passive” paradigms and (2 paradigms, which encourage a behavioral adaptation following a PE (“active” paradigms. These paradigms are similar to the methods used to induce expectation violations in clinical settings: (1 the confrontation with an expectation violation situation and (2 an enhanced confrontation in which the patient actively challenges his expectation. We used this similarity to gain insight in the different neuronal processing of the two PE paradigms. We performed a meta-analysis contrasting neuronal activity of PE paradigms encouraging a behavioral adaptation following a PE and paradigms enforcing passiveness following a PE. We found more neuronal activity in the striatum, the insula and the fusiform gyrus in studies encouraging behavioral adaptation following a PE. Due to the involvement of reward assessment and avoidance learning associated with the striatum and the insula we propose that the deliberate execution of action alternatives following a PE is associated with the integration of new information into previously existing expectations, therefore leading to an expectation change. While further research is needed

  6. Shifting paradigms in the estimation of survival for castration-resistant prostate cancer: A tertiary academic center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mehran; Evison, Felicity; James, Nicholas D; Patel, Prashant

    2015-08-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has retained a guarded prognosis, with historical survival estimates of 18 to 24 months. However, the landscape of available therapy has changed, and the emphasis has altered from supportive to active treatment. Few large series from real-world populations exist in the contemporary era with fully mature survival data to confirm the indication based on clinical trials that patients with CRPC are surviving far longer than the historical estimates. We aim to review a large patient cohort with CRPC and provide mature survival data. Using the electronic histopathology database at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK, all prostate-specific antigentest results between April 2006 and September 2007 were extracted, and patients satisfying the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) definition of hormone failure were identified. Electronic records were reviewed and variables were collected, including survival, treatment, biochemistry, histopathology, and demographics. Probability of survival, and of developing metastasis or CRPC, was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were stratified into 3 groups, namely, D0--no metastasis at diagnosis but later appearance, D1--no metastasis at diagnosis or at last follow-up, and D2--metastasis at diagnosis. From 8,062 patient-prostate-specific antigen episodes, we identified 447 patients meeting the criteria. A notes review revealed 147 patients with CRPC. Median overall survival (OS) from diagnosis was 84.7 months (95% CI: 73-89), and 129 deaths had occurred (88%). Median OS from diagnosis for D0, D1, and D2 patients was 100.4, 180.1, and 58.9 months, respectively (P< 0.0001), and median OS from CRPC was 40 months (95% CI: 31-58), 82.9 (95% CI: 72-94; P = 0.0125), and 38.7 months (95% CI: 33-46), respectively. One-quarter of patients survived 6 years after development of CRPC. Metastasis is the key prognostic event. Some current international guidelines quote ≤19

  7. DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES: A PARADIGM IN THE STRATEGIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Corbari Corrêa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the issue of defining and developing of competences and their definitive insertion in the strategic process of organizations. The relevance is evident, since in the globalized world of the twenty-first century new skills are being required of workers, employers and citizens in general. The understanding of the current dynamics of competence-based management becomes important, since it can be approached as a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that accredit an individual to perform a certain function or, on the other hand, as achievements of the citizen in his/her work, i.e., the first definition focuses on the acquired potential and the second one lies in the effected performance. The paper also identifies the methods and techniques for assessing competences, in order to obtain a more objective view of human potential that exists in certain company and what are the needs for updating. Moreover, it attempts to present the importance of emotional competence in the strategic process and its close links with the concept of emotional intelligence, as well as it aims to demonstrate the importance of the irrevocable insertion of competences as a paradigm in the strategic process. Keywords: Competences. Management. Organizations. Globalization. Strategic Process.

  8. Paradigm shifts: using a participatory leadership process to redesign health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeby, Erin; Holschneider, Christine H; Singhal, Rita

    2014-12-01

    Physicians have increasingly given up private practices to become members of, and key stakeholders in, large healthcare systems. These systems are currently transforming to meet the Triple Aim: guaranteeing the equitable provision of high-quality, evidence-based care at a reasonable cost. Participatory leadership is an organizational change theory that engages key stakeholders as architects in the transformation process. This review highlights the utility of this leadership strategy in designing care for women's health. Our blueprint describing participatory leadership theory in women's health systems change is discussed in three case studies, highlighting what we call the six Ps of participatory leadership: participants, principles, purpose, process, and power. The 'sixth P', product, can then be substantially influential in changing the paradigm of care. Obstetrics and gynecology is increasingly practiced in large health systems responsible for the health of populations. Innovations in clinical practice impact care at the level of the individual. In order for advances in clinical practice to reach broad populations of women, they must be integrated into a delivery system. Physician engagement in leadership during this time of system transformation is of critical importance.

  9. Communicative Aspect of Educational Process as a Category of Non-Classical Paradigm of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kartashova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the urgent problems of modern education related to creative consciousness development and acceptable imitation proportion. The author refers to the communication theory to show the interrelation between creativity and communicative processes. The overview and analysis of a number of studies including G.Lassvell’s formula and Y.M. Lotman’s semiotic system prove that the communication category directly influences the logic of personal development. The main emphasis is on J. Habermas’ theory with its core concept of rational communication procedure and accumulation of knowledge by means of moral consciousness. Habermas singles out six stages of moral judgment: two pre-conventional (interaction controlled by authority and interest-driven cooperation; two conventional (role action and interaction driven by norms; post-conventional; and discursive. The author makes a conclusion that creativity is based on both the originality of creative action itself, according to the classical paradigm, and cooperation between the author and creative product consumer: e.g. writer and reader, teacher and student, etc. The research findings can be used in further studies of communicative relations in educational sphere and in practical teaching. 

  10. Toxic effects on survival and reproduction, a process oriented approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedaux, J.J.M.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Theoretical Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors present a new analysis of survival and reproduction data from toxicity tests. The analysis is based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory for feeding, growth and reproduction, and a one-compartment kinetics for the toxic compound. The toxic effect size depends on the internal concentration. Effects on survival occur via the hazard rate, which is set equal to the killing rate times the internal concentration that exceeds a threshold value. Effects on reproduction depend on the mode of action of the toxicant: direct effects (mortality during oogenesis or energy costs per egg), or indirect effects (via growth, maintenance or assimilation). The effects on energetic parameters are quantified by the ratio between the internal concentration that exceeds a threshold value, and the tolerance concentration. The process-based models quantify effects as functions of exposure time and (external) concentration on a mechanistic basis. The parameters (no effect concentration, killing rate, tolerance concentration and elimination rate) are independent from the chosen exposure time of the toxicity test. The standard log-logistic models are purely descriptive, have more parameters and are sensitive to the chosen exposure time. The estimation of no-effect concentrations (NOEC`s as well as parametric NEC`S) in standard statistical analyses is problematic. Application to ring test data for chronic tests on Daphnia magna and other toxicity data reveals that these problems do not occur with the analysis, due to the absence of free gradient parameters. It is possible to obtain estimates for the standard model parameters from the new parameters, but not vice versa. The authors believe that the analysis provides a better basis for risk assessment and QSAR studies than the standard one.

  11. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  12. Influence of stress on fear memory processes in an aversive differential conditioning paradigm in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Dorothée; Michael, Tanja; Wilhelm, Frank H; Hartmann, Francina R; Kunz, Sabrina; von Rohr, Isabelle R Rudolf; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2013-07-01

    It is widely assumed that learning and memory processes play an important role in the pathogenesis, expression, maintenance and therapy of anxiety disorders, such as phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memory retrieval is involved in symptom expression and maintenance of these disorders, while memory extinction is believed to be the underlying mechanism of behavioral exposure therapy of anxiety disorders. There is abundant evidence that stress and stress hormones can reduce memory retrieval of emotional information, whereas they enhance memory consolidation of extinction training. In this study we aimed at investigating if stress affects these memory processes in a fear conditioning paradigm in healthy human subjects. On day 1, fear memory was acquired through a standard differential fear conditioning procedure. On day 2 (24h after fear acquisition), participants either underwent a stressful cold pressor test (CPT) or a control condition, 20 min before memory retrieval testing and extinction training. Possible prolonged effects of the stress manipulation were investigated on day 3 (48 h after fear acquisition), when memory retrieval and extinction were tested again. On day 2, men in the stress group showed a robust cortisol response to stress and showed lower unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings than men in the control group. This reduction in fear memory retrieval was maintained on day 3. In women, who showed a significantly smaller cortisol response to stress than men, no stress effects on fear memory retrieval were observed. No group differences were observed with respect to extinction. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that stress can reduce memory retrieval of conditioned fear in men. Our findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of stress and glucocorticoids on fear symptoms in anxiety disorders and suggest that such effects may be sex-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A change in the study evaluation paradigm reveals that larynx preservation compromises survival in T4 laryngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Plinkert, Peter K; Ramroth, Heribert

    2017-09-01

    Larynx preservation (LP) is recommended for up to low-volume T4 laryngeal cancer as an evidence-based treatment option that does not compromise survival. However, a reevaluation of the current literature raises questions regarding whether there is indeed reliable evidence to support larynx preservation for T4 tumor patients. In an observational cohort study of 810 laryngeal cancer patients, we evaluated the outcomes of all T4 tumor patients treated with primary chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) or primary radiotherapy alone (RT) compared with upfront total laryngectomy followed by adjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy (TL + a[C]RT). Additionally, we reevaluated the studies that form the evidence base for the recommendation of LP for patients with up to T4 tumors (Pfister et al., J Clin Oncol 24:3693-704, 2006). The evaluation of all 288 stage III and IV patients together did not show a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between CRT-LP and TL + a(C)RT (hazard ratio (HR) 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-1.86; p = 0.31) using a multivariate proportional hazard model. However, a subgroup analysis of T4 tumor patients alone (N = 107; 13.9%) revealed significantly worse OS after CRT compared with TL + a(C)RT (HR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.04-3.7; p = 0.0369). A reevaluation of the subgroup of T4 patients in the 5 LP studies that led to the ASCO clinical practice guidelines revealed that only 21-45 T4 patients had differential data on survival outcome. These data, however, showed a markedly worse outcome for T4 patients after LP. T4 laryngeal cancer patients who reject TL as a treatment option should be informed that their chance of organ preservation with primary conservative treatment is likely to result in a significantly worse outcome in terms of OS. Significant loss of survival in T4 patients after LP is also confirmed in recent literature.

  14. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…

  15. Other paradigms: growth rate constants and tumor burden determined using computed tomography data correlate strongly with the overall survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Huang, Hui; Menefee, Michael; Edgerly, Maureen; Kotz, Herb; Dwyer, Andrew; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    In solid tumors, where curative therapies still elude oncologists, novel paradigms are needed to assess the efficacy of new therapies and those already approved. We used radiologic measurements obtained in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma enrolled in a phase II study of the epothilone B analog, ixabepilone (Ixempra), to address this issue. Using a novel 2-phase mathematical equation, we used the radiologic measurements to estimate the concomitant rates of tumor regression and growth (regression and growth rate constants). Eighty-one patients were enrolled on the ixabepilone trial at the time of this analysis. Growth rate constants were determined using computed tomography measurements obtained exclusively while a patient was enrolled on study. The growth rate constants of renal cell carcinomas treated with ixabepilone were significantly reduced compared with those of tumors in patients who received placebo in a previous trial. Furthermore, a correlation with overall survival was found for both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden; and this correlation was even stronger when both the growth rate constant and the initial tumor burden were combined. The readily amenable mathematical model described herein has potential applications to many tumor types that can be assessed with imaging modalities. Because the growth rate constant seems to be a surrogate for survival, assessment could aid in the evaluation of relative efficacies of different therapies and perhaps in assessing the potential individual benefit of an experimental therapy.

  16. Effects of caffeine on anticipatory control processes : Evidence from a cued task-switch paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Plat, Nynke-Boudien; Ridderinkhof, Richard

    Effects of caffeine on task switching were studied using ERPs in a cued task-switch paradigm. The need for advance preparation was manipulated by varying the number of task-set aspects that required switching. In a double-blind, within-subjects experiment, caffeine reduced shift costs compared to

  17. Is the Survival-Processing Memory Advantage Due to Richness of Encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röer, Jan P.; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Memory for words rated according to their relevance in a grassland survival context is exceptionally good. According to Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada's (2007) evolutionary-based explanation, natural selection processes have tuned the human memory system to prioritize the processing of fitness-relevant information. The survival-processing memory…

  18. Survival and Self-Descriptive Processing of Abstract and Concrete Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have recently described a new processing task in which rating words on the basis of their survival or fitness relevance leads to better recall and recognition performance than several other well known deep processing tasks. The present study was designed to determine whether this survival processing advantage could be observed when…

  19. Adaptive memory: the survival-processing memory advantage is not due to negativity or mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has highlighted the adaptive function of memory by showing that imagining being stranded in the grasslands without any survival material and rating words according to their survival value in this situation leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. Studies examining the role of emotions in causing the survival-processing memory advantage have been inconclusive, but some studies have suggested that the effect might be due to negativity or mortality salience. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared the survival scenario to a control scenario that implied imagining a hopeless situation (floating in outer space with dwindling oxygen supplies) in which only suicide can avoid the agony of choking to death. Although this scenario was perceived as being more negative than the survival scenario, the survival-processing memory advantage persisted. In Experiment 3, thinking about the relevance of words for survival led to better memory for these words than did thinking about the relevance of words for death. This survival advantage was found for concrete, but not for abstract, words. The latter finding is consistent with the assumption that the survival instructions encourage participants to think about many different potential uses of items to aid survival, which may be a particularly efficient form of elaborate encoding. Together, the results suggest that thinking about death is much less effective in promoting recall than is thinking about survival. Therefore, the survival-processing memory advantage cannot be satisfactorily explained by negativity or mortality salience.

  20. Visuo-spatial processing in a dynamic and a static working memory paradigm in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocchi, Luca; Schenk, Françoise; Volken, Henri

    2007-01-01

    patients with schizophrenia and matched controls in a new working memory paradigm involving dynamic (the Ball Flight Task - BFT) or static (the Static Pattern Task - SPT) visual stimuli. In the BFT, the responses of the patients were apparently based on the retention of the last set of segments...... that visuo-spatial working memory can simply be dissociated into visual and spatial sub-components....

  1. Determinants of central processing order in psychological refractory period paradigms: central arrival times, detection times, or preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhard, Tanja

    2011-10-01

    Three psychological refractory period (PRP) experiments were conducted to assess the effect of central arrival times at the bottleneck on task order scheduling. In Experiment 1, a visual first task (plus-minus symbol discrimination) was combined with an auditory second task (left-right tone judgement) in a standard PRP paradigm with constant task order. In Experiment 2, the order of the tasks varied unpredictably. In Experiment 3, visual-auditory dual-task trials were randomly mixed with single-task trials. To dissociate central arrival times from stimulus detection times, the perceptual stage of the visual task was extended using stimulus degradation. Most importantly, no evidence for a first-come, first-served principle at the central bottleneck was found with the employed paradigms. Instead, the results indicated that preparation (Experiment 1) and the detection times of the stimuli (Experiments 2 and 3) were the main determinants of central processing order in the present study. In the light of previous research, the results indicate that central processing order can be influenced by various factors. The interplay between these factors seems to depend highly on the conditions and requirements of the employed experimental paradigm.

  2. Ecosystem services: developing sustainable management paradigms based on wetland functions and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; Conner, William H.; Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Hester, Mark W.; Zheng, Haochi

    2013-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century and twentieth century, there was considerable interest and activity to develop the United States for agricultural, mining, and many other purposes to improve the quality of human life standards and prosperity. Most of the work to support this development was focused along disciplinary lines with little attention focused on ecosystem service trade-offs or synergisms, especially those that transcended boundaries of scientific disciplines and specific interest groups. Concurrently, human population size has increased substantially and its use of ecosystem services has increased more than five-fold over just the past century. Consequently, the contemporary landscape has been highly modified for human use, leaving behind a fragmented landscape where basic ecosystem functions and processes have been broadly altered. Over this period, climate change also interacted with other anthropogenic effects, resulting in modern environmental problems having a complexity that is without historical precedent. The challenge before the scientific community is to develop new science paradigms that integrate relevant scientific disciplines to properly frame and evaluate modern environmental problems in a systems-type approach to better inform the decision-making process. Wetland science is a relatively new discipline that grew out of the conservation movement of the early twentieth century. In the United States, most of the conservation attention in the earlier days was on wildlife, but a growing human awareness of the importance of the environment led to the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. Concurrently, there was a broadening interest in conservation science, and the scientific study of wetlands gradually gained acceptance as a scientific discipline. Pioneering wetland scientists became formally organized when they formed The Society of Wetland Scientists in 1980 and established a publication outlet to share wetland research

  3. Is the rapid adaptation paradigm too rapid? Implications for face and object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Itier, Roxane J

    2012-07-16

    Rapid adaptation is an adaptation procedure in which adaptors and test stimuli are presented in rapid succession. The current study tested the validity of this method for early ERP components by investigating the specificity of the adaptation effect on the face-sensitive N170 ERP component across multiple test stimuli. Experiments 1 and 2 showed identical response patterns for house and upright face test stimuli using the same adaptor stimuli. The results were also identical to those reported in a previous study using inverted face test stimuli (Nemrodov and Itier, 2011). In Experiment 3 all possible adaptor-test combinations between upright face, house, chair and car stimuli were used and no interaction between adaptor and test category, expected in the case of test-specific adaptation, was found. These results demonstrate that the rapid adaptation paradigm does not produce category-specific adaptation effects around 170-200 ms following test stimulus onset, a necessary condition for the interpretation of adaptation results. These results suggest the rapid categorical adaptation paradigm does not work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Visuo-spatial processing in a dynamic and a static working memory paradigm in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocchi, Luca; Schenk, Françoise; Volken, Henri

    2007-01-01

    patients with schizophrenia and matched controls in a new working memory paradigm involving dynamic (the Ball Flight Task - BFT) or static (the Static Pattern Task - SPT) visual stimuli. In the BFT, the responses of the patients were apparently based on the retention of the last set of segments...... of the perceived trajectory, whereas control subjects relied on a more global strategy. We assume that the patients' performances are the result of a reduced capacity in chunking visual information since they relied mainly on the retention of the last set of segments. This assumption is confirmed by the poor...... that visuo-spatial working memory can simply be dissociated into visual and spatial sub-components....

  5. A target sample of adolescents and reward processing: same neural and behavioral correlates engaged in common paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Frauke; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Steiner, Sabina; Mann, Karl; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Artiges, Eric; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Struve, Maren; Loth, Eva; Schumann, Gunter; Flor, Herta

    2012-11-01

    Adolescence is a transition period that is assumed to be characterized by increased sensitivity to reward. While there is growing research on reward processing in adolescents, investigations into the engagement of brain regions under different reward-related conditions in one sample of healthy adolescents, especially in a target age group, are missing. We aimed to identify brain regions preferentially activated in a reaction time task (monetary incentive delay (MID) task) and a simple guessing task (SGT) in a sample of 14-year-old adolescents (N = 54) using two commonly used reward paradigms. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during the MID with big versus small versus no win conditions and the SGT with big versus small win and big versus small loss conditions. Analyses focused on changes in blood oxygen level-dependent contrasts during reward and punishment processing in anticipation and feedback phases. We found clear magnitude-sensitive response in reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum during anticipation in the MID task, but not in the SGT. This was also true for reaction times. The feedback phase showed clear reward-related, but magnitude-independent, response patterns, for example in the anterior cingulate cortex, in both tasks. Our findings highlight neural and behavioral response patterns engaged in two different reward paradigms in one sample of 14-year-old healthy adolescents and might be important for reference in future studies investigating reward and punishment processing in a target age group.

  6. The effects of healthy aging on the mnemonic benefit of survival processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Chelsea M.; Coane, Jennifer H.; Profaci, Caterina P.; Howard, James H.; Howard, Darlene V.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that information is remembered better when it is processed for its survival relevance compared to when it is processed for relevance to other, non-survival-related contexts. Here we conducted three experiments to investigate whether the survival advantage also occurs for healthy older adults. In Experiment 1, older and younger adults rated words for their relevance to a grassland survival or moving scenario and then completed an unexpected free recall test on the words. We replicated the survival advantage in two separate groups of younger adults, one of which was placed under divided-attention conditions, but we did not find a survival advantage in the older adults. We then tested two additional samples of older adults using a between- (Experiment 2) or within-subjects (Experiment 3) design, but still found no evidence of the survival advantage in this age group. These results suggest that, although survival processing is an effective encoding strategy for younger adults, it does not provide the same mnemonic benefit to healthy elders. PMID:23896730

  7. Exploring business process modelling paradigms and design-time to run-time transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Filip; Vanthienen, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The business process management literature describes a multitude of approaches (e.g. imperative, declarative or event-driven) that each result in a different mix of process flexibility, compliance, effectiveness and efficiency. Although the use of a single approach over the process lifecycle is often assumed, transitions between approaches at different phases in the process lifecycle may also be considered. This article explores several business process strategies by analysing the approaches at different phases in the process lifecycle as well as the various transitions.

  8. The Life Process of Children Who Survived the Manjil Earthquake: A Decaying or Renewing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsalinia, Abbas; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Poortaghi, Sarieh

    2017-04-04

    Among earthquake survivors, children are more vulnerable than other age groups due to their exposure to harrowing scenes of devastation as well as their drastically new living situations that result from an earthquake disaster. The life process of children survivors undergoes many different changes that are affected by a wide range of factors. Understanding the life process of these children may lead to effective outcomes and interventions. In addition, observing children survivors establishes knowledge and understanding of the challenges that correspond with earthquake disasters. Further, observing this group may be further effective in decision-making and establishing types of assistance in similar circumstances. This study was done to explain the life process of children who survived the earthquake of Manjil in northern side of Iran. Methods: This qualitative study is based on the grounded theory approach. The sampling involved purposive interviews with 12 children who survived the Manjil earthquake and were under 12 years of age at the time of the earthquake. The initial interviews were followed by continuous comparative analysis, and thus the sampling process adopted a theoretical trend. In the end, by the formation of categories and the central variable of the study, interviews were conducted with 16 subjects and sufficient data was provided. Data was collected through face-to-face, in-depth interviews using an interview guide. In order to enrich the categories formed in data analysis, we had also 6 telephone interviews with the same participants in order to complete missed needed information. Data collection began in 2015 and continued up until 2016. Data was analysed using the Strauss-Corbin approach. The life process of children earthquake survivors consists of 'unexpected encounter', 'transient relief activities' and 'long-lasting consequences'. The central variable of this study is 'the dark shadow of pain and the light shadow of life expectancy'. The

  9. Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Kristian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values.

  10. Can an auditory multi-feature optimal paradigm be used for the study of processes associated with attention capture in passive listeners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Campbell, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    A rarely occurring and highly relevant auditory stimulus occurring outside of the current focus of attention can cause a switching of attention. Such attention capture is often studied in oddball paradigms consisting of a frequently occurring "standard" stimulus which is changed at odd times to form a "deviant". The deviant may result in the capturing of attention. An auditory ERP, the P3a, is often associated with this process. To collect a sufficient amount of data is however very time-consuming. A more multi-feature "optimal" paradigm has been proposed but it is not known if it is appropriate for the study of attention capture. An optimal paradigm was run in which 6 different rare deviants (p=.08) were separated by a standard stimulus (p=.50) and compared to results when 4 oddball paradigms were also run. A large P3a was elicited by some of the deviants in the optimal paradigm but not by others. However, very similar results were observed when separate oddball paradigms were run. The present study indicates that the optimal paradigm provides a very time-saving method to study attention capture and the P3a. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surviving security how to integrate people, process, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Andress, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    WHY DO I NEED SECURITY? Introduction The Importance of an Effective Security Infrastructure People, Process, and Technology What Are You Protecting Against? Types of Attacks Types of Attackers Security as a Competitive Advantage Choosing a Solution Finding Security Employees The Layered Approach UNDERSTANDING REQUIREMENTS AND RISK What Is Risk? Embracing Risk Information Security Risk Assessment Assessing Risk Insurance SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Internal Focus Is Key Security Awareness and Education Policy Life Cycle Developing Policies Components of a Security Policy Sample Security Po

  12. Experimental and clinical usefulness of crossmodal paradigms in psychiatry: An illustration from emotional processing in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre eMaurage

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal processing (i.e., the construction of a unified representation stemming from distinct sensorial modalities inputs constitutes a crucial ability in humans’ everyday life. It has been extensively explored at cognitive and cerebral levels during the last decade among healthy controls. Paradoxically however, and while difficulties to perform this integrative process have been suggested in a large range of psychopathological states (e.g., schizophrenia and autism, these cross-modal paradigms have been very rarely used in the exploration of psychiatric populations. The main aim of the present paper is thus to underline the experimental and clinical usefulness of exploring cross-modal processes in psychiatry. We will illustrate this proposal by means of the recent data obtained in the cross-modal exploration of emotional alterations in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, emotional decoding impairments might have a role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-dependence, and have been extensively investigated by means of experiments using separated visual or auditory stimulations. Besides these unimodal explorations, we have recently conducted several studies using audio-visual cross-modal paradigms, which has allowed us to improve the ecological validity of the unimodal experimental designs and to offer new insights on the emotional alterations among alcohol-dependent individuals. We will show how these preliminary results can be extended to develop a coherent and ambitious research program using cross-modal designs in various psychiatric populations and sensory modalities. We will finally end the paper by underlining the various potential clinical applications and the fundamental implications that can be raised by this emerging project.

  13. Experimental and clinical usefulness of crossmodal paradigms in psychiatry: an illustration from emotional processing in alcohol-dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, Pierre; Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Crossmodal processing (i.e., the construction of a unified representation stemming from distinct sensorial modalities inputs) constitutes a crucial ability in humans' everyday life. It has been extensively explored at cognitive and cerebral levels during the last decade among healthy controls. Paradoxically however, and while difficulties to perform this integrative process have been suggested in a large range of psychopathological states (e.g., schizophrenia and autism), these crossmodal paradigms have been very rarely used in the exploration of psychiatric populations. The main aim of the present paper is thus to underline the experimental and clinical usefulness of exploring crossmodal processes in psychiatry. We will illustrate this proposal by means of the recent data obtained in the crossmodal exploration of emotional alterations in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, emotional decoding impairments might have a role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-dependence, and have been extensively investigated by means of experiments using separated visual or auditory stimulations. Besides these unimodal explorations, we have recently conducted several studies using audio-visual crossmodal paradigms, which has allowed us to improve the ecological validity of the unimodal experimental designs and to offer new insights on the emotional alterations among alcohol-dependent individuals. We will show how these preliminary results can be extended to develop a coherent and ambitious research program using crossmodal designs in various psychiatric populations and sensory modalities. We will finally end the paper by underlining the various potential clinical applications and the fundamental implications that can be raised by this emerging project. PMID:23898250

  14. Paradigms of Evaluation in Natural Language Processing: Field Linguistics for Glass Box Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2010-01-01

    Although software testing has been well-studied in computer science, it has received little attention in natural language processing. Nonetheless, a fully developed methodology for glass box evaluation and testing of language processing applications already exists in the field methods of descriptive linguistics. This work lays out a number of…

  15. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  16. Meaning-seeking in the illusory correlation paradigm: the active role of participants in the categorization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndsen, M; McGarty, C; van der Pligt, J; Spears, R

    2001-06-01

    The present research examines the role of categorical perception (McGarty, Haslam, Turner, & Oakes, 1993) in the illusory correlation paradigm. This approach assumes that the search for meaningful differences between two stimulus groups can lead to the illusory correlation effect. This explanation is investigated in Study 1 by presenting participants with constrained stimulus information and examining whether accentuating evaluative differences between stimuli could provide a basis for illusory correlation. Results of this study (N = 64) revealed illusory correlation effects that were related to evaluative reinterpretations of the stimuli. Study 2 (N = 19) focused on the causal relation between illusory correlation and accentuation effects, using the thinking-aloud technique. Detailed analyses of each participants' behaviour indicated that illusory correlation can arise from actively seeking intergroup differences and that reinterpretations of stimuli and the perception of illusory correlation were mutually reinforcing. Implications of these results for stereotyping processes are discussed.

  17. Technical brief: Pump-probe paradigm in an integrating cavity to study photodecomposition processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico; Betts-Obregon, Brandi; Tsin, Andrew T; DeSa, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    flashes to be placed between scans. Exposure of the all-trans retinol to 366 nm flashes resulted in marked reduction in absorbance and a blue shift of the λmax. A white LED, despite its higher photon output, did not support all-trans retinol photolysis. Singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis revealed three spectral intermediates with mechanism, I -> II -> III. HPLC analysis of the reactants at the beginning and the conclusion of the light exposure confirmed the retinol photodecomposition. The highly reflecting cavity acts as a multipass cuvette that markedly increased the light path length and, thus, sensitivity. Triggering the LED during a dark period within the scan time allowed the actinic flashes to be interleafed between scans in a pump-probe paradigm. Furthermore, the entire sample was exposed to scan beam and actinic flashes, which is not possible in traditional spectrophotometers. Finally, the integrating cavity cuvette allowed use of turbid samples. SVD was useful for resolving spectral intermediates. Although the identity of the intermediates was not determined here, the ability to define molecular intermediates during photodecomposition reactions will allow future studies to isolate and identify the degradation products and determine the mechanism of light-induced retinoid degradation and that of retinoid-binding protein-mediated photoprotection.

  18. Adaptive memory: determining the proximate mechanisms responsible for the memorial advantages of survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Burns, Sarah A; Hwang, Ana J

    2011-01-01

    J. S. Nairne, S. R. Thompson, and J. N. S. Pandeirada (2007) suggested that our memory systems may have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information and showed that retention of words rated for their relevance to survival is superior to that of words encoded under other deep processing conditions. The authors present 4 experiments that uncover the proximate mechanisms likely responsible. The authors obtained a recall advantage for survival processing compared with conditions that promoted only item-specific processing or only relational processing. This effect was eliminated when control conditions encouraged both item-specific and relational processing. Data from separate measures of item-specific and relational processing generally were consistent with the view that the memorial advantage for survival processing results from the encoding of both types of processing. Although the present study suggests the proximate mechanisms for the effect, the authors argue that survival processing may be fundamentally different from other memory phenomena for which item-specific and relational processing differences have been implicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The effects of processing time and processing rate on forgetting in working memory: testing four models of the complex span paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudjetz, Annekatrin; Oberauer, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Four models of working memory processes in the complex span paradigm were tested: The task-switching model of Towse, Hitch, and Hutton (1998), the interference account of Saito and Miyake (2004), and two versions of the time-based resource-sharing model of Barrouillet, Bernardin, and Camos (2004). On the basis of a reading span paradigm that used segmented sentences, the effect of processing time on the recall of words was investigated while the amount of processing was held constant. Two conditions of reading (continuous vs. normal) were compared in order to study the influence of brief pauses during reading that could be used for articulatory rehearsal. The results favor a version of the time-based resource-sharing model: A faster reading rate had a negative effect on recall. The effect of reading rate was obtained with continuous as well as normal reading, revealing that even continuous articulation does not prevent simultaneous refreshing of memory traces. A second experiment showed that continuous reading made concurrent articulatory rehearsal virtually impossible. These findings imply that a second rehearsal mechanism for verbal working memory, other than articulatory rehearsal, exists.

  20. Expanding functional repertoires of fungal peroxisomes: contribution to growth and survival processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-ichi eMARUYAMA; Katsuhiko eKITAMOTO

    2013-01-01

    It has long been regarded that the primary function of fungal peroxisomes is limited to the β-oxidation of fatty acids, as mutants lacking peroxisomal function fail to grow in minimal medium containing fatty acids as the sole carbon source. However, studies in filamentous fungi have revealed that peroxisomes have diverse functional repertoires. This review describes the essential roles of peroxisomes in the growth and survival processes of filamentous fungi. One such survival mechanism involv...

  1. Differences in survival associated with processed and with nonprocessed red meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Bottai, Matteo; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    High red meat consumption is associated with an increased mortality risk. This association is partly explained by the negative effect of processed meat consumption, which is widely established. The role of nonprocessed meat is unclear. The objective was to examine the combined association of processed and nonprocessed meat consumption with survival in a Swedish large prospective cohort. In a population-based cohort of 74,645 Swedish men (40,089) and women (34,556), red meat consumption was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. We estimated differences in survival [15th percentile differences (PDs), differences in the time by which the first 15% of the cohort died] according to levels of total red meat and combined levels of processed and nonprocessed red meat consumption. During 15 y of follow-up (January 1998 to December 2012), we documented 16,683 deaths (6948 women; 9735 men). Compared with no consumption, consumption of red meat >100 g/d was progressively associated with shorter survival--up to 2 y for participants consuming an average of 300 g/d (15th PD: -21 mo; 95% CI: -31, -10). Compared with no consumption, high consumption of processed red meat (100 g/d) was associated with shorter survival (15th PD: -9 mo; 95% CI: -16, -2). High and moderate intakes of nonprocessed red meat were associated with shorter survival only when accompanied by a high intake of processed red meat. We found that high total red meat consumption was associated with progressively shorter survival, largely because of the consumption of processed red meat. Consumption of nonprocessed red meat alone was not associated with shorter survival. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. A test of the survival processing advantage in implicit and explicit memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Dawn M; Thomas, Brandon J; Zimmerman, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the survival processing effect (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 263-273, 2007) in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The survival effect has been well established in explicit free recall and recognition tests, but has not been evident in implicit memory tests or in cued explicit tests. In Experiment 1 of the present study, we tested implicit and explicit memory for words studied in survival, moving, or pleasantness contexts in stem completion tests. In Experiment 2, we further tested these effects in implicit and explicit category production tests. Across the two experiments, with four separate memory tasks that included a total of 525 subjects, no survival processing advantage was found, replicating the results from implicit tests reported by Tse and Altarriba (Memory & Cognition, 38, 1110-1121, 2010). Thus, although the survival effect appears to be quite robust in free recall and recognition tests, it has not been replicated in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The similar results found for the implicit and explicit tests in the present study do not support encoding elaboration explanations of the survival processing effect.

  3. On the Inclusion of Self Regulating Branching Processes in the Working Paradigm of Evolutionary and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Mode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal goal of this methodological paper is to suggest to a generalaudience in the genetics community that the consideration of recentdevelopments of self regulating branching processes may lead to thepossibility of including this class of stochastic processes as part ofworking paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics. This class ofbranching processes is self regulating in the sense that an evolvingpopulation will grow only to a total population size that can be sustainedby the environment. From the mathematical point of view the class processesunder consideration belongs to a subfield of probability and statisticssometimes referred to as computational applied probability and stochasticprocesses. Computer intensive methods based on Monte Carlo simulationprocedures have been used to empirically work out the predictions of aformulation by assigning numerical values to some point in the parameterspace and computing replications of realizations of the process overthousands of generations of evolution. Statistical methods are then used onsuch samples of simulated data to produce informative summarizations of thedata that provide insights into the evolutionary implications of computerexperiments. Briefly, it is also possible to embed deterministic non-lineardifference equations in the stochastic process by using a statisticalprocedure to estimate the sample functions of the process, which hasinteresting methodological implications as to whether stochastic ordeterministic formulations may be applied separately or in combination inthe study of evolution. It is recognized that the literature on populationgenetics contains a substantial number of papers in which Monte Carlosimulation methods have been used. But, this extensive literature is beyondthe scope of this paper, which is focused on potential applications of selfregulating branching processes in evolutionary and population genetics.

  4. Advances in Reasoning-Based Image Processing Intelligent Systems Conventional and Intelligent Paradigms

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The book puts special stress on the contemporary techniques for reasoning-based image processing and analysis: learning based image representation and advanced video coding; intelligent image processing and analysis in medical vision systems; similarity learning models for image reconstruction; visual perception for mobile robot motion control, simulation of human brain activity in the analysis of video sequences; shape-based invariant features extraction; essential of paraconsistent neural networks, creativity and intelligent representation in computational systems. The book comprises 14 chapters. Each chapter is a small monograph, representing resent investigations of authors in the area. The topics of the chapters cover wide scientific and application areas and complement each-other very well. The chapters’ content is based on fundamental theoretical presentations, followed by experimental results and comparison with similar techniques. The size of the chapters is well-ballanced which permits a thorough ...

  5. The direction of word stress processing in German: evidence from a working memory paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Frank eDomahs; Marion eGrande; Walter eHuber; Ulrike eDomahs

    2014-01-01

    There are contradicting assumptions and findings on the direction of word stress processing in German. To resolve this question, we asked participants to read tri-syllabic nonwords and stress ambiguous words aloud. Additionally, they also performed a working memory task (2-back task). In nonword reading, participants’ individual working memory capacity was positively correlated with assignment of main stress to the antepenultimate syllable, which is most distant to the word’s right edge, whil...

  6. Neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in a Go/No-go paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Todd D; Garvey, Katherine T

    2013-12-01

    We examined the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in healthy young adults. Event-related potential (ERP) data were collected while 48 participants completed a computerized Go/No-go task consisting of food and nonfood images. Separately, we assessed participants' self-reported levels of external, restrained, and emotional eating behaviors as well as trait impulsivity, behavioral activation/inhibition, and performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test. We found that across participants, food images elicited significantly enhanced P3(00) and slow-wave ERP components. The difference in slow-wave components elicited by food and nonfood images was correlated with Stroop interference scores. Food images also elicited significantly enhanced N2(00) components, but only in female participants. The difference between N2 components elicited by food and nonfood images was related to body mass index and scores of external eating in females. Overall, these data suggest that processing food-related stimuli recruits distinct patterns of cortical activity, that the magnitude of these effects is related to behavioral and cognitive variables, and that the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-cues may be at least partly dissociable between males and females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Information-Processing Alternatives to Holistic Perception: Identifying the Mechanisms of Secondary-Level Holism Within a Categorization Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifić, Mario; Townsend, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Failure to selectively attend to a facial feature, in the part-to-whole paradigm, has been taken as evidence of holistic perception in a large body of face perception literature. In this paper we demonstrate that although failure of selective attention is a necessary property of holistic perception, its presence alone is not sufficient to conclude holistic processing has occurred. One must also consider the cognitive properties that are a natural part of information-processing systems, namely, mental architecture (serial, parallel), a stopping rule (self-terminating, exhaustive), and process dependency. We demonstrate that an analytic model (nonholistic) based on a parallel mental architecture and a self-terminating stopping rule can predict failure of selective attention. The new insights in our approach are based on the systems factorial technology, which provides a rigorous means of identifying the holistic/analytic distinction. The main goal of the study was to compare potential changes in architecture when two second-order relational facial features are manipulated across different face contexts. Supported by simulation data, we suggest that the critical concept for modeling holistic perception is the interactive dependency between features. We argue that without conducting tests for architecture, stopping rule, and dependency, apparent holism could be confounded with analytic perception. This research adds to the list of converging operations for distinguishing between analytic and holistic forms of face perception. PMID:20804297

  8. Risk-based Process Development of Biosimilars as Part of the Quality by Design Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, several quality by design (QbD) studies demonstrated the benefit of systematic approaches for biopharmaceutical development. However, only very few studies identified biosimilars as a special case of product development. The targeted quality profile of biosimilars is strictly defined by the originator's product characteristic. Moreover, the major source of prior knowledge is the experience with the originator product itself. Processing this information in biosimilar development has a major effect on risk management and process development strategies. The main objective of this contribution is to demonstrate how risk management can facilitate the implementation of QbD in early-stage product development with special emphasis on fitting the reported approaches to biosimilars. Risk assessments were highlighted as important tools to integrate prior knowledge in biosimilar development. The risk assessment process as suggested by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH Q9) was reviewed and three elements were identified to play a key role in targeted risk assessment approaches: proper understanding of target linkage, risk assessment tool compliance, and criticality threshold value. Adjusting these steps to biosimilar applications helped to address some unique challenges of these products such as a strictly defined quality profile or a lack of process knowledge. This contribution demonstrates the need for tailored risk management approaches for the risk-based development of biosimilars and provides novel tools for the integration of additional knowledge available for these products. The pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges such as profit loss and price competition. Companies are forced to rationalize business models and to cut costs in development as well as manufacturing. These trends recently hinder the implementation of any concepts that do not offer certain financial benefit or promise a long return of investment. Quality by

  9. The direction of word stress processing in German: Evidence from a working memory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are contradicting assumptions and findings on the direction of word stress processing in German. To resolve this question, we asked participants to read tri-syllabic nonwords and stress ambiguous words aloud. Additionally, they also performed a working memory task (2-back task. In nonword reading, participants’ individual working memory capacity was positively correlated with assignment of main stress to the antepenultimate syllable, which is most distant to the word’s right edge, while a (complementary negative correlation was observed with assignment of stress to the ultimate syllable. There was no significant correlation between working memory capacity and stress assignment to the penultimate syllable, which has been claimed to be the default stress pattern in German. In reading stress ambiguous words a similar but non-significant pattern was observed as in nonword reading. In sum, our results provide first psycholinguistic evidence supporting leftward stress processing in German. Our results do not lend support to the assumption of penultimate default stress in German. A specification of the lemma model is proposed which seems able to reconcile our findings and apparently contradicting assumptions and evidence.

  10. The birth-death-mutation process: a new paradigm for fat tailed distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruvka, Yosef E; Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2011-01-01

    Fat tailed statistics and power-laws are ubiquitous in many complex systems. Usually the appearance of of a few anomalously successful individuals (bio-species, investors, websites) is interpreted as reflecting some inherent "quality" (fitness, talent, giftedness) as in Darwin's theory of natural selection. Here we adopt the opposite, "neutral", outlook, suggesting that the main factor explaining success is merely luck. The statistics emerging from the neutral birth-death-mutation (BDM) process is shown to fit marvelously many empirical distributions. While previous neutral theories have focused on the power-law tail, our theory economically and accurately explains the entire distribution. We thus suggest the BDM distribution as a standard neutral model: effects of fitness and selection are to be identified by substantial deviations from it.

  11. Information processing biases in spider phobia: application of the Stroop and "White Noise" Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Sawchuk, Craig N; Lee, Thomas C; Lohr, Jeffrey M; Tolin, David F

    2008-06-01

    The present study examines attentional and implicit memory biases in spider phobic and nonphobic participants. The results showed that spider phobics demonstrated increased interference for neutral, negative, and spider-relevant words on a computerized Stroop task. However, no group differences emerged when adjusting for differences in color-naming speed. Prior exposure to a dead spider did result in higher overall Stroop interference in spider phobics and this appeared to be mostly pronounced for spider-relevant words. Implicit memory bias for threat was examined with a noise judgment task. Participants first heard neutral and spider-relevant sentences and implicit memory for these sentences was evaluated by having participants rate the volume of noise accompanying the presentation of old sentences intermixed with new sentences. An implicit memory bias is indicated if participants rate noise accompanying old sentences as less loud than noise accompanying new sentences. No evidence was found for an implicit memory bias in spider phobics. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of information processing biases in spider phobia.

  12. Will your words become mine? underlying processes and cowitness intimacy in the memory conformity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; Seidemann, Julienne

    2014-06-01

    Eyewitness reports become less accurate after exposure to inconsistent information. When such phenomenon of diminishing accuracy occurs among cowitnesses, it is termed memory conformity or the social contagion effect. The present study set out to provide a rigorous test of the underlying mechanisms with particular emphasis on investigating whether genuine false memory is involved. To this end, we conducted an earwitness experiment in which some participants were exposed to discrepant cowitness information and provided their recollections repeatedly and under different conditions. Additionally, we examined the impact of cowitness intimacy by using a random assignment procedure, an aspect that has not been previously studied. With regard to the underlying processes, our findings clearly argue that informational rather than normative influence plays a dominant role. Moreover, highly accurate source attributions indicated that participants were aware of drawing on the recollection of their counterparts. Consequently, we did not obtain any evidence for false memory. With regard to cowitness intimacy, the results were inconsistent and call for further research.

  13. Psychometric properties of reaction time based experimental paradigms measuring anxiety-related information-processing biases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Eley, T C; Broeren, S; Macleod, C; Rinck, M; Hadwin, J A; Lester, K J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical frameworks highlight the importance of threat-related information-processing biases for understanding the emergence of anxiety in childhood. The psychometric properties of several tasks measuring these biases and their associations with anxiety were examined in an unselected sample of 9-year-old children (N=155). In each task, threat bias was assessed using bias scores reflecting task performance on threat versus non-threat conditions. Reliability was assessed using split-half and test-retest correlations of mean reaction times (RTs), accuracy and bias indices. Convergence between measures was also examined. Mean RTs showed substantial split-half and test-retest correlations. Bias score reliability coefficients were near zero and non-significant, suggesting poor reliability in children of this age. Additionally, associations between bias scores and anxiety were weak and inconsistent and performance between tasks showed little convergence. Bias scores from RT based paradigms in the current study lacked adequate psychometric properties for measuring individual differences in anxiety-related information-processing in children. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Movements Facing the Processes of Globalization: Beyond the Paradigms of Class and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Alfaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on a particular expression of globalization and regionalization that entails social, political, cultural and economic dimensions: social movements. I argue that current social movements are not necessarily articulated only in terms of class struggle-as the major labor movements were for the last two centuries. Neither do they articulate their protests only in terms of identity and recognition-such as women's movements did in the 1960s. Social movements are now most commonly organized around a discourse that combines those two dimensions. Contemporary social movements are expanding from the structural economic and industrial system (and thus abandoning the form of traditional class struggles to cultural and identity grounds. New social movements are now seen more and more as symbolic challengers, because power-that affects everyday life and tries to manipulate and give social meaning to things-is being contested by individuals in both the public and private spheres. Thus movements have a more symbolic function: they are a new kind of media, fighting for symbolic and cultural stakes, and for a different meaning and orientation of social action. However, constructing a collective identity within a social movement is not definitive. A movement's identity is constructed on an everyday basis, and within the process of globalization, the contact and social interaction with others -with the other, which allows the definition of one's own identity-is not only possible but also necessary. This paper considers the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas as an empirical approach to social movements expanding from regional, local mobilizations and discourse, to more global oriented contentious activities. I argue that the Zapatista movement's identity in 1994 was quite different from the one it has now: the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN, or Zapatista National Liberation Army discourse has been transformed, from having an ethnic

  15. The study of change in psychotherapy: a reexamination of the process-outcome correlation paradigm. Comment on Stiles and Shapiro (1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A M; Castonguay, L G; Goldfried, M R

    1996-10-01

    W.B. Stiles and D.A. Shapiro (1994) present a provocative argument that the yield of process research has been minimal because of researchers' overreliance on the drug metaphor and its corollary, the correlational design. Although Stiles and Shapiro raise excellent points regarding the possible misinterpretations of correlational research, their conclusion that the process-outcome correlation paradigm is flawed and has outlived its usefulness is questioned. The basic thesis is that Stiles and Shapiro did not provide a fair test of the correlation paradigm. The process variables used to test the paradigm do not have the strong theoretical and empirical grounding necessary to support the assumption that they should be related to outcome. In this article, examples are described, of programmatic process research that has used the correlation paradigm, along with other methods of inquiry, to advance the understanding of how change occurs and to improve treatment efficacy. It is contended that the correlational method is one useful tool of discovery and that it has contributed significantly to the advancement of the field when the process variables studied are grounded in solid theory and research.

  16. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Sharrow

    Full Text Available Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  17. A Twin Protection Effect? Explaining Twin Survival Advantages with a Two-Process Mortality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, David J; Anderson, James J

    2016-01-01

    Twin studies that focus on the correlation in age-at-death between twin pairs have yielded important insights into the heritability and role of genetic factors in determining lifespan, but less attention is paid to the biological and social role of zygosity itself in determining survival across the entire life course. Using data from the Danish Twin Registry and the Human Mortality Database, we show that monozygotic twins have greater cumulative survival proportions at nearly every age compared to dizygotic twins and the Danish general population. We examine this survival advantage by fitting these data with a two-process mortality model that partitions survivorship patterns into extrinsic and intrinsic mortality processes roughly corresponding to acute, environmental and chronic, biological origins. We find intrinsic processes confer a survival advantage at older ages for males, while at younger ages, all monozygotic twins show a health protection effect against extrinsic death akin to a marriage protection effect. While existing research suggests an increasingly important role for genetic factors at very advanced ages, we conclude that the social closeness of monozygotic twins is a plausible driver of the survival advantage at ages <65.

  18. Grammatical number agreement processing using the visual half-field paradigm: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; Kutas, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Despite indications in the split-brain and lesion literatures that the right hemisphere is capable of some syntactic analysis, few studies have investigated right hemisphere contributions to syntactic processing in people with intact brains. Here we used the visual half-field paradigm in healthy adults to examine each hemisphere's processing of correct and incorrect grammatical number agreement marked either lexically, e.g., antecedent/reflexive pronoun ("The grateful niece asked herself/*themselves…") or morphologically, e.g., subject/verb ("Industrial scientists develop/*develops…"). For reflexives, response times and accuracy of grammaticality decisions suggested similar processing regardless of visual field of presentation. In the subject/verb condition, we observed similar response times and accuracies for central and right visual field (RVF) presentations. For left visual field (LVF) presentation, response times were longer and accuracy rates were reduced relative to RVF presentation. An event-related brain potential (ERP) study using the same materials revealed similar ERP responses to the reflexive pronouns in the two visual fields, but very different ERP effects to the subject/verb violations. For lexically marked violations on reflexives, P600 was elicited by stimuli in both the LVF and RVF; for morphologically marked violations on verbs, P600 was elicited only by RVF stimuli. These data suggest that both hemispheres can process lexically marked pronoun agreement violations, and do so in a similar fashion. Morphologically marked subject/verb agreement errors, however, showed a distinct LH advantage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Polyphosphate Additives on Campylobacter Survival in Processed Chicken Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are responsible for a large number of food-borne illness cases worldwide. Despite being sensitive to oxygen and nutritionally fastidious, Campylobacter spp. are able to survive in food processing environments and reach consumers in sufficient numbers to cause disease. To investi...

  20. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF HIDDEN GAMMA WEAR PROCESS MODEL FOR SURVIVAL DATA WITH TIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arijit; Chi, Zhiyi; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2015-10-01

    Survival data often contain tied event times. Inference without careful treatment of the ties can lead to biased estimates. This paper develops the Bayesian analysis of a stochastic wear process model to fit survival data that might have a large number of ties. Under a general wear process model, we derive the likelihood of parameters. When the wear process is a Gamma process, the likelihood has a semi-closed form that allows posterior sampling to be carried out for the parameters, hence achieving model selection using Bayesian deviance information criterion. An innovative simulation algorithm via direct forward sampling and Gibbs sampling is developed to sample event times that may have ties in the presence of arbitrary covariates; this provides a tool to assess the precision of inference. An extensive simulation study is reported and a data set is used to further illustrate the proposed methodology.

  1. Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses: A new paradigm for material processing and tissue ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Erica K.

    Femtosecond lasers are now prolific in many disciplines. While the mechanisms of femtosecond-material interactions are widely understood, femtosecond lasers as industrial and medical tools still have shortcomings. Currently conventional state of the art platforms are unable to support low numerical aperture (NA) beams (that provide large focal volumes and long working distances) without sacrificing axial precision. Furthermore inline (refractive) delivery systems that are necessary for industrial and clinical medical applications are currently hindered by nonlinear effects when delivering femtosecond pulses with tens of microJoule pulse energies and greater. In this thesis Simultaneous Space Time Focusing (SSTF) is presented as a new paradigm to move the field of femtosecond micromachining significantly forward. With this system we have delivered microjoule femtosecond pulses with low numerical aperture geometries (thesis we have focused on significantly streamlining the SSTF design into a flexible, single grating, integrated SSTF/chirped-pulse amplification system with an inline (refractive) delivery system to move towards industrial and clinical medical applications. For the first time this design also allows for variation of the beam aspect ratio of an SSTF beam, and thus the degree of pulse-front tilt at focus, while maintaining a net zero-dispersion system. Accessible variation of pulse front tilt gives full spatiotemporal control over the intensity distribution at the focus and another degree of freedom in ablation processes. Finally, real-time visualization of the femtosecond machining process is vital for industrial/medical applications, especially in medical where imaging is through scattering materials. At present a secondary imaging laser system is needed in conjunction with the surgical laser. Using complex, off the shelf, refractive optics we have created a real-time, inline (refractive), delivery system that is robust to scattering and integrated

  2. An Introduction to Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van der Made-Potuijt; A. de Bruin (Arie)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBy using Paradigm, it is possible to model cooperating processes and to make the communication between these processes very clear. This report gives a formal description of this modeling method using state-transition diagrams in order to model processes and homomorphismes and

  3. A novel AX+/BX- paradigm to assess fear learning and safety-signal processing with repeated-measure designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Andy M; Schauder, Kimberly B; McKinnon, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Davis, Michael

    2013-04-15

    One of the core symptoms of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, is the failure to overcome feelings of danger despite being in a safe environment. This deficit likely stems from an inability to fully process safety signals, which are cues in the environment that enable healthy individuals to over-ride fear in aversive situations. Studies examining safety signal learning in rodents, humans, and non-human primates currently rely on between-groups designs. Because repeated-measure designs reduce the number of subjects required, and facilitate a broader range of safety signal studies, the current project sought to develop a repeated-measures safety-signal learning paradigm in non-human primates. Twelve healthy rhesus macaques of both sexes received three rounds of auditory fear-potentiated startle training and testing using an AX+/BX- design with all visual cues. Cue AX was paired with an aversive blast of air, whereas the same X cue in compound with another B cue (BX) signaled the absence of an air blast. Hence, cue B served as a safety signal. Once animals consistently discriminated between the aversive (AX+) and safe (BX-) cues, measured by greater startle amplitude in the presence of AX vs. BX, they were tested for conditioned inhibition by eliciting startle in the presence of a novel ambiguous combined cue (AB). Similar to previous AX+/BX- studies, healthy animals rapidly learned to discriminate between the AX+ and BX- cues as well as demonstrate conditioned inhibition in the presence of the combined AB cue (i.e. lower startle amplitude in the presence of AB vs. AX). Additionally, animals performed consistently across three rounds of testing using three new cues each time. The results validate this novel method that will serve as a useful tool for better understanding the mechanisms for the regulation of fear and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Meaning-seeking in the illusory correlation paradigm : The active role of participants in the categorization process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berndsen, M; McGarty, C; van der Pligt, J; Spears, R

    The present research examines the role of categorical perception (McGarty, Haslam, Turner, & Oakes, 1993) in the illusory correlation paradigm. This approach assumes that the search for meaningful differences between two stimulus groups can lead to the illusory correlation effect. This explanation

  5. Using Loop Heat Pipes to Minimize Survival Heater Power for NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Power Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    A thermal design concept of using propylene loop heat pipes to minimize survival heater power for NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster power processing units is presented. It reduces the survival heater power from 183 W to 35 W per power processing unit. The reduction is 81%.

  6. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1 the operational medium access control (O-MAC hybrid protocol and (2 the pheromone termite (PT model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1 determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2 pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10 that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes.

  7. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-07-06

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes.

  8. Survival and Risk Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni on Various Processed Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Hyeon; Kim, Han Sol; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2016-06-09

    The objective of this study was to investigate survival kinetics of Campylobacter jejuni on various processed meat products (dry-cured ham, round ham with/without sodium nitrite, garlic seasoned ham with/without sodium nitrite, and sausage without sodium nitrite). Additionally, a semi-quantitative risk assessment of C. jejuni on various processed meat products was conducted using FDA-iRISK 1.0. Inoculated processed meat products with 6.0 ± 0.5 log CFU/g of C. jejuni were vacuum packed and stored at 4, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C. Survival curves were fitted to the Weibull model to obtain the delta values of C. jejuni on various processed meat products. The most rapid death of C. jejuni was observed on dry-cured ham, followed by sausage without sodium nitrite. The results of semi-quantitative risk assessment indicate that dry-cured ham represented the lowest risk among all samples. C. jejuni on processed meats presented a greater risk at 4 °C than at 10 °C. The risk of ham was greater than the risk of sausage, regardless of type. Among all samples, the highest risk of C. jejuni was observed in round ham without sodium nitrite. Overall, our data indicates that risk of processed meat products due to C. jejuni is relatively low.

  9. Survival and Risk Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni on Various Processed Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyeon Hong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate survival kinetics of Campylobacter jejuni on various processed meat products (dry-cured ham, round ham with/without sodium nitrite, garlic seasoned ham with/without sodium nitrite, and sausage without sodium nitrite. Additionally, a semi-quantitative risk assessment of C. jejuni on various processed meat products was conducted using FDA-iRISK 1.0. Inoculated processed meat products with 6.0 ± 0.5 log CFU/g of C. jejuni were vacuum packed and stored at 4, 10, 17, 24, 30, and 36 °C. Survival curves were fitted to the Weibull model to obtain the delta values of C. jejuni on various processed meat products. The most rapid death of C. jejuni was observed on dry-cured ham, followed by sausage without sodium nitrite. The results of semi-quantitative risk assessment indicate that dry-cured ham represented the lowest risk among all samples. C. jejuni on processed meats presented a greater risk at 4 °C than at 10 °C. The risk of ham was greater than the risk of sausage, regardless of type. Among all samples, the highest risk of C. jejuni was observed in round ham without sodium nitrite. Overall, our data indicates that risk of processed meat products due to C. jejuni is relatively low.

  10. The regrammation of paradigms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars

    2017-01-01

    . This regrammation process involves semantic changes that must be described in terms of paradigm (re)organisation and cannot be captured in terms of changes along the parameters of the cline of grammaticalisation. Two main types of auxiliaries are distinguished: inflectional auxiliaries, with predication scope...

  11. The Hartford Consensus to improve survivability in mass casualty events: Process to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lenworth; Burns, Karyl J

    2014-01-01

    The Joint Committee to Create a National Policy to Enhance Survivability from Mass Casualty Shooting Events was formed to make recommendations to improve survival from intentional mass casualty incidents. This article describes the development of the Hartford Consensus and the process used to disseminate and implement its findings. Members of the Committee included individuals from select public safety organizations. The first meeting of the Committee was held on April 2, 2013, and a second meeting was held on July 11, 2013. Attendance at the second meeting was enlarged and included representatives from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Security Staff of the Office of the President. The results of these meetings became known as the Hartford Consensus. The ideas generated at the meetings produced two documents, one from each meeting. These are referred to as Hartford Consensus I and II. Hartford Consensus I is a concept document and Hartford Consensus II is a call to action that no one should die from uncontrolled bleeding. The recommendations are being incorporated into training programs and have been endorsed by many organizations whose members are involved in the response to mass casualty incidents. The Joint Committee to Create a National Policy to Enhance Survivability from Mass Casualty Shooting Events was successful in stimulating policy to bring about change. Training and resources including tourniquets and hemostatic dressing are being directed to help ameliorate the unfortunate reality of intentional mass injury.

  12. Comparing population patterns to processes: abundance and survival of a forest salamander following habitat degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint R V Otto

    Full Text Available Habitat degradation resulting from anthropogenic activities poses immediate and prolonged threats to biodiversity, particularly among declining amphibians. Many studies infer amphibian response to habitat degradation by correlating patterns in species occupancy or abundance with environmental effects, often without regard to the demographic processes underlying these patterns. We evaluated how retention of vertical green trees (CANOPY and coarse woody debris (CWD influenced terrestrial salamander abundance and apparent survival in recently clearcut forests. Estimated abundance of unmarked salamanders was positively related to CANOPY (β Canopy  = 0.21 (0.02-1.19; 95% CI, but not CWD (β CWD  = 0.11 (-0.13-0.35 within 3,600 m2 sites, whereas estimated abundance of unmarked salamanders was not related to CANOPY (β Canopy  = -0.01 (-0.21-0.18 or CWD (β CWD  = -0.02 (-0.23-0.19 for 9 m2 enclosures. In contrast, apparent survival of marked salamanders within our enclosures over 1 month was positively influenced by both CANOPY and CWD retention (β Canopy  = 0.73 (0.27-1.19; 95% CI and β CWD  = 1.01 (0.53-1.50. Our results indicate that environmental correlates to abundance are scale dependent reflecting habitat selection processes and organism movements after a habitat disturbance event. Our study also provides a cautionary example of how scientific inference is conditional on the response variable(s, and scale(s of measure chosen by the investigator, which can have important implications for species conservation and management. Our research highlights the need for joint evaluation of population state variables, such as abundance, and population-level process, such as survival, when assessing anthropogenic impacts on forest biodiversity.

  13. Uncovering and Predicting the Dynamic Process of Collective Attention with Survival Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2017-06-01

    The subject of collective attention is in the center of this era of information explosion. It is thus of great interest to understand the fundamental mechanism underlying attention in large populations within a complex evolving system. Moreover, an ability to predict the dynamic process of collective attention for individual items has important implications in an array of areas. In this report, we propose a generative probabilistic model using a self-excited Hawkes process with survival theory to model and predict the process through which individual items gain their attentions. This model explicitly captures three key ingredients: the intrinsic attractiveness of an item, characterizing its inherent competitiveness against other items; a reinforcement mechanism based on sum of each previous attention triggers; and a power-law temporal relaxation function, corresponding to the aging in the ability to attract new attentions. Experiments on two population-scale datasets demonstrate that this model consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Architecting Security with Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andova, Suzana; Groenewegen, Luuk P. J.; Verschuren, Jan H. S.; de Vink, Erik P.

    For large security systems a clear separation of concerns is achieved through architecting. Particularly the dynamic consistency between the architectural components should be addressed, in addition to individual component behaviour. In this paper, relevant dynamic consistency is specified through Paradigm, a coordination modeling language based on dynamic constraints. As it is argued, this fits well with security issues. A smaller example introduces the architectural approach towards implementing security policies. A larger casestudy illustrates the use of Paradigm in analyzing the FOO voting scheme. In addition, translating the Paradigm models into process algebra brings model checking within reach. Security properties of the examples discussed, are formally verified with the model checker Literal>mCRL2Literal>.

  15. Examining distinct working memory processes in children and adolescents using fMRI: Results and validation of a modified Brown-Peterson paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffredi, Vanessa; Barrouillet, Pierre; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Vaessen, Maarten; Anderson, Vicki; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    Verbal working memory (WM) comprises different processes (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) that are often compromised in brain diseases, but their neural correlates have not yet been examined in childhood and adolescence. To probe WM processes and associated neural correlates in developmental samples, and obtain comparable effects across different ages and populations, we designed an adapted Brown-Peterson task (verbal encoding and retrieval combined with verbal and visual concurrent tasks during maintenance) to implement during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a sample of typically developing children and adolescents (n = 16), aged 8 to 16 years, our paradigm successfully identified distinct patterns of activation for encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. While encoding activated perceptual systems in posterior and ventral visual regions, retrieval activated fronto-parietal regions associated with executive control and attention. We found a different impact of verbal versus visual concurrent processing during WM maintenance: at retrieval, the former condition evoked greater activations in visual cortex, as opposed to selective involvement of language-related areas in left temporal cortex in the latter condition. These results are in accord with WM models, suggesting greater competition for processing resources when retrieval follows within-domain compared with cross-domain interference. This pattern was found regardless of age. Our study provides a novel paradigm to investigate distinct WM brain systems with reliable results across a wide age range in developmental populations, and suitable for participants with different WM capacities.

  16. Expanding functional repertoires of fungal peroxisomes: contribution to growth and survival processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi eMARUYAMA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been regarded that the primary function of fungal peroxisomes is limited to the β-oxidation of fatty acids, as mutants lacking peroxisomal function fail to grow in minimal medium containing fatty acids as the sole carbon source. However, studies in filamentous fungi have revealed that peroxisomes have diverse functional repertoires. This review describes the essential roles of peroxisomes in the growth and survival processes of filamentous fungi. One such survival mechanism involves the Woronin body, a Pezizomycotina-specific organelle that plugs the septal pore upon hyphal lysis to prevent excessive cytoplasmic loss. A number of reports have demonstrated that Woronin bodies are derived from peroxisomes. Specifically, the Woronin body protein Hex1 is targeted to peroxisomes by peroxisomal targeting sequence 1 (PTS1 and forms a self-assembled structure that buds from peroxisomes to form the Woronin body. Peroxisomal deficiency reduces the ability of filamentous fungi to prevent excessive cytoplasmic loss upon hyphal lysis, indicating that peroxisomes contribute to the survival of these multicellular organisms. Peroxisomes were also recently found to play a vital role in the biosynthesis of biotin, which is an essential cofactor for various carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. In biotin-prototrophic fungi, peroxisome-deficient mutants exhibit growth defects when grown on glucose as a carbon source due to biotin auxotrophy. The biotin biosynthetic enzyme BioF (7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid synthase contains a PTS1 motif that is required for both peroxisomal targeting and biotin biosynthesis. In plants, the BioF protein contains a conserved PTS1 motif and is also localized in peroxisomes. These findings indicate that the involvement of peroxisomes in biotin biosynthesis is evolutionarily conserved between fungi and plants, and that peroxisomes play a key role in fungal growth.

  17. Association of Compliance With Process-Related Quality Metrics and Improved Survival in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboyes, Evan M; Gross, Jennifer; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F; Al-Gilani, Maha; Stadler, Michael E; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Quality metrics for patients with head and neck cancer are available, but it is unknown whether compliance with these metrics is associated with improved patient survival. To identify whether compliance with various process-related quality metrics is associated with improved survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who receive definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center among 192 patients with previously untreated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who underwent definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2010. Data analysis was performed from January 26 to August 7, 2015. Surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. Compliance with a collection of process-related quality metrics possessing face validity that covered pretreatment evaluation, treatment, and posttreatment surveillance was evaluated. Association between compliance with these quality metrics and overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival was calculated using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. Among 192 patients, compliance with the individual quality metrics ranged from 19.7% to 93.6% (median, 82.8%). No pretreatment or surveillance metrics were associated with improved survival. Compliance with the following treatment-related quality metrics was associated with improved survival: elective neck dissection with lymph node yield of 18 or more, no unplanned surgery within 14 days of the index surgery, no unplanned 30-day readmissions, and referral for adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologic stage III or IV disease. Increased compliance with a "clinical care signature" composed of these 4 metrics was associated with improved overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival on univariable analysis (log-rank test; P metrics was associated with improved overall survival (100

  18. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  19. Survival of food-borne pathogens on natural black table olives after post-processing contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on natural black olives during aerobic storage without brine and to conclude about the safety of this fermented food. Fermented black olives (pH 3.95; NaCl 6.02%) were artificially inoculated with 4 strains of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis, 4 strains of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, 3 strains of E. coli O157:H7, 3 strains of L. monocytogenes, and 3 strains of S. aureus either in monoculture or in mixed culture by submerging the fruits in a solution containing ca. 7.0 log CFU/ml of each target pathogen. The olives were subsequently stored aerobically at 4 and 20 °C, and the pathogens were recovered on selective media for a time period of 15 days. Enrichment was employed to define the presence/absence of the target pathogens when their counts were below the detection limit of direct plating. Results showed that the population of all pathogens presented a rapid decline within the first 2 days of storage depending on storage temperature, type of inoculation (monoculture or cocktail) and strain. Storage at 4 °C seemed to prolong the survival of certain strains of pathogens as compared to 20 °C by ca. 1 day. Enrichment revealed the absence (pathogens after post-processing contamination provided that the olives have been subjected to proper fermentation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards a New Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Larsen, Vibeke Grupe; Hacker, Jake

    2010-01-01

    for developing a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture. There has been a radical transformation in building energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations......This paper argues that the understanding of architecture again needs to be widened if the architectural profession is to play an active role in combating climate change. The paper therefore examines past, present and future challenges for building energy consumption in Denmark as the basis...... in the future. With this background, a new paradigm for zero-energy architecture is developed that re-flects the architectural design process. In this way, the architectural focus early in the de-sign process on functional disposition, spatial quality and built form can act as the driving force in the movement...

  1. Toxicity of organoclays to microbial processes and earthworm survival in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Binoy; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Shanmuganathan, Devarajan; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-10-15

    Organoclays have wide spread application in environmental remediation and nanocomposites synthesis. Some of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) commonly used to prepare organoclays are toxic to biota. However, information on the toxicity of organoclays is rarely available in the literature. This study assessed the toxicity of three laboratory prepared bentonite organoclays on the soil microbially mediated processes (such as dehydrogenase activity and potential nitrification) and soil inhabiting animals, such as earthworms. Toxicity to both microbial processes and earthworm followed the order: hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>octadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite>arquad modified bentonite>unmodified bentonite. The organoclays were able to cause slight improvement (up to 25%) in the potential nitrification in some soils when they were added at low application rates up to 5%, but caused reduction (3-86%) in the dehydrogenase activity in all the soils irrespective of loading rates. The organoclays were extremely toxic to the survival and vigour of the earthworms. The average body weight loss of the worms reached as high as 62% in hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium modified bentonite treated soil even at 1% loading. This study holds utmost importance in assessing the toxicity of organoclays to soil microbially mediated processes and earthworms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of polyphosphate additives on the pH of processed chicken exudates and the survival of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Nereus W; He, Yiping; Fratamico, Pina

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. are nutritionally fastidious organisms that are sensitive to normal atmospheric oxygen levels and lack homologues of common cold shock genes. At first glance, these bacteria seem ill equipped to persist within food products under processing and storage conditions; however, they survive in numbers sufficient to cause the largest number of foodborne bacterial disease annually. A mechanism proposed to play a role in Campylobacter survival is the addition of polyphosphate-containing marinades during poultry processing. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains incubated in chicken exudates collected from poultry treated with a marinade demonstrated considerable survival advantages (1 to 4 log CFU/ml) over the same strains incubated in chicken exudate from untreated birds. Polyphosphates, which constitute a large portion of the commercial poultry marinades, were shown to account for a majority of the observed influence of the marinades on Campylobacter survival. When six different food grade polyphosphates (disodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, pentasodium triphosphate, sodium polyphosphate, monosodium phosphate, and trisodium phosphate) were utilized to compare the survival of Campylobacter strains in chicken exudate, significant differences were observed with regard to Campylobacter survival between the different polyphosphates. It was then determined that the addition of polyphosphates to chicken exudate increased the pH of the exudate, with the more sodiated polyphosphates increasing the pH to a greater degree than the less sodiated polyphosphates. It was confirmed that the change in pH mediated by polyphosphates is responsible for the observed increases in Campylobacter survival.

  3. Survival and growth of foodborne microorganisms in processed and individually wrapped cheese slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Richard H; Harper, Nigel

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of the research reported here were to determine the growth, survival, or inactivation of selected microorganisms on individually wrapped processed cheese (IWC) slices stored at 5 degrees C and 22 degrees C, and to compare quality indices. IWC slices were spot-inoculated with foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp.), spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus spp.), and spoilage molds (Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp.). Each bacterium was inoculated at 10(5) CFUs/g for determination of growth, survival, or inactivation. Molds were inoculated at 10(2) spores per gram and observed for growth. Fifty percent of the inoculated product samples were held at 5 degrees C (to simulate refrigeration), and the other 50 percent were held at 22 degrees C (to simulate ambient temperature) throughout shelf life. Samples taken on days 0, 3, 7,10, 14, and 28 and after 2, 3, 6, and 9 months, and were evaluated for surviving cells (by means of appropriate selective media), color (with the cheese color guide), and lipid oxidation (by means of peroxide values). Bacterial inactivation was observed in all conditions. At 14 days, a 5-log reduction was observed for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, while a 3-log reduction was observed for Staphylococcus aureus. For Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus spp., a 2-log reduction was observed within 3 days, with an additional 1-log reduction noted after several months. Mold levels showed no change during the first several weeks of storage. At 84 days, mold levels decreased at 5 degrees C, but they showed growth at 22 degrees C, to approximately 10(5) CFUs/g. Visual color was evaluated on a 10-point National Cheese Institute scale. During storage at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C, color became darker and values increased from 4 to 5 and 4 to 7, respectively. Higher peroxide values were also obtained for the samples held at 22 degrees C versus 5 degrees C

  4. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...... that reflection must be understood as an overarching cultural phenomenon and a very important qualification of all Nielsen’s paradigms, and also a possible utilitarian paradigm, because it has the potential to add dynamic elements to the more or less static didactic paradigms. Thus the semiotic analysis may...

  5. Modelling health care processes for eliciting user requirements: a way to link a quality paradigm and clinical information system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staccini, P; Joubert, M; Quaranta, J F; Fieschi, D; Fieschi, M

    2001-12-01

    Healthcare institutions are looking at ways to increase their efficiency by reducing costs while providing care services with a high level of safety. Thus, hospital information systems have to support quality improvement objectives. The elicitation of the requirements has to meet users' needs in relation to both the quality (efficacy, safety) and the monitoring of all health care activities (traceability). Information analysts need methods to conceptualise clinical information systems that provide actors with individual benefits and guide behavioural changes. A methodology is proposed to elicit and structure users' requirements using a process-oriented analysis, and it is applied to the blood transfusion process. An object-oriented data model of a process has been defined in order to organise the data dictionary. Although some aspects of activity, such as 'where', 'what else', and 'why' are poorly represented by the data model alone, this method of requirement elicitation fits the dynamic of data input for the process to be traced. A hierarchical representation of hospital activities has to be found for the processes to be interrelated, and for their characteristics to be shared, in order to avoid data redundancy and to fit the gathering of data with the provision of care.

  6. Psychometric properties of reaction time based experimental paradigms measuring anxiety-related information-processing biases in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.M.; Eley, T.C.; Broeren, S.; MacLeod, C.; Rinck, M.; Hadwin, J.A.; Lester, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical frameworks highlight the importance of threat-related information-processing biases for understanding the emergence of anxiety in childhood. The psychometric properties of several tasks measuring these biases and their associations with anxiety were examined in an unselected sample of

  7. L[subscript 1] and L[subscript 2] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language (L[subscript 1]) and second language (L[subscript 2]) spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of…

  8. Short Serious Games Creation under the Paradigm of Software Process and Competencies as Software Requirements. Case Study: Elementary Math Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas-Saavedra, Arturo; Álvarez-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Mendoza-González, Ricardo; Oviedo-De-Luna, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Development of digital resources is difficult due to their particular complexity relying on pedagogical aspects. Another aspect is the lack of well-defined development processes, experiences documented, and standard methodologies to guide and organize game development. Added to this, there is no documented technique to ensure correct…

  9. Eastern Baltic cod : Perspectives from existing data on processes affecting growth and survival of eggs and larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; St. John, Michael; Wieland, Kai

    1996-01-01

    exist in our knowledge of processes affecting egg and larval growth and survival, but some promising areas of research are indicated. In particular the seasonality of spawning, deep water oxygen concentrations, predation on eggs, and larval food production require further investigation....

  10. Effect of salt, smoke compound and temperature on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in salmon during simulated smoking processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In smoked fish processes, smoking is the only step that is capable of inactivating pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, that contaminate the raw fish. The objectives of this study were to examine and develop a model to describe the survival of L. monocytogenes in salmon as affected by salt, s...

  11. Spatial Variation and Resuscitation Process Affecting Survival after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests (OHCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Chen

    Full Text Available Ambulance response times and resuscitation efforts are critical predictors of the survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA. On the other hand, rural-urban differences in the OHCA survival rates are an important public health issue.We retrospectively reviewed the January 2011-December 2013 OHCA registry data of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. With particular focus on geospatial variables, we aimed to unveil risk factors predicting the overall OHCA survival until hospital admission. Spatial analysis, network analysis, and the Kriging method by using geographic information systems were applied to analyze spatial variations and calculate the transport distance. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for OHCA survival.Among the 4,957 patients, the overall OHCA survival to hospital admission was 16.5%. In the multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio:, AOR, 1.24 [1.06-1.45], events in public areas (AOR: 1.30 [1.05-1.61], exposure to automated external defibrillator (AED shock (AOR: 1.70 [1.30-2.23], use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA (AOR: 1.35 [1.16-1.58], non-trauma patients (AOR: 1.41 [1.04-1.90], ambulance bypassed the closest hospital (AOR: 1.28 [1.07-1.53], and OHCA within the high population density areas (AOR: 1.89 [1.55-2.32] were positively associated with improved OHCA survival. By contrast, a prolonged total emergency medical services (EMS time interval was negatively associated with OHCA survival (AOR: 0.98 [0.96-0.99].Resuscitative efforts, such as AED or LMA use, and a short total EMS time interval improved OHCA outcomes in emergency departments. The spatial heterogeneity of emergency medical resources between rural and urban areas might affect survival rate.

  12. Sinistrals are rarely ‘right’: evidence from tool­-affordance processing in visual half-­field paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz eMichałowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although current neuroscience and behavioral studies provide substantial understanding of tool representations (e.g., the processing of tool-­related affordances in the human brain, most of this knowledge is limited to right-handed individuals with typical organization of cognitive and manual skills. Therefore, any insights from these lines of research may be of little value in rehabilitation of patients with atypical laterality of praxis and/or hand dominance. To fill this gap, we tested perceptual processing of man­-made objects in 18 healthy left-­handers who were likely to show greater incidence of right-sided or bilateral (atypical lateralization of functions. In the two experiments reported here, participants performed a tool vs. non-­tool categorization task. In Exp. 1, target and distracter objects were presented for 200 ms in the left (LVF or right (RVF visual field, followed by 200ms masks. In Exp. 2, the centrally presented targets were preceded by masked primes of 35ms duration, again presented in the LVF or RVF. Based on results from both studies, i.e., response times to correctly discriminated stimuli irrespective of their category, participants were divided into two groups showing privileged processing in either left (N = 9 or right (N = 9 visual field. In Exp. 1, only individuals with RVF advantage showed significantly faster categorization of tools in their dominant visual field, whereas those with LVF advantage revealed merely a trend towards such an effect. In Exp. 2, when targets were preceded by identical primes, the ‘atypical’ group showed significantly facilitated categorization of non­-tools, whereas the ‘typical’ group demonstrated a trend towards faster categorization of tools. These results indicate that in subjects with atypically organized cognitive skills, tool­-related processes are not just mirror reversed. Thus, our outcomes call for particular caution in neurorehabilitation directed at left

  13. Time course of syllabic and sub-syllabic processing in Mandarin word production: Evidence from the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2017-06-05

    The time course of phonological encoding in Mandarin monosyllabic word production was investigated by using the picture-word interference paradigm. Participants were asked to name pictures in Mandarin while visual distractor words were presented before, at, or after picture onset (i.e., stimulus-onset asynchrony/SOA = -100, 0, or +100 ms, respectively). Compared with the unrelated control, the distractors sharing atonal syllables with the picture names significantly facilitated the naming responses at -100- and 0-ms SOAs. In addition, the facilitation effect of sharing word-initial segments only appeared at 0-ms SOA, and null effects were found for sharing word-final segments. These results indicate that both syllables and subsyllabic units play important roles in Mandarin spoken word production and more critically that syllabic processing precedes subsyllabic processing. The current results lend strong support to the proximate units principle (O'Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010), which holds that the phonological structure of spoken word production is language-specific and that atonal syllables are the proximate phonological units in Mandarin Chinese. On the other hand, the significance of word-initial segments over word-final segments suggests that serial processing of segmental information seems to be universal across Germanic languages and Chinese, which remains to be verified in future studies.

  14. n-type doping through tethered functionality: a new paradigm for molecular design of solution-processed organic thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Boris; Robb, Maxwell J.; Popere, Bhooshan C.; Perry, Erin E.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Hawker, Craig J.; Segalman, Rachel A.

    2015-03-01

    A scarcity of stable n-type doping mechanisms compatible with facile processing has been a major impediment to the advancement of n-type (electron transporting) organic thermoelectric materials. We recently demonstrated that trimethylammonium functionalization with hydroxide counterions, tethered to a perylene diimide core by alkyl spacers, facilitated solution-processing and resulted in extremely high carrier concentrations (1020carriers/cm3) and best-in-class thermoelectric performance in thin films. In this presentation, we report our recent findings on the underlying mechanism enabling charge carrier generation in these self-doping materials and its influence on material thermoelectric behavior. To draw these conclusions, we complement thermoelectric characterization with insights into chemical, electronic, and structural properties from XPS, optical spectroscopy, EPR, and GIWAXS experiments. Furthermore, we show that doping through tethered functionality can be extended to other n-type small molecule systems of interest, including naphthalene diimides and diketopyrrolopyrroles. Our findings help shape promising molecular design strategies for future enhancements in n-type thermoelectric performance.

  15. Towards a sustainable paradigm of waste-to-energy process: Enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge with woody biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yanwen; Linville, Jessica L.; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne A.; Schoene, Robin P.; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2016-11-01

    This study presents an integrated waste-to-energy process, using two waste streams, sludge generated from the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and biochar generated from the biomass gasification systems, to produce fungible biomethane and nutrient-rich digestate with fertilizer value. Two woody biochar, namely pinewood (PBC) and white oak biochar (WOBC) were used as additives during anaerobic digestion (AD) of WWTP sludge to enhance methane production at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The PBC and WOBC have porous structure, large surface area and desirable chemical properties to be used as AD amendment material to sequester CO2 from biogas in the digester. The biochar-amended digesters achieved average methane content in biogas of up to 92.3% and 79.0%, corresponding to CO2 sequestration by up to 66.2% and 32.4% during mesophilic and thermophilic AD, respectively. Biochar addition enhanced process stability by increasing the alkalinity, but inhibitory effects were observed at high dosage. It also alleviated free ammonia inhibition by up to 10.5%. The biochar-amended digesters generated digestate rich in macro- and micronutrients including K (up to 300 m/L), Ca (up to 750 mg/L), Mg (up to 1800 mg/L) and Fe (up to 390 mg/L), making biochar-amended digestate a potential alternative used as agricultural lime fertilizer.

  16. The ATLAS Production System Evolution: New Data Processing and Analysis Paradigm for the LHC Run2 and High-Luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, F. H.; Borodin, M.; De, K.; Golubkov, D.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Padolski, S.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS specific workflows, across more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteer-computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resources utilization is one of the major features of the system, it didn’t exist in the earliest versions of the production system where Grid resources topology was predefined using national or/and geographical pattern. Production System has a sophisticated job fault-recovery mechanism, which efficiently allows to run multi-Terabyte tasks without human intervention. We have implemented “train” model and open-ended production which allow to submit tasks automatically as soon as new set of data is available and to chain physics groups data processing and analysis with central production by the experiment. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System and its major components features and architecture: task definition, web user interface and monitoring. We describe the important design decisions and lessons learned from an operational experience during the first year of LHC Run2. We also report the performance of the designed system and how various workflows, such as data (re)processing, Monte-Carlo and physics group production, users analysis, are scheduled and executed within one production system on heterogeneous computing resources.

  17. Hearing impairment, social support, and depressive symptoms among U.S. adults: A test of the stress process paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jessica S

    2017-11-01

    Hearing impairment is a growing physical disability affecting older adults and is an important physical health stressor, but few studies have examined it in relation to mental health outcomes and even fewer have considered the role of social support in buffering this relationship. The current study builds on the stress process framework and uses longitudinal data from three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2006, 2010, 2014) to examine the relationship between hearing impairment and depressive symptoms among U.S. adults aged 50 and older (n = 6075). The analysis uses fixed-effects models to assess this relationship and examine the extent to which social support mediates (buffers) or moderates (interaction) the association. The results found that worse self-rated hearing was associated with a significant increase in depressive symptoms, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Social support did not buffer this relationship. Instead, social support interacted with hearing impairment: low levels of social support were associated with more depressive symptoms but only among people with poor self-rated hearing. Among those with excellent self-rated hearing, low levels of social support did not increase depressive symptoms. Moreover, high levels of social support reduced depressive symptoms for those with poor hearing. These findings suggest that hearing impairment is a chronic stressor in individuals' lives, and that responses to this stressor vary by the availability of social resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of red and processed meat with survival after colorectal cancer and differences according to timing of dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Prudence R; Jansen, Lina; Walter, Viola; Kloor, Matthias; Roth, Wilfried; Bläker, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prognostic impact of red and processed meat intake or about changes in consumption after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated associations of baseline red and processed meat with survival outcomes and explored changes in intake among CRC survivors 5 y after diagnosis. A total of 3122 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2003 and 2010 were followed for a median of 4.8 y [DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening) study]. Patients provided information on diet and other factors in standardized questionnaires at baseline and at the 5-y follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Among patients with stage I-III CRC, baseline red and processed meat intake was not associated with overall (>1 time/d compared with processed meat at the 5-y follow-up than at baseline (concordance rate: 39%; κ-value: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.13). Our findings suggest that baseline red and processed meat intake is not associated with poorer survival among patients with CRC. The potential interaction with KRAS mutation status warrants further evaluation. Major changes in consumption measured at the 5-y follow-up may have had an impact on our survival estimates. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  20. Abbreviated care-process quality indicator sets linked with survival and functional status benefit in older adults under ambulatory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Lillian; Reuben, David; Karlamangla, Arun; Naeim, Arash; Prenovost, Katherine; Lee, Pearl; Wenger, Neil

    2014-08-01

    To identify subsets of ambulatory care (outpatient only) quality indicators (QIs) associated with better survival and physical function outcomes. Observational cohort study. Pooled data from the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE)-1 study, which measured quality of care using 140 care-process QIs, and the subsequent ACOVE-2 study, which reduced the QIs to 69 ambulatory care QIs. Older adults receiving ambulatory care (N=1,015). To prioritize and reduce the QIs into subsets, an expert panel rated each of 69 ambulatory care QIs for the strength of the link between process and benefit, defined as direct trial evidence on older adults or high expectation of benefit if a trial were conducted in older adults. This resulted in three reduced QI sets, reflecting their intended benefit: 17 QIs for survival (ACOVE Quality for Survival (AQS)-17), five QIs to preserve function (AQF-5), and 16 QIs to improve quality-of-life related to physical health and symptoms (AQQ-16). Whether AQS-17 would predict 3-year survival was first tested in 1,015 pooled ACOVE-1 and ACOVE-2 participants. Second, whether AQF-5 (n=74) and AQQ-16 (n=359) would predict change in the Physical Component Summary (PCS) score of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short-Form Survey at 1 year was tested in the ACOVE-2 cohort. Control variables were age, function-based vulnerability, and comorbidity. Each 20-percentage-point increment in AQS-17 was associated with survival (hazard ratio (HR)=0.83, P=.01) up to 500 days but not thereafter. AQF-5, but not AQQ-16, predicted 1-year improvement in PCS score (1.13-points per 20%-point increment in AQF-5, P=.02). Subsets of care processes can be linked with outcomes important to older adults. The AQS-17 and AQF-5 are potential tools for improving ambulatory care of older adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  2. Revisiting the survival mnemonic effect in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pand eirada, Josefa N S; Pires, Luísa; Soares, Sandra C

    2014-04-29

    The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the "survival processing effect." In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving). These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  3. Revisiting the Survival Mnemonic Effect in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa N. S. Pand Eirada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the “survival processing effect.” In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving. These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  4. Survival probability and first-passage-time statistics of a Wiener process driven by an exponential time-dependent drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio

    2011-02-01

    The survival probability and the first-passage-time statistics are important quantities in different fields. The Wiener process is the simplest stochastic process with continuous variables, and important results can be explicitly found from it. The presence of a constant drift does not modify its simplicity; however, when the process has a time-dependent component the analysis becomes difficult. In this work we analyze the statistical properties of the Wiener process with an absorbing boundary, under the effect of an exponential time-dependent drift. Based on the backward Fokker-Planck formalism we set the time-inhomogeneous equation and conditions that rule the diffusion of the corresponding survival probability. We propose as the solution an expansion series in terms of the intensity of the exponential drift, resulting in a set of recurrence equations. We explicitly solve the expansion up to second order and comment on higher-order solutions. The first-passage-time density function arises naturally from the survival probability and preserves the proposed expansion. Explicit results, related properties, and limit behaviors are analyzed and extensively compared to numerical simulations.

  5. Survival probability and first-passage-time statistics of a Wiener process driven by an exponential time-dependent drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio

    2011-02-01

    The survival probability and the first-passage-time statistics are important quantities in different fields. The Wiener process is the simplest stochastic process with continuous variables, and important results can be explicitly found from it. The presence of a constant drift does not modify its simplicity; however, when the process has a time-dependent component the analysis becomes difficult. In this work we analyze the statistical properties of the Wiener process with an absorbing boundary, under the effect of an exponential time-dependent drift. Based on the backward Fokker-Planck formalism we set the time-inhomogeneous equation and conditions that rule the diffusion of the corresponding survival probability. We propose as the solution an expansion series in terms of the intensity of the exponential drift, resulting in a set of recurrence equations. We explicitly solve the expansion up to second order and comment on higher-order solutions. The first-passage-time density function arises naturally from the survival probability and preserves the proposed expansion. Explicit results, related properties, and limit behaviors are analyzed and extensively compared to numerical simulations.

  6. Microbial dynamics in mixed culture biofilms of bacteria surviving sanitation of conveyor belts in salmon-processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsrud, S; Moen, B; Møretrø, T; Løype, M; Heir, E

    2016-02-01

    The microbiota surviving sanitation of salmon-processing conveyor belts was identified and its growth dynamics further investigated in a model mimicking processing surfaces in such plants. A diverse microbiota dominated by Gram-negative bacteria was isolated after regular sanitation in three salmon processing plants. A cocktail of 14 bacterial isolates representing all genera isolated from conveyor belts (Listeria, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Brochothrix, Serratia, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus and Chryseobacterium) formed stable biofilms on steel coupons (12°C, salmon broth) of about 10(9) CFU cm(-2) after 2 days. High-throughput sequencing showed that Listeria monocytogenes represented 0·1-0·01% of the biofilm population and that Pseudomonas spp dominated. Interestingly, both Brochothrix sp. and a Pseudomonas sp. dominated in the surrounding suspension. The microbiota surviving sanitation is dominated by Pseudomonas spp. The background microbiota in biofilms inhibit, but do not eliminate L. monocytogenes. The results highlights that sanitation procedures have to been improved in the salmon-processing industry, as high numbers of a diverse microbiota survived practical sanitation. High-throughput sequencing enables strain level studies of population dynamics in biofilm. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. "I'm Keeping Those There, Are You?": The Role of a New User Interface Paradigm--Separate Control of Shared Space (SCOSS)--in the Collaborative Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerawalla, Lucinda; Pearce, Darren; Yuill, Nicola; Luckin, Rosemary; Harris, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    We take a socio-cultural approach to comparing how dual control of a new user interface paradigm--Separate Control of Shared Space (SCOSS)--and dual control of a single user interface can work to mediate the collaborative decision-making process between pairs of children carrying out a multiple categorisation word task on a shared computer.…

  8. Simultaneous recording of EEG and fNIRS during visuo-spatial and facial expression processing in a dual task paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Martin J; Neueder, Dorothea; Troeller, Anna K; Schulz, Stefan M

    2016-11-01

    Emotional processing is probably the most crucial tool for orienting oneself in our everyday social life and has been considered to be highly automatic for a long time. Dual task (DT) research shows that information competing for working memory resources impairs the identification of emotional facial expressions. Effects of cognitive load in DT paradigms have been confirmed in numerous neuroimaging studies. However, interference occurring during a DT comprised of decoding emotional facial expressions and a visuo-spatial working memory task has yet to be visualized. To investigate the DT interference effect on brain areas associated not only with working memory, but also emotional and visuo-spatial processing, we recorded brain activation within the prefrontal cortex and parietal-occipital sensory areas using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously. Our study consisted of N = 36 participants (27 female) performing the following tasks: a) Corsi blocks, b) identification of emotional facial expressions or c) DT comprising of tasks a) and b). We predicted higher activation of the prefrontal cortex during DT and corresponding reduced P100 and P300 amplitudes. As expected, fNIRS measurements revealed significantly higher neuronal activation within the prefrontal cortex in the DT condition. When comparing DT to the single tasks, the P100 amplitude was reduced, but the P300 amplitude did not show the expected reduction. Our findings underline that at least some aspects of emotional processing are not entirely automatic, but depend on prefrontal control and are therefore affected by cognitive load, in particular visuo-spatial working memory resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Snap your fingers! An ERP/sLORETA study investigating implicit processing of self- vs. other-related movement sounds using the passive oddball paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Justen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available So far, neurophysiological studies have investigated implicit and explicit self-related processing particularly for self-related stimuli such as the own face or name. The present study extends previous research to the implicit processing of self-related movement sounds and explores their spatiotemporal dynamics. Event-related potentials (ERPs were assessed while participants (N = 12 healthy subjects listened passively to previously recorded self- and other-related finger snapping sounds, presented either as deviants or standards during an oddball paradigm. Passive listening to low (500 Hz and high (1000 Hz pure tones served as additional control. For self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds, analysis of ERPs revealed significant differences in the time windows of the N2a/MMN and P3. An subsequent source localization analysis with standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA revealed increased cortical activation in distinct motor areas such as the supplementary motor area (SMA in the N2a/mismatch negativity (MMN as well as the P3 time window during processing of self- and other-related finger snapping sounds. In contrast, brain regions associated with self-related processing (e.g., right anterior/posterior cingulate cortex (ACC/PPC as well as the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL showed increased activation particularly during processing of self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds in the time windows of the N2a/MMN (ACC/PCC or the P3 (IPL. None of these brain regions showed enhanced activation while listening passively to low (500 Hz and high (1000 Hz pure tones. Taken together, the current results indicate (1 a specific role of motor regions such as SMA during auditory processing of movement-related information, regardless of whether this information is self- or other-related, (2 activation of neural sources such as the ACC/PCC and the IPL during implicit processing of self-related movement stimuli, and (3

  10. Snap Your Fingers! An ERP/sLORETA Study Investigating Implicit Processing of Self- vs. Other-Related Movement Sounds Using the Passive Oddball Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justen, Christoph; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    So far, neurophysiological studies have investigated implicit and explicit self-related processing particularly for self-related stimuli such as the own face or name. The present study extends previous research to the implicit processing of self-related movement sounds and explores their spatio-temporal dynamics. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed while participants (N = 12 healthy subjects) listened passively to previously recorded self- and other-related finger snapping sounds, presented either as deviants or standards during an oddball paradigm. Passive listening to low (500 Hz) and high (1000 Hz) pure tones served as additional control. For self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds, analysis of ERPs revealed significant differences in the time windows of the N2a/MMN and P3. An subsequent source localization analysis with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) revealed increased cortical activation in distinct motor areas such as the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the N2a/mismatch negativity (MMN) as well as the P3 time window during processing of self- and other-related finger snapping sounds. In contrast, brain regions associated with self-related processing [e.g., right anterior/posterior cingulate cortex (ACC/PPC)] as well as the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) showed increased activation particularly during processing of self- vs. other-related finger snapping sounds in the time windows of the N2a/MMN (ACC/PCC) or the P3 (IPL). None of these brain regions showed enhanced activation while listening passively to low (500 Hz) and high (1000 Hz) pure tones. Taken together, the current results indicate (1) a specific role of motor regions such as SMA during auditory processing of movement-related information, regardless of whether this information is self- or other-related, (2) activation of neural sources such as the ACC/PCC and the IPL during implicit processing of self-related movement stimuli, and (3

  11. How individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) process their own face: a quantitative and qualitative investigation based on an eye-tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Lin; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2017-05-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived flaws in physical appearance. Based on an eye-tracking paradigm, this study aimed to examine how individuals with BDD processed their own face. Participants were 21 BDD patients, 19 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 21 healthy controls (HC), who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched. Stimuli were photographs of participants' own faces as well as those from the Pictures of Facial Affect battery. Outcome measures were affect recognition accuracy as well as spatial and temporal scanpath parameters. The BDD group exhibited significantly decreased recognition accuracy for their own face relative to the HC group, and this was most pronounced for those who had a key concern centred on their face. Individual qualitative scanpath analysis revealed restricted and extensive scanning behaviours in BDD participants with a facial preoccupation. Persons with severe BDD also exhibited more marked scanpath deficits. Future research should be directed at extending the current work by incorporating neuroimaging techniques, and investigations of eye-tracking focused on affected body parts in BDD. These could yield fruitful therapeutic applications via incorporation with existing treatment approaches.

  12. The Peter Pan paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis. You may delay, but time will not Benjamin Franklin USA Founding Father

  13. Contemporary Treatment Paradigms in Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm.

  14. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  15. Survival of Penicillium spp. conidia during deep-frying and baking steps of frozen chicken nuggets processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmann, Évelin Francine; Moreira, Rafael Chelala; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining whether Penicillium spp. strains could survive through the heat treatment applied during the processing of frozen chicken nuggets. Firstly, it was found that the conidia of Penicillium were not able to survive the heat shock in phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 in thermal death tubes (TDT) at 80 °C/30 min. Subsequently, each Penicillium strain was inoculated in frozen chicken nuggets, which were subjected to the following treatments: i) only deep frying (frying oil at 195-200 °C), ii) only baking (120-130 °C until the internal temperature reached 70 °C) and iii) deep frying followed by baking (frying oil temperature of 195-200 °C and baking temperature of 120-130 °C, until the internal temperature reached 70 °C). The results indicated that Penicillium polonicum NGT 23/12, Penicillium commune NGT 16/12, Penicillium solitum NGT 30/12 and Penicillium crustosum NGT 51/12 were able to survive after the combined treatment (deep frying followed by baking) when inoculated in chicken nuggets. P. polonicum NGT 23/12 was the most resistant strain to the combined treatment (deep frying and baking), as its population was reduced by 3 log cycles CFU/g, when the internal temperature reached 78 °C after 10 min and 30 s of baking. The present data show that if Penicillium spp. is present in high numbers in raw materials, such as breading flours, it will survive the thermal processing applied during chicken nuggets production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plants modify biological processes to ensure survival following carbon depletion: a Lolium perenne model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants, due to their immobility, have evolved mechanisms allowing them to adapt to multiple environmental and management conditions. Short-term undesirable conditions (e.g. moisture deficit, cold temperatures generally reduce photosynthetic carbon supply while increasing soluble carbohydrate accumulation. It is not known, however, what strategies plants may use in the long-term to adapt to situations resulting in net carbon depletion (i.e. reduced photosynthetic carbon supply and carbohydrate accumulation. In addition, many transcriptomic experiments have typically been undertaken under laboratory conditions; therefore, long-term acclimation strategies that plants use in natural environments are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. was used as a model plant to define whether plants adapt to repetitive carbon depletion and to further elucidate their long-term acclimation mechanisms. Transcriptome changes in both lamina and stubble tissues of field-grown plants with depleted carbon reserves were characterised using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data for select key genes indicated that plants reduced fructan degradation, and increased photosynthesis and fructan synthesis capacities following carbon depletion. This acclimatory response was not sufficient to prevent a reduction (P<0.001 in net biomass accumulation, but ensured that the plant survived. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptations of plants with depleted carbon reserves resulted in reduced post-defoliation carbon mobilization and earlier replenishment of carbon reserves, thereby ensuring survival and continued growth. These findings will help pave the way to improve plant biomass production, for either grazing livestock or biofuel purposes.

  17. Paradigms of Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of paradigms for the categories of intelligent systems. First we can look at the term paradigm in its scientific meaning and then we make acquaintance with the main categories of intelligent systems (expert systems, intelligent systems based on genetic algorithms, artificial neuronal systems, fuzzy systems, hybrid intelligent systems. We will see that every system has one or more paradigms, but hybrid intelligent systems combine paradigms because they are made of different technologies. This research has been made under the guidance of Dr. Ioan AND ONE, Professor and Director of Research Laboratory.

  18. The role of transport processes in survival of lactic acid bacteria. Energy transduction and multidrug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, W.N; Lolkema, J.S.; Bolhuis, H; van Veen, H.W.; Poolman, B.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    Lactic acid bacteria play an essential role in many food fermentation processes. They are anaerobic organisms which obtain their metabolic energy by substrate phosphorylation. In addition three secondary energy transducing processes can contribute to the generation of a proton motive force:

  19. Immediate survival focus: synthesizing life history theory and dual process models to explain substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Hardesty, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  20. Modelling of the process of micromycetus survival in fruit and berry syrups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Osipova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop methods for preserving fruit and berry syrup, which exclude the use of high-temperature sterilization and preservatives, the survival of spores of micromycetes (B. nivea molds in model media with different concentration of food osmotically active substances (sucrose, ethyl alcohol, citric acid at a certain concentration of lethal effects on microorganisms. It has been established that model media (juice based syrups from blueberries with a mass content of 4 % and 6 % alcohol, 50 % sucrose, 1 % and 2 % titrated acids, have a lethal effect on spores of B. nivea molds. The regression equation is obtained expressing the dependence of the amount of spores of B. nivea molds on the concentration of sucrose, acid, alcohol and the storage time of syrups. The form of the dependence and direction of the connection between the variables is established – a negative linear regression, which is expressed in the uniform decrease of the function. The estimation of quality of the received regression model is defined. The deviations of the calculated data from the data of the initial set are calculated. The proposed model has sufficient reliability, since the regression function is defined, interpreted and justified, and the estimation of the accuracy of the regression analysis meets the requirements.

  1. The Reception Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a paradigm for science education research. The paradigm advances the reception learning theory, where regularities to be learned are presented explicitly to the learner. A tool for the study of knowledge production in science education, the Gowin "V," is presented. (RE)

  2. The Generative Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynes, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The "algorithmic" model of outdoor experiential learning is based in military tradition and characterized by questionable scientific rationale, production line metaphor, and the notion of learning as marketable commodity. Alternatives are the moral paradigm; the ecological paradigm "friluftsliv"; and the emerging…

  3. Modeling Hierarchically Clustered Longitudinal Survival Processes with Applications to Child Mortality and Maternal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuate-Defo, Bathélémy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper merges two parallel developments since the 1970s of newstatistical tools for data analysis: statistical methods known as hazard models that are used foranalyzing event-duration data and statistical methods for analyzing hierarchically clustered dataknown as multilevel models. These developments have rarely been integrated in research practice andthe formalization and estimation of models for hierarchically clustered survival data remain largelyuncharted. I attempt to fill some of this gap and demonstrate the merits of formulating and estimatingmultilevel hazard models with longitudinal data.FrenchCette étude intègre deux approches statistiques de pointe d'analyse des donnéesquantitatives depuis les années 70: les méthodes statistiques d'analyse desdonnées biographiques ou méthodes de survie et les méthodes statistiquesd'analyse des données hiérarchiques ou méthodes multi-niveaux. Ces deuxapproches ont été très peu mis en symbiose dans la pratique de recherche et parconséquent, la formulation et l'estimation des modèles appropriés aux donnéeslongitudinales et hiérarchiquement nichées demeure essentiellement un champd'investigation vierge. J'essaye de combler ce vide et j'utilise des données réellesen santé publique pour démontrer les mérites et contextes de formulation etd'estimation des modèles multi-niveaux et multi-états des données biographiqueset longitudinales.

  4. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  5. Theological paradigms and conservative Afrikaners | Robbertze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988) reject foundationalistic theology and recommend a holistic theological ap proach. In this process contextual theology, which emphasises the distinctiveness of individual nations, is accused of being the 'domination paradigm' and is even ...

  6. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    ? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...... game in town. In effect, while Hall’s approach can account for inter-paradigm change with reference to exogenous shocks, it does not allow for significant ideational change to occur intra-paradigm. In order to remedy this, we suggest that the concept of ideational power be placed more centrally...... in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding...

  7. Persistence and survival of pathogens in dry foods and dry food processing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchat, L.; Komitopoulou, E.; Betts, R.; Beckers, H.; Bourdichon, F.; Joosten, H.; Fanning, S.; ter Kuile, B.

    2011-01-01

    Low-moisture foods and food ingredients, i.e., those appearing to be dry or that have been subjected to a drying process, represent important nutritional constituents of human diets. Some of these foods are naturally low in moisture, such as cereals, honey and nuts, whereas others are produced from high-moisture foods that were deliberately submitted to drying (e.g., egg and milk powders). The addition of large amounts of salt or sugar can also be regarded as a ‘drying’ process by reducing th...

  8. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...... to tackle the complex problems facing the chemicals based industries and serve the modern society more efficiently? The lecture will review the current status of chemical engineering as a discipline, the proposals for the third paradigm, the need for such a paradigm shift and related educational issues....

  9. Persistence and survival of pathogens in dry foods and dry food processing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.; Komitopoulou, E.; Betts, R.; Beckers, H.; Bourdichon, F.; Joosten, H.; Fanning, S.; ter Kuile, B.

    2011-01-01

    Low-moisture foods and food ingredients, i.e., those appearing to be dry or that have been subjected to a drying process, represent important nutritional constituents of human diets. Some of these foods are naturally low in moisture, such as cereals, honey and nuts, whereas others are produced from

  10. A Dirichlet process mixture model for survival outcome data: assessing nationwide kidney transplant centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lili; Shi, Jingchunzi; Shearon, Tempie H; Li, Yi

    2015-04-15

    Mortality rates are probably the most important indicator for the performance of kidney transplant centers. Motivated by the national evaluation of mortality rates at kidney transplant centers in the USA, we seek to categorize the transplant centers based on the mortality outcome. We describe a Dirichlet process model and a Dirichlet process mixture model with a half-cauchy prior for the estimation of the risk-adjusted effects of the transplant centers, with strategies for improving the model performance, interpretability, and classification ability. We derive statistical measures and create graphical tools to rate transplant centers and identify outlying groups of centers with exceptionally good or poor performance. The proposed method was evaluated through simulation and then applied to assess kidney transplant centers from a national organ failure registry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A combinatory approach for selecting prognostic genes in microarray studies of tumour survivals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Thomassen, Mads; Jochumsen, Kirsten M

    2009-01-01

    differential gene expression analysis with the Gram-Schmidt process to identify prognostic genes that are both statistically significant and highly informative for predicting tumour survival outcomes. Empirical application to leukemia and ovarian cancer survival data through-within- and cross-study validations...... for prediction. Unfortunately feature selection in literature of microarray study is predominated by the simple heuristic univariate gene filter paradigm that selects differentially expressed genes according to their statistical significances. We introduce a combinatory feature selection strategy that integrates...

  12. Effect of batch-process solar disinfection on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; McGuigan, K G

    2005-03-01

    The results of batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water are reported. Oocyst suspensions were exposed to simulated sunlight (830 W m(-2)) at 40 degrees C. Viability assays (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]/propidium iodide and excystation) and infectivity tests (Swiss CD-1 suckling mice) were performed. SODIS exposures of 6 and 12 h reduced oocyst infectivity from 100% to 7.5% (standard deviation = 2.3) and 0% (standard deviation = 0.0), respectively.

  13. Paradigms for machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  14. Multi-parton interactions and rapidity gap survival probability in jet-gap-jet processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Izabela; Staszewski, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    We discuss an application of dynamical multi-parton interaction model, tuned to measurements of underlying event topology, for a description of destroying rapidity gaps in the jet-gap-jet processes at the LHC. We concentrate on the dynamical origin of the mechanism of destroying the rapidity gap. The cross section for jet-gap-jet is calculated within LL BFKL approximation. We discuss the topology of final states without and with the MPI effects. We discuss some examples of selected kinematical situations (fixed jet rapidities and transverse momenta) as distributions averaged over the dynamics of the jet-gap-jet scattering. The colour-singlet ladder exchange amplitude for the partonic subprocess is implemented into the PYTHIA 8 generator, which is then used for hadronisation and for the simulation of the MPI effects. Several differential distributions are shown and discussed. We present the ratio of cross section calculated with and without MPI effects as a function of rapidity gap in between the jets.

  15. Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Fayth L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The effect of red and processed meats on cancer survival is unclear. We sought to examine the role of total and processed red meat consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and lung, in order to test our hypothesis that red or processed meat was associated with overall mortality in these patients. Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, we conducted a case-only analysis to examine the association of red or processed meat consumption on mortality after 12 years of follow-up, using a diet history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 601 UADT cancer cases and 611 lung cancer cases, there were 248 and 406 deaths, respectively, yielding crude mortality rates of 0.07 and 0.12 deaths per year. Comparing the highest with lowest quartile of red meat consumption, the adjusted HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.04-2.57) among UADT cancer cases; for red or processed meat, the adjusted HR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10-2.82). A dose-response trend was observed. A weaker association was observed with red meat consumption and overall mortality among lung cancer cases. In conclusion, this case-only analysis demonstrated that increased consumption of red or processed meats was associated with mortality among UADT cancer cases and WAS weakly associated with mortality among lung cancer cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On the paradigm of altruistic suicide in the unicellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Aurora M; Driscoll, William W; Durand, Pierre M; Herron, Matthew D; Rashidi, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Altruistic suicide is best known in the context of programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular individuals, which is understood as an adaptive process that contributes to the development and functionality of the organism. After the realization that PCD-like processes can also be induced in single-celled lineages, the paradigm of altruistic cell death has been extended to include these active cell death processes in unicellular organisms. Here, we critically evaluate the current conceptual framework and the experimental data used to support the notion of altruistic suicide in unicellular lineages, and propose new perspectives. We argue that importing the paradigm of altruistic cell death from multicellular organisms to explain active death in unicellular lineages has the potential to limit the types of questions we ask, thus biasing our understanding of the nature, origin, and maintenance of this trait. We also emphasize the need to distinguish between the benefits and the adaptive role of a trait. Lastly, we provide an alternative framework that allows for the possibility that active death in single-celled organisms is a maladaptive trait maintained as a byproduct of selection on pro-survival functions, but that could-under conditions in which kin/group selection can act-be co-opted into an altruistic trait. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Paradigm Change in Political Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, John

    1980-01-01

    Traces the shift of paradigms in the political science profession from the 1960s to 1980, examines the classical paradigm, compares it with modern paradigms, and reviews contemporary efforts to articulate a new paradigm which takes the ecological crisis into account. (Author/DB)

  18. Identification of the crucial genes in the elimination and survival process of Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum in the chicken spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Xu, L; Wang, H; Guo, X; Li, Z; Wan, F; Chen, J; Liu, L; Liu, X; Chang, G; Chen, G

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum is one of the most easily re-infecting pathogens in poultry production because of its mechanism of escaping from immune elimination. We used the transcriptome method to investigate the variation in gene expression in chicken spleen resulting from the interaction between hosts and S. Pullorum in the survival process. The expression of various genes related to the maturation and activation of B cells was activated before S. Pullorum was eliminated, which might help S. Pullorum escape from the elimination process. The suppression of some genes involved in the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes, such as MYO6, was identified and may be regulated by the secretion systems of S. Pullorum. In addition, a large proportion of these differentially expressed genes could be localized in the identified quantitative trait loci regions associated with the antibody response to bacteria. Collectively, these identified genes provided an outline for further understanding the interaction between chicken immune cells and S. Pullorum in chicken spleen. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  20. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  1. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative

  2. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  3. The Paradigms of Programming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of one variable, we might first design a multiple-precision arithmetic representation. Robert W Floyd, Turing ... paradigm of structured programming does serve to. extend one's powers of design, allowing the construction of ... Balzer, in his jeremiad against the state of software construction, went on to prophesy that automatic ...

  4. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  5. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  6. Influence of binder type and process parameters on the compression properties and microbial survival in diclofenac tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oluwasogo Ayorinde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of binder type and process parameters on the compression properties and microbial survival in diclofenac tablet formulations were studied using a novel gum from Albizia zygia. Tablets were produced from diclofenac formulations containing corn starch, lactose and dicalcium phosphate. Formulations were analyzed using the Heckel and Kawakita plots. Determination of microbial viability in the formulations was done on the compressed tablets of both contaminated and uncontaminated tablets prepared from formulations. Direct compression imparted a higher plasticity on the materials than the wet granulation method. Tablets produced by wet granulation presented with a higher crushing strength than those produced by the direct compression method. Significantly higher microbial survival (pA influência do tipo de ligante e os parâmetros do processo de propriedades de compressão e sobrevivência microbiana em comprimidos de diclofenaco foram estudados utilizando uma nova goma de Albizia zygia. Os comprimidos foram produzidos a partir de formulações de diclofenaco contendo amido de milho, lactose e fosfato bicálcico. As formulações foram analisadas usando os gráficos de Heckel e Kawakita. A determinação da viabilidade microbiana nas formulações foi feita nos comprimidos contaminados e não contaminados preparados a partir de formulações. A compressão direta confere maior plasticidade dos materiais do que o método de granulação úmida. Comprimidos produzidos por granulação úmida apresentaram maior força de esmagamento do que aqueles produzidos pelo método de compressão direta. Observou-se sobrevivência significativamente maior (p<0,05 em formulações preparadas por compressão direta. A sobrevivência percentual dos esporos de Bacillus subtilis diminuiu com o aumento da concentração do agregante. O estudo mostrou que a goma de Albizia é capaz de conferir maior plasticidade aos materiais e apresentou maior redução da

  7. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  8. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  9. Aging and magnetism: Presenting a possible new holistic paradigm for ameliorating the aging process and the effects thereof, through externally applied physiologic PicoTesla magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jerry; Sherlag, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    A new holistic paradigm is proposed for slowing our genomic-based biological clocks (e.g. regulation of telomere length), and decreasing heat energy exigencies for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis. Aging is considered the result of a progressive slow burn in small volumes of tissues with increase in the quantum entropic states; producing desiccation, microscopic scarring, and disruption of cooperative coherent states. Based upon piezoelectricity, i.e. photon-phonon transductions, physiologic PicoTesla range magnetic fields may decrease the production of excessive heat energy through target specific, bio molecular resonant interactions, renormalization of intrinsic electromagnetic tissue profiles, and autonomic modulation. Prospectively, we hypothesize that deleterious effects of physical trauma, immunogenic microbiological agents, stress, and anxiety may be ameliorated. A particle-wave equation is cited to ascertain magnetic field parameters for application to the whole organism thereby achieving desired homeostasis; secondary to restoration of structure and function on quantum levels. We hypothesize that it is at the atomic level that physical events shape the flow of signals and the transmission of energy in bio molecular systems. References are made to experimental data indicating the aspecific efficacy of non-ionizing physiologic magnetic field profiles for treatment of various pathologic states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of histological correlates of overall survival in lower grade gliomas using a bag-of-words paradigm: A preliminary analysis based on hematoxylin & eosin stained slides from the lower grade glioma cohort of the cancer genome Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Trenton Powell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioma, the most common primary brain neoplasm, describes a heterogeneous tumor of multiple histologic subtypes and cellular origins. At clinical presentation, gliomas are graded according to the World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, which reflect the malignant characteristics of the tumor based on histopathological and molecular features. Lower grade diffuse gliomas (LGGs (WHO Grade II–III have fewer malignant characteristics than high-grade gliomas (WHO Grade IV, and a better clinical prognosis, however, accurate discrimination of overall survival (OS remains a challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify tissue-derived image features using a machine learning approach to predict OS in a mixed histology and grade cohort of lower grade glioma patients. To achieve this aim, we used H and E stained slides from the public LGG cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to create a machine learned dictionary of “image-derived visual words” associated with OS. We then evaluated the combined efficacy of using these visual words in predicting short versus long OS by training a generalized machine learning model. Finally, we mapped these predictive visual words back to molecular signaling cascades to infer potential drivers of the machine learned survival-associated phenotypes. Methods: We analyzed digitized histological sections downloaded from the LGG cohort of TCGA using a bag-of-words approach. This method identified a diverse set of histological patterns that were further correlated with OS, histology, and molecular signaling activity using Cox regression, analysis of variance, and Spearman correlation, respectively. A support vector machine (SVM model was constructed to discriminate patients into short and long OS groups dichotomized at 24-month. Results: This method identified disease-relevant phenotypes associated with OS, some of which are correlated with disease-associated molecular pathways. From these image

  11. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  12. Effect of visible light on progressive dormancy of Escherichia coli cells during the survival process in natural fresh water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcina, I.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Iriberri, J.; Egea, L.

    1989-01-01

    Some effects of visible light on the survival of Escherichia coli in waters of the Butron river were studied by comparing illuminated and nonilluminated systems. The following count methods were used: CFU on a selective medium (eosin-methylene blue agar), CFU on a medium of recuperation (Trypticase soy agar with yeast extract and glucose), number of metabolically active cells by reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan, and total number of E. coli cells as determined by the acridine orange direct-count method. In the illuminated systems, decreases in CFU of E. coli and in the number of metabolically active cells were observed. However, no decline of the total number of E. coli cells was observed. By count methods, different stages of progressive dormancy of E. coli cells were determined to exist in illuminated systems. Culturable and recoverable cells were defined as viable cells, and metabolically active cells and morphologically intact cells were defined as somnicells. Indirect activity measurements were also done by using (14C)glucose. In illuminated systems, a decrease of glucose uptake by E. coli cells was observed throughout the experiments. The assimilated fraction of (14C)glucose decreased faster than the respired fraction in illuminated systems. The percentage of respired (14C)glucose (14CO2 production) with respect to the total glucose uptake increased throughout the experiments, and the percentage of assimilated glucose decreased. Therefore, the visible light was also responsible for an additional inhibition of biosynthetic processes.

  13. CHANGE OF ENERGY PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut PURICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.

  14. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Miller

    Full Text Available Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE and a copepod community index (CCI accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70. However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value compared with

  15. Hypothesis Formation, Paradigms, and Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P. Pritscher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mind­opening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasi­unthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks ­­to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.

  16. Paradigm shifts in corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Donald T H; Anshu, Arundhati; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2009-04-01

    Conventional corneal transplantation, in the form of penetrating keratoplasty (PK), involves full-thickness replacement of the cornea, and is a highly successful procedure. However, the cornea is anatomically a multi-layered structure. Pathology may only affect individual layers of the cornea, hence selective lamellar surgical replacement of only the diseased corneal layers whilst retaining unaffected layers represents a new paradigm shift in the field. Recent advancements in surgical techniques and instrumentation have resulted in several forms of manual, microkeratome and femto-second laser-assisted lamellar transplantation procedures. Anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) aims at replacing only diseased or scarred corneal stroma, whilst retaining the unaffected corneal endothelial layer, thus obviating the risk of endothelial allograft rejection. Posterior lamellar keratoplasty/endothelial keratoplasty (PLK/EK) involves the replacement of the dysfunctional endothelial cell layer only. Whilst significant technical and surgical challenges are involved in performing lamellar micro-dissection of a tissue which is only 0.5 mm thick, the benefits of a more controlled surgical procedure and improved graft survival rates have resulted in a shift away from conventional PK. This review details the current advances in emerging lamellar corneal surgical procedures and highlights the main advantages and disadvantages of these new lamellar corneal procedures.

  17. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    experience change and actually to guide it. An intensified exchange of ideas among all ... process is greatly determined by the communication paradigm and practices adopted by the source (media requesting ... to create awareness and interest that encourages evaluation, trials and rapid adoption of development ideas.

  18. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Paradigms and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 11. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Paradigms and Applications of Pattern Recognition in Image Processing and Computer Vision. Information and Announcements Volume 16 Issue 11 November 2011 pp 1100-1100 ...

  19. Evolving conservation paradigms for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...

  20. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Paradigms and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... ANN. Science Academies' Refresher Course on. Paradigms and Applications of Pattern Recognition in. Image Processing and Computer Vision hosted by School of Information Technology and Science. Dr GR Damodaran College of Science, Coimbatore 641 014. Recognition of patterns is a cognitive task ...

  1. Reinforcing the Afrocentric Paradigm: A Theoretical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's 1962 groundbreaking work, "The Scientific Revolution," established the process for creating, and the components of, a disciplinary paradigm. This "scientific revolution" has evolved to become the standard for determining a field's claim to disciplinary status. In 2001 and 2003, Ama Mazama, used Kuhn's model to establish the…

  2. ANCA-stimulated neutrophils release BLyS and promote B cell survival: a clinically relevant cellular process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, N J; Williams, J M; Morgan, M D; Challa, A; Gordon, J; Pepper, R J; Salama, A D; Harper, L; Savage, C O S

    2011-12-01

    To determine a role for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-activated neutrophils in promoting B cell survival through the release of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). Neutrophil BLyS expression was measured by flow cytometry. Concentrations of BLyS in cell supernatants and donor serum samples were measured by ELISA. Cell survival assays were carried out using an L3055 cell line and viability measured by flow cytometry. Tumour necrosis factor α and formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) treatment of non-primed neutrophils and treatment of primed neutrophils with anti-PR3 ANCA IgG resulted in a significant increase in surface expression of BLyS within 30 min which returned to basal levels by 2 h. Supernatants from ANCA-stimulated neutrophils were shown to contain increased levels of BLyS and to promote the survival of the centroblast cell line L3055. Serum BLyS concentrations are increased in patients with active ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis and these levels are increased further following 1-3 months of treatment with rituximab. ANCA specifically causes the release of BLyS from activated neutrophils which can support B cell survival in vitro. The presence of serum BLyS in active disease and its increase following B cell depletion suggest it is an important factor in disease pathogenesis and may facilitate disease relapse.

  3. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  4. Challenging the Innovation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM - SYNOPSIS

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    Constantinescu Andreea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen

  6. Biomarker analysis is used in reading soil archives, but do biomarkers survive processes as leaching and digestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanmourik, Jan; Jansen, Boris; Westerveld, Joke

    2017-04-01

    In previous studies (1,2) we showed that biomarker analysis, i.e. the use of preserved molecular fingerprints indicative of e.g. past vegetation cover or soil organic matter input, is a useful additional technique to read the soils archives in combination with palynology and absolute dating techniques. In these studies we compared biomarker spectra with fossil pollen spectra, using the premise that biomarkers are always released from onsite decomposing plant species and pollen can originate from onsite as well as offsite species. However, compared with pollen analysis, biomarker analysis is a juvenile technique and before it can grow into an established method, some fundamental questions must be answered. In the study of palaeo-Podzols (1) we used firstly pollen spectra to indicate the broad suite of plant species involved in the dynamics of drift sand landscapes. Secondly, we used biomarker spectra to separate onsite from offsite plant species, in order to select the species responsible for landscape stabilization and soil organic carbon sequestration. In this study we interpreted pollen and biomarker spectra from (buried) humic horizons, but we did not explicitly address the sensitivity of biomarkers for possible selective corrosion by soil processes as leaching and transport. Therefore, we analyzed (pollen as well as biomarkers) of samples from the Ah and Bh horizon of (buried) Podzols to investigate the sensitivity of biomarkers for soil processes as podzolation. In the study of plaggic Anthrosols (2) we used biomarkers to indicate stable fillings used to produce plaggic manure. Pollen of Calluna was observed in all the spectra of the plaggic horizon, biomarkers of Calluna only in the youngest spectrum. Consequently, we concluded that only in the last phase of the development of the plaggic horizon the farmers applied sods of the Calluna heath. However, sheep grazing occurred at least since the early Middle Ages and that means that sheep droppings were always

  7. Critical evaluation of paradigms for modelling integrated supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Lukszo, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a

  8. Event related potentials reveal early phonological and orthographic processing of single letters in letter-detection and letter-rhyme paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Adrian Bann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300ms orthographic and phonological processing of letters.Methods: Eighteen participants aged 20-35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme tasks. From the EEG recordings, ERP differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioural: Reaction times were 18ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean EPs showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160-600ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145ms and 426ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks.Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters versus pseudoletters between 130-190ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters.

  9. Reading Impairments in Schizophrenia Relate to Individual Differences in Phonological Processing and Oculomotor Control: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that…

  10. The functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: support for cognitive-affective regulation and opponent processes from a novel psychophysiological paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Hessel, Elenda T; Aaron, Rachel V; Arthur, Michael S; Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2010-11-01

    Although research on the reasons for engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has increased dramatically in the last few years, there are still many aspects of this pernicious behavior that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature, with a particular focus on investigating whether NSSI (a) regulates affective valence in addition to affective arousal and (b) serves a cognitive regulation function in addition to an affect regulation function. To elucidate these issues, the present study utilized a sample of 112 participants (33 controls, 39 no pain controls, 16 NSSI individuals, and 24 controls matching the affect dysregulation levels of the NSSI group), employed psychophysiological measures of affective valence (startle-alone reactivity) and quality of information processing (prepulse inhibition), and used experimental methods involving an NSSI-proxy to model the NSSI process. Results largely were consistent with predictions, supporting the hypotheses that NSSI serves to regulate cognitive processing and affective valence. On this latter point, however, the control groups also showed a decrease in negative affective valence after the NSSI-proxy. This unexpected finding is consistent with the hypothesis that opponent processes may contribute to the development of self-injurious behaviors (Joiner, 2005). Overall, the present study represents an important extension of previous laboratory NSSI studies and provides a fertile foundation for future studies aimed at understanding why people engage in NSSI. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  11. The Functions of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Support for Cognitive–Affective Regulation and Opponent Processes From a Novel Psychophysiological Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Aaron, Rachel V.; Arthur, Michael S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Although research on the reasons for engaging in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has increased dramatically in the last few years, there are still many aspects of this pernicious behavior that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature, with a particular focus on investigating whether NSSI (a) regulates affective valence in addition to affective arousal and (b) serves a cognitive regulation function in addition to an affect regulation function. To elucidate these issues, the present study utilized a sample of 112 participants (33 controls, 39 no pain controls, 16 NSSI individuals, and 24 controls matching the affect dysregulation levels of the NSSI group), employed psychophysiological measures of affective valence (startle-alone reactivity) and quality of information processing (prepulse inhibition), and used experimental methods involving an NSSI-proxy to model the NSSI process. Results largely were consistent with predictions, supporting the hypotheses that NSSI serves to regulate cognitive processing and affective valence. On this latter point, however, the control groups also showed a decrease in negative affective valence after the NSSI-proxy. This unexpected finding is consistent with the hypothesis that opponent processes may contribute to the development of self-injurious behaviors (Joiner, 2005). Overall, the present study represents an important extension of previous laboratory NSSI studies and provides a fertile foundation for future studies aimed at understanding why people engage in NSSI. PMID:20939652

  12. Evidence for a General Auditory Processing Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia from a Discrimination Paradigm Using Speech versus Nonspeech Sounds Matched in Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Corinna A.; Lachmann, Thomas; Steinbrink, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It is unknown whether phonological deficits are the primary cause of developmental dyslexia or whether they represent a secondary symptom resulting from impairments in processing basic acoustic parameters of speech. This might be due, in part, to methodological difficulties. Our aim was to overcome two of these difficulties: the…

  13. A pilot plant scale evaluation of a new process aid for enhancing chlorine efficacy against pathogen survival and cross-contamination during produce wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Millner, Patricia; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Cangliang; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin; Feng, Hao; Shelton, Dan

    2012-08-17

    Developing food safety intervention technology that can be readily adopted by the industry often requires test conditions that match as closely as possible to those of commercial food processing operations; yet biosafety risks inherent in pathogen studies constrain most experiments to laboratory settings. In this study, we report the first semi-commercial pilot-scale evaluation of a new process aid, T128, for its impact on enhancing the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorinated wash water against pathogen survival and cross-contamination. A non-pathogenic, BSL-1, strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated onto freshly harvested baby spinach leaves and washed with large amounts of freshly cut un-inoculated iceberg lettuce shreds in wash water with free chlorine periodically replenished, in the presence or absence of T128. Changes in water quality and pathogen survival and cross-contamination were monitored at every 2 min intervals for up to 36 min for each treatment during the wash operation. Results indicated that the use of T128 did not significantly (P>0.05) influence the rate of wash water deterioration, nor the pathogen populations remaining on the inoculated spinach leaves. However, in the absence of T128 (control), survival of E. coli O157:H7 in wash water and cross-contamination of un-inoculated lettuce frequently occurred when free chlorine in solution dropped below 1mg/l during the wash process. In contrast, the use of T128 significantly reduced the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 surviving in wash water and of cross-contamination to un-inoculated shredded iceberg lettuce under the same operational conditions, suggesting that the application of T128 in a chlorine-based fresh produce sanitization system could increase the safety margin of process control on fresh-cut operations. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Gastrointestinal Medicine and Hepatology: Basic Paradigms of Molecular Cell Biology. Part C: Protein Synthesis and Post-Translational Processing in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Wild

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The translation of mRNA constitutes the first step in the synthesis of a functional protein. The polypeptide chain is subsequently folded into the appropriate three-dimensional configuration and undergoes a variety of processing steps before being converted into its active form. These processing steps are intimately related to the cellular events that occur in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments, and determine the sorting and transport of different proteins to their appropriate destinations within the cell. While the regulation of gene expression occurs primarily at the level of transcription, the expression of many genes can also be controlled at the level of translation. Most proteins can be regulated in response to extracellular signals. In addition, intracellular protein levels can be controlled by differential rates of protein degradation. Thus, the regulation of both the amounts and activities of intracellular proteins ultimately determines all aspects of cell behaviour.

  15. Survival rate of Saccharomyces boulardii adapted to a functional freeze-dried yoghurt, related to processing, storage and digestion by experimental Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Tranquilino-Rodriguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saccharomycesboulardiiis a probiotic clinically effective inthe prevention and treatment of antibiotic induced diarrheain both children and adults, Clostridium difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, the microorganisms need to survive the gastrointestinal transit and arrive to their action site alive in order to exert their beneficial effects. Microencapsulation is an alternative to improve the viability of probiotic in foods which can also survive in the gastrointestinal conditions. Freeze--drying is a method of dehydration that does not affect nutrients and bioactive compounds,such as probiotics contained in foods.All of them will increase the survival rate of S.boulardii.Purpose of this study:This study focused on formulae freeze-dried yogurt containing inulin, vegetable palm oil,and S.boulardii, both asfree cells and in microencapsulated form.Also,the effect of ampicillin associated S.boulardii. Methods. Yogurts were given to an “in vivo” digestion process, using male Wistar rats.The survival of S. boulardiiwas subsequently evaluated in colon and feces.For this study, six treatmentsof four of rats were used:i control rats ii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiias free cells, iii rats fed with yogurt containing S. boulardiiinmicro-encapsulated form, iv control rats fed with penicillin,v rats fed with ampicillin plus yogurtcontaining S. boulardiias free cells, and vi rats fed with penicillin plus yogurt containing S. boulardiiin micro-encapsulated form. Results:The study demonstrated it was feasible to freeze-drythe S. boulardiiand incorporate it into a yogurtmade with skim milk,inulin, and unsaturated vegetable oil.The freeze-drying process not affected thesurvival of the S. boulardii(p<0.05. Microencapsulation increased the survival of S. boulardii on 1.77-Log CFU/g, and the presence of S. boulardii was only detected in colon and fecesof those rats which

  16. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  17. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transformation/Innovation or Patchwork? Juxtaposition of Public Policy Process and the Role of Leadership in a Chaotic Environment: Is a New Paradigm in the Make?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Zomorrodian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Public Policymaking processes are viewed by some as intertwined relationships of offices, public leaders, and issues, all of which constantly change in a kaleidoscope-like fashion as Gerston (2002 puts it nicely. With historically unprecedented economic debacle now facing US and the world the issue of public policymaking and its implementations come to the fore. At the same time the question of how the leadership of the society at the highest level has played such a decisive dysfunctional role in creating such fiasco and what the potentials are for a turn around occupies everybody’s mind. The tenet of this paper is to examine if new efforts and rescue plans, supposedly for bringing some order to the economy, will eventually result in fundamental and long term social and political changes in the very fabric of both public and market systems.A corollary to this is whether such long term changes – if materialized – would eradicate the old systems, and move toward a real transformation. Issues like the nature and processes of public policymaking, leadership in terms of power, transparency and accountability will be addressed with direct reference to the approaches adopted by Congress and President elect. An analysis of the new direction of public policy making and institutionalizing a kind of transformative leadership that permeate the whole public administration system is the crux of this paper’s argument.

  19. Reliability of an fMRI paradigm for emotional processing in a multisite longitudinal study: Clarification and implications for statistical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Tyrone D; Cao, Hengyi; Mathalon, Daniel H; Gee, Dylan G

    2018-01-01

    In this commentary, we clarify the meaning of the generalizability-theory-based coefficients reported in our multisite reliability study of fMRI measures of regional brain activation during an emotion processing task (Gee et al., Human Brain Mapping 2015;36:2558-2579). While the original paper reported generalizability and dependability coefficients based on the design of our traveling subjects study (in which each subject was scanned twice at each of eight sites), those coefficients are of limited applicability outside of the reliability study context. Here we report generalizability and dependability coefficients that represent the reliability one can expect for a multisite study, in which a given subject is scanned once on a scanner drawn randomly from the pool of available scanners (i.e., analogous to the more typical multisite study design). We also characterize the implications of a multisite versus single-site study design for statistical power, including Figure 1 that shows sample size requirements to detect activation in two key nodes of the emotion processing circuitry given observed differences in reliability of measurement between single-site and multisite designs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... in conflict over the foundation of the regime, they are more likely to rebalance the paradigm blend. We show that despite being a mixture of two contradictory paradigms, the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture has proven resilient when the power balance within the WTO and the policy...

  1. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  2. Structural Emergency Control Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural...... emergency control to render post-fault dynamics from the critical/emergency fault cleared state to the stable equilibrium point. This is a new control paradigm that does not rely on any continuous measurement or load shedding, as in the classical setup. Instead, the grid is made stable by discretely...... relocating the equilibrium point and its stability region, such that the system is consecutively attracted from the fault-cleared state back to the original equilibrium point. The proposed control is designed by solving linear and convex optimization problems, making it possibly scalable to large-scale power...

  3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ACCOUNTING PARADIGM IN THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN COMPANY MANAGEMENT (BASED ONIAS ACCOUNTING PRACTICES IN POLAND AND OTHER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Michalczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the relations between modern trends in accounting and the decisionmaking process based on the classic profit-opportunity-cost-risk construction. In this aspect, four main types of accounting practices may be distinguished: bookkeeping (classic accounting, accounting engineering, creative accounting, and praxeological accounting. This study complements the author’s series of publications on accounting engineering (which is herein defined as a concept, the structure of economic auxiliary sciences, and causal relations in management practice and theory based on Bertalanffy’s general systems theory. The article covers accounting systems which emerged as a result of combining IAS solutions with domestic accounting standards and balance laws, and relates primarily to accounting theory and practice in Poland. Nevertheless, the Polish system is rooted in accounting solutions previously used in other countries, and as such may be perceived as more utilitarian, also on an international scale.

  4. Environmental Informatics and Soft Computing Paradigm: Processing of Cocos Nucifera Shell Derived Activated Carbon for Treatment of Distillery Spent Wash—A Solution to Environmental Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Raut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft computing techniques are very much needed to design the environmental related systems these days. Soft computing (SC is a set of computational methods that attempt to determine satisfactory approximate solutions to find a model for real-world problems. Techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms can be used in solving complex environmental problems. Self-organizing feature map (SOFM model is proposed in monitoring and collecting of the data that are real time and static datasets acquired through pollution monitoring sensors and stations in the distilleries. In the environmental monitoring systems the ultimate requirement is to establish controls for the sensor based data acquisition systems and needs interactive and dynamic reporting services. SOFM techniques are used for data analysis and processing. The processed data is used for control system which even feeds to the treatment systems. Cocos nucifera activated carbon commonly known as coconut shell activated carbon (CSC was utilized for the treatment of distillery spent wash. Batch and column studies were done to investigate the kinetics and effect of operating parameter on the rate of adsorption. Since the quantum of spent water generated from the sugar industry allied distillery units is huge, this low cost adsorbent is found to be an attractive economic option. Equilibrium adsorption date was generated to plot Langmuir and Tempkin adsorption isotherm. The investigation reveals that though with lower adsorption capacities CSC seems to be technically feasible solution for treating sugar distillery spent. Efforts are made in this paper to build informatics for derived activated carbon for solving the problem of treatment of distillery spent wash. Capsule. Coconut shell derived activated carbon was synthesized, characterized, and successfully employed as a low cost adsorbent for treatment of distillery spent wash.

  5. Tribally Controlled Community College Libraries: A Paradigm for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lotsee; Taylor, Rhonda Harris

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the results of a mail survey administered to tribally controlled college libraries during 1993, just before the colleges were granted federal land-grant college status. Highlights include the historical development of the institutions operated by Native American Indian tribes; budgets; staff; services; computer utilization;…

  6. Influence of processing steps in cold-smoked salmon production on survival and growth of persistent and presumed non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsby, Cisse Hedegaard; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Mohr, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the s......Cold-smoked salmon is a ready-to-eat product in which Listeria monocytogenes sometimes can grow to high numbers. The bacterium can colonize the processing environment and it is believed to survive or even grow during the processing steps. The purpose of the present study was to determine...... conditions, (ii) fillets of salmon cold-smoked in a pilot plant and finally, (iii) assessment of the bacterial levels before and after processing during commercial scale production. L. monocytogenes proliferated on salmon blocks that were brined or dipped in liquid smoke and left at 25 degrees C...... in a humidity chamber for 24 h. However, combining brining and liquid smoke with a drying (25 degrees C) step reduced the bacterium 10-100 fold over a 24 h period. Non-salted, brine injected or dry salted salmon fillets were surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes and cold-smoked in a pilot plant. L...

  7. Datacubes as a Service Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million

  8. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-01-01

    H in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None......The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus...... concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of p...

  9. Effect of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process: inverse power law and Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramukkul, Pensri; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    We study the combined effects of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process that generates intermittent events mimicking the behavior of complex systems. By varying the sensitivity level of the detector we move between two forms of complexity, from inverse power law to Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities. Here fluctuations fight against complexity, causing an exponential truncation to the survival probability. We show that fluctuations of relatively weak intensity have a strong effect on the generation of Mittag-Leffler complexity, providing a reason why stretched exponentials are frequently found in nature. Our results afford a more unified picture of complexity resting on the Mittag-Leffler function and encompassing the standard inverse power law definition.

  10. Effect of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process: Inverse power law and Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramukkul, Pensri; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    We study the combined effects of noise and detector sensitivity on a dynamical process that generates intermittent events mimicking the behavior of complex systems. By varying the sensitivity level of the detector we move between two forms of complexity, from inverse power law to Mittag-Leffler interevent time survival probabilities. Here fluctuations fight against complexity, causing an exponential truncation to the survival probability. We show that fluctuations of relatively weak intensity have a strong effect on the generation of Mittag-Leffler complexity, providing a reason why stretched exponentials are frequently found in nature. Our results afford a more unified picture of complexity resting on the Mittag-Leffler function and encompassing the standard inverse power law definition.

  11. Accelerating Research Innovation by Adopting the Lean Startup Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaisa Still

    2017-01-01

    .... In this article, we explore how the lean startup paradigm, which validates the market for a product with a business model that can sustain subsequent scaling, has led to a new process model to accelerate innovation...

  12. Critical evaluation of paradigms for modelling integrated supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R; Lukszo, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a supply chain? In this paper, we seek to address this important question through a well-structured benchmarking process. First, we demonstrate that in the space of models, 'equations' and 'agents' are co...

  13. Dealing with a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Allan I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies by insurance companies with respect to mandating home sleep apnea testing rather than in-laboratory studies have a large impact on the financial viability of clinical sleep centers. Coping with this disruptive change requires forward planning. First, it is important to be well positioned with respect to facilities so that these can be quickly downsized to control costs. There is also a need to develop, in advance, an accredited home sleep study program so that centers can respond to the rapidly changing environment. Following the change there is a need to control costs by rapidly downsizing the technology workforce. Technologists can be retrained for other essential roles. Centralizing the precertification process with knowledgeable, well-trained staff and a robust auditing process is an essential component. The approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania to this change is described as is how one can ensure continued financial viability of a comprehensive sleep center program in a major academic medical center. Citation: Pack AI. Dealing with a paradigm shift. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):925–929. PMID:26094918

  14. Paradigms, platitudes, opportunists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolini, M

    1995-11-01

    Research developments and problems in managing opportunistic diseases were addressed at the 1995 Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) and the European Conference on Clinical Aspects and Treatment of HIV Infection. Topics included how HIV develops into AIDS, the use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection, viral invasions of lymphoid tissue, and CMV prophylaxis and resistance. Results of research on CMV reduction, MAC reduction, prolonged survival, and the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis are also presented. Final comments address the use of prolonged or painful drug therapy research trials.

  15. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andova; L.P.J. Groenewegen; E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter); L. Aceto (Luca); M.R. Mousavi

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm

  16. Paradigm of E-commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Hoon [Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The world economy is in the era of a big revolution. With the development of information and telecommunication technology and the expansion of Internet and E-commerce, a new type of company is emerging such as Carboy mall or Portal and the existing manufacturers, like automobiles or heavy industry, are changing by joining with Information Technology and Internet. With an expansion of E-commerce, the speed of change is accelerated. The petroleum industry has achieved a considerable level of process automation. Moreover, companies like SK or LG-Caltex are going to reorganize suitable to a digital environment. However, there is a limit on establishing an efficient B2B model due to the lack of cooperation among the same kind industries with the excessive supply. Now the change to Information Technology in oil refinery industry is not a problem of choice but is directly connected to a survival. To survive in this global competitive era, it should improve its efficiency through making on-line on the whole company activities in addition to enabling Information Technology in production process.

  17. The truncated somatostatin receptor sst5TMD4 stimulates the angiogenic process and is associated to lymphatic metastasis and disease-free survival in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahete, Manuel D; Rincón-Fernández, David; Durán-Prado, Mario; Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Rojo-Sebastián, Alejandro; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Culler, Michael D; Casanovas, Oriol; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P

    2016-09-13

    The truncated somatostatin receptor sst5TMD4 is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer and increases breast cancer cell malignancy. Here, we examined the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying this association, aiming to identify new molecular tools to improve diagnosis, prognosis or therapy. A gene expression array comparing sst5TMD4 stably-transfected MCF-7 cells and their controls (empty-plasmid) revealed the existence of profound alterations in the expression of genes involved in key tumoral processes, such as cell survival or angiogenesis. Moreover, sst5TMD4-overexpressing MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated increased expression/production of pro-angiogenic factors and enhanced capacity to form mammospheres. Consistently, sst5TMD4-expressing MCF-7 cells induced xenografted tumors with higher VEGF levels and elevated number of blood vessels. Importantly, sst5TMD4 was expressed in a subset of breast cancers, where it correlated with angiogenic markers, lymphatic metastasis, and reduced disease-free survival. These results, coupled to our previous data, support a relevant role of sst5TMD4 in the angiogenic process and reinforce the role of sst5TMD4 in breast cancer malignancy and metastatic potential, supporting its possible utility to develop new molecular biomarkers and drug therapies for these tumors.

  18. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    paradigm. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands...

  19. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  20. Discovery of medical Big Data analytics: Improving the prediction of traumatic brain injury survival rates by data mining Patient Informatics Processing Software Hybrid Hadoop Hive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Rodger

    Full Text Available Entering medical encounter data by hand is time-consuming. In addition, data are often not entered into the database in a timely enough fashion to enable their use for subsequent mission planning. The Patient Informatics Processing Software semi-automates the data collection process onboard ships. Then data within these images are captured and used to populate a database, after which multiple ship databases are used for reporting and analysis. In this paper, we used the Patient Informatics Processing Software Hybrid Hadoop Hive to orchestrate database processing via various ships, by marshaling the distributed servers, running the various tasks in parallel, managing all of the communications and data transfers between the various parts of the system, and providing for redundancy and fault tolerance. Then we employed the Apache Hive as a data warehouse infrastructure built on top of Hadoop for data summarization, query, and analysis to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI as well as other injury cases. Finally, a proposed Misdiagnosis Minimization Approach method was used for data analysis. We collected data on three ship variables (Byrd, Boxer, Kearsage and injuries to four body regions (head, torso, extremities, and abrasions to determine how the set of collected variables relates to the body injuries. Two dimensions or canonical variables (survival vs. mortality were necessary to understand the association between the two sets of variables. Our method improved data classification and showed that survival, mortality, and morbidity rates can be derived from the superset of Medical Operations data and used for future decision-making and planning. We suggest that an awareness of procedural errors as well as methods to reduce misclassification should be incorporated into all TBI clinical trials. Keywords: Decision support, Traumatic brain injuries, Apache hive, Symbolic data analysis, Informatics, Data mining

  1. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  2. Marketing communications: Qualitative and quantitative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on key issues in relation to the choice of basic language of communication of marketing as a practical and academic field. Principally, marketing managers prefer descriptive way of expression, but they should use the advantages of language of numbers much more. By doing so, they will advance decision-making process - and the communication with finance and top management. In this regard, models offered by academic community could be helpful. This especially pertains to those positive or normative verbal approaches and models in which mathematics and statistical solutions have been embedded, as well as to those which emphasize financial criteria in decision-making. Concerning the process of creation and verification of scientific knowledge, the choice between languages of words and numbers is the part of much wider dimension, because it is inseparable from the decision on basic research orientation. Quantitative paradigm is more appropriate for hypotheses testing, while qualitative paradigm gives greater contribution in their generation. Competition factor could become the key driver of changes by which existing "parallel worlds" of main paradigms would be integrating, for the sake of disciplinary knowledge advancement.

  3. Particle invasion, survival, and non-ergodicity in 2D diffusion processes with space-dependent diffusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherstvy, Andrey G; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Metzler, Ralf

    2014-03-14

    We study the thermal Markovian diffusion of tracer particles in a 2D medium with spatially varying diffusivity D(r), mimicking recently measured, heterogeneous maps of the apparent diffusion coefficient in biological cells. For this heterogeneous diffusion process (HDP) we analyse the mean squared displacement (MSD) of the tracer particles, the time averaged MSD, the spatial probability density function, and the first passage time dynamics from the cell boundary to the nucleus. Moreover we examine the non-ergodic properties of this process which are important for the correct physical interpretation of time averages of observables obtained from single particle tracking experiments. From extensive computer simulations of the 2D stochastic Langevin equation we present an in-depth study of this HDP. In particular, we find that the MSDs along the radial and azimuthal directions in a circular domain obey anomalous and Brownian scaling, respectively. We demonstrate that the time averaged MSD stays linear as a function of the lag time and the system thus reveals a weak ergodicity breaking. Our results will enable one to rationalise the diffusive motion of larger tracer particles such as viruses or submicron beads in biological cells.

  4. Operations Strategy under Chaos –Lessons to be learned from a new Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new paradigm being able to conceptualize content and process aspects of Operations Strategy. Based on a critical reading of literature; two opposing paradigms of Operations Strategy are identified and described. The first focuses on content issues...... of Operations Strategy and relies on a normative orientation and the second focuses on process issues of Operations Strategy and relies on a descriptive orientation. To compare and evaluate the two paradigms; the results of a longitudinal case-study of Operations Strategy formulation and implementation...... in practice are shown. These results promote the need for a new or third paradigm to integrate and balance the two former paradigms. The new paradigm is labeled as a moderate constructivist paradigm using the metaphor of chaos and seems suitable for conceptualizing Operations Strategy as it is in practice...

  5. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2016-01-01

    paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...

  6. SAID-SAPS Paradigm: Beliefs and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced westward flows are the dominant feature of the plasma convection in the perturbed subauroral geospace. These include latitudinally-narrow "polarization jets" (PJ) or "subauroral ion drifts" (SAID) observed mainly in the premidnight MLT sector and broad flow channels on the duskside. The generic term "sub-auroral polarization streams" (SAPS) was introduced to unite both (narrow and broad) flows, taking for granted that their underlying mechanisms are quite similar, if not the same. The concept of voltage and current generators is believed to explain the SAPS major features. The generator paradigm treats hot, ≥1 keV, plasma sheet (PS) particles as single (test) particles driven by the dawn-to-dusk and co-rotation electric fields and gradient-curvature drift disregarding charge neutrality and concomitant polarization fields, inherent in slow plasma processes. In this approach, the inner boundary of the hot ion trajectories on the duskside extends earthward of that of the PS electrons by some distance increasing toward dusk. However, magnetically conjugate observations in the evening sector reveal that the generator paradigm fails to explain the substorm SAID features and that they are rather explained in terms of a short-circuiting of substorm-injected hot plasma jets over the plasmapause. This report presents multispacecraft magnetically conjugate observations of substorm-enhanced flows on the duskside showing that their features are hardly compatible with the (test particle) generator paradigm. It is suggested that they are causally related to the two-loop system of the westward traveling surge.

  7. Perceptual crossing: The simplest online paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika eAuvray

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviours, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.’s (2009 perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. Despite, or maybe because of its simplicity, this study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modelling, philosophy, more recently psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview over work on the perceptual crossing paradigm, both concerning behavioural experiments and computational agent modelling, and review the different contexts in which it has been referred to. We discuss the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition and other theoretical contexts in which the research has been cited, offering our own interpretation. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition.

  8. Perceptual crossing: the simplest online paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, Malika; Rohde, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviors, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.'s (2009) perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. This study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modeling, philosophy, psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview of both behavioral experimental research and simulated agent modeling done using the perceptual crossing paradigm. We discuss different contexts in which work on perceptual crossing has been cited. This includes the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition. PMID:22723776

  9. Biological Robustness: Paradigms, Mechanisms, and Systems Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Whitacre

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Robustness has been studied through the analysis of data sets, simulations, and a variety of experimental techniques that each have their own limitations but together confirm the ubiquity of biological robustness. Recent trends suggest that different types of perturbation (e.g. mutational, environmental are commonly stabilized by similar mechanisms, and system sensitivities often display a long-tailed distribution with relatively few perturbations representing the majority of sensitivities. Conceptual paradigms from network theory, control theory, complexity science, and natural selection have been used to understand robustness, however each paradigm has a limited scope of applicability and there has been little discussion of the conditions that determine this scope or the relationships between paradigms. Systems properties such as modularity, bow-tie architectures, degeneracy, and other topological features are often positively associated with robust traits, however common underlying mechanisms are rarely mentioned. For instance, many system properties support robustness through functional redundancy or through response diversity with responses regulated by competitive exclusion and cooperative facilitation. Moreover, few studies compare and contrast alternative strategies for achieving robustness such as homeostasis, adaptive plasticity, environment shaping, and environment tracking. These strategies share similarities in their utilization of adaptive and self-organization processes that are not well appreciated yet might be suggestive of reusable building blocks for generating robust behavior.

  10. Protein phosphatase magnesium dependent 1A (PPM1A) plays a role in the differentiation and survival processes of nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohat, Meytal; Ben-Meir, Daniella; Lavi, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The serine/threonine phosphatase type 2C (PPM1A) has a broad range of substrates, and its role in regulating stress response is well established. We have investigated the involvement of PPM1A in the survival and differentiation processes of PC6-3 cells, a subclone of the PC12 cell line. This cell line can differentiate into neuron like cells upon exposure to nerve growth factor (NGF). Overexpression of PPM1A in naive PC6-3 cells caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase followed by apoptosis. Interestingly, PPM1A overexpression did not affect fully differentiated cells. Using PPM1A overexpressing cells and PPM1A knockdown cells, we show that this phosphatase affects NGF signaling in PC6-3 cells and is engaged in neurite outgrowth. In addition, the ablation of PPM1A interferes with NGF-induced growth arrest during differentiation of PC6-3 cells.

  11. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  12. Effect of brine marination on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Devitt, Tina D; Dalgaard, Paw

    2012-06-15

    The effect of brine marination at chill temperatures on survival and growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria during processing and subsequent storage of ready-to-eat cold water shrimp was studied. Survival and growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined. The effect of brine composition and pH was determined in 12 screening experiments without addition of shrimp. Sixteen challenge tests with shrimp were then carried out to examine the effect of brine composition and storage temperature on survival and growth during processing and subsequent storage of brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Different brines with (i) acetic and lactic acids (AL) or (ii) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids (BCS) were studied. V. parahaemolyticus was inactivated in brine AL without shrimp whereas concentrations of all the examined microorganisms were reduced in brine BCS. A significant effect of brine pH on inactivation was observed and inactivation during chill marination of shrimp in brine was reduced compared to the effect of brine alone. This was explained by a relatively fast increase of pH in the brine during marination of shrimp. For shrimp in brine BCS, reductions were observed for V. parahaemolyticus and Salmonella, whereas inactivation in shrimp was only noticed for Salmonella in brine AL. The observed reductions were too small to be used in practise for decontamination of shellfish. None of the examined pathogens was able to grow at 7°C in brined and drained MAP shrimp that resembled commercial products. However, reducing the concentration of acetic and lactic acids by 50% resulted in relatively fast growth of L. monocytogenes in brined and drained MAP shrimp at 7°C. Growth of S. aureus and Salmonella was observed in similar products stored at 15°C. V. parahaemolyticus was reduced in brined and drained MAP shrimp stored at both 7 and 15°C. Based on the results

  13. Paradigm shift: cognitive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenngott Hannes G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last hundred years surgery has experienced a dramatic increase of scientific knowledge and innovation. The need to consider best available evidence and to apply technical innovations, such as minimally invasive approaches, challenges the surgeon both intellectually and manually. In order to overcome this challenge, computer scientists and surgeons within the interdisciplinary field of “cognitive surgery” explore and innovate new ways of data processing and management. This article gives a general overview of the topic and outlines selected pre-, intra- and postoperative applications. It explores the possibilities of new intelligent devices and software across the entire treatment process of patients ending in the consideration of an “Intelligent Hospital” or “Hospital 4.0”, in which the borders between IT infrastructures, medical devices, medical personnel and patients are bridged by technology. Thereby, the “Hospital 4.0” is an intelligent system, which gives the right information, at the right time, at the right place to the individual stakeholder and thereby helps to decrease complications and improve clinical processes as well as patient outcome.

  14. Paradigm shift in psychiatry: what may it involve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Paul

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to examine the potential nature of an ongoing paradigm shift in psychiatry that has been suggested to be occurring. New findings in traumatology and neuroscience do form a potential platform for a paradigm shift. Prior conflicting paradigms are suggested to be due to biases arising from mental structures themselves. A new wholist perspective is proposed, which makes sense of and incorporates previous paradigms, and coheres recent understanding of right- and left-brain functioning and biopsychosocial traumatic processes and their ramifications. The perspective makes sense of the great variety of post-traumatic manifestations ranging from somatic to meaning-making dysfunctions. The wholist perspective may well be an important step in solidifying a fresh paradigmatic perspective in psychiatry.

  15. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  16. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n = 1,989), for burglary (n = 1,324) and for violence (n = 1,901), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first-time offending for all three crimes. The counter-factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may...

  17. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  18. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  19. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  1. Auto/ethnography: A Transformative Research Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the key question, ‘How far autoethnography contributes towards enriching the field of transformative learning?’ Using my lived experiences as a teacher educator/autoethnographer/researcher and contextualizing self/others within a particular socio-pedagogical life courses I build the basis through addressing questions: Why auto/ethnography is one of the most suitable spaces for transformative researchers and to what extent it serves the agenda of envisioning a transformative teacher education. To achieve this objective I use autobiographies, stories, reflections and poems etc. as narratives with multiple logics and genres; pictography as art-based expression; and ethnography as methodological space within multiparadigmatic design space. In so doing autoethnographer has to delve into whole process of research along a continuum of self and beyond within a particular sociocultural context to understand the phenomena at deeper level of consciousness. This transformative paradigm holds a strong basis in the process of research as: re/reading, re/viewing, critically reflecting on self/others, re/writing for meaning making and developing a subjective understanding of phenomena under exploration. This process of research is found to be an innovative way of knowing through ‘interpreting and constructing (Luitel, 2009within Interpretivism, critically thinking and reflecting within Criticalism, and adding both ‘pluralism and playfulness’ (Taylor, 2013 within Postmodernism. In so doing it raises awareness, develops consciousness and improves capacities constantly that ultimately alters our way of seeing and being in the world differently- a paradigm shift in self/others. It is found to be highly rigorous, dialectically eloquent, dialogically rigorous, critically reflective, consciously awakening, and innovative critical discourse that greatly contributes to transform researcher/s. Therefore, it seems illustrious for

  2. [Paradigm shift in higher education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, Mária

    2009-08-30

    The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition

  3. Impact of gene dosage on gene expression, biological processes and survival in cervical cancer: a genome-wide follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Medina-Martinez

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of tumor copy number (CN-altered genome (CN-AG in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer (CC, especially its effect on gene expression, biological processes, and patient survival. Fifty-nine human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16-positive CCs were investigated with microarrays-31 for mapping CN-AG and 55 for global gene expression, with 27 CCs in common. Five-year survival was investigated in 55 patients. Deletions and amplifications >2.5 Mb were defined as CN alterations. The %CN-AG varied from 0 to 32.2% (mean = 8.1±8.9. Tumors were classified as low (mean = 0.5±0.6, n = 11, medium (mean = 5.4±2.4, n = 10, or high (mean = 19.2±6.6, n = 10 CN. The highest %CN-AG was found in 3q, which contributed an average of 55% of all CN alterations. Genome-wide, only 5.3% of CN-altered genes were deregulated directly by gene dosage. In contrast, the rate in fully duplicated 3q was twice as high. Amplification of 3q explained 23.2% of deregulated genes in whole tumors (r2 = 0.232, p = 0.006; analysis of variance, including genes located in 3q and other chromosomes. A total of 862 genes were deregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors, but only 22.9% were CN altered. This suggests that the remaining genes are not deregulated directly by gene dosage, but by mechanisms induced in trans by CN-altered genes. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis, glycolysis, and apoptosis were upregulated, whereas cell adhesion and angiogenesis were downregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors. The high %CN-AG and upregulated gene expression profile of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis were associated with poor patient survival (p0.38, p<0.01, Spearman test. Therefore, inhibition of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis and glycolysis could be useful for CC treatment. However, whether they are indispensable for tumor growth remains to be demonstrated.

  4. Impact of Gene Dosage on Gene Expression, Biological Processes and Survival in Cervical Cancer: A Genome-Wide Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Martinez, Ingrid; Barrón, Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Juárez-Torres, Eligia; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Espinosa, Ana María; Bermudez, Miriam; Fernández, Fernando; Venegas-Vega, Carlos; Orozco, Lorena; Zenteno, Edgar; Kofman, Susana; Berumen, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role of tumor copy number (CN)–altered genome (CN-AG) in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer (CC), especially its effect on gene expression, biological processes, and patient survival. Fifty-nine human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-positive CCs were investigated with microarrays–31 for mapping CN-AG and 55 for global gene expression, with 27 CCs in common. Five-year survival was investigated in 55 patients. Deletions and amplifications >2.5 Mb were defined as CN alterations. The %CN-AG varied from 0 to 32.2% (mean = 8.1±8.9). Tumors were classified as low (mean = 0.5±0.6, n = 11), medium (mean = 5.4±2.4, n = 10), or high (mean = 19.2±6.6, n = 10) CN. The highest %CN-AG was found in 3q, which contributed an average of 55% of all CN alterations. Genome-wide, only 5.3% of CN-altered genes were deregulated directly by gene dosage. In contrast, the rate in fully duplicated 3q was twice as high. Amplification of 3q explained 23.2% of deregulated genes in whole tumors (r2 = 0.232, p = 0.006; analysis of variance), including genes located in 3q and other chromosomes. A total of 862 genes were deregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors, but only 22.9% were CN altered. This suggests that the remaining genes are not deregulated directly by gene dosage, but by mechanisms induced in trans by CN-altered genes. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-dependent proteasome proteolysis, glycolysis, and apoptosis were upregulated, whereas cell adhesion and angiogenesis were downregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors. The high %CN-AG and upregulated gene expression profile of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis were associated with poor patient survival (p0.38, p<0.01, Spearman test). Therefore, inhibition of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis and glycolysis could be useful for CC treatment. However, whether they are indispensable for tumor growth remains to be demonstrated. PMID:24879114

  5. [The female paradigm in psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde-Dachser, C

    1990-01-01

    According to the author, the necessary change to a new psychoanalytic paradigm of femininity can only take place if the patriarchal discourse of psychoanalytic metatheory is systematically deconstructed. Only then can a reconstruction of this discourse occur with a view toward the emancipation of both genders.

  6. A New Paradigm of ISD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Examines changes in the "supersystem" of instructional systems design (ISD) that indicate the need for a paradigm of training and education based on learning instead of sorting students. Emphasizes the necessity of developing initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity, as well as new learning-focused instructional theories and…

  7. Theological paradigms and conservative Afrikaners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logical paradigm for conservative Afrikaner believers must be critical, legitimising and free of .... thoughts with a belief in the divine source of knowledge. Both aimed at arriving at knowledge which is .... the right-wing Afrikaners with the vision that they are the chosen Israel. These peo ple emphasise the concept of election in ...

  8. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...

  9. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Manchet: This paper was first presented by Professor Enemark at the RICS Christmas Lecture in December last year. It provides a cogent and detailed reference point for the current state of land management in developed countries, charts a course for the future and looks at how education must chang...... to meet the new paradigm....

  10. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  11. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  12. Long-term reliability of the visual EEG Poffenberger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Patrick; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Mochalski, Lisa; Schlüter, Caroline; Güntürkün, Onur; Genc, Erhan

    2017-07-14

    The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before. The present study aims to fill this gap by determining both internal consistency and long-term test-retest reliability of IHTTs produced by using the two different versions of the Poffenberger paradigm in a sample of 26 healthy subjects. The results show high reliability for the EEG Poffenberger paradigm. In contrast, reliability measures for the behavioral Poffenberger paradigm were low. Hence, our results indicate that electrophysiological measures of interhemispheric transfer are more reliable than behavioral measures; the later should be used with caution in research investigating inter-individual differences of neurocognitive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. THE FORMING OF NEW METHODOLOGICAL PARADIGM OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrystian V. Rakovskyi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The process and phenomena connected with the initiation of new methodological paradigm of the scientific and educational management in Ukraine has been investigated. The paradigm is conditioned by global tendencies of informatization, development of communicative means and integrative processes in education and science.

  14. Fueling a Third Paradigm of Education: The Pedagogical Implications of Digital, Social and Mobile Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging technologies are fueling a third paradigm of education. Digital, networked and mobile media are enabling a disruptive transformation of the teaching and learning process. This paradigm challenges traditional assumptions that have long characterized educational institutions and processes, including basic notions of space, time, content,…

  15. The impact of a cold chain break on the survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed 'Conference' pears during their shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, improved detection methods and increased fresh-cut processing of produce have led to an increased number of outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. During fruit and vegetable processing, natural protective barriers are removed and tissues are cut, causing nutrient rich exudates and providing attachment sites for microbes. Consequently, fresh-cut produce is more susceptible to microbial proliferation than whole produce. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of storage temperature on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on a fresh-cut 'Conference' pear over an 8 day storage period. Pears were cut, dipped in antioxidant solution, artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, packed under modified atmospheric conditions simulating commercial applications and stored in properly refrigerated conditions (constant storage at 4 °C for 8 days) or in temperature abuse conditions (3 days at 4 °C plus 5 days at 8 °C). After 8 days of storage, both conditions resulted in a significant decrease of S. enterica populations on pear wedges. In contrast, when samples were stored at 4 °C for 8 days, L. monocytogenes populations increased 1.6 logarithmic units, whereas under the temperature abuse conditions, L. monocytogenes populations increased 2.2 logarithmic units. Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow on fresh-cut pears processed under the conditions described here, despite low pH, refrigeration and use of modified atmosphere. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The effect of using citric or acetic acid on survival of Listeria monocytogenes during fish protein recovery by isoelectric solubilization and precipitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, R A; Beamer, S; Jaczynski, J; Matak, K E

    2011-10-01

    Isoelectric solubilization and precipitation (ISP) is a protein recovery process effective at reducing Listeria innocua, a nonpathogenic bacterium typically used as a surrogate for L. monocytogenes in recovered trout protein. The response of L. monocytogenes to ISP processing was determined and compared to the response of L. innocua. Headed and gutted rainbow trout were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (10.16 log CFU/g), homogenized, and pH-adjusted with granular citric acid (pH 2.0 and 2.5) or glacial acetic acid (pH 3.0 and 3.5). Proteins were solubilized and centrifugation was used to remove insoluble components (skin, insoluble protein, so on). The supernatant was returned to the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.5) with NaOH and centrifuged to remove precipitated protein. Microbial load was enumerated on both growth and selective media; recovery was not significantly different (P > 0.05). Surviving cells from each component (protein, insoluble, and water) were compared to initial inoculum numbers. Significant reductions were detected at all pH (P acid, with a mean log reduction of 3.03 in the combined components, and a 3.53 log reduction in the protein portion. Data were compared to results from a previous study using L. innocua. Significant differences (P acid type. These results demonstrate the variability in resistance between species and indicate that L. innocua is not an appropriate surrogate for L. monocytogenes for ISP processing with organic acids. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  18. Achieving Operability via the Mission System Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Fred J.; Kahr, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, flight and ground systems have been developed largely-independently, with the flight system taking the lead, and dominating the development process. Operability issues have been addressed poorly in planning, requirements, design, I&T, and system-contracting activities. In many cases, as documented in lessons-learned, this has resulted in significant avoidable increases in cost and risk. With complex missions and systems, operability is being recognized as an important end-to-end design issue. Never-the-less, lessons-learned and operability concepts remain, in many cases, poorly understood and sporadically applied. A key to effective application of operability concepts is adopting a 'mission system' paradigm. In this paradigm, flight and ground systems are treated, from an engineering and management perspective, as inter-related elements of a larger mission system. The mission system consists of flight hardware, flight software, telecom services, ground data system, testbeds, flight teams, science teams, flight operations processes, procedures, and facilities. The system is designed in functional layers, which span flight and ground. It is designed in response to project-level requirements, mission design and an operations concept, and is developed incrementally, with early and frequent integration of flight and ground components.

  19. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  20. Multiple paradigm research on organisational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Podjed, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The author presents multiple paradigm research into the organisational culture of a birdwatching association, where he conducted his ethnographic research. On top of the functionalist, interpretive, radical structuralist and radical humanist paradigms as presented by Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan, he applies the fifth paradigm into the analysis of the organisation. The so-called complexity paradigm, which was formed in 1980's based on findings about complex systems and networks that emerge...

  1. Protein phosphatase magnesium dependent 1A (PPM1A plays a role in the differentiation and survival processes of nerve cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Shohat

    Full Text Available The serine/threonine phosphatase type 2C (PPM1A has a broad range of substrates, and its role in regulating stress response is well established. We have investigated the involvement of PPM1A in the survival and differentiation processes of PC6-3 cells, a subclone of the PC12 cell line. This cell line can differentiate into neuron like cells upon exposure to nerve growth factor (NGF. Overexpression of PPM1A in naive PC6-3 cells caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase followed by apoptosis. Interestingly, PPM1A overexpression did not affect fully differentiated cells. Using PPM1A overexpressing cells and PPM1A knockdown cells, we show that this phosphatase affects NGF signaling in PC6-3 cells and is engaged in neurite outgrowth. In addition, the ablation of PPM1A interferes with NGF-induced growth arrest during differentiation of PC6-3 cells.

  2. Convergent paradigms for visual neuroscience and dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mark L; Manning, Rana L

    2009-01-01

    Although dissociative identity disorder, a condition in which multiple individuals appear to inhabit a single body, is a recognized psychiatric disorder, patients may yet encounter health professionals who declare that they simply "do not believe in multiple personalities." This article explores the proposal that resistance to the disorder represents a failure to apply an appropriate paradigm from which the disorder should be interpreted. Trauma and sociocognitive explanations of dissociative identity disorder are contrasted. The trauma hypothesis is further differentiated into paradigms in which trauma affects a defense mechanism, and one in which trauma serves to inhibit the normal integration sequence of parallel processes of the self in childhood. This latter paradigm is shown to be broadly consistent with current models of cortical processing in another system, the cortical visual system.

  3. Embracing the new paradigm of assessment in residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of clinical competence is facing a paradigm shift in more than one sense. The shift relates to test content, which increasingly covers a broader spectrum of competences than mere medical expertise, and to test methods, with an increasing focus on testing performance in realistic settings....... Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher...

  4. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  5. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  6. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  7. The Learner-Centered Paradigm of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    This article, the third in a series of four installments, begins by discussing the need for paradigm change in education and for a critical systems approach to paradigm change, and examines current progress toward paradigm change. Then it explores what a learner-centered, Information-Age educational system should be like, including the APA…

  8. The maturing of the quality improvement paradigm in the SEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory uses a paradigm for improving the software process and product, called the quality improvement paradigm. This paradigm has evolved over the past 18 years, along with our software development processes and product. Since 1976, when we first began the SEL, we have learned a great deal about improving the software process and product, making a great many mistakes along the way. Quality improvement paradigm, as it is currently defined, can be broken up into six steps: characterize the current project and its environment with respect to the appropriate models and metrics; set the quantifiable goals for successful project performance and improvement; choose the appropriate process model and supporting methods and tools for this project; execute the processes, construct the products, and collect, validate, and analyze the data to provide real-time feedback for corrective action; analyze the data to evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for future project improvements; and package the experience gained in the form of updated and refined models and other forms of structured knowledge gained from this and prior projects and save it in an experience base to be reused on future projects.

  9. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  10. Minimal processing of iceberg lettuce has no substantial influence on the survival, attachment and internalization of E. coli O157 and Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Inge; Avalos Llano, Karina R; Eriksson, Markus; De Vos, Winnok H; Van Damme, Els J M; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-12-05

    The influence of a selection of minimal processing techniques (sanitizing wash prior to packaging, modified atmosphere, storage conditions under light or in the dark) was investigated in relation to the survival of, attachment to and internalization of enteric pathogens in fresh produce. Cut Iceberg lettuce was chosen as a model for fresh produce, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157) and Salmonella enterica were chosen as pathogen models. Care was taken to simulate industrial post-harvest processing. A total of 50±0.1g of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce was packed in bags under near ambient atmospheric air with approximately 21% O2 (NAA) conditions or equilibrium modified atmosphere with 3% O2 (EMAP). Two lettuce pieces inoculated with E. coli O157 BRMSID 188 or Salmonella Typhimurium labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to each package. The bags with cut lettuce were stored under either dark or light conditions for 2days at 7°C. The pathogens' capacity to attach to the lettuce surface and cut edge was evaluated 2days after inoculation using conventional plating technique and the internalization of the bacteria was investigated and quantified using confocal microscopy. The effect of a sanitizing wash step (40mg/L NaClO or 40mg/L peracetic acid+1143mg/L lactic acid) of the cut lettuce prior to packaging was evaluated as well. Our results indicate that both pathogens behaved similarly under the investigated conditions. Pathogen growth was not observed, nor was there any substantial influence of the investigated atmospheric conditions or light/dark storage conditions on their attachment/internalization. The pathogens attached to and internalized via cut edges and wounds, from which they were able to penetrate into the parenchyma. Internalization through the stomata into the parenchyma was not observed, although some bacteria were found in the substomatal cavity. Washing the cut edges with sanitizing agents to reduce enteric pathogen numbers was not

  11. Measuring Phantom Recollection in the Simplified Conjoint Recognition Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Christoph; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2009-01-01

    False memories are sometimes strong enough to elicit recollective experiences. This phenomenon has been termed Phantom Recollection (PR). The Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm has been used to empirically separate PR from other memory processes. Recently, a simplification of the CR procedure has been proposed. We herein extend the simplified CR…

  12. The National Terminology Services: a new paradigm | Jordaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new dispensation in South Africa necessitated a paradigm shift at the National Terminology Services (NTS). Being part of the Central Government, the NTS has to implement policy as laid down by the government of the day. Former policy, processes and products are described as well as the vision and objectives for the ...

  13. Understanding the Intersections of Paradigm, Meta-Theory, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers rely on theories to guide the research process. Theories provide directions in formulating research questions and in the interpretation of findings. The choice of theory to guide inquiry must relate to research paradigm and corresponding meta-theory. However, many beginning scholars experience difficulty in ...

  14. Paradigms and theories in water governance: the case of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Interpretivism/constructivism. Critical theories. Participatory paradigm. Action is structured, linear and has a cause and effect man- ner (Eisner, 1990). There is an objective, apprehensible reality. (Ponterotto, 2005). .... They are not innocent bystanders in the research process, often playing an active part in ...

  15. Dynamics of systems and change in the accounting paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Juliao Rossi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to demonstrate the potential of the dynamics of systems as a thinking trend which may help in the understanding process and the construction of an accounting paradigm change. This objective is framed inside a wider purpose: to propase interdisciplinary encounters that contribute to the necessary paradigm change. The described problem is studied from the «System Thinking», which is an approach with theoretical framework and representation and simulation tools related to the tapie.

  16. How do new innovation paradigms challenge current innovation policy perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new......-creation paradigm is relatively new, but with a significant potential to also affect formulation of new innovation policy perspectives. The three paradigms are considered as examples of distributive innovation, which is based on the need of firms to orchestrate and integrate the innovative contributions from...

  17. Local Use-Dependent Sleep; Synthesis of the New Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, James M.; Tononi, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    The logic and potential mechanisms for a new paradigm, the local use-dependent view of sleep as a distributed dynamic process in brain, are presented. This new paradigm is needed because the current dominant top-down imposition of sleep on the brain by sleep regulatory centers is either silent or is of inadequate explanatory value for many well-known sleep phenomena, e.g. sleep inertia. Two mechanistic falsifiable hypotheses linking sleep to cell use and the emergence of sleep/wake states are...

  18. [Paradigm shift in bancroftian filariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Gerusa; Mattos, Denise; Figueredo-Silva, José; Norões, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    The way a particular subject is understood changes over time as a result of scientific research. In most cases, these changes are minor, with limited effect on the overall knowledge on the subject. Sometimes, however, revolutionary changes occur and not only modify the understanding of the subject but open perspectives that can trigger new interpretations and new ways for expansion of scientific knowledge. The studies of Gregor Johann Mendel were a good example. They led to discovery of the laws of inheritance which, in turn, have revolutionized biology and provided the foundation for genetics. In certain situations, changes not only alter ways of thinking, but have practical implications, also improving the quality of life for many people. In his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn refers to discontinuities in scientific development as a 'change of paradigm', a term now used in a generic manner to describe a profound changes in our reference points. For lymphatic filariasis the old paradigm stated that Wuchereria bancrofti at the adult stage causes lymphatic vessel obstruction, triggering an inevitable immune response in predisposed individuals and leading to elephantiasis. This has been replaced by a new paradigm, which offers hope that W. bancrofti infection does not necessarily predispose to the disfiguring outward manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction. Repeated secondary bacterial infections (erysipela-like) are now recognized as the most important factor for initiation and progression of chronic lymphedema in individuals living in filariasis-endemic areas. Most inhabitants of endemic communities can prevent and minimize the acute bacterial episodes by regular use of soap and water, the simplest form of hygiene already well known to human beings.

  19. Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avneon, Maayan; Lamy, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Industrial ecology: a new paradigm?

    OpenAIRE

    Eik, Arne

    1999-01-01

    The aim of industrial ecology is to design and re-design industrial systems, by using nature as a metaphor and model. In this way far less non-renewable resources will be used and far less emissions and wastes will be released to the natural environment than up to now. Many approaches to industrial ecology are attempted, varying from those looking upon industrial ecology as a method for waste recycling to those who see industrial ecology as a new paradigm in a wider social perspective . By go...

  1. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  2. Commentary: is the paradigm for humiliation sufficiently complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshul, Victor A

    2010-01-01

    The authors Torres and Bergner present a simple, elegant paradigm for understanding the phenomenon of humiliation. They suggest it may have universal applicability and may be of heuristic value for clinicians and policy-makers involved in forensic and social arenas. They offer case examples to illustrate its utility. It is open to question, however, whether the paradigm is sufficiently complex to encompass all the variables in actual situations. In real life, the evolution of humiliation is a highly complicated, often messy process that takes place over time and often results in intense feelings of humiliation in more than one person, often affecting several persons. The authors' examples are reexamined from alternate assumptions about what may have happened in each case. An additional case example illustrates a high degree of interpersonal complexity, suggesting that actual situations may be too unwieldy to allow for simple analysis by the paradigm.

  3. Paradigms, Mental Models, and Mind-Sets: Triple Barriers to Transformational Change in School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a simile for understanding the power of paradigms, mental models, and mind-sets as religion-like phenomena. The author clarifies the meaning of the three phenomena to help readers to see how the phenomena become significant sources of resistance to change. He concludes by outlining a paradigm-shifting process to assist…

  4. Studies on the pathogenesis and survival of different culture forms of Listeria monocytogenes to pulsed UV-light irradiation after exposure to mild-food processing stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Derek; McNeil, Brian; Laffey, John G; Rowan, Neil J

    2012-06-01

    The effects of mild conventional food-processing conditions on Listeria monocytogenes survival to pulsed UV (PUV) irradiation and virulence-associated characteristics were investigated. Specifically, this study describes the inability of 10 strains representative of 3 different culture forms or morphotypes of L. monocytogenes to adapt to normally lethal levels of PUV-irradiation after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of salt (7.5% (w/v) NaCl for 1 h), acid (pH 5.5 for 1 h), heating (48 °C for 1 h) or PUV (UV dose 0.08 μJ/cm(2)). Findings showed that the order of increasing sensitivity of L. monocytogenes of non-adapted and stressed morphotypes to low pH (pH 3.5 for 5 h, adjusted with lactic), high salt (17.5% w/v NaCl for 5 h), heating (60 °C for 1 h) and PUV-irradiation (100 pulses at 7.2 J and 12.8 J, equivalent to UV doses of 2.7 and 8.4 μJ/cm(2) respectively) was typical wild-type smooth (S/WT), atypical filamentous rough (FR) and atypical multiple-cell-chain (MCR) variants. Exposure of L. monocytogenes cells to sub-lethal acid, salt or heating conditions resulted in similar or increased susceptibility to PUV treatments. Only prior exposure to mild heat stressing significantly enhanced invasion of Caco-2 cells, whereas subjection of L. monocytogenes cells to combined sub-lethal salt, acid and heating conditions produced the greatest reduction in invasiveness. Implications of these findings are discussed. This constitutes the first study to show that pre-exposure to mild conventional food-processing stresses enhances sensitivity of different culture morphotypes of L. monocytogenes to PUV, which is growing in popularity as an alternative or complementary approach for decontamination in the food environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying paradigm change in demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bijak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demography is a uniquely empirical research area amongst the social sciences. We posit that the same principle of empiricism should be applied to studies of the population sciences as a discipline, contributing to greater self-awareness amongst its practitioners. Objective: The paper aims to include measurable data in the study of changes in selected demographic paradigms and perspectives. Methods: The presented analysis is descriptive and is based on a series of simple measures obtained from the free online tool Google Books Ngram Viewer, which includes frequencies of word groupings (n-grams in different collections of books digitised by Google. Results: The tentative findings corroborate the shifts in the demographic paradigms identified in the literature -- from cross-sectional, through longitudinal, to event-history and multilevel approaches. Conclusions: These findings identify a promising area of enquiry into the development of demography as a social science discipline. We postulate that more detailed enquiries in this area in the future could lead to establishing History of Population Thought as a new sub-discipline within population sciences.

  6. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world

  7. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world.

  8. Theoretical reflections on the paradigmatic construction of Information Science: considerations about the (s paradigm (s cognitive (s and social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Luiz Carvalho Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It presents a research about the theoretical and epistemological processes that influence the formation of the cognitive paradigm of Information Science (IS, noting the emergence of social paradigm within the domain analysis and hermeneutics of information. For this, we adopted the reflections of classical and contemporary authors, like Thomas Kuhn, Boaventura Santos, Capurro, Hjørland and Albrechtsen. We conclude that the perception paradigm in IS is a consolidated issue, however the social paradigm is still under construction, which will allow the creation of perceptions, interpretations and contributions in order to fill gaps left by other paradigms.

  9. The detour paradigm in animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Bobrowicz, Katarzyna; Osvath, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we review one of the oldest paradigms used in animal cognition: the detour paradigm. The paradigm presents the subject with a situation where a direct route to the goal is blocked and a detour must be made to reach it. Often being an ecologically valid and a versatile tool, the detour paradigm has been used to study diverse cognitive skills like insight, social learning, inhibitory control and route planning. Due to the relative ease of administrating detour tasks, the paradigm has lately been used in large-scale comparative studies in order to investigate the evolution of inhibitory control. Here we review the detour paradigm and some of its cognitive requirements, we identify various ecological and contextual factors that might affect detour performance, we also discuss developmental and neurological underpinnings of detour behaviors, and we suggest some methodological approaches to make species comparisons more robust.

  10. The behavior of carbonaceous matter in Tagish Lake Meteorite at high P-T: implications for the survivability of organics during petrological processes and origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagno, V.; DU, W.

    2015-12-01

    Recent models of planets formation have faced the possibility that (volatile-rich) carbonaceous chondrites are the possible carrier of water and complex carbon molecules. The Tagish Lake (TL) meteorite is a classified C2 ungroup chondrite whose bulk and organic chemistry compositions have received a considerable attention owing to the short-time exposure before being collected. TL is likely representative of D-type asteroids known to contain complex organic compounds, and was described including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons considered to be building blocks of life (Gilmour 2001; Pizzarello et al. 2001). Recent studies on the spatial distribution and mineralogical association of organics in TL meteorites show a certain affinity of organic compounds for S-bearing phases such as Fe-Ni sulfide coexisting with abundant carbonate (Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn solid solution), magnetite and serpentine (Zega et al. 2010). In particular, carbonate is believed to form from the organic matter during hydrothermal alteration with implications for the carbon (C) isotopic signature. Therefore, the knowledge of how carbonaceous matter survived during the history of a meteorite at extreme pressures-temperatures is of fundamental importance to solve the mystery of the origin of life. In order to investigate the behavior of carbonaceous matter and to constrain the stability and structural evolution of organics and in Tagish Lake meteorite during petrological processes (melting, solid state reaction etc.), we carried heating experiments at 5 GPa and temperature between 800-1400 °C using multi anvil apparatus at GRC, Ehime University. The recovered samples were polished for textural and chemical characterization of the mineral phases using FE-SEM and electron microprobe, respectively. Ultra-thin sections, 80-100 nm thick, were prepared from the recovered samples using focused ion beam. These sections were then transferred to TEM grids for in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES

  11. EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  12. Effect of frozen storage, different thawing methods and cooking processes on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercially shaped beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Stavros G; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-03-01

    The effect of common handling practices (i.e., freezing, thawing and cooking) of beef patties on the survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated. Inoculated ground beef was stored at -22 °C for 5 and 75 days. After thawing at 4 °C/16 h, 20 °C/12 h, in microwave/22-24 min, or without prior thawing, beef patties (90 g) were shaped and cooked in oven-broiler or in pan-grill to internal temperatures of 60 °C or 71 °C. Cooking in oven-broiler was more effective compared to pan-grill, especially when cooked to 71 °C. Defrosting methods did not affect significantly (P ≥ 0.05) the survival of the pathogens during subsequent cooking. Frozen storage for 75 days enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7, as the pathogen survived 3.1 logCFU/g when cooked in oven-broiler at 71 °C. Results may supplement the existing guidelines for the appropriate practices, associated with freezing, thawing and cooking of patties in households or catering services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  14. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  15. A new paradigm for the learning process about the complexity of the relations water/soil/plant/atmosphere/ Um novo paradigma para a aprendizagem da complexidade das relações água/solo/planta/atmosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Melissa Althaus Ottmann

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shares the undertaken difficulties and approaches when a new paradigm is used for the teach-learning relations existing inside natural ecosystems. For this, throughout this essay, a theoretical justification is accomplished that aims to evidence the insufficiency of the Cartesian paradigm on understanding the natural ecosystem. New approaches are pointed out for this teach-learning, which are suggested a new vision and approach, much more holistic and systemic about the natural ecosystems, by the way to demonstrate the complexity of the infinities relations between them. Through lectures and discussions of texts, which were written by authors that show the necessity of having a new way to understand the naturals ecosystems and with a visit to an ecosystem in Ilha do Mel, PR, Brazil, the students realized changings of perceptions, and it was evidenced the difference between perceptions about the same ecosystem although each one represented the reality. It was possible to observe that all the students realized the importance and necessity to have a new approach, not only about the naturals ecosystems, but also about our urban world.Este ensaio compartilha as dificuldades e os caminhos percorridos, dentro de uma disciplina de pós-graduação, quando utilizado um novo paradigma para o ensino-aprendizagem das diversas relações naturais existentes dentro de ecossistemas. Para tanto no decorrer deste ensaio é realizada uma fundamentação teórica que visa evidenciar as carências do paradigma cartesiano na compreensão de ecossistemas naturais, ao final são propostos novos caminhos para este ensino-aprendizagem, os quais sugerem uma visão e abordagem mais holística e sistêmica acerca dos ecossistemas naturais, de forma a demonstrar a complexidade das infinitas relações presentes nos mesmos. Por meio de leituras e discussões de textos escritos por autores que alertam para a necessidade de haver uma nova maneira de se entender os

  16. The movement from the paradigm of production to the paradigm of language in Habermas’s critical theory of society. [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Roberto Suárez González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is first to develop the question raised by Habermas concerning the possibilities of a history of philosophy oriented to praxis. This line of analysis will let see the internal connection between theory and praxis within the framework of a materialistic understanding of philosophy. Secondly, I will show how this question becomes a reconstruction of historical materialism in the context of an analysis of the processes which characterise social transformations. With this background Habermas moves from the paradigm of production to that of language seeking a foundation Theory of Communicative Action. Reconstruction, historical materialism,systemic interaction, social interaction, production paradigm, language paradigm.

  17. A Combinatory Approach for Selecting Prognostic Genes in Microarray Studies of Tumour Survivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from significant gene expression analysis which looks for genes that are differentially regulated, feature selection in the microarray-based prognostic gene expression analysis aims at finding a subset of marker genes that are not only differentially expressed but also informative for prediction. Unfortunately feature selection in literature of microarray study is predominated by the simple heuristic univariate gene filter paradigm that selects differentially expressed genes according to their statistical significances. We introduce a combinatory feature selection strategy that integrates differential gene expression analysis with the Gram-Schmidt process to identify prognostic genes that are both statistically significant and highly informative for predicting tumour survival outcomes. Empirical application to leukemia and ovarian cancer survival data through-within- and cross-study validations shows that the feature space can be largely reduced while achieving improved testing performances.

  18. Listening Fluency Before Speaking: An Alternative Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, James, R.

    The foreign language instruction in the United States has followed a paradigm commonly called the "audio-lingual" method for almost twenty years. This paradigm is basically response-oriented and based upon structural linguistics and behavioral psychology. It focuses attention on speaking as the primary skill. It has not lived up to expectations.…

  19. The Failure of Progressive Paradigm Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    The student-centred, progressive paradigm has not had sustained success in changing teacher-centred, formalistic practices in "developing" country classrooms. Does "Gestalt-switch" and paradigm reversal demonstrate that progressive theory has realigned with formalistic reality, or has it remained axiomatic in the research and…

  20. The New Paradigm Dialogs and Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper re-engages the paradigm wars of the 1980s, discussing their relevance in the current historical moment. It extends Egon Guba's call for dialogue across paradigm communities. Ten theses and three agenda items are advanced. (Contains 4 notes.)

  1. Feminist Research and Paradigm Shift in Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Rajivan Edward

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In her paper ‘An Awkward Relationship: the Case of Feminism and Anthropology’, Marilyn Strathern argues that feminist research cannot produce a paradigm shift in social anthropology. I present an argument for thinking that, on the relevant understanding of paradigm shift, it is possible for this to happen. I then object to Strathern’s arguments against the possibility.

  2. When a paradigm becomes a paradogma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Every science, every scientific discipline, operates under one or more paradigms; a world view that underlies the theories and methodologies of the discipline. Sometimes a discipline’s paradigms complement or supplement each other while at other times they may contradict or even exclude each other.

  3. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming : The Stapel and Semin paradigm revisited in twelve experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, H.; Regenberg, N.; Saddlemeyer, J.; Koole, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories

  4. New wine in old bottles: the historiography of a paradigm change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Dorothy

    1992-08-01

    This paper historiographically analyzes the enunciation of the American, systemic-process geomorphology paradigm in the mid-20th century, with particular focus on notions concerning Gilbert and systems. Selected contributions by Strahler, Hack, and Chorley are emphasized because of their influential roles in pronouncing and elaborating process geomorphology. Articulation of the emerging paradigm contributed to the installation of Gilbert as its figurehead and established systems analysis as a fundamental tool. Gilbert was an appropriate figurehead for the new paradigm because he had worked outside of the Davisian paradigm during the Davisian era, had done process geomorphology, had applied the method of systems analysis, and was very well respected. Identifying Gilbert as the archetypal process geomorphologist helped sanction the process paradigm, distance it from Davisian geomorphology, and ease the paradigm change. Strahler's portrayal of Gilbert, however, incorrectly implies that Gilbert had actively advocated process geomorphology in a competition with Davis and the Davisian geographical cycle. Gilbert, Strahler, and Hack each applied the thermodynamically based method of systems analysis to process geomorphology, but Chorley advocated von Bertalanffy's philosophically based general system theory instead. Gilbert, Strahler, and Hack did not apply general system theory to geomorphology, as Chorley suggested they had. Recognizing these and other notions as revisionist aids in recovering a truer understanding of the actual contributions of people important in the history of geomorphology.

  5. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  6. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  7. Machine learning algorithms in distributed environment with MapReduce paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    ORAČ, ROMAN

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of machine learning algorithms in a distributed environment ensures us multiple advantages, like processing of large datasets and linear speedup with additional processing units. We describe the MapReduce paradigm, which enables distributed computing, and the Disco framework, which implements it. We present the summation form, which is a condition for efficient implementation of algorithms with the MapReduce paradigm, and describe the implementations of the selected algorithms....

  8. Human Amebiasis: Breaking the Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Partida

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For over 30 years it has been established that the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan included two biologically and genetically different species, one with a pathogenic phenotype called E. histolytica and the other with a non-pathogenic phenotype called Entamoeba dispar. Both of these amoebae species can infect humans. E. histolytica has been considered as a potential pathogen that can cause serious damage to the large intestine (colitis, dysentery and other extraintestinal organs, mainly the liver (amebic liver abscess, whereas E. dispar is a species that interacts with humans in a commensal relationship, causing no symptoms or any tissue damage. This paradigm, however, should be reconsidered or re-evaluated. In the present work, we report the detection and genotyping of E. dispar sequences of DNA obtained from patients with amebic liver abscesses, including the genotyping of an isolate obtained from a Brazilian patient with a clinical diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis that was previously characterized as an E. dispar species. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis performed by our group has shown the existence of several different genotypes of E. dispar that can be associated to, or be potentiality responsible for intestinal or liver tissue damage, similar to that observed with E. histolytica.

  9. A handy new design paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bergelin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of technological advances, researchers have lost sight of robotic grippers/end effectors design intent. In a semi-structured environment the biomimetic approach is impractical due to the high complexity of the mechanism and control algorithms. Current industrial grippers are robust, but lack the flexibility that allows for in hand manipulation. The authors believe that underactuated grippers provide the best approach to allow for in hand manipulation along with being rugged enough for an industrial setting. Thinking of the robotic gripper and the robotic arm as one system (as opposed to two separate subsystems, one is capable of using the degrees of freedom of the robot in conjunction with that of the gripper to provide the desired motion profile without the complexity of running two subsystems. This paper will outline where recent grippers have failed and will introduce a new design paradigm for grippers along with several underactuated gripper ideas.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  10. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...

  11. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  12. Radical Innovation, Paradigm Shift and Incumbent’s Dilemma The Case of the Auto Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Radical innovations often upend the incumbents firms and even render them obsolete (Ansari & Krop, 2012; Benner, 2010, as these firms often have great difficulties in addressing the challenge posed by these innovations due to inertia (Ghemawat, 1991, tendencies to exploit existing competences (Levinthal & March, 1993; O’Reilly & Tushman, 2008, organizational rigidity (Beonard-Barton, 1992, complacency and internal culture (Tellis, 2006, problems in the incentive system and resource allocation process (Christensen, 1997, and gap in the organizational capabilities required for embracing the new technology (Henderson, 2006; Tushman & Anderson, 1986. However, as radical innovations become increasingly frequent across industries, responding to this serious threat has become a strategic priority for many incumbent firms. Research shows that incumbents survive or even prosper in the face of radical innovations by forging effective partnerships with challenger firms (Ansari & Krop, 2012, establishing a separate entity to fend off the threat (Christensen, 1997; Christensen, Raynor & McDonald, 2015, better evaluation and investment approach (Hill & Rothaermel, 2003, appropriately configuring organizational form and structure (Ansari & Krop, 2012, coupling their basic research function with applied research functions (Hill & Rothaermel, 2003, possessing downstream complementary assets critical for the commercialization of the new technology (Ansari & Krop, 2012; Hill & Rothaermel, 2003, and more importantly by possessing a high willingness to cannibalize their core business (Chandy and Tellis, 1998. Incumbents can also thrive or overcome the so-called incumbent’s curse by pioneering radical innovations by themselves (Chandy and Tellis, 2000. Previous studies on radical innovations focus primarily on a single product (e.g., Chandy and Tellis, 1998, 2000, technological or business model innovation (Ansari & Krop, 2012; Christensen, 1997; Hill

  13. The Paradigm of Unity in the Science and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grochmal Stanislaw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of unity is a response to the contemporary needs of society; it shows a new way of looking at social and cultural processes, in positive and creative aspects, giving the hope to solve many problems of the modern world. It constitutes a methodological basis for building both the theoretical models and application schemas, also reveals the directions of the empirical research (Biela, 1996.

  14. The Interculturality of MacWorld in the Globalitarian Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nour Eddine Affaya

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The seminar’s director asks whether globalization represents a new intercultural dynamic or a will to hegemonic power. The term globalization is, by definition, a process in which the world participates, which it joins, in which it exchanges and communicates.Thus globalization is the carrier of a new paradigm between a tangible economic and communicative reality and an imagery, a phantasmagoria, an universe where imagery feeds on archetypes, prejudices, and dreams.

  15. Elaboration of the New Paradigm of Interdisciplinary Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Patlavskiy, Serge

    1999-01-01

    In the article, the problem of creating a theoretical system for approaching the complex phenomena of Reality is discussed. The idea is expressed that epistemology, as the theory of cognitive process, has a dissociative character. The postulate of an integrated informational system is formulated. Such postulate is a suggested basis for creation of a unified methodology of cognition (investigation) which makes it possible to elaborate a new paradigm of interdisciplinary investigations as a sep...

  16. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  17. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology: Design and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. PMID:21643732

  18. Conversive disorders among children and adolescents: towards new "complementarist" paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouss, L; Tordjman, E

    2014-10-01

    This paper aims to describe current questions concerning conversive disorders among children and adolescents. We first describe prevalence and clinical characteristics of these. Many unresolved questions remain. Why do patients show excess, or loss of function? Attachment theory offers a relevant framework to answer this question. Does neurobiology of conversion disorders shed light on conversive processes? Current neurobiological research paradigms focus on the symptom, trying to infer processes, instead of proposing paradigms that test theoretical hypotheses. The most convincing theoretical framework that has already proposed a coherent theory of conversion is a psychodynamic one, which has not yet been tested with neurobiological paradigms. The interest of studying child and adolescent conversive disorders is to provide a means to more deeply investigate the two challenges we face: theoretical, and clinical ones. It provides the opportunity to access a pathopsychological process at its roots, not yet hidden by many defensive, rationalizing attitudes, and to better explore environmental features. We propose a "complementarist" model, which allows the combination of different approaches (neural, cognitive, environmental, attachment, intra-psychic) and permits proposal of different levels of therapeutic targets and means. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. PARADIGM OF EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.

  20. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  1. The Crisis of the Existing Global Paradigm of Governance and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to underline the central challenges to world order that are outcomes of our current system of global, social, power and constitutional processes. The article outlines these major problems which it is suggested represent a crisis for the future trajectory of human survival and well-being. The paper then uses the problem of the emergence of transnational criminal activity in order to underline the limits of the current global paradigm of governance. In effect, in the criminal law context the jurisdiction of sovereign states to attack the problem of transnational crime is hedged with severe limitations. The most important of these limitations is the fact that the jurisdiction over crimes by sovereigns is limited by the territorial character of the definition of sovereignty. Thus a sovereign has a limited capacity to control and police criminal activity whose main locus of operation is generated outside of the territorial reach of the sovereign state. This essentially means that the element of global governance generates a juridical vacuum which permits organized crime to flourish outside of the boundaries of the state but at the same time, having the capacity to penetrate and corrupt the social, political and juridical processes of the sovereign state. The article explores the effort of the UN to provide some form of response to this crisis in the form of an international agreement.

  2. Infrequent dialysis: a new paradigm for hemodialysis initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M; Unruh, Mark; Chen, Jing; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Zager, Phillip; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a half-century ago, the thrice-weekly hemodialysis schedule was empirically established as a means to provide an adequate dialysis dose while also treating the greatest number of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients using limited resources. Landmark trials of hemodialysis adequacy have historically been anchored to thrice-weekly regimens, but a recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that frequent hemodialysis (six times per week) confers cardiovascular and survival benefits. Based on these collective data and experience, clinical practice guidelines advise against a less than thrice-weekly treatment schedule in patients without residual renal function, yet provide limited guidance on the optimal treatment frequency when substantial native kidney function is present. Thus, during the transition from Stage 5 chronic kidney disease to ESRD, the current paradigm is to initiate hemodialysis on a "full-dose" thrice-weekly regimen even among patients with substantial residual renal function. However, emerging data suggest that frequent hemodialysis accelerates residual renal function decline, and infrequent regimens may provide better preservation of native kidney function. Given the high mortality rates during the first 6 months of hemodialysis and the survival benefits of preserved native kidney function, initiation with twice-weekly treatment schedules ("infrequent hemodialysis") with an incremental increase in frequency over time may provide an opportunity to optimize patient survival. This review outlines the clinical benefits of post-hemodialysis residual renal function, studies of twice-weekly treatment regimens, and the potential risks and benefits of infrequent hemodialysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Science and midwifery: paradigms and paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, H P; Lowe, N K

    2001-01-01

    The everyday world of clinical practice is filled with paradigms and paradoxes that stem from the issues of who defines knowledge, how it is generated, and how the individual midwife applies it when providing care for women and families. Research useful for clinical practice should provide evidence to support scientific approaches (models) or strategies (interventions) in caring for women. In a clinical discipline, the answers to research questions should eventually inform clinical decision-making by providing practical clinical knowledge. This article presents an application of Stevenson's research steps for the development of clinically applicable knowledge that the midwife can use to analyze and evaluate research findings as a basis for practice decisions. Specific examples of midwifery research are used to illustrate each stage in the process and the circular nature of knowledge development. The challenge is to prepare midwives who can apply research findings skillfully using the best evidence to support clinical practice, as well as to groom midwife researchers who will develop systematic programs of relevant research about midwifery practice and outcomes.

  4. The Democratic Paradigm: A Vanishing Act?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasir Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this issue of the journal is that in western secular democracies the principles underlying the democratic paradigm at the national level are not in any serious doubt. It is this presumption that I wish to address. This paper will assert that the citizen is no longer at the heart of the democratic process. Using the example of the UK, I will argue that this is a consequence of the representative nature of liberal democracy which conceptualises citizenship as a legal status, giving citizens protection of the law rather than participating in its formulation or execution as in the civic republican model. Liberal democracy not only eschews greater political participation, it does not prepare citizens for it. There currently exists a democratic deficit at local and national level which is leading to a decline in active citizenship. Therefore any attempt to democratise globalisation without addressing the weakening of national democracies will simply lead to the current political elites populating new ‘democratic’ structures. With this in mind I will counter arguments utilised to discredit the civic republican model of democracy. I will argue that in England the present educational system, predicated upon a narrow skills-based agenda premised upon an economic rationale, is undermining democracy by not preparing the citizenry for active political participation or to critique governance. In addition, policy changes in England are leading to the commodification of education which will undermine its social purpose and inter alia democracy.

  5. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Kermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days, but not a massed (within day, learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  6. Paradigms and Principles Shaping Educational Design Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Paradigms and Principles Shaping Educational Design Research. Invited panel presentation at the annual meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. August 27-31, Munich.

  7. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor Danciu

    2013-01-01

    ...’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other...

  8. Beyond desertification: New paradigms for dryland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...

  9. Evolutionary psychology: the emperor's new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David J

    2005-06-01

    For some evolutionary psychology is merely a field of inquiry, but for others it is a robust paradigm involving specific theories about the nature and evolution of the human mind. Proponents of this paradigm claim to have made several important discoveries regarding the evolved architecture of the mind. Highly publicized discoveries include a cheater-detection module, a psychological sex difference in jealousy, and motivational mechanisms underlying parental love and its lapses, which purportedly result in child maltreatment. In this article, I argue that the empirical evidence for these "discoveries" is inconclusive, at best. I suggest that, as the reigning paradigm in evolutionary psychology has produced questionable results, the evolutionary study of human psychology is still in need of a guiding paradigm.

  10. The potential effects of pre-settlement processes on post-settlement growth and survival of juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) in Gulf of Alaska nursery habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Erin J.; Miller, Jessica A.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Jiang, Duo

    2017-04-01

    Early life history traits in marine fish such as growth, size, and timing of life history transitions often vary in response to environmental conditions. Identifying the potential effects of trait variation across life history stages is critical to understanding growth, recruitment, and survival. Juvenile northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were collected (2005, 2007, 2009-2011) from two coastal nurseries in the Gulf of Alaska during the early post-settlement period (July-August) to examine variation in early life history traits in relation to water temperature and juvenile densities in nurseries as well as to evaluate the potential for carry-over effects. Size-at-hatch, larval growth, metamorphosis size and timing, and post-metamorphic and recent growth of juveniles were quantified using otolith structural analysis and compared across years and sites. Additionally, traits of fish caught in July and August were compared for evidence of selective mortality. Post-metamorphic and recent growth were related to temperatures in nurseries as well as temperatures during the larval period, indicating a direct influence of concurrent nursery temperatures and a potential indirect effect of thermal conditions experienced by larvae. Correlations between metamorphic traits and fish size at capture demonstrated that interannual variation in size persisted across life history stages regardless of post-settlement growth patterns. No evidence of density-dependent growth or growth-selective mortality were detected during the early post-settlement period; however, differences in hatch size and metamorphosis timing between fish collected in July and August indicate a selective loss of individuals although the pattern varied across years. Overall, variation in size acquired early in life and temperature effects on the phenology of metamorphosis may influence the direction of selection and survival of northern rock sole.

  11. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  12. Web applications - New mobile service paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ngu, Phuc Huy

    2012-01-01

    The explosion of mobile applications both in number and variety raises the need of shedding light on their architecture, composition and quality. Indeed, it is crucial to understand which mobile application paradigm fits better to what type of application and usage. Such understanding has direct consequences on the user experience, the development cost and sale revenues of mobile apps. In this thesis, we identify four main mobile application paradigms and evaluate them from the viewpoints of ...

  13. Nanomachine : One word for three different paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Scientists and engineers who extensively use the term “nanomachine” are not always aware of the philosophical implications of this term. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of nanomachine through a distinction between three major paradigms of machine. After a brief presentation of two well-known paradigms - Cartesian mechanistic machines and Von Neumann's complex and uncontrolled machines – we will argue that Drexler's model was mainly Cartesian. But wh...

  14. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  15. Accelerating Research Innovation by Adopting the Lean Startup Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Still

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Converting scientific expertise into marketable products and services is playing an increasingly important role in the launching of new ventures, the growth of existing firms, and the creation of new jobs. In this article, we explore how the lean startup paradigm, which validates the market for a product with a business model that can sustain subsequent scaling, has led to a new process model to accelerate innovation. We then apply this paradigm to the context of research at universities and other research organizations. The article is based on the assumption that the organizational context matters, and it shows how a deeper understanding of the research context could enable an acceleration of the innovation process. We complement theoretical examples with a case example from VTT Technical Research Institute of Finland. Our findings show that many of the concepts from early-acceleration phases – and the lean startup paradigm – can also be relevant in innovation discussions within the research context. However, the phase of value-proposition discovery is less adequately addressed, and that of growth discovery, with its emphasis on building on a scalable, sustainable business does not seem to be addressed with the presented innovation approaches from the research context. Hence, the entrepreneurial activities at the research context differ from those in startups and internal startups in established organizations.

  16. The paradigm of complexity in clinical neurocognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsucci, Franco F

    2006-10-01

    Neurocognitive science represents the modern approach to integrating the subdisciplines aimed at a scientific study of the brain-mind system. This relatively new discipline recognizes, implicitly or explicitly, that this is a complex system whose states and processes are determined by multiple bio-psycho-social variables and order parameters. In a generic perspective, all neurocognitive science is complex, as it is multidisciplinary, but in some studies, complexity has become a more defined scientific paradigm using its own specific empirical and theoretical tools. Some neuroscientists consider complexity science as a specific and formalized paradigm. Between their contributions, the author will try to highlight some current promising paths and new frontiers for neuroscience. In this perspective, he will mostly focus on those contributions directly related to clinical perspectives. This is the reason why some seminal contributions more focused on physiological functioning might not be mentioned.

  17. Local use-dependent sleep; synthesis of the new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, James M; Tononi, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    The logic and potential mechanisms for a new paradigm, the local use-dependent view of sleep as a distributed dynamic process in brain, are presented. This new paradigm is needed because the current dominant top-down imposition of sleep on the brain by sleep regulatory centers is either silent or is of inadequate explanatory value for many well-known sleep phenomena, e.g. sleep inertia. Two mechanistic falsifiable hypotheses linking sleep to cell use and the emergence of sleep/wake states are presented. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive and both firmly link sleep to activity-dependent epigenetic brain plasticity and the need to integrate and balance waking activity induced-network connectivity changes. The views presented herein emphasize the inseparability of sleep mechanisms from a connectivity sleep function.

  18. The effect of alginate and chitosan concentrations on some properties of chitosan-coated alginate beads and survivability of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and during heat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Sepideh; Gandomi, Hassan; Misaghi, Ali; Bokaei, Saeid; Noori, Negin

    2014-08-01

    In this study, chitosan-coated alginate beads were produced with different concentrations of chitosan and alginate to evaluate the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during exposure to adverse conditions in gastrointestinal simulated juice and heat processing. The encapsulation yield of different encapsulation treatments was between 25 and 53.2%. Although there was a drastic decrease in pH within 48 h of incubation in MRS medium inoculated with free and encapsulated bacteria, no significant changes (P > 0.05) in bacterial count were observed among different encapsulation treatments. Moreover, the survival rate after gastrointestinal juice exposure of all prepared beads was 10-87 times greater than that of free cells and was significantly enhanced by increasing chitosan and alginate concentrations. The encapsulated bacteria survived significantly (P alginate/10 g L(-1) chitosan-encapsulated L. rhamnosus was reduced by only 2.55 log cycles. Encapsulation effectively protected L. rhamnosus against heat treatment and gastrointestinal conditions, and this effect is important in delivering sufficient numbers of viable probiotic bacteria to the gastrointestinal tract. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  20. Testing Paradigms of Ecosystem Change under Climate Warming in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Constable, Andrew; Wotherspoon, Simon; Raymond, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic marine ecosystems have undergone significant changes as a result of human activities in the past and are now responding in varied and often complicated ways to climate change impacts. Recent years have seen the emergence of large-scale mechanistic explanations–or “paradigms of change”–that attempt to synthesize our understanding of past and current changes. In many cases, these paradigms are based on observations that are spatially and temporally patchy. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of Earth’s most rapidly changing regions, has been an area of particular research focus. A recently proposed mechanistic explanation for observed changes in the WAP region relates changes in penguin populations to variability in krill biomass and regional warming. While this scheme is attractive for its simplicity and chronology, it may not account for complex spatio-temporal processes that drive ecosystem dynamics in the region. It might also be difficult to apply to other Antarctic regions that are experiencing some, though not all, of the changes documented for the WAP. We use qualitative network models of differing levels of complexity to test paradigms of change for the WAP ecosystem. Importantly, our approach captures the emergent effects of feedback processes in complex ecological networks and provides a means to identify and incorporate uncertain linkages between network elements. Our findings highlight key areas of uncertainty in the drivers of documented trends, and suggest that a greater level of model complexity is needed in devising explanations for ecosystem change in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that our network approach to evaluating a recent and widely cited paradigm of change for the Antarctic region could be broadly applied in hypothesis testing for other regions and research fields. PMID:23405116

  1. Reconstruction of the pedagogical-research matrix: meeting our paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira Scherre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This abstract has its origins in the call of some authors who indicated the need for developing an Education, teacher-training, and scientific knowledge production, based upon the Complexity and Transdisciplinarity. My goal is to reflect on a (transformative path of reconstruction of the pedagogical-research matrix, developing awareness of the subjacent pragmatic roots of the professional being and doing, as well as teachers and researchers. This meeting was possible through the formative methodology and the research called ‘Autoformative Narrative’ resulting from a qualitative study which has been systematized and theorized throughout my PhD in Education. As a result, we have the present matrix identification, in its pedagogical and research dimensions, the recognition of its foundations in a Cartesian Newtonian paradigm and the openness to the building of another emerging matrix under the Complexity Paradigm, and the Emerging Educational Paradigm. Even knowing that the different paradigms will keep co-existing within me, being aware of how they influence me allows me to improve my professional being and doing. I believe this (Autoformative process enables us to take control of the different formation types and contexts, to empower ourselves with our history and life project, to attribute sense to what is experienced and learned, to value knowledge, learning processes and experiences, in a continued dialogue with disciplinary and theoretical knowledge. I aim to contribute so that learning environments (in class, virtual, and hybrid can be places and times of (transformation, self-knowledge, research, authorship, meaning, creativity, self-knowledge production, and scientific knowledge.

  2. Five Ethical Paradigms for Community College Leaders: Toward Constructing and Considering Alternative Courses of Action in Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Luke; Hilton, Adriel A.

    2012-01-01

    This article encourages community college leaders to employ ethical paradigms when constructing and considering alternative courses of action in decision-making processes. The authors discuss four previously articulated paradigms (e.g., ethic of justice, ethic of critique, ethic of care, and ethic of the profession) and propose an additional…

  3. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during storage of ready-to-eat meat products processed by drying, fermentation, and/or smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Steven C; Buege, Dennis R; Dropp, Brenda K; Losinski, Jill A

    2004-12-01

    The survival of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated on 15 ready-to-eat meat products made using drying, fermentation, and/or smoking. The products were obtained from six processors and included summer sausage, smoked cured beef, beef jerky, snack stick, and pork rind and crackling products. The water activity of the products ranged from 0.27 (pork rinds and cracklings) to 0.98 (smoked cured beef slices). Products were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, repackaged under either vacuum or air, and then stored either at room temperature (21degrees C) or under refrigeration (5 degrees C) for 4 to 11 weeks. Numbers of L. monocytogenes fell for all products during storage, ranging from a decrease of 0.8 log CFU on smoked cured beef slices during 11 weeks under vacuum at 5 degrees C to a decrease of 3.3 log CFU on a pork rind product stored 5 weeks under air at 21degrees C. All of the products tested could be produced under alternative 2 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations mandating control of L. monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. For many of the products, 1 week of postprocessing storage prior to shipment would act as an effective postlethality treatment and would allow processors to operate under alternative I of these regulations.

  4. Survival and growth of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in membrane-processed liquid egg white with pH, temperature, and storage conditions as controlling factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Ukuku, Dike; Phillips, John G; Juneja, Vijay K

    2012-01-01

    .... A study was undertaken to determine the effects of variations in solution pH and process temperature on the removal and growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid egg white (LEW...

  5. Miniature, Low Power Gas Chromatograph with Sample Pre-Processing Capability and Enhanced G-Force Survivability for Planetary Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized, low power gas chromatograph (GC) with sample pre-processing capability and enhanced capability for...

  6. [Toward a new paradigm of education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    This work has as starting point the concept of paradigm proposed by E. Morin: principal categories that guide the intelligibility and logical thinking. The great paradigm of the western hemisphere (prevailing paradigm) is characterized by its effects of disjunction, reduction, simplification, and exclusion. The effects of the paradigm in the medical practice, in the scientific work, and in education are analyzed. The epistemological premises of neopositivism, heir of the prevailing paradigm, and of critical of experience are confronted. It emphasizes the opposite roles that each epistemological tendency gives to the ideas and facts in knowledge. The disjunction between the creation and use of knowledge, typical of the school institution, originates the passive perspective of education. The idea of knowledge as elaboration of the learner in knowledge situation, originates the participative perspective of education. The characteristics of both perspectives of education in relation to the role of theory and practice, the role of the professor and student, and the main purposes are contrasted. It is briefly analyzed how the different educational schools appeared in the XX century do not represent true alternatives to the paradigm, except P. Freire's proposals. The more relevant aspects of the participative perspective of education are emphasized: habit of reflective thinking about the vital experience, exercise of criticism and self-criticism, development of points of view about problem situations of experience and of methodological and practical abilities. Different considerations are made about what the participative perspective of education implies in the pretension to overcome the effects of disjunction, reduction and simplification of the ruling paradigm.

  7. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  8. The pollen tube paradigm revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja

    2012-12-01

    The polar growth process characterizing pollen tube elongation has attracted numerous modeling attempts over the past years. While initial models focused on recreating the correct cellular geometry, recent models are increasingly based on experimentally assessed cellular parameters such as the dynamics of signaling processes and the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Recent modeling attempts have therefore substantially gained in biological relevance and predictive power. Different modeling methods are explained and the power and limitations of individual models are compared. Focus is on several recent models that use closed feedback loops in order to generate limit cycles representing the oscillatory behavior observed in growing tubes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival and transfer of murine norovirus 1, a surrogate for human noroviruses, during the production process of deep-frozen onions and spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Leen; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Vermeersch, Mattias; Van Coillie, Els; Debevere, Johan

    2008-08-01

    The reduction of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) on onions and spinach by washing was investigated as was the risk of contamination during the washing procedure. To decontaminate wash water, the industrial sanitizer peracetic acid (PAA) was added to the water, and the survival of MNV-1 was determined. In contrast to onions, spinach undergoes a heat treatment before freezing. Therefore, the resistance of MNV-1 to blanching of spinach was examined. MNV-1 genomic copies were detected with a real-time reverse transcription PCR assay in PAA-treated water and blanched spinach, and PFUs (representing infectious MNV-1 units) were determined with a plaque assay. A spinach leaves. More than 3 log PFU of MNV-1 was transmitted to onion bulbs and spinach leaves when these vegetables were washed in water containing approximately 5 log PFU/ml. No decline of MNV-1 occurred in used industrial spinach wash water after 6 days at room temperature. A concentration of 20 ppm of PAA in demineralized water (pH 4.13) and in potable water (pH 7.70) resulted in reductions of 2.88 +/- 0.25 and 2.41 +/- 0.18 log PFU, respectively, after 5 min of exposure, but no decrease in number of genomic copies was observed. No reduction of MNV-1 PFUs was observed on frozen onions or spinach during storage for 6 months. Blanching spinach (80 degrees C for 1 min) resulted in at least 2.44-log reductions of infectious MNV-1, but many genomic copies were still present.

  10. HIGHER ECONOMIC EDUCATION IN CONCEPTS OF SYNERGETIC PARADIGM NONLINEAR THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiyana V. Kichkiruk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to investigate the potential of synergetic paradigm of nonlinear thinking to improve the quality of higher economic education in Ukraine. Methodology is based on the principles of objectivity, consistency, development of bottlenecks which allow investigating the existence of modern higher economic education in Ukraine due to the transitional stage of the country and worldwide globalization processes and crises associated with them. Scientific novelty. Synergetic paradigm nonlinear thinking is offered by the author as a promising alternative for getting out of this situation, to improve the quality of training in higher economic education. This will ensure that the conditions for the growth of the country's competitiveness internationally will improve the socio-economic situation in Ukraine. Conclusions. Modern economic education as a form of knowledge and learning requires active use of synergistic methods for its modernization and output to a new level of training future specialists and economists. In fact, synergy and self-organization becomes a modern paradigm of development and learning. Modern education strategy must reflect the ideas and principles of synergy

  11. HIGHER ECONOMIC EDUCATION IN CONCEPTS OF SYNERGETIC PARADIGM NONLINEAR THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiyana V. Kichkiruk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to investigate the potential of synergetic paradigm of nonlinear thinking to improve the quality of higher economic education in Ukraine. Methodology is based on the principles of objectivity, consistency, development of bottlenecks which allow investigating the existence of modern higher economic education in Ukraine due to the transitional stage of the country and worldwide globalization processes and crises associated with them. Scientific novelty. Synergetic paradigm nonlinear thinking is offered by the author as a promising alternative for getting out of this situation, to improve the quality of training in higher economic education. This will ensure that the conditions for the growth of the country's competitiveness internationally will improve the socio-economic situation in Ukraine. Conclusions. Modern economic education as a form of knowledge and learning requires active use of synergistic methods for its modernization and output to a new level of training future specialists and economists. In fact, synergy and self-organization becomes a modern paradigm of development and learning. Modern education strategy must reflect the ideas and principles of synergy.

  12. Paradigm formation and paradigm change in the EU’s Stability and Growth Pact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, Sebastiaan; van Esch, Femke

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses whether the European Union’s (EU) Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) has been underpinned by a policy paradigm. In doing so, it seeks to contribute to the debate on the existence and importance of paradigms in policy-making. It uses a causal mapping technique to reconstruct the

  13. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Furtner, Julia; Krajnik, Jacqueline; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient's restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation. Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production) used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM), independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks. GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language. The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  14. The biocultural paradigm: the neural connection between science and mysticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nicolas, A T

    1998-01-01

    New discoveries in perceptual psychology, brain chemistry, brain evolution, brain development, ethology, cultural anthropology, the more recent work of MacLean on the structure of the brains and the discovery by Gazzaniga of the role of the, so-called, "interpreter module," are the foundations of a new paradigm on human cortical information processing, called by its discoverer, Dr. M. Colavito, the "biocultural paradigm." This paradigm shows that biology and culture act on one another as the conditioning parameters of neurocultural information. Through mutual interaction biology in humans becomes culture, and vice versa, culture opens and stimulates the neural passages of the brains, accounting thus for the varieties of brains in humans, and for cultural diversity. Culture conditions and stimulates biology, while biology conditions and makes culture possible. Cultures and brains may be distinguished from one another through identification with certain functions or combination of functions that are exercised habitually, or become neural hard-wire through repetition or habit. This new model has replaced older and simpler models of the nature/ nurture controversy, such as the unextended rational substance of Descartes, the tabula rasa of Locke, the associated-matrix of Hume, the passive, reinforcement-driven animal of Skinner, and the genetically hard-wired robot of the sociobiologists. However, elements of these earlier models are included in the new one, but the conversation about human experience has changed, and, therefore, the human images of ourselves. This change was forced on scientists by the importance of the conditionality of the experience of "I" and "not-I" as described by Alex Comfort in his book I and That, and was introduced in the conversations some of us already had with each other. This article focuses on the "I" and "not-I" experiences with a description of the "not-I" or "oceanic" or "mystical" experience to clarify the new paradigm of

  15. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKollndorfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  16. Survivability of SCADA Control Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, José; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The endorsement of information technologies for critical infrastructures control introduces new threats in their security and surveillance. Along with certain level of protection against attacks, it is desirable for critical processes to survive even if they succeed. A stochastic Petri Nets-based

  17. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primorac Daria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep–GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ ~ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n ~ 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = –1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  18. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primorac, Daria; Ruffini, Remo; Pisani, Giovanni Battista; Aimuratov, Yerlan; Biancol, Carlo Luciano; Karlica, Mile; Melon Fuksman, Julio David; Moradi, Rahim; Muccino, Marco; Penacchioni, Ana Virginia; Rueda, Jorge Armando; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV) emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN) assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep-GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = -1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  19. Survival and growth of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in membrane-processed liquid egg white with pH, temperature, and storage conditions as controlling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Ukuku, Dike; Phillips, John G; Juneja, Vijay K

    2012-07-01

    Processing temperature and pH are known to influence the lethality and cell injury in many microbial interventions. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of variations in solution pH and process temperature on the removal and growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid egg white (LEW) by microfiltration (MF) membrane process. The effects of various storage conditions on the growth of Salmonella in membrane-separated LEW were evaluated. Pretreated and pH-adjusted (pH 6 to pH 9) LEW was inoculated with a five-strain composite of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis at ca. 7 log CFU/ml, microfiltered at 25 or 40°C, and stored at 4 or 10°C. Temperature had a greater influence on Salmonella reduction than did pH. The maximum reduction of Salmonella and background microflora in LEW by MF was observed at 40°C and pH 8 and 9. However, the influence of temperature on permeate flow was less than that of pH. The mean permeate flow increased by 180% at 25°C as the pH decreased from 9 to 6, while flow increased merely by 18% at pH 6 as temperature increased from 25 to 40°C. Salmonella populations in processed LEW at 4°C storage remained quite stable (0.01 to 0.55 log CFU/ml), irrespective of MF experimental conditions. At 10°C the population was greater, but no major outgrowth was observed. Findings from this study would be advantageous to liquid egg processing industries.

  20. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...... affected the way in which MNC activities are undertaken and organized. The contributions to this volume evaluate the eclectic paradigm in the global economy and its validity as a theoretical basis to understand these developments. Contributions by leading scholars -including John Dunning, Stephen Gusinger...

  1. [Paradigm errors in the old biomedical science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the basic drawbacks of the deterministic and reductionistic thinking in biomedical science and to provide ways for dealing with them. The present paradigm of research in biomedical science has not got rid of the errors of the old science yet, i.e. the errors of absolute determinism and reductionism. These errors restrict the view and thinking of scholars engaged in the studies of complex and dynamic phenomena and mechanisms. Recently, discussions on science paradigm aimed at spreading the new science paradigm that of complex dynamic systems as well as chaos theory are in progress all over the world. It is for the nearest future to show which of the two, the old or the new science, will be the winner. We have come to the main conclusion that deterministic and reductionistic thinking applied in improper way can cause substantial damage rather than prove benefits for biomedicine science.

  2. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D; Gross, James J

    2017-06-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions.

  3. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  4. PARADIGM FOR CONTEMPORARY SYMBOLIC REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Korableva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Civilization development in its concrete historical specificity is embodied in symbolic forms that require interpretation and understanding of its meaning. Info communication symbolic reality sets new parameters of self-determination rights, creates a new type of information behavior. Adequate entry into the modern social context requires analysis of the basic concepts of symbolic reality of human existence, and its contemporary sound. The dialectical materialist methodology allows us to investigate human immersion in contradictive meanings of the era, the skills of interaction with the increased flow of information, the ability to determine information needs and use this information right way as well as the ability to analyze this information. Scientific novelty is reflected in axiological evolutionary approach to the analysis of reproduction in the sign and symbol of the spiritual and the practical forms of human multidimensional realities of their existence in their specific historical context. Conclusions: 1 Persons' immersion into the space of cultural and historical symbolic processes determines the content of their socialization which is a process of self-identification in the symbolic reality, the process of entering the subject-shaped field of human culture; 2 An adequate model of signs and symbols reflects the diversity of information flows, that is the synthesis of a specific objective and true knowledge, its interpretation and value. Herewith, a lot of interpretations, pluralism and diversity of axiological points of view to understanding objective reality are obvious; 3 The use of signs becomes like a code or the language for communication between people. The interpretation of clip-culture determines the adequacy and efficiency of action based on the identified meanings and values of diverse information and communication symbolic reality.

  5. Paradigms for Realizing Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneeswaran, Vijay Srinivas; Tonpay, Pranay; Tiwary, Jayati

    2013-12-01

    The article explains the three generations of machine learning algorithms-with all three trying to operate on big data. The first generation tools are SAS, SPSS, etc., while second generation realizations include Mahout and RapidMiner (that work over Hadoop), and the third generation paradigms include Spark and GraphLab, among others. The essence of the article is that for a number of machine learning algorithms, it is important to look beyond the Hadoop's Map-Reduce paradigm in order to make them work on big data. A number of promising contenders have emerged in the third generation that can be exploited to realize deep analytics on big data.

  6. Montage and Image as Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Huapaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thought as montage and image has become a revealing method in the practical and theoretical study processes of artists and researchers of the 20th and 21st centuries. This article aims to articulate three ways of thinking through montage in the works of Bertolt Brecht, Sergei Eisenstein e Georges Didi-Huberman. The philosopher and art historian Georges Didi-Huberman re-inaugurates the debate and exercise of thinking the anthropology of image and montage as a metalanguage and a form of knowledge.

  7. Golkar Party's Political Communications the New Paradigm Bakrie Leadership 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin Muchtar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study base on the efforts of the Golkar Party's to the process of interpretation, socialization, and implementation of the new paradigm, the paradigm guide to reformations Golkar Party's become to democratic, independent, solid, strong, foundamental, and responsive. How Golkar party's political communication about socialization and implementation of a new paradigm of Golkar Party's leadership Aburizal Bakrie-year period from 2009 to 2012.The aim of this research is to study and overview of the process of socialization and implementation new paradigm Golkar Party's of the Aburizal Bakrie’s leadership. This contect described to using constructivist paradigm through the theory of Performance of Communication and Structuration. Research using the case study method. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The data also collected from informants. The results of this research show: 1 The Golkar Party's has a very significant infrastructure, so the making easier to socialization new paradigm to internal party, but Golkar Party's can not erase stigma society as the New Order party. Socializing new paradigm Golkar Party's to be done in integrated, systematic and continuous addressed to all cadres of various levels from the center to the village. 2 the new paradigm Golkar Party's ideals as the basis and foundation values stand for the Golkar Party's, the implementation is faced with the reality of the condition of the various political considerations and the interests of power, so it can not shown the Golkar Party's political communication with the direction of the reality, Golkar Party's must be have to political communication with the role of multi faces.

  8. The effects of discrepant events on the low-level paradigms of high school physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jerome I.

    1999-10-01

    Constructivist learning theory indicates that high school physics students do not enter their physics classrooms empty-headed. Students come with preconceptions that they constructed over time, which are based on their observations of the environment. One function of physics teachers is to facilitate students in altering their preconceptions if they are not in agreement with the currently accepted scientific view. Kuhn described a paradigm shift as a process that scientists undergo when they discard a currently accepted paradigm in favor of a more complete paradigm, because of the new paradigm's greater explanatory power. Physics students may undergo low level paradigm shifts when constructing, or reconstructing, their low level paradigms as they observe small parts of their world. This research was a multiple case study based on eight discrepant event exercises. Twenty-two self selected, untutored first year high school physics students individually performed these exercises. The students' written documents, student interviews, and the researcher's field notes were triangulated to describe the process that emerged as the students described their low level paradigms before and after performing the discrepant events exercises. The following research questions were addressed. Do students employ similar low level paradigms to explain the same physical phenomenon? Do the discrepant events observed by the students have a consequential effect upon their current low level paradigms? Are there specific discrepant events that affect students' low level paradigms to a greater degree compared to other discrepant events that are grounded in the same physical phenomenon? Do students apply scientific terminology, within its proper context, after their exposure to a discrepant event, compared to their utilization of scientific terminology prior to their exposure to the discrepant event? Can the students' low level paradigms be generalized to situations that are beyond the scope

  9. Intranasal PRGF-Endoret enhances neuronal survival and attenuates NF-κB-dependent inflammation process in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pascual, Consuelo; Pérez-Gonzalez, Rocio; Orive, Gorka; Carro, Eva

    2015-04-10

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder of unknown pathogenesis characterized by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Oxidative stress, microglial activation and inflammatory responses seem to contribute to the pathogenesis. Recent data showed that growth factors mediate neuroprotection in rodent models of Parkinson's disease, modulating pro-inflammatory processes. Based on our recent studies showing that plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) mediates neuroprotection as inflammatory moderator in Alzheimer's disease, in the present study we examined the effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse as a translational therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease. We found substantial neuroprotection by PRGF-Endoret in our model of Parkinson's disease, which resulted in diminished inflammatory responses and improved motor performance. Additionally, these effects were associated with robust reduction in nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, and nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression in the substantia nigra. We propose that PRGF-Endoret can prevent dopaminergic degeneration via an NF-κB-dependent signaling process. As the clinical safety profile of PRGF-Endoret is already established, these data suggest that PRGF-Endoret provides a novel neuroprotective strategy for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In memoriam – Nicholas Georgescu- Roegen. A New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Pohoata

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The name of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen has been associated with a new paradigm, a new way of thinking. Briefly, the main elements of the Roegenian intellectual matrix are: the entire theoretical and argumentative construction is subordinated to the general perspective, to the system; economics is a social science and in this case factual reality is the main validation criterion; economic processes take place according to the law of entropy, this leading to major reconsideration of neoclassical economic science; economic analysis must be essentially qualitative; mathematics and statistics are only tools; the institutional dimension stands as added-value to research; standard economic development must be replaced by sustained development.

  11. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3

  12. The Success Paradigm Creating Organizational Effectiveness Through Quality and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Friesen, Michael E

    1995-01-01

    Organizations can accelerate the pace of quality improvements by ensuring that Total Quality efforts are driven from organizational strategy. In the process of doing this, a success paradigm can be created that allows different units of an organization to work more effectively toward a shared purpose. The significant examples presented here are the result of almost a decade of direct research and application in a very diverse set of organizations, including Fortune 500 manufacturing and services firms, non-profit organizations, health care organizations, and public education. The result is a s

  13. The pharmacologic therapy of rosacea: a paradigm shift in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikowski, Joseph B

    2005-03-01

    A number of topical and systemic pharmacologic therapies, some of which remain investigational, have been used to treat rosacea. The pathophysiology of rosacea appears to be inflammatory, and most of the interventions modulate the inflammatory process in some way. Topical agents include various formulations of sodium sulfacetamide and sulfur, metronidazole, azelaic acid, and benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin. Oral agents include antibiotics in conventional and subantimicrobial doses. A paradigm shift in progress in the management of rosacea encompasses the use of these and other agents either alone or, increasingly, in different combinations, based on the subtype of rosacea.

  14. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  15. a postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-18

    Jul 18, 2010 ... Park, S-K., 2010, 'A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology ',. HTS Teologiese Studies/. Theological Studies 66(2),. Art. #849, 6 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i2. ... Philosophically, the foundationalist views transform the narratives by which we live into the typical grand metanarratives of ...

  16. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PARADIGM DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CHERVYAKOVA OLHA VOLODYMYRIVNA

    2017-01-01

    This article presents aspects of public administration paradigm of using disciplinary matrix, a public management model based on a feedback mechanism in the subject-subject interaction, which is the basis of theoretical and methodological establishment in public administration science (Public administration) in Ukraine.

  17. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  18. The New Environmental Paradigm Scale: A Reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jack M.; Lasley, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Explains how the New Environmental Paradigm Scale (NEP) is used to examine and measure paradigmatic shifts in the public's orientation toward the physical environment. Study findings across three different populations confirm the dimensionality of a three-factor model. An appendix contains the NEP scale and item numbers. (ML)

  19. Review Article Heart failure - an inflammatory paradigm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-02-01

    Feb 1, 1999 ... Heart failure - an inflammatory paradigm. E. Q. KLUG. TABLE I. CYTOKINES MEDIATING MYOCARDIAL. DEPRESSION certain characteristics. In general they mediate cell growth, inflammation, immunity, differentiation and repair. They are small to medium-sized peptides produced by a variety of different ...

  20. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  1. School on Cloud: Towards a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, Kostis C.; Kotsanis, Yannis C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously…

  2. Has the Education Paradigm Begun to Shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    2014-01-01

    The author reviews various elements of what may be considered as evidence that the long-awaited shift in the education paradigm is actually happening. Concepts like student-centered learning, attainment-based evaluation, knowledge-based constructivism, and effort-based intelligence are growing, are being more widely recognized as important, and…

  3. Production planning development and paradigm integration

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Ledneva; Viktor Jludov; Alexander Pesin; Viktor Salganik; Vladimir Shmakov

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews principles of different concepts of enterprise management including a theory of constrains, a Balanced Scorecard, lean production, Six Sigma. The authors believe that creating some mix or integration of these paradigms can bring extraordinary effect for production management. As example the modified Balanced Scorecard based on constraints and its application on Magnitorsk metallurgical enterprise in Russia is described.

  4. Changing the Paradigm of Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, approaches for monitoring air pollution generally use expensive, complex, stationary equipment,1,2 which limits who collects data, why data are collected, and how data are accessed. This paradigm is changing with the materialization of lower-cost, easy-to...

  5. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  6. FEDERAL BALANCING IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    FEDERAL BALANCING IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM. FOR SUSTAINABLE DEMOCRACY. Bonaventure I. Ozoigbo. Introduction. Federal balancing in Nigeria since she became a federation in 1954 till date is an issue worth discussing. Right from the time of amalgamation of Southern and Northern provinces in 1914, there.

  7. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...

  8. Paradigm Shift In Career Counselling: Implications For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, many of the respondents were aware of the need for a new approach to career counselling. The implication of this finding to entrepreneurship development is the need to adopt a paradigm shift in career counselling. Retraining of practicing counsellors and new training guides for student counsellors as well as the ...

  9. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk...

  10. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  11. Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".

  12. Counselling Practices: An Emerging Paradigm for New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that there is an emergence of a new paradigm of professionalism in agriculture as a result of the introduction of several participatory learning approaches. These approaches have necessitated the change from the conventional advisory services in agricultural extension to counselling services where the ...

  13. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...

  14. Moral Developmental Science between Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…

  15. Contextual dependencies in a stimulus equivalence paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Maes, J.H.R.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments with human subjects assessed contextual dependencies in a stimulus equivalence paradigm. Subjects learned to form two sets of stimuli in a matching-to-sample training procedure. Each set was presented against one of two different background colours, the contextual cues. At test, the

  16. Infrequent Dialysis: A New Paradigm for Hemodialysis Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M.; Unruh, Mark; Chen, Jing; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Zager, Phillip; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a half-century ago, the thrice-weekly hemodialysis schedule was empirically established as a means to provide an adequate dialysis dose while also treating the greatest number of end-stage renal disease patients using limited resources. Landmark trials of hemodialysis adequacy have historically been anchored to thrice-weekly regimens, but a recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that frequent hemodialysis (six times per week) confers cardiovascular and survival benefits. Based on these collective data and experience, clinical practice guidelines advise against a less than thrice-weekly treatment schedule in patients without residual renal function, yet provide limited guidance on the optimal treatment frequency when substantial native kidney function is present. Thus, during the transition from Stage 5 chronic kidney disease to end-stage renal disease, the current paradigm is to initiate hemodialysis on a “full dose” thrice-weekly regimen even among patients with substantial residual renal function. However, emerging data suggests that frequent hemodialysis accelerates residual renal function decline, and infrequent regimens may provide better preservation of native kidney function. Given the high mortality rates during the first 90 days of hemodialysis and the survival benefits of preserved native kidney function, initiation with twice-weekly treatment schedules (“infrequent hemodialysis”) with an incremental increase in frequency over time may provide an opportunity to optimize patient survival. This review outlines the clinical benefits of post-hemodialysis residual renal function, studies of twice-weekly treatment regimens, and the potential risks and benefits of infrequent hemodialysis. PMID:24016197

  17. The development of the ecological paradigm: From school towards nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slađana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work contemplates on the possibility of the development of the ecological paradigm through the process of learning in authentic natural environments. The support to the development of the ecological paradigm is given by the current reformatory processes in schools that increasingly promote the openness of schools and the transfer of the stuffy process into informal environments, natural and social surroundings. Natural surroundings are filled with new challenges and comprise a challenging environment for students where they can explore, experiment, realize the relationships between objects and occurrences in nature. Authentic natural surroundings are a new kind of lecturing situation where they are given a chance for situational, cooperative and studying through experience. Being in touch with nature has effect on the cognitive, affective and psychomotoric development of the students, also on the building of a new kind of attitude towards nature based on the interconnection and mutual condicionality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja u Srbiji i br. 179074: Tradicija, modernizacija i nacionalni identitet u Srbiji i na Balkanu u procesu evropskih integracija

  18. The PRISM (Pliocene palaeoclimate) reconstruction: time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J; Robinson, Marci M; Stoll, Danielle K; Foley, Kevin M; Johnson, Andrew L A; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina R

    2013-10-28

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data-model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format-a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  19. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  20. The Role of Paradigm Analysis in the Development of Policies for a Resource Efficient Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Vanner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers are often called upon to navigate between scientists’ urgent calls for long-term concerted action to reduce the environmental impacts due to resource use, and the public’s concerns over policies that threaten lifestyles or jobs. Against these political challenges, resource efficiency policy making is often a changeable and even chaotic process, which has fallen short of the political ambitions set by democratically elected governments. This article examines the importance of paradigms in understanding how the public collectively responds to new policy proposals, such as those developed within the project DYNAmic policy MiXes for absolute decoupling of environmental impact of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX. The resulting proposed approach provides a framework to understand how different concerns and worldviews converge within public discourse, potentially resulting in paradigm change. Thus an alternative perspective on how resource efficiency policy can be development is proposed, which envisages early policies to lay the ground for future far-reaching policies, by altering the underlying paradigm context in which the public receive and respond to policy. The article concludes by arguing that paradigm change is more likely if the policy is conceived, framed, designed, analyzed, presented, and evaluated from the worldview or paradigm pathway that it seeks to create (i.e., the destination paradigm.

  1. Differential effects of BDNF val(66)met in repetitive associative learning paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Backhaus, Winifried; Brüggemann, Norbert; Gerloff, Christian; Klein, Christine; Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2015-09-01

    In healthy young subjects, the brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) val(66)met polymorphism negatively affects behavioural outcome in short-term motor cortex or hippocampus-based learning paradigms. In repetitive training paradigms over several days this effect can be overcome, in tests involving other brain areas even positive effects were found. To further specify the role of this polymorphism in cognitive processes, we used an associative vocabulary learning paradigm over four consecutive days and tested 38 young healthy subjects and 29 healthy elderly subjects. As a control paradigm, we designed a nonverbal haptic Braille letter-learning paradigm based on the same principles. Behavioural outcome was then associated with the BDNF-genotype. In the vocabulary learning task, met carrier (met/val and met/met) benefitted more from the repetitive training than val/val subjects. This was paralleled by a higher reduction of delayed answers during the course of the study, an effect that was also present in the haptic paradigm. However, in a group of healthy elderly subjects, no similar tendency was found. We conclude that the BDNF val(66)met polymorphism alters highly circumscribed answer behaviours in young healthy subjects. This might partly explain the high variability of previously published results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Verbal Information Processing Paradigms: A Review of Theory and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    has examined such task types as linear categorical and conditional syllogisms , and verbal and schematic-picture analogies. Componen- tial models...have focused on verbal and imaginal encoding; retrieval; code access; categorization ; execu- tive control; rule induction; inference; semantic

  3. Parallel processing in a multifeature whole-report paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Bundesen, Claus Mogens

    2007-01-01

    Observers given brief exposures of pairs of colored bars and asked to report both the color and the orientation of each bar showed evidence of stochastic independence between reports of the 4 features (2 colors and 2 orientations). The authors also found virtually perfect stochastic independence ...

  4. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  5. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  6. Learning subgroup-specific regulatory interactions and regulator independence with PARADIGM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Andrew J; Benz, Stephen C; Rabizadeh, Shahrooz; Soon-Shiong, Patrick; Vaske, Charles J

    2013-07-01

    High-dimensional '-omics' profiling provides a detailed molecular view of individual cancers; however, understanding the mechanisms by which tumors evade cellular defenses requires deep knowledge of the underlying cellular pathways within each cancer sample. We extended the PARADIGM algorithm (Vaske et al., 2010, Bioinformatics, 26, i237-i245), a pathway analysis method for combining multiple '-omics' data types, to learn the strength and direction of 9139 gene and protein interactions curated from the literature. Using genomic and mRNA expression data from 1936 samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, we learned interactions that provided support for and relative strength of 7138 (78%) of the curated links. Gene set enrichment found that genes involved in the strongest interactions were significantly enriched for transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and response to tumor cells. Within the TCGA breast cancer cohort, we assessed different interaction strengths between breast cancer subtypes, and found interactions associated with the MYC pathway and the ER alpha network to be among the most differential between basal and luminal A subtypes. PARADIGM with the Naive Bayesian assumption produced gene activity predictions that, when clustered, found groups of patients with better separation in survival than both the original version of PARADIGM and a version without the assumption. We found that this Naive Bayes assumption was valid for the vast majority of co-regulators, indicating that most co-regulators act independently on their shared target. http://paradigm.five3genomics.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2012-01-01

    members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important...

  8. A historical review of the concept of labor support in technocratic, humanistic and holistic paradigms of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Tahereh Fathi; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    In the past century, maternal support during childbirth has been changed according to the different approaches suggested by various health care paradigms. The aim of this review was to argue the maternity supportive care paradigms of the past century and to closely analyze each paradigm. This is a historical review, in which published articles were retrieved from databases including Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar. Sage Journals and Springer's publications were also searched due to the high citation rate of their articles. The keywords entered were "Labor support", "Normal delivery", "Birth attendance", "Supportive approaches", "Health care paradigms", and "Midwifery models of care". They were entered alone or in combinations using "AND". Also, Persian articles were searched in local databases including Irandoc, SID, IranMedex, and Magiran using the above-mentioned keywords in Persian. Sixty articles met inclusion criteria. The review revealed four main themes including the definitions of continuous labor support, the technocratic paradigm, the humanistic paradigm and the naturalistic paradigm as models of labor support. According to the evidence, labor support has changed from technocratic to humanistic and holistic approaches, which in turn, caused some changes in midwifery models of care used by midwives in the practice. Labor support based on the holistic approaches and the naturalistic paradigms could bring about remarkable outcomes, the most important being satisfied with the birth experience, increased mother's self-confidence, enhanced mother's ability in childbirth and better completion of the childbirth process.

  9. Botanical drug puerarin coordinates with nerve growth factor in the regulation of neuronal survival and neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in the neurite extension process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Wen; Yang, Chuan-Bin; Ye, Shui-Fen; Cui, Wei; Wei, Wei; Lao, Li-Xing; Cai, Jing; Han, Yi-Fan; Rong, Jian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates neuronal survival and differentiation by activating extracellular signal-regulated-kinases (ERK) 1/2 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways in two distinct processes: latency process and neurite extension process. This study was designed to investigate whether botanical drug C-glucosylated isoflavone puerarin coordinates with NGF to regulate neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt in neurite extension process. We investigated the neuroprotective and neurotrophic activities of puerarin in MPTP-lesioned mice and dopaminergic PC12 cells. The effects of puerarin on ERK1/2, Akt, Nrf2, and HO-1 were assessed by Western blotting. The neurite outgrowth was assayed by neurite outgrowth staining kit. Puerarin protected dopaminergic cells and ameliorated the behavioral impairments in MPTP-lesioned mice. Puerarin potentiated the effect of NGF on neuritogenesis in PC12 cells by >10-fold. Mechanistic studies revealed: (1) puerarin rapidly activated ERK1/2 and Akt, leading to the activation of Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathways; (2) ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt, and HO-1 inhibitors attenuated the neuritogenic activity of puerarin. Notably, puerarin enhanced NGF-induced neuritogenesis in a timing-dependent manner. Puerarin effectively coordinated with NGF to stimulate neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways in neurite extension process. These results demonstrated a general mechanism supporting the therapeutic application of puerarin-related compounds in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A New Control Paradigm for Stochastic Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias J. A.

    This study presents a novel comprehensive approach to the control of dynamic systems under uncertainty governed by stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Large Deviations (LD) techniques are employed to arrive at a control law for a large class of nonlinear systems minimizing sample path deviations. Thereby, a paradigm shift is suggested from point-in-time to sample path statistics on function spaces. A suitable formal control framework which leverages embedded Freidlin-Wentzell theory is proposed and described in detail. This includes the precise definition of the control objective and comprises an accurate discussion of the adaptation of the Freidlin-Wentzell theorem to the particular situation. The new control design is enabled by the transformation of an ill-posed control objective into a well-conditioned sequential optimization problem. A direct numerical solution process is presented using quadratic programming, but the emphasis is on the development of a closed-form expression reflecting the asymptotic deviation probability of a particular nominal path. This is identified as the key factor in the success of the new paradigm. An approach employing the second variation and the differential curvature of the effective action is suggested for small deviation channels leading to the Jacobi field of the rate function and the subsequently introduced Jacobi field performance measure. This closed-form solution is utilized in combination with the supplied parametrization of the objective space. For the first time, this allows for an LD based control design applicable to a large class of nonlinear systems. Thus, Minimum Large Deviations (MLD) control is effectively established in a comprehensive structured framework. The construction of the new paradigm is completed by an optimality proof for the Jacobi field performance measure, an interpretive discussion, and a suggestion for efficient implementation. The potential of the new approach is exhibited by its extension

  11. Web Content Analysis: Expanding the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.

  12. BMS invariance and the membrane paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Robert F. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research,Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group is the asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat spacetime. It is infinite dimensional and entails an infinite number of conservation laws. According to the black hole membrane paradigm, null infinity (in asymptotically flat spacetime) and black hole event horizons behave like fluid membranes. The fluid dynamics of the membrane is governed by an infinite set of symmetries and conservation laws. Our main result is to point out that the infinite set of symmetries and conserved charges of the BMS group and the membrane paradigm are the same. This relationship has several consequences. First, it sheds light on the physical interpretation of BMS conservation laws. Second, it generalizes the BMS conservation laws to arbitrary subregions of arbitrary null surfaces. Third, it clarifies the identification of the superrotation subgroup of the BMS group. We briefly comment on the black hole information problem.

  13. Self-determination and Substantiation of Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Akimkin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article given describes the author's view on theoretical ideas by T.M. Dridze as well as on the derivative social technologies relevant to local self-government. Besides, the article touches upon interactions between scientific community and municipal authority, in particular municipal consulting. The author maintains that prediction social projection based upon ecoanthropocentric paradigm of social cognition and semiosociopsychologic concept of social communication should be interpreted as socially oriented management consulting of municipal development.

  14. Search and Discovery Strategies for Biotechnology: the Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Alan T.; Ward, Alan C.; Goodfellow, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Profound changes are occurring in the strategies that biotechnology-based industries are deploying in the search for exploitable biology and to discover new products and develop new or improved processes. The advances that have been made in the past decade in areas such as combinatorial chemistry, combinatorial biosynthesis, metabolic pathway engineering, gene shuffling, and directed evolution of proteins have caused some companies to consider withdrawing from natural product screening. In this review we examine the paradigm shift from traditional biology to bioinformatics that is revolutionizing exploitable biology. We conclude that the reinvigorated means of detecting novel organisms, novel chemical structures, and novel biocatalytic activities will ensure that natural products will continue to be a primary resource for biotechnology. The paradigm shift has been driven by a convergence of complementary technologies, exemplified by DNA sequencing and amplification, genome sequencing and annotation, proteome analysis, and phenotypic inventorying, resulting in the establishment of huge databases that can be mined in order to generate useful knowledge such as the identity and characterization of organisms and the identity of biotechnology targets. Concurrently there have been major advances in understanding the extent of microbial diversity, how uncultured organisms might be grown, and how expression of the metabolic potential of microorganisms can be maximized. The integration of information from complementary databases presents a significant challenge. Such integration should facilitate answers to complex questions involving sequence, biochemical, physiological, taxonomic, and ecological information of the sort posed in exploitable biology. The paradigm shift which we discuss is not absolute in the sense that it will replace established microbiology; rather, it reinforces our view that innovative microbiology is essential for releasing the potential of microbial

  15. What Do Ecological Paradigms Offer to Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som B. Ale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological theory provides applications to biodiversity management—but often falls short of expectations. One possibility is that heuristic theories of a young science are too immature. Logistic growth predicts a carrying capacity, but fisheries managed with the Lotka-Volterra paradigm continue to collapse. A second issue is that general predictions may not be useful. The theory of island biogeography predicts species richness but does not predict community composition. A third possibility is that the theory itself may not have much to do with nature, or that empirical parameterization is too difficult to know. The metapopulation paradigm is relevant to conservation, but metapopulations might not be common in nature. For instance, empirical parameterization within the metapopulation paradigm is usually infeasible. A challenge is to determine why ecology fails to match needs of managers sometimes but helps at other. Managers may expect too much of paradigmatic blueprints, while ecologists believe them too much. Those who implement biodiversity conservation plans need simple, pragmatic guidelines based on science. Is this possible? What is possible? An eclectic review of theory and practice demonstrate the power and weaknesses of the ideas that guide conservation and attempt to identify reasons for prevailing disappointment.

  16. The professional paradigm of qualified psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, U A

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine the professional paradigm of the qualified psychiatric nurse and the factors influencing the formation of this paradigm. The research was both explorative and descriptive, and both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The research approach was deductive and based on the theory of paradigm of Törnebohm. The test persons comprised three groups: Swedish-speaking Finns, Swedes and Finns. In each group there were eight students in the final stages of their psychiatric nursing training. A total of 40 questionnaires were distributed to each group. The research revealed four different characteristic types of qualified psychiatric nurses: caring science oriented, partly caring science oriented, general humanist and finally the personality- and experience-oriented. The results also indicate that there is a discrepancy between will and ability within caring. This can partly be interpreted as an expression of the discrepancy between philosophical and ideological impressions and real acts but it may partly indicate a lack of information. Many informants had difficulty naming a theoretical frame of reference for their work and stating aspects of psychiatric caring that would be important to know but on which no information so far exists. Many informants expressed the need for more research and development but did not indicate the subjects.

  17. Nonspecific effects of gap paradigm on swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Masaki; Saitoh, Kazuya

    2017-02-01

    Analogous to the gap paradigm in experiments for saccadic eye movements with very short reaction times, we hypothesized that the initiation of oropharyngeal swallowing movements guided by visual cues are encouraged under experimental conditions using a similar gap paradigm. A red visual cue indicating to hold a bolus in the mouth and a blue one indicating to swallow the bolus were sequentially provided on a computer display to 11 healthy participants. The gap period between these cues varied from 0 to 800ms. Swallowing kinetics and kinematics were recorded using surface electromyography and a laser displacement sensor, respectively. In comparison with the no-gap paradigm, the delay from the onset of muscle activities to initiation of movement significantly decreased with a 100- (pparadigm of 100-200ms. Wrist flexion was boosted in a similar manner. Thus, the gap effect may be a generalized warning effect. Our findings might provide insights into the contribution of the basal ganglia to volitional swallowing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  19. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  20. Paradigms and theories in water governance: the case of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper indicates the influence of paradigms and theories on the development of South Africa's National Water Resource Strategy, Second Edition. Five paradigms exist: positivism, postpositivism, interpretivism/constructivism, critical theories and the participatory paradigm. I use the PULSE3 framework for analysis that I ...

  1. Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  2. E-learning paradigms and applications agent-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning paradigms have attracted increased attention especially in the last decade. Immense developments of different ICT technologies and services have paved the way for alternative but effective approaches in educational processes. Many concepts of the agent technology, such as intelligence, autonomy, and cooperation, have had a direct positive impact on many of the requests imposed on modern e-learning systems and educational processes. This book presents the state-of-the-art of e-learning and tutoring systems, and discusses their capabilities and benefits that stem from integrating software agents. We hope that the presented work will be of a great use to our colleagues and researchers interested in the e-learning and agent technology.    

  3. Intelligent e-Learning Systems: An Educational Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bhattacharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning is the long process of transforming information as well as experience into knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviors. To make up the wide gap between the demand of increasing higher education and comparatively limited resources, more and more educational institutes are looking into instructional technology. Use of online resources not only reduces the cost of education but also meet the needs of society. Intelligent e-learning has become one of the important channels to reach out to students exceeding geographic boundaries. Besides this, the characteristics of e-learning have complicated the process of education, and have brought challenges to both instructors and students. This paper will focus on the discussion of different discipline of intelligent e-learning like scaffolding based e-learning, personalized e-learning, confidence based e-learning, intelligent tutoring system, etc. to illuminate the educational paradigm shift in intelligent e-learning system.

  4. Electrical mapping in bipolar disorder patients during the oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio Silva, Luiza Wanick; Cartier, Consuelo; Cheniaux, Elie; Novis, Fernanda; Silveira, Luciana Angélica; Cavaco, Paola Anaquim; de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Batista, Washington Adolfo; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis Fernando; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternated occurrence between acute mania episodes and depression or remission moments. The objective of this study is to analyze the information processing changes in BP (Bipolar Patients) (euthymia, depression and mania) during the oddball paradigm, focusing on the P300 component, an electric potential of the cerebral cortex generated in response to external sensorial stimuli, which involves more complex neurophysiological processes related to stimulus interpretation. Twenty-eight bipolar disorder patients (BP) (17 women and 11 men with average age of 32.5, SD: 9.5) and eleven healthy controls (HC) (7 women and 4 men with average age of 29.78, SD: 6.89) were enrolled in this study. The bipolar patients were divided into 3 major groups (i.e., euthymic, depressive and maniac) according to the score on the Clinical Global Impression--Bipolar Version (CGI-BP). The subjects performed the oddball paradigm simultaneously to the EEG record. EEG data were also recorded before and after the execution of the task. A one-way ANOVA was applied to compare the P300 component among the groups. After observing P300 and the subcomponents P3a and P3b, a similarity of amplitude and latency between euthymic and depressive patients was observed, as well as small amplitude in the pre-frontal cortex and reduced P3a response. This can be evidence of impaired information processing, cognitive flexibility, working memory, executive functions and ability to shift the attention and processing to the target and away from distracting stimuli in BD. Such neuropsychological impairments are related to different BD symptoms, which should be known and considered, in order to develop effective clinical treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Paradigm Shift in Language Teaching and Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.

  6. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bashir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.

  7. The cloud paradigm applied to e-Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cloud computing is a new paradigm that is changing how enterprises, institutions and people understand, perceive and use current software systems. With this paradigm, the organizations have no need to maintain their own servers, nor host their own software. Instead, everything is moved to the cloud and provided on demand, saving energy, physical space and technical staff. Cloud-based system architectures provide many advantages in terms of scalability, maintainability and massive data processing. Methods We present the design of an e-health cloud system, modelled by an M/M/m queue with QoS capabilities, i.e. maximum waiting time of requests. Results Detailed results for the model formed by a Jackson network of two M/M/m queues from the queueing theory perspective are presented. These results show a significant performance improvement when the number of servers increases. Conclusions Platform scalability becomes a critical issue since we aim to provide the system with high Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper we define an architecture capable of adapting itself to different diseases and growing numbers of patients. This platform could be applied to the medical field to greatly enhance the results of those therapies that have an important psychological component, such as addictions and chronic diseases. PMID:23496912

  8. Anomalies in the dominant sarcoidosis paradigm justify its displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Jerome M

    2017-04-01

    The prevailing paradigm defines sarcoidosis as a disease of unknown etiology characterized by a systemic noncaseating epithelioid granulomatous response (SGR). This formulation fails to account for the elusiveness of the etiological agent, the nature of the Kveim response, the paradox of cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity anergy in a setting of intense immune response and the appearance of SGR, indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, in persons with lymphohematogenous and solid neoplasms and a variety of cellular immune deficiencies. Displacing this formulation with an evidence-based alternative in which the SGR is viewed as an etiologically diverse, primitive immunological fallback due to inefficient cellular immune processing eliminates these shortcomings, providing a unifying accounting for the puzzles and violations of expectations associated with the prevailing paradigm. Its clinical import resides in the reported annual three-percent increase in sarcoidosis mortality in the past two decades (Swigris et al., 2011), which may be attributable, in part, to unneeded suppressive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  10. The cloud paradigm applied to e-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc; Abella; Filgueira, Rosa; Rius, Josep

    2013-03-14

    Cloud computing is a new paradigm that is changing how enterprises, institutions and people understand, perceive and use current software systems. With this paradigm, the organizations have no need to maintain their own servers, nor host their own software. Instead, everything is moved to the cloud and provided on demand, saving energy, physical space and technical staff. Cloud-based system architectures provide many advantages in terms of scalability, maintainability and massive data processing. We present the design of an e-health cloud system, modelled by an M/M/m queue with QoS capabilities, i.e. maximum waiting time of requests. Detailed results for the model formed by a Jackson network of two M/M/m queues from the queueing theory perspective are presented. These results show a significant performance improvement when the number of servers increases. Platform scalability becomes a critical issue since we aim to provide the system with high Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper we define an architecture capable of adapting itself to different diseases and growing numbers of patients. This platform could be applied to the medical field to greatly enhance the results of those therapies that have an important psychological component, such as addictions and chronic diseases.

  11. Synergetic Paradigm of Geopolitical Confrontation in the Postmodern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Teplyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current state and mechanisms of geopolitical struggle in postmodern information age that has come. The author judges from assumption that entirely new postmodern society appeared with expansion of information technology, accompanied by cardinal changes in mechanisms of political power. Information technologies have become one of the most important factors contributing to the transformation of modern society from industrial to informational (post-industrial. In modern conditions, ensuring national and global security is a comprehensive process that includes not only measures to ensure information and economic security individually, but also such an integrated component as providing both information and economic security. The author suggests that modem geopolitical confrontation is carried out based on the synergetic paradigm. The main tool is information and energy influence on enemy system weaknesses using information space control, organizing negative information campaigns and applying economic sanctions. If the main focus of geopolitical struggle in modern era was forced expansion of the territory, in information postmodern age control over economic and information space has become priority among forms of geopolitical struggle. Military expansion of modern era becomes substituted by information and economic expansionism of postmodern using synergetic paradigm of geopolitical confrontation in order to control and capture the opponent's political space.

  12. [The Canadian Society of Nephrology 2014 clinical practice guideline for timing the initiation of chronic dialysis: a paradigm shift and the return of the clinical nephrologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina

    2014-01-01

    The recent guideline of the Canadian Society of Nephrology for timing the initiation of chronic dialysis may be seen as a "paradigm shift", meaning, according to the Kuhns theory, the development of a different viewpoint. The guideline is based on a careful review of the literature, with primary emphasis on patient survival and quality of life. Hence, the Authors choose qualitative keywords (intention -to-defer, in place of the intention-to-start-early), but also a qualitative process for deciding the start of dialysis, by providing an intentionally concise list of signs and symptoms not reducible to numbers, such as the presence of uremic symptoms. The recent guideline of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, regarding the timing of the initiation of chronic dialysis, may be seen as a "paradigm shift", that means, according to Kuhns theory, the development of a different viewpoint. The guideline is based on a careful review of the literature, with primary emphasis on patient survival and quality of life. Hence, the Authors choose not only qualitative keywords (intention -to-defer, in place of intention-to-start-early), but also a qualitative process for deciding the start of dialysis, by providing an intentionally concise list of signs and symptoms not reducible to numbers, such as the presence of uremic symptoms. The clinical Nephrologist emerges victorious; the decision to initiate dialysis is in his-her hands; it is not a team-work, or a numeric algorhythm: its a clinical choice. The clinical judgment is the only guide above 6 mL/min of eGFR. Below this limit, dialysis has to be started; however, the Authors state that the optimal management of patients with an eGFR of 6 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or less, it is based on limited data. Hence, numbers are back to haunt us; nevertheless, we should take the best of this paradigm shift: the decision is again in our hands, the clinic is our weapon, the responsibility is not reducible to pretty formulae. If we cannot hide

  13. Total Quality Management as a Paradigm of Business Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luburić Radoica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Quality Management denotes a path by which - both in a stable and a transitional environment, in a professional and scientific way and by applying a variety of methods and techniques, through constant improvements and involvement of all employees - one could get to a model that enables a simultaneous achievement of the top quality level on one hand, and the top management level, on the other. Total Quality Management is a paradigm of business success in the entire world because its set up, inter alia, improves internal functions of an organisation, instils confidence in customers and triggers improvement chain reactions with suppliers and stakeholders. Quality is the foundation and client orientation is the base of the entire concept of total quality management. Placing customers at the centre is the main idea behind the entire quality concept around which everything is built. Improving the capacity of an organization to understand and meet the actual customer needs, both stated and implied, is the main objective of the total quality management. Teamwork and team leadership play a specific role in the total quality management, top managers have the key responsibilities, and activities of the medium and lower level managers together with all employees are of immeasurable significance. Managing the teamwork within the total quality management is not only a requirement for its set up, development and implementation, but also for its survival. Total Quality Management is a managerial philosophy and a mode of running a business in order to achieve success.

  14. Roles for Technology in the Information-Age Paradigm of Education: Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunkyung Lee; Dutta, Pratima; Chen, Zengguan; Powell, Nathan D. P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the powerful and necessary role which technology can play in the information-age paradigm of education described in the four articles comprising this series. This article calls for a learning management system (LMS), a comprehensive and integrated application of technology to the learning process,…

  15. Victims of Domestic Violence and Front-Line Workers: A Helping Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott W.; Trepal, Heather C.; de Vries, Sabina M.; Day, Sally W.; Leeth, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Victims of domestic violence present a challenge to law enforcement and emergency room personnel. The authors propose a helping approach to assist these professionals. This paradigm is composed of: active and empathetic listening, acceptance without judgment, identifying victims' strengths, honoring victims as experts, and the process of leaving…

  16. BUSINESS PROCES MANGEMNET SYSTEMS AS A NEW PARADIGM OF IT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Fiodorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It would be wrong to reduce the paradigm shift in IT development to a change in technology, the emergence of new software or hardware. The development of enterprise information systems based on the BPM is a radical change in our views on methods for business process modeling and for organisation management.

  17. Using Roald Dahl's "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" to Teach Different Recruitment and Selection Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billsberry, Jon; Gilbert, Louise H.

    2008-01-01

    This article makes a case for using Roald Dahl's children's fantasy and morality tale "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" to teach recruitment and selection. It draws attention to its relevance in illustrating and explaining three different recruitment and selection paradigms: psychometric, social process, and fit. It argues that the use of this…

  18. A new paradigm (Westphal-Paradigm) to study the neural correlates of panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, A; Schlagenhauf, F; John, T; Guhn, A; Rehbein, H; Siegmund, A; Stoy, M; Held, D; Schulz, I; Fehm, L; Fydrich, T; Heinz, A; Bruhn, H; Ströhle, A

    2011-04-01

    Agoraphobia (with and without panic disorder) is a highly prevalent and disabling anxiety disorder. Its neural complexity can be characterized by specific cues in fMRI studies. Therefore, we developed a fMRI paradigm with agoraphobia-specific stimuli. Pictures of potential agoraphobic situations were generated. Twenty-six patients, suffering from panic disorder and agoraphobia, and 22 healthy controls rated the pictures with respect to arousal, valence, and agoraphobia-related anxiety. The 96 pictures, which discriminated best between groups were chosen, split into two parallel sets and supplemented with matched neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Reliability, criterion, and construct validity of the picture set were determined in a second sample (44 patients, 28 controls). The resulting event-related "Westphal-Paradigm" with cued and uncued pictures was tested in a fMRI pilot study with 16 patients. Internal consistency of the sets was very high; parallelism was given. Positive correlations of picture ratings with Mobility Inventory and Hamilton anxiety scores support construct validity. FMRI data revealed activations in areas associated with the fear circuit including amygdala, insula, and hippocampal areas. Psychometric properties of the Westphal-Paradigm meet necessary quality requirements for further scientific use. The paradigm reliably produces behavioral and fMRI patterns in response to agoraphobia-specific stimuli. To our knowledge, it is the first fMRI paradigm with these properties. This paradigm can be used to further characterize the functional neuroanatomy of panic disorder and agoraphobia and might be useful to contribute data to the differentiation of panic disorder and agoraphobia as related, but conceptually different clinical disorders.

  19. Contextual representations of negative images modulate intrusion frequency in an intrusion provocation paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krans, J; Pearson, D G; Maier, B; Moulds, M L

    2016-12-01

    To understand how memories of negative events become highly accessible in the context of trauma, we tested the hypothesis that contextual information modulates how easily intrusions can be provoked by perceptual stimuli.. Healthy participants viewed pictures depicting trauma scenes either with or without accompanying moderate (i.e. survival, recovery) or severe (i.e. fatality, permanent injury) outcome information. All participants viewed the same depictions of trauma scenes. Involuntary memories for the pictures were assessed using self-report diaries and an adapted version of the Impact of Event Scales (IES). A blurred picture perceptual priming paradigm was adapted to be used as an intrusion provocation task. The severe outcome group experienced a significantly higher frequency of intrusions on the intrusion provocation task in comparison to both moderate outcome and control (no-context) conditions. The severe outcome condition did not increase intrusions on the self-report diaries or the adapted IES. There was no effect of condition on ratings for the emotionality, self-relevance, valence, or seriousness of the trauma scenes. The analogue method should not be generalized directly to incidences of real-life trauma. It was unclear why differences in intrusion frequency were found in the provocation task only. The relative amount of individual conceptual and data-driven processing adopted by the participants was not assessed. Manipulating contextual information that determines the meaning of sensory-perceptual features for a trauma scene can modulate subsequent intrusion frequency in response to visually similar cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contributions of the complexity paradigm to the understanding of Cerrado's organization and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Sérgio H V L DE; Vicente, Luiz E; Perez, Archimedes; Piqueira, José R C

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a vegetation mosaic composed of different physiognomies. Discussions remain open regarding the factors and processes responsible for the dynamic and spatial organization of the Cerrado - in its different physiognomies. The contributions of the complexity paradigm in this context are still less exploited, despite its great potential for explanations and predictions presented in previous diverse dynamic systems of complex behavior researches, a category in which the Cerrado can be included. This article has the intention of contributing to the construction of this new perspective, discussing - from theoretical concepts - the paradigm of complexity for the understanding of the organization and the dynamics of the Cerrado.

  1. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224).

  3. Functional cognitive paradigm in research of metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahnybida Lyubov Serhiyivna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews traditional and modern lines of research that contribute revelation of many-sided entity of metaphor. Despite numerous efforts of scrutinizing and systematization of metaphors, there is no far and wide integrated theory that could have included ideas of different approaches. The author identifies main, the most effective researches in classifications of metaphors that give the idea of its place and role within the text and discourse. Functional cognitive paradigm is determinant in metaphor studying and revealing its dual nature.

  4. Chua's circuit a paradigm for chaos

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme

  5. Social Media Guidelines and the News Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael

    and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists......Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...

  6. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  7. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...... neurotoxicants that provide a reference for other substances that may have similar adverse effects. Less evidence is available on manganese, fluoride, and cadmium, but experience from the former trace elements suggest that, with time, adverse effects are likely to be documented at exposures previously thought...

  8. Deficient prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in schizophrenia using a cross-modal paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haß, Katharina; Bak, Nikolaj; Szycik, Gregor R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the typically reported deficient sensorimotor gating in patients with schizophrenia using unimodal paradigms can also be detected by a cross-modal paradigm which made use of an electrocutaneous-acoustic coupling of stimuli. METHODS: Twenty-one male schizophrenia...... found between measures of illness severity and PPI. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing reduced PPI in patients with schizophrenia by using an electrocutaneous-acoustic prepulse-pulse combination. Hence, this study gives further evidence of a modality......-independent sensorimotor gating deficit in schizophrenia. Furthermore, as PPI was also lower than usual in controls using unimodal paradigms, results are interpreted in favour of longer processing times of the electrocutaneous prepulse, which probably led to a shorter perceived stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) in the brain....

  9. A Novel Distributed Privacy Paradigm for Visual Sensor Networks Based on Sharing Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis Zourntos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs provide surveillance images/video which must be protected from eavesdropping and tampering en route to the base station. In the spirit of sensor networks, we propose a novel paradigm for securing privacy and confidentiality in a distributed manner. Our paradigm is based on the control of dynamical systems, which we show is well suited for VSNs due to its low complexity in terms of processing and communication, while achieving robustness to both unintentional noise and intentional attacks as long as a small subset of nodes are affected. We also present a low complexity algorithm called TANGRAM to demonstrate the feasibility of applying our novel paradigm to VSNs. We present and discuss simulation results of TANGRAM.

  10. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  11. Communications for alternative development: towards a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, R

    1984-01-01

    fulfill basic needs, and to preserve cultural deversity. The development process must be politicized and controlled by the people rather than by technocrats and bureaucrats. The role of the state must be reevaluated. After World War II, the state was perceived as having the capacity to liberalize and equalize society. The state has failed to live up to this expectation. Social equality must be established through democratization. Social classes must be redefined, the inablity of the proletariat to absorb the poor must be recognized, and consumerism must be curbed. Communication is the tool which can promote the cause of human survival and human dignity and expose the agenda of the strong forces which, in reality, constitutes a global project to end humanity. This agenda is pursued by scientists and elitists around the world. Their activities and policies will doom mankind to nuclear war, or to violent conflict over resources, or to the destruction of the world's poor.

  12. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  13. Tourism development and the degrowth paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriotis Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at alternatives to the classic models of development by exploring the paradigm of degrowth in a tourism context. Degrowth touted as an alternative to mainstream paradigms of development, aims to ensure a high quality of life for people in a society where work, production and consumption are reduced. As a weapon to the problems accrued by capitalism, degrowth reorients the current unsustainable and inequitable path through the transition to a smaller economy with less production and consumption. By arguing that natural limits to growth of many destinations have already been surpassed and their carrying capacity levels have been reached, degrowth proposes the abandonment of growth which promotes nothing other than a quest for profits on part of the owners of capital and results in disastrous implications for the environment and the humanity. As a philosophical concept and movement, degrowth is revolutionary and anticapitalist directed to sustainable change which results from an interest in locality and place, small and medium-sized enterprises, employment generation and reduction in working hours, ecology and quality of life, decommodification of tourism activity, carbon reduction in transport, changed pattern of production and consumption, and high priority in the travel experience.

  14. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.

  15. Paradigm which will change education of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Javrh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern moment more and more denotes realisation that we will have to change the way of life in order to preserve this planet and culture for descendants. We talk about new paradigm relationship to the world and action, which can by its extent compete with other widest and biggest world’s movements under UNESCO, World health organisation and other international organisations. Movement of endeavours for lasting development is defined and encouraged by series of international documents, accepted in last two decades. They are the result of countries’ efforts and politics which acknowledge the necessity of active uniting of powers and resources, to preserve the planet and ensure future for generations to come. Important vision is a holistic development of a person who is becoming an active and responsible citizen, ready to co-influence important decisions. Usefulness and life knowledges, constructive, critical thinking and cooperation are those components which are necessary for making these decisions and will lead to true long-lasting development. Therefore must be visions and values of lasting development also key component of quality education (UNESCO 2004 in the vertical and all others extensions, also in the lifelong dimension. Theorists predict – practitioners are already experiencing this - that education of adult will have to change innovatively in order to follow the requirements of this paradigm.

  16. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  17. Towards a New Paradigm in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new paradigm in human development must be founded upon a new paradigm in education. A human-centered educational system is needed whose aim is the fullest development of the capacities of each individual. Today humanity is on the cusp of a major transition in education, our most powerful instrument for conscious social evolution. Quality education can now be made universally accessible and affordable. Equally important, future education must be made relevant to the rapidly changing needs of society, the increasingly sophisticated demands of the labor market, the growing shortage of attitudes and skills need to promote entrepreneurship and full employment, the values needed for social harmony and problem solving, and the individuality needed for leadership, independent thinking and creativity. The coming revolution in education spurred by the breakthrough in online learning has made all of these goals achievable. New technology can facilitate a shift from the drudgery of passive knowledge transfer and memorization to the exhilaration of active learning that fosters curiosity, discovery and original thinking. It can also help break down the intellectual boundaries between disciplines, making possible a more comprehensive, transdisciplinary, integrated approach to knowledge. A revolution in higher education is upon us.

  18. New paradigms of Game Theory from globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Esquivel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.

  19. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  20. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  1. TAMU: Blueprint for A New Space Mission Operations System Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, James T.; Meshkat, Leila; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Al; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a System of System (SOS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically disperse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes of products for a broad range of flight projects. Further, TAMU FPP provides for the automatic execution and re-planning of the workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the blueprint for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This blueprint presents a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that results in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during the flight production process. Based on the many years of experience with the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS), the currently cancelled Constellation Program which aimed on returning humans to the moon as a starting point, has been building a modern model-based Systems Engineering infrastructure to Re-engineer the FPP. This infrastructure uses a structured modeling and architecture development approach to optimize the system design thereby reducing the sustaining costs and increasing system efficiency, reliability, robustness and maintainability metrics. With the advent of the new vision for human space exploration, it is now necessary to further generalize this framework to take into consideration a broad range of missions and the participation of multiple organizations outside of the MOD; hence the Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) concept.

  2. A New Globalization Paradigm: World Unity or Alternatives for Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shvydanenko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the conceptual foundations of the modern global economic system of development. It reflects the cyclical nature of changes to and the details of global integration processes. The creation of a global economy from a multi-paradigmatic angle is briefly outlined, taking into account the modern paradigms of globalization and the predominance of alternatives to the future development of a global economic space. The article investigates the development of a new type of world economy, a multi-system with a proven role for linkages and a more consolidated world economy. The article reveals the initial conditions for and main qualitative changes related to the integrated development of a complex network of interdependent national societies and macro-regional geo-economic structures. The article also reveals changes in the configuration of those factors that provide competitiveness for these societies and geo-economic formations.

  3. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and Nobel Prizes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazloumian, Amin; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo; 10.1371/journal.pone.0018975

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their...

  4. Developing Transformative Schools: A Resilience-Focused Paradigm for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Nicoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For the better part of the past century, the field of education has witnessed repeated calls and initiatives for change, reform and improvement of our schools. Yet today, the problems of improving academic achievement and social adjustment among youth continue unabated. An explanation for this ‘change without change’ phenomenon is offered which differentiates innovative change from transformative change processes. A review of the research evidence regarding resilience and positive youth development, both academically and socially, is utilized to formulate a conceptual framework for guiding educators in creating resilience-focused, transformative schools. Specific attention is addressed to the application of such concepts as mindsets, resilience, socialemotional competencies, and supportive social environments (family and school in adopting a new, transformative paradigm for developing more effective schools and more capable youth.

  5. Self-diffusion in silicon - Change of a paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Alfred [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Physik, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Diffusion processes play a key role in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. For a long time the underlying mechanisms were thought to be analogous to those in metals, based on vacancies as thc dominant lattice defects in thermal equilibrium. From the mid-sixties onwards it became clear that this picture is invalid for Si, where strongly relaxed self-interstitials are dominant and responsible for self- and Group-III- diffusion. Inter alia, this change of a paradigm led to novel concepts and to the quantitative explanation of the diffusion of so-called hybrids such as Au, Pt, and Zn in Si by the so-called kick-out mechanism. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Economic analysis of telemedicine and the teledermatology paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, John D

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Economic considerations are an important component in the planning and execution of a telemedicine program. The goal of this review is to familiarize readers with economic concepts relevant to the analysis of telemedicine programs. Economic perspectives, cost attribution, types of economic analysis, and commonly encountered problems will be discussed as they pertain to telemedicine. Societal perspectives, healthcare system perspectives, patient perspectives, fixed versus variable costs, labor costs, and distinctions between cost-effectiveness analyses and other types of economic analysis also will be examined. Examples from the teledermatology literature will be used as a paradigm to illustrate how these concepts are integrated into existing analyses of teledermatology systems. Teledermatology shows promise as a cost-saving healthcare delivery system with outcomes comparable to or better than those of conventional care processes. The literature also points out the importance of economic perspectives in the findings and interpretation of an analysis.

  7. [Nursing education in the light of the complexity paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Lúcia; Camillo, Simone de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to recognize, interpret and discuss themes that arise out of the speeches of instructors of an undergraduate course of Nursing as guiding sources to a humanized teaching-learning experience in the light of Edgard Morin's Theory of Complexity. It is a qualitative, exploratory and analytic research. The study tried to verify principles of the paradigm of complexity through content analysis, theme modality, in the speeches of 11 instructors, obtained in 2004. The themes that were found were: teaching the instructor's responsibility; combining knowledge: connections and interrelations to face reality; teaching human complexity; stimulating creativity and curiosity; facing uncertainty: building life's continuous, dynamic knowledge; experiencing the teaching-learning process through transdisciplinarity; and teaching citizenship. This study shows that it is possible to have a university education based on the human condition, solidarity and knowledge interconnection.

  8. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Flight Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called "tasks models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that they want to be done. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, another cadre further modifies the models to be compatible with the scheduling engine. This last cadre also submits the models to the scheduling engine or builds the timeline manually to accommodate requirements that are expressed in notes. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components. (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphics methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models

  9. Training specialists in international relations: rethinking the new paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Voevoda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers new tasks of universities and faculties training students of international relations. The author analyzes the essence of the concept "paradigm" in education because paradigm serves as the basis of the educational process in universities. The content of professional education depends on the aims of professional education of specialists in international relations. The process of globalization, global changes, challenges and threats bring about the necessity to study specific features of international cooperation in ecology, psychology of conflict, psychology of leadership, etc. In the age of globalization, national economies are converging while national cultures are diverging. Representatives of different nations realize the importance of preserving cultural identity. It is of vital importance to instil tolerance in future specialists in international relations and prepare them for cross-cultural communication. At the same time, it is necessary that they should not only enjoy individual freedom and national cultural identity, but realize their own responsibility to the state. In the modern world, the axiological and educational functions of professional training are growing. At the same time, it is crucial to let the students build a number of professionally relevant competences that will make it possible for them to effectively perform their professional functions. It is the competence-based approach that makes the basis of Federal state education standards, including education standards for faculties of international relations. Another direction that needs developing is training and retraining lecturers for universities specializing in international relations. Foreign language training of lecturers in basic subjects will make it possible for the, to give lectures in foreign languages, particularly in English, which, in its turn, will help to make Russia's universities more competitive.

  10. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  11. Radium-223 dichloride: a new paradigm in the treatment of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anido Herranz, Urbano; Fernández Calvo, Ovidio; Afonso Afonso, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez Martínez de Llano, Sofía; Lázaro Quintela, Martín; León Mateos, Luis; Vázquez Estévez, Sergio; Antón Aparicio, Luis Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Radionuclides have been widely used for cancer treatment. Recently, new research about radium-223 dichloride has been conducted in prostate cancer, which reveals that it is the first radiopharmaceutical to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival and time to first symptomatic skeletal event in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases. This fact has created a new paradigm in the treatment of prostate cancer landscape, where only chemotherapy and hormone therapy had a role, while β-emitters had been confined exclusively to the role of pain relief with no impact on survival. The aim of this review is to outline current treatment approaches for advanced prostate cancer with a focus on the role of radium-223 dichloride, reviewing patients' profile that make them suitable to therapy and chances for further studies.

  12. Paradigm shifts and other prerequisites to facilitate the institutionalising of strategy in South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available South African organisations must undergo a mind shift and adhere to certain prerequisites to survive and be successful. It is evident that companies not changing their mindsets will not survive and be able to create a sustainable competitive advantage and to compete in world markets. Companies have to solve new problems with new paradigms, constantly create something better, something new, create new markets as opposed to increasing market share. The Third Wave development will lead to societal transformation. Moving to Third Wave will imply growth organisations to act like small entrepreneurial businesses that will have the benefit of speed and simplicity but also be able to implement strategy more effectively. Time is of the essence. South African companies have no other option but to move swiftly. The transformation from second to third wave is inevitable.

  13. Oxytocin promotes protective behavior in depressed mothers: a pilot study with the enthusiastic stranger paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth L; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Smith, Roger

    2015-02-01

    Successful parenting requires maternal behaviors that promote infant survival such as protection from predators. In animal studies, oxytocin (OT) has been linked to maternal aggression to protect offspring. No human study has explored this topic. Mothers with a diagnosis of postnatal depression (PND) are at higher risk of neglecting their infants. We hypothesized that intranasal OT administration would increase the protective behaviors of mothers with PND, toward their infants. Sixteen mothers with a diagnosis of PND participated in a double-blind, randomized-controlled, within-subject pilot study. Participants received intranasal OT during one visit and placebo spray on the alternate visit. Maternal protective behavior toward their infant was measured, in the presence of a socially intrusive stranger. The enthusiastic stranger paradigm stimulated participants' protective responses in the presence of an intrusive stranger. Furthermore, this protective response of mothers with a diagnosis of PND was increased in the OT condition. The study introduces a new paradigm, the enthusiastic stranger paradigm, which may be used to examine a neglected type of parental behavior, that is, protection of offspring. The protective response of mothers with PND increased, in line with the 'tend and defend' effects of OT in animal models. In future work it should be tested whether this protection effect can also be found in nonclinical samples, or whether it is specific for clinically depressed mothers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Simulation Support: Prototyping the Automation-Based Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Balci, Osman; Nance, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes our research efforts in prototyping the automation-based software paradigm to provide automated support for discrete-event simulation model development. The automation-based paradigm has been suggested as the software technology in the 1990's. The technology needed to support this paradigm does not yet exist. However, the benefits to be gained are so significant that, if achieved, it could profoundly change the way that simulation models are developed. We have been workin...

  15. Triple Track: A New Paradigm for Developing Air Force Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY TRIPLE TRACK: A NEW PARADIGM FOR DEVELOPING AIR FORCE OFFICERS by Tracy N. Hunter, Lieutenant...their careers in order to possess the skills to effectively integrate capabilities across the joint force.5 The AF needs to alter the paradigm on...same time developing officers who can integrating elements across multiple domains. This new paradigm will encourage a focus on officer

  16. César vallejo's poetry: the paradigm of the rebellion

    OpenAIRE

    Lipnevičiūtė, Rolanda

    2016-01-01

    "César Vallejo's Poetry: the Paradigm of the Rebellion". The object of bachelor work „ César Vallejo' Poetry: the Paradigm of the Rebellion “ is the poetry of Peruvian poet Cesar Vallejo. The study aims to reveal the paradigm of the rebellion that was observed in three following aspects: the social rebellion, internal oppositions and arguments with the Bible. In order to conduct a survey the hermeneutic poetry analysis and sociocultural perspectives were used. According to the hypothesis form...

  17. [Sociocultural paradigm, integration and sexual education in people with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Guerra, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on the approach of the Sociocultural paradigm of L.S.Vigotsky, consider that this allows a adecuadal conceptual base for an understanding of the process of Integration of the people with mental incapacity approaching them the social life. Explicit the necessity to include within this integrative process the Education of the Sexuality from a perspective of the supports and the conceptions of Vigotsky, mainly in referred to the call the Zone of potential Development.

  18. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The mechanism underlying lexical selection: evidence from the picture-picture interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jingyi; Kirchgessner, Megan; Schnur, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments using the picture-picture and picture-word interference paradigms, we compared predictions from the swinging lexical network and the response exclusion hypothesis to determine whether the process of word selection is competitive. Further, we suggest that previous categorical effects in the picture-picture interference paradigm were due to stimuli confounds, thus readdressing the debate concerning categorical effects in the paradigm. Consistent with both hypotheses, in Experiment 1 we found faster picture naming times when distractor pictures were associatively related than when they were unrelated, explained as a result of a spread of activation at the conceptual level with little (swinging lexical network) or no (response exclusion hypothesis) contribution from lexical competition. In Experiment 2, we found a significant categorical interference effect in the picture-word interference paradigm, and this effect significantly decreased but was not facilitatory when distractors were pictures. We discuss how these results are consistent with the swinging lexical network and conclude that the process to select a word is a competitive one.

  20. Monitoring source in an unconscious plagiarism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, J D; Marsh, R L

    1997-06-01

    Current laboratory paradigms used to assess unconscious plagiarism consist of three tasks. First, participants generate solutions to a puzzle task with a partner (initial generation task); second, they recall their individual contribution (recall-own task); and third, they attempt to create new solutions that were not offered previously (generate-new task). An analysis of these tasks indicated that they differ in terms of the source monitoring they require. The two generative tasks require less differentiated information (e.g., familiarity) and relatively lax decision criteria. The recall-own task, however, demands more differentiated information and more extended decision criteria. In two experiments, factors known to influence source monitoring were manipulated. Consistent with the analysis, no effects were associated with the generative tasks. Recall-own plagiarisms increased when self- and other-generated solutions were difficult to distinguish (Experiment 1) and decreased when the two sources were easier to distinguish (Experiment 2).